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Sample records for aux evenements meteorologiques

  1. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  2. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  3. An Educational Evening Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corso, Laurie; Funk, Sue; Gaffney, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an "educational evening out," an idea materialized when parents expressed interest in reading during their first-quarter conferences with teachers. Notes that the parents showed so much interest in learning how to read with their children at home that the teachers made plans to have a literacy night in their first-grade classroom. (SG)

  4. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 <= x <= 0 . 8) exhibit extreme hardness and strength values, elevated melting temperatures (compared to those of constituent elements), reduced density compared to Au, high malleability, bulk metallicity, high biocompatibility, low wear, reduced friction, potentially high radio opacity, as well as osseointegration. All these properties render the Ti1-xAux alloys particularly useful for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  5. Evening Services of Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Thomas M.; Herrscher, Barton R.

    1970-01-01

    Eleven documents on junior college evening services (not including community services) are reviewed. Suggestions for improvement of evening services include: (1) evening programs should be administrated and evaluated as effectively as day programs; (2) departmental meetings should be held to coordinate day and evening programs; (3) part-time…

  6. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  7. Band structure systematics and symmetries in even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, Gh.; Ivascu, M.; Ur, C. A.

    1993-07-01

    It is shown that the experimental in-band energy ratios for the even-even nuclei obey universal systematics similar to those observed by Mallmann for the quasiground band. Systematic correlations between energy ratios belonging to different bands are also found in certain cases. Finally, correlations between mixed energy ratios are shown to be useful in characterizing the evolution of the nulcear collectivity.

  8. Excited bands in even-even rare-earth nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2004-09-13

    The energetics of states belonging to normal parity bands in even-even dysprosium isotopes, and their B(E2) transition strengths, are studied using an extended pseudo-SU(3) shell model. States with pseudospin 1 are added to the standard pseudospin 0 space, allowing for a proper description of known excited normal parity bands.

  9. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  10. The Evening/Morning Star.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Explains how Venus changes visibility regularly from morning to evening because of its quick orbit time during part of the year. Includes a brief history of observations of this phenomenon and provides a detailed account from the Australian Aborigines. (DDR)

  11. Systematics of. cap alpha. decay of even--even isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Poplavskii-breve, I.V.

    1987-02-01

    On the basis of an analysis of experimental data we have investigated for the first time the ..cap alpha.. decay of even--even isotones. We have established that the ..cap alpha..-decay energy of isotones depends on the number of protons approximately according to a linear law. We have shown that the Geiger--Nuttall law is valid both for isotopes and isobars, and also for isotones. The deviations from the Geiger--Nuttall law are due to the shell structure of the nucleus. The regularities observed in the ..cap alpha.. decay of isotones have been used to estimate the magnitudes of the ..cap alpha..-decay energies, the kinetic energies of the emitted ..cap alpha.. particles, and the partial half-lives for ..cap alpha.. decay of the known and unknown neutron--deficient nuclei /sup 202//sup ,//sup 204/Ra, /sup 210/Th, /sup 228//sup ,//sup 230/Pu, /sup 234//sup ,//sup 236/Cm, /sup 242//sup ,//sup 244/Fm, /sup 250//sup ,//sup 258/No, and /sup 254//sup ,//sup 256/Ku.

  12. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  13. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  14. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  15. Yawning in morning and evening types.

    PubMed

    Zilli, Iole; Giganti, Fiorenza; Salzarulo, Piero

    2007-06-08

    Yawning occurs more frequently in the early morning and in the late evening, close to sleep onset and after the awakening, and it might be linked to sleep propensity. We aimed to study yawning and its temporal distribution in morning and evening subjects who display different sleep-wake and sleepiness rhythms. Sixteen healthy young adults (8 evening-types and 8 morning-types, matched for age and gender) have been selected and instructed to keep their habitual sleep schedules and to signal every yawning occurrence for three consecutive days. Results show that evening-types yawn more frequently than morning-types, particularly during morning hours. Yawning frequency decreases across daytime in evening-types reaching its lowest level in the early evening and increases thereafter. Instead, in morning-types, yawning frequency remains quite low during daytime and increases in the evening. Moreover, both morning and evening types show a progressive increase of yawning frequency in the hours preceding sleep onset, whereas they differ after the awakening. Evening-types show a higher yawning frequency that remains quite stable in the hours following the awakening, while morning-types display a decline in yawning frequency. Our findings show that the temporal distribution of yawning frequency differs between chronotypes, supporting the hypothesis that differences in sleep-wake rhythm affect yawning, which could represent a behavioural sign of sleep propensity.

  16. Measuring statistical evenness: A panoramic overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by the question “how equal is the distribution of wealth within a given human population?” economics devised an impressive toolbox of quantitative measures of societal egalitarianism including the Lorenz curve and the following indices: Gini, Pietra, Hoover, Amato, Hirschman, Theil and Atkinson. These quantitative measures-considered in the broader context of general data-sets with positive values-are, in effect, general gauges of statistical evenness. While the application of Gini's index grew beyond economics and reached diverse fields of science, the aforementioned “evenness toolbox” has largely remained within the confines of the social sciences. The aim of this Paper is to expose this “evenness toolbox” to the physics community by presenting a comprehensive evenness-based approach to a fundamental problem in science-the measurement of statistical heterogeneity.

  17. Journal Editors Celebrated at Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    At the Fall Meeting, the premiere social event for AGU's many journal editors is the annual Editors' Evening, an opportunity for members to celebrate and to recognize the efforts of retiring editors. At the event, AGU president Carol Finn welcomed all those in attendance and thanked them for volunteering their time for the benefit of AGU and the wider research community.

  18. "Even Start" Improves Literacy in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Cathleen T.; Thayer, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Through a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, the staff and faculty of Colorado State University and the Poudre School District collaborated to implement an "Even Start" family literacy project to reduce the level of poverty and illiteracy for families in the Poudre Valley Mobile Home Park. To truly establish a partnership based…

  19. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  20. Head Proteins from T-Even Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Gerald L.; Cummings, Donald J.

    1970-01-01

    T-even bacteriophage capsid proteins were separated on 6% agarose columns by use of 6 m guanidine hydrochloride containing 5 mm dithiothreitol both to dissociate and to elute the proteins. The head capsids of T2H, T4B, T4B01, T4D, and T6r+ contained at least three structural proteins with molecular weights of 40,000, 18,000, and 11,000 daltons, amounting to 76, 2, and 8%, respectively, of the total capsid protein. On the other hand, T2L head capsids contained only two structural proteins with molecular weights of 40,000 and 18,000 daltons (81 and 2.5%, respectively, of the total protein). A discussion of the possible role of these structural head proteins and a T-even phage head model suggesting a structural arrangement of the 40,000 dalton subunit are presented. Images PMID:5438109

  1. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in Solanaceae species using tomato as a model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    treatments even though at least one stress-related cis-element was identified in their promoter regions. In conclusion, our comparative analysis provides an insight into the evolution and expression patterns in various tissues and in response to auxin or stresses of the Aux/IAA family members in tomato, which will provide a very useful reference for cloning and functional analysis of each member of AUX/IAA gene family in Solanaceae crops.

  2. STARE velocities: 2. Evening westward electron flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspensky, M.; Koustov, A.; Janhunen, P.; Kauristie, K.; Amm, O.; Pellinen, R.; Opgenoorth, H.; Pirjola, R.

    2003-04-01

    Four evening events of joint EISCAT/STARE radar observations (~18 hours in total) are considered to study differences between the STARE line-of-sight velocities and the EISCAT electron drifts along the STARE beams. We show that Finland velocities were persistently smaller than the EISCAT drifts by a factor of 1.5-2 implying stronger differences than reported in the past. The Norway velocities were also smaller than the EISCAT drifts, but the effect was not as significant as for the Finland radar. We show that stronger STARE/EISCAT velocity differences lead to significant STARE total electron drift underestimation not only with the standard merging method but also with the ion-acoustic approach (IAA), especially for slow total electron flows of less than 800-1000 m/s. We test the performance of a new approach recently proposed by Uspensky et al., Ann. Geophys., 2003 (in press). It is based on the assumption that a coherent radar receives signals from all electrojet heights. For this approach, information on the electron density distribution in the E region is required. We demonstrate for one event (February 12, 1999) for which N(h) profiles were known from concurrent EISCAT measurements that STARE predicitons of the electron drift are consistent with the EISCAT drift measurements. This validates the approach for the analysis of evening westward electron flow observations (validation for the morning eastward flows was presented by Uspensky et al., 2003). We also show the "robustness" of the new approach by looking at other 3 evening events for which no information on the electron density was available.

  3. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  4. AUX/LAX family of auxin influx carriers—an overview

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Ranjan; Péret, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin is unique among plant hormones for exhibiting polar transport. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the major form of auxin in higher plants, is a weak acid and its intercellular movement is facilitated by auxin influx and efflux carriers. Polarity of auxin movement is provided by asymmetric localization of auxin carriers (mainly PIN efflux carriers). PIN-FORMED (PIN) and P-GLYCOPROTEIN (PGP) family of proteins are major auxin efflux carriers whereas AUXIN1/LIKE-AUX1 (AUX/LAX) are major auxin influx carriers. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that each member of the AUX/LAX family is a functional auxin influx carrier and mediate auxin related developmental programmes in different organs and tissues. Of the four AUX/LAX genes, AUX1 regulates root gravitropism, root hair development and leaf phyllotaxy whereas LAX2 regulates vascular development in cotyledons. Both AUX1 and LAX3 have been implicated in lateral root (LR) development as well as apical hook formation whereas both AUX1 and LAX1 and possibly LAX2 are required for leaf phyllotactic patterning. PMID:23087694

  5. Even nanomechanical modes transduced by integrated photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood-Bachman, J. N.; Diao, Z.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Bachman, D.; Hiebert, W. K.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate the actuation and detection of even flexural vibrational modes of a doubly clamped nanomechanical resonator using an integrated photonics transduction scheme. The doubly clamped beam is formed by releasing a straight section of an optical racetrack resonator from the underlying silicon dioxide layer, and a step is fabricated in the substrate beneath the beam. The step causes uneven force and responsivity distribution along the device length, permitting excitation and detection of even modes of vibration. This is achieved while retaining transduction capability for odd modes. The devices are actuated via optical force applied with a pump laser. The displacement sensitivities of the first through third modes, as obtained from the thermomechanical noise floor, are 228 fm Hz-1/2, 153 fm Hz-1/2, and 112 fm Hz-1/2, respectively. The excitation efficiency for these modes is compared and modeled based on integration of the uneven forces over the mode shapes. While the excitation efficiency for the first three modes is approximately the same when the step occurs at about 38% of the beam length, the ability to tune the modal efficiency of transduction by choosing the step position is discussed. The overall optical force on each mode is approximately 0.4 pN μm-1 mW-1, for an applied optical power of 0.07 mW. We show a potential application that uses the resonant frequencies of the first two vibrational modes of a buckled beam to measure the stress in the silicon device layer, estimated to be 106 MPa. We anticipate that the observation of the second mode of vibration using our integrated photonics approach will be useful in future mass sensing experiments.

  6. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  7. Even nanomechanical modes transduced by integrated photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Westwood-Bachman, J. N.; Diao, Z.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Hiebert, W. K.; Bachman, D.

    2016-02-08

    We demonstrate the actuation and detection of even flexural vibrational modes of a doubly clamped nanomechanical resonator using an integrated photonics transduction scheme. The doubly clamped beam is formed by releasing a straight section of an optical racetrack resonator from the underlying silicon dioxide layer, and a step is fabricated in the substrate beneath the beam. The step causes uneven force and responsivity distribution along the device length, permitting excitation and detection of even modes of vibration. This is achieved while retaining transduction capability for odd modes. The devices are actuated via optical force applied with a pump laser. The displacement sensitivities of the first through third modes, as obtained from the thermomechanical noise floor, are 228 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, 153 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, and 112 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, respectively. The excitation efficiency for these modes is compared and modeled based on integration of the uneven forces over the mode shapes. While the excitation efficiency for the first three modes is approximately the same when the step occurs at about 38% of the beam length, the ability to tune the modal efficiency of transduction by choosing the step position is discussed. The overall optical force on each mode is approximately 0.4 pN μm{sup −1} mW{sup −1}, for an applied optical power of 0.07 mW. We show a potential application that uses the resonant frequencies of the first two vibrational modes of a buckled beam to measure the stress in the silicon device layer, estimated to be 106 MPa. We anticipate that the observation of the second mode of vibration using our integrated photonics approach will be useful in future mass sensing experiments.

  8. The identification and characterization of specific ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Naden T; Berleth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The current model of auxin-inducible transcription describes numerous regulatory interactions between AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and Aux/IAAs. However, specific relationships between individual members of these families in planta remain largely uncharacterized. Using a systems biology approach, the entire suite of Aux/IAA genes directly regulated by the developmentally pivotal ARF MONOPTEROS (MP) was recently determined for multiple Arabidopsis tissue types. This study showed that MP directly targets distinct subclades of Aux/IAAs, revealing potential regulatory modules of redundantly acting Aux/IAAs involved in MP-dependent processes. Further, functional analyses indicated that the protein products of these targeted Aux/IAAs negatively feedback on MP. Thus, comprehensive identification of Aux/IAAs targeted by individual ARFs will generate biologically meaningful networks of ARF-Aux/IAA regulatory modules controlling distinct plant pathways.

  9. Characterization of T-Even Bacteriophage Substructures

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Donald J.; Kusy, A. R.; Chapman, V. A.; DeLong, S. S.; Stone, K. R.

    1970-01-01

    T-even bacteriophages were grown and purified in bulk quantities. The protein coats were disrupted into their component substructures by treatment with 67% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Tail fibers and tubes were purified on glycerol-CsCl-D2O gradients and examined with respect to sedimentation properties, subunit molecular weights, amino acid composition, isoelectric points, and morphology. It was found that intact tail fibers had a sedimentation coefficient of 12 to 13S and that dissociated fibers consisted of three classes of proteins having molecular weights of 150 K ± 10, 42 K ± 4, and 28 K ± 3 daltons. A model was constructed in which the 150-K subunit folded back on itself twice to give a three-stranded rope. Each 150-K subunit then represented a half-fiber and it was proposed that the role of the 42- and 28-K subunits was to hold each half-fiber together as well as serve as a possible link with other substructures. Isoelectric point studies also indicated that there were three different proteins with pI values of 3.5, 5.7, and 8.0. Amino acid analyses indicated that fibers had a composition distinct from other phage substructures. In addition, a striking difference was noted in the content of tryptophan among the phages examined. T4B had three to five times more tryptophan than did T2L, T2H, T4D, and T6. Intact tail tubes had an S20,w of 31 to 38S and dissociated tubes consisted of three proteins of molecular weights 57 K ± 5, 38 K ± 4, and 25 K ± 3 daltons. Based on degradation studies with DMSO, it was proposed that these three proteins were arranged in a helical array yielding the tube structure. Isoelectric point studies indicated that there were three major proteins in the tube whose pI values were 5.1, 5.7, and 8.5. No significant differences were observed in the amino acid content of tubes obtained from all the T-even bacteriophages. Images PMID:5497900

  10. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  11. Phenotypes associated with down-regulation of Sl-IAA27 support functional diversity among Aux/IAA family members in tomato.

    PubMed

    Bassa, Carole; Mila, Isabelle; Bouzayen, Mondher; Audran-Delalande, Corinne

    2012-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is known to regulate several aspects of plant development, and Aux/IAA transcription factors play a pivotal role in auxin signaling. To extend our understanding of the multiple functions of Aux/IAAs further, the present study describes the functional characterization of Sl-IAA27, a member of the tomato Aux/IAA gene family. Sl-IAA27 displays a distinct behavior compared with most Aux/IAA genes regarding the regulation of its expression by auxin, and the Sl-IAA27-encoded protein harbors a unique motif of unknown function also present in Sl-IAA9 and remarkably conserved in monocot and dicot species. Tomato transgenic plants underexpressing the Sl-IAA27 gene revealed multiple phenotypes related to vegetative and reproductive growth. Silencing of Sl-IAA27 results in higher auxin sensitivity, altered root development and reduced Chl content in leaves. Both ovule and pollen display a dramatic loss of fertility in Sl-IAA27 down-regulated lines, and the internal anatomy of the flower and the fruit are modified, with an enlarged placenta in smaller fruits. In line with the reduced Chl content in Sl-IAA27 RNA interference (RNAi) leaves, genes involved in Chl synthesis display lower expression at the level of transcript accumulation. Even though Sl-IAA27 is closely related to Sl-IAA9 in terms of sequence homology and the encoded proteins share common structural features, the data indicate that the two genes regulate tomato fruit initiation and development in a distinct manner.

  12. Microscopic investigation of structural evolution in even-even N = 60 isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Oudih, M. R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Benhamouda, N.

    2012-10-20

    The ground state properties of even-even N=60 isotones from the neutron-rich to the proton-rich side are investigated within the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in the triaxial landscape. Quantities such as binding energies and root-mean-square radii are investigated and compared with available experimental data. The evolution of the potential energy surfaces in the ({beta},{gamma}) deformation plane is presented and discussed.

  13. An evening at "La Clinica del Pueblo".

    PubMed

    Shefsky, M L

    1986-01-01

    This article describes a typical evening at the Clinica del Pueblo in the Hispanic neighborhood of Adams-Morgan in Washington, D.c. The Clinical del Pueblo began operating in 1983 in response to the urgen medical needs of Central American refugees arriving in the Washington D.c. area. The refugees bring with them severe trauma, fear, and health problems caused by the civil was and exacerbated by inadequate or non-existant health services. Approximately 80,000 Salvadoran refugees live in the area. They do not receive adequate health care for 3 reasons. 1) Because the US goverment is unwilling to recognize them as true refugees, they live with the constant threat of deportatin back to the violence from which they have fled. 2) Refugees lack the ability to pay for private care. 3) Langauage and culture create frightening barriers to health care for the refugees. For those who do seek care, these barriers can lead to the inadequate or incomplete diagnoses and poor compliance and follow-up. Plenty International and the Central American Refugee Center responded to these problems by organizing a free clinic to provide not only medical care but also a training course for volunteers. The director of the clinic organizes the course, the classes are taught by a variety of people including the clinic's volunteer physicians, nurses, and public health educators as well as graduates of previus training courses and people from the wider community. The services of the clinic reach only a small portion of the population in need. However, the fact that free medical services are now available to some Central American refugees make the Clinica del Pueblo an important program.

  14. Nuclear structure of the even-even argon isotopes with a focus on magnetic moments

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S. J. Q.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Zamick, L.

    2009-05-15

    We study the role of configuration mixing in the heavier even-even isotopes of argon. We begin by limiting the configurations of the even-even Ar isotopes to (d{sub 3/2}{sup 2}){sub {pi}} (f{sub 7/2}{sup n}){sub {nu}}. There, due to the particular location in this shell-model space of {sup 40}Ar and {sup 44}Ar, we find that the spectra, B(E2)'s, and magnetic moments of these two nuclei are identical. Any deviation from this equality is direct evidence of configuration mixing. In a larger shell-model space there are significant differences between these two nuclei, with {sup 44}Ar being more collective. We also consider other even-even isotopes of argon and study how their nuclear structure effects evolve with N. We compare in the full 0({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) {omega} space (sd){sub {pi}} (fp){sub {nu}} the results of calculations with the WBT interaction and with the newer SDPF, denoted SDPF-U, interaction.

  15. The Binding of Auxin to the Arabidopsis Auxin Influx Transporter AUX11[OA

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, David J.; Bakar, Norliza Tendot Abu; Swarup, Ranjan; Callaghan, Richard; Napier, Richard M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Kerr, Ian D.

    2008-01-01

    The cellular import of the hormone auxin is a fundamental requirement for the generation of auxin gradients that control a multitude of plant developmental processes. The AUX/LAX family of auxin importers, exemplified by AUX1 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has been shown to mediate auxin import when expressed heterologously. The quantitative nature of the interaction between AUX1 and its transport substrate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is incompletely understood, and we sought to address this in the present investigation. We expressed AUX1 to high levels in a baculovirus expression system and prepared membrane fragments from baculovirus-infected insect cells. These membranes proved suitable for determination of the binding of IAA to AUX1 and enabled us to determine a Kd of 2.6 μm, comparable with estimates for the Km for IAA transport. The efficacy of a number of auxin analogues and auxin transport inhibitors to displace IAA binding from AUX1 has also been determined and can be rationalized in terms of their physiological effects. Determination of the parameters describing the initial interaction between a plant transporter and its hormone ligand provides novel quantitative data for modeling auxin fluxes. PMID:18614710

  16. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  17. The influence of intruder states in even-even Po isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    García-Ramos, J. E.; Heyde, K.

    2015-10-15

    We study the role of intruder states and shape coexistence in the even-even {sup 190–206}Po isotopes, through an interacting boson model with configuration mixing calculation. We analyzed the results in the light of known systematics on various observable in the Pb region, paying special attention to the unperturbed energy systematics and quadrupole deformation. We find that shape coexistence in the Po isotopes behaves in very much the same way as in the Pt isotopes, i.e., it is somehow hidden, contrary to the situation in the Pb and the Hg isotopes.

  18. Nuclear vibrations and rotations of like nucleons in the same shell in even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, A.; Allam, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The vibrational and rotational motions in even nuclei are considered. A microscopic study of these motions leads to a relation between the vibrational motion in spherical nuclei and the rotational motion in deformed nuclei. Nuclei with like nucleons in the same shell are considered. The quadrupole two-body interactions are used in the large single j-shell of even nuclei. The energies and transition operators of nuclei in the nuclear rotational region are calculated using this microscopic method. Quadrupole moments are also calculated. These calculations are compared with the rotational model of the aligned coupling scheme. The present calculations are in good agreement with previous calculations.

  19. Investigation of some even-even selenium isotopes within the interacting boson model-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böyükata, Mahmut; Uluer, Ihsan

    2008-09-01

    The even-even Selenium isotopes in the A˜80 mass region and the general features of its structure have been investigated within the framework of the interacting boson model-2. The neutron proton version of the model has been applied to the Se ( A=74 to 80) isotopes with emphasis on the description of the 0{1/+}, 2{1/+}, 0{2/+}, 2{2/+} and 4{1/+} states. The energy levels, B( E2)and B( M1)electromagnetic transition probabilities were calculated. The results of these calculations were compared with previous experimental results and were shown to be in good agreement.

  20. Investigation of some even-even selenium isotopes within the interacting boson model-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böyükata, Mahmut; Uluer, İhsan

    2008-09-01

    The even-even Selenium isotopes in the A˜80 mass region and the general features of its structure have been investigated within the framework of the interacting boson model-2. The neutron proton version of the model has been applied to the Se (A=74 to 80) isotopes with emphasis on the description of the 01+, 21+, 02+, 22+ and 41+ states. The energy levels, B(E2)and B(M1)electromagnetic transition probabilities were calculated. The results of these calculations were compared with previous experimental results and were shown to be in good agreement.

  1. Inelastic neutrino scattering off stable even-even Mo isotopes at low and intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasi, K. G.; Kosmas, T. S.; Divari, P. C.

    2010-04-01

    Inelastic neutrino scattering cross sections for the even-even Mo isotopes (contents of the MOON detector at Japan), at low and intermediate electron neutrino energies ( ɛi≤100 MeV), are calculated. MOON is a next-generation double beta and neutrino-less double-beta-decay experiment which is also a promising facility for low-energy neutrino detection. The nuclear wave functions required in this work have been constructed in the context of the quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA) and the results presented refer to 92Mo, 94Mo, 96Mo, 98Mo and 100Mo isotopes.

  2. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  3. Réactions aux interfaces de bicristaux compatibles et incompatibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisne, A.; Décamps, B.; Priester, L.

    2003-03-01

    La rupture intergranulaire peut apparaître suite à la non accommodation des contraintes au voisinage de l'interface. La transmission du glissement au travers d'une interface est un des modes de relaxation possible qui dépend des paramètres suivants : facteurs géométriques (caractéristiques de l'interface et systèmes de glissement activés), constantes élastiques de chacune des phases. Dans cette étude, la microscopie électronique à transmission (MET) est utilisée pour analyser les configurations de dislocations résultant d'une déformation par fatigue de bicristaux d'acier austénoferritique de désorientations contrôlées. Deux types de bicristaux sont étudiés, compatible et incompatible plastiquement. Pour chacun d'eux, la déformation est initiée soit dans la phase ferritique α soit dans la phase austénitique γ selon la localisation d'une entaille préalable à l'essai mécanique. Les résultats permettent de remonter aux mécanismes élémentaires qui régissent le transfert “direct” ou “indirect” des dislocations à travers l'interface. Une corrélation avec le comportement des bicristaux à l'échelle macroscopique est également tentée.

  4. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III−IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III−IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼10- to ∼100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes. PMID:25512488

  5. Charge Radius Changes Of Even-even Neutron-Rich Tellurium Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sifi, R.; Le Blanc, F.; Barre, N.; Ducourtieux, M.; Essabaa, S.; Lau, C.; Oms, J.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J.; Cabaret, L.; Pinard, J.; Crawford, J.; Lee, J. K. P.; Genevey, J.; Huber, G.; Kowalska, M.; Seliverstov, M.; Le Scornet, G.; Stroke, H.

    2006-04-26

    Laser spectroscopy based on resonant ionization of laser-desorbed atoms has been used to study the neutron-rich tellurium isotopes with the COMPLIS facility at ISOLDE-CERN. The isotope shift and the hyperfine structure of several neutron-rich Te isotopes: 120-136Te and 123m-133mTe have been measured. From the hyperfine structure and the isotope shift we can extract the magnetic and quadrupole moments and the change in the mean square charge radius respectively. The mean square charge radii of the even-even isotopes have been deduced and their comparison with the known data for the other elements near Z=50 is presented. The experimental {delta} is compared with that obtained from the relativistic mean field calculations.

  6. Half-lives and fine structure for the α decay of deformed even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, DongDong; Ren, ZhongZhou

    2011-08-01

    The α-decay properties of well-deformed even-even nuclei are systematically calculated within the multichannel cluster model (MCCM). Instead of working in the WKB framework, the quasibound solution to the coupled Schrödinger equation is presented with outgoing wave boundary conditions, and the coupling potential is taken into full account in terms of the general quantum theories. The calculated α-decay half-lives are found to agree well with the experimental data with a mean factor of less than 2. The fine structure observed in α decay is also well reproduced by the four-channel microscopic calculation. Very strikingly, the MCCM can give relatively precise descriptions of the branching ratio to excited 4+ states, which is often overestimated in the usual WKB calculations. We expect it to be a significant development of theoretical models toward quantitative descriptions of α transitions to high-spin daughter states.

  7. Quasi-/SU(3) truncation scheme for even-even sd-shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, C. E.; Hirsch, J. G.; Draayer, J. P.

    2001-07-01

    The quasi- SU(3) symmetry was uncovered in full pf and sdg shell-model calculations for both even-even and odd-even nuclei. It manifests itself through a dominance of single-particle and quadrupole-quadrupole terms in a Hamiltonian used to describe well-deformed nuclei. A practical consequence of the quasi- SU(3) symmetry is an efficient basis truncation scheme. In [C.E. Vargas et al., Phys. Rev. C 58 (1998) 1488] it is shown that when this type of Hamiltonian is diagonalized in an SU(3) basis, only a few irreducible representations (irreps) of SU(3) are needed to describe the yrast band, the leading S=0 irrep augmented with the leading S=1 irreps in the proton and neutron subspaces. In the present article the quasi- SU(3) truncation scheme is used, in conjunction with a "realistic but schematic" Hamiltonian that includes the most important multipole terms, to describe the energy spectra and B( E2) transition strengths of 20,22Ne, 24Mg and 28Si. The effect of the size of the Hilbert space on both sets of observables is discussed, as well as the structure of the yrast band and the importance of the various terms in the Hamiltonian. The limitations of the model are explicitly discussed.

  8. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly(-): a joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-05

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly(-) (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3; y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y ≥ 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6(-) in the AuxAly(-) clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either "adsorbed" onto the Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif if y ≥ 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6.

  9. Fragmentation of mixed-symmetry excitations in stable even-even tellurium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Yates, S. W.

    2008-11-15

    The lowest six excited 2{sup +} levels of the even-even {sup 122-130}Te nuclei have been investigated using {gamma}-ray spectroscopy following inelastic neutron scattering. These levels have been identified and their decay properties have been characterized from {gamma}-ray excitation functions and {gamma}-ray angular distributions; additionally, lifetimes of these levels have been deduced using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Electromagnetic transition rates and E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios from the 2{sub x}{sup +}[x=2-6]{yields}2{sub 1}{sup +} transitions have been examined to identify the lowest mixed-symmetry states in these nuclei. In each nucleus, the mixed-symmetry strength appears to be fragmented between more than one level. The summed M1 strength from the 2{sub x}{sup +}[x=2-6] states to the 2{sub 1}{sup +} level agrees rather well with neutron-proton interacting boson model predictions in the U(5) or O(6) limits for these Te nuclei.

  10. Isotopic yield in cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Cyriac, Annu; Krishnan, Sreejith

    2016-05-01

    The cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot (plot of driving potential vs. mass number of fragments) and by calculating the yield for charge minimized fragments. It is found that for 244,246,248Cf isotopes highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Pb (Z = 82) as one fragment, whereas for 250Cf and 252Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Hg (Z = 80) as one fragment. In the case of 254,256,258Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with Sn (Z = 50) as one fragment. Thus, the fragment combinations with maximum yield reveal the role of doubly magic and near doubly magic nuclei in binary fission. It is found that asymmetric splitting is favored for Cf isotopes with mass number A ≤ 250 and symmetric splitting is favored for Cf isotopes with A > 252. In the case of Cf isotope with A = 252, there is an equal probability for asymmetric and symmetric splitting. The individual yields obtained for the cold fission of 252Cf isotope are compared with the experimental data taken from the γ- γ- γ coincidences technique using Gammasphere.

  11. Global properties of even-even superheavy nuclei in macroscopic-microscopic models

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, Andrzej; Lojewski, Zdzislaw; Sieja, Kamila; Kowal, Michal

    2005-10-01

    A systematic study of global properties of superheavy nuclei in the framework of macroscopic-microscopic method is performed. Equilibrium deformations, masses, quadrupole moments, radii, shell energies, fission barriers and half-lives are calculated using the following macroscopic models: Myers-Swiatecki liquid drop, droplet, Yukawa-plus-exponential, and Lublin-Strasbourg drop. Shell and pairing energies are calculated in Woods-Saxon potential with a universal set of parameters. The analysis covers a wide range of even-even superheavy nuclei from Z=100 to 122. Magic and semimagic numbers occurring in this region are indicated and their influence on the observables is discussed. The strongest shell effects appear at proton number Z=114 and at neutron number N=184. Deformed shell closures are found at N=152 and 162. Spontaneous fission half-lives are calculated in a dynamical approach where the full minimization of the action integral in a three-dimensional deformation space of {beta} deformations is performed. The fission half-lives obtained this way are two orders of magnitude smaller than the ones resulting from static calculations. The agreement of theoretical results and experimental data is satisfying.

  12. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  13. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints.

    PubMed

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-07

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  16. Odd-even staggering of heavy cluster spontaneous emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Greiner, W.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mazilu, D.; Plonski, I. H.

    1986-12-01

    Experimentally observed enhanced14C and24Ne emission rates from even-even parents in comparison with that from even-odd or odd-even nuclei are explained in the framework of the analytical superasymmetric fission model, by taking various prescriptions for the zero point vibration energy of even-even, even-odd, odd-even and odd-odd emitters. Longer half-lives than previously computed are obtained by extrapolating the present prescriptions to emitted clusters heavier than24Ne.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in maize (Zea mays. L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Deng, Dexiang; Bian, Yunlong; Lv, Yanping; Xie, Qin

    2010-12-01

    The phytohormone auxin is important in various aspects of organism growth and development. Aux/IAA genes encoding short-lived nuclear proteins are responsive primarily to auxin induction. Despite their physiological importance, systematic analysis of Aux/IAA genes in maize have not yet been reported. In this paper, we presented the isolation and characterization of maize Aux/IAA genes in whole-genome scale. A total of 31 maize Aux/IAA genes (ZmIAA1 to ZmIAA31) were identified. ZmIAA genes are distributed in all the maize chromosomes except chromosome 2. Aux/IAA genes expand in the maize genome partly due to tandem and segmental duplication events. Multiple alignment and motif display results revealed major maize Aux/IAA proteins share all the four conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated Aux/IAA family can be divided into seven subfamilies. Putative cis-acting regulatory DNA elements involved in auxin response, light signaling transduction and abiotic stress adaption were observed in the promoters of ZmIAA genes. Expression data mining suggested maize Aux/IAA genes have temporal and spatial expression pattern. Collectively, these results will provide molecular insights into the auxin metabolism, transport and signaling research.

  18. Nucleon-pair states of even-even Sn isotopes based on realistic effective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Qi, C.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study yrast states of 128,126,124Sn and 104,106,108Sn by using the monopole-optimized realistic interactions in terms of both the shell model (SM) and the nucleon-pair approximation (NPA). For yrast states of 128,126Sn and 104,106Sn, we calculate the overlaps between the wave functions obtained in the full SM space and those obtained in the truncated NPA space, and find that most of these overlaps are very close to 1. Very interestingly, for most of these states with positive parity and even spin or with negative parity and odd spin, the SM wave function is found to be well represented by one nucleon-pair basis state, viz., a simple picture of "nucleon-pair states" (nucleon-pair configuration without mixings) emerges. In 128,126Sn, the positive-parity (or negative-parity) yrast states with spin J >10 (or J >7 ) are found to be well described by breaking one or two S pairs in the 101+ (or 71-) state, i.e., the yrast state of seniority-two, spin-maximum, and positive-parity (or negative-parity), into non-S pair(s). Similar regularity is also pointed out for 104,106Sn. The evolution of E 2 transition rates between low-lying states in 128,126,124Sn is discussed in terms of the seniority scheme.

  19. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  20. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encode proteins to mediate the responses of auxin gene expression and to regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. In this paper, we report the identification of nine cDNAs that contain complete open reading frame (OR...

  1. Maine Statewide Even Start Evaluation Report, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Desi

    This statewide evaluation of Even Start family literacy programs in Maine was conducted from November 1999 through September 2000. Six out of seven Even Start programs funded by the Maine State Department of Education for the 1999-2000 year participated in the study. All Maine Even Start programs offer a combination of home-based and center-based…

  2. AUX/LAX Genes Encode a Family of Auxin Influx Transporters That Perform Distinct Functions during Arabidopsis Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Péret, Benjamin; Swarup, Kamal; Ferguson, Alison; Seth, Malvika; Yang, Yaodong; Dhondt, Stijn; James, Nicholas; Casimiro, Ilda; Perry, Paula; Syed, Adnan; Yang, Haibing; Reemmer, Jesica; Venison, Edward; Howells, Caroline; Perez-Amador, Miguel A.; Yun, Jeonga; Alonso, Jose; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Laplaze, Laurent; Murphy, Angus; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Nielsen, Erik; Swarup, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Auxin transport, which is mediated by specialized influx and efflux carriers, plays a major role in many aspects of plant growth and development. AUXIN1 (AUX1) has been demonstrated to encode a high-affinity auxin influx carrier. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AUX1 belongs to a small multigene family comprising four highly conserved genes (i.e., AUX1 and LIKE AUX1 [LAX] genes LAX1, LAX2, and LAX3). We report that all four members of this AUX/LAX family display auxin uptake functions. Despite the conservation of their biochemical function, AUX1, LAX1, and LAX3 have been described to regulate distinct auxin-dependent developmental processes. Here, we report that LAX2 regulates vascular patterning in cotyledons. We also describe how regulatory and coding sequences of AUX/LAX genes have undergone subfunctionalization based on their distinct patterns of spatial expression and the inability of LAX sequences to rescue aux1 mutant phenotypes, respectively. Despite their high sequence similarity at the protein level, transgenic studies reveal that LAX proteins are not correctly targeted in the AUX1 expression domain. Domain swapping studies suggest that the N-terminal half of AUX1 is essential for correct LAX localization. We conclude that Arabidopsis AUX/LAX genes encode a family of auxin influx transporters that perform distinct developmental functions and have evolved distinct regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22773749

  3. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems.

  4. Competition for patchy soil resources reduces community evenness.

    PubMed

    Rajaniemi, Tara K

    2011-01-01

    The presence of small-scale patches of soil resources has been predicted to increase competition, because multiple species will proliferate roots in the same small area, and therefore decrease plant diversity. I tested whether such patches reduced species evenness in a community of four old-field species, both with and without interspecific interactions. In species mixtures, patches reduced evenness, while in "communities" constructed via combined monocultures, in which species did not compete, patches increased evenness. Therefore, the reduction in evenness in response to patches was due to changes in competition. Community-level changes may be attributable to plant foraging traits-in species with low foraging precision, competition reduced abundance much more in patchy soils than in even soils, while in species with high root foraging precision, the effect of competition was similar in patchy and even soils.

  5. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Hanneke J M; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G B; Van Den Hoek Ostende, Lars W; Hume, Julian P; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ∼4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo (Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  6. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  7. Candidate Elastic Quantum Critical Point in LaCu6-xAux

    DOE PAGES

    Poudel, Lekh; May, Andrew F.; Koehler, Michael R.; ...

    2016-11-30

    In this paper, the structural properties of LaCu6-xAux are studied using neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and heat capacity measurements. The continuous orthorhombic-monoclinic structural phase transition in LaCu6 is suppressed linearly with Au substitution until a complete suppression of the structural phase transition occurs at the critical composition xc=0.3. Heat capacity measurements at low temperatures indicate residual structural instability at xc. The instability is ferroelastic in nature, with density functional theory calculations showing negligible coupling to electronic states near the Fermi level. Finally, the data and calculations presented here are consistent with the zero temperature termination of a continuous structural phasemore » transition suggesting that the LaCu6-xAux series hosts an elastic quantum critical point.« less

  8. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  9. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Su, LY; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, JP; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology. PMID:26317283

  10. Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2+ states in even-even nuclei [B(E2) evaluation for 0+1 → 2+1 transitions in even-even nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.; ...

    2015-11-03

    A complete B(E2)↑ evaluation and compilation for even-even nuclei has been presented. The present paper is a continuation of P.H. Stelson and L. Grodzins, and S. Raman et al. nuclear data evaluations and was motivated by a large number of new measurements. It extends the list of evaluated nuclides from 328 to 452, includes an extended list of nuclear reaction kinematics parameters and comprehensive shell model analysis. Evaluation policies for analysis of experimental data have been discussed and conclusions are given. Moreover, future plans for B(E2)↑ systematics and experimental technique analyses of even-even nuclei are outlined.

  11. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  12. Analysis of subcellular localization of auxin carriers PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, SuiKang; Shen, ChenJia; Zhang, SaiNa; Xu, YanXia; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2011-01-01

    Auxin transport at least correlates to the three gene families: efflux carriers PIN-formed (PIN), p-glycoprotein (PGP), and influx carrier auxin resistant 1/like aux1(AUX/LAX) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor, the biological function of these genes retains unclear. Our previous study reported that the member analysis, organ-specific expression and expression profiles of the auxin transporter PIN, PGP and AUX/LAX gene families in Sorghum bicolor under IAA, brassinosteroid, polar auxin transport inhibitors and abiotic stresses. Here we further supply the prediction of subcellular localization of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins and discuss the potential relationship between the subcellular localization and stress response. The predicted results showed that the most of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP proteins are localized to the plasma membrane, except few localized to vacuolar membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. This data set provides novel information for investigation of auxin transporters in Sorghum bicolor. PMID:22112459

  13. Colorado Even Start Progress Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    Even Start programs integrate early childhood education, adult literacy or basic education, parenting education and support, and parent and child time together to help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy. This progress report describes the Even Start program in Colorado and presents evaluation findings from the 2001-2002 implementation year,…

  14. Inattentive Symptoms of ADHD Are Related to Evening Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caci, Herve; Bouchez, Jacques; Bayle, Franck J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Morningness is a stable characteristic of individuals, related to impulsivity and novelty seeking. The evening orientation is a risk factor for psychiatric conditions such as depression and personality disorders. The authors hypothesized that adults suspected of having ADHD are more evening oriented than adults without ADHD. Method:…

  15. PURPOSES OF THE EVENING COLLEGE, REFLECTIONS IN 1953.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOULE, CYRIL O.; AND OTHERS

    THESE FOUR PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE 1953 CONVENTION OF THE ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY EVENING COLLEGES ON PURPOSES OF THE EVENING COLLEGE HAVE BEEN REPUBLISHED BECAUSE OF THEIR PRESENT-DAY RELEVANCE FOR ADMINISTRATORS IN DEVELOPING GUIDING PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THEIR WORK. EARL MCGRATH DISCUSSES OUR CHANGING SOCIETY (INCREASE IN EDUCATIONAL LEVEL,…

  16. Publicity Techniques. Publicity and Promotional Programming for the Evening Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desiderio, John

    1980-01-01

    Techniques are presented for reaching the community college evening student with information about college events. Because of the unique characteristics of evening students, traditional publicity methods often do not work. Some methods which can be effective are: (1) posting a large signboard with good illumination at the entrance to the college;…

  17. New Plans for Evening and Correspondence School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebedev, I.I.

    A general discussion is given concerning revisions in hours and schedules for evening and correspondence school students engaged in higher technical education. The teaching plan for the evening system consists of two parts: one for instruction in the first three years, and the other for the next three. The plan for correspondence study provides…

  18. Colorado Even Start 2005-2006 Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of Even Start, as outlined in federal legislation, is to help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty and low literacy by providing a unified family literacy program for low-income families. Even Start has three related goals: (1) to help parents improve their literacy or basic education skills; (2) to help parents become full…

  19. Colorado Even Start Progress Report, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    Even Start programs integrate early childhood education, adult literacy or basic education, parenting education and support, and parent and child time to help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy. This report describes the Even Start program in Colorado, and includes evaluation questions and methods. The report presents evaluation findings…

  20. Colorado Even Start. 2004-2005 Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of Even Start, as outlined in federal legislation, is to help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty and low literacy by providing a unified family literacy program for low-income families. Even Start has three related goals: (1) to help parents improve their literacy or basic education skills; (2) to help parents become full…

  1. Even and odd Wigner negative binomial states: Nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.

    2015-10-01

    By using Wigner-Heisenberg algebra (WHA) and its Fock representation, even and odd Wigner negative binomial states (WNBSs) |M,ξ,ν>±W (ν = 0 corresponds to the ordinary even and odd negative binomial states (NBSs)) are introduced. These states can be reduced to the Wigner cat states in special limit. We establish the resolution of identity property for them through a positive definite measure on the unit disc. Some of their nonclassical properties, such as Mandel’s parameter and quadrature squeezing have been investigated numerically. We show that in contrast with the even NBSs, even WNBSs may exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics. Also squeezing in the field quadratures appears for both even and odd WNBSs. It is found that the deformation parameter ν plays an essential role in displaying highly nonclassical behaviors.

  2. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to

  3. Colorings of odd or even chirality on hexagonal lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cépas, O.

    2017-02-01

    We define two classes of colorings that have odd or even chirality on hexagonal lattices. This parity is an invariant in the dynamics of all loops, and explains why standard Monte Carlo algorithms are nonergodic. We argue that adding the motion of "stranded" loops allows for parity changes. By implementing this algorithm, we show that the even and odd classes have the same entropy. In general, they do not have the same number of states, except for the special geometry of long strips, where a Z2 symmetry between even and odd states occurs in the thermodynamic limit.

  4. Assessment of anticoagulant effect of evening primrose oil.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Ahmed, Shahida Parveen

    2009-10-01

    Effect of evening primrose oil (EPO) was assessed on coagulation parameters following 30 and 60 days administration of 90, 180 and 360 microl/kg oil to healthy rabbits of either sex. There was significant increase in all assays except Fibrinogen time. These effects might be due to inactivation or inhibition of factors affecting coagulation. The intake of evening primrose oil also significantly decreased platelet count. Results of this study suggest that evening primrose oil shows considerable anti-anticoagulant and anti-platelet activity in animals and has potential to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  5. EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE DISTANT HOUSE AND OUTBUILDINGS, FROM THE BOTANIC GARDEN'S SOUTHEAST SIDE - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Even Small Rise in Blood Pressure Can Harm Black Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Even Small Rise in Blood Pressure Can Harm Black Patients Study shows higher early death and ... These findings provide further evidence of the potential harms in terms of increased risk of heart attacks, ...

  7. Even a Little Exercise Can Help with Arthritis, Study Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163340.html Even a Little Exercise Can Help With Arthritis, Study Says Just 45 ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Arthritis Exercise and Physical Fitness Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus ...

  8. Soy Safe, Even Protective, for Breast Cancer Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163958.html Soy Safe, Even Protective, for Breast Cancer Survivors Study of 6,200 women finds the ... News) -- The pros and cons of soy for breast cancer patients have been debated for years. Now, research ...

  9. 26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under construction. Part of construction camp housing is visible in foreground. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. AGU Publications Volunteers Feted At Elegant Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Fall Meeting Editors' Evening, held at the City Club of San Francisco, was hosted by the Publications Committee and is the premier social event for editors and associate editors attending the Fall Meeting. The evening commenced with a welcome from Carol Finn, incoming AGU president, in which she expressed her thanks to the editors and associate editors for volunteering their time to benefit AGU.

  12. Fiber Coupled Laser Diodes with Even Illumination Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An optical fiber for evenly illuminating a target. The optical fiber is coupled to a laser emitting diode and receives laser light. The la ser light travels through the fiber optic and exits at an exit end. T he exit end has a diffractive optical pattern formed thereon via etch ing, molding or cutting, to reduce the Gaussian profile present in co nventional fiber optic cables The reduction of the Gaussian provides an even illumination from the fiber optic cable.

  13. Evening physical activity alters wrist temperature circadian rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Sastre, Patricia; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Ordovás, José María; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Garaulet, Marta

    2014-03-01

    The adequate time to perform physical activity (PA) to maintain optimal circadian system health has not been defined. We studied the influence of morning and evening PA on circadian rhythmicity in 16 women with wrist temperature (WT). Participants performed controlled PA (45 min continuous-running) during 7 days in the morning (MPA) and evening (EPA) and results were compared with a no-exercise-week (C). EPA was characterized by a lower amplitude (evening: 0.028 ± 0.01 °C versus control: 0.038 ± 0.016 °C; p < 0.05) less pronounced second-harmonic (power) (evening: 0.41 ± 0.47 versus morning: 1.04 ± 0.59); and achrophase delay (evening: 06:35 ± 02:14 h versus morning: 04:51 ± 01:11 h; p < 0.05) as compared to MPA and C. Performing PA in the late evening might not be as beneficial as in the morning.

  14. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  15. Management of Heat and Cold Stress -- Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel (Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels medicaux de I’OTAN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Management of Heat and Cold Stress Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel ( Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels...Heat and Cold Stress Guidance to NATO Medical Personnel ( Gestion des contraintes thermiques (chaleur et froid) Conseils aux personnels médicaux de...NATO Nations and allied forces. RTO-TR-MSG-187 ES - 1 Gestion des Contraintes Thermiques (Chaleur et Froid) – Conseils aux Personnels Médicaux de

  16. Particle-number projected electric quadrupole moment of even-even proton-rich nuclei in the isovector pairing case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douici, Mohamed; Allal, Nassima-Hosni; Fellah, Mohamed; Benhamouda, Naziha; Oudih, Mohamed-Reda

    2014-03-01

    The effect of the particle-number projection on the electric quadrupole moment (Q2) of even-even proton-rich nuclei is studied in the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing case. As a first step, an expression of the electric quadrupole moment, which takes into account the isovector np pairing effect and which conserves the particle-number, is established within the Sharp-BCS (SBCS) method. This expression does generalize the one used in the pairing between like-particles case. As a second step, Q2 is calculated for even-even proton-rich nuclei using the single-particle energies of a Woods-Saxon mean-field. The obtained results are compared with the results obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. It is shown that the np pairing effect, as well as the projection one, is maximal when N=Z.

  17. Pushing the pseudo-SU(3) model towards its limits: Excited bands in even-even Dy isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2004-12-01

    The energetics of states belonging to normal parity bands in even-even dysprosium isotopes, and their B(E2) transition strengths, are studied using an extended pseudo-SU(3) shell model. States with pseudospin 1 are added to the standard pseudospin 0 space, allowing for a proper description of known excited normal parity bands. A realistic Hamiltonian is employed. Both the success of model and its limitations are discussed.

  18. Identification of ARF and AUX/IAA gene families in Rafflesia cantleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Nur Atiqah Mohd; Goh, Hoe-Han; Isa, Nurulhikma Md; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Rafflesia is a unique plant that produces the largest flowers in the world. It has a short blooming period of 6 to 7 days. Due to its rarity and limited accessibility, little is known about the growth and developmental process in the Rafflesia plant. In all plant species, auxin is the key hormone that is involved in growth and development. The auxin signal transduction involves members of the ARF transcription factor and AUX/IAA regulator families, which activate or inhibit the regulation of auxin response genes, thereby control the developmental process in plants. To gain a better understanding of molecular regulations in the Rafflesia plant development during flowering, members of the ARF and AUX/IAA gene families were identified from the transcriptome data of flower blooming stages in Rafflesia cantleyi. Based on Rafflesia unique transcripts (UTs) against the Arabidopsis TAIR database using BLASTX search, a total of nine UTs were identified as ARF transcription factors, while another seven UTs were identified as AUX/IAA regulators. These genes were found to be expressed in all three R. cantleyi flower stages i.e. days 1 (F1), 3 (F2), and 5 (F3). Gene expression analysis identified three genes that are differentially expressed in stage F1 vs. F2 i.e. IAA4 is upregulated while IAA8 and ARF3 are downregulated. These genes may be involved in the activation and/or inhibition of the auxin signal transduction pathway. Further analysis of these genes may unravel their function in the phenotypic development of the Rafflesia plant.

  19. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  20. Silver birch (Betula pendula) plants with aux and rol genes show consistent changes in morphology, xylem structure and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Piispanen, Riikka; Aronen, Tuija; Chen, Xiwen; Saranpää, Pekka; Häggman, Hely

    2003-08-01

    The effects of Agrobacterium pRiA4 rol and aux genes, controlled by their endogenous promoters, on tree growth and wood anatomy and chemistry were studied in 5- and 7-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) plants. Southern hybridization confirmed the following rol and aux gene combinations: control plants (no genes transferred); plants with rolC and rolD genes; plants with rolA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes; and plants with rolA, rolB, rolC, rolD, aux1 and aux2 genes. Transgene mRNA was most abundant in phloem/cambium samples and in the developing xylem, whereas no expression was detected in leaves. Plants with rolC and rolD genes or with all the rol genes were significantly shorter and had smaller leaves and a more bushy growth habit than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Morphological observations and wood chemistry analyses revealed that plants with rol genes produced less xylem and broke bud later than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Tension wood was detected in both control and transgenic plants irrespective of their gene combination, probably as a result of greenhouse cultivation. Xylem fibers were shorter in transgenic plants than in control plants, and plants with all the rol genes were characterized by shorter vessels compared with the control plants and a smaller proportional area of vessels compared with the other groups. In addition, silver birch plants with all the rol genes had approximately a 3.3% lower concentration of total acid soluble carbohydrates than control plants. We conclude that the rolC and rolD genes induced the typical "rol-phenotype," and that this was emphasized by concomitant expression of the rolA and rolB genes and alleviated by the presence of aux1 and aux2 genes. We observed consistent phenotypic effects of rol and aux genes on the morphology, anatomy and cell wall chemistry of the plants.

  1. L'intérêt de l'accoutumance aux antituberculeux majeurs

    PubMed Central

    Aniked, Sarra; Bakouh, Ouiam; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Les réactions d’ hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux sont relativement rares et graves par leur caractère imprévisible, elles conduisent généralement à l'arrêt ou au changement thérapeutique. Nous rapportons un cas d'hypersensibilité à trois antibacillaires majeurs (Isoniazide, Pyrazinamide, Ethombutol). Une accoutumance orale à ces trois médicaments a été réalisée permettant à la patiente de bénéficier d'un traitement antibacillaire optimal. PMID:25821550

  2. Trajectories of Evening Fatigue in Oncology Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Fay; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo; Hammer, Marilyn; Schmidt, Brian L.; Knobf, M. Tish; Paul, Steven M.; Cartwright, Frances; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.; Chen, Lee-May; Melisko, Michelle; Levine, Jon D.; Kober, Kord; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Fatigue is a distressing, persistent sense of physical tiredness that is not proportional to a person’s recent activity. Fatigue impacts patients’ treatment decisions and can limit their self-care activities. While significant interindividual variability in fatigue severity has been noted, little is known about predictors of interindividual variability in initial levels and trajectories of evening fatigue severity in oncology patients receiving chemotherapy (CTX). Objectives To determine whether demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with initial levels as well as the trajectories of evening fatigue. Methods A sample of outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and lung cancer (N=586) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Fatigue severity was evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to answer the study objectives. Results A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the evening fatigue trajectories. A piecewise model fit the data best. Patients who were White, diagnosed with breast, gynecological, or lung cancer, and who had more years of education, child care responsibilities, lower functional status, and higher levels of sleep disturbance and depression reported higher levels of evening fatigue at enrollment. Conclusion This study identified both non-modifiable (e.g., ethnicity) and modifiable (e.g., child care responsibilities, depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance) risk factors for more severe evening fatigue. Using this information, clinicians can identify patients at higher risk for more severe evening fatigue, provide individualized patient education, and tailor interventions to address the modifiable risk factors. PMID:25828560

  3. Arabidopsis seed germination speed is controlled by SNL histone deacetylase-binding factor-mediated regulation of AUX1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Chen, Fengying; Li, Xiaoying; Cao, Hong; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Cun; Zuo, Jinghong; Xu, Chaonan; Xu, Jimei; Deng, Xin; Xiang, Yong; Soppe, Wim J. J.; Liu, Yongxiu

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is known to affect the speed of seed germination, but the molecular regulatory basis of this remains ambiguous. Here we report that loss of function of two histone deacetylase-binding factors, SWI-INDEPENDENT3 (SIN3)-LIKE1 (SNL1) and SNL2, results in accelerated radicle protrusion and growth during seed germination. AUXIN RESISTANT 1 (AUX1) is identified as a key factor in this process, enhancing germination speed downstream of SNL1 and SNL2. AUX1 expression and histone H3 acetylation at lysines 9 and 18 is regulated by SNL1 and SNL2. The D-type cyclins encoding genes CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 display increased expression in AUX1 over-expression lines and the snl1snl2 double mutant. Accordingly, knockout of CYCD4;1 reduces seed germination speed of AUX1 over-expression lines and snl1snl2 suggesting the importance of cell cycling for radicle protrusion during seed germination. Together, our work identifies AUX1 as a link between histone acetylation mediated by SNL1 and SNL2, and radicle growth promoted by CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 during seed germination. PMID:27834370

  4. The role of AUX1 gene and auxin content to the branching phenotype of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    PubMed

    Arumingtyas, Estri L; Mastuti, R; Indriyani, S

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify auxin gene, AUX1, and to determine the plant auxin content and their role in conferring branching on Kenaf. PCR analysis using AUX1 primer capable to amplify the DNA of non branching (KR11) and branching kenaf mutant, resulting in 800 bp PCR product. The sequence of the PCR product showed high degree of homology with the sequence of AUX1 gene of other plants in the NCBI GenBank database, confirming kenaf possession of the gene AUX1. However, some variation on the DNA sequence was found between branching and non branching phenotype indicated allele differences of the same gene which were responsible for the variation in the type of branching. Identification of auxin content in the roots, apical shoot, and axillary branches using spectrophotometry method showed that the branching plant has higher auxin content in the apical shoot compared to the content in the branches. This indicate that AUX1 controls the formation of branches by controlling either the content of auxin in the apical shoot and branches, or the ratio of auxin content in the shoot and branches.

  5. Why Americans Can't Handle Censorship (Even for Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Edward A.

    This paper observes that Americans, although they broadly and vocally resist informational censorship in the schools even for children, waffle in their efforts to eliminate the powerful and sometimes offensive cultural artifacts of popular "teen culture" from school curriculums. Potent economic and political forces, however, conspire to…

  6. Pascal's Triangle: 100% of the Numbers Are Even!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhindi, Nayan; McMenamin, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Pascal's triangle is an arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. Each number inside Pascal's triangle is calculated by adding the two numbers above it. When all the odd integers in Pascal's triangle are highlighted (black) and the remaining evens are left blank (white), one of many patterns in Pascal's triangle is displayed. By…

  7. Teaching Even 100 Hours a Week Leaves Children behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleibermann, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares that despite all the efforts he puts in his teaching, 30 percent of his 150 students still fail. However, when he calculate the needed hours to appropriately cover all the needs of his students, he realized that even 100 hours of teaching each week is not enough to have all his students succeed. The author…

  8. Under the Law: Vouchers Multiply Even without Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Public funding of private K-12 schooling through vouchers continues to be a contentious issue across the U.S., even though a solid majority of Americans continues to oppose them. The voucher plans run the risk of legal challenge for how they handle the rights of students with disabilities and whether they violate state constitutional provisions…

  9. Even Wars Have Laws: Upholding an American Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhihetty, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the founding of this nation, Americans have lived by the belief that wars have laws. Even in the most morally-challenging times, the principles of international humanitarian law (IHL)--which provide basic protections for the vulnerable, such as civilians, prisoners of war, and sick and injured combatants--have been championed by leaders like…

  10. A Manual for Conducting Even Start Program Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polzella, Donald J.; Fine, Mark A.

    Project Even Start is an intergenerational literacy project that promotes adult literacy, trains parents to support the educational growth of their children, and prepares children for school. The program is designed to facilitate joint participation by parents and children. It includes home-based instruction and child care, and it is integrated…

  11. Teatime Threats. Choking Incidents at the Evening Meal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Susan; Stansfield, Jois

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To explore caregiver perceptions of the socio-environmental issues around evening meal ("teatime") which influence choking. Methodology: A qualitative study of caregivers witnessing a choking incident was undertaken. Semi-structured interviews explored perceptions of the causes. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.…

  12. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of even...

  13. Atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions over West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A systemic analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer behavior during some evening transitions over West Texas was done using the data from an extensive array of instruments which included small and large aperture scintillometers, net radiometers, and meteorological stations. The analysis also comp...

  14. 1. Dyea Dock looking south. Note faint evenly spaced circular ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Dyea Dock looking south. Note faint evenly spaced circular dark pieces of grass up through the middle of the picture indicating posts making up the pier. Photograph made from park service cherry picker. - Dyea Dock & Association (Ruins), Skagway, Skagway, AK

  15. Access to Bachelor's Degrees Through Evening and Weekend Courses, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goor, Jeanette; Farris, Elizabeth

    The availability of evening and weekend baccalaureate degree credit courses and factors that discourage institutions from introducing or expanding such courses were investigated through a fast response survey that was sent to a national sample of universities and other four-year colleges. Among the findings are the following: almost three-fourths…

  16. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  17. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  18. Exposition précoce aux aliments et allergies alimentaires chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’étais sous l’impression qu’on devrait éviter de donner aux nourrissons des aliments potentiellement allergènes comme des noix, du lait de vache et des œufs pour prévenir le développement de réactions allergiques. Quels conseils devrait-on donner aux parents concernant l’introduction des aliments durant la petite enfance et le développement des allergies alimentaires? Réponse Il n’y a pas de données probantes indiquant que retarder l’introduction d’aliments particuliers après l’âge de 6 mois aide à prévenir les allergies. Une récente déclaration de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ne recommande aucun délai quant à l’introduction d’aliments durant la petite enfance. De récentes études de recherche semblent aussi faire valoir que l’introduction précoce (entre 4 et 6 mois) d’aliments possiblement allergènes procure une forme de protection et contribue à prévenir les allergies, mais il faudrait plus de recherche à ce sujet.

  19. Novel auxin transport inhibitors phenocopy the auxin influx carrier mutation aux1.

    PubMed

    Parry, G; Delbarre, A; Marchant, A; Swarup, R; Napier, R; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Bennett, M J

    2001-02-01

    The hormone auxin is transported in plants through the combined actions of diffusion and specific auxin influx and efflux carriers. In contrast to auxin efflux, for which there are well documented inhibitors, understanding the developmental roles of carrier-mediated auxin influx has been hampered by the absence of specific competitive inhibitors. However, several molecules that inhibit auxin influx in cultured cells have been described recently. The physiological effects of two of these novel influx carrier inhibitors, 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA), have been investigated in intact seedlings and tissue segments using classical and new auxin transport bioassays. Both molecules do disrupt root gravitropism, which is a developmental process requiring rapid auxin redistribution. Furthermore, the auxin-insensitive and agravitropic root-growth characteristics of aux1 plants were phenocopied by 1-NOA and CHPAA. Similarly, the agravitropic phenotype of inhibitor-treated seedlings was rescued by the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, again resembling the relative abilities of these two auxins to rescue the phenotype of aux1. Further investigations have shown that none of these compounds block polar auxin transport, and that CHPAA exhibits some auxin-like activity at high concentrations. Whilst results indicate that 1-NOA and CHPAA represent useful tools for physiological studies addressing the role of auxin influx in planta, 1-NOA is likely to prove the more useful of the two compounds.

  20. Nonlinear Acceleration Methods for Even-Parity Neutron Transport

    SciTech Connect

    W. J. Martin; C. R. E. De Oliveira; H. Park

    2010-05-01

    Convergence acceleration methods for even-parity transport were developed that have the potential to speed up transport calculations and provide a natural avenue for an implicitly coupled multiphysics code. An investigation was performed into the acceleration properties of the introduction of a nonlinear quasi-diffusion-like tensor in linear and nonlinear solution schemes. Using the tensor reduced matrix as a preconditioner for the conjugate gradients method proves highly efficient and effective. The results for the linear and nonlinear case serve as the basis for further research into the application in a full three-dimensional spherical-harmonics even-parity transport code. Once moved into the nonlinear solution scheme, the implicit coupling of the convergence accelerated transport method into codes for other physics can be done seamlessly, providing an efficient, fully implicitly coupled multiphysics code with high order transport.

  1. Flexible Viologen Cyclophanes: Odd/Even Effects on Intramolecular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Berville, Mathilde; Choua, Sylvie; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Boudon, Corinne; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Bailly, Corinne; Cobo, Saioa; Saint-Aman, Eric; Wytko, Jennifer; Weiss, Jean

    2017-01-04

    The ability of three bis-viologen cyclophanes to act as redox-triggered contractile switches is investigated. Odd/even effects in the formation of cyclic bis-viologens are circumvented by the use of a Zincke salt intermediate and a tetrathiafulvalene template to prepare a flexible cyclophane with hexyl linkers. Comparative spectro-electrochemical studies of this macrocycle with two other pentyl- or heptyl-linked cyclic bis-viologens show that the development of intramolecular interactions in aqueous solution depends on the length of the bridges. This dependence is confirmed by EPR and DFT studies of the magnetic coupling in the diradical dication species. The anti-ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic nature of the coupling depend, respectively, on the odd or even number of methylene groups in the spacer.

  2. Simultaneous description of low-lying positive and negative parity bands in heavy even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganev, H. G.

    2014-05-01

    The low-lying spectra including the first few excited positive and negative parity bands of some heavy even-even nuclei from the rare earth and actinide mass regions are investigated within the framework of the symplectic interacting vector boson model with the Sp(12,R) dynamical symmetry group. Symplectic dynamical symmetries allow the change of the number of excitation quanta or phonons building the collective states, providing for larger representation spaces and richer subalgebraic structures to incorporate more complex nuclear spectra. The theoretical predictions for the energy levels and the electromagnetic transitions between the collective states of the ground-state band and Kπ=0- band are compared with experiment and some other collective models incorporating octupole and/or dipole degrees of freedom. The energy staggering, which is a sensitive indicator of the octupole correlations in even-even nuclei, is also calculated and compared with experiment. The results obtained for the energy levels, energy staggering, and transition strengths reveal the relevance of the dynamical symmetry used in the model to simultaneously describe both positive and negative parity low-lying collective bands.

  3. Even Illumination from Fiber-Optic-Coupled Laser Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    A method of equipping fiber-optic-coupled laser diodes to evenly illuminate specified fields of view has been proposed. The essence of the method is to shape the tips of the optical fibers into suitably designed diffractive optical elements. One of the main benefits afforded by the method would be more nearly complete utilization of the available light. Diffractive optics is a relatively new field of optics in which laser beams are shaped by use of diffraction instead of refraction.

  4. Electronic storage capacity of ceria: role of peroxide in Aux supported on CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinli; Li, Huiying; Yu, Jun; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2015-11-07

    Density functional theory (DFT+U) was used to study the adsorption of Aux (x = 1-4) clusters on the defective CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption on the corresponding Aux/CeO2-x catalyst, in this work Aux clusters are adsorbed onto the CeO2-x + superoxide/peroxide surface. When Au1 is supported on the CeO2(111) facet with an O vacancy, the strong electronegative Au(δ-) formed is not favorable for CO adsorption. When peroxide is adsorbed on the CeO2(111) facet with the O vacancy, Aux was oxidized, resulting in stable Aux adsorption on the defective ceria surface with peroxide, which promotes CO adsorption on the Aux/CeO2-x catalyst. With more Au atoms in supported Aux clusters, CO adsorption on this surface becomes stronger. During both the Au being supported on CeO2-x and CO being adsorbed on Aux/CeO2-x, CeO2 acts as an electron buffer that can store/release the electrons. These results provide a scientific understanding for the development of high-performance rare earth catalytic materials.

  5. Fine structure in α decay of even-even nuclei using a finite-range nucleon-nucleon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, A.; Alharbi, T.

    2015-07-01

    A systematic study on α -decay fine structure is presented for even-even nuclei in the range 78 ≤Z ≤102 . The penetration probability is obtained from the WKB approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The potential barrier is numerically constructed in the well-established double-folding model for both Coulomb and nuclear potentials. A realistic M3Y interaction, based on the G -matrix elements of the Paris N N potential, has been used in the folding calculation. The local approximation for the nondiagonal one-body density matrix in the calculation of the exchange potential was included by using the harmonic oscillator representation of the nondiagonal density matrix of the α particle. The computed partial half-lives and branching ratios are compared with the recent experimental data and they are in good agreement.

  6. Fine structure of the dipole excitations of the even-even 160Gd nucleus in the spectroscopic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertuğral, Filiz; Guliyev, Ekber; Kuliev, Ali; Yildirim, Zemine

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the result of calculations using rotational, translational and Galilean invariant quasiparticle random-phase approximation is presented for the low-lying dipole excitations in the even-even 160Gd nucleus. Calculations are carried out for both ΔK=1 and ΔK=0 branches. The analysis shows that the main part of spin-1 states, observed at energy 2.4-4 MeV in 160Gd, have M1 character and are interpreted as main fragments of the scissors mode. The calculations indicate the presence of a few prominent negativeparity dipole ΔK=1 states in the investigated energy region, in agreement with experiment.

  7. Improving Immunizations in Children: A Clinical Break-even Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kyle Bradford; Spain, Chad; Wright, Hannah; Gren, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunizing the population is a vital public health priority. This article describes a resident-led continuous quality improvement project to improve the immunization rates of children under 3 years of age at two urban family medicine residency clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as a break-even cost analysis to the clinics for the intervention. Methods Immunization records were distributed to provider-medical assistant teamlets daily for each pediatric patient scheduled in clinic to decrease missed opportunities. An outreach intervention by letter, followed by telephone call reminders, was conducted to reach children under 3 years of age who were behind on recommended immunizations for age (total n=457; those behind on immunizations n=101). Immunization rates were monitored at 3 months following start of intervention. A break-even analysis to the clinics for the outreach intervention was performed. Results Immunizations were improved from a baseline of 75.1% (n=133) and 79.6% (n=223) at the two clinics to 92.1% (n=163) and 89.6% (n=251), respectively, at 3 months following the start of intervention (P<0.01). The average revenue per immunization given was $81.57. The financial break-even point required 36 immunizations to be administered. Conclusion Significant improvement in the immunization rate of patients under 3 years of age at two family medicine residency training clinics was achieved through decreasing missed opportunities for immunization in clinic, and with outreach through letters and follow-up phone calls. The intervention showed positive revenue to both clinics. PMID:25380614

  8. Instability of small Lovelock black holes in even dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro

    2009-11-15

    We study the stability of static black holes in Lovelock theory, which is a natural higher dimensional generalization of Einstein theory. We derive a master equation for tensor perturbations in general Lovelock theory. It turns out that the resultant equation is characterized by one functional which determines the background black hole solutions. Thus, the stability issue of static black holes under tensor perturbations in general dimensions is reduced to an algebraic problem. We show that small Lovelock black holes in even-dimensions are unstable.

  9. Induced structural defects in T-even bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Cummings, D J; Chapman, V A; De Long, S S; Mondale, L

    1967-02-01

    Multiple aberrant substructures of T-even bacteriophage particles occurred when amino acid analogues or antimetabolites were present during phage growth. Certain aberrant substructures were induced by specific analogues or antimetabolites. In particular, it was observed by electron microscopy that l-canavanine, an arginine analogue, gave rise to polyheads; l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, a proline analogue, gave rise to polytail tubes; and 1,2,4-trizaole-3-alanine, a histidine analogue, proflavine, and actinomycin D all gave rise to small heads. These aberrant substructures were similar to those reported earlier with conditional lethal mutants (amber) of T4D in a restrictive host.

  10. Induced Structural Defects in T-Even Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Donald J.; Chapman, V. A.; De Long, S. S.; Mondale, L.

    1967-01-01

    Multiple aberrant substructures of T-even bacteriophage particles occurred when amino acid analogues or antimetabolites were present during phage growth. Certain aberrant substructures were induced by specific analogues or antimetabolites. In particular, it was observed by electron microscopy that l-canavanine, an arginine analogue, gave rise to polyheads; l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, a proline analogue, gave rise to polytail tubes; and 1,2,4-trizaole-3-alanine, a histidine analogue, proflavine, and actinomycin D all gave rise to small heads. These aberrant substructures were similar to those reported earlier with conditional lethal mutants (amber) of T4D in a restrictive host. Images PMID:5623954

  11. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient even-even (182-188)Hg isotopes studied via coulomb excitation.

    PubMed

    Bree, N; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Petts, A; Andreyev, A; Bastin, B; Bender, M; Blazhev, A; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Carpenter, M P; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Deacon, A; Diriken, J; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fraile, L M; Fransen, Ch; Freeman, S J; Gaffney, L P; García-Ramos, J E; Geibel, K; Gernhäuser, R; Grahn, T; Guttormsen, M; Hadinia, B; Hadyńska-Kle K, K; Hass, M; Heenen, P-H; Herzberg, R-D; Hess, H; Heyde, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Jenkins, D G; Julin, R; Kesteloot, N; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Larsen, A C; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Napiorkowski, P J; Orlandi, R; Page, R D; Pakarinen, J; Patronis, N; Peura, P J; Piselli, E; Rahkila, P; Rapisarda, E; Reiter, P; Robinson, A P; Scheck, M; Siem, S; Singh Chakkal, K; Smith, J F; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van Duppen, P; Van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; Wood, J L; Zielińska, M

    2014-04-25

    Coulomb-excitation experiments to study electromagnetic properties of radioactive even-even Hg isotopes were performed with 2.85  MeV/nucleon mercury beams from REX-ISOLDE. Magnitudes and relative signs of the reduced E2 matrix elements that couple the ground state and low-lying excited states in Hg182-188 were extracted. Information on the deformation of the ground and the first excited 0+ states was deduced using the quadrupole sum rules approach. Results show that the ground state is slightly deformed and of oblate nature, while a larger deformation for the excited 0+ state was noted in Hg182,184. The results are compared to beyond mean field and interacting-boson based models and interpreted within a two-state mixing model. Partial agreement with the model calculations was obtained. The presence of two different structures in the light even-mass mercury isotopes that coexist at low excitation energy is firmly established.

  12. Recovery of methanotrophs from disturbance: population dynamics, evenness and functioning.

    PubMed

    Ho, Adrian; Lüke, Claudia; Frenzel, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Biodiversity is claimed to be essential for ecosystem functioning, but is threatened by anthropogenic disturbances. Prokaryotes have been assumed to be functionally redundant and virtually inextinguishable. However, recent work indicates that microbes may well be sensitive to environmental disturbance. Focusing on methane-oxidizing bacteria as model organisms, we simulated disturbance-induced mortality by mixing native with sterilized paddy soil in two ratios, 1:4 and 1:40, representing moderate and severe die-offs. Disturbed microcosms were compared with an untreated control. Recovery of activity and populations was followed over 4 months by methane uptake measurements, pmoA-qPCR, pmoA-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and a pmoA-based diagnostic microarray. Diversity and evenness of methanotrophs decreased in disturbed microcosms, but functioning was not compromised. We consistently observed distinctive temporal shifts between type I and type II methanotrophs, and a rapid population growth leading to even higher cell numbers comparing disturbed microcosms with the control. Overcompensating mortality suggested that population size in the control was limited by competition with other bacteria. Overall, methanotrophs showed a remarkable ability to compensate for die-offs.

  13. Motherhood can be safer -- even where conditions are hard.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The Prevention of Maternal Mortality (PMM) Network in West Africa has demonstrated that, even under sub-optimal conditions, motherhood can be safer and needless deaths can be avoided. The PMM Network's 10 teams from Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone designed projects to enable women with complications during pregnancy or delivery to overcome delays in deciding to seek medical help, travelling to a health facility, and receiving help after arriving at the facility. Operating rooms and blood banks were opened in some hospitals and health centers were upgraded at a cost under US $15,000. In one case, an abandoned warehouse was turned into a health center. Other PMM activities included staff training, making drugs more readily available, setting up a fund to lower drug prices, and increasing stocks of safe blood. The teams arranged for local truck drivers' unions to provide emergency transport and organized groups of men in remote villages to carry women in hammocks to motorized transport. The teams worked with traditional leaders and held educational sessions at community gatherings. Even in the poorest areas, the number of women seeking care for obstetric complications increased and their risk of dying dropped. The PMM Network is supported by Columbia University's School of Public Health, with funding from the Carnegie Corporation.

  14. Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. E. F.; Rivière, P.; Morales, F.; Smirnova, O.; Ivanov, M.; Martín, F.

    2016-01-01

    Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process. PMID:27596609

  15. Empirical Relationships between Species Richness, Evenness, and Proportional Diversity.

    PubMed

    Stirling, G; Wilsey, B

    2001-09-01

    Diversity (or biodiversity) is typically measured by a species count (richness) and sometimes with an evenness index; it may also be measured by a proportional statistic that combines both measures (e.g., Shannon-Weiner index or H'). These diversity measures are hypothesized to be positively and strongly correlated, but this null hypothesis has not been tested empirically. We used the results of Caswell's neutral model to generate null relationships between richness (S), evenness (J'), and proportional diversity (H'). We tested predictions of the null model against empirical relationships describing data in a literature survey and in four individual studies conducted across various scales. Empirical relationships between log S or J' and H' differed from the null model when <10 species were tested and in plants, vertebrates, and fungi. The empirical relationships were similar to the null model when >10 and <100 species were tested and in invertebrates. If >100 species were used to estimate diversity, the relation between log S and H' was negative. The strongest predictive models included log S and J'. A path analysis indicated that log S and J' were always negatively related, that empirical observations could not be explained without including indirect effects, and that differences between the partials may indicate ecological effects, which suggests that S and J' act like diversity components or that diversity should be measured using a compound statistic.

  16. Antioxidant potential of evening primrose oil administration in hyperlipemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz, J P; Quintero, L; Galvez, J; Villalobos, M A; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    1999-01-01

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids affects arteriosclerosis. We studied the effect of supplementation (15% wt/wt) of a hyperlipemic diet (1.33% cholesterol) with evening primrose oil (EPO) (Oenothera biennis) for 6 weeks in four groups of 10 rabbits each. At the end of this period we determined lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, and glutathione peroxidase, reductase and transferase activities in liver, brain, heart, aorta and platelets. The atherogenic diet increased tissue lipid peroxidation and decreased the protective antioxidant effect of glutathione. Dietary supplementation with EPO reduced tissue lipid peroxidation (61% in liver, 57% in brain, 42% in heart, 24% in aorta, 33% in platelets). Total glutathione was increased, especially in the aorta (90%) and platelets (200%); however, in all tissues the percentage of oxidised glutathione decreased. Evening primrose oil reduced glutathione peroxidase activity and increased the activities of glutathione reductase and transferase. We conclude that in rabbits made hyperlipemic with a diet rich in saturated fatty acids, EPO decreased tissue oxidative stress.

  17. Even-odd entanglement in boson and spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignoli, R.; Canosa, N.; Matera, J. M.

    2011-04-01

    We examine the entanglement entropy of the even half of a translationally invariant finite chain or lattice in its ground state. This entropy measures the entanglement between the even and odd halves (each forming a “comb” of n/2 sites) and can be expected to be extensive for short-range couplings away from criticality. We first consider bosonic systems with quadratic couplings, where analytic expressions for arbitrary dimensions can be provided. The bosonic treatment is then applied to finite spin chains and arrays by means of the random-phase approximation. Results for first-neighbor anisotropic XY couplings indicate that, while at strong magnetic fields this entropy is strictly extensive, at weak fields important deviations arise, stemming from parity-breaking effects and the presence of a factorizing field (in the vicinity of which it becomes size-independent and identical to the entropy of a contiguous half). Exact numerical results for small spin s chains are shown to be in agreement with the bosonic random-phase approximation prediction.

  18. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  19. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  20. Modelisation de la Propagation des Ondes Sonores dans un Environnement Naturel Complexe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Esperance, Andre

    Ce travail est consacre a la propagation sonore a l'exterieur dans un environnement naturel complexe, i.e. en presence de conditions reelles de vent, de gradient de temperature et de turbulence atmospherique. Plus specifiquement ce travail comporte deux objectifs. D'une part, il vise a developper un modele heuristique de propagation sonore (MHP) permettant de prendre en consideration l'ensemble des phenomenes meteorologiques et acoustiques influencant la propagation du son a l'exterieur. D'autre part, il vise a identifier dans quelles circonstances et avec quelle importance les conditions meteorologiques interviennent sur la propagation sonore. Ce travail est divise en cinq parties. Apres une breve introduction identifiant les motivations de cette etude (chapitre 1), le chapitre 2 fait un rappel des travaux deja realises dans le domaine de la propagation du son a l'exterieur. Ce chapitre presente egalement les bases de l'acoustique geometrique a partir desquelles ont ete developpees la partie acoustique du modele heuristique de propagation. En outre, on y decrit comment les phenomenes de refraction et de turbulence atmospherique peuvent etre consideres dans la theorie des rayons. Le chapitre 3 presente le modele heuristique de propagation (MHP) developpe au cours de cet ouvrage. La premiere section de ce chapitre decrit le modele acoustique de propagation, modele qui fait l'hypothese d'un gradient de celerite lineaire et qui est base sur une solution hybride d'acoustique geometrique et de theorie des residus. La deuxieme section du chapitre 3 traite plus specifiquement de la modelisation des aspects meteorologiques et de la determination des profils de celerite et des index de fluctuation associes aux conditions meteorologiques. La section 3 de ce chapitre decrit comment les profils de celerite resultants sont linearises pour les calculs dans le modele acoustique, et finalement la section 4 donne les tendances generales obtenues par le modele. Le chapitre 4 decrit

  1. The reduced transition probabilities for excited states of rare-earths and actinide even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ghumman, S. S.

    2015-08-28

    The theoretical B(E2) ratios have been calculated on DF, DR and Krutov models. A simple method based on the work of Arima and Iachello is used to calculate the reduced transition probabilities within SU(3) limit of IBA-I framework. The reduced E2 transition probabilities from second excited states of rare-earths and actinide even–even nuclei calculated from experimental energies and intensities from recent data, have been found to compare better with those calculated on the Krutov model and the SU(3) limit of IBA than the DR and DF models.

  2. Maximally symmetric stabilizer MUBs in even prime-power dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    One way to construct a maximal set of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in a prime-power dimensional Hilbert space is by means of finite phase-space methods. MUBs obtained in this way are covariant with respect to some subgroup of the group of all affine symplectic phase-space transformations. However, this construction is not canonical: as a consequence, many different choices of covariance subgroups are possible. In particular, when the Hilbert space is 2n dimensional, it is known that covariance with respect to the full group of affine symplectic phase-space transformations can never be achieved. Here we show that in this case there exist two essentially different choices of maximal subgroups admitting covariant MUBs. For both of them, we explicitly construct a family of 2n covariant MUBs. We thus prove that, contrary to the odd dimensional case, maximally covariant MUBs are very far from being unique in even prime-power dimensions.

  3. Evening adolescents: the role of family relationships and pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano, Cristina; Jankowski, Konrad S; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that evening-type adolescents are exposed to a number of determinants that might have a negative impact on their health condition. Despite the fact that biological and psychosocial factors are interrelated, their impacts on the shift toward eveningness during puberty have been considered only separately. In this study, the effects of frequency of conflicts and functional autonomy on the relationship between pubertal development and Morningness-Eveningness (M-E) were tested together. A sample of 2081 adolescents aged 12-16 completed pubertal development, M-E, family frequency of conflicts and functional autonomy scales. Results indicated that greater functional autonomy and more conflicts in the family were unique predictors of greater eveningness, and they both together were better predictors of M-E than an advanced age and pubertal development. Apart from biological development, family relationship seems an important factor explaining progressive tendency toward eveningness during puberty and adolescence. Some implications to adolescent development were indicated.

  4. A statistical study of evening sector arcs and electrojets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, K.; Syrjäsuo, M. T.; Amm, O.; Viljanen, A.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

    2001-01-01

    We present results of a statistical study of evening sector auroral arcs associated with electrojets. The study (including ˜ 1000 all-sky camera (ASC) frames) is based on data of the MIRACLE instrument network. An automatic search engine is used to define the arc periods from ASC data and the recordings of the IMAGE magnetometer network are used to estimate the strength and location of the equivalent electrojet currents. The maximum current densities and intensities of the equivalent electrojets vary in the ranges 200-600 A/km and 200-400 kA, respectively. In 85 % of cases with single arcs the current system is of a convection reversal type (an eastward electrojet equatorward of a westward electrojet). Usually the arc is within 1° distance from the latitude of maximum eastward current density which is ≤4° south from the transition region between the westward and eastward electrojets. Most of such events were observed in the dusk sector, not in the premidnight-sector, which is generally considered as the typical Harang discontinuity (HD) region of convection reversal type currents. Furthermore, the poleward boundary of the westward current is very often poleward of the northernmost IMAGE station (CGM lat. ˜76), which may mean that the westward currents are not real horizontal currents but equivalent currents due to field aligned R1 currents. This implies that a stable arc often resides a few degrees equatorward to the evening shell potential minimum. We discuss the implications of these findings from the viewpoint of previous HD-studies.

  5. Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculation of ground state properties of even-even and odd Mo and Ru isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bassem, Y.; Oulne, M.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous work (El Bassem and Oulne (2015) [20]), hereafter referred to as paper I, we have investigated the ground-state properties of Nd, Ce and Sm isotopes within Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method with SLy5 Skyrme force in which the pairing strength has been generalized with a new proposed formula. However, that formula is more appropriate for the region of Nd. In this work, we have studied the ground-state properties of both even-even and odd Mo and Ru isotopes. For this, we have used Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method with SLy4 Skyrme force, and a new formula of the pairing strength which is more accurate for this region of nuclei. The results have been compared with available experimental data, the results of Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations based on the D1S Gogny effective nucleon-nucleon interaction and predictions of some nuclear models such as Finite Range Droplet Model (FRDM) and Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) theory.

  6. The emission probabilities of long range alpha particles from even-even 244-252Cm isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Krishnan, Sreejith; Priyanka, B.

    2014-10-01

    The alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even 244Cm, 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of the Coulomb and proximity potential with the fragments in equatorial configuration. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold reaction valley plot and by calculating the relative yield for the charge minimized fragments. In the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 244Cm isotope, the highest yield is found for the fragment combination 110Ru+4He+130Sn, which possess near doubly magic nuclei 130Sn. For the ternary fission of 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes with 4He as the light charged particle, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination with doubly magic nuclei 132Sn as the heavier fragment. The emission probabilities and kinetic energies of long range alpha particles have been computed for the 242,244,246,248Cm isotopes and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The relative yields for the 4He accompanied ternary fission (equatorial and collinear) of 242-252Cm isotopes are compared with the corresponding yield for binary fission. The effect of deformation and orientation of fragments in the 4He accompanied ternary fission of 244-252Cm isotopes are studied. Our study reveals that the ground state deformation has as an important role in the alpha accompanied ternary fission as that of the shell effect.

  7. Microscopic description of the even-even 140-148Ba isotopes using BM, IBM and IVBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Imad M.; Flaiyh, Ghaith N.; Kassim, Huda H.; Abdullah, Hewa Y.; Hossain, I.; Sharrad, Fadhil I.

    2017-02-01

    A description of the even-even Ba isotopes for A = 140 to 148 in framework of Bohr-Mottelson model, interacting boson model and interacting vector boson model are carried out. The E-GOS curve ( E γ/ I and the ratio between the energies of the ( I + 2) and ( I) states ( r( I + 2)/ I) as a function of the spin ( I have been drawn to determine the property of the ground-state band. The positive ground-state band of 140-148Ba has been calculated using Bohr-Mottelson model, interacting boson model and interacting vector boson model, while the negative-parity band of 140-148Ba has been calculated using Bohr-Mottelson model and interacting vector boson model only. The reduced transition probabilities B( E2) of these nuclei were calculated. The parameters of the best fit to the measured data are determined. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) to the IBM Hamiltonian have been obtained using the intrinsic coherent state.

  8. Fiche pratique: La peche aux mots; Faire parler les BD; Rubrique evenement; Les droits de l'homme (Practical Ideas: Fishing for Words; Making Comic Strips Talk; Events Report; The Rights of Man).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timbal-Doclaux, Louis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four activities for classroom French instruction are described: a board game for children's vocabulary development; a sentence and dialogue construction exercise using comic strips (existing or student-made); a discussion of the treatment of the notion of "event" in different journalistic contexts; and an exercise in debating skills and language.…

  9. Electro-Magnetic Dipole Properties of The Even-Even {sup 160}Gd Nucleus in The Spectroscopic Region

    SciTech Connect

    Ertugral, Filiz; Kuliev, Ali; Guliyev, Ekber

    2008-11-11

    In this study result of calculations using rotational, translational and Galilean invariant quasiparticle random-phase approximation is presented for the low lying dipole excitations in the even-even {sup 60}Gd nucleus. To make detail structure analysis for electric and magnetic dipole states, calculations carried out for both {delta}K = 1 and {delta}K = 0 branches. The analysis shows that almost all transitions with {delta}K = 1 are magnetic character in 2.4 divide 4 MeV energy interval. However, the calculations indicate the presence of a few prominent negative parity K{sup {pi}} = 1 states in the investigated energy interval, one of them with rather high E1 strength B(E1) = 7.1{center_dot}10{sup -3} e{sup 2} fm{sup 2} at energy 3.2 MeV. Calculated M1 dipole strength of the scissors mode K{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +} excitations clustered in two groups around 2.7 and 3.3 MeV. A similar situation arises for the experimentally obtained states two bumps around {omega}{sub i} = 2.7 MeV and {omega}{sub i} = 3.3 MeV. It has been shown that main part of spin-1 states, observed at energy 2.4 divide 4 MeV in {sup 160}Gd may be attributed to have M1 character and may be interpreted as main fragments of the scissors mode. However, it is apparent that the experimental data exceeds the calculation results for the summed B(M1) by a factor of 1.13 for M1 transitions.

  10. Unique first-forbidden β-decay transitions in odd-odd and even-even heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Çakmak, Necla; Majid, Muhammad; Selam, Cevad

    2017-01-01

    The allowed Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions are the most common weak nuclear processes of spin-isospin (στ) type. These transitions play a key role in numerous processes in the domain of nuclear physics. Equally important is their contribution in astrophysics, particularly in nuclear synthesis and supernova-explosions. In situations where allowed GT transitions are not favored, first-forbidden transitions become significant, specifically in medium heavy and heavy nuclei. For neutron-rich nuclei, first-forbidden transitions are favored mainly due to the phase-space amplification for these transitions. In this work we calculate the allowed GT as well as unique first-forbidden (U1F) | ΔJ | = 2 transitions strength in odd-odd and even-even nuclei in mass range 70 ≤ A ≤ 214. Two different pn-QRPA models were used with a schematic separable interaction to calculate GT and U1F transitions. The inclusion of U1F strength improved the overall comparison of calculated terrestrial β-decay half-lives in both models. The ft values and reduced transition probabilities for the 2- ⟷0+ transitions were also calculated. We compared our calculations with the previously reported correlated RPA calculation and experimental results. Our calculations are in better agreement with measured data. For stellar applications we further calculated the allowed GT and U1F weak rates. These include β±-decay rates and electron/positron capture rates of heavy nuclei in stellar matter. Our study shows that positron and electron capture rates command the total weak rates of these heavy nuclei at high stellar temperatures.

  11. Systematical behavior of even-A polonium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W.; Cizewski, J.A.

    1997-03-01

    The energy systematics of even-A, neutron-deficient polonium isotopes have been previously observed down to A=194. The low-lying states display a gradual approach to the equal spacings of a harmonic vibrator, exceeding this limit for the first time in {sup 194}Po. We have successfully modeled these energy systematics using the particle-core model and have applied the quasiparticle random phase approximation to extract microscopic wave functions for the collective 2{sub 1}{sup +} states and predict B(E2;2{sub 1}{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sub 1}{sup +}) values. We are able to explain the Po trends in terms of the overlaps of the wave functions of valence particles, overlaps which are enhanced when particles occupy the high-j proton 1h{sub 9/2} and neutron 1i{sub 13/2} orbitals. We find little evidence for particle-hole excitations across the Z=82 shell gap. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Hybridization can facilitate species invasions, even without enhancing local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Mesgaran, Mohsen B.; Lewis, Mark A.; Ades, Peter K.; Donohue, Kathleen; Ohadi, Sara; Li, Chengjun

    2016-01-01

    The founding population in most new species introductions, or at the leading edge of an ongoing invasion, is likely to be small. Severe Allee effects—reductions in individual fitness at low population density—may then result in a failure of the species to colonize, even if the habitat could support a much larger population. Using a simulation model for plant populations that incorporates demography, mating systems, quantitative genetics, and pollinators, we show that Allee effects can potentially be overcome by transient hybridization with a resident species or an earlier colonizer. This mechanism does not require the invocation of adaptive changes usually attributed to invasions following hybridization. We verify our result in a case study of sequential invasions by two plant species where the outcrosser Cakile maritima has replaced an earlier, inbreeding, colonizer Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae). Observed historical rates of replacement are consistent with model predictions from hybrid-alleviated Allee effects in outcrossers, although other causes cannot be ruled out. PMID:27601582

  13. Why do even satisfied newlyweds eventually go on to divorce?

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2012-02-01

    Although divorce typically follows an extended period of unhappiness that begins early in marriage, some couples who are very happy throughout the first several years of marriage will also go on to divorce. This study aimed to identify risk factors early in marriage that distinguish initially satisfied couples who eventually divorce from those who remain married. We identified 136 couples reporting stably high levels of relationship satisfaction in the first 4 years of marriage. We compared the couples who went on to divorce by the 10-year follow-up with the couples who remained married on initial measures of commitment, observed communication, stress, and personality. Divorcing couples displayed more negative communication, emotion, and social support as newlyweds compared with couples who did not divorce. No significant differences were found in the other domains, in relationship satisfaction, or in positive behaviors. Overall, results indicate that even couples who are very successful at navigating the early years of marriage can be vulnerable to later dissolution if their interpersonal exchanges are poorly regulated. We speculate that, paradoxically, the many strengths possessed by these couples may mask their potent interpersonal liabilities, posing challenges for educational interventions designed to help these couples.

  14. Features of the Active Evening Plasma Sheet from MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Avanov, L. A.; Burch, J. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Ergun, R. E.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Lavraud, B.; MacDonald, E.; Mauk, B.; Mukai, T.; Nakamura, R.; Pollock, C. J.; Russell, C. T.; Saito, Y.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Yokota, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, consisting of four identical plasmas and fields observatories, was launched into a 12 RE elliptical equatorial orbit in March 2015 and was in the process of being commissioned through August 2015. During commissioning, the orbit apogee rotated from near midnight through the evening toward the dusk sector and occasionally captured new observations of the plasma sheet, its boundary layers, and the magnetospheric tail lobes. On 22-23 June, an especially active plasma sheet was involved in a major geospace storm that developed a ring current with 200 nT DST. We report on the ion kinetic and flow features of this active plasma sheet, comparing them with familiar observations from earlier missions, as an exercise in validating the MMS observations and assessing their capabilities to provide higher time resolution in multi-point views of thin, fast-moving structures. The observed features include but are not limited to cold lobal wind streams in the lobes, tailward flowing auroral beams and conics, hot earthward field-aligned flows and counter-flows, fast cross-field convection of some flows toward the neutral sheet, and the hot isotropic plasma sheet proper. Relationships between these features, the ionosphere, and the reconnecting magnetotail will be explored and discussed, seeking preliminary conclusions.

  15. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  16. Size of Dominant Diatom Species Can Alter Their Evenness

    PubMed Central

    Sugie, Koji; Suzuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biodiversity has often been estimated on the basis of abundance partly due to the need for complicated measurements of biomass. Here, we conducted robust measurements of the community composition and of the size structure of diatoms in the North Pacific to evaluate the importance of biomass on the biodiversity. We found that the two most useful evenness indices increased in most cases where small species were numerically dominant when calculations were based on biomass compared with those on abundance. Size-abundance spectra of diatoms revealed that numerically dominant small species rarely dominated in terms of biomass. On the other hand, intermediate to large diatom species generally played a dominant role in terms of biomass in diatom community. The results suggest that the size of the dominant species is a crucial factor in determining the role of diatoms in the ecosystem functioning. Because such size variability can also be observed in other organisms, we need to pay attention to the effect of size structures on biodiversity. PMID:26098838

  17. Research Projects, Collaborations and Career Aspects: Evening Discussion Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, G.

    2006-04-01

    Do I need to be a genius to become a good scientist? How can I collect the experience I need to do research? What do I do if I made a mistake? How can I find a useful research project? How do I know that it is of good international scientific standard? How can I judge that it can be realistically carried out? How can I structure it? Should I collaborate? Who should I collaborate with? Who do I better avoid? How far can I be guided by others? How do I know whose opinions to trust? When should I be sceptical about what other scientists say? How can I plan my career? Can I plan it at all? What do I need to take into account if I am determined to work as an astronomer for the rest of my life? All these questions (and more) are of concern for the young scientist trying to find her/his place in the astronomical community. While there is no standard solution for any of these problems, I would like to present some basic helpful ideas and concepts that were mentioned during this evening discussion.

  18. Evening primrose oil effects on osteoclasts during tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Srisuk, Nitipavee; Nimitpornsuko, Chawalit; Vattraphoudes, Thepharith; Rattanayatikul, Charunee; Godfrey, Keith

    2005-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of supplemented evening primrose oil (EPO) on osteoclast expression during experimental tooth movement in rats. Forty-eight 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into experimental and control groups. Animals in the experiment group were fed a 7.25 g/kg daily dose of EPO orally by gastric intubation for 20 days before orthodontic tooth movement. The animals in the control group received an equivalent volume of distilled water by the same method. On day 21, a 40-g mesial tipping force was applied to the maxillary right first molar of each rat. After loading, six animals in each group were sacrificed on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 with the appliance in situ. On day 3, the number of osteoclasts on the appliance side of the experimental group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < .05). On day 7, the number of osteoclasts on the non-appliance side of the experimental group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < .05). This study indicates that oral administration of EPO can increase the number of osteoclasts and may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement.

  19. Quantifying evenly distributed states in exclusion and nonexclusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Benjamin J.; Landman, Kerry A.

    2011-04-01

    Spatial-point data sets, generated from a wide range of physical systems and mathematical models, can be analyzed by counting the number of objects in equally sized bins. We find that the bin counts are related to the Pólya distribution. New measures are developed which indicate whether or not a spatial data set, generated from an exclusion process, is at its most evenly distributed state, the complete spatial randomness (CSR) state. To this end, we define an index in terms of the variance between the bin counts. Limiting values of the index are determined when objects have access to the entire domain and when there are subregions of the domain that are inaccessible to objects. Using three case studies (Lagrangian fluid particles in chaotic laminar flows, cellular automata agents in discrete models, and biological cells within colonies), we calculate the indexes and verify that our theoretical CSR limit accurately predicts the state of the system. These measures should prove useful in many biological applications.

  20. Vehicle engines produce exhaust nanoparticles even when not fueled.

    PubMed

    Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Heikkilä, Juha; Karjalainen, Panu; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle engines produce submicrometer exhaust particles affecting air quality, especially in urban environments. In on-road exhaust studies with a heavy duty diesel vehicle and in laboratory studies with two gasoline-fueled passenger cars, we found that as much as 20-30% of the number of exhaust particles larger than 3 nm may be formed during engine braking conditions-that is, during decelerations and downhill driving while the engine is not fueled. Particles appeared at size ranges extending even below 7 nm and at high number concentrations. Their small size and nonvolatility, coupled with the observation that these particles contain lube-oil-derived metals zinc, phosphorus, and calcium, are suggestive of health risks at least similar to those of exhaust particles observed before. The particles' characteristics indicate that their emissions can be reduced using exhaust after-treatment devices, although these devices have not been mandated for all relevant vehicle types. Altogether, our findings enhance the understanding of the formation vehicle emissions and allow for improved protection of human health in proximity to traffic.

  1. The Problem with Probability: Why rare hazards feel even rarer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Even as scientists improve the accuracy of their forecasts for large-scale events like natural hazards and climate change, a gap remains between the confidence the scientific community has in those estimates, and the skepticism with which the lay public tends to view statements of uncertainty. Beyond the challenges of helping the public to understand probabilistic forecasts lies yet another barrier to effective communication: the fact that even when humans can estimate or state the correct probability of a rare event, we tend to distort that probability in our minds, acting as if the likelihood is higher or lower than we know it to be. A half century of empirical research in psychology and economics leaves us with a clear view of the ways that people interpret stated, or described probabilities--e.g., "There is a 6% chance of a Northridge-sized earthquake occurring in your area in the next 10 years." In the past decade, the focus of cognitive scientists has turned to the other method humans use to learn probabilities: intuitively estimating the chances of a rare event by assessing our personal experience with various outcomes. While it is well understood that described probabilities are over-weighted when they are small (e.g., a 5% chance might be treated more like a 10% or 12% chance), it appears that in many cases, experienced rare probabilities are in fact under-weighted. This distortion is not an under-estimation, and therefore cannot be prevented by reminding people of the described probability. This paper discusses the mechanisms and effects of this difference in the way probability is used when a number is provided, as opposed to when the frequency of a rare event is intuited. In addition to recommendations based on the current state of research on the way people appear to make decisions from experience, suggestions are made for how to present probabilistic information to best take advantage of people's tendencies to either amplify risk or ignore it, as well

  2. Word semantics is processed even without attentional effort.

    PubMed

    Relander, Kristiina; Rämä, Pia; Kujala, Teija

    2009-08-01

    We examined the attentional modulation of semantic priming and the N400 effect for spoken words. The aim was to find out how the semantics of spoken language is processed when attention is directed to another modality (passive task), to the phonetics of spoken words (phonological task), or to the semantics of spoken words (word task). Equally strong behavioral priming effects were obtained in the phonological and the word tasks. A significant N400 effect was found in all tasks. The effect was stronger in the word and the phonological tasks than in the passive task, but there was no difference in the magnitude of the effect between the phonological and the word tasks. The latency of the N400 effect did not differ between the tasks. Although the N400 effect had a centroparietal maximum in the phonological and the word tasks, it was largest at the parietal recording sites in the passive task. The effect was more pronounced at the left than right recording sites in the phonological task, but there was no laterality effect in the other tasks. The N400 effect in the passive task indicates that semantic priming occurs even when spoken words are not actively attended. However, stronger N400 effect in the phonological and the word tasks than in the passive task suggests that controlled processes modulate the N400 effect. The finding that there were no differences in the N400 effect between the phonological and the word tasks indicates that the semantics of attended spoken words is processed regardless of whether semantic processing is relevant for task performance.

  3. Oestrogen promotes coronary angiogenesis even under normoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Ghadesi, Mehrzad; Hosseinbalam, Marzieh; Khazaei, Majid; Gharagozloo, Marjan; Gharagozlo, Marjan; Dashti, Gholamreza; Rajabi, Parvin; Rafieian, Shahram

    2008-09-01

    Angiogenic therapy is one of the new treatments of ischaemic heart disease. Oestrogen has angiogenic properties under hypoxic condition, and if oestrogen also induces angiogenesis under normoxic condition, it could be used in combination with other angiogenic therapies in the treatment of ischaemic heart disease. In this study, we evaluated the angiogenic effect of high-dose oestrogen treatment in normoxic rat heart tissue. Fifty-two ovariectomized rats were randomized in oestrogen-treated and control groups. 17beta-oestradiol (1 mg/week) and normal saline (1 mg/week) were administered intramuscularly in the treatment and control groups for 2 months. After that, coronary capillary density and coronary vessel permeability were measured. The serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level was also measured before and after the treatment. The results indicate that coronary capillary density (number of capillary per square millimetre) and coronary vessel permeability (fluorescence intensity) were significantly higher in the oestrogen-treated group than in the control group (628 +/- 26 per mm(2) versus 540 +/- 26 per mm(2); P < 0.05 and 207 +/- 10 versus 147 +/- 19 per gram tissue; P < 0.05). Oestrogen treatment increased serum VEGF level in the oestrogen-treated group compared to the control group (52 +/- 3 versus 33 +/- 6 pg/ml; P < 0.05), but interestingly VEGF was also increased in the control group after placebo treatment. It seems that high-dose oestrogen administration has angiogenic properties even in normoxic conditions. These angiogenic properties may result from oestrogen's direct effect on VEGF or other mechanisms, such as endothelial progenitor cell mobilization. Because of the broad effect of oestrogen on angiogenic growth factors and endothelial cells, more studies are required to clarify angiogenic properties of high-dose oestrogen.

  4. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other’s edits over the period 2001–2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other’s edits and these sterile “fights” may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots’ interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively “dumb” bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles. PMID:28231323

  5. Colloids in sepsis: evenly distributed molecules surrounded by uneven questions.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2013-05-01

    Colloids are frequently used for fluid expansion in the intensive care unit, although its use on several clinical scenarios remains unproven of any relevant clinical benefit. The purpose of this article was to carry out a narrative review regarding the safety and efficacy of colloids in patients with sepsis and septic shock, with emphasis on the most commonly used colloids, albumin and starches. Colloids are effective fluid expanders and are able to restore the hemodynamic profile with less total volume than crystalloids. These properties appear to be preserved even in patients with sepsis with increased capillary permeability. However, some colloids are associated with renal impairment and coagulation abnormalities. Starch use was associated with increased mortality in two large clinical trials. Also, starches probably have significant renal adverse effects and may be related to more need for renal replacement therapy in severe sepsis. Albumin is the only colloid that has been shown safe in patients with sepsis and that may be associated with improved outcomes on specific subpopulations. No trial so far found any robust clinical end point favoring colloid use in patients with sepsis. Because there is no proven benefit of the use of most colloids in patients with sepsis, its use should not be encouraged outside clinical trials. Albumin is the only colloid solution that has proven to be safe, and its use may be considered on hypoalbuminemic patients with sepsis. Nevertheless, there are no robust data to recommend routine albumin administration in sepsis. Starch use should be avoided in patients with sepsis because of the recent findings of a multicenter randomized study until further evidence is available.

  6. Prostacyclin release in experimental diabetes: effects of evening primrose oil.

    PubMed

    Stevens, E J; Carrington, A L; Tomlinson, D R

    1993-09-01

    Alterations in release of endothelium-derived vasomotor agents could underlie microvascular and neuropathic complications in diabetes. This study examined release of the potent vasodilator prostacyclin, measured as immunoreactive 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, from rat lung, kidney and peripheral nerve. Tissues were taken from control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats which had been treated for 8 weeks with either evening primrose oil (EPO) or, as a control for lipid intake, coconut oil (CO). Lung and kidney slices were incubated in the presence of acetylcholine (ACh), the calcium ionophore 4-Br-A23187, arachidonic acid (AA) or without agonist (basal). Segments of sciatic nerve, with their epineuria punctured, were incubated with or without 4-Br-A23187. Basal prostacyclin release from the lung was significantly higher in rats treated with EPO irrespective of diabetic state (increased by 60% in controls and by 77% in diabetics). Levels were reduced in CO-diabetics compared to EPO-controls (53% reduction) and CO-controls (30% reduction), although this did not reach statistical significance in the latter. Basal prostacyclin release was also significantly reduced in the kidney from CO-diabetics (40% reduction compared to CO-controls and 56% reduction compared to EPO-controls). In the presence of AA, lung prostacyclin release was significantly lower in CO-diabetic rats compared to all other groups (40% reduction compared to EPO-diabetics and 60% compared to both control groups) but there were no differences in renal release between any group. Prostacyclin release by nerves from CO-diabetic rats was significantly reduced (by 91-93%) compared to all other groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Evening and nighttime features of equatorial ionospheric F2 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi S.

    2016-07-01

    We have used ionosonde observations recorded at Ibadan (7.4 degree North, 3.9 degree East) during the International Geophysical year (1957-58) to investigate evening and nighttime characteristic features of equatorial ionosphere during high solar flux and quiet magnetic conditions. We have also used International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2012) data. Our results show that the base of the ionosphere descends at a rate of -27.5 km/hr between 2000 LT and 0400 LT, whereas the observed bottomside peak of the ionosphere move down at a rate of -29.3 km/hr between 1900 and 0500 LT, while IRI2012 bottomside peak show -29.8 km/hr between 2000 LT and 0500 LT. The downward flow rate of plasma concentration between 1900 LT and 0500 LT and between 1800 LT and 0400 LT is approximately 0.040 electron per cubic metre per hour and 0.081 electron per cubic metre per hour, respectively for observed and for modeled NmF2. Month-by-month averaged altitudes (h'F, hmF2, and modeled hmF2) indicate significant local time variation. In addition, the month-by month variation indicates nighttime double crest of averaged peak height (hmF2) in the ionosonde measurements and in the IRI-2012 empirical model with a trough in June-August for data and In July for model. The monthly mean downward vertical drift velocities derived from local time variation of h'F and hmF2 together with global drift model essential demonstrate much fluctuations. We found a "domed shape" in modeled drift velocity, indicating equatorward plasma between April and September.

  8. Analytic view at alpha clustering in even-even heavy nuclei near magic numbers 82 and 126

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Saad M. Saleh; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Radiman, Shahidan; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin

    2015-02-01

    Most studies on the determination of the alpha-decay preformation factor have used decay formulae. The preformation factor is known to contain abundant information on the nuclear structure. The successful determination of the preformation factor through the cluster formation model (CFM) motivates this study to determine the factor for nuclei near the magic numbers and present results in an analytic study based on different comparisons and observations. The difference between preformation factors obtained from CFM and from the decay formula method is significant. The formula method is used for the entire process of alpha decay as a transition between two states, whereas CFM is applied for the initial state of alpha formation. The preformation factor obtained using CFM and clusterization state representation was first compared with that obtained from the decay formula. Results were used to investigate alpha formation in even-even heavy nuclei, including 72 < Z < 92 and 92 < N < 142, near the magic numbers Z = 82 and N = 126. The values of the preformation factor were discussed and explained in detail according to the clusterization state representation to describe the most possible states of ground-state nuclei. The alpha clustering described through CFM is found to be consistent with that described using the decay formula for the open-shell nuclei of N < 126. The presence of more nucleons in the open-shell nuclei results in lower probability for alpha clustering and lower value of the preformation factor. However, few nucleons beyond the closed shell can cause higher probability for alpha clustering and larger value of the preformation factor. The maximum and minimum of the alpha-cluster formation occur in the nucleus of the double-shell closure (with N = 126 and Z = 82 and in the nucleus of two protons and two neutrons more. This formation probability is sensitive to the subshells, leading to the possibility of more clusterization states, including core

  9. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  10. Tétanos associé aux soins: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo

    2016-01-01

    La prophylaxie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge des blessures, est une stratégie majeure de prévention du tétanos en milieu de soins. Toute défaillance de la prise en charge des blessures expose dangereusement les victimes à la maladie. Nous rapportons un cas de tétanos survenu à la suite d’une blessure frontale prise en charge dans une structure sanitaire sans prophylaxie antitétanique. L’objectif est de rappeler aux cliniciens sur l’importance de cette prophylaxie chez tout blessé non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. Patient de 52 ans non vacciné contre le tétanos a été admisau CHU YO pour cervicalgie, dysphagie, difficulté à la marche et à l’ouverture de la bouche. Dans ses antécédents il souligne une blessure frontale profonde ayant été suturée sans prophylaxie antitétanique il y a trois semaines environ. L’examen à son admission notaitun trismus lâche, une contracture abdominale, une dysphagie, une température à 36°5Cet une cicatrice au niveau du front mesurant environ 7 cm. Le diagnostic d’un tétanos généralisé stade II à porte d’entrée frontale a été retenu. Sous traitement l’évolution a été favorable et il est sorti de l’hôpital le 18septembre 2015. La prévention du tétanos associé aux soins requiert l’application rigoureuse des mesures d’asepsie, la systématisation de la sérothérapie antitétanique lors de la prise en charge de toute blessure profonde du patient non vacciné ou ayant un statut immunitaire douteux. PMID:28292071

  11. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  12. Decay out of the yrast and excited highly-deformed bands in the even-even nucleus {sup 134}Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Petrache, C.M.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S.

    1996-12-31

    The resolving power achieved by the new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays allows now to observe transitions with intensities of the order of {approximately}10{sup {minus}3} of the population of the final residual nucleus, making therefore feasible the study of the very weakly populated excited bands built on the superdeformed (SD) minimum or of the decay out of the SD bands. As a matter of fact, numerous excited SD bands have been observed in the different regions of superdeformation, which led to a deeper understanding of the single-particle excitation in the second minimum. The first experimental breakthrough in the study of the decay out process has been achieved in the odd-even {sup 133,135}Nd nuclei of the A=130 mass region. There, the observation of the discrete linking transitions has been favored by the relatively higher intensity of the highly-deformed (HD) bands ({approximately}10%), as well as by the small excitation energy with respect to the yrast line in the decay-out region ({approximately}1 MeV). No discrete linking transitions have been so far observed in the A=80, 150 mass regions. The present results suggest that the decay out of the HD bands in {sup 134}Nd is triggered by the crossing with the N=4 [402]5/2{sup +} Nilsson orbital, that has a smaller deformation than the corresponding N=6 intruder configuration. The crossing favours the mixing with the ND rotational bands strongly enhancing the decay-out process and weakening the in-band transition strength. The HD band becomes fragmented and looses part of its character. The intensity of the decay-out transitions increases when the spin of the HD state decreases, indicating enhanced ND amplitude in the wavefunction when going down the band. Lifetime measurements of the HD bands are crucial to further elucidate the decay-out process.

  13. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  14. The Tomato Aux/IAA Transcription Factor IAA9 Is Involved in Fruit Development and Leaf MorphogenesisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-01-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose–response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  15. Coring Performance to Characterise the Geology in the ``Cran aux Iguanodons'' of Bernissart (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Dagrain, Fabrice; Legrain, Hughes; Deschamps, Benoît

    The Cran aux iguanodons of Bernissart is a sinkhole (or chimney caving) with a valuable paleontological deposit due to the exceptional quantity and diversity of fossils found during the excavation conducted from 1878 to 1881. In fact, bones have been discovered in a clayey geological formation when digging à mine gallery at the -322 m level. A subsequent extraction gave an overall production of 29 iguanodons skeletons. Referring to the available data at the Natural Sciences Museum of Brussels where the found skeletons are exhibited, one does not know the degree of depletion of the deposit after the extraction. A feasibility study (Tshibangu and Dagrain 1998) showed then the need to drill 4 exploration wells of 400 m depth with different objectives: to evaluate the chance of finding more fossils, understanding how and when the geological formations moved down, and testing a seismic geophysical technique for ground imaging. The typical geological formations concerned are: chalk, limestone, conglomerate, clays, and layers of silex nodules. In October 2002 the workings started with a completely cored well (the Number 3) using the PQ wireline technique. During operations, different parameters have been recorded: rate of penetration, core recovery and a brief core description. Some problems have been encountered when crossing silex stones contained in a clayey matrix; and this paper gives some interpretations in terms of the relationship between the lithology and the drilling performances.

  16. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  17. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  18. Shoot-supplied ammonium targets the root auxin influx carrier AUX1 and inhibits lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Su, Yanhua; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Liming; Mi, Guohua; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-06-01

    Deposition of ammonium (NH₄+) from the atmosphere is a substantial environmental problem. While toxicity resulting from root exposure to NH₄+ is well studied, little is known about how shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) affects root growth. In this study, we show that SSA significantly affects lateral root (LR) development. We show that SSA inhibits lateral root primordium (LRP) emergence, but not LRP initiation, resulting in significantly impaired LR number. We show that the inhibition is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and sucrose uptake in shoots but relates to the auxin response in roots. Expression analyses of an auxin-responsive reporter, DR5:GUS, and direct assays of auxin transport demonstrated that SSA inhibits root acropetal (rootward) auxin transport while not affecting basipetal (shootward) transport or auxin sensitivity of root cells. Mutant analyses indicated that the auxin influx carrier AUX1, but not the auxin efflux carriers PIN-FORMED (PIN)1 or PIN2, is required for this inhibition of LRP emergence and the observed auxin response. We found that AUX1 expression was modulated by SSA in vascular tissues rather than LR cap cells in roots. Taken together, our results suggest that SSA inhibits LRP emergence in Arabidopsis by interfering with AUX1-dependent auxin transport from shoot to root.

  19. Comparative performance of Fungichrom I, Candifast and API 20C Aux systems in the identification of clinically significant yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gündeş, S G; Gulenc, S; Bingol, R

    2001-12-01

    To compare the performance of current chromogenic yeast identification methods, three commercial systems (API 20C Aux, Fungichrom I and Candifast) were evaluated in parallel, along with conventional tests to identify yeasts commonly isolated in this clinical microbiology laboratory. In all, 116 clinical isolates, (68 Candida albicans, 12 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. glabrata and 24 other yeasts) were tested. Germ-tube production, microscopical morphology and other conventional methods were used as standards to definitively identify yeast isolates. The percentage of isolates identified correctly varied between 82.7% and 95.6%. Overall, the performance obtained with Fungichrom I was highest with 95.6% identification (111 of 116 isolates). The performance of API 20C Aux was higher with 87% (101 of 116 isolates) than that of Candifast with 82.7% (96 of 116). The Fungichrom I method was found to be rapid, as 90% of strains were identified after incubation for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Both of the chromogenic yeast identification systems provided a simple, accurate alternative to API 20C Aux and conventional assimilation methods for the rapid identification of most commonly encountered isolates of Candida spp. Fungichrom seemed to be the most appropriate system for use in a clinical microbiology laboratory, due to its good performance with regard to sensitivity, ease of use and reading, rapidity and the cost per test.

  20. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  1. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  2. Application du groupe de renormalisation aux conducteurs organiques quasi-unidimensionnels soumis a un champ magnetique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Laurent

    Des conducteurs organiques fortement anisotropes presentent, sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique, une etonnante variete de proprietes physiques tel que: l'effet Shubnikov-de Haas, l'effet de Haas-van-Alphen, l'existence de cascades d'ondes de densite de spin apparentees a l'effet Hall quantique, reentrance vers la phase metallique pouvant provenir d'un 'breakdown' magnetique, et tout recemment la possibilite d'un confinement charge induit par le champ magnetique. A cela s'ajoute les nombreuses caracteristiques deja apparues en variant la pression hydrostatique ou la substitution chimique: separation spin-charge, localisation de la charge, transition spin-Peierls, antiferromagnetisme itinerant ou non, supraconductivite, et l'existence d'une frontiere commune entre les phases supraconductrice et antiferromagnetique. En vue de completer la description theorique du diagramme de phase generalise des conducteurs organiques, nous adaptons et elargissons la methode du groupe de renormalisation quantique (GRQ) au cas ou le champ magnetique est non nul. On sait deja que cette methode permet de resoudre le dilemme tout particulier des composes Q-1D, soit leur capacite de produire des transitions de phase malgre leur forte anisotropie et consequemment de leur faible dimensionalite. Cette methode est deja utilisee pour decrire le diagramme de phase temperature versus pression des sels de Bechgaard, de leurs analogues souffres et mixtes. Le GRQ permet aussi de comprendre comment des systemes anisotropes comme les conducteurs organiques peuvent se comporter comme des liquides de Luttinger a haute temperature et comme des liquides de Fermi ou condenses a basse temperature. Nous montrons que l'introduction d'un champ magnetique dans un regime de saut coherent interchai ne a deux particules n'apporte que de simples corrections aux lois d'echelles dans le canal zero son, alors qu'il introduit un mecanisme de brisure de paire dans le canal Cooper. Dans le regime de saut coherent a une

  3. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  4. Evaluating auxin distribution in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) through an analysis of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Richard J; Catalá, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The temporal and spatial control of auxin distribution has a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development, and much has been learnt about the mechanisms that influence auxin pools and gradients in vegetative tissues, particularly in Arabidopsis. For example polar auxin transport, mediated by PIN and AUX/LAX proteins, is central to the control of auxin distribution. In contrast, very little information is known about the dynamics of auxin distribution and the molecular basis of its transport within and between fruit tissues, despite the fact that auxin regulates many aspects of fruit development, which include fruit formation, expansion, ripening and abscission. In addition, functional information regarding the key regulators of auxin fluxes during both vegetative and reproductive development in species other than Arabidopsis is scarce. To address these issues, we have investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of auxin during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development and the function of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families. Differential concentrations of auxin become apparent during early fruit growth, with auxin levels being higher in internal tissues than in the fruit pericarp and the pattern of auxin accumulation depended on polar transport. Ten tomato PIN (SlPIN1 to 10) and five AUX/LAX (SlLAX1 to 5) genes were identified and found to display heterogeneous expression patterns, with tissue and developmental-stage specificity. RNAi-mediated co-silencing of SlPIN4 and SlPIN3 did not affect fruit development, which suggested functional redundancy of PIN proteins, but did lead to a vegetative phenotype, and revealed a role for these genes in the regulation of tomato shoot architecture.

  5. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes.

  6. 34 CFR 200.80 - Migrant Education Even Start Program definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Migrant Education Even Start Program definition. 200.80... DISADVANTAGED Even Start Family Literacy Program § 200.80 Migrant Education Even Start Program definition. Eligible participants under the Migrant Education Even Start Program (MEES) must meet the definitions of...

  7. Preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the Illinois basin during deposition of the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Extensive outcrop investigation and selective subsurface study allow definition of Illinois basin paleogeography during deposition of the Mississippian (Valmeyeran-Meramecian) Aux Vases Formation. The results incorporate an integrated approach utilizing field observations and petrographic analysis, wireline logs, subsurface maps, and cores. The Aux Vases Formation depositional system has been determined to be composed of subtidal to intertidal facies. Depositional facies in outcrop are based on rock body geometries, sedimentary structure assemblages, paleocurrent analysis, paleontology of body and trace fossils, facies relationships, and petrography. Depositional facies determined from subsurface data are based on correlation of lithologic interpretations from wireline logs, sand body geometries form isopach maps, and petrography. Specific depositional facies observed in outcrop and core and inferred from wireline logs and isopach maps are offshore bars and tidal channel complexes, extensive subtidal to lower intertidal, ripple-laminated, fine-grained quartzose sandstone. Carbonate facies occur as subtidal grainstones at or near the base of a sequence, or as high energy deposits which have been tidally reworked. This depositional system produces reservoir heterogeneities that complicate efficient hydrocarbon recovery. This diverse facies architecture is modified by tectonic and diagenetic overprinting, further segregating potential producing zones. To significantly improve recovery efficiency, predictions regarding compartmentalization can be used prior to designing a drilling program, an infill drilling program, or an application of enhanced recovery techniques.

  8. Particle-number fluctuations and neutron-proton pairing effects on proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Douici, M.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.

    2012-10-20

    The particle-number fluctuation effect on the root-mean-square (rms) proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei is studied in the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing case using an exact particle-number projection method and the Woods-Saxon model.

  9. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  10. Associations among evening snacking, screen time, weight status, and overall diet quality in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J; Fryer, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among evening snacking (food choices, portion sizes), afterschool-evening screen time, overall diet quality, and weight status. Participants consisted of 1008 young adolescents (secondary analyses, n = 651) from schools in Windsor-Essex, Ontario. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24-h diet recall, was used to assess eating and screen time behaviours (television and video and computer games), as well as nutrient intake; height and weight for BMI were measured using a stadiometer. Results indicated that the majority of participants (62%) consumed an evening snack that contributed approximately 11% of their daily caloric intake. Evening snacking was associated with an overall good diet quality compared with that of non-evening snackers (p < 0.001). Increased afterschool-evening screen time was associated with fewer evening snack servings of vegetables and fruit (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in evening snack food portion sizes (p < 0.001). After accounting for other evening snacking factors, participants with greater than 6 h of afterschool-evening screen time were less likely to have a good overall diet quality compared with those with less than 1 h of afterschool-evening screen time. Therefore, increased screen time, because it is associated with greater evening snack portion sizes and overall poor diet quality, is of great concern regarding young adolescents' evening behaviour.

  11. Sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches destaphylococcus aureus communautaires dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie)

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Ghaber, Sidi Mohamed; Baba, Sidi El Wafi Ould; Maouloud, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Staphylocoque aureus reste un pathogène majeur de l'homme causant des infections très diverses, cutanées, urinaires, pulmonaires ainsi que des septicémies. L'objectif de ce travail est d'évaluer la sensibilité des souches communautaires de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans différents produits pathologiques vis-à-vis des principaux antibiotiques utilisés, dans la région de Nouakchott (Mauritanie). Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée sur 281 souches de Staphylococus aureus isolées entre Janvier 2014 et Août 2015 au laboratoire du Centre Hospitalier National et aux deux laboratoires privés de la ville de Nouakchott, dans différents produits pathologiques des patients non hospitalisés. La sensibilité aux antibiotiques a été déterminée par la méthode de diffusion de disques en milieu gélosé de Mueller Hinton selon les recommandations du CA-SFM. Résultats Le taux de résistance à la pénicilline G était élevé (96 à 100%). Le taux de SARM communautaires se situe entre 25 et 26% dans les suppurations, de 34,3% dans les ECBU et de 28% dans les spermocultures. La résistance aux Macrolides-Lincosamyne-Streptogramines (MLS), donnant le phénotype MLSb inductible, était retrouvée dans 6% des souches urinaires et 27% des souches isolées à partir des suppurations. L'activité des aminosides est variable, l'amikacine était active sur toutes les souches. L'activité du cotrimoxazol est faible (77% de résistance) et aucune résistance à la vancomycine n'a été notée. Conclusion L'activité de la Pénicilline G sur les souches de Staphylococcus aureus isolées dans la région de Nouakchott est quasi nulle et le taux de SARM communautaire est important atteignant jusqu'à 34%. Ceci pourrait être expliqué par l'usage anarchique de ces molécules dans notre pays. PMID:28154631

  12. ${\\rm B(E2)}\\uparrow (0_{1}^{+} \\rightarrow 2_{1}^{+})$ predictions for even-even nuclei in the differential equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, R. C.; Pattnaik, S.

    2015-02-01

    We use the recently developed differential equation model (DEM) for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ for the transition from the ground to the first 2+ state for predicting its values for a wide range of even-even nuclides almost throughout the nuclear landscape from Neon to Californium. This is made possible as the principal equation in the model, namely, the differential equation connecting the B(E2)↑ value of a given even-even nucleus with its derivatives with respect to the neutron and proton numbers, provides two different recursion relations, each connecting three different neighboring even-even nuclei from lower- to higher-mass numbers and vice versa. These relations are primarily responsible in extrapolating from known to unknown terrain of the B(E2)↑-landscape and thereby facilitate the predictions throughout. As a result, we have succeeded in predicting its hitherto unknown value for the adjacent 251 isotopes lying on either side of the known B(E2)↑ database.

  13. 25 CFR 36.85 - Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? 36... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Staffing § 36.85 Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? No, a program is not required to make a nurse (LPN or RN) available in the evenings. However, this is...

  14. Preliminary Study of Counseling Services for Evening Students at Tallahassee Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Laurence L.

    To identify characteristics of Tallahassee Community College evening students and to ascertain their attitudes toward and perceptions of counseling services, questionnaires were administered to 16 evening classes. A total of 276 valid questionnaires were obtained. The results of analysis of the questionnaire data showed that TCC evening students…

  15. Services for Evening Students: Final Report of a Survey Conducted in the 1979 Fall Semester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clovis, George A.

    An in-class survey of 1,198 students attending evening classes at Parkersburg Community College was conducted to determine: (1) the students' awareness of nine college services available during evening hours; (2) the additional services needed by evening students and the hours during which they should be provided; (3) the demographic and…

  16. 25 CFR 36.85 - Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? 36... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Staffing § 36.85 Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? No, a program is not required to make a nurse (LPN or RN) available in the evenings. However, this is...

  17. 25 CFR 36.85 - Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? 36... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Staffing § 36.85 Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? No, a program is not required to make a nurse (LPN or RN) available in the evenings. However, this is...

  18. 25 CFR 36.85 - Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? 36... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Staffing § 36.85 Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? No, a program is not required to make a nurse (LPN or RN) available in the evenings. However, this is...

  19. 25 CFR 36.85 - Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? 36.85... Homeliving Programs Staffing § 36.85 Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? No, a program is not required to make a nurse (LPN or RN) available in the evenings. However, this is encouraged...

  20. Evening Activities as a Potential Confound in Research on the Adrenocortical System in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertes, Darlene A.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2004-01-01

    The relation among children's evening activities, behavioral characteristics, and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis was assessed in normally developing children ages 7 to 10 years. Salivary cortisol at bedtime was compared on evenings when children had structured activities outside of the home with unstructured evenings at…

  1. TSH response to 30 min stay in sauna in the morning and during evening hours.

    PubMed

    Tatár, P; Strbák, V; Strec, V; Aksamitová, K; Vigas, M

    1984-05-01

    The response of plasma TSH to 30 min stay in sauna was compared in the morning and in the evening. Both in the morning and in the evening plasma TSH was significantly elevated after sauna, with more prolonged response in the evening. This difference resembles the different reactivity of TSH to exogenous TRH administration in various times of day.

  2. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to

  3. Etude de la microstructure d'un acier 316 titane apres vieillissement et apres irradiation aux neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, G.; Le Naour, J.; Vouillon, M.

    1981-10-01

    La précipitation qui se produit lors de vieillissements de longue durée entre 450 et 700°C dans un acier 316 Ti soit hypertrempé soit écroui, a été étudiée en couplant les techniques de microscopic électronique et de microanalyse X. Pour les cas expérimentaux étudiés, les résultats obtenus montrent que la composition des carbures M 23C 6 et des phases σ, Laves et χ est peu sensible aux conditions de vieillissement et dépend également peu de l'état structural initial. Leur teneur en éléments principaux de l'alliage est d'ailleurs voisine de celle des phases précipitées dans l'acier non stabilisé. Excepté les carbures de type M 6C, toutes ces phases ont une teneur en nickel inférieure à celle de la matrice. Les premiers rérultats obtenus sur des matériaux irradiés aux neutrons montrent que la précipitation sous flux est différente de celle qui se produit dans l'acier vieilli. Les phases γ' et G ainsi que les carbures riches en nickel ont été observés. L'attention a été attirée sur le fait qu'il n'y a pas de corrélation simple entre la vitesse de gonflement et la teneuer résiduelle en nickel de la matrice.

  4. Diversification and Expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX, and ABCB Families of Putative Auxin Transporters in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Nicola; Tisdale-Orr, Tracy Eizabeth; Clouse, Ronald Matthew; Knöller, Anne Sophie; Spicer, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history, including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable gene loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of genes involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ localization. PMID:22645571

  5. Odd-even staggering in the neutron-proton interaction and nuclear mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we study odd-even staggering of the empirical neutron-proton interaction between the last neutron and the last proton, denoted as δ V1 n -1 p , and its consequence in the Garvey-Kelson mass relations (GKs) and nuclear mass models. The root-mean-squared deviations of predicted masses respectively for even-A and odd-A nuclei by using two combinatorial GKs suggest a large odd-even staggering of δ V1 n -1 p between even-odd and odd-even nuclei, while the odd-even difference of δ V1 n -1 p between even-even and odd-odd nuclei is much smaller. The contribution of the odd-even staggering of δ V1 n -1 p between even-A and odd-A nuclei in deviations of theoretical δ V1 n -1 p values of the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ̈cker -Skyrme model are well represented by an isospin-dependent term. The consideration of this odd-even staggering improves our description of binding energies and one-neutron separation energies in both the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ̈cker -Skyrme model.

  6. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress.

  7. Cranking study of low lying yrast spectra and deformation systematics in some even-even neutron-deficient 130-136Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arun; Bharti, Arun; Khosa, S. K.

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the results of calculations on various nuclear structure quantities in even-even neutron-deficient 130-136Nd using Cranked Hartree-Fock Bogoliubov (CHFB) technique have been presented. The various nuclear structure quantities that have been calculated in 130-136Nd isotopes are the yrast spectra, subshell occupation probabilities of various valence orbits and intrinsic quadrupole moments. Besides this, a comparative study of the calculated yrast spectra with the available experimental data as well as with the results of calculations obtained by using Variation-After-Projection (VAP) technique on these neutron - deficient 130-136Nd isotopes has also been presented.

  8. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  9. Signature effects in 2qp bands of doubly even rare-earth nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Kawalpreet; Goel, Alpana; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The two-quasiparticle rotational bands in deformed doubly even nuclei in the rare-earth region have been studied in detail. A number of interesting features like odd-even staggering and signature inversion have been observed. The phenomenon of signature inversion/reversal is observed experimentally in 162 66Dy, 170 0Yb and 170 74W in even-even nuclei. Two quasiparticle plus rotor model (TQPRM) calculations are carried out to explain the reverse pattern of signature in 170 74W for the rotational band having configuration {(h_{11/2})p ⊗ (d_{5/2})p}.

  10. Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2+ states in even-even nuclei [B(E2) evaluation for 0+1 → 2+1 transitions in even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.; Horoi, M.

    2015-11-03

    A complete B(E2)↑ evaluation and compilation for even-even nuclei has been presented. The present paper is a continuation of P.H. Stelson and L. Grodzins, and S. Raman et al. nuclear data evaluations and was motivated by a large number of new measurements. It extends the list of evaluated nuclides from 328 to 452, includes an extended list of nuclear reaction kinematics parameters and comprehensive shell model analysis. Evaluation policies for analysis of experimental data have been discussed and conclusions are given. Moreover, future plans for B(E2)↑ systematics and experimental technique analyses of even-even nuclei are outlined.

  11. Conserving and promoting evenness: organic farming and fire-based wildland management as case studies.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Snyderi, William E

    2012-09-01

    Healthy ecosystems include many species (high richness) with similar abundances (high evenness). Thus, both aspects of biodiversity are worthy of conservation. Simultaneously conserving richness and evenness might be difficult, however, if, for example, the restoration of previously absent species to low densities brings a cost in reduced evenness. Using meta-analysis, we searched for benefits to biodiversity following adoption of two common land-management schemes: the implementation of organic practices by farmers and of controlled burning by natural-land managers. We used rarefaction to eliminate sampling bias in all of our estimates of richness and evenness. Both conservation practices significantly increased evenness and overall abundance across taxonomic classifications (arthropods, birds, non-bird vertebrates, plants, soil organisms). Evenness and richness varied independently, leading to no richness-evenness correlation and no significant overall change in richness. Demonstrating the importance of rarefaction, analyses of raw data that did not receive rarefaction indicated misleadingly strong benefits of organic agriculture and burning for richness while underestimating true gains in evenness. Both organic farming and burning favored species that were not numerically dominant, re-balancing communities as uncommon species gained individuals. Our results support the assertion that richness and evenness capture separate facets of biodiversity, each needing individual attention during conservation.

  12. First spectroscopic information from even-even nuclei in the region "southeast" of 132Sn: Neutron-excitation dominance of the 21+ state in 132Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Aoi, N.; Takeuchi, S.; Matsushita, M.; Motobayashi, T.; Steppenbeck, D.; Yoneda, K.; Baba, H.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Kobayashi, K.; Kondo, Y.; Lee, J.; Liu, H.; Minakata, R.; Nishimura, D.; Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Sohler, D.; Sun, Y.; Tian, Z.; Tanaka, R.; Vajta, Zs.; Yang, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Ye, Y.; Yokoyama, R.

    2016-11-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus 132Cd has been studied at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory using in-beam γ -ray spectroscopy with two-proton removal reactions from 134Sn. A γ -ray transition was observed at 618(8) keV and was assigned to the 21+→0g.s . + decay. The 21+ state provides the first spectroscopic information from the even-even nuclei located in the region "southeast" of the doubly magic nucleus 132Sn. By comparing with the 21+ excitation energies in the semimagic nuclei 134Sn and 130Cd, it is found that neutron excitations dominate the 21+ state in 132Cd, in a similar manner to 136Te. The results are discussed in terms of proton-neutron configuration mixing.

  13. On Using Goldbach G0 Codes and Even-Rodeh Codes for Text Compression on Using Goldbach G0 Codes and Even-Rodeh Codes for Text Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiman, M. A.; Rachmawati, D.

    2017-03-01

    This research aims to study the efficiency of two variants of variable-length codes (i.e., Goldbach G0 codes and Even-Rodeh codes) in compressing texts. The parameters being examined are the ratio of compression, the space savings, and the bit rate. As a benchmark, all of the original (uncompressed) texts are assumed to be encoded in American Standard Codes for Information Interchange (ASCII). Several texts, including those derived from some corpora (the Artificial corpus, the Calgary corpus, the Canterbury corpus, the Large corpus, and the Miscellaneous corpus) are tested in the experiment. The overall result shows that the Even-Rodeh codes are consistently more efficient to compress texts than the unoptimzed Goldbach G0 codes.

  14. Effect of the Pauli principle on the deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculations and its consequence for β -decay calculations of deformed even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Dong-Liang

    2016-03-01

    In this work, I take into consideration the Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) in the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) calculations for the deformed systems by replacing the traditional quasiboson approximation (QBA) with the renormalized one. With this new formalism, the parametrization of QRPA calculations has been changed and the collapse of QRPA solutions could be avoid for realistic gp p values. I further find that the necessity of the renormalization parameter of particle-particle residual interaction gp p in QRPA calculations is due to the exclusion of PEP. So with the inclusion of PEP, I could easily extend the deformed QRPA calculations to the less-explored region where lack of experimental data prevent effective parametrization of gp p for QRPA methods. With this theoretical improvement, I give predictions of weak decay rates for even-even isotopes in the rare-earth region and compare the results with existing calculations.

  15. Structure of even-even A=138 isobars and the yrast spectra of semi-magic Sn isotopes above the {sup 132}Sn core

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, S.; Sarkar, M. Saha

    2008-08-15

    Large basis untruncated shell model (SM) calculations have been done for the A=138 neutron-rich nuclei in the {pi}(gdsh)+{nu}(hfpi) valence space above the {sup 132}Sn core using two (1+2) -body nuclear Hamiltonians, viz., realistic CWG and empirical SMPN. Calculated binding energies, excitation spectra, and wave function structures are compared for even-even A=138 isobars for which experimental data are available. The nearly vibrational states in {sup 138}Te, Xe, and the B(E2;2{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}) value in {sup 138}Xe are excellently reproduced by both the interactions. For {sup 138}Ba, the calculated spectra and the B(E2;2{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}) value also agree very well with the experimental results. But the two theoretical results differ dramatically for {sup 138}Sn, a nucleus on the r-process path. CWG predicts nearly constant energies of 2{sub 1}{sup +} states for the even-even Sn isotopes above the {sup 132}Sn core, normally expected for semi-magic nuclei. But SMPN predicts a remarkable new feature: decreasing E(2{sub 1}{sup +}) energies with increasing neutron number. The predicted energies for the Sn isotopes fit in the systematics for the E(2{sub 1}{sup +}) energies of their isotones with Z>50. Despite their differences, both interactions predict the 6{sub 1}{sup +} state to be a {approx_equal}0.3 {mu}s isomer in {sup 138}Sn. Calculated magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments of the states in these isobars are compared with the experimental data wherever available. The appearance of deformation and evolution of collectivity in nuclei in this valence space are discussed.

  16. A Study of Classroom Literacy Interventions and Outcomes in Even Start. NCEE 2008-4028

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judkins, David; St. Pierre, Robert; Gutmann, Babette; Goodson, Barbara; von Glatz, Adrienne; Hamilton, Jennifer; Webber, Ann; Troppe, Patricia; Rimdzius, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    The Even Start Family Literacy Program was established in 1989 to help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy for low-income families, by improving the literacy skills of parents and their young children. Even Start projects offer family literacy services, defined as four integrated instructional components: (1) Childhood Education (ECE); (2)…

  17. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  18. Third National Even Start Evaluation: Program Impacts and Implications for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Robert; Ricciuti, Anne; Tao, Fumiyo; Creps, Cindy; Swartz, Janet; Lee, Wang; Parsad, Amanda; Rimdzius, Tracy

    The Even Start Literacy Program, established in 1989, aims to simultaneously improve the literacy of children and their parents through (1) early childhood education; (2) parenting education; (3) adult education; and (4) parent-child joint literacy activities. The report details findings from the third national Even Start evaluation. The…

  19. Report on Evening Student--Profile and Weekend College Survey, Spring Semester, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Joan

    In February 1985, a survey of the evening student population was conducted at Somerset County College (SCC) to profile the characteristics, background, and goals of the average evening student in order to facilitate program and services development and to ascertain student interest in a weekend college. Study findings, based on responses from 950…

  20. Work All Day, Study at Night: The Interactive Evening Lecture to Invigorate Working Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gerard Stone was asked to present the evening lecture in a first-year undergraduate accounting subject. The aim of the subject matter was to provide students with an understanding of fundamental accounting issues and concepts. The subject coordinator advised Stone that, from past experience, most students who attend the evening lecture would be…

  1. Analysis of Even Harmonics Generation in an Isolated Electric Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanao, Norikazu; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya

    Harmonics bred from loads are mainly odd order because the current waveform has half-wave symmetry. Since the even harmonics are negligibly small, those are not generally measured in electric power systems. However, even harmonics were measured at a 500/275/154kV substation in Hokuriku Electric Power Company after removal of a transmission line fault. The even harmonics caused malfunctions of protective digital relays because the relays used 4th harmonics at the input filter as automatic supervisory signal. This paper describes the mechanism of generation of the even harmonics by comparing measured waveforms with ATP-EMTP simulation results. As a result of analysis, it is cleared that even harmonics are generated by three causes. The first cause is a magnetizing current of transformers due to flux deviation by DC component of a fault current. The second one is due to harmonic conversion of a synchronous machine which generates even harmonics when direct current component or even harmonic current flow into the machine. The third one is that increase of harmonic impedance due to an isolated power system produces harmonic voltages. The design of the input filter of protective digital relays should consider even harmonics generation in an isolated power system.

  2. From Vision to Action: Solving Problems through Inquiry at Boston Day and Evening Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunst, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    On a mid-week day in mid-December 2008, Boston Day and Evening Academy's room 209, usually used for board meetings, student assessments, awards dinners, and other occasions requiring an intimate atmosphere, smelled like Chinese food. These second-trimester students at Boston Day and Evening Academy (BDEA) were having a reunion after just a few…

  3. Survey of Weekend and Evening Student and Faculty Needs. Volume XXI, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A.

    In an effort to determine the needs and perceptions of students and faculty involved in evening and weekend classes at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, surveys were sent to 400 students randomly chosen from 100 course sections taught at WRHC in fall of 1991, and to 767 faculty teaching evening or weekend classes during…

  4. Odd-even effect in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Su Jun; Zhang Fengshou; Bian Baoan

    2011-01-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies are studied by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the GEMINI model. The isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model is applied to describe the violent stage of the collisions, while the GEMINI model is applied to simulate the decays of the prefragments. The present study mainly focuses on the odd-even effect in the yields of the final fragments. We find that the odd-even effect appears in the deexcitation process of the excited prefragments, and is affected by the excitation energies and the isotope distributions of the prefragments. Both the projectile-isospin-dependent odd-even effect in the region of -4{<=}T{sub Z}{<=}1 and the role of the symmetry energy on the odd-even effect are studied. We find that the odd-even effect depends sensitively on the symmetry energy.

  5. A New Measure of Functional Evenness and Some of Its Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ricotta, Carlo; Bacaro, Giovanni; Moretti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Functional evenness is increasingly considered an important facet of functional diversity that sheds light on the complex relationships between community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, in spite of its relevant role for ecosystem functioning, only a few measures of functional evenness have been proposed. In this paper we introduce a new measure of functional evenness that reflects the regularity in the distribution of species abundances, together with the evenness in their pairwise functional dissimilarities. To show how the proposed measure works, we focus on changes in functional evenness calculated from Grime’s classification of plant strategies as competitors (C), stress-tolerators (S) and ruderals (R) along a post-fire successional gradient in temperate chestnut forests of southern Switzerland. PMID:25105659

  6. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  7. Experimental and Ecological Implications of Evening Bird Surveys in Stream-Riparian Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, S. Mažeika P.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2009-10-01

    Stream-riparian ecosystems are dynamic and complex entities that can support high levels of bird assemblage abundance and diversity. The myriad patches (e.g., aquatic, floodplain, riparian) found in the riverscape habitat mosaic attract a unique mixture of aquatic, semiaquatic, riparian, and upland birds, each uniquely utilizing the river corridor. Whereas standard morning bird surveys are widely used across ecosystems, the variety of bird guilds and the temporal habitat partitioning that likely occur in stream-riparian ecosystems argue for the inclusion of evening surveys. At 41 stream reaches in Vermont and Idaho, USA, we surveyed bird assemblages using a combination of morning and evening fixed-width transect counts. Student’s paired t-tests showed that while bird abundance was not significantly different between morning and evening surveys, bird assemblage diversity (as measured by species richness, Shannon-Weiner’s index, and Simpson’s index) was significantly higher in the morning than in the evening. NMS ordinations of bird species and time (i.e., morning, evening) indicated that the structure of morning bird assemblages was different from that of evening assemblages. NMS further showed that a set of species was only found in evening surveys. The inclusion of evening counts in surveying bird assemblages in stream-riparian ecosystems has important experimental and ecological implications. Experimentally, the sole use of morning bird surveys may significantly underestimate the diversity and misrepresent the community composition of bird assemblages in these ecosystems. Ecologically, many of the birds detected in evening surveys were water-associated species that occupy high trophic levels and aerial insectivores that represent unique aquatic-terrestrial energy transfers.

  8. Even and odd coherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillators and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.

  9. Why are the interband transitions among triaxially strongly deformed bands suppressed in even nuclei?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara-Tanabe, Kazuko; Tanabe, Kosai

    2011-05-06

    As top-on-top model has made a great success in explaining triaxially strongly deformed (TSD) bands in odd-A nuclei, we extend this model to even-A nuclei, i.e. two particles in different single-particle orbitals outside the triaxial rotor. In the lowest order approximation, the electromagnetic transitions between TSD bands in even-A case are reduced by a factor of 0.04 compared with odd-A case. It is one of the reasons why TSD bands are not yet explicitly observed in even-A nuclei.

  10. Auxin Influx Carrier AUX1 Confers Acid Resistance for Arabidopsis Root Elongation Through the Regulation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Takahashi, Koji; Okumura-Noda, Hiromi; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-10-01

    The plant plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase regulates pH homeostasis and cell elongation in roots through the formation of an electrochemical H(+) gradient across the PM and a decrease in apoplastic pH; however, the detailed signaling for the regulation of PM H(+)-ATPases remains unclear. Here, we show that an auxin influx carrier, AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1), is required for the maintenance of PM H(+)-ATPase activity and proper root elongation. We isolated a low pH-hypersensitive 1 (loph1) mutant by a genetic screen of Arabidopsis thaliana on low pH agar plates. The loph1 mutant is a loss-of-function mutant of the AUX1 gene and exhibits a root growth retardation restricted to the low pH condition. The ATP hydrolysis and H(+) extrusion activities of the PM H(+)-ATPase were reduced in loph1 roots. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the PM H(+)-ATPase was reduced in loph1 roots under both normal and low pH conditions without reduction of the amount of PM H(+)-ATPase. Expression of the DR5:GUS reporter gene and auxin-responsive genes suggested that endogenous auxin levels were lower in loph1 roots than in the wild type. The aux1-7 mutant roots also exhibited root growth retardation in the low pH condition like the loph1 roots. These results indicate that AUX1 positively regulates the PM H(+)-ATPase activity through maintenance of the auxin accumulation in root tips, and this process may serve to maintain root elongation especially under low pH conditions.

  11. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  12. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-09-14

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H(+)-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms.

  13. Comparative performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System and the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System.

    PubMed

    Smith, M B; Dunklee, D; Vu, H; Woods, G L

    1999-08-01

    The performance of the RapID Yeast Plus System (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.), a 4-h micropanel using single-substrate enzymatic test reactions, was compared with that of the API 20C AUX Clinical Yeast System (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), a 48- to 72-h carbohydrate assimilation panel. Two hundred twenty-five yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and algae, comprising 28 species and including 30 isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, an important pathogen not tested in appreciable numbers in other comparisons, were tested by both methods. On initial testing, 196 (87.1%) and 215 (95.6%) isolates were correctly identified by the RapID and API systems, respectively. Upon repeat testing, the number of correctly identified isolates increased to 220 (97.8%) for the RapID system and 223 (99.1%) for the API system. Reducing the turbidity of the test inoculum to that of a no. 3 McFarland turbidity standard, which is below that recommended by the manufacturer, resulted in the correct identification of most of the isolates initially misidentified by the RapID system, including 10 of 30 C. neoformans isolates. Concordance between the RapID and API results after repeat testing was 97.3%.

  14. Le système opioïde endogène et l’addiction aux drogues1

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Résumé L’addiction aux drogues est une maladie psychiatrique chronique qui conduit à d’importantes altérations adaptatives dans les circuits de récompense du cerveau. Plusieurs systèmes de neurotransmission sont impliqués dans ces modifications. Cependant, un des systèmes neurochimiques qui joue un rôle essentiel dans l’addiction est le système opioïde endogène. Les récepteurs opioïdes et les peptides opioïdes endogènes sont très largement présents dans les structures cérébrales qui contrôlent les phénomènes de récompense, en particulier le système mésolimbique. Ces récepteurs et peptides opioïdes participent d’une manière sélective à plusieurs aspects des processus addictifs induits par les opiacés, les cannabinoïdes, les psychostimulants, l’alcool et la nicotine. Cette revue rend compte de l’état actuel des connaissances sur la participation de chaque composante du système opioïde endogène dans les propriétés addictives des différentes drogues. PMID:20176158

  15. Identification de lois constitutives et de lois de frottement adaptées aux grandes vitesses de sollicitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalverny, O.; Capéraa, S.; Pantalé, O.; Sattouf, C.

    2002-12-01

    Cet article présente une méthodologie d'identification de lois constitutives et de lois de contact adaptées aux matériaux métalliques sous chargement dynamique à grande vitesse de déformation. Les essais sont effectués à partir de montages expérimentaux adaptés à un lanceur à gaz permettant d'obtenir une vitesse de projectile de l'ordre de 350m/s pour une masse totale de 30gr. Le premier essai consiste en un impact de Taylor correspondant à un chargement mécanique de type compression. Le second essai de type “extrusion conique" permet la détermination des lois de frottement à grande vitesse. La procédure générale d'identification des lois de comportement à partir d'essais dynamiques se fait au moyen d'une analyse post-mortem des échantillons et de la corrélation entre ces résultats expérimentaux et un modèle numérique des essais. Pour les deux cas précédemment cités, nous présentons la configuration optimale d'essai ainsi que les résultats obtenus à partir d'un algorithme d'optimisation de type Levenberg-Marquard.

  16. Specific poly-phenolic compounds in cell culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Mewis, Inga; Smetanska, Iryna M; Müller, Carsten T; Ulrichs, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Cell cultures established from plants represent an attractive alternative to whole plants for effective production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Cell culture from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux accumulated high amounts of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and anthocyanins. Two new compounds were identified: 3-O-glucosylresveratrol, a stilbene derivative, abundant in cell suspension culture, and a hydroxyphenol, 4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phenol, abundant in callus culture. The major anthocyanin monoglucosides present in cell suspension culture were cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and peonidin 3-O-glucoside, and the major cinnamoyl derivatives were cyanidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside and peonidin 3-O-p-coumaryl glucoside. Three minor anthocyanin compounds were found in V. vinifera cell culture: delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-pcoumaryl glucoside. Anthocyanin levels of cell suspension cultures increased significantly--about eight fold--after 4-day cultivation in new medium. Salicylic acid at a concentration of 50 μM did not enhance anthocyanin accumulation in cell suspension culture, and similar levels of jasmonic acid significantly reduced the anthocyanin content.

  17. Moment of inertia of even-even proton-rich nuclei using a particle-number conserving approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammache, Faiza; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    An expression of the particle-number projected nuclear moment of inertia (MOI) has been established in the neutron-proton (np) isovector pairing case within the cranking model. It generalizes the one obtained in the like-particles pairing case. The formalism has been, as a first step, applied to the picket-fence model. As a second step, it has been applied to deformed even-even nuclei such as (N - Z) = 0, 2, 4, and of which the experimentally deduced values of the pairing gap parameters Δtt‧, t,t‧ = n,p, are known. The single-particle energies and eigenstates used are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. It was shown, in both models, that the np pairing effect and the projection one are non-negligible. In realistic cases, it also appears that the np pairing effect strongly depends on (N - Z), whereas the projection effect is practically independent from the same quantity.

  18. Nemo phosphorylates Even-skipped and promotes Eve-mediated repression of odd-skipped in even parasegments during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Braid, Lorena R; Lee, Wendy; Uetrecht, Andrea C; Swarup, Sharan; Papaianni, Gina; Heiler, Amanda; Verheyen, Esther M

    2010-07-01

    Drosophila nemo (nmo) and other Nemo-like kinase family members (Nlks) are well-established key regulators of numerous conserved signaling pathways, such as Wg and BMP. nmo mutants display pleiotropic defects at different developmental stages, including the embryo. In this study we describe a detailed characterization of embryonic cuticle patterning defects associated with maternal loss of nmo. nmo mutant embryos consistently show segmentation defects, most frequently fusions of pairs of denticle belts in alternating segments. These phenotypes are reminiscent of those associated with defects in pair-rule patterning. Genetic interaction studies demonstrate that Nmo promotes Even-skipped (Eve) activity and is required to promote the expression of the Eve target, engrailed (en), in even numbered parasegments. We find that Nmo regulates a subset of Eve activities by stimulating Eve-mediated suppression of the odd-skipped (odd) repressor. Furthermore, we isolate Nmo in a protein complex with Eve and show that Nmo phosphorylates Eve in in vitro kinase assays. These studies reveal a novel role for the Nmo kinase in embryonic pattern formation through its regulation of the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Eve.

  19. The PB1 Domain in Auxin Response Factor and Aux/IAA Proteins: A Versatile Protein Interaction Module in the Auxin Response[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An integral part of auxin-regulated gene expression involves the interplay of two types of transcription factors, the DNA binding auxin response factor (ARF) activators and the interacting auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) repressors. Insight into the mechanism of how these transcription factors interact with one another has recently been revealed from crystallographic information on ARF5 and ARF7 C-terminal domains (i.e., a protein-protein interaction domain referred to as domain III/IV that is related to domain III/IV in Aux/IAA proteins). Three-dimensional structures showed that this domain in ARF5 and ARF7 conforms to a well-known PB1 (Phox and Bem1) domain that confers protein-protein interactions with other PB1 domain proteins through electrostatic contacts. Experiments verifying the importance of charged amino acids in conferring ARF and Aux/IAA interactions have confirmed the PB1 domain structure. Some in planta experiments designed to test the validity of PB1 interactions in the auxin response have led to updated models for auxin-regulated gene expression and raised many questions that will require further investigation. In addition to the PB1 domain, a second protein interaction module that functions in ARF-ARF dimerization and facilitates DNA binding has recently been revealed from crystallography studies on the ARF1 and ARF5 DNA binding domains. PMID:25604444

  20. Ground-state properties of even and odd Magnesium isotopes in a symmetry-conserving approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrajo, Marta; Egido, J. Luis

    2017-01-01

    We present a self-consistent theory for odd nuclei with exact blocking and particle number and angular momentum projection. The demanding treatment of the pairing correlations in a variation-after-projection approach as well as the explicit consideration of the triaxial deformation parameters in a projection after variation method, together with the use of the finite-range density-dependent Gogny force, provides an excellent tool for the description of odd-even and even-even nuclei. We apply the theory to the Magnesium isotopic chain and obtain an outstanding description of the ground-state properties, in particular binding energies, odd-even mass differences, mass radii and electromagnetic moments among others.

  1. Environmental conditions and community evenness determine the outcome of biological invasion.

    PubMed

    De Roy, Karen; Marzorati, Massimo; Negroni, Andrea; Thas, Olivier; Balloi, Annalisa; Fava, Fabio; Verstraete, Willy; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boon, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasion is widely studied, however, conclusions on the outcome of this process mainly originate from observations in systems that leave a large number of experimental variables uncontrolled. Here using a fully controlled system consisting of assembled bacterial communities, we evaluate the degree of invasion and the effect on the community functionality in relation to the initial community evenness under specific environmental stressors. We show that evenness influences the level of invasion and that the introduced species can promote functionality under stress. The evenness-invasibility relationship is negative in the absence and neutral in the presence of stress. Under these conditions, the introduced species is able to maintain the functionality of uneven communities. These results indicate that communities, initially having the same genetic background, in the presence of the same invader, react in a different way with respect to invasibility and functionality depending on specific environmental conditions and community evenness.

  2. Break-even Analysis: A Practical Tool for Administrators of Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, James

    1982-01-01

    Explains how break-even analysis can help the continuing education administrator in planning by clarifying the relationship between costs, volume, and surplus revenues. Also explains the concepts of fixed, variable, and semivariable costs. (CT)

  3. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  4. 78 FR 64282 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel EVEN KIEHL; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... or fewer''. Geographic Region: California, South Carolina, Florida, North Carolina, Oregon... submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy... Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel EVEN...

  5. Odd-even dependence of rectifying behavior in carbon chains modified diphenyl-dimethyl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiu-Hua; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, De-Sheng; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    Using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of asymmetric nonequi-length carbon chains on the electron transport properties of diphenyl-dimethyl molecule. The results show significant odd-even dependence: the rectification appears only in the hybrid nanostructure with odd carbon chain on one side and even carbon chain on the other side, while it is negligible in those with odd/even carbon chain on both sides. The mechanism for the odd-even dependence of rectification is analyzed by the bias-dependent transmission spectra, evolution of molecular orbital levels, their spatial distributions, and projected density of states with the applied bias.

  6. Is evenness altered by fire in natural assemblages of soil arthropods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitzalis, Monica; Bologna, Marco A.; Luiselli, Luca

    2013-05-01

    We studied evenness and species richness in two assemblages of soil arthropods at six contiguous study plots in Mediterranean ecosystems of central Italy, three of these plots being burnt and three unburnt. We analysed these aspects of community structure by diversity-dominance diagrams comparisons made through analysis of covariance on respective slopes and ordinate intercepts. We observed consistent patterns in both Collembola and Oniscidea assemblages, either in burnt and unburnt plots. Evenness did not change among study plots and across habitats, either before or after fire, whereas species' composition was significantly altered by fire. Results from our study implied that evenness and species diversity are clearly affected in a different and independent way by fire. Hence, it is not acceptable to focus on only the evenness when looking at the effects of controlled fires for environmental management reasons.

  7. Evaluation across an Intergovernmental Context: Issues Raised through Different Perspectives on Even Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Describes the scope of evaluation efforts of the Even Start family literacy program to date, summarizing the evaluation strategies, rationale, intended audience, and findings. Discusses the different lenses offered by evaluation at state and local levels. (SLD)

  8. A Comparison of Experiential and Didactic Group Counseling Techniques with Black Evening Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danford, Richard; Parker, Woodrow M.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of didactic and experiential group counseling techniques for improving the personal and vocational development of 45 Black freshmen evening students. Results showed no positive changes in any of the treatments. Possible contributing factors are discussed. (JAC)

  9. Morning and evening physical exercise differentially regulate the autonomic nervous system during nocturnal sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yujiro; Hashimoto, Satoko; Takasu, Nana N; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Nishide, Shin-Ya; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2015-11-01

    Effects of daily physical exercise in the morning or in the evening were examined on circadian rhythms in plasma melatonin and core body temperature of healthy young males who stayed in an experimental facility for 7 days under dim light conditions (<10 lux). Sleep polysomnogram (PSG) and heart rate variability (HRV) were also measured. Subjects performed 2-h intermittent physical exercise with a bicycle ergometer at ZT3 or at ZT10 for four consecutive days, where zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0) was the time of wake-up. The rising phase of plasma melatonin rhythm was delayed by 1.1 h without exercise. Phase-delay shifts of a similar extent were detected by morning and evening exercise. But the falling phase shifted only after evening exercise by 1.0 h. The sleep PSG did not change after morning exercise, while Stage 1+2 sleep significantly decreased by 13.0% without exercise, and RE sleep decreased by 10.5% after evening exercise. The nocturnal decline of rectal temperature was attenuated by evening exercise, but not by morning exercise. HRV during sleep changed differentially. Very low frequency (VLF) waves increased without exercise. VLF, low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) waves increased after morning exercise, whereas HR increased after evening exercise. Morning exercise eventually enhanced the parasympathetic activity, as indicated by HRV, while evening exercise activated the sympathetic activity, as indicated by increase in heart rate in the following nocturnal sleep. These findings indicated differential effects of morning and evening exercise on the circadian melatonin rhythm, PSG, and HRV.

  10. Odd–even structural sensitivity on dynamics in network-forming ionic liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Ke; Cai, Zhikun; Tyagi, Madhusudan; ...

    2016-04-13

    Understanding structural sensitivity on properties of materials is an important step toward the rational design of materials. As a compelling case of sensitive structure-property relationship, an odd-even effect refers to the alternating trend of physical or chemical properties on odd/even number of repeating structural units. In crystalline or semi-crystalline materials, such odd-even variations of macroscopic properties emerge as manifestations of differences in the periodic packing patterns of molecules. Therefore, due to the lack of long-range order, such odd-even phenomenon is not expected in liquids. Herein, we report the discovery of a remarkable odd-even effect of the dynamical properties in themore » liquid phase, which challenges the traditional periodic packing explanations. In a class of network-forming ionic liquid (NIL), using incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements, we measured the dynamical properties including the diffusion coefficient and the rotational relaxation time. These dynamical properties showed pronounced alternating trends with increased number of methylene (–CH2– ) groups in the backbone. Meanwhile, the structure factor S(Q) showed no long-range periodic packing of molecules, while the pair distribution function g(r) revealed subtle differences in the local molecular morphology. As a result, the observed dynamical odd-even phenomenon in liquids showed that profound dynamical changes originate from subtle local structural differences.« less

  11. Odd–even structural sensitivity on dynamics in network-forming ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ke; Cai, Zhikun; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Zhang, Yang

    2016-04-13

    Understanding structural sensitivity on properties of materials is an important step toward the rational design of materials. As a compelling case of sensitive structure-property relationship, an odd-even effect refers to the alternating trend of physical or chemical properties on odd/even number of repeating structural units. In crystalline or semi-crystalline materials, such odd-even variations of macroscopic properties emerge as manifestations of differences in the periodic packing patterns of molecules. Therefore, due to the lack of long-range order, such odd-even phenomenon is not expected in liquids. Herein, we report the discovery of a remarkable odd-even effect of the dynamical properties in the liquid phase, which challenges the traditional periodic packing explanations. In a class of network-forming ionic liquid (NIL), using incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements, we measured the dynamical properties including the diffusion coefficient and the rotational relaxation time. These dynamical properties showed pronounced alternating trends with increased number of methylene (–CH2– ) groups in the backbone. Meanwhile, the structure factor S(Q) showed no long-range periodic packing of molecules, while the pair distribution function g(r) revealed subtle differences in the local molecular morphology. As a result, the observed dynamical odd-even phenomenon in liquids showed that profound dynamical changes originate from subtle local structural differences.

  12. Relationships between species richness, evenness, and abundance in a southwestern savanna.

    PubMed

    Bock, Carl E; Jones, Zach F; Bock, Jane H

    2007-05-01

    Species richness and evenness are components of biological diversity that may or may not be correlated with one another and with patterns of species abundance. We compared these attributes among flowering plants, grasshoppers, butterflies, lizards, summer birds, winter birds, and rodents across 48 plots in the grasslands and mesquite-oak savannas of southeastern Arizona. Species richness and evenness were uncorrelated or weakly negatively correlated for each taxonomic group, supporting the conclusion that richness alone is an incomplete measure of diversity. In each case, richness was positively correlated with one or more measures of abundance. By contrast, evenness usually was negatively correlated with the abundance variables, reflecting the fact that plots with high evenness generally were those where all species present were about equally uncommon. Therefore richness, but not evenness, usually was a positive predictor of places of conservation value, if these are defined as places where species of interest are especially abundant. Species diversity was more positively correlated with evenness than with richness among grasshoppers and flowering plants, in contrast to the other taxonomic groups, and the positive correlations between richness and abundance were comparatively weak for grasshoppers and plants as well. Both of these differences can be attributed to the fact that assemblages of plants and grasshoppers were numerically dominated by small subsets of common species (grasses and certain spur-throated grasshoppers) whose abundances differed greatly among plots in ways unrelated to species richness of the groups as a whole.

  13. Relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and diversity are altered by complementarity among plant genotypes.

    PubMed

    McArt, Scott H; Cook-Patton, Susan C; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2012-04-01

    Biodiversity is quantified via richness (e.g., the number of species), evenness (the relative abundance distribution of those species), or proportional diversity (a combination of richness and evenness, such as the Shannon index, H'). While empirical studies show no consistent relationship between these aspects of biodiversity within communities, the mechanisms leading to inconsistent relationships have received little attention. Here, using common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) and its associated arthropod community, we show that relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and proportional diversity are altered by plant genotypic richness. Arthropod richness increased with O. biennis genotypic richness due to an abundance-driven accumulation of species in response to greater plant biomass. Arthropod evenness and proportional diversity decreased with plant genotypic richness due to a nonadditive increase in abundance of a dominant arthropod, the generalist florivore/omnivore Plagiognathas politus (Miridae). The greater quantity of flowers and buds produced in polycultures-which resulted from positive complementarity among O. biennis genotypes-increased the abundance of this dominant insect. Using choice bioassays, we show that floral quality did not change in plant genotypic mixtures. These results elucidate mechanisms for how plant genotypic richness can modify relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and proportional diversity. More broadly, our results suggest that trophic interactions may be a previously underappreciated factor controlling relationships between these different aspects of biodiversity.

  14. IBA for novice experimentalists. I. Introduction to IBA: mostly symmetries. II. Tests in even-even nuclei: mostly transitional systems. III. Supersymmetries: theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    The report contains the notes from a series of lectures on the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model. The lectures were presented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on July 28, 30 and August 1, 1982 by Jolie A. Cizewski from Yale University. The IBA was developed by F. Iachello and A. Arima starting about seven years ago to understand collective quadrupole excitations in medium and heavy mass nuclei away from closed shells. Since then the formalism has been extended to odd-mass nuclei and considerable work has gone into understanding the microscopic construction of the bosons in this model. The IBA has been applied to nuclei as light as Zn and Ge and as heavy as U and Pu; to nuclei near closed shells, such as Mo and Hg; to stable nuclei and nuclei far from stability. The present lectures were designed to give the experimentalist an introduction to the IBA and to give specific examples of how it could be applied to understand the structure of heavy even and odd mass nuclei. Much of the emphasis was on the symmetries (and supersymmetries) of the model and how the use of symmetries enabled the relatively straightforward understanding of empirical systems as deviations from these symmetries. The richness of possible applications of the IBA to understanding collective phenomena in nuclei was not fully explored, but rather a few illustrative examples were selected and described in detail. The references, accumulated at the end of this report, provide a more comprehensive, although not complete, list of tests of the IBA in even mass nuclei and the new symmetries in odd mass nuclei. The references also list the main theoretical papers which provide the details of the IBA formalism.

  15. Gestion des ressources hydriques adaptee aux changements climatiques pour la production optimale d'hydroelectricite. Etude de cas: Bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haguma, Didier

    Il est dorenavant etabli que les changements climatiques auront des repercussions sur les ressources en eau. La situation est preoccupante pour le secteur de production d'energie hydroelectrique, car l'eau constitue le moteur pour generer cette forme d'energie. Il sera important d'adapter les regles de gestion et/ou les installations des systemes hydriques, afin de minimiser les impacts negatifs et/ou pour capitaliser sur les retombees positives que les changements climatiques pourront apporter. Les travaux de la presente recherche s'interessent au developpement d'une methode de gestion des systemes hydriques qui tient compte des projections climatiques pour mieux anticiper les impacts de l'evolution du climat sur la production d'hydroelectricite et d'etablir des strategies d'adaptation aux changements climatiques. Le domaine d'etude est le bassin versant de la riviere Manicouagan situe dans la partie centrale du Quebec. Une nouvelle approche d'optimisation des ressources hydriques dans le contexte des changements climatiques est proposee. L'approche traite le probleme de la saisonnalite et de la non-stationnarite du climat d'une maniere explicite pour representer l'incertitude rattachee a un ensemble des projections climatiques. Cette approche permet d'integrer les projections climatiques dans le probleme d'optimisation des ressources en eau pour une gestion a long terme des systemes hydriques et de developper des strategies d'adaptation de ces systemes aux changements climatiques. Les resultats montrent que les impacts des changements climatiques sur le regime hydrologique du bassin de la riviere Manicouagan seraient le devancement et l'attenuation de la crue printaniere et l'augmentation du volume annuel d'apports. L'adaptation des regles de gestion du systeme hydrique engendrerait une hausse de la production hydroelectrique. Neanmoins, une perte de la performance des installations existantes du systeme hydrique serait observee a cause de l'augmentation des

  16. Species richness effects on ecosystem multifunctionality depend on evenness, composition and spatial pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestre, F.T.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.; Bowker, M.A.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.

    2012-01-01

    1. Recent studies have suggested that the simultaneous maintenance of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality) is positively supported by species richness. However, little is known regarding the relative importance of other community attributes (e.g. spatial pattern, species evenness) as drivers of multifunctionality. 2. We conducted two microcosm experiments using model biological soil crust communities dominated by lichens to: (i) evaluate the joint effects and relative importance of changes in species composition, spatial pattern (clumped and random distribution of lichens), evenness (maximal and low evenness) and richness (from two to eight species) on soil functions related to nutrient cycling (β-glucosidase, urease and acid phosphatase enzymes, in situ N availability, total N, organic C, and N fixation), and (ii) assess how these community attributes affect multifunctionality. 3. Species richness, composition and spatial pattern affected multiple ecosystem functions (e.g. organic C, total N, N availability, β-glucosidase activity), albeit the magnitude and direction of their effects varied with the particular function, experiment and soil depth considered. Changes in species composition had effects on organic C, total N and the activity of β-glucosidase. Significant species richness × evenness and spatial pattern × evenness interactions were found when analysing functions such as organic C, total N and the activity of phosphatase. 4. The probability of sustaining multiple ecosystem functions increased with species richness, but this effect was largely modulated by attributes such as species evenness, composition and spatial pattern. Overall, we found that model communities with high species richness, random spatial pattern and low evenness increased multifunctionality. 5. Synthesis. Our results illustrate how different community attributes have a diverse impact on ecosystem functions related to nutrient cycling, and provide new

  17. Estimation of the break-even point for smoking cessation programs in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Shipp, M; Croughan-Minihane, M S; Petitti, D B; Washington, A E

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Successful programs to help pregnant women quit smoking have been developed and evaluated, but formal smoking cessation programs are not a part of care at most prenatal sites. The cost of such programs may be an issue. Considering the costs of adverse maternal and infant outcomes resulting from smoking, we estimated there would be an amount of money a prenatal program could invest in smoking cessation and still "break even" economically. METHODS. A model was developed and published data, along with 1989 hospital charge data, were used to arrive at a break-even point for smoking cessation programs in pregnancy. RESULTS. Using overall United States data, we arrived at a break-even cost of $32 per pregnant woman. When these data were varied to fit specific US populations, the break-even costs varied from $10 to $237, with the incidence of preterm low birth weight having the most impact on the cost. CONCLUSIONS. It may be advisable to invest greater amounts of money in a prenatal smoking cessation program for some populations. However, for every population there is an amount that can be invested while still breaking even. PMID:1536354

  18. The interacting quasiparticle-phonon picture and odd-even nuclei. Overview and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishev, S.; Voronov, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    The role of the nucleon correlations in the ground states of even-even nuclei on the properties of low-lying states in odd-even spherical and transitional nuclei is studied. We reason about this subject using the language of the quasiparticle-phonon model which we extend to take account of the existence of quasiparticle⊗phonon configurations in the wave functions of the ground states of the even-even cores. Of paramount importance to the structure of the low-lying states happens to be the quasiparticle-phonon interaction in the ground states which we evaluated using both the standard and the extended random phase approximations. Numerical calculations for nuclei in the barium and cadmium regions are performed using pairing and quadrupole-quadrupole interaction modes which have the dominant impact on the lowest-lying states' structure. It is found that states with same angular momentum and parity become closer in energy as compared to the predictions of models disregarding the backward amplitudes, which turns out to be in accord with the experimental data. In addition we found that the interaction between the last quasiparticle and the ground-state phonon admixtures produces configurations which contribute significantly to the magnetic dipolemoment of odd- A nuclei. It also reveals a potential for reproducing their experimental values which proves impossible if this interaction is neglected.

  19. Shape phase transition in odd-even nuclei: From spherical to deformed gamma-unstable shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Boeyuekata, M.; Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2010-07-15

    Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The case of a single j=9/2 fermion coupled to an even-even boson core is considered. This boson core transits from spherical to gamma-unstable shapes depending on the value of a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point is discussed. For that purpose, the ground-state energy surface in terms of the beta and gamma shape variables for the even core and odd-even energy surfaces for the different K states coming from j=9/2 are constructed. The evolution of each individual coupled state along the transition from the spherical [U(5)] to the gamma-unstable [O(6)] situation is investigated. One finds that the core-fermion coupling gives rise to a smoother transition than in the even-core case.

  20. When Could a Stigma Program to Address Mental Illness in the Workplace Break Even?

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore basic requirements for a stigma program to produce sufficient savings to pay for itself (that is, break even). Methods: A simple economic model was developed to compare reductions in total short-term disability (SDIS) cost relative to a stigma program’s costs. A 2-way sensitivity analysis is used to illustrate conditions under which this break-even scenario occurs. Results: Using estimates from the literature for the SDIS costs, this analysis shows that a stigma program can provide value added even if there is no reduction in the length of an SDIS leave. To break even, a stigma program with no reduction in the length of an SDIS leave would need to prevent at least 2.5 SDIS claims in an organization of 1000 workers. Similarly, a stigma program can break even with no reduction in the number of SDIS claims if it is able to reduce SDIS episodes by at least 7 days in an organization of 1000 employees. Conclusions: Modelling results, such as those presented in our paper, provide information to help occupational health payers become prudent buyers in the mental health market place. While in most cases, the required reductions seem modest, the real test of both the model and the program occurs once a stigma program is piloted and evaluated in a real-world setting. PMID:25565701

  1. Self-collimated electromagnetic jets from magnetized accretion disks - The even-symmetry case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. C. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper extends the previous treatment (Lovelace et al., 1987) of the origin of self-collimated EM jets to the case of even field symmetry, where the magnetic flux function Psi(r, z) is an even function of z. A viscous resistive accretion disk is assumed to surround a black hole with a force-free plasma outside of the disk. Inside the disk, the induction equation is solved for Psi(r, z) and the toroidal magnetic field. Outside the disk, previous results are used to study the formation of self-collimated EM jets. In contrast with the odd-symmetry case, for even symmetry the toroidal magnetic field acts to vertically compress the disk; a comparatively large toroidal magnetic field can exist inside the disk; and an appreciable fraction (possibly all) of the available accretion power can go into the jets.

  2. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis: changes in serum lipids and fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Jäntti, J; Nikkari, T; Solakivi, T; Vapaatalo, H; Isomäki, H

    1989-01-01

    The serum concentration of lipids and composition of fatty acids after overnight fasting were studied in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for 12 weeks with either 20 ml of evening primrose oil containing 9% of gamma-linolenic acid or olive oil. The serum concentrations of oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and apolipoprotein B decreased and those of linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid increased during treatment with evening primrose oil. During olive oil treatment the serum concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid decreased and those of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased slightly. The decrease in serum eicosapentaenoic acid and the increase in arachidonic acid concentrations induced by evening primrose oil may not be favourable effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the light of the roles of these fatty acids as precursors of eicosanoids. PMID:2649022

  3. Does raising morning rectal temperature to evening levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ben J; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Robinson, William R; Reilly, Tom P; Robertson, Colin M; Waterhouse, James M

    2013-05-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than in the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral and central factors, and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether increasing morning rectal temperatures to evening resting values, by active or passive warm-ups, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to evening values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 21.2 ± 1.9 yrs; body mass, 75.4 ± 8 kg; height, 1.76 ± .06 m) completed the study, which was approved by the University Ethics Committee. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed four sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up) and then two further sessions at 07:30 h but proceeded by an extended active or passive warm-up to raise rectal temperature to evening values. These last two sessions were counterbalanced in order of administration. During each trial, three measures of handgrip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad.s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and four measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric ergometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Rectal and intra-aural temperatures, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal comfort (TC) were measured. Measurements were made after the subjects had reclined for 30 min and after the warm-ups and prior to the measurement of handgrip and isokinetic and isometric ergometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Warm-ups were either active (cycle ergometer at 150 W) or passive (resting in a room at 35 °C, relative

  4. Late-seasonal activity and diet of the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geluso, Keith; Damm, J.P.; Valdez, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, Nebraska represents part of the northwestern edge of the distribution for the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis). To date, little information on this bat's natural history has been published from the state or from other parts of the Great Plains. Here we report on aspects of its natural history in Nebraska from 2 localities. In late summer and early autumn of 2006, we documented individuals farther west in Nebraska (Harlan County) than previously reported and determined that individuals fed mainly on Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. In 2006, evening bats appeared to migrate from Nebraska during late September-early October, and individuals were extremely fat, about 15 g, prior to migration. Evening bats likely are more widespread and common in south central Nebraska than previously documented. On 6 October 2005, we reported on an individual from eastern Nebraska (Douglas County), which represents the latest seasonal record of N. humeralis from the state.

  5. Target recognition of ladar range images using even-order Zernike moments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-Jun; Li, Qi; Xia, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Qi

    2012-11-01

    Ladar range images have attracted considerable attention in automatic target recognition fields. In this paper, Zernike moments (ZMs) are applied to classify the target of the range image from an arbitrary azimuth angle. However, ZMs suffer from high computational costs. To improve the performance of target recognition based on small samples, even-order ZMs with serial-parallel backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs) are applied to recognize the target of the range image. It is found that the rotation invariance and classified performance of the even-order ZMs are both better than for odd-order moments and for moments compressed by principal component analysis. The experimental results demonstrate that combining the even-order ZMs with serial-parallel BPNNs can significantly improve the recognition rate for small samples.

  6. Gauge propagator and physical consistency of the CPT-even part of the standard model extension

    SciTech Connect

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr.; Pinheiro, Paulo R. D.; Gomes, Adalto R.

    2009-12-15

    In this work, we explicitly evaluate the gauge propagator of the Maxwell theory supplemented by the CPT-even term of the standard model extension. First, we specialize our evaluation for the parity-odd sector of the tensor W{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {sigma}}, using a parametrization that retains only the three nonbirefringent coefficients. From the poles of the propagator, it is shown that physical modes of this electrodynamics are stable, noncausal and unitary. In the sequel, we carry out the parity-even gauge propagator using a parametrization that allows to work with only the isotropic nonbirefringent element. In this case, we show that the physical modes of the parity-even sector of the tensor W are causal, stable and unitary for a limited range of the isotropic coefficient.

  7. Dose-Dependent Effects of Evening Primrose Oil in Children and Adolescents with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Jin Hye; Cho, Soo Ick; Ahn, In Su; Kim, Hye One; Lee, Cheol Heon

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous clinical trials with evening primrose oil in atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment have shown different results. In addition, the optimal dose and duration of treatment with evening primrose oil have not yet been determined. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the dose-response treatment effects of evening primrose oil on clinical symptoms of AD and serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Methods Forty AD patients were enrolled for the study and randomly divided into 2 groups: those who received evening primrose oil 160 mg daily for 8 weeks and those who received 320 mg of evening primrose oil twice daily for 8 weeks. We evaluated the Eczema Area Severity Index (EASI) scores of all AD patients at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 8. In addition, we measured the levels of serum fatty acids, including C16 : 0 (palmitic), C18 : 2n (linoleic), C18 : 3n (linolenic) and C20 : 4 (arachidonic acid) using gas chromatography. Results The serum fatty acid levels C18 : 3n and C20 : 4 were higher in the 320 mg group than in the 160 mg group, with statistical significance. After evening primrose oil treatment, EASI scores were reduced in the 2 groups. The improvement in EASI scores was greater in the 320 mg group than in the 160 mg group. There were no side effects seen in either group during the study in the 2 groups. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the 320 mg and 160 mg groups may be equally effective in treating AD patients and show dose-dependent effects on serum fatty acid levels and EASI scores. PMID:24003269

  8. Bedtime and evening light exposure influence circadian timing in preschool-age children: A field study

    PubMed Central

    Akacem, Lameese D.; Wright, Kenneth P.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2016-01-01

    Light exposure and sleep timing are two factors that influence inter-individual variability in the timing of the human circadian clock. The aim of this study was to quantify the degree to which evening light exposure predicts variance in circadian timing over and above bedtime alone in preschool children. Participants were 21 children ages 4.5–5.0 years (4.7 ± 0.2 years; 9 females). Children followed their typical sleep schedules for 4 days during which time they wore a wrist actigraph to assess sleep timing and a pendant light meter to measure minute-by-minute illuminance levels in lux. On the 5th day, children participated in an in-home dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) assessment. Light exposure in the 2 h before bedtime was averaged and aggregated across the 4 nights preceding the DLMO assessment. Mean DLMO and bedtime were 19:22 ± 01:04 and 20:07 ± 00:46, respectively. Average evening light exposure was 710.1 ± 1418.2 lux. Children with later bedtimes (lights-off time) had more delayed melatonin onset times (r=0.61, p=0.002). Evening light exposure was not independently associated with DLMO (r=0.32, p=0.08); however, a partial correlation between evening light exposure and DLMO when controlling for bedtime yielded a positive correlation (r=0.46, p=0.02). Bedtime explained 37.3% of the variance in the timing of DLMO, and evening light exposure accounted for an additional 13.3% of the variance. These findings represent an important step in understanding factors that influence circadian phase in preschool-age children and have implications for understanding a modifiable pathway that may underlie late sleep timing and the development of evening settling problems in early childhood. PMID:28042611

  9. Instability in near-horizon geometries of even-dimensional Myers-Perry black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, Norihiro; Murata, Keiju

    2012-12-01

    We study the gravitational, electromagnetic and scalar field perturbations on the near-horizon geometries of the even-dimensional extremal Myers-Perry black holes. By dimensional reduction, the perturbation equations are reduced to effective equations of motion in AdS2. We find that some modes in the gravitational perturbations violate the Breitenlöhner-Freedman bound in AdS2. This result suggests that the even-dimensional (near-)extremal Myers-Perry black holes are unstable against gravitational perturbations. We also discuss implications of our results to the Kerr-CFT correspondence.

  10. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Plassart, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli-for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)-elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been "rediscovered." Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth.

  11. Probing nuclear dynamics of oriented HeH+ with odd-even high-order harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. Y.; Yu, S. J.; Wang, S.; Chen, Y. J.

    2016-11-01

    We study the electron-nuclear coupled dynamics for oriented HeH+ molecules in strong laser fields numerically and analytically. At small orientation angles, the asymmetric molecule tends to stretch to distances larger than the equilibrium separation and strong even harmonics are emitted. We show that the permanent dipole of the system plays an important role in the vibrational dynamics of the nuclear wave packet. The nuclear motion and the molecular structure can be read from the spectra and ellipticity of odd-even high harmonics. Our results also have implications for strong-field ionization of the asymmetric system.

  12. Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G.; Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C.; Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.

    2011-08-15

    Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.

  13. The Development of Even-Aged Plantation Forests: An Exercise in Forest Stand Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. R.; Leslie, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a field-based practical exercise that allows students in forestry, ecology and natural resources to develop their understanding of forest stand dynamics. The exercise involves measurement of key tree growth parameters in four even-aged, single-species plantation stands of different age but occupying sites with similar soil…

  14. Need satisfaction during free evening hours: examining its role in daily recovery.

    PubMed

    van Hooff, Madelon L M; Geurts, Sabine A E

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to shed light on the role of satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence in the recovery process during free evening hours. We examined to what extent (1) need satisfaction during free evening hours contributed to employees' recovery status before bedtime and (2) employees' recovery status at the end of the workday affected their subsequent need satisfaction. Vigour and (low) anxiety were included as indicators of recovery. Data were collected by means of a 5-day daily diary study (two measurements daily: at the end of the workday and before bedtime) among 64 participants. Multilevel analyses showed that need satisfaction during free evening hours was related to an improved recovery status (i.e. increased levels of vigour and decreased levels of anxiety) before bedtime. Furthermore, results showed that employees with a lower recovery status at the end of their workday reported less need satisfaction during the subsequent free evening. With these results, it can be concluded that employees who would benefit the most from satisfaction of their basic psychological needs have the least resources available to actually achieve this satisfaction.

  15. Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

  16. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  17. The relationship between species richness and evenness: a meta-analysis of studies across aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Janne; Passy, Sophia; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    Biological diversity comprises both species richness, i.e., the number of species in a community, and evenness, measuring how similar species are in their abundances. The relationship between species richness and evenness (RRE) across communities remains, however, a controversial issue in ecology because no consistent pattern has been reported. We conducted a systematic meta-review of RRE in aquatic ecosystems along regional to continental gradients and across trophic groups, differing in body size by 13 orders of magnitude. Hypotheses that RRE responded to latitudinal and scale variability across trophic groups were tested by regression analyses. Significant correlations of species richness and evenness only existed in 71 out of 229 datasets. Among the RRE, 89 were negative and 140 were positive. RRE did not vary with latitude but showed a positive response to scale. In a meta-analysis with ecosystem type as a single explaining variable, RRE did not vary among ecosystem types, i.e. between marine and freshwater. Finally, autotrophs had more positive RRE than heterotrophs. The weak RRE in many aquatic datasets suggests that richness and evenness often reflect independent components of biodiversity, highlighting that richness alone may be an incomplete surrogate for biodiversity. Our results further elucidate that RRE is driven by organismal and environmental properties, both of which must be considered to gain a deeper understanding of large-scale patterns of biodiversity.

  18. Oklahoma City FILM Even Start Family Literacy Program Evaluation, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Donna Castle; Shove, Joanie; Brickman, Sharon; Terrell, Sherry; Shields, Jane

    This report presents findings from the evaluation of the Oklahoma City Public Schools Even Start Program, also called the Family Intergenerational Literacy Model (FILM), now in its twelfth full year of operation. The evaluation focuses on the total population of adult students, preschoolers, adult graduates, and preschool graduates. The…

  19. Literacy Engagement and Parental Development through Even Start Family Literacy Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Petra A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how parental participation in Even Start programs contributes to family literacy engagement and parental development. More specifically, its primary aim was to develop an understanding of how parental participation in the program influences their reading behaviors and other literacy practices as well as to highlight observed…

  20. Chapter 1 Regular Even Start Project. Independent Evaluation Report, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Macias, Ana

    The report presents an evaluation of the Ysleta Independent School District (Texas) state-funded Even Start Project, a comprehensive family literacy program consisting of adult education (basic skills, English as a second language, citizenship, transition to college), intergenerational literacy classes with preschool children, early childhood…

  1. Back to School: An Examination of the Evening University and the Caribbean's Nontraditional Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pragg, Karima

    2015-01-01

    The Evening University (EU) programme at the University of the West Indies offers an opportunity for working adults and nontraditional students to earn undergraduate degrees. A qualitative framework was used to explore the reasons those enrolled in this programme sought tertiary education and to identify any challenges they faced throughout their…

  2. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  3. You Can't Start Young Enough: Even a Kindergartner Can Be a Scientist!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    From the time they are born, children have a natural curiosity toward the world around them. Even though they can't speak, one can still observe that they are skilled at discovery. Science fair projects can nurture this natural curiosity and give elementary students the opportunity to explore their interests in a rewarding way. Participation in a…

  4. A STUDY IN ORGANIZATIONAL INTERACTION BETWEEN AN EVENING COLLEGE AND ITS PARENT INSTITUTION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACOBSON, MYRTLE S.

    THIS STUDY IN ORGANIZATIONAL INTERACTION ANALYZES THE STRUCTURAL TIES AND INTERACTIVE RELATIONSHIPS OF AN EDUCATIONAL SUB-ORGANIZATION (EVENING DEGREE PROGRAM) AND ITS PARENT COLLEGIATE INSTITUTION (BROOKLYN COLLEGE). AN EXAMINATION OF OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS, CORRESPONDENCE, POLICY STATEMENTS, AND MANY INTERVIEWS, QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEYS, AND…

  5. 75 FR 15696 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview Information; Migrant Education Even Start...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... reports under 34 CFR 75.720(c). For specific requirements on reporting, please go to http://www.ed.gov... Office of Elementary and Secondary Education; Overview Information; Migrant Education Even Start Family... Transmittal of Applications: May 14, 2010. Deadline for Intergovernmental Review: July 13, 2010. Full Text...

  6. Effects of Different Intensities of Endurance Exercise in Morning and Evening on the Lipid Metabolism Response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Ando, Karina; Tabata, Hiroki; Konishi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaki; Nishimaki, Mio; Xiang, Mi; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    To study the effects of different exercise intensity performed at different exercise times on lipid metabolism response during prolonged exercise. Nine young men performed endurance exercise at different exercise intensities (60%VO2max or Fatmax) in the morning (9 am to 10 am) or evening (5 pm to 6 pm); blood samples were collected before exercise and immediately and one and two hours after exercise completion. Expired gas was analyzed from the start of exercise until two hours after exercise completion. There were no significant changes in catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) and free fatty acid levels between morning and evening trials for each endurance exercise intensity. However, the morning and evening trials both exhibited significantly higher lipid oxidation at Fatmax than that at 60%VO2max. These results suggest that exercise at Fatmax offers greater lipid oxidation than that at 60%VO2max, regardless of exercise timing. Key points It is important to consider exercise intensity when evaluating lipid oxidation. Few studies have investigated the effects of the intensity of exercise on lipid oxidation in the morning and evening. Fatmax exhibited greater total lipid oxidation compared to that of 60%VO2max when energy expenditure was equated, but time of day did not affect lipid oxidation in prolonged exercise. PMID:27803625

  7. Evening flights of female northern pintails from a major roost site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    We monitored evening flights of female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) from Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in southwestern Louisiana during winters of 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. We analyzed the influence of female age, winter, and date within wintering period on three flight parameters: distance, duration, and departure time. Flight distance and duration increased with date within wintering period, and age differences in flight distance and duration were not consistent between winters. Females departed 12 min later, on average, on clear, moonlit evenings than on overcast, moonless evenings, and 4 min later when winds were light rather than heavy. After controlling for variation due to environmental conditions, immature females departed Lacassine NWR 1.3 min earlier, on average, than did adults. Flight parameters of females did not differ between hunting and non-hunting time periods. Estimated daily transit costs ranged from 27-54% of basal metabolic rate, 7-19% of daily energy expenditure, and 8-20% of daily dietary intake of rice (Oryza sativa). Our findings that flight distance and duration increased with date within wintering period were consistent with predictions of refuging theory, but alternative hypotheses also could explain these results. Evening flights of Northern Pintails roosting on Lacassine NWR were greater in distance and duration than those reported for most other species of wintering waterfowl. We recommend that proximity of refuges to feeding sites be considered in conservation and management plans for wintering Northern Pintails and other refuging waterfowl.

  8. Angels of the Night: Evening and Night Patrols for Homebound Elders in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Bo; Ernsth, Marie; Larsson, Birgitta; Zarit, Steven H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the work of evening and night home care patrols in Swedish old-age care by examining how staff members view their work and the specific work content. Design and Methods: The authors developed two questionnaires: one that was to be answered jointly by the patrol teams, and one to be completed by…

  9. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule...

  10. Improving Accuracy Is Not the Only Reason for Writing, and Even If It Were...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    For research into language development in L2 writing to have any relevance, it has to be situated within a framework of decisions in writing pedagogy. Furthermore, a perspective on L2 language development cannot be limited only to accuracy levels. Even if this is the case, it is counter-intuitive that further input may be detrimental to language…

  11. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27589782

  12. It Even Happens in "Good" Schools: Responding to Cultural Diversity in Today's Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.

    This book offers case studies, observations, and practical, culturally responsive solutions to the challenges presented by diversity in the classroom. By telling stories and asking questions, the book explains that progress is slow-moving and that quality, equity, and fair, appropriate treatment are often very hard to find, even in good schools.…

  13. Even Low Levels of Alcohol during Pregnancy Can Affect Fetal Brain Development. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on GABAergic Neurons" (V. C. Cuzone; P. W. L. Yeh; Y. Yanagawa; K. Obata; and H. H. Yeh). Study results indicate that even exposure to low levels of alcohol during…

  14. Dietary fish and evening primrose oil with vitamin E effects on semen variables in cockerels.

    PubMed

    Cerolini, S; Surai, P F; Speake, B K; Sparks, N H C

    2005-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the effect of n-3 (2%, wt/wt, fish oil rich diet) and n-6 (2%, wt/wt, evening primrose oil rich diet) fatty acid dietary supplementation and their combination with two concentrations of vitamin E (40 vs 200 mg/kg) on semen variables and on fatty acid and vitamin E profiles of spermatozoa in broiler breeders at 32, 42 and 52 weeks of age. The inclusion of fish oil in the cockerel diets increased the docosahexaenoic acid proportion in the sperm phospholipid fraction, which was almost threefold higher compared to the other two groups irrespective of vitamin E supplementation. In contrast, an increase in the proportion of total n-6 polyunsaturates, mainly 22:4n-6, was observed in the evening primrose oil group compared to the control only when the dietary content of vitamin E was increased to 200 mg/kg. Sperm concentration was decreased in the fish and evening primrose oil groups if vitamin E was 40 mg/kg, but such an effect was prevented in the fish, not the evening primrose oil group, by increasing the vitamin E to 200 mg. The proportion of motile spermatozoa was improved by the increased supplementation of vitamin E in all oil treatments.

  15. The Home Visit as a Teaching Event: Lessons from Eight Even Start Family Literacy Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Jeffrey

    Family literacy programs have arisen in an attempt to break the cycle of intergenerational poverty and illiteracy. Numerous federally-supported family literacy programs have recognized the importance of instructing parents and children in a home setting. The legislation of Even Start seeks to integrate parenting education, adult basic education,…

  16. Even Start Participant Observation Pilot: Using Qualitative Methodologies To Enhance Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonski, Paula M.

    Participant observation is a classic qualitative methodology in which the researcher is immersed in the particular setting as a participant, rather than an outside observer. In this pilot study of an Even Start program, the methodology was modified by using actual program participants as observers and reporters. This enabled the crossing of…

  17. Feynman propagator for the nonbirefringent CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension

    SciTech Connect

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr.; Santos, Frederico E. P. dos; Gomes, Adalto R.

    2010-12-15

    The CPT-even gauge sector of the standard model extension is composed of 19 components comprised in the tensor (K{sub F}){sub {mu}{nu}{rho}{sigma}}, of which nine do not yield birefringence. In this work, we examine the Maxwell electrodynamics supplemented by these nine nonbirefringent CPT-even components in aspects related to the Feynman propagator and full consistency (stability, causality, unitarity). We adopt a prescription that parametrizes the nonbirefringent components in terms of a symmetric and traceless tensor, K{sub {mu}{nu}}, and second parametrization that writes K{sub {mu}{nu}} in terms of two arbitrary four-vectors, U{sub {mu}} and V{sub {nu}}. We then explicitly evaluate the gauge propagator of this electrodynamics in a tensor closed way. In the sequel, we show that this propagator and involved dispersion relations can be specialized for the parity-odd and parity-even sectors of the tensor (K{sub F}){sub {mu}{nu}{rho}{sigma}}. In this way, we reassess some results of the literature and derive some new outcomes showing that the parity-even anisotropic sector engenders a stable, noncausal and unitary electrodynamics.

  18. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor’s degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor’s degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist’s career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor’s degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry. PMID:27170815

  19. Attempting to Answer a Meaningful Question Enhances Subsequent Learning Even When Feedback Is Delayed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., "whale-???") that has no…

  20. Does lowering evening rectal temperature to morning levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Robinson, William R; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Giacomoni, Magali; Robertson, Colin M; Burniston, Jatin G; Waterhouse, James M; Edwards, Ben J

    2013-10-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral, and central factors and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether decreasing evening resting rectal temperatures to morning values, by immersion in a water tank, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to morning values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 1.3 yrs; body mass, 80.1 ± 7.8 kg; height, 1.72 ± 0.05 m) completed the study, which was approved by the local ethics committee of the university. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed three sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up on a cycle ergometer at 150 W) and then a further session at 17:30 h but preceded by an immersion in cold water (~16.5 °C) to lower rectal temperature (Trec) to morning values. During each trial, three measures of grip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and three measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric dynamometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Trec, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal comfort (TC) were also measured after the subjects had reclined for 30 min at the start of the protocol and prior to the measures for grip, isokinetic, and isometric dynamometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up or water immersion and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Data were analyzed using general linear models with repeated measures. Trec values were higher at rest in the evening (by 0.37 °C; p < 0.05) than the morning, but

  1. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Holst, Jens J; Björck, Inger M E

    2010-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relation between a whole grain consumption and risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One tentative mechanism relates to colonic metabolism of indigestible carbohydrates. In a previous study, we reported a positive relation between colonic fermentation and improved glucose tolerance. This work can be seen as an extension of that study, focusing on the tentative role of specific colonic metabolites, i.e. SCFA. Plasma concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate were determined in the morning in healthy participants (5 women and 10 men, mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI < 25) following 8 different cereal-based evening meals (50 g available starch) varying in content of indigestible carbohydrates. Each participant consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals, the postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve, 0-120 min) was inversely related to plasma butyrate (r = -0.26; P < 0.01) and acetate (r = -0.20; P < 0.05) concentrations. Evening meals composed of high-amylose barley kernels or high-β-glucan barley kernels resulted in higher plasma butyrate concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P < 0.05). The results support the view that cereal products rich in indigestible carbohydrates may improve glucose tolerance through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation and generation of SCFA, where in particular butyric acid may be involved. This mechanism may be one explanation by which whole grain is protective against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  2. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ivy N.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G.; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism. PMID:27191727

  3. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ivy N; Zee, Phyllis C; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism.

  4. Even the Odd Numbers Help: Failure Modes of SAM-Based Tunnel Junctions Probed via Odd-Even Effects Revealed in Synchrotrons and Supercomputers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Damien; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-10-18

    This Account describes a body of research in atomic level design, synthesis, physicochemical characterization, and macroscopic electrical testing of molecular devices made from ferrocene-functionalized alkanethiol molecules, which are molecular diodes, with the aim to identify, and resolve, the failure modes that cause leakage currents. The mismatch in size between the ferrocene headgroup and alkane rod makes waxlike highly dynamic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on coinage metals that show remarkable atomic-scale sensitivity in their electrical properties. Our results make clear that molecular tunnel junction devices provide an excellent testbed to probe the electronic and supramolecular structures of SAMs on inorganic substrates. Contacting these SAMs to a eutectic "EGaIn" alloy top-electrode, we designed highly stable long-lived molecular switches of the form electrode-SAM-electrode with robust rectification ratios of up to 3 orders of magnitude. The graphic that accompanies this conspectus displays a computed SAM packing structure, illustrating the lollipop shape of the molecules that gives dynamic SAM supramolecular structures and also the molecule-electrode van der Waals (vdW) contacts that must be controlled to form good SAM-based devices. In this Account, we first trace the evolution of SAM-based electronic devices and rationalize their operation using energy level diagrams. We describe the measurement of device properties using near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy complemented by molecular dynamics and electronic structure calculations together with large numbers of electrical measurements. We discuss how data obtained from these combined experimental/simulation codesign studies demonstrate control over the supramolecular and electronic structure of the devices, tuning odd-even effects to optimize inherent packing tendencies of the molecules in order to minimize leakage currents

  5. Complex facies relationships and regional stratigraphy of the Mississippian Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases Formations, Illinois basin: A major hydrocarbon-producing interval

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D.; Nelson, W.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The Mississippian Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestones and sandstones of the Aux Vases Formation are lateral facies of one another. This interpretation is based on comprehensive investigations of outcrops, and selected cores, samples of well cuttings, and geophysical logs conducted over a period of four years. Both units exhibit similar sedimentological characteristics and represent open marine, shallow subtidal, and intertidal environments. The presence of low-angle cross-laminae, ripple- and plane-laminae, climbing ripples, and ooid shoals suggest most deposition occurred under low energy conditions. Lenticular, channel-like scour and fill structures that contain both fine-grained quartz sand and abraded, disarticulated fossil fragments indicate localized higher energy deposition. The authors studies indicate that siliciclastic vs. carbonate deposition was controlled strictly by available sediment, and not by regressive (siliciclastic) and transgressive (carbonate) events, as inferred by previous workers. This conclusion is based on lateral facies relationships, and the supplanting of carbonates by clastics occurring in the upper part of the Ste. Genevieve through the middle part of the Paoli. The Aux Vases is thickest, coarsest, and least mature in the northwestern part of the Illinois Basin, and pinches out to the southeast. This implies a northwesterly source for clastics, perhaps the Transcontinental Arch. After early Chesterian time, the Transcontinental Arch apparently supplied little or no sediment to any flanking basin. The Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases are major oil-producing units in the Illinois Basin. New understanding of regional relationships should enhance exploratory success and improve recovery from established fields.

  6. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  7. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the Aux/IAA gene family in Eucalyptus: evidence for the role of EgrIAA4 in wood formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Soler, Marçal; San Clemente, Hélène; Mila, Isabelle; Paiva, Jorge A P; Myburg, Alexander A; Bouzayen, Mondher; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Cassan-Wang, Hua

    2015-04-01

    Auxin plays a pivotal role in various plant growth and development processes, including vascular differentiation. The modulation of auxin responsiveness through the auxin perception and signaling machinery is believed to be a major regulatory mechanism controlling cambium activity and wood formation. To gain more insights into the roles of key Aux/IAA gene regulators of the auxin response in these processes, we identified and characterized members of the Aux/IAA family in the genome of Eucalyptus grandis, a tree of worldwide economic importance. We found that the gene family in Eucalyptus is slightly smaller than that in Populus and Arabidopsis, but all phylogenetic groups are represented. High-throughput expression profiling of different organs and tissues highlighted several Aux/IAA genes expressed in vascular cambium and/or developing xylem, some showing differential expression in response to developmental (juvenile vs. mature) and/or to environmental (tension stress) cues. Based on the expression profiles, we selected a promising candidate gene, EgrIAA4, for functional characterization. We showed that EgrIAA4 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as an auxin-responsive repressor. Overexpressing a stabilized version of EgrIAA4 in Arabidopsis dramatically impeded plant growth and fertility and induced auxin-insensitive phenotypes such as inhibition of primary root elongation, lateral root emergence and agravitropism. Interestingly, the lignified secondary walls of the interfascicular fibers appeared very late, whereas those of the xylary fibers were virtually undetectable, suggesting that EgrIAA4 may play crucial roles in fiber development and secondary cell wall deposition.

  8. Structure of doubly-even cadmium nuclei studied by βdecay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinta-Antila, S.; Wang, Y.; Dendooven, P.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Lhersonneau, G.; Nieminen, A.; Nummela, S.; Penttilä, H.; Peräjärvi, K.; Szerypo, J.; Wang, J. C.; Äystö, J.

    2005-09-01

    We have studied the structure of even-even cadmium isotopes via beta decay of ground and excited isomeric states of parent silver isotopes. Measurements of mass A = 116, 118 and 120 cadmium nuclides were carried out at an ion guide isotope separation on-line facility at the University of Jyväskylä. Decay schemes of 116mAg, 118mAg, 120gAg and 120mAg are considerably extended. Obtained data have enabled extension of available systematics of the three-phonon states to more neutron-rich cadmium nuclei. As a continuation we have conducted an experiment at ISOLDE, CERN to study heavier A = 122, 124, and 126 cadmium nuclides, the analysis of the collected data is underway.

  9. Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome.

  10. Stability of elongated cross-section tokamaks to axisymmetric even poloidal mode number deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Pomphrey, N.

    1989-06-01

    A recent paper by Nakayama, Sato and Matsuoka suggests that elliptical cross section tokamaks with aspect ratio R/a = 3.2 and with elongation kappa = 2.6 are unstable to a splitting (m = 2, n = 0) instability for plasma ..beta.. > 5%, and that kappa /> =/ 4.0 plasmas are unstable to splitting for ..beta.. /> =/ 1%. We have tried to reproduce these results using the MHD evolution code TSC, but find these configurations to be stable, not even near a stability boundary. Even a kappa = 3.7 plasma with ..beta.. = 23.0% is stable to the splitting mode. However, the addition of pinching coils at the waist will cause the plasma to split if the current in these coils exceeds a critical value I/sub c/ which decreases with increasing ..beta... 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. On the evening time exosphere of Mars: Result from MENCA aboard Mars Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Thampi, Smitha V.; Das, Tirtha Pratim; Dhanya, M. B.; Naik, Neha; Vajja, Dinakar Prasad; Pradeepkumar, P.; Sreelatha, P.; Supriya, G.; Abhishek J., K.; Mohankumar, S. V.; Thampi, R. Satheesh; Yadav, Vipin K.; Sundar, B.; Nandi, Amarnath; Padmanabhan, G. Padma; Aliyas, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA) aboard the Indian Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) is a quadrupole mass spectrometer which provides in situ measurement of the composition of the low-latitude Martian neutral exosphere. The altitude profiles of the three major constituents, i.e., amu 44 (CO2), amu 28 (N2 + CO), and amu 16 (O) in the Martian exosphere during evening (close to sunset terminator) hours are reported using MENCA observations from four orbits of MOM during late December 2014, when MOM's periapsis altitude was the lowest. The altitude range of the observation encompasses the diffusively separated region much above the well-mixed atmosphere. The transition from CO2 to O-dominated region is observed near 270 km. The mean exospheric temperature derived using these three mass numbers is 271 ± 5 K. These first observations corresponding to the Martian evening hours would help to provide constraints to the thermal escape models.

  12. Hypocholesterolemic effect of gamma-linolenic acid as evening primrose oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugano, M; Ide, T; Ishida, T; Yoshida, K

    1986-01-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids was compared in male rats given high-cholesterol diets containing either evening primrose oil (EPO, linoleic plus gamma-linolenic), safflower oil (SFO, linoleic) or olive oil (OLO, low linoleic) at the 10% level. EPO with a phytosterol content of 1.47% was found to be more hypocholesterolemic than SFO (phytosterols 0.34%), and rats given EPO excreted more neutral (cholesterol and its metabolites) but not acidic steroids during the first 2 weeks of the feeding. Even when the phytosterol content of EPO and SFO was adjusted to be the same (0.67%), EPO was still more hypocholesterolemic than SFO but to a lesser extent, although fecal neutral steroid excretion was comparable in these two dietary fat regimens. The results indicate a significant hypocholesterolemic efficacy of gamma-linolenic acid.

  13. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2015-04-10

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  14. Cannibalism can be beneficial even when its mean yield is less than one.

    PubMed

    Henson, S M

    1997-04-01

    Two types of adult-on-juvenile cannibalism are discussed and differentiated: those with "mean yield of cannibalism" greater than one, and those with mean yield less than one. Two extant models--one continuous and one discrete--in which cannibalism is beneficial only when the mean yield exceeds one are reviewed and compared. The discrete model is modified and analyzed to demonstrate that cannibalism can be beneficial even when the mean yield is less than one.

  15. Identification of Evening Complex Associated Proteins in Arabidopsis by Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhouxin; Kay, Steve A.

    2016-01-01

    Many species possess an endogenous circadian clock to synchronize internal physiology with an oscillating external environment. In plants, the circadian clock coordinates growth, metabolism and development over daily and seasonal time scales. Many proteins in the circadian network form oscillating complexes that temporally regulate myriad processes, including signal transduction, transcription, protein degradation and post-translational modification. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a tripartite complex composed of EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), and LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX), named the evening complex, modulates daily rhythms in gene expression and growth through transcriptional regulation. However, little is known about the physical interactions that connect the circadian system to other pathways. We used affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) methods to identify proteins that associate with the evening complex in A. thaliana. New connections within the circadian network as well as to light signaling pathways were identified, including linkages between the evening complex, TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC), all phytochromes and TANDEM ZINC KNUCKLE/PLUS3 (TZP). Coupling genetic mutation with affinity purifications tested the roles of phytochrome B (phyB), EARLY FLOWERING 4, and EARLY FLOWERING 3 as nodes connecting the evening complex to clock and light signaling pathways. These experiments establish a hierarchical association between pathways and indicate direct and indirect interactions. Specifically, the results suggested that EARLY FLOWERING 3 and phytochrome B act as hubs connecting the clock and red light signaling pathways. Finally, we characterized a clade of associated nuclear kinases that regulate circadian rhythms, growth, and flowering in A. thaliana. Coupling mass spectrometry and genetics is a powerful method to rapidly and directly identify novel components and connections within and between complex signaling

  16. MCDHF calculations of isotope shifts of even-parity fine-structure levels in neutral osmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Bouazza, S.

    2016-12-01

    Ab initio multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) calculations have been carried out in order to determine the isotope shifts of all the fine-structure levels belonging to the even-parity configurations (5d+6s)8 in neutral osmium, Os I. The theoretical predictions have been compared to laser spectroscopy measurements available in the literature showing a good agreement between theory and experiment.

  17. 26 CFR 301.6323(b)-1 - Protection for certain interests even though notice filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Securities—(1) In general. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by section 6321 is filed in accordance with § 301.6323(f)-1, the lien is not valid with respect to a security (as defined in paragraph (d) of § 301.6323(h)-1) against— (i) A purchaser (as defined in paragraph (f) of § 301.6323(h)-1) of the...

  18. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  19. Identification of Evening Complex Associated Proteins in Arabidopsis by Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Alvarez, Sophie; Bindbeutel, Rebecca; Shen, Zhouxin; Naldrett, Michael J; Evans, Bradley S; Briggs, Steven P; Hicks, Leslie M; Kay, Steve A; Nusinow, Dmitri A

    2016-01-01

    Many species possess an endogenous circadian clock to synchronize internal physiology with an oscillating external environment. In plants, the circadian clock coordinates growth, metabolism and development over daily and seasonal time scales. Many proteins in the circadian network form oscillating complexes that temporally regulate myriad processes, including signal transduction, transcription, protein degradation and post-translational modification. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a tripartite complex composed of EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), and LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX), named the evening complex, modulates daily rhythms in gene expression and growth through transcriptional regulation. However, little is known about the physical interactions that connect the circadian system to other pathways. We used affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) methods to identify proteins that associate with the evening complex in A. thaliana. New connections within the circadian network as well as to light signaling pathways were identified, including linkages between the evening complex, TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC), all phytochromes and TANDEM ZINC KNUCKLE/PLUS3 (TZP). Coupling genetic mutation with affinity purifications tested the roles of phytochrome B (phyB), EARLY FLOWERING 4, and EARLY FLOWERING 3 as nodes connecting the evening complex to clock and light signaling pathways. These experiments establish a hierarchical association between pathways and indicate direct and indirect interactions. Specifically, the results suggested that EARLY FLOWERING 3 and phytochrome B act as hubs connecting the clock and red light signaling pathways. Finally, we characterized a clade of associated nuclear kinases that regulate circadian rhythms, growth, and flowering in A. thaliana. Coupling mass spectrometry and genetics is a powerful method to rapidly and directly identify novel components and connections within and between complex signaling

  20. Energy content of the evening meal alters nocturnal body temperature but not sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver, H S; Shulman, I; Baker, F C; Buffenstein, R

    Meals of varying energy content and episodes of sleep influence body temperature. We compared the effect of an evening meal, varying from high-energy (11.91 +/- 0.86 MJ) to average (5.74 +/- 0.88 MJ) and a 10-h fast (no evening meal), on nocturnal body temperature and sleep. Seven healthy men (20-24 years, mean body mass index of 23.4 +/- 2.6 kg/m2) reported to the laboratory for an evening meal at 2000 h having consumed similar amounts of food before 1300 h. After completing the meal, subjective hunger ratings were assessed, and a venous blood sample taken. The subjects spent 4 nonconsecutive nights (an adaptation night, followed by either of the two meal conditions or the fast in random order) in the sleep laboratory when polysomnographic recordings were made from 2300 to 0700 h. Meal energy content and serum concentrations of insulin, triglyceride, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) varied significantly. Lower rectal temperatures were measured during the fast than following the meals. Over the 8-h recording period, thermal response indices (TRI) varied with higher body temperatures following the higher energy meal. Similar rectal temperatures were attained by the end of the sleep periods. There were no significant differences in any of the subjective or objective sleep measures. The physiological responses associated with the transient dietary changes of an evening meal or a 10-h fast altered nocturnal body temperature but did not significantly affect sleep of good sleepers when sleep was initiated 2 to 3 h after finishing the meal.

  1. Prospective Study on Salivary Evening Melatonin and Sleep before and after Pinealectomy in Humans.

    PubMed

    Slawik, Helen; Stoffel, Michael; Riedl, Lina; Veselý, Zdenko; Behr, Michael; Lehmberg, Jens; Pohl, Corina; Meyer, Bernhard; Wiegand, Michael; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-02-01

    Melatonin is secreted systemically from the pineal gland maximally at night but is also produced locally in many tissues. Its chronobiological function is mainly exerted by pineal melatonin. It is a feedback regulator of the main circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei and of many peripheral oscillators. Although exogenous melatonin is approved for circadian rhythm sleep disorders and old-age insomnia, research on endogenous melatonin in humans is hindered by the great interindividual variability of its amount and circadian rhythm. Single case studies on pinealectomized patients report on disrupted but also hypersomnic sleep. This is the first systematic prospective report on sleep with respect to pinealectomy due to pinealocytoma World Health Organization grade I without chemo- or radiotherapy. Before and after pinealectomy, 8 patients completed questionnaires on sleep quality and circadian rhythm (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire), 2 nights of polysomnography, salivary evening melatonin profiles, and qualitative assessment of 2 weeks of actigraphy and sleep logs. Six patients were assessed retrospectively up to 4 years after pinealectomy. Before pinealectomy, all but 1 patient showed an evening melatonin rise typical for indifferent chronotypes. After pinealectomy, evening saliva melatonin was markedly diminished, mostly below the detection limit of the assay (0.09 pg/mL). No systematic change in subjective sleep quality or standard measures of polysomnography was found. Mean pre- and postoperative sleep efficiency was 94% and 95%, and mean sleep-onset latency was 21 and 17 min, respectively. Sleep-wake rhythm during normal daily life did not change. Retrospective patients had a reduced sleep efficiency (90%) and more stage changes, although this was not significantly different from prospective patients. In conclusion, melatonin does seem to have a modulatory, not a

  2. Response Modality Modulator PRP Interference, Even When Task 1 is a no-go trial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSelst, Mark; Johnston, James C.; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In a Psychological Refractory Period paradigm where the first task requires one of several possible responses on some trials (the go trials), but no response on other (no-go) trials, response modality modulates the amount of interference on Task 2 processing. This is true even when Task 1 is no-go trial. Differences in the cost of switching response sets between processing for Task 1 and Task 2 may provide an account of this surprising phenomenon.

  3. Odd and even sums of generalized Fibonacci numbers by matrix methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C. K.; Chong, Chin-Yoon

    2014-06-01

    For integers A and B, and positive integers n, we define two generalized Fibonacci sequence {gn} and {hn}, respectively, by the recurrence relations gn+1 = Agn+gn-1 and hn+1 = hn+Bhn-1 where g0 = h0 = 0, g1 = h1 = 1. Using a matrix approach, we obtained the odd sum and even sum of the two sequences for all values of A and B.

  4. Effects of aerobic exercise in early evening on the following nocturnal sleep and its haemodynamic response.

    PubMed

    Miura, Akira; Myouken, Shizuka; Yamada, Masako; Fujihara, Chizuko; Miura, Kouhei; Kashima, Hideaki; Eguchi, Kouhei; Endo, Masako Y; Koga, Shunsaku; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We determined effect of aerobic exercise in early evening on the quality, quantity, and haemodynamic response of subsequent nocturnal sleep in the home. Ten healthy young participants performed two protocols, with/without cycle ergometer exercise (60 min at 50% heart rate reserve) in early evening. Blood pressure (BP) (Holter) and physical activity (accelerometer) were measured from late afternoon of day 1 until noon of next day (day 2). Additionally, at bedtime participants were equipped with a small device worn on the wrist that identified sleep stage. There were no substantial differences in objective indices of sleep between two protocols (total sleep time: 438 ± 76 vs. 457 ± 64 min; P > 0.10). BP during nocturnal sleep tended to be lowered by prior exercise (MAP: 71 ± 5 vs. 68 ± 6 mmHg; P = 0.08). Aerobic exercise in early evening apparently has no acute effect on sleep per se, but seems to have a residual effect on haemodynamics, i.e. prolongation of post-exercise hypotension.

  5. Singular eigenstates in the even(odd) length Heisenberg spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Giri, Pulak; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-05-01

    We study the implications of the regularization for the singular solutions on the even(odd) length spin-1/2 XXX chains in some specific down-spin sectors. In particular, the analytic expressions of the Bethe eigenstates for three down-spin sector have been obtained along with their numerical forms in some fixed length chains. For an even-length chain if the singular solutions \\{{{λ }α }\\} are invariant under the sign changes of their rapidities \\{{{λ }α }\\}=\\{-{{λ }α }\\}, then the Bethe ansatz equations are reduced to a system of (M-2)/2((M-3)/2) equations in an even (odd) down-spin sector. For an odd N length chain in the three down-spin sector, it has been analytically shown that there exist singular solutions in any finite length of the spin chain of the form N=3(2k+1) with k=1,2,3,\\cdots . It is also shown that there exist no singular solutions in the four down-spin sector for some odd-length spin-1/2 XXX chains.

  6. Exact solutions of one-dimensional nonlinear shallow water equations over even and sloping bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkunov, Yu. A.; Dobrokhotov, S. Yu.; Medvedev, S. B.; Minenkov, D. S.

    2014-03-01

    We establish an equivalence of two systems of equations of one-dimensional shallow water models describing the propagation of surface waves over even and sloping bottoms. For each of these systems, we obtain formulas for the general form of their nondegenerate solutions, which are expressible in terms of solutions of the Darboux equation. The invariant solutions of the Darboux equation that we find are simplest representatives of its essentially different exact solutions (those not related by invertible point transformations). They depend on 21 arbitrary real constants; after "proliferation" formulas derived by methods of group theory analysis are applied, they generate a 27-parameter family of essentially different exact solutions. Subsequently using the derived infinitesimal "proliferation" formulas for the solutions in this family generates a denumerable set of exact solutions, whose linear span constitutes an infinite-dimensional vector space of solutions of the Darboux equation. This vector space of solutions of the Darboux equation and the general formulas for nondegenerate solutions of systems of shallow water equations with even and sloping bottoms give an infinite set of their solutions. The "proliferation" formulas for these systems determine their additional nondegenerate solutions. We also find all degenerate solutions of these systems and thus construct a database of an infinite set of exact solutions of systems of equations of the one-dimensional nonlinear shallow water model with even and sloping bottoms.

  7. Experimental factors affecting PCR-based estimates of microbial species richness and evenness

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Zvenigorodsky, Natasha; Chen, Feng; Ochman, Howard; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for microbial community profiling can, for equivalent costs, yield greater than two orders of magnitude more sensitivity than traditional PCR-cloning and Sanger sequencing. With this increased sensitivity and the ability to analyze multiple samples in parallel, it has become possible to evaluate several technical aspects of PCRbased community structure profiling methods. We tested the effect of amplicon length and primer pair on estimates of species richness number of species and evenness relative abundance of species by assessing the potentially tractable microbial community residing in the termite hindgut. Two regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced from one of two common priming sites, spanning the V1-V2 or V8 regions, using amplicons ranging n length from 352 to 1443 bp. Our results demonstrate that both amplicon length and primer pair markedly influence estimates of richness and evenness. However, estimates of species evenness are consistent among different primer pairs targeting the same region. These results highlight the importance of experimental methodology when comparing diversity estimates across communities.

  8. Effect of evening primrose oil on platelet aggregation in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz, J P; Martín-Romero, M; Carmona, J A; Villalobos, M A; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    1997-07-01

    Evening primrose oil (Oenothera biennis) is a rich source of omega-6 series fatty acids. We report here the effects of dietary supplementation with evening primrose oil (EPO) on platelet aggregation as the main factor in arterial thrombus formation in an experimental model of atherogenesis in rabbits. A total of 40 male white New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups (n = 10 animals/group): 1: normal diet, 2: atherogenic diet (ATD), 3: normal diet enriched with 15% EPO, 4: ATD + EPO. Each group was kept on the diet for 6 weeks. We determined serum lipid profile, platelet aggregation in whole blood, platelet thromboxane B2 production and platelet lipid peroxides. The atherogenic diet increased platelet aggregation (135% when ADP was used, and 185% when collagen was used as the inducer). Evening primrose oil reduced hyperaggregation to the values obtained in rabbits fed with the normal diet. Thromboxane synthesis was increased from 0.18 to 2.28 nmol/10(9) platelets); EPO reduced this value to 1.38 nmol/10(9) platelets. Lipid peroxides were increased by ATD from 0.27 to 0.81 nmol/10(8) platelets; EPO prevented this increase (0.35 nmol/10(8) platelets). In conclusion, EPO reduced platelet hyperaggregability in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet.

  9. Gait Training in Chronic Stroke Using Walk-Even Feedback Device: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    DeMars, K.

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetrical gait and a reduction in weight bearing on the affected side are a common finding in chronic stroke survivors. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of a shoe insole device that we developed, called Walk-Even, in correcting asymmetric gait in chronic stroke survivors. Six individuals with chronic (>6 months) stroke underwent 8 weeks of intervention with 2 sessions/week, each consisting of 20 minutes of gait training and 20 minutes of lower-extremity strength training. The 2 control participants underwent conventional gait training, while 4 participants underwent gait training using the Walk-Even. Following intervention, all the participants improved on most of the gait measures: peak pressure of the foot, time of transfer of weight from heel-to-forefoot, center of pressure (COP) trajectory, COP velocity, asymmetry ratio of stance, mean-force-heel, mean-force-metatarsals, Timed “Up and Go,” and Activities-specific Balance Scale. The improvement was more pronounced in the 4 participants that underwent training with Walk-Even compared to the control participants. This pilot study suggests that a combination of strength and gait training with real-time feedback may reduce temporal asymmetry and enhance weight-bearing on the affected side in chronic stroke survivors. A large randomized controlled study is needed to confirm its efficacy. PMID:28003995

  10. Gait Training in Chronic Stroke Using Walk-Even Feedback Device: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, V; Khoo, I; Marayong, P; DeMars, K; Cormack, J

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetrical gait and a reduction in weight bearing on the affected side are a common finding in chronic stroke survivors. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of a shoe insole device that we developed, called Walk-Even, in correcting asymmetric gait in chronic stroke survivors. Six individuals with chronic (>6 months) stroke underwent 8 weeks of intervention with 2 sessions/week, each consisting of 20 minutes of gait training and 20 minutes of lower-extremity strength training. The 2 control participants underwent conventional gait training, while 4 participants underwent gait training using the Walk-Even. Following intervention, all the participants improved on most of the gait measures: peak pressure of the foot, time of transfer of weight from heel-to-forefoot, center of pressure (COP) trajectory, COP velocity, asymmetry ratio of stance, mean-force-heel, mean-force-metatarsals, Timed "Up and Go," and Activities-specific Balance Scale. The improvement was more pronounced in the 4 participants that underwent training with Walk-Even compared to the control participants. This pilot study suggests that a combination of strength and gait training with real-time feedback may reduce temporal asymmetry and enhance weight-bearing on the affected side in chronic stroke survivors. A large randomized controlled study is needed to confirm its efficacy.

  11. Experimental factors affecting PCR-based estimates of microbial species richness and evenness.

    PubMed

    Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; Wrighton, Kelly C; Zvenigorodsky, Natasha; Chen, Feng; Ochman, Howard; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2010-05-01

    Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for microbial community profiling can, for equivalent costs, yield more than two orders of magnitude more sensitivity than traditional PCR cloning and Sanger sequencing. With this increased sensitivity and the ability to analyze multiple samples in parallel, it has become possible to evaluate several technical aspects of PCR-based community structure profiling methods. We tested the effect of amplicon length and primer pair on estimates of species richness (number of species) and evenness (relative abundance of species) by assessing the potentially tractable microbial community residing in the termite hindgut. Two regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced from one of two common priming sites, spanning the V1-V2 or V8 regions, using amplicons ranging in length from 352 to 1443 bp. Our results show that both amplicon length and primer pair markedly influence estimates of richness and evenness. However, estimates of species evenness are consistent among different primer pairs targeting the same region. These results highlight the importance of experimental methodology when comparing diversity estimates across communities.

  12. Fundamentals and Special Problems of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Les Aspects Fondamentaux et les Problemes Specifiques aux Radars a Ouverture Synthetique (SAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION: IMAGING OF SHIPS *(x,y)- P(U)IU~e dU d# AT SEA) ) (80) 6.1. Modelization The integral over U is identified as an inverse ...Special SAR-methods like squint-, stretch- and spotlight-techniques for example will be presented in addition to the inverse SAR-techniques using the...pr~sentis en complement des techniques SAR inverses faisant appel aux mouvement des cibles au lieu du mouvement du radar. Le cycle de conferences; se

  13. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  14. Élaboration de couches minces de carbone par ablation laser femtoseconde pour application aux biomatériaux implantables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-06-01

    Des films de tetrahedral amorphous-Carbon (ta-C) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 170 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie maximale par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrats standard et sur biomatériaux (acier AISI 316L, polyéthylène à très haut poids moléculaire). Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, propriétés nanomécaniques et tribologiques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration, en examinant l'intérêt de l'utilisation d'un laser femtoseconde et leur capacité à satisfaire aux exigences spécifiques du domaine biomédical. Les propriétés d'adhérence des films ont été considérablement améliorées lors du dépôt sur des substrats en acier inoxydable préalablement préparés par décapage ionique in situ sous atmosphère d'argon. La surface hémisphérique d'une tête fémorale, en acier inoxydable, de prothèse de hanche de diamètre 22,2 mm a été revêtue d'un film de DLC adhérent et homogène en épaisseur. La résistance à l'usure de ce revêtement sera quantifiée à l'aide d'un simulateur de marche durant un million de cycles (correspondant à une année d'activité physique d'un être humain).

  15. Les surdosages aux antivitamines K à Dakar: aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs

    PubMed Central

    Dia, Khadidiatou; Sarr, Simon Antoine; Mboup, Mohamed Cherif; Ba, Djibril Marie; Fall, Pape Diadie

    2016-01-01

    Les antivitamines K (AVK) sont largement utilisées dans la prévention et le traitement curatif des accidents thromboemboliques. Les objectifs de ce travail étaient de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et évolutifs des surdosages en AVK et d’en déterminer les facteurs hémorragiques. Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive, transversale monocentrique réalisée à l’Hôpital Principal de Dakar. Tous les patients qui présentaient un INR supérieur à 5 étaient inclus. Etaient étudiés le sexe, l’âge du patient, l’AVK utilisé, l’ancienneté de sa prise, les indications, la valeur de l’INR, les médicaments associés, la présence d’hémorragie, la prise en charge immédiate et l’évolution. Nous avons inclus 154 patients. L’acénocoumarol était l’AVK le plus prescrit. Le sexe ratio était en faveur des femmes. L’âge moyen était de 63 ans. Le surdosage était asymptomatique chez 43% des patients. Les hémorragies étaient représentées principalement par des gingivorragies, épistaxis. Des hémorragies majeures étaient présentes chez 8,6% des patients représentées par des mélénas chez 6 patients (3,9%), un hématome musculaire profond chez 2 patients (1,3%) et des hématomes cérébraux intra-parenchymateux chez 2 autres. Deux patients présentaient un collapsus cardiovasculaire avec déglobulisation. Une prise d’AINS était notée chez 21% des patients. Les AVK ont été transitoirement arrêtés chez tous les patients. La mortalité était de 2% par hémorragie intracrânienne. La réduction des surdosages aux AVK passe par une maitrise par le personnel soignant des facteurs de surdosage et par bonne éducation thérapeutique des patients. PMID:27795783

  16. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jeremy; Grosset, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol). Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg) with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP). Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP) protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM) in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs) and evening (PM: 1800 hrs), with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P<0.001) and post (AM: 98.0±9.0, PM: 52.7±6.0 ng/ml, P<0.001) exercise. Interestingly, individual cortisol differences pre vs post exercise indicate a time-of-day effect (AM difference: -2±2.6%, PM difference: 14.0±6.7%, P = 0.03). A time-of-day related elevation in serum IGFBP-3 (AM: 3274.9 ± 345.2, PM: 3605.1 ± 367.5, p = 0.032) was also evident. Pre exercise myogenic index (AM: 8.0±0.6%, PM: 16.8±1.1%) and myotube width (AM: 48.0±3.0, PM: 71.6±1.9 μm) were significantly elevated (P<0.001) in the evening

  17. Testing effects of consumer richness, evenness and body size on ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Julia; Bailey, R A; Perkins, Daniel M; Pluchinotta, Angela; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    1. Numerous studies have revealed (usually positive) relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (B-EF), but the underpinning drivers are rarely addressed explicitly, hindering the development of a more predictive understanding. 2. We developed a suite of statistical models (where we combined existing models with novel ones) to test for richness and evenness effects on detrital processing in freshwater microcosms. Instead of using consumer species as biodiversity units, we used two size classes within three species (six types). This allowed us to test for diversity effects and also to focus on the role of body size and biomass. 3. Our statistical models tested for (i) whether performance in polyculture was more than the sum of its parts (non-additive effects), (ii) the effects of specific type combinations (assemblage identity effects) and (iii) whether types behaved differently when their absolute or relative abundances were altered (e.g. because type abundance in polyculture was lower compared with monoculture). The latter point meant we did not need additional density treatments. 4. Process rates were independent of richness and evenness and all types performed in an additive fashion. The performance of a type was mainly driven by the consumers' metabolic requirements (connected to body size). On an assemblage level, biomass explained a large proportion of detrital processing rates. 5. We conclude that B-EF studies would benefit from widening their statistical approaches. Further, they need to consider biomass of species assemblages and whether biomass is comprised of small or large individuals, because even if all species are present in the same biomass, small species (or individuals) will perform better.

  18. Evening administration of melatonin and bright light: interactions on the EEG during sleep and wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Cajochen, C; Kräuchi, K; Danilenko, K V; Wirz-Justice, A

    1998-09-01

    Both the pineal hormone melatonin and light exposure are considered to play a major role in the circadian regulation of sleep. In a placebo- controlled balanced cross-over design, we investigated the acute effects of exogenous melatonin (5 mg p.o. at 20.40 hours) with or without a 3-h bright light exposure (5000 lux from 21.00 hours-24.00 hours) on subjective sleepiness, internal sleep structure and EEG power density during sleep and wakefulness in healthy young men. The acute effects of melatonin, bright light and their interaction were measured on the first day (treatment day), possible circadian phase shifts were assessed on the post-treatment day. On the treatment day, the evening rise in subjective sleepiness was accelerated after melatonin and protracted during bright light exposure. These effects were also reflected in specific changes of EEG power density in the theta/alpha range during wakefulness. Melatonin shortened and bright light increased sleep latency. REMS latency was reduced after melatonin administration but bright light had no effect. Slow-wave sleep and slow-wave activity during the first non-rapid eye movement (NREMS) episode were suppressed after melatonin administration and rebounded in the second NREMS episode, independent of whether light was co-administered or not. Self rated sleep quality was better after melatonin administration whereas the awakening process was rated as more difficult after bright light. On the post-treatment day after evening bright light, the rise in sleepiness and the onset of sleep were delayed, independent of whether melatonin was co-administered or not. Thus, although acute bright light and melatonin administration affected subjective sleepiness, internal sleep structure and EEG power density during sleep and wakefulness in a additive manner, the phase shifting effect of a single evening bright light exposure could not be blocked by exogenous melatonin.

  19. Predictors and Trajectories of Morning Fatigue Are Distinct from Evening Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Fay; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo; Hammer, Marilyn; Schmidt, Brian L.; Knobf, M. Tish; Paul, Steven M.; Cartwright, Frances; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.; Chen, Lee-May; Melisko, Michelle; Levine, Jon D.; Kober, Kord; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Fatigue is the most common symptom in oncology patients during chemotherapy (CTX). Little is known about the predictors of interindividual variability in initial levels and trajectories of morning fatigue severity in these patients. Objectives An evaluation was done to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with initial levels as well as the trajectories of morning fatigue and to compare findings with our companion paper on evening fatigue. Methods A sample of outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and lung cancer (N=586) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Fatigue severity was evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to answer the study objectives. Results A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the morning fatigue trajectories. A piecewise model fit the data best. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI), who did not exercise regularly, with a lower functional status, and who had higher levels of state anxiety, sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms, reported higher levels of morning fatigue at enrollment. Variations in the trajectories of morning fatigue were predicted by the patients’ ethnicity and younger age. Conclusion The modifiable risk factors that were associated with only morning fatigue were BMI, exercise, and state anxiety. Modifiable risk factors that were associated with both morning and evening fatigue included functional status, depressive symptoms, and sleep disturbance. Using this information, clinicians can identify patients at higher risk for more severe morning fatigue and evening fatigue, provide individualized patient education, and tailor interventions to address the modifiable risk factors. PMID:25828559

  20. Energy levels of odd-even nuclei using broken pair model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamammu, I. M.; Haq, S.; Eldahomi, J. M.

    2012-09-06

    A method to calculate energy levels and wave functions of odd-even nuclei, in the frame work of the broken pair model have been developed. The accuracy of the model has been tested by comparing the shell model results of limiting cases in which the broken pair model exactly coincides with the shell model, where there are two-proton/neutron + one-neutron/proton in the valence levels. The model is then applied to calculate the energy levels of some nuclei in the Zirconium region. The model results compare reasonably well with the shell model as well as with the experimental data.

  1. Even- and Odd-Parity Charmed Meson Masses in Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen; Roxanne Springer

    2005-03-01

    We derive mass formulae for the ground state, J{sup P} = 0{sup -} and 1{sup -}, and first excited even-parity, J{sup P} = 0{sup +} and 1{sup +}, charmed mesons including one loop chiral corrections and {Omicron}(1/m{sub c}) counterterms in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. We show a variety of fits to the current data. We find that certain parameter relations in the parity doubling model are not renormalized at one loop, providing a natural explanation for the equality of the hyperfine splittings of ground state and excited doublets.

  2. Dynamical Systems with AN Even-Multiplicity Lebesgue Component in the Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, O. N.

    1989-02-01

    A general construction of ergodic transformations with Lebesgue component of finite multiplicity is proposed. All known examples with this property can be encompassed within the proposed construction. The spectral and combinatorial properties of the transformations are studied. It is shown that the construction permits one to obtain a continuum of spectrally nonisomorphic transformations with even-multiplicity Lebesgue component. As a rule, the transformations have a continuous spectrum. It is proved that continuum many metrically nonisomorphic transformations having the same spectrum are contained in the proposed class. Proof of all the results uses a combinatorial and approximation technique.Bibliography: 15 titles.

  3. Quadrupole moments of some doubly-even molibden nuclei and the onset of collectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Turkan, N.; Ibis, I.; Maras, I.

    2012-07-15

    A good description of the quadrupole moments is obtained by investigating {sup 94,96,98,100,102,104,106,108}Mo isotopes in terms of the interacting boson model. After the positiveparity states and electromagnetic-transition rates B(E2) of even-mass Mo nuclei were calculated it was seen that there is a good agreement between the obtained results and some previous experimental data. At the end of the quadrupole moment calculations it was proved that the results agree well with the previous experimental data.

  4. (Uncertain) Carbonyl Sulfide Plant Fluxes Spatially Constrain (Even More Uncertain) CO2 GPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, T. W.; Whelan, M.; Kulkarni, S.; Zumkehr, A. L.; Berry, J. A.; Campbell, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    With predictions of future terrestrial carbon dioxide (CO2)gross primary productivity (GPP) remaining stubbornly uncertain,ecosystem carbonyl sulfide (COS) fluxes provide an independent source ofinformation that may be able to reduce that uncertainty. Several openquestions must be addressed before COS may be applied widely as a GPPtracer. Here we employ an atmospheric chemistry and transport model(STEM) and airborne atmospheric COS concentration observations todemonstrate that COS plant uptake spatially constrains CO2 GPP even whenaccounting for soil COS flux uncertainty and COS leaf-scale relativeuptake variability and uncertainty.

  5. Difference between even and odd 11-year cycles in cosmic ray intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaola, J. A.; Perez-Enriquez, R.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray data for the period 1946-1984 are used to determine the run of the cosmic ray intensity over three complete solar cycles. The analysis shows a tendency towards a regular alternation of cosmic ray intensity cycles with double and single maxima. Whereas a saddle-like shape is characteristic of even cycles, odd cycles are characterized by a peak-like shape. The importance of this behavior is discussed in terms of different processes influencing cosmic ray transport in the heliosphere.

  6. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yazar, Harun Resit

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  7. Serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol from SHR after evening primrose oil and other polyunsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Hoffmann, P; Beitz, J; Förster, W; Wirth, M; Gödicke, W

    1986-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed diets enriched with evening primrose (EPO), sunflower (SO) and linseed oils (LO) as well as palm kernel fat (PKF), the latter being deficient in polyunsarated fatty acids (PUFA). In SHR fed EPO serum triglycerides were lowest and HDL1 cholesterol was highest as compared to the other groups of animals. Total cholesterol was not different. The data suggest that - as with blood pressure - serum lipids and lipoproteins might be influenced most effectively by EPO in comparison to other polyunsaturated fats.

  8. Is evening primrose oil of value in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome?

    PubMed

    Budeiri, D; Li Wan Po, A; Dornan, J C

    1996-02-01

    A systematic literature search of clinical trials of evening primrose oil (EPO) for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) was carried out with a view to performing a meta-analysis. Only seven placebo-controlled trials were found but only in five trials was randomization clearly indicated. Inconsistent scoring and response criteria made statistical pooling and hence a rigorous meta-analysis inappropriate. The two most well-controlled studies failed to show any beneficial effects for EPO, although because the trials were relatively small modest effects cannot be excluded. Nonetheless, on current evidence EPO is of little value in the management of premenstrual syndrome.

  9. Extended analysis of the system of even configurations of Ta II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachowska, E.; Dembczyński, J.; Windholz, L.; Ruczkowski, J.; Elantkowska, M.

    2017-01-01

    We performed a parametric study of the fine (fs) and hyperfine structure (hfs) for the even parity configurations of ionized tantalum (Ta II) using improved experimental fs and hfs data for 88 levels. A multi-configuration fitting procedure was performed for 47 configurations taking into account second-order perturbation theory including the effects of closed to open shell excitations. The fs and hfs parameters were calculated. Predicted values of level energies up to 86 000cm-1 are given, as well as gJ-Landé factors, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants A and B, when no experimental values are available.

  10. LATERAL ROOT PRIMORDIA 1 of maize acts as a transcriptional activator in auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA gene rootless with undetectable meristem 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; von Behrens, Inga; Zimmermann, Roman; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Only little is known about target genes of auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA-ARF module. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that maize lateral root primordia 1 (lrp1) encodes a transcriptional activator that is directly regulated by the Aux/IAA protein ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 (RUM1). Expression of lrp1 is confined to early root primordia and meristems and is auxin-inducible. Based on its primary protein structure, LRP1 is predicted to be a transcription factor. This notion is supported by exclusive LRP1 localization in the nucleus and its ability to activate downstream gene activity. Based on the observation that lrp1 transcription is completely repressed in the semi-dominant gain of function mutant rum1, it was demonstrated that the lrp1 promoter is a direct target of RUM1 proteins. Subsequently, promoter activation assays indicated that RUM1 represses the expression of a GFP reporter fused to the native promoter of lrp1. Constitutive repression of lrp1 in rum1 mutants is a consequence of the stability of mutated rum1 proteins which cannot be degraded by the proteasome and thus constitutively bind to the lrp1 promoter and repress transcription. Taken together, the repression of the transcriptional activator lrp1 by direct binding of RUM1 to its promoter, together with specific expression of lrp1 in root meristems, suggests a function in maize root development via the RUM1-dependent auxin signalling pathway.

  11. Once-daily atomoxetine for treating pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: comparison of morning and evening dosing.

    PubMed

    Block, Stan L; Kelsey, Douglas; Coury, Daniel; Lewis, Donald; Quintana, Humberto; Sutton, Virginia; Schuh, Kory; Allen, Albert J; Sumner, Calvin

    2009-09-01

    In this 3-arm, randomized, double-blind trial, once-daily morning-dosed atomoxetine, evening-dosed atomoxetine, and placebo were compared for treating pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients received morning atomoxetine/evening placebo (n = 102), morning placebo/evening atomoxetine (n = 93), or morning placebo/evening placebo (n = 93) for about 6 weeks. Core symptom efficacy was measured at weeks 0, 1, 3, and 6. Parent assessments of the child's home behaviors in the evening and early morning were collected daily during the first 2 weeks of treatment. Morning-dosed and evening-dosed atomoxetine significantly decreased core ADHD symptoms relative to placebo and produced symptom improvements that were measured up to 24 hours later. Morning dosing was superior to evening dosing on some efficacy measures. Evening dosing showed greater tolerability with significantly more patients receiving morning atomoxetine reporting at least 1 adverse event than those receiving evening atomoxetine.

  12. Observation of even denominator fractional quantum Hall effect in suspended bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Ki, Dong-Keun; Fal'ko, Vladimir I; Abanin, Dmitry A; Morpurgo, Alberto F

    2014-01-01

    We investigate low-temperature magneto-transport in recently developed, high-quality multiterminal suspended bilayer graphene devices, enabling the independent measurement of the longitudinal and transverse resistance. We observe clear signatures of the fractional quantum Hall effect with different states that are either fully developed, and exhibit a clear plateau in the transverse resistance with a concomitant dip in longitudinal resistance or incipient, and exhibit only a longitudinal resistance minimum. All observed states scale as a function of filling factor ν, as expected. An unprecedented even-denominator fractional state is observed at ν = -1/2 on the hole side, exhibiting a clear plateau in Rxy quantized at the expected value of 2h/e(2) with a precision of ∼0.5%. Many of our observations, together with a recent electronic compressibility measurement performed in graphene bilayers on hexagonal boron-nitride (hBN) substrates, are consistent with a recent theory that accounts for the effect of the degeneracy between the N = 0 and N = 1 Landau levels in the fractional quantum Hall effect and predicts the occurrence of a Moore-Read type ν = -1/2 state. Owing to the experimental flexibility of bilayer graphene, which has a gate-dependent band structure, can be easily accessed by scanning probes, and can be contacted with materials such as superconductors, our findings offer new possibilities to explore the microscopic nature of even-denominator fractional quantum Hall effect.

  13. Emerging Ecosystems Change the Spatial Distribution of Top Carnivores Even in Poorly Populated Areas

    PubMed Central

    Barbar, Facundo; Werenkraut, Victoria; Morales, Juan Manuel; Lambertucci, Sergio Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Humans affect biological diversity and species distribution patterns by modifying resource availability and generating novel environments where generalist species benefit and specialist species are rare. In particular, cities create local homogenization while roads fragment habitat, although both processes can increase food availability for some species that may be able to take advantage of this new source. We studied space use by birds of prey in relation to human construction, hypothesizing that these birds would be affected even in poorly populated areas. We worked in Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which is experiencing a high population growth, but still having very large unpopulated areas. We related the presence of raptors with different sources of human disturbance and found that both the abundance and richness of these birds were positively associated with anthropogenic environments. These results are driven mostly by a strong association between the medium-sized generalist species and these novel environments (mainly roads and cities). This may create an imbalance in intra-guild competitive abilities, modifying the normal structures of top carnivore hierarchies. Indeed, the structure of raptor communities seems to be changing, even in poorly populated areas, with anthropogenic constructions seemingly producing changes in wild areas more promptly than thought, a cause for concern in ecosystems conservation issues. PMID:25799547

  14. Accommodation of particular foods or beverages into spontaneously ingested evening meals.

    PubMed

    de Castro, J M

    1994-08-01

    Previous research has indicated that individual foods or beverages are ingested independently and do not produce adjustments to the intake of other constituents in the diet (de Castro, 1993; Wilson, 1991). In order to eliminate time of day as a potential contaminant, the present study investigated the accommodation of foods and beverages into the amount ingested at large evening meals only. Adults (n = 601) were paid to maintain detailed diaries of the timings, quantities and preparation techniques of everything they ingested for seven consecutive days. With the exceptions of soup, beef and chicken, 12 out of 15 types of drinks or foods were found to add to the total calories ingested in evening meals without displacing calories ingested in other forms, while ingestion of non-caloric diet sodas was not associated with differences in intake. The fat and protein, but not carbohydrate, contents of the items correlated with a measure of the satiating properties of the particular food or beverage, namely the correlation between the amount ingested of the particular type and the amounts of other nutrients ingested in the meal. The results confirm that intake at a meal is quite elastic and can be significantly influenced by the presence or absence of particular components of the meal and their constituents.

  15. Characterization and localization of the even-skipped protein of Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, M; Hoey, T; Rushlow, C; Doyle, H; Levine, M

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of homeo box cross-homology we have isolated the pair-rule gene even-skipped (eve) of Drosophila. The eve transcription unit appears to be less than 1.5 kb in length, and encodes a single mRNA of approximately 1.4 kb. The nucleotide sequence of genomic and cDNA clones indicates that the eve protein is composed of 376 amino acid residues, and that its homeo domain shares only approximately 50% amino acid identity with the homeo domains of previously characterized genes. Using antibodies raised against a beta-galactosidase fusion protein we show that the eve protein is distributed in a series of seven transverse stripes at the cellular blastoderm stage, and is localized primarily within the nuclear regions of those embryonic cells that express the gene. After gastrulation, seven weakly stained stripes of eve expression appear, resulting in a transient pattern that consists of a total of 14 evenly spaced stripes. Both the original and new stripes gradually disappear during germ band elongation. A second expression pattern emerges during neurogenesis, whereby eve protein is detected in discrete subsets of neurons in each of the ventral ganglia. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2884106

  16. Tissue-specific NETs alter genome organization and regulation even in a heterologous system

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras, Jose I.; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Different cell types exhibit distinct patterns of 3D genome organization that correlate with changes in gene expression in tissue and differentiation systems. Several tissue-specific nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) have been found to influence the spatial positioning of genes and chromosomes that normally occurs during tissue differentiation. Here we study 3 such NETs: NET29, NET39, and NET47, which are expressed preferentially in fat, muscle and liver, respectively. We found that even when exogenously expressed in a heterologous system they can specify particular genome organization patterns and alter gene expression. Each NET affected largely different subsets of genes. Notably, the liver-specific NET47 upregulated many genes in HT1080 fibroblast cells that are normally upregulated in hepatogenesis, showing that tissue-specific NETs can favor expression patterns associated with the tissue where the NET is normally expressed. Similarly, global profiling of peripheral chromatin after exogenous expression of these NETs using lamin B1 DamID revealed that each NET affected the nuclear positioning of distinct sets of genomic regions with a significant tissue-specific component. Thus NET influences on genome organization can contribute to gene expression changes associated with differentiation even in the absence of other factors and overt cellular differentiation changes. PMID:28045568

  17. Regenerated Synapses in Lamprey Spinal Cord Are Sparse and Small Even After Functional Recovery From Injury

    PubMed Central

    Oliphint, Paul A.; Alieva, Naila; Foldes, Andrea E.; Tytell, Eric D.; Lau, Billy Y.-B.; Pariseau, Jenna S.; Cohen, Avis H.; Morgan, Jennifer R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential importance that synapse regeneration plays in restoring neuronal function after spinal cord injury (SCI), even the most basic questions about the morphology of regenerated synapses remain unanswered. Therefore, we set out to gain a better understanding of central synapse regeneration by examining the number, distribution, molecular composition, and ultrastructure of regenerated synapses under conditions in which behavioral recovery from SCI was robust. To do so, we used the giant reticulospinal (RS) neurons of lamprey spinal cord because they readily regenerate, are easily identifiable, and contain large synapses that serve as a classic model for vertebrate excitatory neurotransmission. Using a combination of light and electron microscopy, we found that regenerated giant RS synapses regained the basic structures and presynaptic organization observed at control giant RS synapses at a time when behavioral recovery was nearly complete. However, several obvious differences remained. Most strikingly, regenerated giant RS axons produced very few synapses. In addition, presynaptic sites within regenerated axons were less complex, had fewer vesicles, and had smaller active zones than normal. In contrast, the densities of presynapses and docked vesicles were nearly restored to control values. Thus, robust functional recovery from SCI can occur even when the structures of regenerated synapses are sparse and small, suggesting that functional recovery is due to a more complex set of compensatory changes throughout the spinal network. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:2854–2872, 2010. PMID:20506479

  18. Variable aberration generator using a high-order even aspheric singlet for testing optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinfeng; Chen, Shanyong; Xue, Shuai

    2016-10-01

    Traditional null optics is generally designed for a particular optical surface. It must be redesigned when the test surface is changed no matter the null optic is reflective, transmitted or a CGH. Development of advanced optical machining and testing based on deterministic figuring and null test makes it possible to apply high-order aspheres. This paper presents a plano-concave singlet to realize variable aberration correction for testing different surfaces. The concave surface is an even asphere with high-order terms. By changing the axial distances among the transmission sphere, the null singlet and the test surface, variable aberrations are generated to meet the aberration balance requirement for various surfaces. The residual aberrations are confirmed within the vertical dynamic range of measurement of the interferometer. It enables flexible testing of optical surfaces without dedicated null optics. The optical design verifies that the aspheric singlet can be used to test conic surfaces with different conic constant and radius of curvature ranging from ellipsoid, paraboloid to hyperboloid and an even asphere.

  19. Morphine causes persistent induction of nitrated neurofilaments in cortex and subcortex even during abstinence.

    PubMed

    Pal, A; Das, S

    2015-04-16

    Morphine has a profound role in neurofilament (NF) expression. However, there are very few studies on the fate of NFs during morphine abstinence coinciding with periods of relapse. Mice were treated chronically with morphine to render them tolerant to and dependent on morphine and sacrificed thereafter while another group, treated similarly, was left for 2 months without morphine. A long-lasting alteration in the stoichiometric ratio of the three NFs was observed under both conditions in both the cortex and subcortex. Morphine abstinence caused significant alterations in the phosphorylated and nitrated forms of the three NF subunits. Nitrated neurofilament light polypeptide chain (NFL) was significantly increased during chronic morphine treatment which persisted even after 2 months of morphine withdrawal. Mass spectrometric analysis following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE)-gel electrophoresis of cytoskeleton fractions of both cortex and subcortex regions identified enzymes associated with energy metabolism, cytoskeleton-associated proteins as well as NFs which showed sustained regulation even after abstinence of morphine for 2 months. It is suggestive that alteration in the levels of some of these proteins may be instrumental in the increased nitration of NFL during morphine exposure. Such gross alteration in NF dynamics is indicative of a concerted biological process of neuroadaptation during morphine abstinence.

  20. Evening hyperphagia and food motivation: a preliminary study of neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jennifer D; Patrician, Trisha M; Breslin, Florence J; Martin, Laura E; Donnelly, Joseph E; Savage, Cary R

    2013-12-01

    Evening hyperphagia (EH; consumption of ≥25% of total daily calories after the evening meal) is a circadian delay in the pattern of daily food intake and is a core criterion of night eating syndrome (Allison et al., 2010). This preliminary study examined the brain response to food cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in seven obese adults with EH compared to seven obese adults without EH. When contrasting food to non-food and blurry baseline images pre-meal, groups differed in brain activation in the inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and cerebellum. At post meal, groups differed in brain activation in the fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and the cerebellum. Significant interactions between time (pre-meal, post-meal) and group (EH, control) when contrasting food to non-food images were also noted in the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. Further research is necessary to replicate these findings and determine if they have a mechanistic role in the development of circadian delayed eating behavior in obese adults with EH.

  1. Spatial properties of odd and even low order harmonics generated in gas

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, G.; Andreev, A.; Gautier, J.; Giannessi, L.; Malka, V.; Petralia, A.; Sebban, S.; Stremoukhov, S.; Tissandier, F.; Vodungbo, B.; Zeitoun, Ph.

    2015-01-01

    High harmonic generation in gases is developing rapidly as a soft X-ray femtosecond light-source for applications. This requires control over all the harmonics characteristics and in particular, spatial properties have to be kept very good. In previous literature, measurements have always included several harmonics contrary to applications, especially spectroscopic applications, which usually require a single harmonic. To fill this gap, we present here for the first time a detailed study of completely isolated harmonics. The contribution of the surrounding harmonics has been totally suppressed using interferential filtering which is available for low harmonic orders. In addition, this allows to clearly identify behaviors of standard odd orders from even orders obtained by frequency-mixing of a fundamental laser and of its second harmonic. Comparisons of the spatial intensity profiles, of the spatial coherence and of the wavefront aberration level of 5ω at 160 nm and 6ω at 135 nm have then been performed. We have established that the fundamental laser beam aberrations can cause the appearance of a non-homogenous donut-shape in the 6ω spatial intensity distribution. This undesirable effect can be easily controlled. We finally conclude that the spatial quality of an even harmonic can be as excellent as in standard generation. PMID:25585715

  2. Neurite outgrowth is driven by actin polymerization even in the presence of actin polymerization inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Jonathan X.; Efimova, Nadia; Svitkina, Tatyana M.

    2016-01-01

    Actin polymerization is a universal mechanism to drive plasma membrane protrusion in motile cells. One apparent exception to this rule is continuing or even accelerated outgrowth of neuronal processes in the presence of actin polymerization inhibitors. This fact, together with the key role of microtubule dynamics in neurite outgrowth, led to the concept that microtubules directly drive plasma membrane protrusion either in the course of polymerization or by motor-driven sliding. The possibility that unextinguished actin polymerization drives neurite outgrowth in the presence of actin drugs was not explored. We show that cultured hippocampal neurons treated with cytochalasin D or latrunculin B contained dense accumulations of branched actin filaments at ∼50% of neurite tips at all tested drug concentrations (1–10 μM). Actin polymerization is required for neurite outgrowth because only low concentrations of either inhibitor increased the length and/or number of neurites, whereas high concentrations inhibited neurite outgrowth. Of importance, neurites undergoing active elongation invariably contained a bright F-actin patch at the tip, whereas actin-depleted neurites never elongated, even though they still contained dynamic microtubules. Stabilization of microtubules by Taxol treatment did not stop elongation of cytochalasin–treated neurites. We conclude that actin polymerization is indispensable for neurite elongation. PMID:27682586

  3. Even modest prediction accuracy of genomic models can have large clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Vazquez, Ana I.; Argyropoulos, George A.; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Whole Genome Prediction (WGP) jointly fits thousands of SNPs into a regression model to yield estimates for the contribution of markers to the overall variance of a particular trait, and for their associations with that trait. To date, WGP has offered only modest prediction accuracy, but in some cases even modest prediction accuracy may be useful. We provide an illustration of this using a theoretical simulation that used WGP to predict weight loss after bariatric surgery with moderate accuracy (R2 = 0.07) to assess the clinical utility of WGP despite these limitations. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) post-surgery was considered the major outcome. Treating only patients above predefined threshold of predicted weight loss in our simulation, in the realistic context of finite resources for the surgery, significantly reduced lifetime risk of T2DM in the treatable population by selecting those most likely to succeed. Thus, our example illustrates how WGP may be clinically useful in some situations, and even with moderate accuracy, may provide a clear path for turning personalized medicine from theory to reality. PMID:25506355

  4. Even-odd spatial nonequivalence for atomic quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. S.; Gupta, Reena

    2014-05-01

    A general expression for the density of states (DOS) of power-law trapped d-dimensional ideal quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) is derived and is found to bifurcate into even- dand odd- d classes. The expressions for the grand potential and hence for several thermodynamic quantities are then shown to be amenable to exact analytical forms provided d is an odd integer. Also, a condition γ < 2 d is obtained in case of odd- d for appearance of the Bose-Einstein condensation with γ as the power-law exponent. It is thus established that isotropic SOCs render even and odd dimensional spaces nonequivalent for uniform as well as trapped gases, and that the DOS of one-dimensional (1D) ideal gases, uniform or trapped, remains unaffected by the SOC. Furthermore, the analytical study of the transition temperature and the condensate fraction in a 3D Bose gas under combined presence of the harmonic trapping and the Weyl coupling shows that the condensation is favored by the former but disfavored by the latter. This countering behavior is discussed to be in conformity with the exchange-symmetry-induced statistical interactions resulting from these two entities as enunciated recently [Phys. Rev. A 88, 053607 (2013)].

  5. Temporal Change in Functional Richness and Evenness in the Eastern African Plio-Pleistocene Carnivoran Guild

    PubMed Central

    Werdelin, Lars; Lewis, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze functional richness and functional evenness of the carnivoran guild in eastern Africa from 3.5 Ma to 1.5 Ma, and compare them to the present day. The data consist of characters of the craniodental apparatus of 76 species of fossil and extant carnivorans, divided into four 0.5 Ma time slices from 3.5 to 1.5 Ma, together with the modern fauna. Focus is on large (>21.5 kg) carnivores. Results show that the large carnivore guild has lost nearly 99% of its functional richness since 3.5 Ma, in a process starting prior to 2 Ma. Measurement of functional evenness shows the modern large carnivore guild to be unique in being randomly distributed in morphospace while in all past time slices there is significant clustering of species. The results are analyzed in the light of known changes to climate and environment in eastern Africa. We conclude that climate change is unlikely to explain all of the changes found and suggest that the evolution of early hominins into carnivore niche space, especially the evolution of derived dietary strategies after 2 Ma, played a significant part in the reduction of carnivore functional richness. PMID:23483948

  6. Systematics of the α-decay fine structure in even–even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Delion, D.S.; Dumitrescu, A.

    2015-01-15

    We describe α-transitions to low-lying states in even–even nuclei with Z>50,N>82 using the Coherent State Model (CSM). We reproduce the energy levels and electromagnetic transition rates between the states of the ground band employing two parameters, namely the deformation parameter and the strength of the harmonic CSM Hamiltonian. The B(E2) values are described in terms of an effective charge which depends linearly on the deformation parameter. The treatment of the α-emission process is based on an α–daughter interaction containing a monopole component, calculated through a double folding procedure with a M3Y interaction plus a repulsive core simulating the Pauli principle, and a quadrupole–quadrupole (QQ) interaction. The decaying states are identified with the lowest narrow outgoing resonances obtained through the coupled channels method. The α-branching ratios to 2{sup +} states are reproduced by means of the QQ strength. This interaction strength can be fitted with a linear dependence on the deformation parameter, as predicted by the CSM. The theoretical intensities to 4{sup +} and 6{sup +} states are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. Predictions are made for spherical, transitional and well deformed even–even α-emitters.

  7. Adaptive molecular evolution of a defence gene in sexual but not functionally asexual evening primroses.

    PubMed

    Hersch-Green, E I; Myburg, H; Johnson, M T J

    2012-08-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction provides evolutionary advantages over asexual reproduction by reducing mutational load and increasing adaptive potential. Here, we test the latter prediction in the context of plant defences against pathogens because pathogens frequently reduce plant fitness and drive the evolution of plant defences. Specifically, we ask whether sexual evening primrose plant lineages (Onagraceae) have faster rates of adaptive molecular evolution and altered gene expression of a class I chitinase, a gene implicated in defence against pathogens, than functionally asexual evening primrose lineages. We found that the ratio of amino acid to silent substitutions (K(a) /K(s) = 0.19 vs. 0.11 for sexual and asexual lineages, respectively), the number of sites identified to be under positive selection (four vs. zero for sexual and asexual lineages, respectively) and the expression of chitinase were all higher in sexual than in asexual lineages. Our results are congruent with the conclusion that a loss of sexual recombination and segregation in the Onagraceae negatively affects adaptive structural and potentially regulatory evolution of a plant defence protein.

  8. Molecular evidence from retroposons that whales form a clade within even-toed ungulates.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, M; Yasue, H; Ohshima, K; Abe, H; Kato, H; Kishiro, T; Goto, M; Munechika, I; Okada, N

    1997-08-14

    The origin of whales and their transition from terrestrial life to a fully aquatic existence has been studied in depth. Palaeontological, morphological and molecular studies suggest that the order Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises) is more closely related to the order Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates, including cows, camels and pigs) than to other ungulate orders. The traditional view that the order Artiodactyla is monophyletic has been challenged by molecular analyses of variations in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. We have characterized two families of short interspersed elements (SINEs) that were present exclusively in the genomes of whales, ruminants and hippopotamuses, but not in those of camels and pigs. We made an extensive survey of retropositional events that might have occurred during the divergence of whales and even-toed ungulates. We have characterized nine retropositional events of a SINE unit, each of which provides phylogenetic resolution of the relationships among whales, ruminants, hippopotamuses and pigs. Our data provide evidence that whales, ruminants and hippopotamuses form a monophyletic group.

  9. Emerging ecosystems change the spatial distribution of top carnivores even in poorly populated areas.

    PubMed

    Barbar, Facundo; Werenkraut, Victoria; Morales, Juan Manuel; Lambertucci, Sergio Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Humans affect biological diversity and species distribution patterns by modifying resource availability and generating novel environments where generalist species benefit and specialist species are rare. In particular, cities create local homogenization while roads fragment habitat, although both processes can increase food availability for some species that may be able to take advantage of this new source. We studied space use by birds of prey in relation to human construction, hypothesizing that these birds would be affected even in poorly populated areas. We worked in Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which is experiencing a high population growth, but still having very large unpopulated areas. We related the presence of raptors with different sources of human disturbance and found that both the abundance and richness of these birds were positively associated with anthropogenic environments. These results are driven mostly by a strong association between the medium-sized generalist species and these novel environments (mainly roads and cities). This may create an imbalance in intra-guild competitive abilities, modifying the normal structures of top carnivore hierarchies. Indeed, the structure of raptor communities seems to be changing, even in poorly populated areas, with anthropogenic constructions seemingly producing changes in wild areas more promptly than thought, a cause for concern in ecosystems conservation issues.

  10. What type of person are you? Old-fashioned thinking even in modern science.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth M; Lambert, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    People around the world have folk origin myths, stories that explain where they came from and account for their place in the world and their differences from other peoples. As scientists, however, we claim to be seeking literal historical truth. In Western culture, typological ideas about human variation are at least as ancient as written discussion of the subject, and have dominated both social and scientific thinking about race. From Herodotus to the Biblical lost tribes of Israel, and surprisingly even to today, it has been common to view our species as composed of distinct, or even discrete groups, types, or "races," with other individuals admixed from among those groups. Such rhetoric goes so much against the well-known evolutionary realities that it must reflect something deep about human thought, at least in Western culture. Typological approaches can be convenient for some pragmatic aspects of scientific analysis, but they can be seductively deceiving. We know how to think differently and should do so, given the historical abuses that have occurred as a result of typological thinking that seem always to lurk in the human heart.

  11. Genetic architecture underlying morning and evening circadian phenotypes in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vaze, K M; Nikhil, K L; Sharma, V K

    2013-10-01

    Circadian rhythms are perhaps among the genetically best characterized behaviours. Several mutations with drastic effects on circadian processes have been identified and models developed to explain how clock genes and their products generate self-sustained oscillations. Although natural variations in circadian phenotypes have been studied extensively, the genetic basis of such adaptive variations remains largely unknown. Here we report the results of a preliminary genetic analysis of adaptive divergence of circadian phenotypes in populations of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster. Two sets of populations, 'early' and 'late', were created in a long-term laboratory selection for morning and evening emergence, with four independent replicates each. Over the course of ∼55 generations, the early flies evolved increased morning emergence and a shorter circadian period, whereas late flies evolved increased evening emergence and longer period. To examine the genetic basis of circadian phenotypes, we set up crosses between early and late flies, and monitored emergence and activity/rest rhythms in the F1, backcrossed and F2 progeny. Our analysis suggests that the genetic basis of divergent circadian phenotypes in early and late stocks is primarily autosomal. Line-cross analysis revealed that additive and non-additive genetic effects contribute to the divergence of circadian phenotypes in early and late flies.

  12. Evening primose oil and fish oil are ineffective as supplementary treatment of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Stenius-Aarniala, B; Aro, A; Hakulinen, A; Ahola, I; Seppälä, E; Vapaatalo, H

    1989-06-01

    The effect of daily dietary supplementation with 15 to 20 mL of evening primrose seed oil or fish oil was assessed by comparison with olive oil as placebo in a cross-over study in 29 asthmatics. During 10 weeks of each regimen, the patients kept record of symptoms, peak expiratory flow rates and medication. Plasma and urine TxB2, PGE2, PGF2 alpha and 6 keto-PGF1 alpha and plasma fatty acid composition of plasma cholesterol esters were measured at the end of each treatment period. There were no differences between regimes with regard to peak flow rates, symptoms, or drug consumption. Plasma PGE2 levels increased during the fish oil treatment but there were no changes in other prostanoids in plasma or urine. The fatty acid pattern of plasma cholesterol esters showed significant differences between the supplementation periods. We conclude that moderate doses of evening primrose oil or fish oil are ineffective as a supplementary treatment of bronchial asthma.

  13. The effect of shadow fronts on dynamics of the surface layer during evening transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardyjak, E.; Hoch, S. W.; Jensen, D. D.; Gunawardena, N.; Di Sabatino, S.; Whiteman, C. D.; Leo, L.; Hocut, C. M.; Higgins, C. W.; Fernando, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Two MATERHORN-X (Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observation Program) field campaigns were conducted at Dugway, UT, USA during the last year. An Autumn Campaign from 25 September - 21 October 2012 and a Spring Campaign from 1- 31 May 2013. A subset of the campaigns included dense observations along the East Slope of Granit Peak (40.096° N, -113.253° W). Observations included five multi-sonic anemometer eddy covariance towers (two with full energy budget stations), eleven small energy budget stations, fifteen automated weather stations, a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system, hot-film anemometry, infrared camera surface temperature observations and up to three Doppler lidars. For this presentation, our analysis will focus on characterizing the response of mean wind and thermodynamics variables, as well as turbulence quantities during the evening transitions on East Slope. Previous observations have indicated that the dynamics of turbulence during evening transitions in steep mountainous terrain rapidly follows surface temperature changes associated with shadows produced by the local topography. The observations of flow transitions over the more moderate East Slope of Granite (~3-8%) indicate that wind shift direction and turbulence decay is not as tightly coupled to the shadow. Details of the transition response will be presented in the context of a new process model.

  14. Partition functions in even dimensional AdS via quasinormal mode methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Cynthia; Ng, Gim Seng

    2014-06-01

    In this note, we calculate the one-loop determinant for a massive scalar (with conformal dimension Δ) in even-dimensional AdS d+1 space, using the quasinormal mode method developed in [1] by Denef, Hartnoll, and Sachdev. Working first in two dimensions on the related Euclidean hyperbolic plane H 2, we find a series of zero modes for negative real values of Δ whose presence indicates a series of poles in the one-loop partition function Z(Δ) in the Δ complex plane; these poles contribute temperature-independent terms to the thermal AdS partition function computed in [1]. Our results match those in a series of papers by Camporesi and Higuchi, as well as Gopakumar et al. [2] and Banerjee et al. [3]. We additionally examine the meaning of these zero modes, finding that they Wick-rotate to quasinormal modes of the AdS2 black hole. They are also interpretable as matrix elements of the discrete series representations of SO(2, 1) in the space of smooth functions on S 1. We generalize our results to general even dimensional AdS2 n , again finding a series of zero modes which are related to discrete series representations of SO(2 n, 1), the motion group of H 2 n .

  15. Quantitative analysis of anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging triterpenoid esters in evening primrose seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Janine; Potterat, Olivier; Plescher, Andreas; Honermeier, Bernd; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-09-06

    Lipophilic triterpenoidal esters with radical scavenging and cyclooxygenase inhibitory properties were recently found in cold-pressed, nonraffinated evening primrose oil (EPO). A quantitative assay for the analysis of 3-O-trans-caffeoyl derivatives of betulinic, morolic, and oleanolic acid in evening primrose seeds was developed and validated. Extraction efficiency >99% was achieved by means of pressurized liquid extraction with two extraction cycles and 80% (v/v) ethanol at 120 degrees C. Analysis of esters was by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a Diol column and hexane/ethyl acetate (containing 0.1% formic acid) (65:35) as the eluent. The analytes were determined without further prepurification. Seeds from defined cultures of Oenothera biennis, Oenothera lamarckiana, and Oenothera ammophila, grown under identical conditions, were analyzed. The cultures originated from seeds from eight collections in the wild and from selections from five cultivars. The content of total triterpenoidal esters in seeds varied between 1.34 and 2.78 mg/g. Three types of qualitative patterns were observed for the triterpenoidal esters. The influence of different harvest times and plant treatments was studied with the cultivar Anothera. Variations between 1.5 and 2.3 mg/g were found.

  16. Genetic architecture underlying morning and evening circadian phenotypes in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Vaze, K M; Nikhil, K L; Sharma, V K

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are perhaps among the genetically best characterized behaviours. Several mutations with drastic effects on circadian processes have been identified and models developed to explain how clock genes and their products generate self-sustained oscillations. Although natural variations in circadian phenotypes have been studied extensively, the genetic basis of such adaptive variations remains largely unknown. Here we report the results of a preliminary genetic analysis of adaptive divergence of circadian phenotypes in populations of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster. Two sets of populations, ‘early' and ‘late', were created in a long-term laboratory selection for morning and evening emergence, with four independent replicates each. Over the course of ∼55 generations, the early flies evolved increased morning emergence and a shorter circadian period, whereas late flies evolved increased evening emergence and longer period. To examine the genetic basis of circadian phenotypes, we set up crosses between early and late flies, and monitored emergence and activity/rest rhythms in the F1, backcrossed and F2 progeny. Our analysis suggests that the genetic basis of divergent circadian phenotypes in early and late stocks is primarily autosomal. Line-cross analysis revealed that additive and non-additive genetic effects contribute to the divergence of circadian phenotypes in early and late flies. PMID:23612693

  17. Insulin resistance is associated with gallstones even in non-obese, non-diabetic Korean men.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Eunju; Ryu, Seungho; Park, Yong-Woo; Jang, Yu Mi; Park, Minseon

    2008-08-01

    It remains unclear as to whether insulin resistance alone or in the presence of wellknown risk factors, such as diabetes or obesity, is associated with gallstones in men. The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is associated independently with gallstone disease in non-diabetic men, regardless of obesity. Study subjects were 19,503 Korean men, aged 30-69 yr, with fasting blood glucose level <126 mg/dL and without a documented history of diabetes. Gallbladder status was assessed via abdominal ultrasonography after overnight fast. Body mass index and waist circumference were measured. Insulin resistance was estimated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome in the subjects with gallstones were higher than in those without. The prevalence of elevated HOMA (>75 percentile) in subjects with gallstones was significantly higher than in those without, and this association remained even after the obesity stratification was applied. In multiple logistic regression analyses, only age and HOMA proved to be independent predictors of gallstones. Insulin resistance was positively associated with gallstones in non-diabetic Korean men, and this occurred regardless of obesity. Gallstones appear to be a marker for insulin resistance, even in non-diabetic, nonobese men.

  18. Unique sudden onsets capture attention even when observers are in feature-search mode.

    PubMed

    Spalek, Thomas M; Yanko, Matthew R; Poiese, Paola; Lagroix, Hayley E P

    2012-01-01

    Two sources of attentional capture have been proposed: stimulus-driven (exogenous) and goal-oriented (endogenous). A resolution between these modes of capture has not been straightforward. Even such a clearly exogenous event as the sudden onset of a stimulus can be said to capture attention endogenously if observers operate in singleton-detection mode rather than feature-search mode. In four experiments we show that a unique sudden onset captures attention even when observers are in feature-search mode. The displays were rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) streams of differently coloured letters with the target letter defined by a specific colour. Distractors were four #s, one of the target colour, surrounding one of the non-target letters. Capture was substantially reduced when the onset of the distractor array was not unique because it was preceded by other sets of four grey # arrays in the RSVP stream. This provides unambiguous evidence that attention can be captured both exogenously and endogenously within a single task.

  19. What Type of Person Are You? Old-Fashioned Thinking Even in Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Kenneth M.; Lambert, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    People around the world have folk origin myths, stories that explain where they came from and account for their place in the world and their differences from other peoples. As scientists, however, we claim to be seeking literal historical truth. In Western culture, typological ideas about human variation are at least as ancient as written discussion of the subject, and have dominated both social and scientific thinking about race. From Herodotus to the Biblical lost tribes of Israel, and surprisingly even to today, it has been common to view our species as composed of distinct, or even discrete groups, types, or “races,” with other individuals admixed from among those groups. Such rhetoric goes so much against the well-known evolutionary realities that it must reflect something deep about human thought, at least in Western culture. Typological approaches can be convenient for some pragmatic aspects of scientific analysis, but they can be seductively deceiving. We know how to think differently and should do so, given the historical abuses that have occurred as a result of typological thinking that seem always to lurk in the human heart. PMID:24384573

  20. Proceedings for the Annual Meeting of the Association of University Evening Colleges on the Evening College: University and Community Relations (27th, Dallas, Texas, October 24-28, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Thomas J.

    Proceedings of the 1965 convention of the Association of University Evening Colleges contain a presentation on university and community relations as observed by the evening director at Loyola University of the South, a summary of discussion on the problems and prospects of evening divisions, discussion sessions on special interests (womens…

  1. Magnetic Dipole Moment Measurements of Picosecond States in Even and Odd Heavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballon, Douglas Jude

    The perturbed angular correlation and transient field technique is used to measure the precession of nuclear magnetic moments of low lying excited states in isotopes of silver, neodymium, samarium, and gadolinium. The precession measurements are used to explore three main areas of study. First, from the measurements made on ('150)Sm traversing gadolinium targets, the temperature dependence of the transient hyperfine field is deduced at ('150)Sm nuclei traveling at 2 < v/v(,0) < 4. These are compared with similar measurements made using iron targets. Second, the deduced values of the g-factors of the 2(,1)('+) states in even neodymium, samarium and gadolinium isotopes are discussed in connection with a possible proton shell closure at Z = 64. Third, the deduced values of the g-factors of the 3/2(,1)('-) and 5/2(,1)('-) states of ('107,109)Ag are compared to various theoretical predictions in order to explore any simple relationships that may exist between these states and the first 2(,1)('+) states of neighboring even-even nuclei. The following is a list of g-factors that were measured during the course of this work: (UNFORMATTED TABLE FOLLOWS). g(('107)Ag, 3/2(,1)('-)) = 0.607 (119). g(('109)Ag, 3/2(,1)('-)) = 0.661 (105). g(('107)Ag, 5/2(,1)('-)) = 0.409 (66). g(('109)Ag, 5/2(,1)('-)) = 0.287 (57). g(('144)Nd, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.166 (41). g(('146)Nd, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.312 (49). g(('148)Nd, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.411 (42). g(('150)Nd,2(,1)('+)) = 0.418 (38). g(('148)Sm, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.301 (33). g(('150)Sm, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.381 (27). g(('152)Gd, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.444 (40). (TABLE ENDS). The results of the temperature dependence experiment show deviations from an earlier measurement made using thulium in iron. The g-factors measured in the lighter isotopes of neodymium and samarium are significantly below the collective Z/A value. Fair agreement with the data can be obtained if proton shell closure is assumed at Z = 64 for N < 88. The measured g-factors in the silver isotopes

  2. Photon Scattering from the Stable Even-Mass Mo Isotopes Below the Neutron-Separation Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusev, G.; Hutcheson, A.; Kwan, E.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Angell, C.; Hammond, S.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Schwengner, R.; Dönau, F.; Wagner, A.

    2008-10-01

    We present results from photon-scattering experiments on the stable even-mass molybdenum isotopes below the neutron-separation energy carried out with bremsstrahlung at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE at the Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf in Germany, and with monoenergetic photon beams at the HIγS facility at TUNL. We applied statistical methods in order to correct for the branching and cascade transitions and to determine the photoabsorption cross section. The obtained results allowed us to extend the tail of the Giant Dipole Resonance below the (,) threshold down to 4 MeV. The photoabsorption cross sections deduced from the present experiments show that the dipole strength increases with the neutron number of the Mo isotopes. The experimental results are discussed in the frame of Quasiparticle-Random-Phase-Approximation in a deformed basis which describe the increasing strength as a result of the deformation.

  3. Systematic study of low-spin states in even Cd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumpulainen, J.; Julin, R.; Kantele, J.; Passoja, A.; Trzaska, W. H.; Verho, E.; Väärämäki, J.; Cutoiu, D.; Ivascu, M.

    1992-02-01

    Low-lying low-spin collective states in even 106-112Cd and 116Cd were investigated using in-beam and off-beam γ-ray and conversion-electron spectroscopy. New spin assignments and decay branching ratios for the levels in 106Cd, 108Cd, 110Cd, and 112Cd were obtained. The present results essentially complement the level systematics from 106Cd to 120Cd. From the new data, it is inferred that two sets of low-lying 0+ states having different excitation characteristics cross between 114Cd and 116Cd. No corresponding crossing occurs on the neutron deficient side. New evidence for the existence of the proton-intruder states has been found.

  4. Mesothelioma: has patient had contact with even small amount of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-27

    Mesothelioma, primarily an asbestos-related cancer, has traditionally been tracked through the incidence rate in workers handling asbestos directly. Now, epidemiologists are recording cases of the tumor in persons who have worked with materials containing even small quantities of asbestos. The lower concentrations of asbestos were thought by many to have minimized the susceptibility of workers to mesothelioma. But as cases of the malignant tumor appeared in tradesmen, epidemiologists began to suspect that the concentration level of the fibers was not the prime concern. Further studies showed that one fiber of a certain length can lodge in the pleura of the lung, and 40 years later, the patient will exhibit signs of dyspnea, chest pain, or both.

  5. An essential role of even-skipped for homeotic gene expression in the Drosophila visceral mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Tremml, G; Bienz, M

    1989-01-01

    We have analysed homeotic gene expression in the embryonic visceral mesoderm of segmentation mutants by antibody staining against Ultrabithorax, Antennapedia and Sex combs reduced protein. We found that even-skipped (eve) function is crucially required for homeotic gene expression, whereas most other segmentation mutations have only minor effects on position and/or width of the homeotic expression domains in this germ layer. Analysis of pair-rule double mutants indicates that complete loss of homeotic gene activity in the visceral mesoderm, as observed in amorphic eve mutants, correlates with loss of engrailed (en) expression in the epidermis and loss of segmentation. We suggest that the establishment of parasegment borders, a consequence of eve expression and witnessed by subsequent en expression, is a necessary precondition for homeotic gene expression in the visceral mesoderm. Images PMID:2573527

  6. Language exposure facilitates talker learning prior to language comprehension, even in adults.

    PubMed

    Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Adults show a native language advantage for talker identification, which has been interpreted as evidence that phonological knowledge mediates talker learning. However, infants also show a native language benefit for talker discrimination, suggesting that sensitivity to linguistic structure due to systematic language exposure promotes talker learning, even in the absence of functional phonological knowledge or language comprehension. We tested this hypothesis by comparing two groups of English-monolingual adults on their ability to learn English and French voices. One group resided in Montréal with regular exposure to spoken French; the other resided in Storrs, Connecticut and did not have French exposure. Montréal residents showed faster learning and better retention for the French voices compared to their Storrs-residing peers. These findings demonstrate that systematic exposure to a foreign language bolsters talker learning in that language, expanding the gradient effect of language experience on talker learning to perceptual learning that precedes sentence comprehension.

  7. Phototropins do not alter accumulation of evening-phased circadian transcripts under blue light

    PubMed Central

    Litthauer, Suzanne; Battle, Martin W.; Jones, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The circadian system induces rhythmic variation in a suite of biochemical and physiological processes that serve to optimise plant growth in diel cycles. To be of greatest utility, these rhythmic behaviors are coordinated with regular environmental changes such as the rising and setting of the sun. Photoreceptors, along with metabolites produced during photosynthesis, act to synchronise the internal timing mechanism with lighting cues. We have recently shown that phototropins help maintain robust rhythms of photosynthetic operating efficiency (φPSII or Fq′/Fm′) under blue light, although rhythmic accumulation of morning-phased circadian transcripts in the nucleus was unaffected. Here we report that evening-phased nuclear clock transcripts were also unaffected. We also observe that rhythms of nuclear clock transcript accumulation are maintained in phototropin mutant plants under a fluctuating lighting regime that induced a loss of Fq′/Fm′ rhythms. PMID:26653107

  8. Even therapeutic antimicrobial use in animal husbandry may generate environmental hazards to human health.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P

    2016-02-01

    The potential negative impact for human health of veterinary use of antimicrobials in prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and growth promotion in animal husbandry was first established in the 1960s and 1970s. Determination of the molecular structure of antimicrobial resistance plasmids at that time explained the ability of antimicrobial resistance genes to disseminate among bacterial populations and elucidated the reasons for the negative effects of antimicrobials used in food animals for human health. In this issue of Environmental Microbiology, Liu et al. (2016) show that even therapeutic use of antimicrobials in dairy calves has an appreciable environmental microbiological footprint. We discuss the negative implications of this footprint for human health and the possibility they may lead to calls for increased regulation of veterinary antimicrobial use in terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  9. Near-field measurements of the even-order harmonics undetectable in far-field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2016-12-01

    Even-order harmonics (EOHs) are generated for oriented molecules and for atoms under specific conditions. Here, we focus on the most common situations where EOHs are not observed in far-field measurements. We propose an experiment to show that the EOHs are produced close to the nucleus but are not detected in the far-field measurements due to destructive interferences of the propagated EOHs of the emitted radiation. However, Rydberg gas atoms (e.g., rubidium), which are out of the focus of the laser beam, are expected to be ionized due to their weak interaction with a specific EOH of helium, which is not observed by the far-field detector. The ionization energy of the Rydberg gas atoms should be in resonance with the single-photon energy of a specific EOH.

  10. The TRIC Experiment: A P-even Time-Reversal Invariance Test at COSY

    SciTech Connect

    Eversheim, P.D.

    2005-10-26

    At the cooler synchrotron COSY at Juelich a novel (P-even, T-odd) true null test was proposed, that is supposed to measure the time-reversal invariance sensitive observable, the total cross-section correlation Ay,xz, to an accuracy of 10-6. This observable is measured in a transmission experiment of a circulating vector polarized (Py) proton beam through an internal tensor polarized (Pxz) atomic deuteron target. The experiment uses the COSY facility as an accelerator, an ideal forward spectrometer, and as a detector. At present the experimental focus lies on the development of a precise current measurement via a Beam-Current-Transformer (BCT), its precise read-out and analysis. So far, we succeeded to meet the BCT's accuracy specification. With the help of this accurate current measurement the development of a proper long living proton beam in COSY at the optimum energy, where the experiment has its highest sensitivity, is in progress.

  11. Chinese children excel on novel mathematics problems even before elementary school.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Mu, Yan

    2008-08-01

    Kindergartners in China showed greater numerical knowledge than their age peers in the United States, not only when tested with arithmetic problems, which Chinese parents present to their children more often than U.S. parents do, but also when tested with number-line estimation problems, which were novel to the children in both countries. The Chinese kindergartners' number-line estimates were comparable to those of U.S. children 1 to 2 years more advanced in school. Individual differences in arithmetic and number-line-estimation performance were positively correlated within each country. These results indicate that performance differences between Chinese and U.S. children on both practiced and unpracticed mathematical tasks are substantial even before the children begin elementary school.

  12. Even- and odd-parity finite-element transport solutions in the thick diffusion limit

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.

    1991-01-07

    We analyze the behavior of odd-parity continuous finite-element methods (CFEMs) for problems that contain diffusive regions. We find that each of these method produces a solution that, to leading order inside diffusive regions, satisfies a discretization of the diffusion equation. We find further that these leading-order solutions satisfy boundary conditions that can lead to large errors in the interior solution. We recognize, however, that we can combine an odd-purity CFEM solution and an even-parity CFEM solution and obtain a solution that satisfies very accurate boundary conditions. Our analysis holds in three-dimensional Cartesian geometry, with an arbitrary spatial grid. We give numerical results from slab-geometry; these invariably agree with the predictions of the analysis. Finally, we introduce a rapidly-convergent diffusion-synthetic acceleration scheme for the odd-parity CFEMs, which we believe is new. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Fe I OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR TRANSITIONS FROM HIGH-LYING EVEN-PARITY LEVELS

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Brewer, N. R.; Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.; Lind, K.

    2015-01-01

    New radiative lifetimes, measured to ±5% accuracy, are reported for 31 even-parity levels of Fe I ranging from 45061 cm{sup –1} to 56842 cm{sup –1}. These lifetimes have been measured using single-step and two-step time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam of iron atoms. Branching fractions have been attempted for all of these levels, and completed for 20 levels. This set of levels represents an extension of the collaborative work reported in Ruffoni et al. The radiative lifetimes combined with the branching fractions yields new oscillator strengths for 203 lines of Fe I. Utilizing a 1D-LTE model of the solar photosphere, spectral syntheses for a subset of these lines which are unblended in the solar spectrum yields a mean iron abundance of (log[ε(Fe)]) = 7.45 ± 0.06.

  14. Equations of motion solved by the Cremmer-Scherk configuration on even-dimensional spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kihara, Hironobu

    2013-01-15

    Equations of motion of low-energy effective theories of quantum electrodynamics include infinitely many interaction terms, which make them difficult to solve. The self-duality property has facilitated research on the solutions to these equations. In this paper, equations of motion of systems of non-Abelian gauge fields on even-dimensional spheres are considered. It is demonstrated that the Cremmer-Scherk configuration, which satisfies certain generalized self-duality equations, becomes the classical solution for the class of systems that are given by arbitrary functions of class C{sup 1} of 2m+ 1 quantities. For instance, Lagrangians consisting of multi-trace terms are included in this class. This result is likely to generate several new and interesting directions of research, including the classification of actions with respect to the stability condition against the Cremmer-Scherk configuration.

  15. Vertical ionization drift velocities and range type spread F in the evening equatorial ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Abdu, M.A.; de Medeiros, R.T.; Bittencourt, J.A.; Batista, I.S.

    1983-01-01

    Range type spread F indices in the post sunset hours, determined from ionograms, are compared with F layer vertical velocities, also deduced from ionograms, for a period of one year, over the magnetic equatorial station Fortaleza (geographic coordinates: 4/sup 0/S, 38/sup 0/W; dip latitude: 1.8/sup 0/S), Brazil. Besides good correlation between the two parameters, the results suggest the presence of a certain threshold value for the vertical ionization velocity and a corresponding threshold height for the base of the evening F layer, as one of the necessary conditions for the occurrence of spread F irregularities valid for southern solstice (summer) and equinoctial months. The nature of the possible variabilities in the amplitude of the initial perturbation in the ionization (seeding mechanism), which is another prerequisite for the generation of irregularities, is discussed briefly.

  16. Effect of evening primrose oil as food supplement on reproduction in the mink.

    PubMed

    Tauson, A H; Neil, M; Forsberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The effects of addition of evening primrose oil (EPO) to a mink diet in the breeding season on the reproductive performance and kit and female performance during the lactation period were investigated in an experiment with 4 groups of male and female mink. Matings were carried out so that control males were mated to both control and supplemented females. Similarly, supplemented males mated both control and supplemented females. Reproductive results were evaluated both on a group basis and as an effect of male or female treatment, respectively. After males supplemented with EPO, there was a tendency for reduced rate of stillborn kits and kit losses during the first 21 days of life. These effects could not be explained physiologically. Female treatment did not affect reproductive performance, but there was a tendency for lower weight losses during lactation for EPO-supplemented females. Kit performance during the lactation period was independent of experimental treatment.

  17. A double-blind evaluation of evening primrose oil as an antiobesity agent.

    PubMed

    Haslett, C; Douglas, J G; Chalmers, S R; Weighhill, A; Munro, J F

    1983-01-01

    Evening Primrose Oil (EPO) is a naturally occurring rich source of essential fatty acids, especially linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid. It has been suggested that it has antiobesity properties. This double-blind 12-week study was undertaken in 100 women with substantial obesity: 40 with refractory obesity, and 60 at time of initial referral to a hospital clinic. Seventy-four subjects completed the study. Those treated with EPO were comparable in age and degree of obesity with the placebo-treated group. There was no significant difference in the weight loss achieved by those taking EPO compared with placebo, either in the subjects with refractory obesity or in those treated at time of initial referral. It would appear that any antiobesity property possessed by EPO is clinically insignificant.

  18. Downwelling spectral irradiance during evening twilight as a function of the lunar phase.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Glenn; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-02-01

    We measured downwelling spectral vector irradiance (from 350 to 800 nm) during evening civil and nautical twilight (solar elevation down to -12°). Nine sets of measurements were taken to cover the first half of the lunar cycle (from the new to full moon) and were also used to calculate chromaticity (CIE 1976 u'v'). The lunar phase had no consistent effect on downwelling irradiance until solar elevation was less than -8°. For lower solar elevations, the effect of the moon increased with the fraction of the illuminated lunar disk until the fraction was approximately 50%. For fractions greater than 50%, the brightness and chromaticity of the downwelling irradiance were approximately independent of the fraction illuminated, likely because the greater brightness of a fuller moon was offset by its lower elevation during twilight. Given the importance of crepuscular periods to animal activity, including predation, reproductive cycles, and color vision in dim light, these results may have significant implications for animal ecology.

  19. Morning and evening personality characteristics in a sample of young Italians.

    PubMed

    Cavallera, G M; Giampietro, M

    2007-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate associations of morning and evening personality types with personality dimensions in a convenient sample of 60 men and 60 women, ages 18 to 29 years. A short form of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and a personality questionnaire Come mi vedo (How I see myself), based on the 5-factor model of personality, were given. Several personality dimensions appear to be significantly correlated with Morningness scores: Conscientiousness (positively) and Openmindedness (negatively). The analysis indicated morning types tend to reach their goals resolutely and to plan their steps, they prefer to be precise, tidy, punctual, trustworthy; they have a sense of duty and responsibility; they are also less original and less open to culture and novelties, less curious, conformist, traditionalist, and less well-informed, hardworking, steady, tenacious, and diligent, on the Come mi vedo.

  20. Host-controlled Restriction of T-even Bacteriophages: Relation of Four Bacterial Deoxyribonucleases to Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Eigner, Joseph; Block, Stephen

    1968-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains B and K-12, which restrict growth of nonglucosylated T- even phage (T* phage), and nonrestricting strains (Shigella sonnei and mutants of E. coli B) were tested for levels of endonuclease I and exonucleases I, II, and III, by means of in vitro assyas. Cell-free extracts freed from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were examined with three substrates: E. coli DNA, T*2 DNA, and T2 DNA. Both restricting and nonrestricting strains had comparable levels of the four nuclease activities and had similar patterns of preference for the three substrates. In addition, mutants of E. coli B and K-12 that lack endonuclease I were as effective as their respective wild types in restricting T* phage. PMID:4911846

  1. Structural Aberrations in T-Even Bacteriophage IV. Parameters of Induction and Formation of Lollipops

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, Rex W.; Cummings, Donald J.

    1974-01-01

    Previous results from our laboratory have shown that when a T-even bacteriophage-infected bacterial cell was exposed to l-canavanine followed by an l-arginine chase, a monster phage particle, termed a lollipop, was formed. We now describe certain parameters concerning (i) the induction and (ii) the formation of T4 lollipops. The induction step involves a T4 late function, and can require only a 3-min exposure to l-canavanine. Short pulses of l-canavanine result in the formation of shorter lollipops indicating the presence of a possible “precursor substance” which is influenced by l-canavanine. DNA synthesis is inhibited by l-canavanine but is stimulated 20 to 40 min after the addition of l-arginine. Chloramphenicol prevents both responses indicating a possible protein involvement. The appearance of lollipops and phage was noted only after 25 min after the addition of l-arginine. Images PMID:4833613

  2. Even perturbations of the self-similar Vaidya space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Brien C.; Waters, Thomas J.

    2005-05-15

    We study even parity metric and matter perturbations of all angular modes in self-similar Vaidya space-time. We focus on the case where the background contains a naked singularity. Initial conditions are imposed, describing a finite perturbation emerging from the portion of flat space-time preceding the matter-filled region of space-time. The most general perturbation satisfying the initial conditions is allowed to impinge upon the Cauchy horizon (CH), where the perturbation remains finite: There is no 'blue-sheet' instability. However, when the perturbation evolves through the CH and onto the second future similarity horizon of the naked singularity, divergence necessarily occurs: This surface is found to be unstable. The analysis is based on the study of individual modes following a Mellin transform of the perturbation. We present an argument that the full perturbation remains finite after resummation of the (possibly infinite number of) modes.

  3. Quantum dots with even number of electrons: kondo effect in a finite magnetic field

    PubMed

    Pustilnik; Avishai; Kikoin

    2000-02-21

    We show that the Kondo effect can be induced by an external magnetic field in quantum dots with an even number of electrons. If the Zeeman energy B is close to the single-particle level spacing Delta in the dot, the scattering of the conduction electrons from the dot is dominated by an anisotropic exchange interaction. A Kondo resonance then occurs despite the fact that B exceeds by far the Kondo temperature T(K). As a result, at low temperatures T

  4. Generalized-seniority pattern and thermal properties in even Sn isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, L. Y.; Qi, Chong

    2016-10-01

    Even tin isotopes of mass number A =108 -124 are calculated with realistic interactions in the generalized-seniority approximation of the nuclear shell model. For each nucleus, we compute the lowest 10 000 states (5000 of each parity) up to around 8 MeV in excitation energy, by allowing as many as four broken pairs. The lowest 50 eigen energies of each parity are compared with the exact results of the large-scale shell-model calculation. The wave functions of the midshell nuclei show a clear pattern of the stepwise breakup of condensed coherent pairs with increasing excitation energy. We also compute in the canonical ensemble the thermal properties—level density, entropy, and specific heat—in relation to the thermal pairing phase transition.

  5. Repeating the Past: Prevention Focus Motivates Repetition, Even For Unethical Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Cornwell, James F.M.; Higgins, E. Tory

    2013-01-01

    Prevention-focused individuals are motivated to maintain the status quo. Given this, we predicted that individuals with a strong prevention focus, either as a chronic predisposition or situationally induced, would treat their initial decision of how to behave on a first task as the status quo, and thus be motivated to repeat that decision on a subsequent task—even for decisions that are ethically questionable. Five studies supported this prediction in multiple ethical domains: whether or not to overstate performance (Studies 1, 2a, 2b), to disclose disadvantageous facts (Study 3), and to pledge a donation (Study 4). The prevention-repetition effect was observed when initial and subsequent decisions were in the same domain (Studies 1-3) and in different domains (Study 4). Alternative accounts such as justification for the initial decision and preference for consistency were ruled out (Study 2b). PMID:24277774

  6. Multi-channel quantum dragons from rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkoom, Godfred; Novotny, Mark

    Recently, a large class of nanostructures called quantum dragons have been discovered theoretically. Quantum dragons are nanostuctures with correlated disorder but have an electron transmission probability  (E) =1 for all energies E when connected to idealized leads. Hence for a single channel, the electrical conductance for a two-probe measurement should give the quantum of conductance Go =2e2/h . The time independent Schrödinger equation for the single band tight binding model is solved exactly to obtain  (E) . We have generalized the matrix method and the mapping methods of in order to study multi-channel quantum dragons for rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure. The studies may be relevant for experimental rectangular nanotubes, such as MgO, copper phthalocyanine or some types of graphyne.. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  7. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  8. A conformation-dependent stereochemical library improves crystallographic refinement even at atomic resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Tronrud, Dale E.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2011-08-01

    A script was created to allow SHELXL to use the new CDL v.1.2 stereochemical library which defines the target values for main-chain bond lengths and angles as a function of the residue’s ϕ/ψ angles. Test refinements using this script show that the refinement behavior of structures at resolutions even better than 1 Å is substantially enhanced by the use of the new conformation-dependent ideal geometry paradigm. To utilize a new conformation-dependent backbone-geometry library (CDL) in protein refinements at atomic resolution, a script was written that creates a restraint file for the SHELXL refinement program. It was found that the use of this library allows models to be created that have a substantially better fit to main-chain bond angles and lengths without degrading their fit to the X-ray data even at resolutions near 1 Å. For models at much higher resolution (∼0.7 Å), the refined model for parts adopting single well occupied positions is largely independent of the restraints used, but these structures still showed much smaller r.m.s.d. residuals when assessed with the CDL. Examination of the refinement tests across a wide resolution range from 2.4 to 0.65 Å revealed consistent behavior supporting the use of the CDL as a next-generation restraint library to improve refinement. CDL restraints can be generated using the service at http://pgd.science.oregonstate.edu/cdl{sub s}helxl/.

  9. Outbreeding depression in hybrids between odd-and even-broodyear pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gharrett, A.J.; Smoker, W.W.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Taylor, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fewer F2 hybrids between even- and odd-broodline pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), which are lines that are genetically isolated by their strict two-year life cycle, survived than did F2 controls, indicating outbreeding depression. Cryopreserved sperm of 40 broodyear 1990 males and of 40 broodyear 1991 males fertilized equal subsamples of eggs from 40 broodyear 1992 females. Return rates of F1 hybrids (1.73%) and controls (1.63%) in 1994 did not differ significantly (P=0.30). F2 hybrid and control crosses were made from 40 males and 40 females selected at random from each return group. Offspring were differentially marked and released. In 1996, returns differed significantly (P=0.011) between hybrids (n=34, 0.34%) and controls (n=44, 0.42%). The low rate of return of the control fish was similar to the measured return of a much larger group of tagged Auke Creek pink salmon, and probably not an artifact of the experiment. Although no increase in fluctuating asymmetry of paired meristic counts was observed in either F1or F2 hybrids, size and some meristic counts of hybrids exceed measurements of controls, suggesting heterosis for those traits. The observations of decreased survival in F2 hybrids confirm previous work [Gharrett, A.J., Smoker, W.W., 1991. Two generations of hybrids between even- and odd-year pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48(9) 1744–1749]. Although genetic divergence between pink salmon broodlines is large and outbreeding depression might be expected in such unlikely hybrids, the results document the occurrence of outbreeding depression in salmon and signal caution in making management and aquacultural decisions that may create the possibility of outbreeding depression in self-sustaining or cultured populations.

  10. Aging affects spatial reconstruction more than spatial pattern separation performance even after extended practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rachel; Tahan, Asli C; Watson, Patrick D; Severson, Joan; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Michelle

    2017-03-21

    Although the hippocampus experiences age-related anatomical and functional deterioration, the effects of aging vary across hippocampal-dependent cognitive processes. In particular, whether or not the hippocampus is known to be required for a spatial memory process is not an accurate predictor on its own of whether aging will affect performance. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to compare the effects of healthy aging on a test of spatial pattern separation and a test of spatial relational processing, which are two aspects of spatial memory that uniquely emphasize the use of multiple hippocampal-dependent processes. Spatial pattern separation supports spatial memory by preserving unique representations for distinct locations. Spatial relational processing forms relational representations of objects to locations or between objects and other objects in space. To test our primary objective, 30 young (18-30 years; 21F) and 30 older participants (60-80 years; 21F) all completed a spatial pattern separation task and a task designed to require spatial relational processing through spatial reconstruction. To ensure aging effects were not due to inadequate time to develop optimal strategies or become comfortable with the testing devices, a subset of participants had extended practice across three sessions on each task. Results showed that older adults performed more poorly than young on the spatial reconstruction task that emphasized the use of spatial relational processing, and that age effects persisted even after controlling for pattern separation performance. Further, older adults performed more poorly on spatial reconstruction than young adults even after three testing sessions each separated by 7-10 days, suggesting effects of aging are resistant to extended practice and likely reflect genuine decline in hippocampal memory abilities.

  11. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  12. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6-7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction.

  13. The influence of odd-even car trial on fine and coarse particles in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Gulia, Sunil; Harrison, Roy M; Khare, Mukesh

    2017-03-23

    The odd-even car trial scheme, which reduced car traffic between 08.00 and 20.00 h daily, was applied from 1 to 15 January 2016 (winter scheme, WS) and 15-30 April 2016 (summer scheme, SS). The daily average PM2.5 and PM10 exceeded national standards, with highest concentrations (313 μg m(-3) and 639 μg m(-3), respectively) during winter and lowest (53 μg m(-3) and 130 μg m(-3)) during the monsoon (June-August). PM concentrations during the trials can be interpreted either as reduced or increased, depending on the periods used for comparison purposes. For example, hourly average net PM2.5 and PM10 (after subtracting the baseline concentrations) reduced by up to 74% during the majority (after 1100 h) of trial hours compared with the corresponding hours during the previous year. Conversely, daily average PM2.5 and PM10 were higher by up to 3-times during the trial periods when compared with the pre-trial days. A careful analysis of the data shows that the trials generated cleaner air for certain hours of the day but the persistence of overnight emissions from heavy goods vehicles into the morning odd-even hours (0800-1100 h) made them probably ineffective at this time. Any further trial will need to be planned very carefully if an effect due to traffic alone is to be differentiated from the larger effect caused by changes in meteorology and especially wind direction.

  14. Identifying and reducing potentially wrong immunoassay results even when plausible and "not-unreasonable".

    PubMed

    Ismail, Adel A A

    2014-01-01

    The primary role of the clinical laboratory is to report accurate results for diagnosis of disease and management of illnesses. This goal has, to a large extent been achieved for routine biochemical tests, but not for immunoassays which remained susceptible to interference from endogenous immunoglobulin antibodies, causing false, and clinically misleading results. Clinicians regard all abnormal results including false ones as "pathological" necessitating further investigations, or concluding iniquitous diagnosis. Even more seriously, "false-negative" results may wrongly exclude pathology, thus denying patients' necessary treatment. Analytical error rate in immunoassays is relatively high, ranging from 0.4% to 4.0%. Because analytical interference from endogenous antibodies is confined to individuals' sera, it can be inconspicuous, pernicious, sporadic, and insidious because it cannot be detected by internal or external quality assessment procedures. An approach based on Bayesian reasoning can enhance the robustness of clinical validation in highlighting potentially erroneous immunoassay results. When this rational clinical/statistical approach is followed by analytical affirmative follow-up tests, it can help identifying inaccurate and clinically misleading immunoassay data even when they appear plausible and "not-unreasonable." This chapter is largely based on peer reviewed articles associated with and related to this approach. The first section underlines (without mathematical equations) the dominance and misuse of conventional statistics and the underuse of Bayesian paradigm and shows that laboratorians are intuitively (albeit unwittingly) practicing Bayesians. Secondly, because interference from endogenous antibodies is method's dependent (with numerous formats and different reagents), it is almost impossible to accurately assess its incidence in all differently formulated immunoassays and for each analytes/biomarkers. However, reiterating the basic concepts

  15. Fine- and hyperfine structure investigations of even configuration system of atomic terbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanska, D.; Elantkowska, M.; Ruczkowski, J.; Furmann, B.

    2017-03-01

    In this work a parametric study of the fine structure (fs) and the hyperfine structure (hfs) for the even-parity configurations of atomic terbium (Tb I) is presented, based in considerable part on the new experimental results. Measurements on 134 spectral lines were performed by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a hollow cathode discharge lamp; on this basis, the hyperfine structure constants A and B were determined for 52 even-parity levels belonging to the configurations 4f85d6s2, 4f85d26s or 4f96s6p; in all the cases those levels were involved in the transitions investigated as the lower levels. For 40 levels the hfs was examined for the first time, and for the remaining 12 levels the new measurements supplement our earlier results. As a by-product, also preliminary values of the hfs constants for 84 odd-parity levels were determined (the investigations of the odd-parity levels system in the terbium atom are still in progress). This huge amount of new experimental data, supplemented by our earlier published results, were considered for the fine and hyperfine structure analysis. A multi-configuration fit of 7 configurations was performed, taking into account second-order of perturbation theory, including the effects of closed shell-open shell excitations. Predicted values of the level energies, as well as of magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants A and B, are quoted in cases when no experimental values are available. By combining our experimental data with our own semi-empirical procedure it was possible to identify correctly the lower and upper level of the line 544.1440 nm measured by Childs with the use of the atomic-beam laser-rf double-resonance technique (Childs, J Opt Soc Am B 9;1992:191-6).

  16. The simulation of adaptive optical image even and pulse noise and research of image quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Changli; Xu, Yuannan; Xu, Rong; Liu, Changhai; Men, Tao; Niu, Wei

    2013-09-01

    As optical image becomes more and more important in adaptive optics area, and adaptive optical telescopes play a more and more important role in the detection system on the ground, and the images we get are so many that we need find a suitable method to choose good quality images automatically in order to save human power, people pay more and more attention in image's evaluation methods and their characteristics. According to different image degradation model, the applicability of different image's quality evaluation method will be different. Researchers have paid most attention in how to improve or build new method to evaluate degraded images. Now we should change our way to take some research in the models of degradation of images, the reasons of image degradation, and the relations among different degraded images and different image quality evaluation methods. In this paper, we build models of even noise and pulse noise based on their definition and get degraded images using these models, and we take research in six kinds of usual image quality evaluation methods such as square error method, sum of multi-power of grey scale method, entropy method, Fisher function method, Sobel method, and sum of grads method, and we make computer software for these methods to use easily to evaluate all kinds of images input. Then we evaluate the images' qualities with different evaluation methods and analyze the results of six kinds of methods, and finally we get many important results. Such as the characteristics of every method for evaluating qualities of degraded images of even noise, the characteristics of every method for evaluating qualities of degraded images of pulse noise, and the best method to evaluate images which affected by tow kinds of noise both and the characteristics of this method. These results are important to image's choosing automatically, and this will help we to manage the images we get through adaptive optical telescopes base on the ground.

  17. Seasonal analysis of the planetary boundary-layer afternoon and evening transition through observational measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Yagüe, Carlos; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Maqueda, Gregorio

    2016-04-01

    From a typically convective diurnal situation to a stably stratified nocturnal one, the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) experiences the so-called afternoon and evening transition. This period is complex to study due to the presence of many different forcings, usually weak and opposite [1]. In this work, the transitional processes are studied by using 6-year data from permanent instrumentation at CIBA, a research center located in the Spanish Northern plateau. These measurements include particulate matter (PM) and turbulent records. Certain variables display a twin pattern in their time evolution for all the seasons, only differing in their absolute values. On the contrary, the air specific humidity behaves differently for each season, which is distinct to the results from a previous study at a different location [2]. Besides, a common pattern of increasing PM values near sunset is found, with a number of influences playing a role in PM concentrations: stability, turbulence and ABL thickness among others. In particular, the competing thermal and mechanical turbulent effects result in PM concentration reduction (settling on the ground or being advected) or increase, depending in each case on the specific season and particle group. Furthermore, the relative importance of the bigger PM (between 2.5 and 10 μm) is linked to the wind minimum around sunset, especially during summer. [1] Lothon, M. and coauthors (2014): The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10931-10960. [2] Wingo, S. M. and Knupp, K. R. (2015): Multi-platform observations characterizing the afternoon-to-evening transition of the planetary boundary layer in Northern Alabama, USA, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 155, 29-53.

  18. Nuclear structure of even 120-136Ba under the framework of IBM, IVBM and new method (SEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jubbori, Mushtaq A.; Kassim, Huda H.; Sharrad, Fadhil I.; Hossain, I.

    2016-11-01

    The positive and negative-state bands of even-even 120-136Ba nuclei have been studied. The energy levels for the ground-state band of 120-136Ba have been calculated using Interacting Boson Model (IBM), Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM) and a new method called Semi-Empirical Formula (SEF). The negative parity band of even-even 120-136Ba isotopes has been also calculated using (IVBM) and (SEF). The γ and β-bands of even-even 120-136Ba isotopes have been calculated using IBM and SEF. The parameters of the best fit to the measured data are determined. The reduced transition probabilities B (E 2) of these nuclei was calculated. The critical points have been determined for 134,136Ba isotopes. The potential energy surfaces for even-even Ba isotopes are studied using the simplified form of Interacting Boson Model (IBM) with an intrinsic coherent state.

  19. Another Inconvenient Truth: Even a Small Nuclear War Could be Much Worse Than you Think

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, O. B.

    2008-05-01

    The number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986. However, the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races, and for a significant expansion in the number of nuclear weapons states. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build weapons if they so desire. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in "megacities", which are ideal targets for nuclear weapons. Based upon observations of the damage caused by nuclear explosions in World War II and in nuclear tests, a group of researchers has estimated the area that might be consumed in firestorms following a regional war between the smallest current nuclear states involving 100, 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal). Based upon observations of large forest fires these firestorms should inject smoke into the upper troposphere. Using estimates of the mass of flammable material in the areas that would burn we find that 5x1012 g of elemental carbon could be injected into the upper troposphere in a regional nuclear war. A suite of numerical models show that this upper tropospheric soot will be transported due to solar heating into the stratosphere and will rise to altitudes above 40 km. The elemental carbon will absorb sunlight, heating the stratosphere and cooling the ground. The heating of the stratosphere could cause column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25-45% at mid-latitudes, and 50- 70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts would remain near or below 220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extra-tropical "ozone hole". The cooling at the ground would reduce precipitation globally by about 10%, create lower

  20. Study of the evening transition to the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer: statistical analysis and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre, Mariano; Viana, Samuel; Maqueda, Gregorio; Yagüe, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Turbulence is probably the most important feature dealing with the diffusion of contaminants in the planetary boundary layer. The main characteristics of turbulence are governed, apart from synoptic conditions, by the daily cycle of the Earth surface heating and cooling, so that, simplifying, two configurations are often found: convective and stable. The transition from a diurnal convective boundary layer to a typically stable nocturnal one is not still well understood (Edwards, 2009). Different micrometeorological conditions at sunset or a few hours previously may be critical for the establishment of a strong surface-based stability or a weak one, even for similar synoptic conditions. This work focuses on the characterization of the evening transition which takes place at the atmospheric boundary layer, considering the temporal interval 17.00-23.00 GMT. The methodology includes looking for some relations between meteorological variables, turbulent parameters and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) concentrations measured by a GRIMM particle monitor (MODEL 365). Observational data (Summer 2009) is provided from permanent instrumentation at the Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere (CIBA) in Valladolid (Spain), which is on a quite flat terrain (Cuxart et al., 2000). A 10m height mast equipped with temperature, wind speed and direction, and moisture sensors at several levels are available. Also two sonic anemometers (20 Hz sampling rate) at 1.5 and 10m were deployed in the mast. The database is complemented by a triangle of microbarometers installed next to the surface, and another three microbarometers placed in a 100m meteorological tower at 20, 50 and 100m respectively, which are ideal to study coherent structures present in the boundary layer. Statistical parameters of meteorological variables have been calculated and studied in order to find out connections with the most relevant physical processes. Moreover different cases studies will be analyzed

  1. Spatial variability of turbulent fluxes in the roughness sublayer of an even-aged pine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katul, G.; Hsieh, C.-I.; Bowling, D.; Clark, K.; Shurpali, N.; Turnipseed, A.; Albertson, J.; Tu, K.; Hollinger, D.; Evans, B. M.; Offerle, B.; Anderson, D.; Ellsworth, D.; Vogel, C.; Oren, R.

    1999-01-01

    The spatial variability of turbulent flow statistics in the roughness sublayer (RSL) of a uniform even-aged 14 m (= h) tall loblolly pine forest was investigated experimentally. Using seven existing walkup towers at this stand, high frequency velocity, temperature, water vapour and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured at 15.5 m above the ground surface from October 6 to 10 in 1997. These seven towers were separated by at least 100 m from each other. The objective of this study was to examine whether single tower turbulence statistics measurements represent the flow properties of RSL turbulence above a uniform even-aged managed loblolly pine forest as a best-case scenario for natural forested ecosystems. From the intensive space-time series measurements, it was demonstrated that standard deviations of longitudinal and vertical velocities (??(u), ??(w)) and temperature (??(T)) are more planar homogeneous than their vertical flux of momentum (u(*)2) and sensible heat (H) counterparts. Also, the measured H is more horizontally homogeneous when compared to fluxes of other scalar entities such as CO2 and water vapour. While the spatial variability in fluxes was significant (> 15%), this unique data set confirmed that single tower measurements represent the 'canonical' structure of single-point RSL turbulence statistics, especially flux-variance relationships. Implications to extending the 'moving-equilibrium' hypothesis for RSL flows are discussed. The spatial variability in all RSL flow variables was not constant in time and varied strongly with spatially averaged friction velocity u(*), especially when u(*) was small. It is shown that flow properties derived from two-point temporal statistics such as correlation functions are more sensitive to local variability in leaf area density when compared to single point flow statistics. Specifically, that the local relationship between the reciprocal of the vertical velocity integral time scale (I(w)) and the arrival

  2. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by

  3. The bacterial flagellar protein export apparatus processively transports flagellar proteins even with extremely infrequent ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Tohru; Morimoto, Yusuke V; Kinoshita, Miki; Aldridge, Phillip D; Namba, Keiichi

    2014-12-22

    For self-assembly of the bacterial flagellum, a specific protein export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF) as the energy source to transport component proteins to the distal growing end. The export apparatus consists of a transmembrane PMF-driven export gate and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex composed of FliH, FliI and FliJ. The FliI(6)FliJ complex is structurally similar to the α(3)β(3)γ complex of F(O)F(1)-ATPase. FliJ allows the gate to efficiently utilize PMF to drive flagellar protein export but it remains unknown how. Here, we report the role of ATP hydrolysis by the FliI(6)FliJ complex. The export apparatus processively transported flagellar proteins to grow flagella even with extremely infrequent or no ATP hydrolysis by FliI mutation (E211D and E211Q, respectively). This indicates that the rate of ATP hydrolysis is not at all coupled with the export rate. Deletion of FliI residues 401 to 410 resulted in no flagellar formation although this FliI deletion mutant retained 40% of the ATPase activity, suggesting uncoupling between ATP hydrolysis and activation of the gate. We propose that infrequent ATP hydrolysis by the FliI6FliJ ring is sufficient for gate activation, allowing processive translocation of export substrates for efficient flagellar assembly.

  4. Unsafe abortion: regulation of the social body even beyond time and space.

    PubMed

    Webster, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of women's performance of unsafe abortion in rural Ghana despite significant cultural sanctions that forbid the practice. Findings demonstrate how women in the study balance sanctions inherent in traditional belief structures against their own immediate physical and social best interests. In rural Ghana, a woman's body is not always her own to do with as she would wish. It is also a social body, which is embedded in multiple sets of relationships and subject to social regulation. Traditional authority over a woman's body belongs not only to the community elders in the immediate physical environment of the village but also extends beyond time and space to immaterial ancestral persons who watch over the actions and behaviours of those on earth. Authority resides also with Mawu, the Ewe God, who is offended by the practice of abortion. Data from this study reveal that the performance of unsafe abortion in this Ewe community is a desperate act in which the women must not only risk their physical lives, but must also step outside the boundaries of ideological cultural conformity to traditional values and carry the risk of their actions even into life after death.

  5. Alcoholic cirrhosis is a good indication for liver transplantation, even for cases of recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Pageaux, G; Michel, J; Coste, V; Perney, P; Possoz, P; Perrigault, P; Navarro, F; Fabre, J; Domergue, J; Blanc, P; Larrey, D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Alcoholic cirrhosis remains a controversial indication for liver transplantation, mainly because of ethical considerations related to the shortage of donor livers. The aim of this study was to review experience to date, focusing on survival rates and complications, and the effect of alcohol relapse on outcome and alterations in marital and socioprofessional status.
METHODS—The results for 53 patients transplanted for alcoholic cirrhosis between 1989 and 1994 were compared with those for 48 patients transplanted for non-alcoholic liver disease. The following variables were analysed: survival, rejection, infection, cancer, retransplantation, employment and marital status, alcoholic recurrence. The same variables were compared between alcohol relapsers and non-relapsers.
RESULTS—Recovery of employment was the only significantly different variable between alcoholic (30%) and non-alcoholic patients (60%). Two factors influenced survival in the absence of alcohol recidivism: age and abstinence before transplantation. For all other variables, there were no differences between alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients, and, within the alcoholic group, between relapsers and non-relapsers. The recidivism rate was 32%.
CONCLUSION—The data indicate that liver transplantation is justified for alcoholic cirrhosis, even in cases of recidivism, which did no affect survival and compliance with the immunosuppressive regimen. These good results should help in educating the general population about alcoholic disease.


Keywords: liver; transplantation; alcohol; cirrhosis PMID:10446113

  6. The Relationship between Microbial Community Evenness and Function in Slow Sand Filters

    PubMed Central

    Quince, Christopher; Davies, Robert L.; Dorea, Caetano C.; Collins, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two full-scale slow sand filters (SSFs) were sampled periodically from April until November 2011 to study the spatial and temporal structures of the bacterial communities found in the filters. To monitor global changes in the microbial communities, DNA from sand samples taken at different depths and locations within the SSFs and at different filters ages was used for Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Additionally, 15 water quality parameters were monitored to assess filter performance, with functionally relevant microbial members being identified by using multivariate statistics. The bacterial diversity in the SSFs was found to be much larger than previously documented, with community composition being shaped by the characteristics of the SSFs (filter age and depth) and sampling characteristics (month, side, and distance from the influent and effluent pipes). We found that several key genera (Acidovorax, Halomonas, Sphingobium, and Sphingomonas) were associated with filter performance. In addition, at the whole-community level, a strong positive correlation was found between species evenness and filter performance. This study is the first to comprehensively characterize the microbial community of SSFs and link specific microbes to water quality parameters. In doing so, we reveal key patterns in microbial community structure that relate to overall community function. PMID:26463159

  7. State-space models’ dirty little secrets: even simple linear Gaussian models can have estimation problems

    PubMed Central

    Auger-Méthé, Marie; Field, Chris; Albertsen, Christoffer M.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Lewis, Mark A.; Jonsen, Ian D.; Mills Flemming, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    State-space models (SSMs) are increasingly used in ecology to model time-series such as animal movement paths and population dynamics. This type of hierarchical model is often structured to account for two levels of variability: biological stochasticity and measurement error. SSMs are flexible. They can model linear and nonlinear processes using a variety of statistical distributions. Recent ecological SSMs are often complex, with a large number of parameters to estimate. Through a simulation study, we show that even simple linear Gaussian SSMs can suffer from parameter- and state-estimation problems. We demonstrate that these problems occur primarily when measurement error is larger than biological stochasticity, the condition that often drives ecologists to use SSMs. Using an animal movement example, we show how these estimation problems can affect ecological inference. Biased parameter estimates of a SSM describing the movement of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) result in overestimating their energy expenditure. We suggest potential solutions, but show that it often remains difficult to estimate parameters. While SSMs are powerful tools, they can give misleading results and we urge ecologists to assess whether the parameters can be estimated accurately before drawing ecological conclusions from their results. PMID:27220686

  8. Functional diversity exhibits a diverse relationship with area, even a decreasing one.

    PubMed

    Karadimou, Elpida K; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Dimopoulos, Panayotis

    2016-10-18

    The relationship between species richness and area is one of the few well-established laws in ecology, and one might expect a similar relationship with functional diversity (FD). However, only a few studies investigate the relationship between trait-based FD and area, the Functional Diversity - Area Relationship (FDAR). To examine FDAR, we constructed the species accumulation curve and the corresponding FD curve. We used plant diversity data from nested plots (1-128 m(2)), recorded on the Volcanic islands of Santorini Archipelagos, Greece. Six multidimensional FD indices were calculated using 26 traits. We identified a typology of FDARs depending on the facet of FD analyzed: (A) strongly positive for indices quantifying the range of functional traits in the community, (B) negative correlation for indices quantifying the evenness in the distribution of abundance in the trait space, (C) no clear pattern for indices reflecting the functional similarity of species and (D) idiosyncratic patterns with area for functional divergence. As area increases, the range of traits observed in the community increases, but the abundance of traits does not increase proportionally and some traits become dominant, implying a reliance on some functions that may be located in either the center or the periphery of the trait space.

  9. Alterations of hippocampal glucose metabolism by even versus uneven medium chain triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are used to treat neurologic disorders with metabolic impairments, including childhood epilepsy and early Alzheimer's disease. However, the metabolic effects of MCTs in the brain are still unclear. Here, we studied the effects of feeding even and uneven MCTs on brain glucose metabolism in the mouse. Adult mice were fed 35% (calories) of trioctanoin or triheptanoin (the triglycerides of octanoate or heptanoate, respectively) or a matching control diet for 3 weeks. Enzymatic assays and targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify metabolites in extracts from the hippocampal formations (HFs). Both oils increased the levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, but no other significant metabolic alterations were observed after triheptanoin feeding. The levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were increased in the HF of mice fed trioctanoin, whereas levels of metabolites further downstream in the glycolytic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway were reduced. This indicates that trioctanoin reduces glucose utilization because of a decrease in phosphofructokinase activity. Trioctanoin and triheptanoin showed similar anticonvulsant effects in the 6 Hz seizure model, but it remains unknown to what extent the anticonvulsant mechanism(s) are shared. In conclusion, triheptanoin unlike trioctanoin appears to not alter glucose metabolism in the healthy brain. PMID:24169853

  10. About mutually unbiased bases in even and odd prime power dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durt, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    Mutually unbiased bases generalize the X, Y and Z qubit bases. They possess numerous applications in quantum information science. It is well known that in prime power dimensions N = pm (with p prime and m a positive integer), there exists a maximal set of N + 1 mutually unbiased bases. In the present paper, we derive an explicit expression for those bases, in terms of the (operations of the) associated finite field (Galois division ring) of N elements. This expression is shown to be equivalent to the expressions previously obtained by Ivanovic (1981 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 14 3241) in odd prime dimensions, and Wootters and Fields (1989 Ann. Phys. 191 363) in odd prime power dimensions. In even prime power dimensions, we derive a new explicit expression for the mutually unbiased bases. The new ingredients of our approach are, basically, the following: we provide a simple expression of the generalized Pauli group in terms of the additive characters of the field, and we derive an exact groupal composition law between the elements of the commuting subsets of the generalized Pauli group, renormalized by a well-chosen phase-factor.

  11. B-DNA structure is intrinsically polymorphic: even at the level of base pair positions

    SciTech Connect

    Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Woods, Kristen Kruger; Moulaei, Tinoush; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2012-10-23

    Increasingly exact measurement of single crystal X-ray diffraction data offers detailed characterization of DNA conformation, hydration and electrostatics. However, instead of providing a more clear and unambiguous image of DNA, highly accurate diffraction data reveal polymorphism of the DNA atomic positions and conformation and hydration. Here we describe an accurate X-ray structure of B-DNA, painstakingly fit to a multistate model that contains multiple competing positions of most of the backbone and of entire base pairs. Two of ten base-pairs of CCAGGCCTGG are in multiple states distinguished primarily by differences in slide. Similarly, all the surrounding ions are seen to fractionally occupy discrete competing and overlapping sites. And finally, the vast majority of water molecules show strong evidence of multiple competing sites. Conventional resolution appears to give a false sense of homogeneity in conformation and interactions of DNA. In addition, conventional resolution yields an average structure that is not accurate, in that it is different from any of the multiple discrete structures observed at high resolution. Because base pair positional heterogeneity has not always been incorporated into model-building, even some high and ultrahigh-resolution structures of DNA do not indicate the full extent of conformational polymorphism.

  12. Even simple forms of social learning rely on intention attribution in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Burkart, Judith; Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Glasauer, Stefan; van Schaik, Carel

    2012-05-01

    Intention attribution guides the cognitively most demanding forms of social learning, such as imitation, thereby scaffolding cumulative cultural evolution. However, it is not thought to be necessary for more basic forms of social learning. Here we present evidence that in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) even most basic forms of social learning such as enhancement depend on intention attribution. Marmosets perceived the behavior of a conspecific and a conspecific-like robot, but not that of a moving black box, as goal directed. Their subsequent choice behavior was shaped by social facilitation and stimulus enhancement, that is, by very simple forms of social learning, but only when exposed to the conspecific and robot, which they previously had perceived as intentional agents. We discuss the implications of this finding for contemporary debates about social learning, including emulation learning and ghost control studies, the necessity of goal-directed copying for cumulative cultural evolution, and the limits of current classification systems of social learning for the evolution of social and asocial learning.

  13. State-space models’ dirty little secrets: even simple linear Gaussian models can have estimation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger-Méthé, Marie; Field, Chris; Albertsen, Christoffer M.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Lewis, Mark A.; Jonsen, Ian D.; Mills Flemming, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    State-space models (SSMs) are increasingly used in ecology to model time-series such as animal movement paths and population dynamics. This type of hierarchical model is often structured to account for two levels of variability: biological stochasticity and measurement error. SSMs are flexible. They can model linear and nonlinear processes using a variety of statistical distributions. Recent ecological SSMs are often complex, with a large number of parameters to estimate. Through a simulation study, we show that even simple linear Gaussian SSMs can suffer from parameter- and state-estimation problems. We demonstrate that these problems occur primarily when measurement error is larger than biological stochasticity, the condition that often drives ecologists to use SSMs. Using an animal movement example, we show how these estimation problems can affect ecological inference. Biased parameter estimates of a SSM describing the movement of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) result in overestimating their energy expenditure. We suggest potential solutions, but show that it often remains difficult to estimate parameters. While SSMs are powerful tools, they can give misleading results and we urge ecologists to assess whether the parameters can be estimated accurately before drawing ecological conclusions from their results.

  14. Poor stroke-related risk factor control even after stroke: an opportunity for rehabilitation professionals.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Charles; Breland, Hazel L

    2014-01-01

    The burden of chronic disease worldwide is substantial. Unfortunately, risk factor control for most chronic diseases remains poor even after diagnoses. This is a major concern because poor risk factor control often leads to secondary consequences of the disease and the development of co-existing diseases. Stroke is a chronic condition that frequently requires the services of rehabilitation professionals who can also play an important role in risk factor management to reduce recurrent stroke. Approaches to the management of stroke risk factors in stroke survivors vary greatly and consequently outcomes vary in a similar fashion. The current literature suggests that uniform offering of structured risk factor control programs over time to individuals with chronic disease can improve knowledge of stroke risk factors, knowledge of action to control risk factors and in turn facilitate self-management practices that reduce the negative consequences of chronic diseases. Rehabilitation professionals can play a vital role in the management and secondary prevention of chronic diseases during the rehabilitation process via patient education and training. Implications for Rehabilitation Evidence suggests that risk factor control remains poor in many individuals with chronic conditions such as stroke. Rehabilitation professionals can play a key role in programs designed to improve risk factor control in chronic conditions. Future risk factor control programs can be structured and implemented over time to include rehabilitation professionals.

  15. Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Boersma, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios) and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity.

  16. Dermoscopy could be useful in differentiating sarcoidosis from necrobiotic granulomas even after treatment with systemic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Shahira; Hossam, Dalia; Saleh, Marwah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing cutaneous sarcoidosis and necrobiotic granulomas is challenging. Objective: Assessing the value of dermoscopy in differentiating cutaneous sarcoidosis from necrobiotic granulomas and evaluating whether their dermoscopic features will be altered after treatment. Methods: Nineteen cutaneous sarcoidosis and 11 necrobiotic granuloma patients (2 necrobiosis lipoidica, 4 granuloma annulare and 5 rheumatoid nodule) were included in this study. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin biopsy. The lesions were examined using non-contact polarized dermoscope (Dermlite 2 HR-Pro; 3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA). Results: Ten out of 19 cutaneous sarcoidosis patients and 7/11 necrobiotic cases group were receiving treatments (topical, intralesional or systemic steroids ± chloroquine) but still have cutaneous lesions. Treatment duration in the sarcoidosis group ranged from 2 months to 10 years (median 3 years) and in the necrobiotic cases group ranged from 3 months to 16 years (median 2 years). Pink homogenous background, translucent orange areas, white scar-like depigmentation and fine white scales were significantly associated with the cutaneous sarcoidosis compared to necrobiotic cases group. On the other hand mixed pink, white and yellowish background was significantly associated with the necrobiotic cases group. No significant difference in the dermoscopic findings was detected between treated and non-treated patients. Conclusion: Some dermoscopic findings are shared between the cutaneous sarcoidosis group and the necrobiotic cases group, yet dermoscopy could be a useful aid in differentiating them even after treatment. PMID:27648379

  17. Subjective effects of caffeine among introverts and extraverts in the morning and evening.

    PubMed

    Liguori, A; Grass, J A; Hughes, J R

    1999-08-01

    In previous studies of psychomotor performance, the stimulant effects of caffeine differed by personality characteristics. For example, caffeine improved the task performance of extraverts but overaroused introverts and thus impaired their performance. The present study compared the effects of caffeine on subjective arousal among introverts and extraverts. Seventeen introverts and 19 extraverts drank coffee that contained doses of 0, 2, and 4 mg/kg caffeine during morning and evening sessions in a within-subjects, randomized, double-blind, crossover design. At 30-min intervals for 180 min after drinking, participants completed the Profile of Mood States, a battery of self-report visual analog scales, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Caffeine effects on mood and task performance did not significantly interact with extraversion, except for nonsignificant trends for caffeine to increase happiness and vigor more among extraverts than introverts. No 3-way interactions of group, time, and dose were found on any scales or on the DSST. Results do not support the hypothesis that caffeine differentially affects extraverts and introverts, particularly at different times of the day.

  18. Visual object individuation occurs over object wholes, parts, and even holes.

    PubMed

    Porter, Katharine B; Mazza, Veronica; Garofalo, Annie; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Segmentation of the world into meaningful units has typically been described as object individuation, emphasizing the spatially disconnected quality that comes as a result of objecthood. This segmentation can occur rapidly, even in parallel for multiple objects. It remains unclear whether objecthood is a necessary requirement for parallel individuation, or whether target features in distinct locations, such as object parts, may also be individuated in parallel. In a series of six experiments, we used a rapid enumeration task to test whether subitizing, a phenomenon believed to result from parallel individuation, occurs over object parts. We found that subitizing and individuation occur over connected object parts as well as physically separate objects of varied shapes and sizes. We also observed subitizing when target items are indents, features intrinsic to the shape of the object, and when cues for occlusion were removed. The results of these studies suggest that parallel individuation is not bound to objecthood, and can occur over object parts existing in separate locations.

  19. Contextual Cueing Improves Attentional Guidance, Even When Guidance Is Supposedly Optimal.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anthony M; Remington, Roger W

    2017-02-23

    Visual search through previously encountered contexts typically produces reduced reaction times compared with search through novel contexts. This contextual cueing benefit is well established, but there is debate regarding its underlying mechanisms. Eye-tracking studies have consistently shown reduced number of fixations with repetition, supporting improvements in attentional guidance as the source of contextual cueing. However, contextual cueing benefits have been shown in conditions in which attentional guidance should already be optimal-namely, when attention is captured to the target location by an abrupt onset, or under pop-out conditions. These results have been used to argue for a response-related account of contextual cueing. Here, we combine eye tracking with response time to examine the mechanisms behind contextual cueing in spatially cued and pop-out conditions. Three experiments find consistent response time benefits with repetition, which appear to be driven almost entirely by a reduction in number of fixations, supporting improved attentional guidance as the mechanism behind contextual cueing. No differences were observed in the time between fixating the target and responding-our proxy for response related processes. Furthermore, the correlation between contextual cueing magnitude and the reduction in number of fixations on repeated contexts approaches 1. These results argue strongly that attentional guidance is facilitated by familiar search contexts, even when guidance is near-optimal. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Functional diversity exhibits a diverse relationship with area, even a decreasing one

    PubMed Central

    Karadimou, Elpida K.; Kallimanis, Athanasios S.; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Dimopoulos, Panayotis

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between species richness and area is one of the few well-established laws in ecology, and one might expect a similar relationship with functional diversity (FD). However, only a few studies investigate the relationship between trait-based FD and area, the Functional Diversity - Area Relationship (FDAR). To examine FDAR, we constructed the species accumulation curve and the corresponding FD curve. We used plant diversity data from nested plots (1–128 m2), recorded on the Volcanic islands of Santorini Archipelagos, Greece. Six multidimensional FD indices were calculated using 26 traits. We identified a typology of FDARs depending on the facet of FD analyzed: (A) strongly positive for indices quantifying the range of functional traits in the community, (B) negative correlation for indices quantifying the evenness in the distribution of abundance in the trait space, (C) no clear pattern for indices reflecting the functional similarity of species and (D) idiosyncratic patterns with area for functional divergence. As area increases, the range of traits observed in the community increases, but the abundance of traits does not increase proportionally and some traits become dominant, implying a reliance on some functions that may be located in either the center or the periphery of the trait space. PMID:27752086

  1. Positional distribution of FA in TAG of enzymatically modified borage and evening primrose oils.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, S P J Namal; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2002-08-01

    Stereospecific analysis was carried out to establish positional distribution of FA in the TAG of DHA, EPA, and (EPA + DHA)-enriched oils. In this study, TAG of enzymatically modified oils were purified using a silicic acid column. The TAG were then subjected to positional distribution analysis using a modified procedure involving reductive cleavage with Grignard reagent. The results showed that in DHA-enriched borage oil (BO), DHA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, whereas gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was mainly esterified at the sn-2 and -3 positions. In DHA-enriched evening primrose oil (EPO), however, DHA and GLA were concentrated in the sn-2 position. In EPA-enriched BO, EPA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, similar to that observed for DHA. In EPA-enriched EPO, however, this FA was mainly located at the primary positions (sn-1 and sn-3) of TAG. In both oils, GLA was preferentially esterified at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched BO, EPA and DHA were mainly esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions of TAG, whereas GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched EPO, GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 and -3 positions; EPA was preferentially esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions, and DHA was found mainly at the sn-3 position.

  2. Evening primrose oil ameliorates platelet aggregation and improves cardiac recovery in myocardial-infarct hypercholesterolemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Gresha, Noha M; Abel-Aziz, Eman Z; Greish, Sahar M

    2014-01-01

    Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) are well known for their role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We proposed that Evening prime rose oil (EPO) can improve the outcome of a heart with myocardial infarction (MI) in the presence of diet-induced hyperaggregability. This study was designed to examine its cholesterol lowering, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects. High fat diet was administered for 4 weeks then MI was induced by isoproterenol (85 mg/kg/s.c./24 h). Treatment with EPO (5 or 10 gm/kg/day) for 6 weeks improved the electrocardiographic pattern, serum lipid profile, cardiac biomarkers as well as Platelet aggregation percent. We reported decreased serum level of TNF-α, IL-6 and COX-2 with attenuation of TNF-α and TGF-β in the cardiac homogenate. Moreover, histopathology revealed marked amelioration. Finally, we provide evidence that EPO improve cardiac recovery in hypercholesterolemic myocardial infarct rats. These effects are attributed to direct hypocholesterolemic effect and indirect effect on the synthesis of eicosanoids (prostaglandins, cytokines). PMID:24665356

  3. Insulating state in tetralayers reveals an even-odd interaction effect in multilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grushina, Anya L.; Ki, Dong-Keun; Koshino, Mikito; Nicolet, Aurelien A. L.; Faugeras, Clément; McCann, Edward; Potemski, Marek; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2015-03-01

    Close to charge neutrality, the electronic properties of graphene and its multilayers are sensitive to electron-electron interactions. In bilayers, for instance, interactions are predicted to open a gap between valence and conduction bands, turning the system into an insulator. In mono and (Bernal-stacked) trilayers, which remain conducting at low temperature, interactions do not have equally drastic consequences. It is expected that interaction effects become weaker for thicker multilayers, whose behaviour should converge to that of graphite. Here we show that this expectation does not correspond to reality by revealing the occurrence of an insulating state close to charge neutrality in Bernal-stacked tetralayer graphene. The phenomenology—incompatible with the behaviour expected from the single-particle band structure—resembles that observed in bilayers, but the insulating state in tetralayers is visible at higher temperature. We explain our findings, and the systematic even-odd effect of interactions in Bernal-stacked layers of different thickness that emerges from experiments, in terms of a generalization of the interaction-driven, symmetry-broken states proposed for bilayers.

  4. Effect of evening primrose and fish oils on two stage skin carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, G; Das, U N

    1998-09-01

    The effect of fish oil (FO, given in the form of MaxEPA) rich in n-3 fatty acids and evening primrose oil (EPO) rich in n-6 fatty acids on two-stage skin carcinogenesis in mice was studied. Both FO and EPO inhibited the papilloma formation to a significant degree only during the promotion stage which was associated with an increase in lipid peroxidation. Both FO and EPO inhibited the binding of benzo(a)-pyrene to skin cell DNA suggesting that this could be one of the mechanism(s) by which these oils could be preventing papilloma development. Neither EPO nor FO influenced epidermal cell proliferation. In the FO group, LA (linoleic acid), AA (arachidonic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) were increased, whereas in the EPO group a significant increase in the AA content was noted. No specific changes in the fatty acid pattern were observed in any of the groups that could be attributed to the papilloma incidence. These results suggest that FO and EPO can influence papilloma formation which can be attributed, at least in part, to their ability to prevent benzo(a)pyrene binding to DNA and to an increase the lipid peroxidation process.

  5. Systemic evening primrose oil improves the biophysical skin parameters of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Muggli, R

    2005-08-01

    Biophysical skin parameters are indicators of age-related structural and functional changes in skin tissues. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy adults tested the effect of Efamol evening primrose oil [EPO, a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) containing vegetable oil] on skin moisture, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), redness, firmness, elasticity, fatigue resistance and roughness. Efamol EPO was administered orally in soft gel capsules, 3 x 500 mg b.i.d. for 12 weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at weeks 4 and 12. The two treatment groups did not differ at baseline and at week 4. At week 12, however, all measured variables, with the exception of skin redness, were significantly different in the EPO group compared with placebo. Skin moisture, TEWL, elasticity, firmness, fatigue resistance and roughness had significantly improved by 12.9, 7.7, 4.7, 16.7, 14.2 and 21.7%, respectively. The two-sided levels of significance in favor of the EPO treatment ranged between 0.034 and 0.001. These findings lend further support to the notion that GLA is a conditionally essential fatty acid for the skin, i.e. it is unable to synthesize GLA, and therefore depends on preformed GLA for optimal structure and function.

  6. Effect of evening primrose oil as food supplement on reproduction in the blue fox.

    PubMed

    Tauson, A H; Forsberg, M

    1991-01-01

    Addition of evening primrose oil (EPO) to a blue fox diet in the reproduction period was evaluated in an experiment with 2 groups, each of 12 male and 25 female blue foxes, regarding the effects on reproductive performance. The experiment was carried out as a field trial and the experimental period lasted from March 10 until the end of the mating season (males) or early July (females). During this period the control group was fed the standard diet of the farm and the experimental group was fed the same diet supplemented with 4.5 g EPO and 2.5 mg zinc sulphate per animal and day. An addition of 10 mg vitamin E per 500 mg EPO was made. The results were evaluated regarding male and female treatment effects. There was an increased rate of abortions in the EPO-group, but simultaneously a non-significant decrease in the frequency of barren females, resulting in a similar level of females without litters in both groups. A tendency for increased litter size in the EPO group was found, mainly as an effect of male treatment, which might indicate an effect on semen quality.

  7. Evening primrose oil (Efamol) in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a double blind study.

    PubMed

    Belch, J J; Shaw, B; O'Dowd, A; Saniabadi, A; Leiberman, P; Sturrock, R D; Forbes, C D

    1985-08-30

    Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and prostacyclin have been used in Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) but are unstable and require intravenous administration. An alternative approach is to stimulate the body's own PGE1 production via administration of the precursor essential fatty acid. We studied the effect of 12 capsules/day of evening primrose oil (EPO) on the manifestations of RP. 21 patients received a two week course of placebo, thereafter 11 received EPO for 8 weeks and 10 patients received placebo. As the weather worsened the placebo group experienced significantly more attacks than the EPO group. Visual analogue scales assessing the severity of attacks and coldness of hands improved in the EPO group. No changes were seen in either group in hand temperatures and cold challenge plethysmography. Blood tests showed some antiplatelet effects of the drug. In conclusion patients receiving EPO benefited symptomatically. This was not matched however by any change in objective assessment of blood flow, although changes in platelet behaviour and blood prostanoids were observed.

  8. Cellular resolution models for even skipped regulation in the entire Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Ilsley, Garth R; Fisher, Jasmin; Apweiler, Rolf; DePace, Angela H; Luscombe, Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional control ensures genes are expressed in the right amounts at the correct times and locations. Understanding quantitatively how regulatory systems convert input signals to appropriate outputs remains a challenge. For the first time, we successfully model even skipped (eve) stripes 2 and 3+7 across the entire fly embryo at cellular resolution. A straightforward statistical relationship explains how transcription factor (TF) concentrations define eve’s complex spatial expression, without the need for pairwise interactions or cross-regulatory dynamics. Simulating thousands of TF combinations, we recover known regulators and suggest new candidates. Finally, we accurately predict the intricate effects of perturbations including TF mutations and misexpression. Our approach imposes minimal assumptions about regulatory function; instead we infer underlying mechanisms from models that best fit the data, like the lack of TF-specific thresholds and the positional value of homotypic interactions. Our study provides a general and quantitative method for elucidating the regulation of diverse biological systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00522.001 PMID:23930223

  9. Aging reduces the bioavailability of even a weakly sorbed pesticide (carbaryl) in soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Riaz; Kookana, Rai S; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Alston, Angus M

    2004-09-01

    We investigated bioavailability and biodegradation of carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) in a soil with a long history of pesticide contamination from a storage facility located at Mamoon Kanjan, Pakistan. Carbaryl is weakly sorbed and generally considered to be easily degradable in soil. Extraction studies revealed that 49% of the total carbaryl in soil (88.0 mg kg(-1)) was not water-extractable and also not bioavailable, as demonstrated by inoculation of the contaminated soil with a carbaryl-degrading, mixed bacterial culture. Inoculation of the contaminated soil with the carbaryl-degrading culture showed that the bacteria were capable of degrading only the available (i.e., water-extractable) fraction of the pesticide. When the soil was pulverized in a ball mill to enhance the release of residue, an additional 19% of the carbaryl became bioavailable. A significant proportion of residue (approximately 33%) remained unavailable. The long (>12 years) contact time between the pesticide and soil (i.e., aging), allowing possible sequestration into soil nanopores and the organic matter matrices, is suggested to have rendered the pesticide unavailable for microbial degradation. High concentration (88.0 mg kg(-1)) in soil facilitated its persistence and sequestration. Results from the present study demonstrate that even a weakly sorbed and easily degradable pesticide, carbaryl, is effectively sequestrated in soil with time, rendering it partly inaccessible to microorganisms and affecting the bioavailability of the compound.

  10. Observations of the evening transition processes on opposing slopes of a north-south oriented mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardyjak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The MATERHORN (Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observation) Program is a multiuniversity, multidisciplinary research initiative designed to improve numerical weather prediction in complex terrain and to better understand the physics of complex terrain flow phenomena across a wide range of scales. As part of MATERHORN, field campaigns were conducted at Dugway, UT, USA in Autumn 2012 and Spring 2013. A subset of the campaigns included dense observations along the East Slope of Granite Peak (40.096° N, -113.253° W), as well as additional observations on the opposing west facing slope. East Slope observations included five multi-sonic anemometer eddy covariance towers (two with full energy budget stations), eleven small energy budget stations, fifteen automated weather stations, a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system, hot-film anemometry, infrared camera surface temperature observations and up to three Doppler lidars. West Slope operations were less intense with three main towers, two of which included sonic anemometry and one, which included full surface energy balance observations. For this presentation, our analysis will focus on characterizing and contrasting the response of mean wind circulations and thermodynamics variables, as well as turbulence quantities during the evening transitions on both the East Slope and West Slope when solar irradiation differences of the slope surfaces is extremely large.

  11. Solution of the Percus-Yevick equation for hard hyperspheres in even dimensions.

    PubMed

    Adda-Bedia, M; Katzav, E; Vella, D

    2008-10-14

    We solve the Percus-Yevick equation in even dimensions by reducing it to a set of simple integrodifferential equations. This work generalizes an approach we developed previously for hard disks. We numerically obtain both the pair correlation function and the virial coefficients for a fluid of hyperspheres in dimensions d = 4, 6, and 8, and find good agreement with the available exact results and Monte Carlo simulations. This paper confirms the alternating character of the virial series for d > or = 6 and provides the first evidence for an alternating character for d = 4. Moreover, we show that this sign alternation is due to the existence of a branch point on the negative real axis. It is this branch point that determines the radius of convergence of the virial series, whose value we determine explicitly for d = 4, 6, 8. Our results complement, and are consistent with, a recent study in odd dimensions [R. D. Rohrmann et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 014510 (2008)].

  12. Limited immune diversity in urodela: chronic transplantation responses occur even with family-disparate xenografts.

    PubMed

    Kinefuchi, Kenjiroh; Kushida, Yoshihiro; Touma, Maki; Hosono, Masamichi

    2013-07-01

    Urodele amphibians are thought to have poorer immune responses than evolutionary more ancestral vertebrate classes, such as bony fish. We investigated skin graft rejection and transplantation immunity in Urodele amphibians, Japanese newts, and Asiatic salamanders, and compared these findings to those from transplants in several species of frogs. The skin grafts used in this study were either allogeneic or xenogeneic. The mean survival time of the first set of allografts at 20°C was approximately 60 days for chronic responses in Urodela and 20 days for acute responses in Anura. As the graft survival times of urodeles were significantly longer than those of anurans, even when urodeles were repeatedly grafted from identical donors, there appear to be substantial differences in transplantation immunity between Urodela and Anura. These slow responses in Urodela may not be accompanied by the expansion of cytotoxic T cells, as observed in fish and anuran species, which are known to have functional major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class I systems. In our study, approximately five histo-incompatible immunogenic components were found to be involved in chronic responses in newts. Similar chronic responses were also observed in xenograft rejection in newts. In contrast, xenografts were rejected in frogs due to an accelerated acute response, possibly involving natural killer cells. Our findings that some anti-allogeneic components appear to be shared with xenogeneic components indicate that the diversification of the acquired immune system is poorly developed in Urodela.

  13. Human observers have optimal introspective access to perceptual processes even for visually masked stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Megan A K; Lau, Hakwan

    2015-01-01

    Many believe that humans can ‘perceive unconsciously’ – that for weak stimuli, briefly presented and masked, above-chance discrimination is possible without awareness. Interestingly, an online survey reveals that most experts in the field recognize the lack of convincing evidence for this phenomenon, and yet they persist in this belief. Using a recently developed bias-free experimental procedure for measuring subjective introspection (confidence), we found no evidence for unconscious perception; participants’ behavior matched that of a Bayesian ideal observer, even though the stimuli were visually masked. This surprising finding suggests that the thresholds for subjective awareness and objective discrimination are effectively the same: if objective task performance is above chance, there is likely conscious experience. These findings shed new light on decades-old methodological issues regarding what it takes to consider a neurobiological or behavioral effect to be 'unconscious,' and provide a platform for rigorously investigating unconscious perception in future studies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09651.001 PMID:26433023

  14. Possible equatorial detection of the nighttime thermal effect of the evening solar terminator wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriwether, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Fabry-Perot temperature measurements obtained at Arequipa, Peru (-16.5 S, 74 W) during the period of solar maximum activity in 1999-2001 during the fall-winter-spring period of April to October occasionally exhibited a secondary peak enhancement of 10 to 40 K amplitude in addition to the more normal midnight temperature maximum enhancement of 50 to 150 K. Temperature measurements obtained for each cycle of directions (N,E,S,W, and Z) were averaged to reduce the standard deviation of the error from 40-65 K for each point to 20-35 K. A total of about 20 nights exhibits such peaks as well as the MTM feature. These peaks were seen in the period prior to local midnight generally within one or two hours after evening twilight. The results of observations from 1999 to 2001 will be reviewed to obtained an estimate of the statistical rate of appearance of these secondary peaks. Data obtained during the recent solar minimum period will be discussed in regard to possible secondary peak detection. It is proposed that the these temperature enhancements may be attributed to the density wave associated with the motion of the solar terminator wave through the thermosphere as described by the recent work of Forbes and collaborators reporting on the analysis of CHAMP data.

  15. Low-lying even parity meson resonances and spin-flavor symmetry revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Recio, C.; Geng, L. S.; Nieves, J.; Salcedo, L. L.; Wang, En; Xie, Ju-Jun

    2013-05-01

    We review and extend the model derived in Garcia-Recio et al. [Phys. Rev. D 83, 016007 (2011)] to address the dynamics of the low-lying even-parity meson resonances. This model is based on a coupled-channels spin-flavor extension of the chiral Weinberg-Tomozawa Lagrangian. This interaction is then used to study the S-wave meson-meson scattering involving members not only of the π octet, but also of the ρ nonet. In this work, we study in detail the structure of the SU(6)-symmetry-breaking contact terms that respect (or softly break) chiral symmetry. We derive the most general local (without involving derivatives) terms consistent with the chiral-symmetry-breaking pattern of QCD. After introducing sensible simplifications to reduce the large number of possible operators, we carry out a phenomenological discussion of the effects of these terms. We show how the inclusion of these pieces leads to an improvement of the description of the JP=2+ sector, without spoiling the main features of the predictions obtained in the original model in the JP=0+ and JP=1+ sectors. In particular, we find a significantly better description of the IG(JPC)=0+(2++), 1-(2++) and the I(JP)=(1)/(2)(2+) sectors, which correspond to the f2(1270), a2(1320), and K2*(1430) quantum numbers, respectively.

  16. Cellular resolution models for even skipped regulation in the entire Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Ilsley, Garth R; Fisher, Jasmin; Apweiler, Rolf; De Pace, Angela H; Luscombe, Nicholas M

    2013-08-06

    Transcriptional control ensures genes are expressed in the right amounts at the correct times and locations. Understanding quantitatively how regulatory systems convert input signals to appropriate outputs remains a challenge. For the first time, we successfully model even skipped (eve) stripes 2 and 3+7 across the entire fly embryo at cellular resolution. A straightforward statistical relationship explains how transcription factor (TF) concentrations define eve's complex spatial expression, without the need for pairwise interactions or cross-regulatory dynamics. Simulating thousands of TF combinations, we recover known regulators and suggest new candidates. Finally, we accurately predict the intricate effects of perturbations including TF mutations and misexpression. Our approach imposes minimal assumptions about regulatory function; instead we infer underlying mechanisms from models that best fit the data, like the lack of TF-specific thresholds and the positional value of homotypic interactions. Our study provides a general and quantitative method for elucidating the regulation of diverse biological systems. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00522.001.

  17. Expression and function of an even-skipped homolog in the leech Helobdella robusta.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi Hye; Huang, Françoise Z; Chang, Gwendolen Y; Weisblat, David A

    2002-08-01

    We have identified homologs of the Drosophila pair-rule gene even-skipped in the glossiphoniid leeches Helobdella robusta and Theromyzon trizonare. In leech embryos, segments arise sequentially from five pairs of embryonic stem cells (teloblasts) that undergo iterated divisions to generate columns (bandlets) of segmental founder cells (primary blast cells), which in turn generate segmentally iterated sets of definitive progeny. In situ hybridization revealed that Hro-eve is expressed in the teloblasts and primary blast cells, and that these transcripts appear to be associated with mitotic chromatin. In more advanced embryos, Hro-eve is expressed in segmentally iterated sets of cells in the ventral nerve cord. Lineage analysis revealed that neurons expressing Hro-eve arise from the N teloblast. To assess the function of Hro-eve, we examined embryos in which selected blastomeres had been injected with antisense Hro-eve morpholino oligonucleotide (AS-Hro-eve MO), concentrating on the primary neurogenic (N teloblast) lineage. Injection of AS-Hro-eve MO perturbed the normal patterns of teloblast and blast cell divisions and disrupted gangliogenesis. These results suggest that Hro-eve is important in regulating early cell divisions through early segmentation, and that it also plays a role in neuronal differentiation.

  18. Posterior patterning by the Caenorhabditis elegans even-skipped homolog vab-7.

    PubMed

    Ahringer, J

    1996-05-01

    Patterning of the posterior end in animals is not well understood. Homologs of Drosophila even-skipped (eve) have a similar posterior expression pattern in many animals, and in vertebrates they are linked physically to the "posterior" ends of homeotic clusters (HOM-C), suggesting a conserved role in posterior development. However, the function of this posterior expression is not known. Here I show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene vab-7 encodes an eve homolog that is required for posterior development and expressed in a pattern strikingly similar to that of vertebrate eve genes. Using a four-dimensional recording system, I found that posterior body muscles and the posterior epidermis are patterned abnormally in vab-7 mutants, but commitment to muscle and epidermal fates is normal. Furthermore, vab-7 activity is required for the complete expression of the most posterior HOM-C gene egl-5 in muscle cells, supporting the idea that eve homologs may act with the HOM-C to determine posterior cell fates. The conservation of sequence and expression pattern between vab-7 and eve homologs in other animals argues that most eve genes have posterior mesodermal and ectodermal patterning functions.

  19. Theoretical study of neutrino scattering off the stable even Mo isotopes at low and intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasi, K. G.; Ydrefors, E.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2011-10-01

    A systematic study of the cross sections of neutral-current neutrino scattering off the stable even Mo isotopes (mass number A=92,94,96,98,100), at low and intermediate neutrino energies ( E⩽130 MeV), is presented and discussed. The required wave functions for the initial (ground state) and all accessible final nuclear states are constructed in the context of the quasi-particle random-phase approximation (QRPA) and tested against data on the low-lying energy spectra of the isotopes in question. The individual contributions coming from the polar-vector and axial-vector components of the hadronic current for the coherent and incoherent channels of each isotope are investigated. The studied Mo isotopes are contents of the detector of the MOON experiment operating at Japan with a hybrid aim to search for neutrinoless double beta decay events and to detect low- and intermediate-energy astrophysical neutrinos (solar, supernova, geo-neutrinos), and also of the NEMO neutrinoless double beta decay detector in Modane at France. For such purposes our cross section calculations are of significant importance.

  20. Auditory white noise reduces postural fluctuations even in the absence of vision.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jessica Marie; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2015-08-01

    The contributions of somatosensory, vestibular, and visual feedback to balance control are well documented, but the influence of auditory information, especially acoustic noise, on balance is less clear. Because somatosensory noise has been shown to reduce postural sway, we hypothesized that noise from the auditory modality might have a similar effect. Given that the nervous system uses noise to optimize signal transfer, adding mechanical or auditory noise should lead to increased feedback about sensory frames of reference used in balance control. In the present experiment, postural sway was analyzed in healthy young adults where they were presented with continuous white noise, in the presence and absence of visual information. Our results show reduced postural sway variability (as indexed by the body's center of pressure) in the presence of auditory noise, even when visual information was not present. Nonlinear time series analysis revealed that auditory noise has an additive effect, independent of vision, on postural stability. Further analysis revealed that auditory noise reduced postural sway variability in both low- and high-frequency regimes (> or <0.3 Hz) of sway, suggesting that both spontaneous and feedback-driven aspects of postural fluctuations were influenced by acoustic noise. Our results support the idea that auditory white noise reduces postural sway, suggesting that auditory noise might be used for therapeutic and rehabilitation purposes in older individuals and those with balance disorders.

  1. Numerosity processing is context driven even in the subitizing range: An fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Leibovich, Tali; Henik, Avishai; Salti, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Numerical judgments are involved in almost every aspect of our daily life. They are carried out so efficiently that they are often considered to be automatic and innate. However, numerosity of non-symbolic stimuli is highly correlated with its continuous properties (e.g., density, area), and so it is hard to determine whether numerosity and continuous properties rely on the same mechanism. Here we examined the behavioral and neuronal mechanisms underlying such judgments. We scanned subjects' hemodynamic responses to a numerosity comparison task and to a surface area comparison task. In these tasks, numerical and continuous magnitudes could be either congruent or incongruent. Behaviorally, an interaction between the order of the tasks and the relevant dimension modulated the congruency effects. Continuous magnitudes always interfered with numerosity comparison. Numerosity, on the other hand, interfered with the surface area comparison only when participants began with the numerosity task. Hemodynamic activity showed that context (induced by task order) determined the neuronal pathways in which the dimensions were processed. Starting with the numerosity task led to enhanced activity in the right hemisphere, while starting with the continuous task led to enhanced left hemisphere activity. Continuous magnitudes processing relied on activation of the frontal eye field and the post-central gyrus. Processing of numerosities, on the other hand, relied on deactivation of these areas, suggesting active suppression of the continuous dimension. Accordingly, we suggest that numerosities, even in the subitizing range, are not always processed automatically; their processing depends on context and task demands. PMID:26297625

  2. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described.

  3. J. M. Despréaux' lichens from the Canary Islands and West Africa: an account of a 19th century collection found in an English archive.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Whitworth, Isabella; Spooner, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. The lichens comprise 13 different morphotypes collected in the Canary Islands and West Africa by the French botanist J. M. Despréaux between 1833 and 1839. The collections include samples of "Roccella fuciformis", "R. phycopsis" and "R. tinctoria" (including the fertile morphotype "R. canariensis"), "Ramalina crispatula" and "R. cupularis", two distinct morphotypes of "Sticta", "S. canariensis" and "S. dufouri", "Physconia enteroxantha", "Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea" and "Pseudocyphellaria argyracea". The herbarium also includes authentic material of "Parmotrema tinctorum" and a probable syntype of "Seirophora scorigena". Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool.

  4. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  5. Le syndrome d'insensibilité complète aux androgènes: à propos de deux cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Lachiri, Boutaina; Hakimi, Ihssane; Boudhas, Adil; Guelzim, Khalid; Kouach, Jaouad; Oukabli, Mohamed; Rahali, Driss Moussaoui; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Le syndrome d'insensibilité complète aux androgènes (SICA) est une entité rare qui correspond à la forme complète des pseudohermaphrodismes androgynoïdes. Son incidence est en fait très variable, allant, selon les auteurs de 1/20000 à 1/60000 naissances. Il est caractérisé par la coexistence chez le même sujet d'un caryotype masculin (46 XY), avec des gonades males, et d'une morphologie féminine normale. Les auteurs rapportent deux observations de deux jeunes filles présentant le SICA ayant consulté pour aménorrhée primaire, illustrant les particularités cliniques, anatomopathologiques et biologiques du syndrome avec certaines particularités. PMID:26301004

  6. Why AGU is important in Eastern Europe and should increase its role even more?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocanu, V.

    2007-12-01

    , to push the frontiers of science. This is why AGU is a certain model to follow and we expect even closer relationships with its sister societies from East Europe.

  7. Heat generation above break-even from laser-induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Holmlid, Leif

    2015-08-15

    Previous results from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0) give conclusive evidence for ejection of neutral massive particles with energy >10 MeV u{sup −1}. Such particles can only be formed from nuclear processes like nuclear fusion at the low laser intensity used. Heat generation is of interest for future fusion energy applications and has now been measured by a small copper (Cu) cylinder surrounding the laser target. The temperature rise of the Cu cylinder is measured with an NTC resistor during around 5000 laser shots per measured point. No heating in the apparatus or the gas feed is normally used. The fusion process is suboptimal relative to previously published studies by a factor of around 10. The small neutral particles H{sub N}(0) of ultra-dense hydrogen (size of a few pm) escape with a substantial fraction of the energy. Heat loss to the D{sub 2} gas (at <1 mbar pressure) is measured and compensated for under various conditions. Heat release of a few W is observed, at up to 50% higher energy than the total laser input thus a gain of 1.5. This is uniquely high for the use of deuterium as fusion fuel. With a slightly different setup, a thermal gain of 2 is reached, thus clearly above break-even for all neutronicity values possible. Also including the large kinetic energy which is directly measured for MeV particles leaving through a small opening gives a gain of 2.3. Taking into account the lower efficiency now due to the suboptimal fusion process, previous studies indicate a gain of at least 20 during long periods.

  8. Laparoendoscopic Rendezvous for Concomitant Cholecystocholedocholithiasis: A Successful Modality Even in the Most Difficult Presentations Including Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shirah, Bader Hamza; Mikwar, Zaher Abdulaziz; Ahmad, Akram Neyaz; Dahlan, Yaser Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoendoscopic rendezvous (LERV) technique is emerging as an attractive treatment option for concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis. In this paper, we report our experience in performing the LERV technique in patients with unusual presentations in terms of anatomical difficulty, pregnancy, multiple comorbid diseases, and postlaparotomy. We aim to highlight the effectiveness of the LERV technique in some clinical situations where conventional methods would fail or carry high risks in adequately managing concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis. Methods. Four patients diagnosed to have concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis with associated difficult presentation or comorbid diseases were treated using the LERV technique. One patient presented with difficult anatomy where ERCP failed at initial attempts. Another patient was pregnant (first trimester). A third patient had complex comorbid diseases (bronchial asthma, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and end-stage renal disease on regular hemodialysis). A fourth patient had previous laparotomy and sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease and had severe hospital phobia. Results. All patients tolerated the LERV technique very well; no intraoperative occurrence was reported. The mean operative time was 86.3 ± 17.2 minutes; mean time of the endoscopic part was 29.4 ± 3.57 minutes. The mean blood loss was 44.3 ± 18.2 mL (range 20-85). Residual stone, postoperative complications, postoperative morbidity, and postoperative mortality were 0 (0%). Postoperative short hospital stay was reported in all patients, average 3 days (range 2-4). Conclusion. LERV procedure is a safe and effective treatment option for the management of concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis, even in difficult situations where other methods would fail or carry high risks, or in patients presenting with severe comorbid diseases or pregnancy. This procedure may emerge as an attractive alternative option for high-risk patients

  9. Laparoendoscopic Rendezvous for Concomitant Cholecystocholedocholithiasis: A Successful Modality Even in the Most Difficult Presentations Including Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Mikwar, Zaher Abdulaziz; Ahmad, Akram Neyaz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoendoscopic rendezvous (LERV) technique is emerging as an attractive treatment option for concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis. In this paper, we report our experience in performing the LERV technique in patients with unusual presentations in terms of anatomical difficulty, pregnancy, multiple comorbid diseases, and postlaparotomy. We aim to highlight the effectiveness of the LERV technique in some clinical situations where conventional methods would fail or carry high risks in adequately managing concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis. Methods. Four patients diagnosed to have concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis with associated difficult presentation or comorbid diseases were treated using the LERV technique. One patient presented with difficult anatomy where ERCP failed at initial attempts. Another patient was pregnant (first trimester). A third patient had complex comorbid diseases (bronchial asthma, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and end-stage renal disease on regular hemodialysis). A fourth patient had previous laparotomy and sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease and had severe hospital phobia. Results. All patients tolerated the LERV technique very well; no intraoperative occurrence was reported. The mean operative time was 86.3 ± 17.2 minutes; mean time of the endoscopic part was 29.4 ± 3.57 minutes. The mean blood loss was 44.3 ± 18.2 mL (range 20–85). Residual stone, postoperative complications, postoperative morbidity, and postoperative mortality were 0 (0%). Postoperative short hospital stay was reported in all patients, average 3 days (range 2–4). Conclusion. LERV procedure is a safe and effective treatment option for the management of concomitant cholecystocholedocholithiasis, even in difficult situations where other methods would fail or carry high risks, or in patients presenting with severe comorbid diseases or pregnancy. This procedure may emerge as an attractive alternative option for high

  10. Impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation at extreme high altitude even after acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Ken-ichi; Zhang, Rong; Zuckerman, Julie H; Ogawa, Yojiro; Hansen, Lærke H; Levine, Benjamin David

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases and dynamic cerebral autoregulation is impaired by acute hypoxia. We hypothesized that progressive hypocapnia with restoration of arterial oxygen content after altitude acclimatization would normalize CBF and dynamic cerebral autoregulation. To test this hypothesis, dynamic cerebral autoregulation was examined by spectral and transfer function analyses between arterial pressure and CBF velocity variabilities in 11 healthy members of the Danish High-Altitude Research Expedition during normoxia and acute hypoxia (10.5% O(2)) at sea level, and after acclimatization (for over 1 month at 5,260 m at Chacaltaya, Bolivia). Arterial pressure and CBF velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), were recorded on a beat-by-beat basis. Steady-state CBF velocity increased during acute hypoxia, but normalized after acclimatization with partial restoration of SaO(2) (acute, 78% ± 2%; chronic, 89% ± 1%) and progression of hypocapnia (end-tidal carbon dioxide: acute, 34 ± 2 mm Hg; chronic, 21 ± 1 mm Hg). Coherence (0.40 ± 0.05 Units at normoxia) and transfer function gain (0.77 ± 0.13 cm/s per mm Hg at normoxia) increased, and phase (0.86 ± 0.15 radians at normoxia) decreased significantly in the very-low-frequency range during acute hypoxia (gain, 141% ± 24%; coherence, 136% ± 29%; phase, -25% ± 22%), which persisted after acclimatization (gain, 136% ± 36%; coherence, 131% ± 50%; phase, -42% ± 13%), together indicating impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation in this frequency range. The similarity between both acute and chronic conditions suggests that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is impaired by hypoxia even after successful acclimatization to an extreme high altitude.

  11. Evening choruses in the Perth Canyon and their potential link with Myctophidae fishes.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Robert D; Cato, Douglas H

    2016-10-01

    An evening chorus centered at near 2.2 kHz was detected across the years 2000 to 2014 from seabed receivers in 430-490 m depth overlooking the Perth Canyon, Western Australia. The chorus reached a maximum level typically 2.1 h post-sunset and normally ran for 2.1 h (between 3 dB down points). It was present at lower levels across most of the hours of darkness. Maximum chorus spectrum levels were 74-76 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz in the 2 kHz 1/3 octave band, averaging 6-12 dB and up to 30 dB greater than pre-sunset levels. The chorus displayed highest levels over April to August each year with up to 10 dB differences between seasons. The spatial extent of the chorus was not determined but exceeded the sampling range of 13-15 km offshore from the 300 m depth contour and 33 km along the 300 m depth contour. The chorus comprised short damped pulses. The most likely chorus source is considered to be fishes of the family Myctophidae foraging in the water column. The large chorus spatial extent and its apparent correlation with regions of high productivity suggest it may act as an acoustic beacon to marine fauna indicating regions of high biomass.

  12. Odd-even staggering in yields of neutron-deficient nuclei produced by projectile fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, B.; Xu, H. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Wang, M.; Tu, X. L.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Sun, Z. Y.; Zhou, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Blaum, K.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Mao, R. S.; Hu, Z. G.; Shuai, P.; Zang, Y. D.; Ma, X. W.; Zhang, X. Y.; Xia, J. W.; Xiao, G. Q.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, J. C.; Zhang, X. H.; Xu, X.; Yan, X. L.; Zhang, W.; Zhan, W. L.

    2016-10-01

    Background: Fragment yields exhibit a strong odd-even staggering (OES). This OES has been experimentally observed in different fragmentation reactions with different projectile-target combinations. However, the experimental data are still scarce for fragments close to drip lines and the origin of this OES is not well understood. Purpose: More experimental data are needed to explore the origin of this OES in fragment yields and to validate fragmentation reaction models, especially for nuclei close to the drip lines. To study the pronounced OES near the proton drip line, we measured the yields of Tz=-1 and Tz=-3 /2 nuclei over a wide range of mass number. Methods: The combination of a fragment separator and a storage ring at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou has been used to measure the yields of Tz=-1 and Tz=-3 /2 fragments, produced by 58Ni projectiles impinging on a beryllium target at an energy of about 463 MeV/nucleon. Results: A very strong OES is observed in the measured yields of both Tz=-1 and Tz=-3 /2 fragments. Our experimental data demonstrate that the shell structure has a significant impact on the magnitude of this OES. A comparison of different fragmentation reaction data indicates that this OES is almost independent of the projectile-target combinations and the fragmentation energy between 140 and 650 MeV/nucleon. Conclusions: Our study reveals that the OES of fragment yields originates mainly from the OES of particle-emission threshold energies, which is very close to the OES of fragment yields when the Coulomb barrier is considered in particle-emission threshold energies.

  13. The Effect of Caffeine Ingestion during Evening Exercise on Subsequent Sleep Quality in Females.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; O'Donnell, J M; Starck, C; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K J

    2015-06-01

    In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 10 females taking monophasic oral contraceptives completed 90 min intermittent treadmill-running 45 min after ingestion of 6 mg∙kg(-1) body mass anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo). Water (3 mL∙kg(-1)) was provided every 15 min during exercise. Venous blood samples were taken before, during and after exercise, as well as after sleep (~15 h post-ingestion), and levels of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Sleep quality was assessed using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Plasma caffeine concentration peaked 100 min after ingestion. Caffeine clearance was 0.95±0.14 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) while the elimination half-life of caffeine was 17.63±8.06 h. Paraxanthine and theophylline levels were significantly elevated at 15 h with no significant change in theobromine. Sleep latency and subsequent quality of sleep was impaired following caffeine supplementation (P<0.05); there were no differences between trials for how participants were feeling upon awakening. This is the first controlled study to examine caffeine supplementation on sleep quality in female athletes taking a low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive steroid following an intermittent-exercise running protocol. The data shows that female athletes using monophasic oral contraceptive steroids will have impaired sleep quality following evening caffeine ingestion.

  14. Two and a half-year-old children are prosocial even when their partners are not.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Hernández-Lloreda, María Victoria; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    A total of 33 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested for proactive and selective prosocial responding in an iterated Prosocial Game with unfamiliar adult partners who were communicatively neutral and alternated their roles as actors and recipients every other trial. When children were actors, they were required to choose, at no cost to themselves, between a selfish option that delivered a reward to them only (1/0) and a prosocial option that delivered identical rewards to both themselves and their partners (1/1). When adult partners were actors, they consistently behaved prosocially (1/1) or selfishly (1/0) over 10 alternating trials, depending on test condition. An additional 17 children were used as a recipient-absent control group to test for self-oriented versus other-oriented prosocial preferences. This study shows that by 2.5 years of age, and in the particular context of the task administered, toddlers can display proactive, other-oriented prosocial behavior, but their prosocial responding is indiscriminate in that they fail to respond contingently to their partners' prosocial or selfish behavior in the previous trials. These findings lend further support to the view that human prosociality is in place early in development as a basic tendency to be nice to others. This inclination may be so strong that not even partners who are communicatively neutral or repeatedly selfish toward children can erode it. They also suggest that this precocious proactive prosociality may be independent of reciprocity in terms of both its developmental schedule and psychological scaffolding.

  15. Urinary arsenic profile affects the risk of urothelial carcinoma even at low arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Y.-S.; Yang, S.-M.; Huang, Y.-K.; Chung, C.-J.; Huang, Steven K.; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yang, M.-H.; Chen, C.-J.; Hsueh, Y.-M. . E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw

    2007-01-15

    Arsenic exposure is associated with an increased risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC). To explore the association between individual risk and urinary arsenic profile in subjects without evident exposure, 177 UC cases and 313 age-matched controls were recruited between September 2002 and May 2004 for a case-control study. Urinary arsenic species including the following three categories, inorganic arsenic (As{sup III} + As{sup V}), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}), were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic methylation profile was assessed by percentages of various arsenic species in the sum of the three categories measured. The primary methylation index (PMI) was defined as the ratio between MMA{sup V} and inorganic arsenic. Secondary methylation index (SMI) was determined as the ratio between DMA{sup V} and MMA{sup V}. Smoking is associated with a significant risk of UC in a dose-dependent manner. After multivariate adjustment, UC cases had a significantly higher sum of all the urinary species measured, higher percent MMA{sup V}, lower percent DMA{sup V}, higher PMI and lower SMI values compared with controls. Smoking interacts with the urinary arsenic profile in modifying the UC risk. Differential carcinogenic effects of the urinary arsenic profile, however, were seen more prominently in non-smokers than in smokers, suggesting that smoking is not the only major environmental source of arsenic contamination since the UC risk differs in non-smokers. Subjects who have an unfavorable urinary arsenic profile have an increased UC risk even at low exposure levels.

  16. Quantitative analysis of anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging triterpenoid esters in evening primrose oil.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Roland; Hamburger, Matthias

    2004-06-02

    Cold pressed, nonraffinated evening primrose oil (EPO) was recently found to contain lipophilic triterpenoidal esters with radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties. A simple and robust method for the quantitative analysis of these 3-O-trans-caffeoyl derivatives of betulinic, morolic, and oleanolic acid was developed and validated. Separation was achieved by normal phase chromatography on a Diol column and with hexane/ethyl acetate (50:50) as eluent. The analytes could be determined directly in the oil matrix, without need of a previous removal of the triglycerides. Normal phase LC ESI-MS with a makeup flow of polar modifier was used for checking the identity and purity of analyte peaks. Samples from 22 commercially available EPOs were analyzed. The average caffeoyl ester contents were 58 mg/100 g in cold pressed oils and 4.7 mg/100 g in partially raffinated oils. In fully raffinated EPO samples, the concentration was below the limit of detection. The influence of extraction temperature on the content of caffeoyl esters in nonraffinated EPO was investigated with seeds of Oenothera biennis and Oenothera lamarckiana, respectively. With O. lamarckiana, the concentration of caffeoyl esters in the oil increased with rising pressure and temperature, whereas no such dependency was found with O. biennis. Microscopic analysis revealed some differences in the histology of the seed testa, which may explain in part the differing behaviors in the extraction experiments. There was a difference between O. biennis and O. lamarckiana oils with respect to the relative amounts of the three esters. The temperature of the extraction process had no effect on the ratio of the compounds.

  17. Change blindness for cast shadows in natural scenes: Even informative shadow changes are missed.

    PubMed

    Ehinger, Krista A; Allen, Kala; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-05-01

    Previous work has shown that human observers discount or neglect cast shadows in natural and artificial scenes across a range of visual tasks. This is a reasonable strategy for a visual system designed to recognize objects under a range of lighting conditions, since cast shadows are not intrinsic properties of the scene-they look different (or disappear entirely) under different lighting conditions. However, cast shadows can convey useful information about the three-dimensional shapes of objects and their spatial relations. In this study, we investigated how well people detect changes to cast shadows, presented in natural scenes in a change blindness paradigm, and whether shadow changes that imply the movement or disappearance of an object are more easily noticed than shadow changes that imply a change in lighting. In Experiment 1, a critical object's shadow was removed, rotated to another direction, or shifted down to suggest that the object was floating. All of these shadow changes were noticed less often than changes to physical objects or surfaces in the scene, and there was no difference in the detection rates for the three types of changes. In Experiment 2, the shadows of visible or occluded objects were removed from the scenes. Although removing the cast shadow of an occluded object could be seen as an object deletion, both types of shadow changes were noticed less often than deletions of the visible, physical objects in the scene. These results show that even informative shadow changes are missed, suggesting that cast shadows are discounted fairly early in the processing of natural scenes.

  18. Soluble antigen profoundly reduces memory B-cell numbers even when given after challenge immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Nossal, G J; Karvelas, M; Pulendran, B

    1993-01-01

    The splenic B-cell repertoire of unimmunized C57BL/6 mice can be examined for anti-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP) B cells of relatively high affinity by using a dual strategy. First, limiting numbers of splenocytes are polyclonally activated by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and a mixture of interleukins 2, 4, and 5 in the presence of 3T3 filler cells, thus ensuring that many B-cell clones switch to IgG1 antibody production. Second, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is geared to register only higher-affinity antibody by (i) detecting only bivalent IgG1 antibody and ignoring IgM and (ii) using a lowly substituted NP-conjugated protein as the capture layer. Naive spleens contain very few higher-affinity anti-NP B cells thus defined, but thymus (T)-dependent immunization causes the appearance of approximately 10(5) per spleen within 2 weeks. The development of these clonable anti-NP antibody-forming cell precursors can be virtually eliminated by a single injection of 1 mg of soluble, freshly deaggregated NP2-human serum albumin (HSA). This toleragen works not only if injected prior to challenge immunization, but even if given up to 6 days later. Soluble HSA works partially but not nearly as well as NP2-HSA, suggesting the possibility that the toleragen must act on T and B cells. NP conjugated to irrelevant carriers achieved partial tolerance in only one of four experiments. The studies demonstrate the need for continuing T-cell help throughout the process of memory B-cell generation. They also show that those recently activated T cells involved in this process can be silenced in vivo by soluble toleragen. PMID:8464928

  19. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission. PMID:27695465

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission.

  1. Expression profile of PIN, AUX/LAX and PGP auxin transporter gene families in Sorghum bicolor under phytohormone and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, ChenJia; Bai, YouHuang; Wang, SuiKang; Zhang, SaiNa; Wu, YunRong; Chen, Ming; Jiang, DeAn; Qi, YanHua

    2010-07-01

    Auxin is transported by the influx carriers auxin resistant 1/like aux1 (AUX/LAX), and the efflux carriers pin-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP), which play a major role in polar auxin transport. Several auxin transporter genes have been characterized in dicotyledonous Arabidopsis, but most are unknown in monocotyledons, especially in sorghum. Here, we analyze the chromosome distribution, gene duplication and intron/exon of SbPIN, SbLAX and SbPGP gene families, and examine their phylogenic relationships in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that most of these genes were differently expressed in the organs of sorghum. SbPIN3 and SbPIN9 were highly expressed in flowers, SbLAX2 and SbPGP17 were mainly expressed in stems, and SbPGP7 was strongly expressed in roots. This suggests that individual genes might participate in specific organ development. The expression profiles of these gene families were analyzed after treatment with: (a) the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid; (b) the polar auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acids, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid; and (c) abscissic acid and the abiotic stresses of high salinity and drought. Most of the auxin transporter genes were strongly induced by indole-3-acetic acid and brassinosteroid, providing new evidence for the synergism of these phytohormones. Interestingly, most genes showed similar trends in expression under polar auxin transport inhibitors and each also responded to abscissic acid, salt and drought. This study provides new insights into the auxin transporters of sorghum.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Medicago truncatula during the Early Phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Tao; Xu, Luqin; Tie, Shuanggui; Wang, Huizhong

    2014-01-01

    Background Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes, coding a family of short-lived nuclear proteins, play key roles in wide variety of plant developmental processes, including root system regulation and responses to environmental stimulus. However, how they function in auxin signaling pathway and symbiosis with rhizobial in Medicago truncatula are largely unknown. The present study aims at gaining deeper insight on distinctive expression and function features of Aux/IAA family genes in Medicago truncatula during nodule formation. Principal Findings Using the latest updated draft of the full Medicago truncatula genome, a comprehensive identification and analysis of IAA genes were performed. The data indicated that MtIAA family genes are distributed in all the M. truncatula chromosomes except chromosome 6. Most of MtIAA genes are responsive to exogenous auxin and express in tissues-specific manner. To understand the biological functions of MtIAA genes involved in nodule formation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to test the expression profiling of MtIAA genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti) infection. The expression patterns of most MtIAA genes were down-regulated in roots and up-regulated in shoots by S. meliloti infection. The differences in expression responses between roots and shoots caused by S. meliloti infection were alleviated by 1-NOA application. Conclusion The genome-wide identification, evolution and expression pattern analysis of MtIAA genes were performed in this study. The data helps us to understand the roles of MtIAA-mediated auxin signaling in nodule formation during the early phase of S. meliloti infection. PMID:25226164

  3. Auxin responsiveness of the MONOPTEROS-BODENLOS module in primary root initiation critically depends on the nuclear import kinetics of the Aux/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS.

    PubMed

    Herud, Ole; Weijers, Dolf; Lau, Steffen; Jürgens, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes. Aux/IAA proteins are continually synthesized and degraded, which is essential for rapid transcriptional responses to changing auxin concentrations. Nuclear translocation of bdl:3×GFP was slowed down in impα6 mutants as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which correlated with the reduced inhibition of MP by bdl in transient expression assays in impα6 knock-down protoplasts. The MP-BDL module acts like an auxin-triggered genetic switch because MP activates its own expression as well as the expression of its inhibitor BDL. Using an established simulation model, we determined that the reduced nuclear translocation rate of BDL in impα6 mutant embryos rendered the auxin-triggered switch unstable, impairing the fast response to changes in auxin concentration. Our results suggest that the instability of the inhibitor BDL necessitates a fast nuclear uptake in order to reach the critical threshold level required for auxin responsiveness of the MP-BDL module in primary root initiation.

  4. The homeobox transcription factor Even-skipped regulates acquisition of electrical properties in Drosophila neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pym, Edward CG; Southall, Tony D; Mee, Christopher J; Brand, Andrea H; Baines, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Background While developmental processes such as axon pathfinding and synapse formation have been characterized in detail, comparatively less is known of the intrinsic developmental mechanisms that regulate transcription of ion channel genes in embryonic neurons. Early decisions, including motoneuron axon targeting, are orchestrated by a cohort of transcription factors that act together in a combinatorial manner. These transcription factors include Even-skipped (Eve), islet and Lim3. The perdurance of these factors in late embryonic neurons is, however, indicative that they might also regulate additional aspects of neuron development, including the acquisition of electrical properties. Results To test the hypothesis that a combinatorial code transcription factor is also able to influence the acquisition of electrical properties in embryonic neurons we utilized the molecular genetics of Drosophila to manipulate the expression of Eve in identified motoneurons. We show that increasing expression of this transcription factor, in two Eve-positive motoneurons (aCC and RP2), is indeed sufficient to affect the electrical properties of these neurons in early first instar larvae. Specifically, we observed a decrease in both the fast K+ conductance (IKfast) and amplitude of quantal cholinergic synaptic input. We used charybdotoxin to pharmacologically separate the individual components of IKfast to show that increased Eve specifically down regulates the Slowpoke (a BK Ca2+-gated potassium channel), but not Shal, component of this current. Identification of target genes for Eve, using DNA adenine methyltransferase identification, revealed strong binding sites in slowpoke and nAcRα-96Aa (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit). Verification using real-time PCR shows that pan-neuronal expression of eve is sufficient to repress transcripts for both slo and nAcRα-96Aa. Conclusion Taken together, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that Eve is sufficient to regulate

  5. Statut phospho-calcique en hémodialyse chronique dans l’Oriental Marocain: évaluation de l’adhésion aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO

    PubMed Central

    Benabdellah, Nawal; Karimi, Ilham; Bentata, Yassamine; Yacoubi, Hicham; Haddiya, Intissar

    2013-01-01

    Les troubles phosphocalciques sont fréquents en hémodialyse chronique. Leurs conséquences justifient une prévention et un traitement adaptés aux recommandations des sociétés savantes. L’objectif de notre étude était de déterminer le statut phosphocalcique de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques (HDC) et l’évaluation des taux de conformité des indicateurs aux recommandations K/DOQI et KDIGO. Ainsi, nous avons réalisé une étude transversale incluant les 83 patients HDC du centre d’hémodialyse de l’hôpital Al Farabi d’Oujda. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 49.8± 15.6 ans. Une prédominance masculine a été notée. La conformité des indicateurs du bilan phosphocalcique chez nos patients hémodialysés chroniques par rapport aux recommandations KDIGO était de l’ordre de 21.6%. Le pourcentage des patients ayant des données phosphocalciques conformes aux cibles recommandées par les K/DOQI était Les patients répondants simultanément aux quatres critères recommandés par les K/DOQI n’étaient que 8.4%. PMID:24570784

  6. Traitement des conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures pour la simulation numérique unidimensionnelle de l'écoulement de l'eau dans les canaux à surface libre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, M.; Vazquez, J.; Mose, R.; Zoaeter, M.

    2005-05-01

    Dans ce papier, on décrit le traitement des conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures couplé avec la méthode explicite aux différences finies de Roe pour le développement d'une modélisation unidimensionnelle qui sert à résoudre les équations de Saint-Venant décrivant l'écoulement de l'eau à surface libre. Les deux méthodes les plus utilisées pour trouver la solution aux nœuds intérieurs et extérieurs définissant les conditions aux limites intérieures et extérieures d'un schéma numérique sont décrites et comparées dans deux exemples: Le premier traite le problème du ressaut hydraulique et le second décrit l'écoulement de l'eau au dessus des seuils. Deux types de discrétisation du terme source, pointwise et upwind, sont considérés et comparés aussi. Les résultats obtenus et comparés avec la solution analytique dans le cas du ressaut, et avec les résultats numériques déjà publiés dans le cas des seuils, montrent l'avantage de la méthode des caractéristiques sur la méthode de l'extrapolation pour les conditions aux limites, et la discrétisation upwind du terme source sur la discrétisation pointwise.

  7. Ecologically relevant geomorphic attributes of streams are impaired by even low levels of watershed effective imperviousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietz, Geoff J.; Sammonds, Michael J.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Rutherfurd, Ian D.; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2014-02-01

    studies even though TI has been found to be ineffective (e.g., Bledsoe et al., 2012). A direct measure of EI - one that specifically accounts for the drainage from each impervious surface rather than using a generic reduction factor (e.g., Booth and Jackson, 1997; Wang et al., 2001) - has not previously been used in geomorphic investigations. In this paper, we advance on past studies by testing if EI is a stronger predictor than TI for urban-induced channel change.A second limitation of previous studies of urban-induced morphologic change is the common focus on channel dimensions (Chin, 2006). These are important for infrastructure and flood protection but do not necessarily have a strong mechanistic link to stream ecosystems. While some notable exceptions exist (Finkenbine et al., 2000; McBride and Booth, 2005), other geomorphic attributes are rarely investigated.This study examines how urbanization of a watershed can result in the impairment of a suite of geomorphic attributes of relevance to aquatic ecosystem condition, such as large wood, sediment availability, and structural and hydraulic complexity (of the bed, bank, and water column), represented by the following variables:

  8. Systematization of α-decaying nuclei based on shell structures: The case of even-odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarman, Tolga; Zaim, Nimet; Yarman, O.; Kholmetskii, Alexander; Arık, Metin

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we provided a novel systematization of α-decaying even-even nuclei starting with the classically adopted mechanism (Yarman et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 52, 140 (2016)). The decay half-life of an α-decaying nucleus was framed so that i) the α-particle is taken at the outset to be born inside the parent nucleus with a given probability, ii) where it then keeps on bouncing off of the barrier of the parent nucleus till iii) it finally tunnels through the barrier. Knowing beforehand the measured decay half-life, we have taken into consideration, as a parameter, the probability of the α-particle being first born within the parent before it is emitted. We thence developed a scaffold based on shell properties of families composed of alike even-even nuclei. Nevertheless, our model allows us to incorporate any α-decaying nuclei, and along this line, we present a follow-up systematization of even-odd nuclei, with cases of odd-even and odd-odd α-decaying nuclei pending to be considered in a separate contribution. Notwithstanding, we make an effort herein to expand our approach to investigate the effect of "pairing" ( e.g., when a number of nucleons in the given nucleus becomes an even number, instead of the initial odd number, due to the addition of at least one neutron). Our results show that "pairing", as expected, definitely increases the stability of the given nucleus.

  9. Aspects épidémiologiques des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan (ICA)

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Traore, Fatou; Tano, Micesse; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Jean-Baptiste Anzouan; Konin, Christophe; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les Facteurs de Risque cardio-Vasculaires (FRV) des patients admis pour accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) dans un service autre que celui de la neurologie. Méthodes Étude transversale rétrospective sur une période de 2 ans (janv. 2010 et déc. 2011), réalisée aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan. Résultats Il s'agissait de 176 adultes avec un âge moyen de 60 ans, une prédominance féminine. Les facteurs de risque majeurs retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle dans 86,4% des cas, le diabète dans 11,4% des cas, le tabagisme dans 2,2% des cas. Les motifs de consultation étaient la perte de connaissance dans 36,4% des cas, l'hémiplégie dans 31,8% des cas, les céphalées dans 17,4% des cas, les vertiges dans 10,9% et les palpitations dans 2,2% des cas. La tension artérielle systolique moyenne était à 174 mmHg, la tension artérielle diastolique moyenne était à 105 mmHg et la pression pulsée moyenne était à 70 mmHg. Les AVC étaient associés à une arythmie complète par fibrillation auriculaire dans 11,4% des cas. Les AVC ischémiques représentaient 84,1%. L’évolution aux urgences a été marquée par un décès dans 17% (30) des cas. Conclusion Les AVC constituent un problème majeur de santé publique. Malgré sa prédominance féminine, ils (AVC) touchaient 44% des hommes dans notre étude lorsqu'on sait qu'en Afrique l'activité sociale repose sur les hommes. Ils restent une pathologie grave par la forte létalité. PMID:26327997

  10. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  11. A Combination of Species Evenness and Functional Diversity Is the Best Predictor of Disease Risk in Multihost Communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lifan; Zhou, Shurong

    2015-12-01

    Although accumulated evidence has shown that biodiversity can play an important role in disease transmission and prevalence, it remains unclear how different measures of diversity based on taxonomy or function perform in predicting disease risk. In this article, we assess the relative ability of species richness, Shannon's evenness index, single functional traits, and several functional diversity metrics and their interactions to predict disease risk in both nonequilibrium and equilibrium communities simulated by a multihost epidemiological model. On the basis of generalized linear models and Akaike's information criterion, we found that Shannon's evenness index outperforms species richness as a single variable in explaining variation in disease risk, while the best combination consists of Shannon's evenness index and functional diversity. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate the important role played by species evenness and functional diversity in accounting for variation in disease risk in multihost communities.

  12. Fission studies of secondary beams from relativistic uranium projectiles: The proton even-odd effect in fission fragment charge yields

    SciTech Connect

    Junghans, A. R.; Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Voss, B.; Boeckstiegel, C.; Clerc, H.-G.; Grewe, A.; Heinz, A.; Jong, M. de; Mueller, J.; Steinhaeuser, S.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1999-09-02

    Nuclear-charge yields of fragments produced by fission of neutron-deficient isotopes of uranium, protactinium, actinium, and radium have been measured. These radioactive isotopes were produced as secondary beams, and electromagnetic fission was induced in a lead target with an average excitation energy around 11 MeV. The local even-odd effect in symmetric and in asymmetric fission of thorium isotopes is found to be independent of Z{sup 2}/A. The charge yields of the fission fragments of the odd-Z fissioning protactinium and actinium show a pronounced even-odd effect. In asymmetric fission the unpaired proton predominantly sticks to the heavy fragment. A statistical model based on the single-particle level density at the Fermi energy is able to reproduce the overall trend of the local even-odd effects both in even-Z and odd-Z fissioning systems.

  13. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydrates and proteins, and digesta particulate weight in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture either in the morning (04.00 to 08.00 hours) or the evening (16.00 to 20.00 hours). Cows grazed in the evening spent more time (P < 0.01) and consumed more herbage (P < 0.01) compared with cows grazed in the morning. Higher (P < 0.05) daily mean concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate and n-butyrate in rumen fluid were observed for cows grazed in the evening compared with cows grazed in the morning. Although cows grazed in the evening ingested more crude protein compared with cows grazed in the morning, no significant difference in NH3 -N concentration in rumen fluid was observed between them. The ratio of purine-derivative concentration to creatinine concentrations was higher (P < 0.01) in the urine of cows grazed in the evening than in cows grazed in the morning. These results clearly indicated that evening grazing was advantageous for dairy cows compared with morning grazing, in terms of ruminal fermentable energy intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency.

  14. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  15. Generation d'impulsions breves utilisant la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres dans des semi-conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Isabelle

    Dans cette these, nous utilisons la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres generes par absorption multi-photonique dans des semi-conducteurs pour produire des impulsions breves dans l'infrarouge moyen. Nous proposons d'abord la methode de generation par suppression de la transmission et auto-defocalisation, ou le faisceau incident a l'angle de Brewster genere les porteurs de charge libres, creant un profil d'indice qui defocalise le faisceau. L'impulsion resultante presente un temps de montee calque sur l'impulsion initiale, suivie d'une coupure abrupte. En polarisation TE, on obtient le decoupage par effet d'etalon ou le faisceau est incident sur un etalon oriente sur un minimum de transmission; le debut de l'impulsion est reflechi. Le changement d'indice accompagnant la creation de porteurs de charge libres syntonise la transmission de l'etalon et seule la partie centrale de l'impulsion est transmise. Enfin, le decoupage peut aussi s'effectuer en configuration pompe-sonde; un faisceau continu (sonde) est incident sur un etalon simultanement soumis a l'illumination d'une d'impulsion breve (pompe). Cette derniere genere des porteurs de charge libres, conduisant a un glissement de la frequence instantanee de la sonde. Le faisceau est envoye dans un filtre spectral qui ne transmet que la portion ayant subi un important glissement de frequence.

  16. Effects of pulsed electric field on secondary metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux suspension culture and exudates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Riedel, Heidi; Thaw Saw, Nay Min Min; Kütük, Onur; Mewis, Inga; Jäger, Henry; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2011-06-01

    Plant cell cultures provide a large potential for the production of secondary metabolites. Through the application of different physical and chemical cell stress factors, we investigated the production of the secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ethephon on growth and secondary metabolism, particularly anthocyanins and phenolic acids synthesis, were investigated by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. Anthocyanins were measured by spectrophotometer and extracellular phenolic acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The compounds were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. After the treatments with PEF and ethephon, the concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolic acids in cell culture were higher than in the control, without loss of biomass. The combination of PEF treatment and ethephon improved secondary metabolites formation. Production levels of extracellular phenolic acids, 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol were increased by PEF and ethephon treatments. The results show that PEF induced a defense response of plant cells and may have altered the cell/membrane's dielectric properties. PEF, an external stimulus or stress, is proposed as a promising new abiotic elicitor for stimulating secondary metabolites biosynthesis in plant cell cultures.

  17. Amélioration du modèle de Preisach. Application aux matériaux magnétiques doux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, J. J.; Tenant, P.; Zegadi, L.

    1997-08-01

    Magnetic material modeling creates problems particulary when fast, easy to use and accurate models are needed. In this article an investigation of the Preisach model is presented. This model is not really suitable for soft magnetic material with flat loops. A new approach which gives rise to an important improvement of the Preisach model is described. The main properties of the Preisach model are retained. La modélisation des matériaux magnétiques pose de nombreux problèmes, surtout lorsqu'il s'agit d'allier simplicité, rapidité d'exécution et précision. Dans cet article, nous proposons une étude sur le générateur de cycles d'hystérésis de Preisach. Ce modèle s'avère mal adapté aux matériaux magnétiques à cycles d'hystérésis couchés. Nous suggérons une nouvelle approche qui permet d'accroître considérablement la précision du modèle de Preisach tout en conservant ses principales qualités.

  18. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism.

  19. Even Playing Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) governs intercollegiate sports under the premise of amateurism. That premise is incompatible with the idea of paying players. But "amateur" in no way means "nonprofit." The NCAA signed a 14-year, $10.8 billion contract last year with CBS and Turner Sports to air March Madness, the men's Division…

  20. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…