Science.gov

Sample records for aux evenements meteorologiques

  1. Arabidopsis aux1rcr1 mutation alters AUXIN RESISTANT1 targeting and prevents expression of the auxin reporter DR5:GUS in the root apex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2013-02-01

    Multilevel interactions of the plant hormones ethylene and auxin coordinately and synergistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. This study isolated the AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) allele aux1(rcr1) (RCR1 for REVERSING CTR1-10 ROOT1) that suppressed the root growth inhibition conferred by the constitutive ethylene-response constitutive triple response1-10 (ctr1-10) allele. The aux1(rcr1) mutation resulted from an L126F substitution at loop 2 of the plasma membrane-associated auxin influx carrier protein AUX1. aux1(rcr1) and the T-DNA insertion mutant aux1-T were both defective in auxin transport and many aspects of the auxin response. Unexpectedly, expression of the auxin-response reporter DR5:GUS in the root apex was substantially prevented by the aux1(rcr1) but not the aux1-T mutation, even in the presence of the wild-type AUX1 allele. Following treatment with the synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), DR5:GUS expression in aux1(rcr1) and aux1-T occurred mainly in the root apex and mature zone. NAA-induced DR5:GUS expression in the root apex was markedly prevented by ethylene in genotypes with aux1(rcr1) but not in aux1-T genotypes and the wild type. The effect of aux1(rcr1) on DR5:GUS expression seemed to be associated with AUX1-expressing domains. Green fluorescence protein-fused aux1(rcr1) was localized in the cytoplasm and probably not to the plasma membrane, indicating important roles of the Lys(126) residue at loop 2 in AUX1 targeting. The possible effects of aux1(rcr1) on DR5:GUS expression are discussed.

  2. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  3. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  4. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows

    The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Substrate-dependent Aux cluster: A new insight into Aux/CeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Ju; Lang, Jia-Jian; Teng, Bo-Tao; Wu, Feng-Min; Du, Shi-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    To theoretically study the structures of metal clusters on oxides is very important and becomes one of the most challenging works in computational heterogeneous catalysis since many factors affect their structures and lead to various possibilities. In this work, it is very interesting to find that the stable structures and stability evolution of Aux clusters on ceria are varied with different index surfaces of CeO2. The corresponding reasons in chemical, geometric and electronic properties are systematically explored. Aux (x = 1-4) clusters prefer to separately disperse at the O-O bridge sites on CeO2(100) due to the low coordination number of surface O; while aggregate due to the strong Au-Au attractions when x is larger than 4. Owing to the uniform distribution of O-O bridge sites on CeO2(111) and (100), the most stable configurations of Aux are 3D structures with bottom atoms more than top ones when x is larger than 4. However, 2D configurations of Aux/CeO2(110) (x < 10) are more stable than the corresponding 3D structures due to the particular O-O arrangement on CeO2(110). 3D Aux clusters across O-O-Y lines are suggested as the most stable configurations for Aux/CeO2(110) (x ≥ 10). The present work gives a detailed example for the theoretical study of metal clusters on oxide, and will shed light into the design for controllable synthesis of ceria-based catalysts with metal nanoparticles supported on CeO2.

  6. Excited bands in even-even rare-earth nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2004-09-13

    The energetics of states belonging to normal parity bands in even-even dysprosium isotopes, and their B(E2) transition strengths, are studied using an extended pseudo-SU(3) shell model. States with pseudospin 1 are added to the standard pseudospin 0 space, allowing for a proper description of known excited normal parity bands.

  7. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  8. The Evening/Morning Star.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Explains how Venus changes visibility regularly from morning to evening because of its quick orbit time during part of the year. Includes a brief history of observations of this phenomenon and provides a detailed account from the Australian Aborigines. (DDR)

  9. {alpha} decay of even-even superheavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V. Yu.; Khudenko, A. A.

    2010-03-15

    The {alpha}-decay half-lives of even-even superheavy elements within the range of proton number 104<=Z<=126, which can be formed by possible cold and hot fusion reactions, are calculated in the framework of various approaches for {alpha}-decay half-life evaluation and by using the Q values of {alpha} transitions obtained within different approximations for atomic masses. The dependencies of {alpha}-decay half-lives of superheavy elements on model approaches for both the Q values and half-life calculations are discussed in detail.

  10. Even-odd effects in prompt emission of spontaneously fissioning even-even Pu isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Giubega, G.; Visan, I.

    2015-01-01

    The available experimental Y (A , TKE) data for 236,238,240,242,244Pu(SF) together with the Zp model prescription with appropriate parameters allows the investigation of even-odd effects in fragment distributions. The size of the global even-odd effect in Y (Z) is decreasing from 244Pu(SF) to 236Pu(SF) confirming the general observation of a decrease of the even-odd effect with the fissility parameter. Charge polarizations (ΔZ) and root-mean squares (rms) as a function of A of 236-244Pu(SF) were obtained for the first time. In the asymmetric fission region both ΔZ (A) and rms (A) exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units due to the even-odd effects. The total average charge deviations < ΔZ > (obtained by averaging ΔZ (A) over the experimental Y (A) distribution) are of about |0.5| for all studied Pu(SF) systems. The comparison of the calculated ΔZ (A) and rms (A) of 240Pu(SF) with those of 239Pu (nth , f) reported by Wahl shows an in-phase oscillation with a higher amplitude in the case of 240Pu(SF), confirming the higher even-odd effect in the case of SF. As in the previously studied cases (233,235U (nth , f), 239Pu (nth , f), 252Cf(SF)) the even-odd effects in the prompt emission of 236-244Pu(SF) are mainly due to the Z even-odd effects in fragment distributions and charge polarizations and the N even-odd effects in the average neutron separation energies from fragments < Sn >. The size of the global N even-odd effect in < Sn > is decreasing with the fissility parameter, being higher for the Pu(SF) systems compared to the previously studied systems. The prompt neutron multiplicities as a function of Z, ν (Z), exhibit sawtooth shapes with a visible staggering for asymmetric fragmentations. The size of the global Z even-odd effect in ν (Z) exhibits a decreasing trend with increasing fissility. The average prompt neutron multiplicities as a function of TKE show an increase of the even-odd effect with increasing TKE, with global effect

  11. Systematics of. cap alpha. decay of even--even isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Poplavskii-breve, I.V.

    1987-02-01

    On the basis of an analysis of experimental data we have investigated for the first time the ..cap alpha.. decay of even--even isotones. We have established that the ..cap alpha..-decay energy of isotones depends on the number of protons approximately according to a linear law. We have shown that the Geiger--Nuttall law is valid both for isotopes and isobars, and also for isotones. The deviations from the Geiger--Nuttall law are due to the shell structure of the nucleus. The regularities observed in the ..cap alpha.. decay of isotones have been used to estimate the magnitudes of the ..cap alpha..-decay energies, the kinetic energies of the emitted ..cap alpha.. particles, and the partial half-lives for ..cap alpha.. decay of the known and unknown neutron--deficient nuclei /sup 202//sup ,//sup 204/Ra, /sup 210/Th, /sup 228//sup ,//sup 230/Pu, /sup 234//sup ,//sup 236/Cm, /sup 242//sup ,//sup 244/Fm, /sup 250//sup ,//sup 258/No, and /sup 254//sup ,//sup 256/Ku.

  12. Global systematics of octupole excitations in even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robledo, L. M.; Bertsch, G. F.

    2011-11-01

    We present a computational methodology for a theory of the lowest axially symmetric octupole excitations applicable to all even-even nuclei beyond the lightest. The theory is the well-known generator-coordinate extension (GCM) of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) self-consistent mean field theory. We use the discrete-basis Hill-Wheeler (HW) method to compute the wave functions with an interaction from the Gogny family of Hamiltonians. Comparing to the compiled experimental data on octupole excitations, we find that the performance of the theory depends on the deformation characteristics of the nucleus. For nondeformed nuclei, the theory reproduces the energies to about ±20% apart from an overall scale factor of ≈1.6. The performance is somewhat poorer for (quadrupole) deformed nuclei, and for both together the dispersion of the scaled energies about the experimental values is about ±25%. This compares favorably with the performance of similar theories of the quadrupole excitations. Nuclei having static octupole deformations in HFB theory form a special category. These nuclei have the smallest measured octupole excitation energies as well as the smallest predicted energies. However, in these cases the energies are seriously underpredicted by the theory. We find that a simple two-configuration approximation, the minimization after projection (MAP) method, is almost as accurate as the full HW treatment, provided that the octupole-deformed nuclei are omitted from the comparison. This article is accompanied by a tabulation of the predicted octupole excitations for 818 nuclei extending from drip-line to drip-line, computed with several variants of the Gogny interaction.

  13. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoyong; Xu, Xiaoyang; Fang, David D; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2012-07-15

    Members of the Aux/IAA gene family encode proteins that mediate the responses of auxin-regulated gene expression and regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. Here, we provide the first identification and characterization of nine cDNAs encoding the complete open reading frame (ORF) of the Aux/IAA family in cotton. These were designated GhAux1 to GhAux9 (Gossypiumhirsutum Aux/IAA). The proteins encoded by these nine genes had either whole or partially conserved domains of the Aux/IAA superfamily, with sequence identity ranging from 14% to 69%. A pair of homeologs exists for each Aux/IAA in G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 with high identity both in ORF sequences and amino acid level. Tissue- and organ-specific analysis showed that transcripts of GhAux1, GhAux2, and GhAux3 were abundant in vegetative organs, whereas GhAux4, GhAux5, GhAux6, and GhAux7 were preferentially expressed in ovules on the day of anthesis. GhAux8 and GhIAA16 (previously reported) were also preferentially expressed during fiber developmental stages, especially GhAux8 in fiber early elongation stages, and GhIAA16 in fiber initiation and secondary cell wall thickening stage. GhAux9 was specifically expressed in developing fibers. During the fiber initiation stage, except for GhAux3 and GhAux6, the expression of the other eight GhAuxs in various lintless-fuzzless and linted-fuzzless mutants demonstrated that they were significantly up-regulated compared with linted-fuzzy TM-1. PMID:22575728

  14. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  15. AUX: a scripting language for auditory signal processing and software packages for psychoacoustic experiments and education.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bomjun J

    2012-06-01

    This article introduces AUX (AUditory syntaX), a scripting syntax specifically designed to describe auditory signals and processing, to the members of the behavioral research community. The syntax is based on descriptive function names and intuitive operators suitable for researchers and students without substantial training in programming, who wish to generate and examine sound signals using a written script. In this article, the essence of AUX is discussed and practical examples of AUX scripts specifying various signals are illustrated. Additionally, two accompanying Windows-based programs and development libraries are described. AUX Viewer is a program that generates, visualizes, and plays sounds specified in AUX. AUX Viewer can also be used for class demonstrations or presentations. Another program, Psycon, allows a wide range of sound signals to be used as stimuli in common psychophysical testing paradigms, such as the adaptive procedure, the method of constant stimuli, and the method of adjustment. AUX Library is also provided, so that researchers can develop their own programs utilizing AUX. The philosophical basis of AUX is to separate signal generation from the user interface needed for experiments. AUX scripts are portable and reusable; they can be shared by other researchers, regardless of differences in actual AUX-based programs, and reused for future experiments. In short, the use of AUX can be potentially beneficial to all members of the research community-both those with programming backgrounds and those without.

  16. Even Incomplete Steroid Treatment Helps Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161404.html Even Incomplete Steroid Treatment Helps Preemies: Study Fewer deaths, complications for ... MONDAY, Oct. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Even partial steroid treatment before birth can improve survival odds for ...

  17. Sequence stratigraphy of the Aux Vases Sandstone: A major oil producer in the Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leetaru, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) has contributed between 10 and 25% of all the oil produced in Illinois. The Aux Vases is not only an important oil reservoir but is also an important source of groundwater, quarrying stone, and fluorspar. Using sequence stratigraphy, a more accurate stratigraphic interpretation of this economically important formation can be discerned and thereby enable more effective exploration for the resources contained therein. Previous studies have assumed that the underlying Spar Mountain, Karnak, and Joppa formations interfingered with the Aux Vases, as did the overlying Renault Limestone. This study demonstrates that these formations instead are separated by sequence boundaries; therefore, they are not genetically related to each other. A result of this sequence stratigraphic approach is the identification of incised valleys, paleotopography, and potential new hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Spar Mountain and Aux Vases. In eastern Illinois, the Aux Vases is bounded by sequence boundaries with 20 ft (6 m) of relief. The Aux Vases oil reservoir facies was deposited as a tidally influenced siliciclastic wedge that prograded over underlying carbonate-rich sediments. The Aux Vases sedimentary succession consists of offshore sediment overlain by intertidal and supratidal sediments. Low-permeability shales and carbonates typically surround the Aux Vases reservoir sandstone and thereby form numerous bypassed compartments from which additional oil can be recovered. The potential for new significant oil fields within the Aux Vases is great, as is the potential for undrained reservoir compartments within existing Aux Vases fields.

  18. Working Women Portrayed on Evening Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaniuga, Nancy; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Even television programs are thought to distort the real-life occupational distribution of women workers by favoring sex stereotypes and representing a narrow range of portrayed occupations for women. (Author)

  19. The sleep of 'morning' and 'evening' types.

    PubMed

    Webb, W B; Bonnet, M H

    1978-09-01

    A questionnaire developed by Ostberg to differentiate 'morning' types from 'evening' types was administered to 100 college students. The actual sleep behavior of the 11 extreme 'morning' types (larks) and the 10 extreme 'evening' types (owls) was monitored for two weeks with a sleep log and the Post-sleep Inventory. Data was collected from the owls for a further two-week period in which the owls had been instructed to attempt to arise at the lark arousal time. In addition to going to bed earlier and getting up earlier than the owls, the larks had a less variable sleep length and awakening time and took shorter naps than the owls. Larks further reported fewer physical problems and less mental activity across the night as well as more adequate sleep than owls, who differed little from the normal college population even after having their awakening time shifted.

  20. Evenly spacing in Detrended Fluctuation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almurad, Zainy M. H.; Delignières, Didier

    2016-06-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is a widely used method, which aims at assessing the level of self-similarity in time series. This method analyzes the diffusion properties of the signal, by computing the linear regression slope in the diffusion plot, representing in log-log coordinates the relationship between the variability of the signal and the length of the intervals over which this variability is computed. We compare in this paper the results obtained with logarithmically spaced and evenly spaced diffusion plots. The study shows the substantial benefits of evenly spacing, especially in the reduction of the variability of estimation.

  1. Journal Editors Celebrated at Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    At the Fall Meeting, the premiere social event for AGU's many journal editors is the annual Editors' Evening, an opportunity for members to celebrate and to recognize the efforts of retiring editors. At the event, AGU president Carol Finn welcomed all those in attendance and thanked them for volunteering their time for the benefit of AGU and the wider research community.

  2. Network Evening News Coverage of Environmental Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael R.; And Others

    Focusing on ABC, NBC, and CBS's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986, a study examined network news coverage of environmental risk--defined as manmade chemical, biological, and physical agents that create risk in the indoor, outdoor, and occupational environments. Using the Vanderbilt University "Television News Index…

  3. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in Solanaceae species using tomato as a model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    treatments even though at least one stress-related cis-element was identified in their promoter regions. In conclusion, our comparative analysis provides an insight into the evolution and expression patterns in various tissues and in response to auxin or stresses of the Aux/IAA family members in tomato, which will provide a very useful reference for cloning and functional analysis of each member of AUX/IAA gene family in Solanaceae crops.

  5. The odd-even effect in multiplication: parity rule or familiarity with even numbers?

    PubMed

    Lochy, A; Seron, X; Delazer, M; Butterworth, B

    2000-04-01

    This study questions the evidence that a parity rule is used during the verification of multiplication. Previous studies reported that products are rejected faster when they violate the expected parity, which was attributed to the use of a rule (Krueger, 1986; Lemaire & Fayol, 1995). This experiment tested an alternative explanation of this effect: the familiarity hypothesis. Fifty subjects participated in a verification task with contrasting types of problems (even x even, odd x odd, mixed). Some aspects of our results constitute evidence against the use of the parity rule: False even answers were rejected slowly, even when the two operands were odd. We suggest that the odd-even effect in verification of multiplication could not be due to the use of the parity rule, but rather to a familiarity with even numbers (three quarters of products are indeed even). PMID:10881553

  6. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  7. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. PMID:27247276

  8. AUX/LAX family of auxin influx carriers-an overview.

    PubMed

    Swarup, Ranjan; Péret, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Auxin regulates several aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin is unique among plant hormones for exhibiting polar transport. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the major form of auxin in higher plants, is a weak acid and its intercellular movement is facilitated by auxin influx and efflux carriers. Polarity of auxin movement is provided by asymmetric localization of auxin carriers (mainly PIN efflux carriers). PIN-FORMED (PIN) and P-GLYCOPROTEIN (PGP) family of proteins are major auxin efflux carriers whereas AUXIN1/LIKE-AUX1 (AUX/LAX) are major auxin influx carriers. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that each member of the AUX/LAX family is a functional auxin influx carrier and mediate auxin related developmental programmes in different organs and tissues. Of the four AUX/LAX genes, AUX1 regulates root gravitropism, root hair development and leaf phyllotaxy whereas LAX2 regulates vascular development in cotyledons. Both AUX1 and LAX3 have been implicated in lateral root (LR) development as well as apical hook formation whereas both AUX1 and LAX1 and possibly LAX2 are required for leaf phyllotactic patterning.

  9. OsAUX1 controls lateral root initiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heming; Ma, Tengfei; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yingtian; Ma, Haoli; Zhang, Rongsheng; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by influx and efflux transporters, controls many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin influx carriers in Arabidopsis have been shown to control lateral root development and gravitropism, but little is known about these proteins in rice. This paper reports on the functional characterization of OsAUX1. Three OsAUX1 T-DNA insertion mutants and RNAi knockdown transgenic plants reduced lateral root initiation compared with wild-type (WT) plants. OsAUX1 overexpression plants exhibited increased lateral root initiation and OsAUX1 was highly expressed in lateral roots and lateral root primordia. Similarly, the auxin reporter, DR5-GUS, was expressed at lower levels in osaux1 than in the WT plants, which indicated that the auxin levels in the mutant roots had decreased. Exogenous 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) treatment rescued the defective phenotype in osaux1-1 plants, whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-D could not, which suggested that OsAUX1 was a putative auxin influx carrier. The transcript levels of several auxin signalling genes and cell cycle genes significantly declined in osaux1, hinting that the regulatory role of OsAUX1 may be mediated by auxin signalling and cell cycle genes. Overall, our results indicated that OsAUX1 was involved in polar auxin transport and functioned to control auxin-mediated lateral root initiation in rice.

  10. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13325.001 PMID:27247276

  11. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  12. Microscopic description of collective properties of even-even Xe isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Próchniak, L.

    2015-11-01

    The collective properties of even-even {}118-144Xe isotopes have been studied within a model that uses the general Bohr Hamiltonian derived from the mean-field theory based on the UNEDF0 energy functional. The calculated low-energy spectra and E2 transition probabilities are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Special Analysis of Migrant Education Even Start Data. Even Start Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Fumiyo; Arriola, Christine

    This report analyzes data submitted by 11 of 14 state Migrant Education Even Start (MEES) projects operating in 1994-95. These projects provide migrant families with an integrated program of early childhood education, adult education, and parenting education. The data were drawn from the Even Start Information System (ESIS), which collected…

  14. National Evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program: Report on Migrant Even Start Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Marjorie; Gamse, Beth; Swartz, Janet; Tao, Fumiyo; Tarr, Hope

    In fall 1994, 14 state Migrant Education Programs were receiving direct federal grants to administer Migrant Even Start projects. These projects provide migrant families with an integrated program of early childhood education, adult education, and parenting education. As part of the national evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program,…

  15. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  16. "Towards an even healthier Mediterranean diet".

    PubMed

    Estruch, R; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2013-12-01

    Dietary guidelines to promote good health are usually based on foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns predictive of chronic disease risk in epidemiologic studies. However, sound nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular prevention should be based on the results of large randomized clinical trials with "hard" end-points as the main outcome. Such evidence has been obtained for the Mediterranean diet from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial and the Lyon Heart Study. The traditional Mediterranean diet was that found in olive growing areas of Crete, Greece, and Southern Italy in the late 1950s. Their major characteristics include: a) a high consumption of cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; b) a relatively high-fat consumption, mostly provided by olive oil; c) moderate to high fish consumption; d) poultry and dairy products consumed in moderate to small amounts; e) low consumption of red meats, and meat products; and f) moderate alcohol intake, usually in the form of red wine. However, these protective effects of the traditional Mediterranean diet may be even greater if we upgrade the health effects of this dietary pattern changing the common olive oil used for extra-virgin olive oil, increasing the consumption of nuts, fatty fish and whole grain cereals, reducing sodium intake, and maintaining a moderate consumption of wine with meals. PMID:24263037

  17. The "Past Hypothesis": Not even false

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earman, John

    It has become something of a dogma in the philosophy of science that modern cosmology has completed Boltzmann's program for explaining the statistical validity of the Second Law of thermodynamics by providing the low entropy initial state needed to ground the asymmetry in entropic behavior that underwrites our inference about the past. This dogma is challenged on several grounds. In particular, it is argued that it is likely that the Boltzmann entropy of the initial state of the universe is an ill-defined or severely hobbled concept. It is also argued that even if the entropy of the initial state of the universe had a well-defined, low value, this would not suffice to explain why thermodynamics works as well as it does for the kinds of systems we care about. Because the role of Boltzmann entropy in our inferences to the past has been vastly overrated, the failure of the Boltzmann program does not pose a serious problem for our knowledge of the past. But it does call a different explanation of why thermodynamics works as well as it does. A suggestion is offered for a different approach.

  18. Alpha Decay Preformation Factors for Even-Even 280-316116 Superheavy Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaif, Norah A. M.; Radiman, Shahidan; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Ahmed, Saad M. Saleh

    2016-06-01

    The success of the cluster formation model (CFM) in deriving an energy-dependent formula for the preformation factors of heavy nuclei has motivated us to expand this approach to the superheavy isotopes (SHI). In this paper, the alpha-cluster formation (preformation factor) behavior inside the parent nuclei of SHI with atomic number Z = 116 and neutron numbers 164 ≤ N ≤ 200 is determined using the alpha preformation formula contained within the CFM. The cluster formation energy of the alpha particles and the total energy of the parent nuclei are calculated on the basis of the various binding energies. Our results clearly show that the CFM remains valid for superheavy nuclei (SHN). In addition, our calculations reveal that the alpha clustering mechanism and formation probability in 280-316116 even-even SHI are similar to those of even-even heavy nuclei in a general sense.

  19. Microscopic investigation of structural evolution in even-even N = 60 isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Oudih, M. R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Benhamouda, N.

    2012-10-20

    The ground state properties of even-even N=60 isotones from the neutron-rich to the proton-rich side are investigated within the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in the triaxial landscape. Quantities such as binding energies and root-mean-square radii are investigated and compared with available experimental data. The evolution of the potential energy surfaces in the ({beta},{gamma}) deformation plane is presented and discussed.

  20. An evening at "La Clinica del Pueblo".

    PubMed

    Shefsky, M L

    1986-01-01

    This article describes a typical evening at the Clinica del Pueblo in the Hispanic neighborhood of Adams-Morgan in Washington, D.c. The Clinical del Pueblo began operating in 1983 in response to the urgen medical needs of Central American refugees arriving in the Washington D.c. area. The refugees bring with them severe trauma, fear, and health problems caused by the civil was and exacerbated by inadequate or non-existant health services. Approximately 80,000 Salvadoran refugees live in the area. They do not receive adequate health care for 3 reasons. 1) Because the US goverment is unwilling to recognize them as true refugees, they live with the constant threat of deportatin back to the violence from which they have fled. 2) Refugees lack the ability to pay for private care. 3) Langauage and culture create frightening barriers to health care for the refugees. For those who do seek care, these barriers can lead to the inadequate or incomplete diagnoses and poor compliance and follow-up. Plenty International and the Central American Refugee Center responded to these problems by organizing a free clinic to provide not only medical care but also a training course for volunteers. The director of the clinic organizes the course, the classes are taught by a variety of people including the clinic's volunteer physicians, nurses, and public health educators as well as graduates of previus training courses and people from the wider community. The services of the clinic reach only a small portion of the population in need. However, the fact that free medical services are now available to some Central American refugees make the Clinica del Pueblo an important program.

  1. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  2. The influence of intruder states in even-even Po isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    García-Ramos, J. E.; Heyde, K.

    2015-10-15

    We study the role of intruder states and shape coexistence in the even-even {sup 190–206}Po isotopes, through an interacting boson model with configuration mixing calculation. We analyzed the results in the light of known systematics on various observable in the Pb region, paying special attention to the unperturbed energy systematics and quadrupole deformation. We find that shape coexistence in the Po isotopes behaves in very much the same way as in the Pt isotopes, i.e., it is somehow hidden, contrary to the situation in the Pb and the Hg isotopes.

  3. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly-: a joint experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V.; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly- (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3 y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y >= 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6- in the AuxAly- clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either ``adsorbed'' onto the Al6- square bi-pyramid motif if y >= 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6.Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we

  4. Nuclear level density of even-even nuclei with temperature-dependent pairing energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, V.; Alavi, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of using a temperature-dependent pairing term on the back-shifted Fermi gas (BSFG) model of nuclear level density of some even-even nuclei has been investigated. We have chosen an approach to determine the adjustable parameters from theoretical calculations, directly. The exact Ginzburg-Landau (EGL) theory was used to determine the temperature-dependent pairing energy as back-shifted parameter of the BSFG model. The level density parameter of the BSFG model has been determined through the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The level densities of 96Mo, 106,112Cd, 106,108Pd, 164Dy, 232Th, 238U and heat capacities of 96Mo and 164Dy nuclei were calculated. Good agreement between theory and experiment was observed.

  5. Nuclear charge radii and electric quadrupole moments of even-even isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Mach, B.

    1995-07-01

    Isotope shifts of the charge mean-square radii and electric quadrupole moments of even-even nuclei with 20{le}{Zeta}{le}98 are calculated using a dynamical microscopic model. A single-particle Nilsson potential with the Seo set of correction terms, pairing forces in the BCS formalism, and a long-range interaction in the local approximation are used. A collective Hamiltionian is obtained using a generator coordinate method with the Gaussian overlap approximation. The potential energy of the nucleus consists of a microscopic-macroscopic Strutinsky energy and a zero-point vibrational term. A liquid droplet model is used for the macroscopic part of the potential. A BCS wave function is taken as a generator function, and two collective variables, quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations, serve as the generator coordinates. In general, good agreement between the theory and experimental data is achieved. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2+ states in even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.; Horoi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results of E2 transition probabilities or B(E2) values for the known first 2+ states in 447 even-even nuclei have been compiled and evaluated. The evaluation policies for the analysis of experimental data have been described and new results are discussed. The recommended B(E2) values have been compared with comprehensive shell model calculations for a selected set of nuclei, where such theoretical procedures are amenable. The present work was motivated by a rapid increase in the number of new B(E2) measurements for the first 2+ states since the previous evaluation of such data by S. Raman et al. published in 2001. Future plans to investigate the systematics of B(E2) ↑ values, and intercomparison of different experimental techniques to obtain these data are outlined.

  7. Quasi-/SU(3) truncation scheme for even-even sd-shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, C. E.; Hirsch, J. G.; Draayer, J. P.

    2001-07-01

    The quasi- SU(3) symmetry was uncovered in full pf and sdg shell-model calculations for both even-even and odd-even nuclei. It manifests itself through a dominance of single-particle and quadrupole-quadrupole terms in a Hamiltonian used to describe well-deformed nuclei. A practical consequence of the quasi- SU(3) symmetry is an efficient basis truncation scheme. In [C.E. Vargas et al., Phys. Rev. C 58 (1998) 1488] it is shown that when this type of Hamiltonian is diagonalized in an SU(3) basis, only a few irreducible representations (irreps) of SU(3) are needed to describe the yrast band, the leading S=0 irrep augmented with the leading S=1 irreps in the proton and neutron subspaces. In the present article the quasi- SU(3) truncation scheme is used, in conjunction with a "realistic but schematic" Hamiltonian that includes the most important multipole terms, to describe the energy spectra and B( E2) transition strengths of 20,22Ne, 24Mg and 28Si. The effect of the size of the Hilbert space on both sets of observables is discussed, as well as the structure of the yrast band and the importance of the various terms in the Hamiltonian. The limitations of the model are explicitly discussed.

  8. Characteristics of collectivity along the yrast line in even-even tungsten isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiong; Wang, Hua-Lei; Liu, Min-Liang; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2016-08-01

    The collective nature of high-spin yrast states in even-even W-190160 isotopes was systematically investigated by means of pairing self-consistent Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky calculations using the total Routhian surface approach in (β2,γ ,β4) deformation space. The calculated ground-state deformations are consistent with previous calculations and available experimental data. The deformation energy curves are presented to show the shape and softness evolutions, in particular in the triaxial direction. The backbending or upbending behavior in moment of inertia is attributed to band crossing. It is found that the neutron rotation alignment is preferred for most of the W isotopes (e.g., in W-180164), while in other nuclei the competition between the neutron and proton alignments may occur, even the proton alignment is favored in the very neutron-deficient nucleus 160W. In addition, the evolution and transition between vibrational and rotational collective modes along the yrast line are investigated on the basis of the new centipedelike E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves introduced by us, which to some extent explains the existing differences (e.g., in the moment of inertia) between theory and experiment.

  9. AUX1 regulates root gravitropism in Arabidopsis by facilitating auxin uptake within root apical tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, A; Kargul, J; May, S T; Muller, P; Delbarre, A; Perrot-Rechenmann, C; Bennett, M J

    1999-01-01

    Plants employ a specialized transport system composed of separate influx and efflux carriers to mobilize the plant hormone auxin between its site(s) of synthesis and action. Mutations within the permease-like AUX1 protein significantly reduce the rate of carrier-mediated auxin uptake within Arabidopsis roots, conferring an agravitropic phenotype. We are able to bypass the defect within auxin uptake and restore the gravitropic root phenotype of aux1 by growing mutant seedlings in the presence of the membrane-permeable synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. We illustrate that AUX1 expression overlaps that previously described for the auxin efflux carrier, AtPIN2, using transgenic lines expressing an AUX1 promoter::uidA (GUS) gene. Finally, we demonstrate that AUX1 regulates gravitropic curvature by acting in unison with the auxin efflux carrier to co-ordinate the localized redistribution of auxin within the Arabidopsis root apex. Our results provide the first example of a developmental role for the auxin influx carrier within higher plants and supply new insight into the molecular basis of gravitropic signalling. PMID:10205161

  10. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  11. Comparison of shell model results for some properties of even-even Ge isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S. J. Q.; Zamick, L.; Sharon, Y. Y.

    2011-02-15

    We examine two recent effective shell model interactions, JUN45 and JJ4B, that have been proposed for use in the f{sub 5/2},p{sub 3/2},p{sub 1/2},g{sub 9/2} model space for both protons and neutrons. We calculate a number of quantities that did not enter into the fits undertaken to fix the parameters of both interactions. In particular we consider the static quadrupole moments (Q's) of excited states of the even-even {sup 70-76}Ge isotopes, as well as the B(E2) values in these nuclei. (We previously studied {sup 70}Zn isotopes using JJ4B.) Some striking disagreements between the JUN45 predictions and the experimental results had already been noted for the quadrupole moments of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} states, Q(2{sub 1}{sup +})'s, of these nuclei. We investigate whether these discrepancies also occur for the JJ4B interaction. Subsequently, we also apply both interactions to calculate the Q's of some more highly excited states and compare the two sets of predictions regarding the nature of the nuclear states under consideration. We seek to understand the measured signs of the Q(2{sub 1}{sup +})'s in the isotopic Ge chain by looking at a simple single-Jshell model and also at the collective vibrational and rotational pictures.

  12. Global properties of even-even superheavy nuclei in macroscopic-microscopic models

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, Andrzej; Lojewski, Zdzislaw; Sieja, Kamila; Kowal, Michal

    2005-10-01

    A systematic study of global properties of superheavy nuclei in the framework of macroscopic-microscopic method is performed. Equilibrium deformations, masses, quadrupole moments, radii, shell energies, fission barriers and half-lives are calculated using the following macroscopic models: Myers-Swiatecki liquid drop, droplet, Yukawa-plus-exponential, and Lublin-Strasbourg drop. Shell and pairing energies are calculated in Woods-Saxon potential with a universal set of parameters. The analysis covers a wide range of even-even superheavy nuclei from Z=100 to 122. Magic and semimagic numbers occurring in this region are indicated and their influence on the observables is discussed. The strongest shell effects appear at proton number Z=114 and at neutron number N=184. Deformed shell closures are found at N=152 and 162. Spontaneous fission half-lives are calculated in a dynamical approach where the full minimization of the action integral in a three-dimensional deformation space of {beta} deformations is performed. The fission half-lives obtained this way are two orders of magnitude smaller than the ones resulting from static calculations. The agreement of theoretical results and experimental data is satisfying.

  13. Isotopic yield in cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Cyriac, Annu; Krishnan, Sreejith

    2016-05-01

    The cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot (plot of driving potential vs. mass number of fragments) and by calculating the yield for charge minimized fragments. It is found that for 244,246,248Cf isotopes highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Pb (Z = 82) as one fragment, whereas for 250Cf and 252Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Hg (Z = 80) as one fragment. In the case of 254,256,258Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with Sn (Z = 50) as one fragment. Thus, the fragment combinations with maximum yield reveal the role of doubly magic and near doubly magic nuclei in binary fission. It is found that asymmetric splitting is favored for Cf isotopes with mass number A ≤ 250 and symmetric splitting is favored for Cf isotopes with A > 252. In the case of Cf isotope with A = 252, there is an equal probability for asymmetric and symmetric splitting. The individual yields obtained for the cold fission of 252Cf isotope are compared with the experimental data taken from the γ- γ- γ coincidences technique using Gammasphere.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa.

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  17. Large-scale shell model calculations for even-even 62-66Fe isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, P. C.; Mehrotra, I.

    2009-10-01

    The recently measured experimental data of Legnaro National Laboratories on neutron-rich even isotopes of 62-66Fe with A = 62, 64, 66 have been interpreted in the framework of a large-scale shell model. Calculations have been performed with a newly derived effective interaction GXPF1A in full fp space without truncation. The experimental data are very well explained for 62Fe, satisfactorily reproduced for 64Fe and poorly fitted for 66Fe. The increasing collectivity reflected in experimental data when approaching N = 40 is not reproduced in calculated values. This indicates that whereas the considered valence space is adequate for 62Fe, inclusion of higher orbits from the sdg shell is required for describing 66Fe.

  18. Nucleon-pair states of even-even Sn isotopes based on realistic effective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Qi, C.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study yrast states of 128,126,124Sn and 104,106,108Sn by using the monopole-optimized realistic interactions in terms of both the shell model (SM) and the nucleon-pair approximation (NPA). For yrast states of 128,126Sn and 104,106Sn, we calculate the overlaps between the wave functions obtained in the full SM space and those obtained in the truncated NPA space, and find that most of these overlaps are very close to 1. Very interestingly, for most of these states with positive parity and even spin or with negative parity and odd spin, the SM wave function is found to be well represented by one nucleon-pair basis state, viz., a simple picture of "nucleon-pair states" (nucleon-pair configuration without mixings) emerges. In 128,126Sn, the positive-parity (or negative-parity) yrast states with spin J >10 (or J >7 ) are found to be well described by breaking one or two S pairs in the 101+ (or 71-) state, i.e., the yrast state of seniority-two, spin-maximum, and positive-parity (or negative-parity), into non-S pair(s). Similar regularity is also pointed out for 104,106Sn. The evolution of E 2 transition rates between low-lying states in 128,126,124Sn is discussed in terms of the seniority scheme.

  19. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  20. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development.

  1. The carrier AUXIN RESISTANT (AUX1) dominates auxin flux into Arabidopsis protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Rutschow, Heidi L; Baskin, Tobias I; Kramer, Eric M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of the plant hormone auxin to enter a cell is critical to auxin transport and signaling. Auxin can cross the cell membrane by diffusion or via auxin-specific influx carriers. There is little knowledge of the magnitudes of these fluxes in plants. Radiolabeled auxin uptake was measured in protoplasts isolated from roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. This was done for the wild-type, under treatments with additional unlabeled auxin to saturate the influx carriers, and for the influx carrier mutant auxin resistant 1 (aux1). We also used flow cytometry to quantify the relative abundance of cells expressing AUX1-YFP in the assayed population. At pH 5.7, the majority of auxin influx into protoplasts - 75% - was mediated by the influx carrier AUX1. An additional 20% was mediated by other saturable carriers. The diffusive influx of auxin was essentially negligible at pH 5.7. The influx of auxin mediated by AUX1, expressed as a membrane permeability, was 1.5 ± 0.3 μm s(-1) . This value is comparable in magnitude to estimates of efflux permeability. Thus, auxin-transporting tissues can sustain relatively high auxin efflux and yet not become depleted of auxin.

  2. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H.; Jalili, Espanta; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.; Crosby, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB–Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  3. The Acquisition of Aux. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypriotaki, Lyn

    This report examines the question of whether grammatical rules are globally learned and applied. It also attempts to determine the underlying word order in English as well as the developmental sequence of the acquisition of Aux. A sentence-repetition test using positive statements, positive questions, and negative questions was administered to 30…

  4. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  5. Identification and Analyses of AUX-IAA target genes controlling multiple pathways in developing fiber cells of Gossypium hirsutum L.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Deepti; Sawant, Samir V

    2013-01-01

    Technological development led to an increased interest in systems biological approaches in plants to characterize developmental mechanism and candidate genes relevant to specific tissue or cell morphology. AUX-IAA proteins are important plant-specific putative transcription factors. There are several reports on physiological response of this family in Arabidopsis but in cotton fiber the transcriptional network through which AUX-IAA regulated its target genes is still unknown. in-silico modelling of cotton fiber development specific gene expression data (108 microarrays and 22,737 genes) using Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe) reveals 3690 putative AUX-IAA target genes of which 139 genes were known to be AUX-IAA co-regulated within Arabidopsis. Further AUX-IAA targeted gene regulatory network (GRN) had substantial impact on the transcriptional dynamics of cotton fiber, as showed by, altered TF networks, and Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and metabolic pathway associated with its target genes. Analysis of the AUX-IAA-correlated gene network reveals multiple functions for AUX-IAA target genes such as unidimensional cell growth, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, nucleosome organization, DNA-protein complex and process related to cell wall. These candidate networks/pathways have a variety of profound impacts on such cellular functions as stress response, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. While these functions are fairly broad, their underlying TF networks may provide a global view of AUX-IAA regulated gene expression and a GRN that guides future studies in understanding role of AUX-IAA box protein and its targets regulating fiber development.

  6. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  7. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  8. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  9. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  10. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  11. National Evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program. Report on Even Start Projects for Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Marjorie; Moss, Marc; Swartz, Janet; Khan, Sherry; Tarr, Hope

    The tribal Even Start program is one of the set-aside components of the U.S. Department of Education's Even Start Family Literacy Program. Even Start combines adult literacy, early childhood education, and parenting education services for parents eligible for adult education and their children from birth to age 7. In 1994-95, nine Indian tribes…

  12. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems.

  13. Genetics of Aux/IAA and ARF action in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Liscum, E; Reed, J W

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of auxin signal-response pathways have been made in recent years. Much of this new knowledge has come through the study of mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations have been identified in a wide variety of auxin-response components, including auxin transporters, protein kinases and phosphatases, components of a ubiquitin-proteosome pathway, and transcriptional regulators. This review focuses on mutations that affect auxin-modulated transcription factors, in particular those in the Aux/IAA and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) genes. Mutants in members of these related gene families exhibit phenotypes that indicate both unique localized functions, as well as overlapping redundant functions, throughout plant development - from embryogenesis to flowering. Effects of specific mutations on Aux/IAA and ARF protein functions at the biochemical and physiological levels will be discussed. We will also discuss potential mechanisms for interactions between auxin and light response pathways that are suggested by these mutants.

  14. Dodo remains from an in situ context from Mare aux Songes, Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Hanneke J. M.; Gill, Arike; de Louw, Perry G. B.; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hume, Julian P.; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F.

    2012-03-01

    Since 2005, excavations at Mare aux Songes, Mauritius, have revealed the presence of a very rich, ˜4,200-year-old fossil bone bed including dodo ( Raphus cucullatus) bones and bone fragments. The recently excavated dodo assemblage comprises at least 17 individuals and is characterised by the presence of small and fragile skeletal elements, a dominance of leg elements and an absence of juveniles. The hydrology of the area suggests that dodos, like many other species, were probably lured to Mare aux Songes by the presence of freshwater during times of drought. The most likely scenario for the origin of the fossil deposit is that animals became trapped in the sediment in repeated miring events, which would favour the conservation of hindlimbs. Such a scenario is fully in accordance with the taphonomic characteristics of the bone assemblage.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  16. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development.

    PubMed

    Su, L Y; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, J P; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology.

  17. Disruptions in AUX1-dependent auxin influx alter hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Bethany B; Stowe-Evans, Emily L; Harper, Reneé M; Celaya, R Brandon; Ljung, Karin; Sandberg, Göran; Liscum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Phototropism represents a differential growth response by which plant organs can respond adaptively to changes in the direction of incident light to optimize leaf/stem positioning for photosynthetic light capture and root growth orientation for water/nutrient acquisition. Studies over the past few years have identified a number of components in the signaling pathway(s) leading to development of phototropic curvatures in hypocotyls. These include the phototropin photoreceptors (phot1 and phot2) that perceive directional blue-light (BL) cues and then stimulate signaling, leading to relocalization of the plant hormone auxin, as well as the auxin response factor NPH4/ARF7 that responds to changes in local auxin concentrations to directly mediate expression of genes likely encoding proteins necessary for development of phototropic curvatures. While null mutations in NPH4/ARF7 condition an aphototropic response to unidirectional BL, seedlings carrying the same mutations recover BL-dependent phototropic responsiveness if co-irradiated with red light (RL) or pre-treated with either ethylene. In the present study, we identify second-site enhancer mutations in the nph4 background that abrogate these recovery responses. One of these mutations--map1 (modifier of arf7 phenotypes 1)--was found to represent a missense allele of AUX1--a gene encoding a high-affinity auxin influx carrier previously associated with a number of root responses. Pharmacological studies and analyses of additional aux1 mutants confirmed that AUX1 functions as a modulator of hypocotyl phototropism. Moreover, we have found that the strength of dependence of hypocotyl phototropism on AUX1-mediated auxin influx is directly related to the auxin responsiveness of the seedling in question.

  18. Genome-wide survey and comprehensive expression profiling of Aux/IAA gene family in chickpea and soybean

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikash K.; Jain, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes cooperate with several other components in the perception and signaling of plant hormone auxin. An investigation of chickpea and soybean genomes revealed 22 and 63 putative Aux/IAA genes, respectively. These genes were classified into six subfamilies on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Among 63 soybean Aux/IAA genes, 57 (90.5%) were found to be duplicated via whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental events. Transposed duplication played a significant role in tandem arrangements between the members of different subfamilies. Analysis of Ka/Ks ratio of duplicated Aux/IAA genes revealed purifying selection pressure with restricted functional divergence. Promoter sequence analysis revealed several cis-regulatory elements related to auxin, abscisic acid, desiccation, salt, seed, and endosperm, indicating their role in development and stress responses. Expression analysis of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes in various tissues and stages of development demonstrated tissue/stage specific differential expression. In soybean, at least 16 paralog pairs, duplicated via WGD/segmental events, showed almost indistinguishable expression pattern, but eight pairs exhibited significantly diverse expression patterns. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as desiccation, salinity and/or cold, many Aux/IAA genes of chickpea and soybean revealed differential expression. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression patterns of selected Aux/IAA genes in chickpea. The analyses presented here provide insights on putative roles of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes and will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions during development and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26579165

  19. Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2+ states in even-even nuclei [B(E2) evaluation for 0+1 → 2+1 transitions in even-even nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.; Horoi, M.

    2015-11-03

    A complete B(E2)↑ evaluation and compilation for even-even nuclei has been presented. The present paper is a continuation of P.H. Stelson and L. Grodzins, and S. Raman et al. nuclear data evaluations and was motivated by a large number of new measurements. It extends the list of evaluated nuclides from 328 to 452, includes an extended list of nuclear reaction kinematics parameters and comprehensive shell model analysis. Evaluation policies for analysis of experimental data have been discussed and conclusions are given. Moreover, future plans for B(E2)↑ systematics and experimental technique analyses of even-even nuclei are outlined.

  20. Inattentive Symptoms of ADHD Are Related to Evening Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caci, Herve; Bouchez, Jacques; Bayle, Franck J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Morningness is a stable characteristic of individuals, related to impulsivity and novelty seeking. The evening orientation is a risk factor for psychiatric conditions such as depression and personality disorders. The authors hypothesized that adults suspected of having ADHD are more evening oriented than adults without ADHD. Method:…

  1. 1967 Proceedings, Association of University Evening Colleges (New Orleans).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Univ. Evening Colleges, Norman, OK.

    The role of evening colleges in an era of cultural change, major trends and needs in business education at the university level, teacher education, engineering education, the relationship of the Association of University Evening Colleges (AUEC) to the academic community and the wider society, were topics of addresses at the 1967 AUEC convention.…

  2. An Evaluation of the Evening Programs at Everett Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James R.

    A survey questionnaire was designed and distributed to students in 38 community college evening classes in order to determine student characteristics and evaluate student satisfaction. The sample of 463 students had the following characteristics: 56% were male; the average age was 28; 75% were taking only evening classes; 54% were married, 13%…

  3. PURPOSES OF THE EVENING COLLEGE, REFLECTIONS IN 1953.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOULE, CYRIL O.; AND OTHERS

    THESE FOUR PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE 1953 CONVENTION OF THE ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY EVENING COLLEGES ON PURPOSES OF THE EVENING COLLEGE HAVE BEEN REPUBLISHED BECAUSE OF THEIR PRESENT-DAY RELEVANCE FOR ADMINISTRATORS IN DEVELOPING GUIDING PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THEIR WORK. EARL MCGRATH DISCUSSES OUR CHANGING SOCIETY (INCREASE IN EDUCATIONAL LEVEL,…

  4. New Plans for Evening and Correspondence School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebedev, I.I.

    A general discussion is given concerning revisions in hours and schedules for evening and correspondence school students engaged in higher technical education. The teaching plan for the evening system consists of two parts: one for instruction in the first three years, and the other for the next three. The plan for correspondence study provides…

  5. The Morne Aux Diables volcano, Dominica, Lesser Antilles: A stratigraphic and petrologic study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, G. L.; Smith, A. L.; Rheubottom, A. N.; Fryxell, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Morne Aux Diables is a topographically distinct stratovolcano located at the northernmost end of the island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles. In 2007, observations were conducted, and over 3,000 digital photographs were taken, of the well-exposed sea cliffs around Dominica. These observations, together with photogeological analysis of approximately 500 of these digital photographs of sea cliffs around the northern part of Dominica, have significantly improved our understanding of the geology of Morne aux Diables volcano, which previously had been based on scattered land exposures. The photographs were used to identify genetic packages of strata related to volcanogenic events and trace them around large sectors of the volcano's flanks. Based on these new studies, together with previous data, Morne aux Diables appears to have undergone two periods of activity, an older period dated between 2.1-1.5 Ma and a younger period dated at around 50,000 years B.P. Deposits associated with the older cone-forming activity are primarily composed of block and ash flows and surges associated with Pelean-style activity. These can be subdivided into a number of sequences based on the presence of paleosols. Domes associated with these eruptions are found both in the central vent area as well as around the flanks of the volcano. The upper deposits in the sea cliffs on the eastern, northern and western flanks are a thick sequence of surges that have been provisionally correlated with a well-exposed sequence of semi-vesicular block and ash flows and surge deposits at Morne a Louis on the west coast. The presence of these surge deposits at the top of the sea cliffs suggests that the older period of activity ended with open-crater Asama-style eruptions. Following an extensive quiescent period, renewed Pelean-style activity produced valley-fill block and ash flow and surge deposits, exposed on both the eastern and western sides of the volcano, together with associated domes (both central and

  6. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to

  7. 26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under construction. Part of construction camp housing is visible in foreground. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Even a Little Exercise May Help Stave Off Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160644.html Even a Little Exercise May Help Stave Off Dementia Sedentary seniors more ... study reports. Seniors who get little to no exercise have a 50 percent greater risk of dementia ...

  10. Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure Researchers cite aging populations, diet, inactivity and lack ... News) -- For the first time ever, high blood pressure rates are higher in low- and middle-income ...

  11. Even a Little Exercise May Help Younger Women's Hearts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160054.html Even a Little Exercise May Help Younger Women's Hearts Those active about ... July 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Younger women who exercise just 2.5 hours a week may cut ...

  12. Even 'Good' Insurance Comes with Hidden Hospital Bills

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159575.html Even 'Good' Insurance Comes With Hidden Hospital Bills Average out-of- ... June 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Quality private health insurance is no protection against large out-of-pocket ...

  13. EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE DISTANT HOUSE AND OUTBUILDINGS, FROM THE BOTANIC GARDEN'S SOUTHEAST SIDE - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Fiber Coupled Laser Diodes with Even Illumination Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An optical fiber for evenly illuminating a target. The optical fiber is coupled to a laser emitting diode and receives laser light. The la ser light travels through the fiber optic and exits at an exit end. T he exit end has a diffractive optical pattern formed thereon via etch ing, molding or cutting, to reduce the Gaussian profile present in co nventional fiber optic cables The reduction of the Gaussian provides an even illumination from the fiber optic cable.

  15. AGU Publications Volunteers Feted At Elegant Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Fall Meeting Editors' Evening, held at the City Club of San Francisco, was hosted by the Publications Committee and is the premier social event for editors and associate editors attending the Fall Meeting. The evening commenced with a welcome from Carol Finn, incoming AGU president, in which she expressed her thanks to the editors and associate editors for volunteering their time to benefit AGU.

  16. Evening physical activity alters wrist temperature circadian rhythmicity

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Sastre, Patricia; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Ordovás, José María; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Garaulet, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The adequate time to perform physical activity (PA) to maintain optimal circadian system health has not been defined. We studied the influence of morning and evening PA on circadian rhythmicity in 16 women with wrist temperature (WT). Participants performed controlled PA (45 min continuous-running) during 7 days in the morning (MPA) and evening (EPA) and results were compared with a no-exercise-week (C). EPA was characterized by a lower amplitude (evening: 0.028 ± 0.01 °C versus control: 0.038 ± 0.016 °C; p<0.05) less pronounced second-harmonic (power) (evening: 0.41 ± 0.47 versus morning: 1.04 ± 0.59); and achrophase delay (evening: 06:35 ± 02:14 h versus morning: 04:51 ± 01:11 h; p>0.05) as compared to MPA and C. Performing PA in the late evening might not be as beneficial as in the morning. PMID:24517176

  17. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  18. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission. PMID:25982744

  19. Silver birch (Betula pendula) plants with aux and rol genes show consistent changes in morphology, xylem structure and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Piispanen, Riikka; Aronen, Tuija; Chen, Xiwen; Saranpää, Pekka; Häggman, Hely

    2003-08-01

    The effects of Agrobacterium pRiA4 rol and aux genes, controlled by their endogenous promoters, on tree growth and wood anatomy and chemistry were studied in 5- and 7-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) plants. Southern hybridization confirmed the following rol and aux gene combinations: control plants (no genes transferred); plants with rolC and rolD genes; plants with rolA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes; and plants with rolA, rolB, rolC, rolD, aux1 and aux2 genes. Transgene mRNA was most abundant in phloem/cambium samples and in the developing xylem, whereas no expression was detected in leaves. Plants with rolC and rolD genes or with all the rol genes were significantly shorter and had smaller leaves and a more bushy growth habit than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Morphological observations and wood chemistry analyses revealed that plants with rol genes produced less xylem and broke bud later than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Tension wood was detected in both control and transgenic plants irrespective of their gene combination, probably as a result of greenhouse cultivation. Xylem fibers were shorter in transgenic plants than in control plants, and plants with all the rol genes were characterized by shorter vessels compared with the control plants and a smaller proportional area of vessels compared with the other groups. In addition, silver birch plants with all the rol genes had approximately a 3.3% lower concentration of total acid soluble carbohydrates than control plants. We conclude that the rolC and rolD genes induced the typical "rol-phenotype," and that this was emphasized by concomitant expression of the rolA and rolB genes and alleviated by the presence of aux1 and aux2 genes. We observed consistent phenotypic effects of rol and aux genes on the morphology, anatomy and cell wall chemistry of the plants.

  20. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Must, Aviva; Hughes, Sheryl O; Gute, David M; Sliwa, Sarah; Boulos, Rebecca J; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Tofuri, Kerline; Pirie, Alex; Economos, Christina D

    2013-06-26

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of evening family meals, such as feeding styles (how parents interact with their child around feeding). Therefore the goals of this paper are to explore the 1) association between the frequency of evening family meals and child weight status among new immigrant families, and 2) influence of immigrant mothers' feeding styles on the frequency of evening family meals. Baseline self-reported socio-demographic information and measured heights and weights were collected for both mother and child (age range: 3–12 years) among 387 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory-research, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in recent (<10 years in the U.S.) immigrant mothers and children. For children, height and weight measurements were transformed into BMI z-scores using age-and sex-specific CDC standards and categorized as overweight (85th–94th percentile) and obese (≥95th percentile); mothers’ BMI was calculated. Frequency of evening family meals, eating dinner in front of the TV, acculturation and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Children were categorized as “eating evening family meals regularly” if they had an evening family meal ≥5 times per week. Overall, 20% of children were overweight and 25% were obese. Less than half (40.9%) of families had regular evening family meals. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for covariates, children who were overweight/obese were significantly less likely to have ≥5 evening family meals/week compared with normal weight children (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82) . Mothers who had a low demanding

  1. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Must, Aviva; Hughes, Sheryl O; Gute, David M; Sliwa, Sarah; Boulos, Rebecca J; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Tofuri, Kerline; Pirie, Alex; Economos, Christina D

    2013-01-01

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of evening family meals, such as feeding styles (how parents interact with their child around feeding). Therefore the goals of this paper are to explore the 1) association between the frequency of evening family meals and child weight status among new immigrant families, and 2) influence of immigrant mothers' feeding styles on the frequency of evening family meals. Baseline self-reported socio-demographic information and measured heights and weights were collected for both mother and child (age range: 3–12 years) among 387 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory-research, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in recent (<10 years in the U.S.) immigrant mothers and children. For children, height and weight measurements were transformed into BMI z-scores using age-and sex-specific CDC standards and categorized as overweight (85th–94th percentile) and obese (≥95th percentile); mothers’ BMI was calculated. Frequency of evening family meals, eating dinner in front of the TV, acculturation and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Children were categorized as “eating evening family meals regularly” if they had an evening family meal ≥5 times per week. Overall, 20% of children were overweight and 25% were obese. Less than half (40.9%) of families had regular evening family meals. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for covariates, children who were overweight/obese were significantly less likely to have ≥5 evening family meals/week compared with normal weight children (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82) . Mothers who had a low demanding

  2. Pushing the pseudo-SU(3) model towards its limits: Excited bands in even-even Dy isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2004-12-01

    The energetics of states belonging to normal parity bands in even-even dysprosium isotopes, and their B(E2) transition strengths, are studied using an extended pseudo-SU(3) shell model. States with pseudospin 1 are added to the standard pseudospin 0 space, allowing for a proper description of known excited normal parity bands. A realistic Hamiltonian is employed. Both the success of model and its limitations are discussed.

  3. Morne aux Diables. a potentially active volcano in northern Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheubottom, A. N.; Smith, A. L.; Roobol, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    The island of Dominica, which is located near the center of the Lesser Antilles island arc, comprises at least 8 potentially active volcanoes. One of these is Morne aux Diables, an isolated composite cone situated at the extreme northern end of the island. Age dating suggests that the main cone building activity occurred between 1.5 and 1.0 million years ago. Exposed on the volcano's flanks however are a number of unconsolidated valley-fill block and ash flow deposits suggesting more recent activity. One of these deposits, on the north-east flank of the volcano, has been recently dated at > 46,000 years B.P. Other evidence of potential activity from this center includes the presence of warm (27°C), acidic (pH 1.6), sulfate-rich springs on the summit of the volcano, hot springs on the coast, and the occurrence in 2002 and 2003 of shallow earthquake swarms partially located beneath the volcano. Morne aux Diables is dominantly composed of deposits of block and ash flows and associated domes from Pelean-style activity, however, semi-vesicular andesite block and ash flows and surges (Asama-style activity) and pumiceous lapilli falls (Plinian-style activity) are locally abundant. The Pelean domes are located both in the summit region and along the southern flanks of the volcano. Petrologically, the volcano is composed of a monotonous series of porphyritic andesites and dacites containing phenocrysts of plagioclase+augite-hypersthene with very sparse crystals of hornblende and quartz. Petrological models suggest the Morne aux Diables andesites and dacites can be produced by fractional crystallization of basaltic magma (such as those erupted from centers such as Morne Anglais and Morne Plat Pays in the south). Minor variations within this suite of andesites and dacites can be related to upper crustal fractionation of phenocryst phases.

  4. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  5. Initial community evenness favours functionality under selective stress.

    PubMed

    Wittebolle, Lieven; Marzorati, Massimo; Clement, Lieven; Balloi, Annalisa; Daffonchio, Daniele; Heylen, Kim; De Vos, Paul; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2009-04-01

    Owing to the present global biodiversity crisis, the biodiversity-stability relationship and the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning have become major topics in ecology. Biodiversity is a complex term that includes taxonomic, functional, spatial and temporal aspects of organismic diversity, with species richness (the number of species) and evenness (the relative abundance of species) considered among the most important measures. With few exceptions (see, for example, ref. 6), the majority of studies of biodiversity-functioning and biodiversity-stability theory have predominantly examined richness. Here we show, using microbial microcosms, that initial community evenness is a key factor in preserving the functional stability of an ecosystem. Using experimental manipulations of both richness and initial evenness in microcosms with denitrifying bacterial communities, we found that the stability of the net ecosystem denitrification in the face of salinity stress was strongly influenced by the initial evenness of the community. Therefore, when communities are highly uneven, or there is extreme dominance by one or a few species, their functioning is less resistant to environmental stress. Further unravelling how evenness influences ecosystem processes in natural and humanized environments constitutes a major future conceptual challenge.

  6. Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Naib, Ibraheem Dignam, Marc M.; Yang, Yuping; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan

    2015-01-05

    We report the simultaneous excitation of the odd and the even eigenmode resonances in a periodic array of square split-ring resonators, with four resonators per unit cell. When the electric field is parallel to their gaps, only the two well-studied odd eigenmodes are excited. As the resonators are rotated relative to one another, we observe the emergence and excitation of an extremely sharp even eigenmode. In uncoupled split-ring resonators, this even eigenmode is typically radiative in nature with a broad resonance linewidth and low Q-factor. However, in our coupled system, for specific range of rotation angles, our simulations revealed a remarkably high quality factor (Q ∼ 100) for this eigenmode, which has sub-radiant characteristics. This type of quad-supercell metamaterial offers the advantage of enabling access to all the three distinct resonance features of the split-ring resonator, which consists of two odd eigenmodes in addition to the high-Q even eigenmode, which could be exploited for high performance multiband filters and absorbers. The high Q even eigenmode could find applications in designing label free bio-sensors and for studying the enhanced light matter interaction effects.

  7. Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Yang, Yuping; Dignam, Marc M.; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    We report the simultaneous excitation of the odd and the even eigenmode resonances in a periodic array of square split-ring resonators, with four resonators per unit cell. When the electric field is parallel to their gaps, only the two well-studied odd eigenmodes are excited. As the resonators are rotated relative to one another, we observe the emergence and excitation of an extremely sharp even eigenmode. In uncoupled split-ring resonators, this even eigenmode is typically radiative in nature with a broad resonance linewidth and low Q-factor. However, in our coupled system, for specific range of rotation angles, our simulations revealed a remarkably high quality factor (Q ˜ 100) for this eigenmode, which has sub-radiant characteristics. This type of quad-supercell metamaterial offers the advantage of enabling access to all the three distinct resonance features of the split-ring resonator, which consists of two odd eigenmodes in addition to the high-Q even eigenmode, which could be exploited for high performance multiband filters and absorbers. The high Q even eigenmode could find applications in designing label free bio-sensors and for studying the enhanced light matter interaction effects.

  8. L'intérêt de l'accoutumance aux antituberculeux majeurs

    PubMed Central

    Aniked, Sarra; Bakouh, Ouiam; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Les réactions d’ hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux sont relativement rares et graves par leur caractère imprévisible, elles conduisent généralement à l'arrêt ou au changement thérapeutique. Nous rapportons un cas d'hypersensibilité à trois antibacillaires majeurs (Isoniazide, Pyrazinamide, Ethombutol). Une accoutumance orale à ces trois médicaments a été réalisée permettant à la patiente de bénéficier d'un traitement antibacillaire optimal. PMID:25821550

  9. BTZ-like black holes in even dimensional Lovelock theories

    SciTech Connect

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex

    2010-07-15

    In the present paper, a new class of black hole solutions is constructed in even dimensional Lovelock Born-Infeld theory. These solutions are interesting since, in some respects, they are closer to black hole solutions of an odd dimensional Lovelock Chern-Simons theory than to the more usual black hole solutions in even dimensions. This hybrid behavior arises when non-Einstein base manifolds are considered. The entropies of these solutions have been analyzed using Wald formalism. These metrics exhibit a quite nontrivial behavior. Their entropies can change sign and can even be identically zero depending on the geometry of the corresponding base manifolds. Therefore, the request of thermodynamical stability constrains the geometry of the non-Einstein base manifolds. It will be shown that some of these solutions can support nonvanishing torsion. Eventually, the possibility to define a sort of topological charge associated with torsion will be discussed.

  10. Trajectories of Evening Fatigue in Oncology Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Fay; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo; Hammer, Marilyn; Schmidt, Brian L.; Knobf, M. Tish; Paul, Steven M.; Cartwright, Frances; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.; Chen, Lee-May; Melisko, Michelle; Levine, Jon D.; Kober, Kord; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Fatigue is a distressing, persistent sense of physical tiredness that is not proportional to a person’s recent activity. Fatigue impacts patients’ treatment decisions and can limit their self-care activities. While significant interindividual variability in fatigue severity has been noted, little is known about predictors of interindividual variability in initial levels and trajectories of evening fatigue severity in oncology patients receiving chemotherapy (CTX). Objectives To determine whether demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with initial levels as well as the trajectories of evening fatigue. Methods A sample of outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and lung cancer (N=586) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Fatigue severity was evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to answer the study objectives. Results A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the evening fatigue trajectories. A piecewise model fit the data best. Patients who were White, diagnosed with breast, gynecological, or lung cancer, and who had more years of education, child care responsibilities, lower functional status, and higher levels of sleep disturbance and depression reported higher levels of evening fatigue at enrollment. Conclusion This study identified both non-modifiable (e.g., ethnicity) and modifiable (e.g., child care responsibilities, depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance) risk factors for more severe evening fatigue. Using this information, clinicians can identify patients at higher risk for more severe evening fatigue, provide individualized patient education, and tailor interventions to address the modifiable risk factors. PMID:25828560

  11. Periods of relativistic oscillators with even polynomial potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solon, Mikhail P.; Esguerra, J. P. H.

    2008-10-01

    The authors modify a non-perturbative variational approach based on the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity to calculate the periods of relativistic oscillators with even polynomial potentials. The optimization of the variational parameter is adapted by introducing additional free parameters whose values are set using the ultrarelativistic limit of the period as a boundary condition. Compact general approximations for the potentials x/2+x2/m2m, ∑n=1mx2n/2n and x2m/2m prove to be accurate over the whole solution domain and even for large values of m.

  12. Under the Law: Vouchers Multiply Even without Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Public funding of private K-12 schooling through vouchers continues to be a contentious issue across the U.S., even though a solid majority of Americans continues to oppose them. The voucher plans run the risk of legal challenge for how they handle the rights of students with disabilities and whether they violate state constitutional provisions…

  13. 1. Dyea Dock looking south. Note faint evenly spaced circular ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Dyea Dock looking south. Note faint evenly spaced circular dark pieces of grass up through the middle of the picture indicating posts making up the pier. Photograph made from park service cherry picker. - Dyea Dock & Association (Ruins), Skagway, Skagway, AK

  14. Pascal's Triangle: 100% of the Numbers Are Even!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhindi, Nayan; McMenamin, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Pascal's triangle is an arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. Each number inside Pascal's triangle is calculated by adding the two numbers above it. When all the odd integers in Pascal's triangle are highlighted (black) and the remaining evens are left blank (white), one of many patterns in Pascal's triangle is displayed. By…

  15. Why Americans Can't Handle Censorship (Even for Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Edward A.

    This paper observes that Americans, although they broadly and vocally resist informational censorship in the schools even for children, waffle in their efforts to eliminate the powerful and sometimes offensive cultural artifacts of popular "teen culture" from school curriculums. Potent economic and political forces, however, conspire to thwart…

  16. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  17. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of even...

  18. Even Wars Have Laws: Upholding an American Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhihetty, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the founding of this nation, Americans have lived by the belief that wars have laws. Even in the most morally-challenging times, the principles of international humanitarian law (IHL)--which provide basic protections for the vulnerable, such as civilians, prisoners of war, and sick and injured combatants--have been championed by leaders like…

  19. How to Keep Even Your Best Friend from Getting Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Luehrsen, Sandra

    1990-01-01

    Provides hints on composing letters of recommendation gleaned from a study of supporting letters submitted to the tenure and promotion committee at a large public university. To keep even their best friends from getting tenure, letter writers should emphasize debatable points, slip in cryptic statements about competency, and wax eloquent on…

  20. Food, Even Water Can Spoil When the Power Goes Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160552.html Food, Even Water Can Spoil When the Power Goes Out A few precautions will help prevent ... They can cause problems with your food and water that could put your family's health at risk. If the power is out for less than four hours, food ...

  1. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  2. Precise AuxPt1‑x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-02-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1‑x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1‑x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1‑x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h.

  3. Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Gan, Defang; Zhuang, Dan; Ding, Fei; Yu, Zhenzhou; Zhao, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Aux/IAA is an important gene family involved in many aspects of growth and development. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins that are induced primarily by various phytohormones. In this study, 29 Aux/IAA family genes (CsIAA01-CsIAA29) were identified and characterized in cucumber, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved protein motifs and chromosomal locations. These genes show distinct organizational patterns of their putative motifs. The distributions of the genes vary: except for five CsIAA genes in cucumber that were not located, seven CsIAA genes were found on scaffold, while the other 17 CsIAA genes were distributed on seven other chromosomes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA protein sequences from cucumber, Arabidopsis and other plants, the Aux/IAA genes in cucumber were categorized into seven subfamilies. To investigate whether the expression of CsIAA genes is associated with auxin induction, their transcript levels were monitored in seedlings treated with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), and their expression patterns were analysed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that 11/29 CsIAA genes were expressed in leaves whether treated with IAA or not and the time course of processing and compared with the control, five CsIAA genes showed low expression only after 60 min treatment with IAA, while 11 genes showed no expression. These results provide useful information for further functional analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber.

  4. Diversity of Stability, Localization, Interaction and Control of Downstream Gene Activity in the Maize Aux/IAA Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Yvonne; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Xu, Changzheng; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins are central regulators of auxin signal transduction. They control many aspects of plant development, share a conserved domain structure and are localized in the nucleus. In the present study, five maize Aux/IAA proteins (ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15, ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33) representing the evolutionary, phylogenetic and expression diversity of this gene family were characterized. Subcellular localization studies revealed that ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11 and ZmIAA15 are confined to the nucleus while ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33 are localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Introduction of specific point mutations in the degron sequence (VGWPPV) of domain II by substituting the first proline by serine or the second proline by leucine stabilized the Aux/IAA proteins. While protein half-life times between ∼11 min (ZmIAA2) to ∼120 min (ZmIAA15) were observed in wild-type proteins, the mutated forms of all five proteins were almost as stable as GFP control proteins. Moreover, all five maize Aux/IAA proteins repressed downstream gene expression in luciferase assays to different degrees. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses demonstrated interaction of all five Aux/IAA proteins with RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1, ZmIAA10) while only ZmIAA15 and ZmIAA33 interacted with the RUM1 paralog RUL1 (RUM-LIKE 1, ZmIAA29). Moreover, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15 ZmIAA33 displayed homotypic interaction. Hence, despite their conserved domain structure, maize Aux/IAA proteins display a significant variability in their molecular characteristics which is likely associated with the wide spectrum of their developmental functions. PMID:25203637

  5. Exposition précoce aux aliments et allergies alimentaires chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question J’étais sous l’impression qu’on devrait éviter de donner aux nourrissons des aliments potentiellement allergènes comme des noix, du lait de vache et des œufs pour prévenir le développement de réactions allergiques. Quels conseils devrait-on donner aux parents concernant l’introduction des aliments durant la petite enfance et le développement des allergies alimentaires? Réponse Il n’y a pas de données probantes indiquant que retarder l’introduction d’aliments particuliers après l’âge de 6 mois aide à prévenir les allergies. Une récente déclaration de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie ne recommande aucun délai quant à l’introduction d’aliments durant la petite enfance. De récentes études de recherche semblent aussi faire valoir que l’introduction précoce (entre 4 et 6 mois) d’aliments possiblement allergènes procure une forme de protection et contribue à prévenir les allergies, mais il faudrait plus de recherche à ce sujet.

  6. Nonlinear Acceleration Methods for Even-Parity Neutron Transport

    SciTech Connect

    W. J. Martin; C. R. E. De Oliveira; H. Park

    2010-05-01

    Convergence acceleration methods for even-parity transport were developed that have the potential to speed up transport calculations and provide a natural avenue for an implicitly coupled multiphysics code. An investigation was performed into the acceleration properties of the introduction of a nonlinear quasi-diffusion-like tensor in linear and nonlinear solution schemes. Using the tensor reduced matrix as a preconditioner for the conjugate gradients method proves highly efficient and effective. The results for the linear and nonlinear case serve as the basis for further research into the application in a full three-dimensional spherical-harmonics even-parity transport code. Once moved into the nonlinear solution scheme, the implicit coupling of the convergence accelerated transport method into codes for other physics can be done seamlessly, providing an efficient, fully implicitly coupled multiphysics code with high order transport.

  7. Even Illumination from Fiber-Optic-Coupled Laser Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    A method of equipping fiber-optic-coupled laser diodes to evenly illuminate specified fields of view has been proposed. The essence of the method is to shape the tips of the optical fibers into suitably designed diffractive optical elements. One of the main benefits afforded by the method would be more nearly complete utilization of the available light. Diffractive optics is a relatively new field of optics in which laser beams are shaped by use of diffraction instead of refraction.

  8. Even parity excitations of the nucleon in lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    B. G. Lasscock; J. N. Hedditch; W. Kamleh; D. B. Leinweber; W. Melnitchouk; A. G. Williams; J. M. Zanotti

    2007-09-01

    We study the spectrum of the even parity excitations of the nucleon in quenched lattice QCD. We extend our earlier analysis by including an expanded basis of nucleon interpolating fields, increasing the physical size of the lattice, including more configurations to enhance statistics and probing closer to the chiral limit. With a review of world lattice data, we conclude that there is little evidence of the Roper resonance in quenched lattice QCD.

  9. Electronic storage capacity of ceria: role of peroxide in Aux supported on CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinli; Li, Huiying; Yu, Jun; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2015-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT+U) was used to study the adsorption of Aux (x = 1-4) clusters on the defective CeO2(111) facet and CO adsorption on the corresponding Aux/CeO2-x catalyst, in this work Aux clusters are adsorbed onto the CeO2-x + superoxide/peroxide surface. When Au1 is supported on the CeO2(111) facet with an O vacancy, the strong electronegative Au(δ-) formed is not favorable for CO adsorption. When peroxide is adsorbed on the CeO2(111) facet with the O vacancy, Aux was oxidized, resulting in stable Aux adsorption on the defective ceria surface with peroxide, which promotes CO adsorption on the Aux/CeO2-x catalyst. With more Au atoms in supported Aux clusters, CO adsorption on this surface becomes stronger. During both the Au being supported on CeO2-x and CO being adsorbed on Aux/CeO2-x, CeO2 acts as an electron buffer that can store/release the electrons. These results provide a scientific understanding for the development of high-performance rare earth catalytic materials.

  10. Fine structure in α decay of even-even nuclei using a finite-range nucleon-nucleon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, A.; Alharbi, T.

    2015-07-01

    A systematic study on α -decay fine structure is presented for even-even nuclei in the range 78 ≤Z ≤102 . The penetration probability is obtained from the WKB approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The potential barrier is numerically constructed in the well-established double-folding model for both Coulomb and nuclear potentials. A realistic M3Y interaction, based on the G -matrix elements of the Paris N N potential, has been used in the folding calculation. The local approximation for the nondiagonal one-body density matrix in the calculation of the exchange potential was included by using the harmonic oscillator representation of the nondiagonal density matrix of the α particle. The computed partial half-lives and branching ratios are compared with the recent experimental data and they are in good agreement.

  11. Systematic study of α decay half-lives for even-even nuclei within a two-potential approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Ping; Li, Xiao-Hua

    2016-03-01

    α decay is a common and important process of natural radioactivity of heavy and superheavy nuclei. The α decay half-lives for even-even nuclei from Z =62 to Z =118 are systematically studied based on the two-potential approach with a quasistationary state approximation. As for the nuclear potential, the isospin effect is considered, which slightly improves the results by 6.8%. To reduce the deviations between experimental half-lives and calculated results due to the nuclear shell structure, the analytic expression of hindrance factors is employed. Our results can reproduce the experimental half-lives as good as using the density-dependent cluster model and the generalized liquid drop model.

  12. Correlations of the deformation variables {beta} and {gamma} in even-even Hf, W, Os, Pt, and Hg nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Esser, L.; Neuneyer, U.; Casten, R.F.; von Brentano, P.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the triaxial rotor model of Davydov and Filippov, deformation parameters {beta} and {gamma} are extracted from both level energies and E2 transition rates in even-even Hf-Hg nuclei. Three results emerge: the two sets of {beta} and {gamma} values{emdash}energy-based and transition-rate-based{emdash}are in good agreement, with only a few exceptions, thus giving confidence in the extracted values; both {beta} and {gamma} follow smooth trajectories against N{sub p}N{sub n}; and the {beta} and {gamma} values themselves are correlated, pointing to the possibility of a simpler description of structural evolution. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Instability of small Lovelock black holes in even dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro

    2009-11-15

    We study the stability of static black holes in Lovelock theory, which is a natural higher dimensional generalization of Einstein theory. We derive a master equation for tensor perturbations in general Lovelock theory. It turns out that the resultant equation is characterized by one functional which determines the background black hole solutions. Thus, the stability issue of static black holes under tensor perturbations in general dimensions is reduced to an algebraic problem. We show that small Lovelock black holes in even-dimensions are unstable.

  14. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient even-even (182-188)Hg isotopes studied via coulomb excitation.

    PubMed

    Bree, N; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Petts, A; Andreyev, A; Bastin, B; Bender, M; Blazhev, A; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Carpenter, M P; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Deacon, A; Diriken, J; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fraile, L M; Fransen, Ch; Freeman, S J; Gaffney, L P; García-Ramos, J E; Geibel, K; Gernhäuser, R; Grahn, T; Guttormsen, M; Hadinia, B; Hadyńska-Kle K, K; Hass, M; Heenen, P-H; Herzberg, R-D; Hess, H; Heyde, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Jenkins, D G; Julin, R; Kesteloot, N; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Larsen, A C; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Napiorkowski, P J; Orlandi, R; Page, R D; Pakarinen, J; Patronis, N; Peura, P J; Piselli, E; Rahkila, P; Rapisarda, E; Reiter, P; Robinson, A P; Scheck, M; Siem, S; Singh Chakkal, K; Smith, J F; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van Duppen, P; Van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; Wood, J L; Zielińska, M

    2014-04-25

    Coulomb-excitation experiments to study electromagnetic properties of radioactive even-even Hg isotopes were performed with 2.85  MeV/nucleon mercury beams from REX-ISOLDE. Magnitudes and relative signs of the reduced E2 matrix elements that couple the ground state and low-lying excited states in Hg182-188 were extracted. Information on the deformation of the ground and the first excited 0+ states was deduced using the quadrupole sum rules approach. Results show that the ground state is slightly deformed and of oblate nature, while a larger deformation for the excited 0+ state was noted in Hg182,184. The results are compared to beyond mean field and interacting-boson based models and interpreted within a two-state mixing model. Partial agreement with the model calculations was obtained. The presence of two different structures in the light even-mass mercury isotopes that coexist at low excitation energy is firmly established.

  15. Shape Coexistence in the Neutron-Deficient Even-Even Hg182-188 Isotopes Studied via Coulomb Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bree, N.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Petts, A.; Andreyev, A.; Bastin, B.; Bender, M.; Blazhev, A.; Bruyneel, B.; Butler, P. A.; Butterworth, J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Cederkäll, J.; Clément, E.; Cocolios, T. E.; Deacon, A.; Diriken, J.; Ekström, A.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fraile, L. M.; Fransen, Ch.; Freeman, S. J.; Gaffney, L. P.; García-Ramos, J. E.; Geibel, K.; Gernhäuser, R.; Grahn, T.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadinia, B.; Hadyńska-KleÂķ, K.; Hass, M.; Heenen, P.-H.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Hess, H.; Heyde, K.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Jenkins, D. G.; Julin, R.; Kesteloot, N.; Kröll, Th.; Krücken, R.; Larsen, A. C.; Lutter, R.; Marley, P.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Orlandi, R.; Page, R. D.; Pakarinen, J.; Patronis, N.; Peura, P. J.; Piselli, E.; Rahkila, P.; Rapisarda, E.; Reiter, P.; Robinson, A. P.; Scheck, M.; Siem, S.; Singh Chakkal, K.; Smith, J. F.; Srebrny, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Tveten, G. M.; Van Duppen, P.; Van de Walle, J.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wiens, A.; Wood, J. L.; Zielińska, M.

    2014-04-01

    Coulomb-excitation experiments to study electromagnetic properties of radioactive even-even Hg isotopes were performed with 2.85 MeV/nucleon mercury beams from REX-ISOLDE. Magnitudes and relative signs of the reduced E2 matrix elements that couple the ground state and low-lying excited states in Hg182-188 were extracted. Information on the deformation of the ground and the first excited 0+ states was deduced using the quadrupole sum rules approach. Results show that the ground state is slightly deformed and of oblate nature, while a larger deformation for the excited 0+ state was noted in Hg182,184. The results are compared to beyond mean field and interacting-boson based models and interpreted within a two-state mixing model. Partial agreement with the model calculations was obtained. The presence of two different structures in the light even-mass mercury isotopes that coexist at low excitation energy is firmly established.

  16. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient even-even (182-188)Hg isotopes studied via coulomb excitation.

    PubMed

    Bree, N; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Petts, A; Andreyev, A; Bastin, B; Bender, M; Blazhev, A; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Carpenter, M P; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Deacon, A; Diriken, J; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fraile, L M; Fransen, Ch; Freeman, S J; Gaffney, L P; García-Ramos, J E; Geibel, K; Gernhäuser, R; Grahn, T; Guttormsen, M; Hadinia, B; Hadyńska-Kle K, K; Hass, M; Heenen, P-H; Herzberg, R-D; Hess, H; Heyde, K; Huyse, M; Ivanov, O; Jenkins, D G; Julin, R; Kesteloot, N; Kröll, Th; Krücken, R; Larsen, A C; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Napiorkowski, P J; Orlandi, R; Page, R D; Pakarinen, J; Patronis, N; Peura, P J; Piselli, E; Rahkila, P; Rapisarda, E; Reiter, P; Robinson, A P; Scheck, M; Siem, S; Singh Chakkal, K; Smith, J F; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van Duppen, P; Van de Walle, J; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; Wood, J L; Zielińska, M

    2014-04-25

    Coulomb-excitation experiments to study electromagnetic properties of radioactive even-even Hg isotopes were performed with 2.85  MeV/nucleon mercury beams from REX-ISOLDE. Magnitudes and relative signs of the reduced E2 matrix elements that couple the ground state and low-lying excited states in Hg182-188 were extracted. Information on the deformation of the ground and the first excited 0+ states was deduced using the quadrupole sum rules approach. Results show that the ground state is slightly deformed and of oblate nature, while a larger deformation for the excited 0+ state was noted in Hg182,184. The results are compared to beyond mean field and interacting-boson based models and interpreted within a two-state mixing model. Partial agreement with the model calculations was obtained. The presence of two different structures in the light even-mass mercury isotopes that coexist at low excitation energy is firmly established. PMID:24815644

  17. Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. E. F.; Rivière, P.; Morales, F.; Smirnova, O.; Ivanov, M.; Martín, F.

    2016-01-01

    Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process. PMID:27596609

  18. Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules.

    PubMed

    Silva, R E F; Rivière, P; Morales, F; Smirnova, O; Ivanov, M; Martín, F

    2016-01-01

    Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process. PMID:27596609

  19. Interactive view-driven evenly spaced streamline placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhanping; Moorhead, Robert J., II

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an Interactive View-Driven Evenly Spaced Streamline placement algorithm (IVDESS) for 3D explorative visualization of large complex planar or curved surface flows. IVDESS rapidly performs accurate streamline integration in 3D physical space, i.e., the flow field, while achieving high quality streamline density control in 2D view space, i.e., the output image. The correspondence between the two spaces is established by using a projection-unprojection pair constituted through geometric surface rendering. An inter-frame physical-space seeding strategy based on streamline reuse+lengthening is adopted, on top of intra-frame view-space seeding, to not only enable coherent flow navigation but also speedup placement generation. IVDESS employs a view-sensitive streamline representation that is well suited for streamline reuse, lengthening, and rendering. In addition, it avoids temporal incoherence caused by streamline splitting and jaggy lines caused by unprojection errors. Our algorithm can run at interactive frame rates (9FPS for placement generation) to allow for 3D exploration of surface flows with smooth evolution of high-density (1%) evenly spaced streamlines in a large window (990 x 700 pixels) on an ordinary PC without either pre-processing or GPU support.

  20. [Molecular cloning and expression analysis of an Aux/IAA gene (RgIAA1) from Rehmannia glutinosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Qing; Tian, Yun-He; Li, Ming-Jie; Yang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Bao; Lin, Wen-Xiong; Chen, Xin-Jian; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2013-12-01

    To clone and analyze a member of the Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family, RgIAA1, from Rehmannia glutinosa. The transcriptional EST database of R. glutinosa was used to clone the new Aux/IAA gene by cDNA probe of AtIAA14. Bioinformatics was applied to analyze the sequence characteristics of RgIAA1 protein and construct phylogenetiC trees. Quantitative RT-PCR has been applied to detect the transcription level of RgIAA1 in seven tissues as well as in leaves under three stresses. The results showed that, the cDNA sequence of RgIAA1 contains 903 bp was obtained. The open reading frame (ORF) of RgIAA1 was 681 bp encoding 226 amino acids, which has typical structural domains and characteristic sequence of Aux/IAA family proteins. RgIAA1 showed the highest expression level in unfolded leaf, followed by the stem. And the expression of RglAA1 was quickly decreased with leaf growing up. The transcription level increased under continuous cropping conditions while it reduced both in salinity and waterlogging stresses. RgIAA1, an Aux/IAA gene from R. glutinosa has been obtained for the first time, which can lay the foundation for further studies about its molecular function in development and responses to stress.

  1. Des furoncles résistants aux antibiotiques: penser à la myiase !!

    PubMed Central

    Ajili, Faida; Abid, Rim; Bousseta, Najeh; Mrabet, Ali; Karoui, Ghazi; Louzir, Bassem; Battikh, Riadh; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Les myiases sont des infections parasitaires par des larves de mouches. La localisation cutanée doit être évoquée de retour d'un pays tropical devant une évolution inhabituelle de lésions cutanées. Nous rapportons une observation d'un militaire tunisien, ayant séjourné en République Démocratique du Congo. Il était atteint de myiase cutanée simulatrice d'une furonculose résistante aux antibiotiques. L'intérêt de cette observation est de souligner l'importance d’évoquer la myiase dont le traitement est simple et rapide chez un patient de retour de zone d'endémie. PMID:24106569

  2. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  3. The reduced transition probabilities for excited states of rare-earths and actinide even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ghumman, S. S.

    2015-08-28

    The theoretical B(E2) ratios have been calculated on DF, DR and Krutov models. A simple method based on the work of Arima and Iachello is used to calculate the reduced transition probabilities within SU(3) limit of IBA-I framework. The reduced E2 transition probabilities from second excited states of rare-earths and actinide even–even nuclei calculated from experimental energies and intensities from recent data, have been found to compare better with those calculated on the Krutov model and the SU(3) limit of IBA than the DR and DF models.

  4. Hard times can happen to anyone--even a dentist.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sally

    2011-11-11

    The BDA Benevolent Fund has been helping needy dentists and their families for 130 years, while the Dentist Health Support Trust, founded in 1986, offers support specifically on addiction and other mental health issues. The Ben Fund offers a lifeline to those struggling with poverty arising from illness, accidents, bereavement, addiction, mental health issues, and many other difficulties. It may be that someone needs financial help to deal with a short-term problem before they get themselves back on track, and the Fund can do this with a one-off grant or perhaps an interest-free loan, to be repaid when their life is on an even keel again. Other people may face long-term uncertainty and need regular support.

  5. Hybridization can facilitate species invasions, even without enhancing local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mesgaran, Mohsen B; Lewis, Mark A; Ades, Peter K; Donohue, Kathleen; Ohadi, Sara; Li, Chengjun; Cousens, Roger D

    2016-09-01

    The founding population in most new species introductions, or at the leading edge of an ongoing invasion, is likely to be small. Severe Allee effects-reductions in individual fitness at low population density-may then result in a failure of the species to colonize, even if the habitat could support a much larger population. Using a simulation model for plant populations that incorporates demography, mating systems, quantitative genetics, and pollinators, we show that Allee effects can potentially be overcome by transient hybridization with a resident species or an earlier colonizer. This mechanism does not require the invocation of adaptive changes usually attributed to invasions following hybridization. We verify our result in a case study of sequential invasions by two plant species where the outcrosser Cakile maritima has replaced an earlier, inbreeding, colonizer Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae). Observed historical rates of replacement are consistent with model predictions from hybrid-alleviated Allee effects in outcrossers, although other causes cannot be ruled out.

  6. Epogam evening primrose oil treatment in atopic dermatitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Hederos, C A; Berg, A

    1996-12-01

    Essential fatty acids are claimed to have positive effects in atopic diseases. In a double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study 58 out of 60 children, with atopic dermatitis and the need for regular treatment with topical skin steroids, completed a 16 weeks' treatment period with either Epogam evening primrose oil or placebo capsules. Twenty two of these subjects also had asthma. The parents used diaries to record symptom scores and concomitant medication. Peak expiratory flow was measured and disease activity was monitored by the clinician every four weeks. The plasma concentrations of essential fatty acids increased significantly in the group treated with Epogam capsules. The study demonstrated significant improvements of the eczema symptoms but no significant difference was found between the placebo and the Epogam groups. No therapeutic effect was shown on asthma symptoms or fidget.

  7. Into the Evening: Complex Interactions in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Nusinow, Dmitri A

    2016-10-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana an assembly of proteins named the evening complex (EC) has been established as an essential component of the circadian clock with conserved functions in regulating plant growth and development. Recent studies identifying EC-regulated genes and EC-interacting proteins have expanded our understanding of EC function. In this review we focus on new progress uncovering how the EC contributes to the circadian network through the integration of environmental inputs and the direct regulation of key clock genes. We also summarize new findings of how the EC directly regulates clock outputs, such as photoperiodic and thermoresponsive growth, and provide new perspectives on future experiments to address unsolved questions related to the EC. PMID:27594171

  8. Global description of β- decay in even-even nuclei with the axially-deformed Skyrme finite-amplitude method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustonen, M. T.; Engel, J.

    2016-01-01

    We use the finite-amplitude method for computing charge-changing Skyrme-quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) transition strengths in axially-deformed nuclei together with a modern Skyrme energy-density functional to fit several previously unconstrained parameters in the charge-changing time-odd part of the functional. With the modified functional we then calculate rates of β- decay for all medium-mass and heavy even-even nuclei between the valley of stability and the neutron drip line. We fit the Skyrme parameters to a limited set of β -decay rates, a set of Gamow-Teller resonance energies, and a set of spin-dipole resonance energies, in both spherical and deformed nuclei. Comparison to available experimental β -decay rates shows agreement at roughly the same level as in other global QRPA calculations. We estimate the uncertainty in our rates all the way to the neutron drip line through a construction that extrapolates the errors of known β -decay rates in nuclei with intermediate Q values to less stable isotopes with higher Q values.

  9. Measuring g factors of 41+ and 61+ states in even-even nuclei with 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Diego; Benczer-Koller, N.; Kumbartzki, G.; Gürdal, G.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Zamick, L.; Speidel, K.-H.; Ilie, G.; Heinz, A.; Ahn, T.; Werner, V.; Robinson, S. J. Q.

    2011-10-01

    The measurement of g factors of the low lying excited states in even-even nuclei with lifetimes of the order of 1 to 50 picoseconds presents challenging questions for both theory and experiment. The experimental determination of accurate g factor values uses the transient field technique in inverse kinematics and requires an understanding of the reaction mechanism used to populate the final states. So far, the main method of excitation has been Coulomb excitation. More recently, alpha transfer from a 12C target to selected beams made it possible to populate states in nuclei not available as stable beams. This method has been successful for lighter nuclei up to A ~70. A comparison between Coulomb excitation and alpha transfer reactions will be presented. The experiments used the Tandem at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory at Yale University. Preliminary results for the 100Pd, 96Ru and 86Sr nuclei will be presented. Experimental challenges for future experiments will be discussed. Supported in part by the DOE and the NSF.

  10. The emission probabilities of long range alpha particles from even-even 244-252Cm isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Krishnan, Sreejith; Priyanka, B.

    2014-10-01

    The alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even 244Cm, 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of the Coulomb and proximity potential with the fragments in equatorial configuration. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold reaction valley plot and by calculating the relative yield for the charge minimized fragments. In the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 244Cm isotope, the highest yield is found for the fragment combination 110Ru+4He+130Sn, which possess near doubly magic nuclei 130Sn. For the ternary fission of 246Cm, 248Cm, 250Cm and 252Cm isotopes with 4He as the light charged particle, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination with doubly magic nuclei 132Sn as the heavier fragment. The emission probabilities and kinetic energies of long range alpha particles have been computed for the 242,244,246,248Cm isotopes and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The relative yields for the 4He accompanied ternary fission (equatorial and collinear) of 242-252Cm isotopes are compared with the corresponding yield for binary fission. The effect of deformation and orientation of fragments in the 4He accompanied ternary fission of 244-252Cm isotopes are studied. Our study reveals that the ground state deformation has as an important role in the alpha accompanied ternary fission as that of the shell effect.

  11. Electro-Magnetic Dipole Properties of The Even-Even {sup 160}Gd Nucleus in The Spectroscopic Region

    SciTech Connect

    Ertugral, Filiz; Kuliev, Ali; Guliyev, Ekber

    2008-11-11

    In this study result of calculations using rotational, translational and Galilean invariant quasiparticle random-phase approximation is presented for the low lying dipole excitations in the even-even {sup 60}Gd nucleus. To make detail structure analysis for electric and magnetic dipole states, calculations carried out for both {delta}K = 1 and {delta}K = 0 branches. The analysis shows that almost all transitions with {delta}K = 1 are magnetic character in 2.4 divide 4 MeV energy interval. However, the calculations indicate the presence of a few prominent negative parity K{sup {pi}} = 1 states in the investigated energy interval, one of them with rather high E1 strength B(E1) = 7.1{center_dot}10{sup -3} e{sup 2} fm{sup 2} at energy 3.2 MeV. Calculated M1 dipole strength of the scissors mode K{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +} excitations clustered in two groups around 2.7 and 3.3 MeV. A similar situation arises for the experimentally obtained states two bumps around {omega}{sub i} = 2.7 MeV and {omega}{sub i} = 3.3 MeV. It has been shown that main part of spin-1 states, observed at energy 2.4 divide 4 MeV in {sup 160}Gd may be attributed to have M1 character and may be interpreted as main fragments of the scissors mode. However, it is apparent that the experimental data exceeds the calculation results for the summed B(M1) by a factor of 1.13 for M1 transitions.

  12. Hybridization can facilitate species invasions, even without enhancing local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mesgaran, Mohsen B; Lewis, Mark A; Ades, Peter K; Donohue, Kathleen; Ohadi, Sara; Li, Chengjun; Cousens, Roger D

    2016-09-01

    The founding population in most new species introductions, or at the leading edge of an ongoing invasion, is likely to be small. Severe Allee effects-reductions in individual fitness at low population density-may then result in a failure of the species to colonize, even if the habitat could support a much larger population. Using a simulation model for plant populations that incorporates demography, mating systems, quantitative genetics, and pollinators, we show that Allee effects can potentially be overcome by transient hybridization with a resident species or an earlier colonizer. This mechanism does not require the invocation of adaptive changes usually attributed to invasions following hybridization. We verify our result in a case study of sequential invasions by two plant species where the outcrosser Cakile maritima has replaced an earlier, inbreeding, colonizer Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae). Observed historical rates of replacement are consistent with model predictions from hybrid-alleviated Allee effects in outcrossers, although other causes cannot be ruled out. PMID:27601582

  13. Systematical behavior of even-A polonium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W.; Cizewski, J.A.

    1997-03-01

    The energy systematics of even-A, neutron-deficient polonium isotopes have been previously observed down to A=194. The low-lying states display a gradual approach to the equal spacings of a harmonic vibrator, exceeding this limit for the first time in {sup 194}Po. We have successfully modeled these energy systematics using the particle-core model and have applied the quasiparticle random phase approximation to extract microscopic wave functions for the collective 2{sub 1}{sup +} states and predict B(E2;2{sub 1}{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sub 1}{sup +}) values. We are able to explain the Po trends in terms of the overlaps of the wave functions of valence particles, overlaps which are enhanced when particles occupy the high-j proton 1h{sub 9/2} and neutron 1i{sub 13/2} orbitals. We find little evidence for particle-hole excitations across the Z=82 shell gap. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Why do even satisfied newlyweds eventually go on to divorce?

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2012-02-01

    Although divorce typically follows an extended period of unhappiness that begins early in marriage, some couples who are very happy throughout the first several years of marriage will also go on to divorce. This study aimed to identify risk factors early in marriage that distinguish initially satisfied couples who eventually divorce from those who remain married. We identified 136 couples reporting stably high levels of relationship satisfaction in the first 4 years of marriage. We compared the couples who went on to divorce by the 10-year follow-up with the couples who remained married on initial measures of commitment, observed communication, stress, and personality. Divorcing couples displayed more negative communication, emotion, and social support as newlyweds compared with couples who did not divorce. No significant differences were found in the other domains, in relationship satisfaction, or in positive behaviors. Overall, results indicate that even couples who are very successful at navigating the early years of marriage can be vulnerable to later dissolution if their interpersonal exchanges are poorly regulated. We speculate that, paradoxically, the many strengths possessed by these couples may mask their potent interpersonal liabilities, posing challenges for educational interventions designed to help these couples.

  15. Size of Dominant Diatom Species Can Alter Their Evenness

    PubMed Central

    Sugie, Koji; Suzuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biodiversity has often been estimated on the basis of abundance partly due to the need for complicated measurements of biomass. Here, we conducted robust measurements of the community composition and of the size structure of diatoms in the North Pacific to evaluate the importance of biomass on the biodiversity. We found that the two most useful evenness indices increased in most cases where small species were numerically dominant when calculations were based on biomass compared with those on abundance. Size-abundance spectra of diatoms revealed that numerically dominant small species rarely dominated in terms of biomass. On the other hand, intermediate to large diatom species generally played a dominant role in terms of biomass in diatom community. The results suggest that the size of the dominant species is a crucial factor in determining the role of diatoms in the ecosystem functioning. Because such size variability can also be observed in other organisms, we need to pay attention to the effect of size structures on biodiversity. PMID:26098838

  16. Succinate esters: odd-even effects in melting points.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sumy; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan

    2014-10-01

    Dialkyl succinates show a pattern of alternating behavior in their melting points, as the number of C atoms in the alkane side chain increases, unlike in the dialkyl oxalates [Joseph et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. B67, 525-534]. Dialkyl succinates with odd numbers of C atoms in the alkyl side chain show higher melting points than the immediately adjacent analogues with even numbers. The crystal structures and their molecular packing have been analyzed for a series of dialkyl succinates with 1-4 C atoms in the alkyl side chain. The energy difference (ΔE) between the optimized and observed molecular conformations, density, Kitaigorodskii packing index (KPI) and C-H...O interactions are considered to rationalize this behavior. In contrast to the dialkyl oxalates where a larger number of moderately strong C-H...O interactions were characteristic of oxalates with elevated melting points, here the molecular packing and the density play a major role in raising the melting point. On moving from oxalate to succinate esters the introduction of the C2 spacer adds two activated H atoms to the asymmetric unit, resulting in the formation of stronger C-H...O hydrogen bonds in all succinates. As a result the crystallinity of long-chain alkyl substituted esters improves enormously in the presence of hydrogen bonds from activated donors.

  17. Odd-even staggering in neutron drip line nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-07-01

    We have done systematic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations in coordinate space on the one-quasi-particle energies and binding energy odd-even staggering (OES) in semi-magic nuclei with the zero-range volume, mixed and surface pairing forces in order to explore the influence of their density dependence. The odd-N isotopes are calculated within the blocking scheme. The strengths for the pairing forces are determined in two schemes by fitting locally to reproduce pairing gap in 120Sn and globally to all available data on the OES of semi-magic nuclei with Z ≥ 8. In the former calculations, there is a noticeable difference between the neutron mean gaps in neutron-rich O, Ca, Ni and Sn isotopes calculated with the surface pairing and those with the mixed and volume pairing. The difference gets much smaller if the globally optimized pairing strengths are employed. The heavier Pb isotopes show the opposite trend. Moreover, large differences between the mean gap and the OES may be expected in both calculations when one goes towards the neutron drip line.

  18. Features of the Active Evening Plasma Sheet from MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Avanov, L. A.; Burch, J. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Ergun, R. E.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Lavraud, B.; MacDonald, E.; Mauk, B.; Mukai, T.; Nakamura, R.; Pollock, C. J.; Russell, C. T.; Saito, Y.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Yokota, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, consisting of four identical plasmas and fields observatories, was launched into a 12 RE elliptical equatorial orbit in March 2015 and was in the process of being commissioned through August 2015. During commissioning, the orbit apogee rotated from near midnight through the evening toward the dusk sector and occasionally captured new observations of the plasma sheet, its boundary layers, and the magnetospheric tail lobes. On 22-23 June, an especially active plasma sheet was involved in a major geospace storm that developed a ring current with 200 nT DST. We report on the ion kinetic and flow features of this active plasma sheet, comparing them with familiar observations from earlier missions, as an exercise in validating the MMS observations and assessing their capabilities to provide higher time resolution in multi-point views of thin, fast-moving structures. The observed features include but are not limited to cold lobal wind streams in the lobes, tailward flowing auroral beams and conics, hot earthward field-aligned flows and counter-flows, fast cross-field convection of some flows toward the neutral sheet, and the hot isotropic plasma sheet proper. Relationships between these features, the ionosphere, and the reconnecting magnetotail will be explored and discussed, seeking preliminary conclusions.

  19. Vehicle engines produce exhaust nanoparticles even when not fueled.

    PubMed

    Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Heikkilä, Juha; Karjalainen, Panu; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle engines produce submicrometer exhaust particles affecting air quality, especially in urban environments. In on-road exhaust studies with a heavy duty diesel vehicle and in laboratory studies with two gasoline-fueled passenger cars, we found that as much as 20-30% of the number of exhaust particles larger than 3 nm may be formed during engine braking conditions-that is, during decelerations and downhill driving while the engine is not fueled. Particles appeared at size ranges extending even below 7 nm and at high number concentrations. Their small size and nonvolatility, coupled with the observation that these particles contain lube-oil-derived metals zinc, phosphorus, and calcium, are suggestive of health risks at least similar to those of exhaust particles observed before. The particles' characteristics indicate that their emissions can be reduced using exhaust after-treatment devices, although these devices have not been mandated for all relevant vehicle types. Altogether, our findings enhance the understanding of the formation vehicle emissions and allow for improved protection of human health in proximity to traffic.

  20. Evening primrose oil and borage oil in rheumatologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Belch, J J; Hill, A

    2000-01-01

    Diets rich in arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) lead to the formation of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs) and 4-series leukotrienes (LTs), with proinflammatory effects. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are used in rheumatoid arthritis to inhibit cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase), thereby decreasing production of 2-series PGs. Lipoxygenase activity remains intact, however, allowing LT production (eg, synthesis of LTB(4), a potent inflammatory mediator) to continue. Altering the essential fatty acid (EFA) content of the diet can modify some of these effects. Ingestion of a diet rich in evening primrose oil elevates concentrations of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), which results in the production of 1-series PGs, eg, PGE(1). DGLA itself cannot be converted to LTs but can form a 15-hydroxyl derivative that blocks the transformation of arachidonic acid to LTs. Increasing DGLA intake may allow DGLA to act as a competitive inhibitor of 2-series PGs and 4-series LTs and thus suppress inflammation. The results of in vitro and animal work evaluating EFAs in inflammatory situations are encouraging, which has stimulated clinical workers to evaluate these compounds in rheumatoid arthritis. Several well-controlled, randomized clinical studies have now been completed in which various EFAs were evaluated as treatments. The results of most of these studies suggest some clinical benefit to these treatments; these data are reviewed here.

  1. The Problem with Probability: Why rare hazards feel even rarer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Even as scientists improve the accuracy of their forecasts for large-scale events like natural hazards and climate change, a gap remains between the confidence the scientific community has in those estimates, and the skepticism with which the lay public tends to view statements of uncertainty. Beyond the challenges of helping the public to understand probabilistic forecasts lies yet another barrier to effective communication: the fact that even when humans can estimate or state the correct probability of a rare event, we tend to distort that probability in our minds, acting as if the likelihood is higher or lower than we know it to be. A half century of empirical research in psychology and economics leaves us with a clear view of the ways that people interpret stated, or described probabilities--e.g., "There is a 6% chance of a Northridge-sized earthquake occurring in your area in the next 10 years." In the past decade, the focus of cognitive scientists has turned to the other method humans use to learn probabilities: intuitively estimating the chances of a rare event by assessing our personal experience with various outcomes. While it is well understood that described probabilities are over-weighted when they are small (e.g., a 5% chance might be treated more like a 10% or 12% chance), it appears that in many cases, experienced rare probabilities are in fact under-weighted. This distortion is not an under-estimation, and therefore cannot be prevented by reminding people of the described probability. This paper discusses the mechanisms and effects of this difference in the way probability is used when a number is provided, as opposed to when the frequency of a rare event is intuited. In addition to recommendations based on the current state of research on the way people appear to make decisions from experience, suggestions are made for how to present probabilistic information to best take advantage of people's tendencies to either amplify risk or ignore it, as well

  2. Hadronic D decays involving even-parity light mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-Y.; Chiang, C.-W.

    2010-04-01

    We study the hadronic D meson decays into a pseudoscalar meson P and an even-parity meson M, where M represents a scalar meson S, an axial-vector meson A, or a tensor meson T. These decays are first analyzed in the flavor-diagram approach. Fits to the SP modes with S being a nonstrange scalar meson show that neither the simple qq picture nor the q{sup 2}q{sup 2} scheme is favored by data. Current measurements on the AP decays are insufficient for a meaningful analysis. Some TP data are inconsistent with the others. In certain cases, the W-annihilation diagrams indicated by the data are unexpectedly large. As a comparison, we also compute their decay rates in the factorization approach using form factors extracted from the covariant light-front model. We find that factorization works well for Cabibbo-allowed D{sup +{yields}}SP, AP decays free of the weak annihilation contributions (W-exchange or W-annihilation). For the other SP and AP modes, it is necessary to include weak annihilation contributions to account for the data. However, factorization fails for D{yields}TP decays for some unknown reason; the predicted rates are in general too small by at least 2 orders of magnitude compared to experiment. We also examine the finite-width effects of resonances. Some decay modes which are kinematically forbidden become physically allowed due to the finite width of the resonance. We show that the branching fraction of D{sup +{yields}{sigma}{pi}+} extracted from three-body decays is enhanced by a factor of 2, whereas B(D{sup 0{yields}}f{sub 2}(1270)K{sup 0}) is reduced by a factor of 4 by finite-width effects.

  3. Colloids in sepsis: evenly distributed molecules surrounded by uneven questions.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2013-05-01

    Colloids are frequently used for fluid expansion in the intensive care unit, although its use on several clinical scenarios remains unproven of any relevant clinical benefit. The purpose of this article was to carry out a narrative review regarding the safety and efficacy of colloids in patients with sepsis and septic shock, with emphasis on the most commonly used colloids, albumin and starches. Colloids are effective fluid expanders and are able to restore the hemodynamic profile with less total volume than crystalloids. These properties appear to be preserved even in patients with sepsis with increased capillary permeability. However, some colloids are associated with renal impairment and coagulation abnormalities. Starch use was associated with increased mortality in two large clinical trials. Also, starches probably have significant renal adverse effects and may be related to more need for renal replacement therapy in severe sepsis. Albumin is the only colloid that has been shown safe in patients with sepsis and that may be associated with improved outcomes on specific subpopulations. No trial so far found any robust clinical end point favoring colloid use in patients with sepsis. Because there is no proven benefit of the use of most colloids in patients with sepsis, its use should not be encouraged outside clinical trials. Albumin is the only colloid solution that has proven to be safe, and its use may be considered on hypoalbuminemic patients with sepsis. Nevertheless, there are no robust data to recommend routine albumin administration in sepsis. Starch use should be avoided in patients with sepsis because of the recent findings of a multicenter randomized study until further evidence is available.

  4. Evening and nighttime features of equatorial ionospheric F2 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi S.

    2016-07-01

    We have used ionosonde observations recorded at Ibadan (7.4 degree North, 3.9 degree East) during the International Geophysical year (1957-58) to investigate evening and nighttime characteristic features of equatorial ionosphere during high solar flux and quiet magnetic conditions. We have also used International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2012) data. Our results show that the base of the ionosphere descends at a rate of -27.5 km/hr between 2000 LT and 0400 LT, whereas the observed bottomside peak of the ionosphere move down at a rate of -29.3 km/hr between 1900 and 0500 LT, while IRI2012 bottomside peak show -29.8 km/hr between 2000 LT and 0500 LT. The downward flow rate of plasma concentration between 1900 LT and 0500 LT and between 1800 LT and 0400 LT is approximately 0.040 electron per cubic metre per hour and 0.081 electron per cubic metre per hour, respectively for observed and for modeled NmF2. Month-by-month averaged altitudes (h'F, hmF2, and modeled hmF2) indicate significant local time variation. In addition, the month-by month variation indicates nighttime double crest of averaged peak height (hmF2) in the ionosonde measurements and in the IRI-2012 empirical model with a trough in June-August for data and In July for model. The monthly mean downward vertical drift velocities derived from local time variation of h'F and hmF2 together with global drift model essential demonstrate much fluctuations. We found a "domed shape" in modeled drift velocity, indicating equatorward plasma between April and September.

  5. Word semantics is processed even without attentional effort.

    PubMed

    Relander, Kristiina; Rämä, Pia; Kujala, Teija

    2009-08-01

    We examined the attentional modulation of semantic priming and the N400 effect for spoken words. The aim was to find out how the semantics of spoken language is processed when attention is directed to another modality (passive task), to the phonetics of spoken words (phonological task), or to the semantics of spoken words (word task). Equally strong behavioral priming effects were obtained in the phonological and the word tasks. A significant N400 effect was found in all tasks. The effect was stronger in the word and the phonological tasks than in the passive task, but there was no difference in the magnitude of the effect between the phonological and the word tasks. The latency of the N400 effect did not differ between the tasks. Although the N400 effect had a centroparietal maximum in the phonological and the word tasks, it was largest at the parietal recording sites in the passive task. The effect was more pronounced at the left than right recording sites in the phonological task, but there was no laterality effect in the other tasks. The N400 effect in the passive task indicates that semantic priming occurs even when spoken words are not actively attended. However, stronger N400 effect in the phonological and the word tasks than in the passive task suggests that controlled processes modulate the N400 effect. The finding that there were no differences in the N400 effect between the phonological and the word tasks indicates that the semantics of attended spoken words is processed regardless of whether semantic processing is relevant for task performance.

  6. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  7. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  8. The loss of collectivity at high spins in 164Yb and its neighboring even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, H.; McGowan, F. K.; Baktash, C.; Garrett, J. D.; Hamilton, J. H.; Johnson, N. R.; Lee, I. Y.; Wells, J. C.; Wyss, R.; Yu, C.-H.

    1996-02-01

    Lifetimes of high-spin states in 164Yb have been measured by the Doppler-broadened line shape (DBLS) method using the reaction 124Sn( 44Ca, 4n) 164Yb at a bombarding energy of 189 MeV. The Qt values from the data decrease sharply over the rotational frequency range 0.3 to 0.5 MeV ( I = 20 to 32 ħ). At the same rotational frequencies the kinematic moment of inertia is nearly constant, increasing slightly at the higher frequencies h̷ ω = 0.40 to 0.55 MeV. These observations can be understood qualitatively as a rotationally-induced deoccupation of strongly shape polarizing anti-aligned high- j, low-Ω orbitals i.e., those in which the nucleons are moving in the opposite direction to the rotation. A summary of the Qt values extracted from the lifetime data for the yrast decay sequences of the even- A nuclei 160-168Yb are compared with the deformations from self-consistent cranking TRS calculations. The TRS calculations show the expected neutron number dependence, i.e., {Δβ 2}/{β 2}( h̷ ω = 0) is smaller with increasing N and the corresponding loss of collectivity, Qt vs ħ ω, has a smaller slope at the larger ħ ω with increasing N. For 164,166,168Yb the loss of collectivity from the DBLS measurements occurs at higher ħ ω than predicted and the slope of Qt vs ħ ω is much larger than predicted. The enhanced E1/E2 branching ratios and the large transition dipole moments for decay of the states in the (-, 1) band to the ground band and the (+, 0) band in 164Yb suggest an octupole instability for 164Yb.

  9. Decay out of the yrast and excited highly-deformed bands in the even-even nucleus {sup 134}Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Petrache, C.M.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S.

    1996-12-31

    The resolving power achieved by the new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays allows now to observe transitions with intensities of the order of {approximately}10{sup {minus}3} of the population of the final residual nucleus, making therefore feasible the study of the very weakly populated excited bands built on the superdeformed (SD) minimum or of the decay out of the SD bands. As a matter of fact, numerous excited SD bands have been observed in the different regions of superdeformation, which led to a deeper understanding of the single-particle excitation in the second minimum. The first experimental breakthrough in the study of the decay out process has been achieved in the odd-even {sup 133,135}Nd nuclei of the A=130 mass region. There, the observation of the discrete linking transitions has been favored by the relatively higher intensity of the highly-deformed (HD) bands ({approximately}10%), as well as by the small excitation energy with respect to the yrast line in the decay-out region ({approximately}1 MeV). No discrete linking transitions have been so far observed in the A=80, 150 mass regions. The present results suggest that the decay out of the HD bands in {sup 134}Nd is triggered by the crossing with the N=4 [402]5/2{sup +} Nilsson orbital, that has a smaller deformation than the corresponding N=6 intruder configuration. The crossing favours the mixing with the ND rotational bands strongly enhancing the decay-out process and weakening the in-band transition strength. The HD band becomes fragmented and looses part of its character. The intensity of the decay-out transitions increases when the spin of the HD state decreases, indicating enhanced ND amplitude in the wavefunction when going down the band. Lifetime measurements of the HD bands are crucial to further elucidate the decay-out process.

  10. How Different are SMOS Morning and Evening Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Hornbuckle, B. K.

    2010-12-01

    Midwest, specifically where agriculture is a dominant land use. It is important that relative humidity data utilized from a source outside of an agricultural field is representative of the conditions occurring within the crop canopy, which is generally higher. SMOS pixels were chosen for regions where > 75% of the land area was comprised of agriculture. Days were chosen where there was a satellite pass both at 6am and 6pm, on days when no rainfall occurred. As such, changes in soil moisture would be minimal. The brightness temperatures obtained were normalized using the polarization index, which uses both v-pol and h-pol outputs to remove the influence of changes in surface temperature on the brightness temperature. As such, changes in the brightness temperature can be attributed to changes in the water content of the crop canopy or the presence of dew. Identifying changes in the signal between morning and evening passes will aid in determining if the presence of dew on crop canopy is an important source of error in soil moisture measurements at L-band, and more importantly, if 6pm measurements appear to be viable for soil moisture retrieval.

  11. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  12. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  13. The tomato Aux/IAA transcription factor IAA9 is involved in fruit development and leaf morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-10-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose-response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  14. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4]- (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus).

    PubMed

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Cong-Qiao; Wang, Xue-Bin; Vorpagel, Erich; Li, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity, electronic structures, and bonding of gold halides using tetrahalide [AuX4](-) anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4](-) (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were experimentally produced in the gas phase, and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, exhibiting rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. As expected, Au-X bonds in such series contain generally increasing covalency when halogen ligands become heavier. We calculated the adiabatic electron detachment energies as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional theory methods with scalar relativistic and spin-orbit coupling effects. The computationally simulated photoelectron spectra are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) tends to be preferred when the halides become heavier along the Periodic Table. This series of molecules provides an example for manipulating the oxidation state of metals in complexes through ligand design. PMID:26550845

  15. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  16. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  17. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants.

  18. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants. PMID:17043314

  19. Coring Performance to Characterise the Geology in the ``Cran aux Iguanodons'' of Bernissart (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Dagrain, Fabrice; Legrain, Hughes; Deschamps, Benoît

    The Cran aux iguanodons of Bernissart is a sinkhole (or chimney caving) with a valuable paleontological deposit due to the exceptional quantity and diversity of fossils found during the excavation conducted from 1878 to 1881. In fact, bones have been discovered in a clayey geological formation when digging à mine gallery at the -322 m level. A subsequent extraction gave an overall production of 29 iguanodons skeletons. Referring to the available data at the Natural Sciences Museum of Brussels where the found skeletons are exhibited, one does not know the degree of depletion of the deposit after the extraction. A feasibility study (Tshibangu and Dagrain 1998) showed then the need to drill 4 exploration wells of 400 m depth with different objectives: to evaluate the chance of finding more fossils, understanding how and when the geological formations moved down, and testing a seismic geophysical technique for ground imaging. The typical geological formations concerned are: chalk, limestone, conglomerate, clays, and layers of silex nodules. In October 2002 the workings started with a completely cored well (the Number 3) using the PQ wireline technique. During operations, different parameters have been recorded: rate of penetration, core recovery and a brief core description. Some problems have been encountered when crossing silex stones contained in a clayey matrix; and this paper gives some interpretations in terms of the relationship between the lithology and the drilling performances.

  20. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  1. Contribution aux Methodes Analytiques des Substances a L'aide de Faisceaux de Particules Chargees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, Abdelmajid

    Nous avons vu les possibilites d'analyse par particules chargees des aerosols recueillis sur des filtres de type MILLIPORE. La meme technique a ete utilisee pour des filtres ayant servi a la filtration de l'eau du fleuve Saint-laurent. Deux techniques ont ete utilisees: (1) FAST (Forward Alpha Scattering Technique): pour analyser l'hydrogene, le carbone, l'oxygene et puis l'azote. Des alpha de 12 MeV ont ete utilises. (2) PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission): pour analyser les elements moyens et lourds, dans ce cas des protons de 3 MeV ainsi que des ions d'argon de 1 et 1.6 MeV ont ete utilises. Les etudes ont montre que sous vide, la majorite des problemes proviennent des dommages causes par l'echauffement du a l'impact du faisceau sur le filtre. L'analyse quantitative par l'intermediaire du faisceau extrait peut presenter des difficultes en ce qui concerne les elements legers pour lesquels l'absorption des rayonnements caracteristiques dans l'atmosphere externe est importante. Les ions lourds se pretent mal aux analyses des aerosols du fait de leur limite de sensibilite. L'analyse directe de liquides par des protons est particulierement interessante puisqu'elle ne necessite aucune preparation prealable des echantillons. A cet effet, un programme de calcul de concentration des elements dans la solution a analyser a ete mis au point. Nous avons determine la limite de sensibilite de la methode PIXE pour les cibles minces (filtre) et pour le cas ou la matrice est de l'eau. Enfin, la technique FAST peut etre un complement de la technique PIXE.

  2. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  3. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1, a poplar Aux/IAA gene causes morphological changes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shanda; Hu, Qingnan; Luo, Sha; Li, Qianqian; Yang, Xiyu; Wang, Xianling; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Aux/IAA proteins are transcriptional repressors that control auxin signaling by interacting with auxin response factors (ARFs). So far all of the identified Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) are dominant gain-of-function mutants, with mutations in Domain II that affected stability of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins. On the other hand, morphological changes were observed in knock-down mutants of Aux/IAA genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), suggesting that functions of Aux/IAA proteins may be specific for certain plant species. We report here the characterization of PtrIAA14.1, a poplar (Populus trichocarpa) homolog of IAA7. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PtrIAA14.1 is a classic Aux/IAA protein. It contains four conserved domains with the repressor motif in Domain I, the degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein–protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. Protoplast transfection assays showed that PtrIAA14.1 is localized in nucleus. It is unable in the presence of auxin, and it represses auxin response reporter gene expression. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1 in Arabidopsis resulted in auxin-related phenotypes including down-curling leaves, semi-draft with increased number of branches, and greatly reduced fertility, but expression of the Arabidopsis Aux/IAA genes tested remain largely unchanged in the transgenic plants. Protein–protein interaction assays in yeast and protoplasts showed that PtrIAA14.1 interacted with ARF5, but not other ARFs. Consistent with this observation, vascular patterning was altered in the transgenic plants, and the expression of AtHB8 (Arabidopsis thaliana homeobox gene 8) was reduced in transgenic plants. PMID:26082787

  4. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes.

  5. {beta} decay of the even-even {sup 124}Ba nucleus: A test for the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model

    SciTech Connect

    Brant, S.; Yoshida, N.; Zuffi, L.

    2006-08-15

    The interacting boson-fermion-fermion model approach to {beta} decay is applied to the decay from the even-even {sup 124}Ba to the odd-odd {sup 124}Cs nucleus. The theoretical results for energy levels, electromagnetic properties and {beta} decay rates are compared with experimental data for {sup 124}Cs. The calculated {beta}-decay rates demonstrate that the interacting boson approximation can be applied in the description of {beta} decays from even-even to odd-odd nuclei.

  6. Preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the Illinois basin during deposition of the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Extensive outcrop investigation and selective subsurface study allow definition of Illinois basin paleogeography during deposition of the Mississippian (Valmeyeran-Meramecian) Aux Vases Formation. The results incorporate an integrated approach utilizing field observations and petrographic analysis, wireline logs, subsurface maps, and cores. The Aux Vases Formation depositional system has been determined to be composed of subtidal to intertidal facies. Depositional facies in outcrop are based on rock body geometries, sedimentary structure assemblages, paleocurrent analysis, paleontology of body and trace fossils, facies relationships, and petrography. Depositional facies determined from subsurface data are based on correlation of lithologic interpretations from wireline logs, sand body geometries form isopach maps, and petrography. Specific depositional facies observed in outcrop and core and inferred from wireline logs and isopach maps are offshore bars and tidal channel complexes, extensive subtidal to lower intertidal, ripple-laminated, fine-grained quartzose sandstone. Carbonate facies occur as subtidal grainstones at or near the base of a sequence, or as high energy deposits which have been tidally reworked. This depositional system produces reservoir heterogeneities that complicate efficient hydrocarbon recovery. This diverse facies architecture is modified by tectonic and diagenetic overprinting, further segregating potential producing zones. To significantly improve recovery efficiency, predictions regarding compartmentalization can be used prior to designing a drilling program, an infill drilling program, or an application of enhanced recovery techniques.

  7. 34 CFR 200.80 - Migrant Education Even Start Program definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Migrant Education Even Start Program definition. 200.80... DISADVANTAGED Even Start Family Literacy Program § 200.80 Migrant Education Even Start Program definition. Eligible participants under the Migrant Education Even Start Program (MEES) must meet the definitions of...

  8. Particle-number fluctuations and neutron-proton pairing effects on proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Douici, M.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.

    2012-10-20

    The particle-number fluctuation effect on the root-mean-square (rms) proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei is studied in the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing case using an exact particle-number projection method and the Woods-Saxon model.

  9. Special Analysis of Tribal Even Start Projects (1995-96 Program Year). National Evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Fumiyo; Khan, Sherry; Arriola, Christine

    This report is a descriptive analysis of the tribal Even Start Literacy Program and of families served in 1995-96. Eight of 9 tribal Even Start projects funded in 1995-96 are described and compared to 563 projects reporting nationwide (out of 576 total). Grants were awarded to federally recognized American Indian tribes or tribal organizations to…

  10. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  11. Systematics of band moment of inertia of yrast and excited SD bands of even-even nuclei in A~150 mass region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Neha; Mittal, H. M.

    2015-07-01

    A four parameter formula has been applied to all the yrast and excited superdeformed (SD) bands of even-even nuclei in the A 150 mass region to obtain band moment of inertia J0. In even-even nuclei, totally three yrast SD bands and 16 excited SD bands have been fitted. The measured Qt values and hence the axes ratios have been used to calculate the rigid body J0 values and compared with the fitted values of J0. It is interesting to look at the yrast SD band 152Dy(1), the doubly magic SD nucleus and the first one to be discovered that the J0 values are quite larger than that extracted from Qt measurement. We found that all the excited SD bands in even-even nuclei are signature partner SD bands because the J0 value of each signature partner SD band is almost identical. Among all these excited SD bands, 150Gd(4) is found to be super-rigid in nature having J0 value larger than that observed from the measured Qt value.

  12. ${\\rm B(E2)}\\uparrow (0_{1}^{+} \\rightarrow 2_{1}^{+})$ predictions for even-even nuclei in the differential equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, R. C.; Pattnaik, S.

    2015-02-01

    We use the recently developed differential equation model (DEM) for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ for the transition from the ground to the first 2+ state for predicting its values for a wide range of even-even nuclides almost throughout the nuclear landscape from Neon to Californium. This is made possible as the principal equation in the model, namely, the differential equation connecting the B(E2)↑ value of a given even-even nucleus with its derivatives with respect to the neutron and proton numbers, provides two different recursion relations, each connecting three different neighboring even-even nuclei from lower- to higher-mass numbers and vice versa. These relations are primarily responsible in extrapolating from known to unknown terrain of the B(E2)↑-landscape and thereby facilitate the predictions throughout. As a result, we have succeeded in predicting its hitherto unknown value for the adjacent 251 isotopes lying on either side of the known B(E2)↑ database.

  13. Even Partial Steroid Treatment Can Benefit Extremely Preterm Infants, NIH Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Even partial steroid treatment can benefit extremely preterm infants, NIH study suggests Infants exposed to partial treatment in the womb healthier ... chances of certain birth defects for extremely premature infants, even if the treatment course is not finished ...

  14. Evening Activities as a Potential Confound in Research on the Adrenocortical System in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertes, Darlene A.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2004-01-01

    The relation among children's evening activities, behavioral characteristics, and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis was assessed in normally developing children ages 7 to 10 years. Salivary cortisol at bedtime was compared on evenings when children had structured activities outside of the home with unstructured evenings at…

  15. 25 CFR 36.85 - Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? 36... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Staffing § 36.85 Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? No, a program is not required to make a nurse (LPN or RN) available in the evenings. However, this is...

  16. Preliminary Study of Counseling Services for Evening Students at Tallahassee Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Laurence L.

    To identify characteristics of Tallahassee Community College evening students and to ascertain their attitudes toward and perceptions of counseling services, questionnaires were administered to 16 evening classes. A total of 276 valid questionnaires were obtained. The results of analysis of the questionnaire data showed that TCC evening students…

  17. Neither Even nor Odd: Sixth Grade Students' Dilemmas Regarding the Parity of Zero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Esther; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates two sixth grade students' dilemmas regarding the parity of zero. Both students originally claimed that zero was neither even nor odd. Interviews revealed a conflict between students' formal definitions of even numbers and their concept images of even numbers, zero, and division. These images were supported by practically…

  18. 25 CFR 36.85 - Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? 36... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Staffing § 36.85 Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? No, a program is not required to make a nurse (LPN or RN) available in the evenings. However, this is...

  19. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to

  20. Diversification and Expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX, and ABCB Families of Putative Auxin Transporters in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Nicola; Tisdale-Orr, Tracy Eizabeth; Clouse, Ronald Matthew; Knöller, Anne Sophie; Spicer, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history, including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable gene loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of genes involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ localization. PMID:22645571

  1. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress.

  2. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress. PMID:26140668

  3. Odd-even staggering in the neutron-proton interaction and nuclear mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we study odd-even staggering of the empirical neutron-proton interaction between the last neutron and the last proton, denoted as δ V1 n -1 p , and its consequence in the Garvey-Kelson mass relations (GKs) and nuclear mass models. The root-mean-squared deviations of predicted masses respectively for even-A and odd-A nuclei by using two combinatorial GKs suggest a large odd-even staggering of δ V1 n -1 p between even-odd and odd-even nuclei, while the odd-even difference of δ V1 n -1 p between even-even and odd-odd nuclei is much smaller. The contribution of the odd-even staggering of δ V1 n -1 p between even-A and odd-A nuclei in deviations of theoretical δ V1 n -1 p values of the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ̈cker -Skyrme model are well represented by an isospin-dependent term. The consideration of this odd-even staggering improves our description of binding energies and one-neutron separation energies in both the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ̈cker -Skyrme model.

  4. Cranking study of low lying yrast spectra and deformation systematics in some even-even neutron-deficient 130-136Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arun; Bharti, Arun; Khosa, S. K.

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the results of calculations on various nuclear structure quantities in even-even neutron-deficient 130-136Nd using Cranked Hartree-Fock Bogoliubov (CHFB) technique have been presented. The various nuclear structure quantities that have been calculated in 130-136Nd isotopes are the yrast spectra, subshell occupation probabilities of various valence orbits and intrinsic quadrupole moments. Besides this, a comparative study of the calculated yrast spectra with the available experimental data as well as with the results of calculations obtained by using Variation-After-Projection (VAP) technique on these neutron - deficient 130-136Nd isotopes has also been presented.

  5. Arabidopsis SHR and SCR transcription factors and AUX1 auxin influx carrier control the switch between adventitious rooting and xylogenesis in planta and in in vitro cultured thin cell layers

    PubMed Central

    Della Rovere, F.; Fattorini, L.; D’Angeli, S.; Veloccia, A.; Del Duca, S.; Cai, G.; Falasca, G.; Altamura, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Adventitious roots (ARs) are essential for vegetative propagation. The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) affect primary/lateral root development, but their involvement in AR formation is uncertain. LAX3 and AUX1 auxin influx carriers contribute to primary/lateral root development. LAX3 expression is regulated by SHR, and LAX3 contributes to AR tip auxin maximum. In contrast, AUX1 involvement in AR development is unknown. Xylogenesis is induced by auxin plus cytokinin as is AR formation, but the genes involved are largely unknown. Stem thin cell layers (TCLs) form ARs and undergo xylogenesis under the same auxin plus cytokinin input. The aim of this research was to investigate SHR, SCR, AUX1 and LAX3 involvement in AR formation and xylogenesis in intact hypocotyls and stem TCLs in arabidopsis. Methods Hypocotyls of scr-1, shr-1, lax3, aux1-21 and lax3/aux1-21 Arabidopsis thaliana null mutant seedlings grown with or without auxin plus cytokinin were examined histologically, as were stem TCLs cultured with auxin plus cytokinin. SCR and AUX1 expression was monitored using pSCR::GFP and AUX1::GUS lines, and LAX3 expression and auxin localization during xylogenesis were monitored by using LAX3::GUS and DR5::GUS lines. Key Results AR formation was inhibited in all mutants, except lax3. SCR was expressed in pericycle anticlinally derived AR-forming cells of intact hypocotyls, and in cell clumps forming AR meristemoids of TCLs. The apex was anomalous in shr and scr ARs. In all mutant hypocotyls, the pericycle divided periclinally to produce xylogenesis. Xylary element maturation was favoured by auxin plus cytokinin in shr and aux1-21. Xylogenesis was enhanced in TCLs, and in aux1-21 and shr in particular. AUX1 was expressed before LAX3, i.e. in the early derivatives leading to either ARs or xylogenesis. Conclusions AR formation and xylogenesis are developmental programmes that are inversely related, but they

  6. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  7. Conserving and promoting evenness: organic farming and fire-based wildland management as case studies.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Snyderi, William E

    2012-09-01

    Healthy ecosystems include many species (high richness) with similar abundances (high evenness). Thus, both aspects of biodiversity are worthy of conservation. Simultaneously conserving richness and evenness might be difficult, however, if, for example, the restoration of previously absent species to low densities brings a cost in reduced evenness. Using meta-analysis, we searched for benefits to biodiversity following adoption of two common land-management schemes: the implementation of organic practices by farmers and of controlled burning by natural-land managers. We used rarefaction to eliminate sampling bias in all of our estimates of richness and evenness. Both conservation practices significantly increased evenness and overall abundance across taxonomic classifications (arthropods, birds, non-bird vertebrates, plants, soil organisms). Evenness and richness varied independently, leading to no richness-evenness correlation and no significant overall change in richness. Demonstrating the importance of rarefaction, analyses of raw data that did not receive rarefaction indicated misleadingly strong benefits of organic agriculture and burning for richness while underestimating true gains in evenness. Both organic farming and burning favored species that were not numerically dominant, re-balancing communities as uncommon species gained individuals. Our results support the assertion that richness and evenness capture separate facets of biodiversity, each needing individual attention during conservation.

  8. Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2+ states in even-even nuclei [B(E2) evaluation for 0+1 → 2+1 transitions in even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.; Horoi, M.

    2015-11-03

    A complete B(E2)↑ evaluation and compilation for even-even nuclei has been presented. The present paper is a continuation of P.H. Stelson and L. Grodzins, and S. Raman et al. nuclear data evaluations and was motivated by a large number of new measurements. It extends the list of evaluated nuclides from 328 to 452, includes an extended list of nuclear reaction kinematics parameters and comprehensive shell model analysis. Evaluation policies for analysis of experimental data have been discussed and conclusions are given. Moreover, future plans for B(E2)↑ systematics and experimental technique analyses of even-even nuclei are outlined.

  9. Evaluation of the Monongalia County Schools Even Start Program Child Vocabulary Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.

    The Monongalia County (West Virginia) Even Start Program is a comprehensive, rural, home-based family literacy program that provides families with adult literacy education, parenting education, and early childhood education. Although all Even Start programs conduct some home visits, the Monongalia County program is unique in that home visits are…

  10. From Vision to Action: Solving Problems through Inquiry at Boston Day and Evening Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunst, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    On a mid-week day in mid-December 2008, Boston Day and Evening Academy's room 209, usually used for board meetings, student assessments, awards dinners, and other occasions requiring an intimate atmosphere, smelled like Chinese food. These second-trimester students at Boston Day and Evening Academy (BDEA) were having a reunion after just a few…

  11. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  12. Third National Even Start Evaluation: Program Impacts and Implications for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Robert; Ricciuti, Anne; Tao, Fumiyo; Creps, Cindy; Swartz, Janet; Lee, Wang; Parsad, Amanda; Rimdzius, Tracy

    The Even Start Literacy Program, established in 1989, aims to simultaneously improve the literacy of children and their parents through (1) early childhood education; (2) parenting education; (3) adult education; and (4) parent-child joint literacy activities. The report details findings from the third national Even Start evaluation. The…

  13. 26 CFR 301.6323(b)-1 - Protection for certain interests even though notice filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protection for certain interests even though... General Provisions § 301.6323(b)-1 Protection for certain interests even though notice filed. (a... § 301.6323(i)-1) of the existence of the lien; (ii) A holder of a security interest (as defined...

  14. A Study of Classroom Literacy Interventions and Outcomes in Even Start. NCEE 2008-4028

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judkins, David; St. Pierre, Robert; Gutmann, Babette; Goodson, Barbara; von Glatz, Adrienne; Hamilton, Jennifer; Webber, Ann; Troppe, Patricia; Rimdzius, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    The Even Start Family Literacy Program was established in 1989 to help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy for low-income families, by improving the literacy skills of parents and their young children. Even Start projects offer family literacy services, defined as four integrated instructional components: (1) Childhood Education (ECE); (2)…

  15. Survey of Weekend and Evening Student and Faculty Needs. Volume XXI, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A.

    In an effort to determine the needs and perceptions of students and faculty involved in evening and weekend classes at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, surveys were sent to 400 students randomly chosen from 100 course sections taught at WRHC in fall of 1991, and to 767 faculty teaching evening or weekend classes during…

  16. Work All Day, Study at Night: The Interactive Evening Lecture to Invigorate Working Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gerard Stone was asked to present the evening lecture in a first-year undergraduate accounting subject. The aim of the subject matter was to provide students with an understanding of fundamental accounting issues and concepts. The subject coordinator advised Stone that, from past experience, most students who attend the evening lecture would be…

  17. 37 CFR 10.111 - Avoiding even the appearance of impropriety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoiding even the appearance of impropriety. 10.111 Section 10.111 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Patent and Trademark Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.111 Avoiding even the appearance...

  18. Journalistic Impartiality on the Eve of Revolution: the "Boston Evening Post," 1770-1775.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the impartiality of Thomas Fleet, Sr.'s "Boston Evening Post" during the years leading up to the Revolutionary War, a period during which patriots put pressure on newspapers take their side. Reviews data illustrating the paper's even-handed dealing with issues concerning Patriots and Loyalists. (TB)

  19. A New Measure of Functional Evenness and Some of Its Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ricotta, Carlo; Bacaro, Giovanni; Moretti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Functional evenness is increasingly considered an important facet of functional diversity that sheds light on the complex relationships between community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, in spite of its relevant role for ecosystem functioning, only a few measures of functional evenness have been proposed. In this paper we introduce a new measure of functional evenness that reflects the regularity in the distribution of species abundances, together with the evenness in their pairwise functional dissimilarities. To show how the proposed measure works, we focus on changes in functional evenness calculated from Grime’s classification of plant strategies as competitors (C), stress-tolerators (S) and ruderals (R) along a post-fire successional gradient in temperate chestnut forests of southern Switzerland. PMID:25105659

  20. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  1. Evening typology and morning tiredness associates with low leisure time physical activity and high sitting.

    PubMed

    Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Circadian typology is a latent trait that is usually assessed with scoring on a series of questions thought to represent the construct. But, in the classification, most people fall into the intermediate type, i.e. neither a definite morning nor an evening type, but still showing stronger preference towards either end of the continuum. Our aim was to operationalize chronotype using latent class analysis (LCA) for a 6-item scale derived from the original Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire to compare and understand characteristics of chronotype in a population-based sample of adults in Finland. A total of 4904 men and women aged 25-74 years were included. We also analyzed the associations of chronotypes with physical activity (PA) and sitting. We found five latent chronotype groups including "rested more-evening type" (28%), "rested more-morning type" (24%), "morning type" (23%), "tired more-evening type" (17%) and "evening type" (8%) groups. Operationalization of chronotype by LCA suggests that morning alertness is an important feature differentiating chronotypes. Further, the "evening type" and the "tired, more-evening type" had higher odds for none to very low as well as low PA, as compared to "morning type". In addition, "evening type" was associated with higher odds for more time spent sitting, as compared to "morning type". Our findings indicate that it is important to assess sleep schedules and morning tiredness, which then could be targeted as a potential mediating factor for health behaviors, in particular, PA and health status.

  2. Mutation in domain II of IAA1 confers diverse auxin-related phenotypes and represses auxin-activated expression of Aux/IAA genes in steroid regulator-inducible system.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Joung; Kim, Jungmook

    2002-12-01

    Most of Aux/IAA genes are rapidly induced by auxin. The Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins sharing the four conserved domains. Domain II is critical for rapid degradation of Aux/IAA proteins. Among these gene family members, IAA1 is one of the earliest auxin-inducible genes. We used a steroid hormone-inducible system to reveal putative roles and downstream signaling of IAA1 in auxin response. Arabidopsis transgenic plants were generated expressing fusion protein of IAA1 (IAA1-GR) or IAA1 with a mutation in domain II (iaa1-GR) and the glucocorticoid hormone-binding domain (GR). IAA1-GR transgenic plants did not exhibit any discernable phenotypic differences by DEX treatment that allows nuclear translocation of the fusion protein. In contrast, diverse auxin-related physiological processes including gravitropism and phototropism were impaired by DEX treatment in roots, hypocotyls, stems, and leaves in iaa1-GR transgenic plants. Auxin induction of seven Aux/IAA mRNAs including IAA1 itself was repressed by DEX treatment, suggesting that IAA1 functions in the nucleus by mediating auxin response and might act as a negative feedback regulator for the expression of Aux/IAA genes including IAA1 itself. Auxin induction of Aux/IAA genes in the presence of cycloheximide can be repressed by DEX treatment, showing that the repression of transcription of the Aux/IAAs by the iaa1 mutant protein is primary. Wild-type IAA1-GR could not suppress auxin induction of IAA1 and IAA2. These results indicate that inhibition of auxin-activated transcription of Aux/IAA genes by the iaa1 mutant protein might be responsible for alteration of various auxin responses.

  3. Experimental and Ecological Implications of Evening Bird Surveys in Stream-Riparian Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, S. Mažeika P.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2009-10-01

    Stream-riparian ecosystems are dynamic and complex entities that can support high levels of bird assemblage abundance and diversity. The myriad patches (e.g., aquatic, floodplain, riparian) found in the riverscape habitat mosaic attract a unique mixture of aquatic, semiaquatic, riparian, and upland birds, each uniquely utilizing the river corridor. Whereas standard morning bird surveys are widely used across ecosystems, the variety of bird guilds and the temporal habitat partitioning that likely occur in stream-riparian ecosystems argue for the inclusion of evening surveys. At 41 stream reaches in Vermont and Idaho, USA, we surveyed bird assemblages using a combination of morning and evening fixed-width transect counts. Student’s paired t-tests showed that while bird abundance was not significantly different between morning and evening surveys, bird assemblage diversity (as measured by species richness, Shannon-Weiner’s index, and Simpson’s index) was significantly higher in the morning than in the evening. NMS ordinations of bird species and time (i.e., morning, evening) indicated that the structure of morning bird assemblages was different from that of evening assemblages. NMS further showed that a set of species was only found in evening surveys. The inclusion of evening counts in surveying bird assemblages in stream-riparian ecosystems has important experimental and ecological implications. Experimentally, the sole use of morning bird surveys may significantly underestimate the diversity and misrepresent the community composition of bird assemblages in these ecosystems. Ecologically, many of the birds detected in evening surveys were water-associated species that occupy high trophic levels and aerial insectivores that represent unique aquatic-terrestrial energy transfers.

  4. Why are the interband transitions among triaxially strongly deformed bands suppressed in even nuclei?

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara-Tanabe, Kazuko; Tanabe, Kosai

    2011-05-06

    As top-on-top model has made a great success in explaining triaxially strongly deformed (TSD) bands in odd-A nuclei, we extend this model to even-A nuclei, i.e. two particles in different single-particle orbitals outside the triaxial rotor. In the lowest order approximation, the electromagnetic transitions between TSD bands in even-A case are reduced by a factor of 0.04 compared with odd-A case. It is one of the reasons why TSD bands are not yet explicitly observed in even-A nuclei.

  5. Even-odd effect in spontaneously coherent bilayer quantum Hall droplets.

    PubMed

    Park, K; Scarola, V W; Das Sarma, S

    2003-07-11

    Using exact diagonalization in the disk geometry we predict a novel even-odd effect in the Coulomb-blockade spectra of vertically coupled double quantum dots under an external magnetic field. The even-odd effect in the tunneling conductance is a direct manifestation of spontaneous interlayer phase coherence, and is similar to the even-odd resonance in the Cooper pair box problem in mesoscopic superconducting grains. Coherent fluctuations in the number of Cooper pairs in superconductors are analogous to the fluctuations in the relative number difference between the two layers in quantum Hall droplets.

  6. Deletion of MP/ARF5 domains III and IV reveals a requirement for Aux/IAA regulation in Arabidopsis leaf vascular patterning.

    PubMed

    Krogan, Naden T; Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Marcos, Danielle; Caragea, Adriana E; Berleth, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Combinatorial interactions of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins through their common domains III and IV regulate auxin responses, but insight into the functions of individual proteins is still limited. As a new tool to explore this regulatory network, we generated a gain-of-function ARF genotype by eliminating domains III and IV from the functionally well-characterized ARF MONOPTEROS(MP)/ARF5. This truncated version of MP, termed MPΔ, conferred complementing MP activity, but also displayed a number of semi-dominant traits affecting auxin signaling and organ patterning. In MPΔ, the expression levels of many auxin-inducible genes, as well as rooting properties and vascular tissue abundance, were enhanced. Lateral organs were narrow, pointed and filled with parallel veins. This effect was epistatic over the vascular hypotrophy imposed by certain Aux/IAA mutations. Further, in MPΔ leaves, failure to turn off the procambium-selecting gene PIN1 led to the early establishment of oversized central procambial domains and very limited subsequent lateral growth of the leaf lamina. We conclude that MPΔ can selectively uncouple a single ARF from regulation by Aux/IAA proteins and can be used as a genetic tool to probe auxin pathways and explore leaf development. PMID:22320407

  7. [Les inégalités dans l'accès aux soins du cancer au Canada: un point de vue éthique].

    PubMed

    Purificacion, Sunshine J; French, John G; d'Agincourt-Canning, Lori

    2015-11-01

    La capacité d'offrir des soins du cancer de qualité dépend en grande partie de l'accessibilité des services à ceux qui en ont besoin. Dans l'état actuel des choses, on constate des disparités en matière d'accès aux services de cancérologie au Canada, ce qui constitue un problème sur le plan de l'éthique. Le présent article fait ressortir les points de vue éthiques et stratégiques liés à l'équité dans l'accès aux soins du cancer au Canada. S'inspirant des principes de la bioéthique, soit la bénéficience, la non-maléficience et la justice, plusieurs stratégies sont recommandées pour améliorer l'accès aux soins du cancer au pays.

  8. Le système opioïde endogène et l’addiction aux drogues1

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Résumé L’addiction aux drogues est une maladie psychiatrique chronique qui conduit à d’importantes altérations adaptatives dans les circuits de récompense du cerveau. Plusieurs systèmes de neurotransmission sont impliqués dans ces modifications. Cependant, un des systèmes neurochimiques qui joue un rôle essentiel dans l’addiction est le système opioïde endogène. Les récepteurs opioïdes et les peptides opioïdes endogènes sont très largement présents dans les structures cérébrales qui contrôlent les phénomènes de récompense, en particulier le système mésolimbique. Ces récepteurs et peptides opioïdes participent d’une manière sélective à plusieurs aspects des processus addictifs induits par les opiacés, les cannabinoïdes, les psychostimulants, l’alcool et la nicotine. Cette revue rend compte de l’état actuel des connaissances sur la participation de chaque composante du système opioïde endogène dans les propriétés addictives des différentes drogues. PMID:20176158

  9. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Fendrych, Matyáš; Leung, Jeffrey; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Despite being composed of immobile cells, plants reorient along directional stimuli. The hormone auxin is redistributed in stimulated organs leading to differential growth and bending. Auxin application triggers rapid cell wall acidification and elongation of aerial organs of plants, but the molecular players mediating these effects are still controversial. Here we use genetically-encoded pH and auxin signaling sensors, pharmacological and genetic manipulations available for Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls to clarify how auxin is perceived and the downstream growth executed. We show that auxin-induced acidification occurs by local activation of H+-ATPases, which in the context of gravity response is restricted to the lower organ side. This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception. In addition, auxin-induced gene transcription and specifically SAUR proteins are crucial downstream mediators of this growth. Our study provides strong experimental support for the acid growth theory and clarified the contribution of the upstream auxin perception mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19048.001 PMID:27627746

  10. Nemo phosphorylates Even-skipped and promotes Eve-mediated repression of odd-skipped in even parasegments during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Braid, Lorena R; Lee, Wendy; Uetrecht, Andrea C; Swarup, Sharan; Papaianni, Gina; Heiler, Amanda; Verheyen, Esther M

    2010-07-01

    Drosophila nemo (nmo) and other Nemo-like kinase family members (Nlks) are well-established key regulators of numerous conserved signaling pathways, such as Wg and BMP. nmo mutants display pleiotropic defects at different developmental stages, including the embryo. In this study we describe a detailed characterization of embryonic cuticle patterning defects associated with maternal loss of nmo. nmo mutant embryos consistently show segmentation defects, most frequently fusions of pairs of denticle belts in alternating segments. These phenotypes are reminiscent of those associated with defects in pair-rule patterning. Genetic interaction studies demonstrate that Nmo promotes Even-skipped (Eve) activity and is required to promote the expression of the Eve target, engrailed (en), in even numbered parasegments. We find that Nmo regulates a subset of Eve activities by stimulating Eve-mediated suppression of the odd-skipped (odd) repressor. Furthermore, we isolate Nmo in a protein complex with Eve and show that Nmo phosphorylates Eve in in vitro kinase assays. These studies reveal a novel role for the Nmo kinase in embryonic pattern formation through its regulation of the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Eve.

  11. Characterization of Backbending in Even-Even Isotopes of 164-174Hf and 154-164Dy Nuclei by a Modified Phenomenological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najim, L. A.; Kheder, Malek. H.

    2013-07-01

    A modified phenomenological model is used to calculate nuclear energy levels and describe successfully the backbending of the moment of inertia for the ground state bands in even-even isotopes of Hf and Dy nuclei. The model is a combination of the Myers and Swiatecki model with variable moment inertia (VMI) model. Since the Myers and Swiatecki model has a deviation from experimental energies in which it takes into account pairing effect with constant moment of inertia, in the rotation of nuclei, the Coriolis force acts to de-pair the nucleons pair and align their angular momentum with nuclei total angular momentum, thus Coriolis force increasing and decrease the rotational energy. So, the moment of inertia varies with the angular momentum. Therefore, we modified this model by adding a term to make the moment of inertia vary with angular momentum in the same manner of the VMI model which has a term added to the rotational energy equation. The modified model fits remarkably with the experimental observation and other models in many cases with the use of few parameters especially in rotational nuclei regions similar to Hf and Dy nuclei.

  12. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  13. Conductance of Disordered Wires with Symplectic Symmetry: Comparison between Odd- and Even-Channel Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takane, Yositake

    2004-09-01

    The conductance of disordered wires with symplectic symmetry is studied by numerical simulations on the basis of a tight-binding model on a square lattice consisting of M lattice sites in the transverse direction. If the potential range of scatterers is much larger than the lattice constant, the number N of conducting channels becomes odd (even) when M is odd (even). The average dimensionless conductance < g > is calculated as a function of system length L. It is shown that when N is odd, the conductance behaves as < g > \\to 1 with increasing L. This indicates the absence of Anderson localization. In the even-channel case, the ordinary localization behavior arises and < g > decays exponentially with increasing L. It is also shown that the decay of < g > is much faster in the odd-channel case than in the even-channel case. These numerical results are in qualitative agreement with existing analytic theories.

  14. Is evenness altered by fire in natural assemblages of soil arthropods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitzalis, Monica; Bologna, Marco A.; Luiselli, Luca

    2013-05-01

    We studied evenness and species richness in two assemblages of soil arthropods at six contiguous study plots in Mediterranean ecosystems of central Italy, three of these plots being burnt and three unburnt. We analysed these aspects of community structure by diversity-dominance diagrams comparisons made through analysis of covariance on respective slopes and ordinate intercepts. We observed consistent patterns in both Collembola and Oniscidea assemblages, either in burnt and unburnt plots. Evenness did not change among study plots and across habitats, either before or after fire, whereas species' composition was significantly altered by fire. Results from our study implied that evenness and species diversity are clearly affected in a different and independent way by fire. Hence, it is not acceptable to focus on only the evenness when looking at the effects of controlled fires for environmental management reasons.

  15. Developmental origin of even spacing between the microchaetes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Claxton

    1976-03-01

    In D. melanogaster, evenness of spacing is a prominent feature of the patterns of microchaetes. As a general explanation of this characteristic, Wigglesworth has suggested a scheme whereby some epidermal cells become singled out (determined) at random to differentiate bristles, and the same potential in neighbouring cells issuppressed by the determined ones. Though this model may be satisfactory for other epidermal regions, the spacing between bristles within some of the mid-dorsal thoracic acrostichal rows is too even to be accommodated.

  16. A resetting signal between Drosophila pacemakers synchronizes morning and evening activity.

    PubMed

    Stoleru, Dan; Peng, Ying; Nawathean, Pipat; Rosbash, Michael

    2005-11-10

    The biochemical machinery that underlies circadian rhythms is conserved among animal species and drives self-sustained molecular oscillations and functions, even within individual asynchronous tissue-culture cells. Yet the rhythm-generating neural centres of higher eukaryotes are usually composed of interconnected cellular networks, which contribute to robustness and synchrony as well as other complex features of rhythmic behaviour. In mammals, little is known about how individual brain oscillators are organized to orchestrate a complex behavioural pattern. Drosophila is arguably more advanced from this point of view: we and others have recently shown that a group of adult brain clock neurons expresses the neuropeptide PDF and controls morning activity (small LN(v) cells; M-cells), whereas another group of clock neurons controls evening activity (CRY+, PDF- cells; E-cells). We have generated transgenic mosaic animals with different circadian periods in morning and evening cells. Here we show, by behavioural and molecular assays, that the six canonical groups of clock neurons are organized into two separate neuronal circuits. One has no apparent effect on locomotor rhythmicity in darkness, but within the second circuit the molecular and behavioural timing of the evening cells is determined by morning-cell properties. This is due to a daily resetting signal from the morning to the evening cells, which run at their genetically programmed pace between consecutive signals. This neural circuit and oscillator-coupling mechanism ensures a proper relationship between the timing of morning and evening locomotor activity. PMID:16281038

  17. Persist or Produce: A Community Trade-Off Tuned by Species Evenness.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Rudolf P; Saavedra, Serguei; Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Bersier, Louis-Félix; Bascompte, Jordi; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the effects of biodiversity on community persistence and productivity is key to managing both natural and production systems. Because rare species face greater danger of extinction, species evenness, a measure of how similar abundances are across species in a community, is seen as a key component of biodiversity. However, previous studies have failed to find a consistent association of species evenness with species survival and biomass production. Here we provide a theoretical framework for the relationship among these three elements. We demonstrate that the lack of consistent outcomes is not an idiosyncratic artifact of different studies but can be unified under one common framework. Applying a niche theory approach, we confirm that under demographic stochasticity evenness is a general indicator of the risk of future species extinctions in a community, in accordance with the majority of empirical studies. In contrast, evenness cannot be used as a direct indicator of the level of biomass production in a community. When a single species dominates, as expressed by the constraints imposed by the population dynamics, biomass production depends on the niche position of the dominating species and can increase or decrease with evenness. We demonstrate that high species evenness and an intermediate level of biomass production is the configuration that maximizes the average species survival probability in response to demographic stochasticity. PMID:27622875

  18. PHASE ANGLE OF ENTRAINMENT IN MORNING- AND EVENING-TYPES UNDER NATURALISTIC CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Emens, Jonathan S.; Yuhas, Krista; Rough, Jennifer; Kochar, Nidhi; Peters, Dawn; Lewy, Alfred J.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in morningness-eveningness among humans are commonly ascribed to circadian parameters, such as circadian period and responsivity to environmental time cues, as well as homeostatic sleep drive. Light is the primary synchronizer of the human biological clock, and if circadian differences exist between morning and evening types, they should have different phase angles of entrainment to the light/dark cycle; that is, morning and evening types should have different patterns of light exposure relative to endogenous circadian phase (ECP). When phase angle of entrainment is strictly defined as the relationship between a marker of ECP and the timing of light exposure, such differences have been demonstrated in the laboratory under controlled light/dark cycles and have recently been shown under conditions of spring and summer light exposure outside the laboratory, taking into account the variable intensity of light. Here, we report similar results from a large (n = 66), diverse cohort of morning and evening types across the age span studied at all different times of the year. Differences between morning and evening types in light exposure relative to ECP, indicative of a difference in the phase angle of entrainment to the external light/dark cycle, were found. Specifically, evening types, compared to morning types, had a higher ratio of phase advancing to phase delaying by light. We interpret this as indicating a longer circadian period (τ) in evening types. PMID:19360491

  19. Persist or Produce: A Community Trade-Off Tuned by Species Evenness.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Rudolf P; Saavedra, Serguei; Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Bersier, Louis-Félix; Bascompte, Jordi; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the effects of biodiversity on community persistence and productivity is key to managing both natural and production systems. Because rare species face greater danger of extinction, species evenness, a measure of how similar abundances are across species in a community, is seen as a key component of biodiversity. However, previous studies have failed to find a consistent association of species evenness with species survival and biomass production. Here we provide a theoretical framework for the relationship among these three elements. We demonstrate that the lack of consistent outcomes is not an idiosyncratic artifact of different studies but can be unified under one common framework. Applying a niche theory approach, we confirm that under demographic stochasticity evenness is a general indicator of the risk of future species extinctions in a community, in accordance with the majority of empirical studies. In contrast, evenness cannot be used as a direct indicator of the level of biomass production in a community. When a single species dominates, as expressed by the constraints imposed by the population dynamics, biomass production depends on the niche position of the dominating species and can increase or decrease with evenness. We demonstrate that high species evenness and an intermediate level of biomass production is the configuration that maximizes the average species survival probability in response to demographic stochasticity.

  20. IBA for novice experimentalists. I. Introduction to IBA: mostly symmetries. II. Tests in even-even nuclei: mostly transitional systems. III. Supersymmetries: theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    The report contains the notes from a series of lectures on the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model. The lectures were presented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on July 28, 30 and August 1, 1982 by Jolie A. Cizewski from Yale University. The IBA was developed by F. Iachello and A. Arima starting about seven years ago to understand collective quadrupole excitations in medium and heavy mass nuclei away from closed shells. Since then the formalism has been extended to odd-mass nuclei and considerable work has gone into understanding the microscopic construction of the bosons in this model. The IBA has been applied to nuclei as light as Zn and Ge and as heavy as U and Pu; to nuclei near closed shells, such as Mo and Hg; to stable nuclei and nuclei far from stability. The present lectures were designed to give the experimentalist an introduction to the IBA and to give specific examples of how it could be applied to understand the structure of heavy even and odd mass nuclei. Much of the emphasis was on the symmetries (and supersymmetries) of the model and how the use of symmetries enabled the relatively straightforward understanding of empirical systems as deviations from these symmetries. The richness of possible applications of the IBA to understanding collective phenomena in nuclei was not fully explored, but rather a few illustrative examples were selected and described in detail. The references, accumulated at the end of this report, provide a more comprehensive, although not complete, list of tests of the IBA in even mass nuclei and the new symmetries in odd mass nuclei. The references also list the main theoretical papers which provide the details of the IBA formalism.

  1. Electrodynamics of the equatorial evening ionosphere: 1. Importance of winds in different regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, A. D.; Fang, T.-W.; Maute, A.

    2015-03-01

    The importance of winds at different altitudes and latitudes for the electrodynamics of the low-latitude evening ionosphere is examined with a model of the global coupled ionosphere-thermosphere system. The model reproduces the main observed features of the evening equatorial plasma vortex and the prereversal enhancement (PRE) of the vertical drift. The electrodynamics is driven primarily by the zonal wind forced by the diurnally varying zonal pressure-gradient force. The zonal wind lags the zonal pressure-gradient force owing to inertia. When ion drag is important, the time lag of the wind behind the pressure gradient force is shortened, and the high-altitude evening wind turns eastward earlier than the wind at lower altitudes, where ion drag is less important. Therefore, a vertical shear of the zonal wind tends to develop at altitudes around the transition between small and large ion drag at the bottom of the F region. This wind shear is closely associated with the vertical shear in the zonal convection velocity that is part of the evening plasma vortex. Unlike previous studies, we find that the winds driving the PRE lie mainly on field lines with apexes above the peak of the equatorial F layer, field lines that extend in magnetic latitude out to nearly 30° and encompass the entire evening equatorial ionization anomaly region. Contrary to previous suggestions, the westward convection in the bottomside of the evening plasma vortex is found to weaken, rather than strengthen, the PRE. Daytime winds have relatively little influence on the low-latitude evening electrodynamics.

  2. Species richness effects on ecosystem multifunctionality depend on evenness, composition and spatial pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestre, F.T.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.; Bowker, M.A.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.

    2012-01-01

    1. Recent studies have suggested that the simultaneous maintenance of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality) is positively supported by species richness. However, little is known regarding the relative importance of other community attributes (e.g. spatial pattern, species evenness) as drivers of multifunctionality. 2. We conducted two microcosm experiments using model biological soil crust communities dominated by lichens to: (i) evaluate the joint effects and relative importance of changes in species composition, spatial pattern (clumped and random distribution of lichens), evenness (maximal and low evenness) and richness (from two to eight species) on soil functions related to nutrient cycling (β-glucosidase, urease and acid phosphatase enzymes, in situ N availability, total N, organic C, and N fixation), and (ii) assess how these community attributes affect multifunctionality. 3. Species richness, composition and spatial pattern affected multiple ecosystem functions (e.g. organic C, total N, N availability, β-glucosidase activity), albeit the magnitude and direction of their effects varied with the particular function, experiment and soil depth considered. Changes in species composition had effects on organic C, total N and the activity of β-glucosidase. Significant species richness × evenness and spatial pattern × evenness interactions were found when analysing functions such as organic C, total N and the activity of phosphatase. 4. The probability of sustaining multiple ecosystem functions increased with species richness, but this effect was largely modulated by attributes such as species evenness, composition and spatial pattern. Overall, we found that model communities with high species richness, random spatial pattern and low evenness increased multifunctionality. 5. Synthesis. Our results illustrate how different community attributes have a diverse impact on ecosystem functions related to nutrient cycling, and provide new

  3. Evening typology and morning tiredness associates with low leisure time physical activity and high sitting.

    PubMed

    Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Circadian typology is a latent trait that is usually assessed with scoring on a series of questions thought to represent the construct. But, in the classification, most people fall into the intermediate type, i.e. neither a definite morning nor an evening type, but still showing stronger preference towards either end of the continuum. Our aim was to operationalize chronotype using latent class analysis (LCA) for a 6-item scale derived from the original Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire to compare and understand characteristics of chronotype in a population-based sample of adults in Finland. A total of 4904 men and women aged 25-74 years were included. We also analyzed the associations of chronotypes with physical activity (PA) and sitting. We found five latent chronotype groups including "rested more-evening type" (28%), "rested more-morning type" (24%), "morning type" (23%), "tired more-evening type" (17%) and "evening type" (8%) groups. Operationalization of chronotype by LCA suggests that morning alertness is an important feature differentiating chronotypes. Further, the "evening type" and the "tired, more-evening type" had higher odds for none to very low as well as low PA, as compared to "morning type". In addition, "evening type" was associated with higher odds for more time spent sitting, as compared to "morning type". Our findings indicate that it is important to assess sleep schedules and morning tiredness, which then could be targeted as a potential mediating factor for health behaviors, in particular, PA and health status. PMID:26317556

  4. Shape phase transition in odd-even nuclei: From spherical to deformed gamma-unstable shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Boeyuekata, M.; Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2010-07-15

    Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The case of a single j=9/2 fermion coupled to an even-even boson core is considered. This boson core transits from spherical to gamma-unstable shapes depending on the value of a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point is discussed. For that purpose, the ground-state energy surface in terms of the beta and gamma shape variables for the even core and odd-even energy surfaces for the different K states coming from j=9/2 are constructed. The evolution of each individual coupled state along the transition from the spherical [U(5)] to the gamma-unstable [O(6)] situation is investigated. One finds that the core-fermion coupling gives rise to a smoother transition than in the even-core case.

  5. Self-collimated electromagnetic jets from magnetized accretion disks - The even-symmetry case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. C. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper extends the previous treatment (Lovelace et al., 1987) of the origin of self-collimated EM jets to the case of even field symmetry, where the magnetic flux function Psi(r, z) is an even function of z. A viscous resistive accretion disk is assumed to surround a black hole with a force-free plasma outside of the disk. Inside the disk, the induction equation is solved for Psi(r, z) and the toroidal magnetic field. Outside the disk, previous results are used to study the formation of self-collimated EM jets. In contrast with the odd-symmetry case, for even symmetry the toroidal magnetic field acts to vertically compress the disk; a comparatively large toroidal magnetic field can exist inside the disk; and an appreciable fraction (possibly all) of the available accretion power can go into the jets.

  6. Late-seasonal activity and diet of the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geluso, K.; Damm, J.P.; Valdez, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, Nebraska represents part of the northwestern edge of the distribution for the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis). To date, little information on this bat's natural history has been published from the state or from other parts of the Great Plains. Here we report on aspects of its natural history in Nebraska from 2 localities. In late summer and early autumn of 2006, we documented individuals farther west in Nebraska (Harlan County) than previously reported and determined that individuals fed mainly on Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. In 2006, evening bats appeared to migrate from Nebraska during late September-early October, and individuals were extremely fat, about 15 g, prior to migration. Evening bats likely are more widespread and common in south central Nebraska than previously documented. On 6 October 2005, we reported on an individual from eastern Nebraska (Douglas County), which represents the latest seasonal record of N. humeralis from the state.

  7. Does raising morning rectal temperature to evening levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ben J; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Robinson, William R; Reilly, Tom P; Robertson, Colin M; Waterhouse, James M

    2013-05-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than in the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral and central factors, and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether increasing morning rectal temperatures to evening resting values, by active or passive warm-ups, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to evening values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 21.2 ± 1.9 yrs; body mass, 75.4 ± 8 kg; height, 1.76 ± .06 m) completed the study, which was approved by the University Ethics Committee. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed four sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up) and then two further sessions at 07:30 h but proceeded by an extended active or passive warm-up to raise rectal temperature to evening values. These last two sessions were counterbalanced in order of administration. During each trial, three measures of handgrip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad.s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and four measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric ergometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Rectal and intra-aural temperatures, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal comfort (TC) were measured. Measurements were made after the subjects had reclined for 30 min and after the warm-ups and prior to the measurement of handgrip and isokinetic and isometric ergometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Warm-ups were either active (cycle ergometer at 150 W) or passive (resting in a room at 35 °C, relative

  8. Odd-Even Pattern Observed in Polyaniline/(Au0 – Au8) Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jonke, Alex P.; Josowicz, Mira A.; Janata, Jiri

    2012-01-12

    Theoretically predicted effect of odd-even pattern of electron pairing on behavior of gold clusters in polyaniline/AuN (N = 0 to 8) has been confirmed experimentally. In these composites the atomic Au clusters with even number of atoms exhibit higher catalytic activity for electrochemical oxidation of n-propanol in 1 M NaOH than the odd-number atoms clusters. Also, infrared spectroscopy shows that even numbered PANI/AuN composites affect the N-H stretching vibration more strongly than the corresponding odd numbered ones. This behavior matches the theoretically predicted variations of HOMO-LUMO gap energy and the stability of the atomic Au clusters. It also agrees with the earlier experimental work in which the UPS spectra of isolated, mass-selected Au clusters have been reported.

  9. Characteristics of Insomniacs with Self-Reported Morning and Evening Chronotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason C.; Huang, Jennifer S.; Kuo, Tracy F.; Manber, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study examines the relevance of self-reported morning and evening chronotypes in treatment-seeking insomniacs presenting to a tertiary sleep clinic setting. Design: Using a cross-sectional design, patients were categorized as morning, intermediate, and evening chronotypes based upon scores on the Morningness-Eveningness Composite Scale (MECS). Group comparisons were made on self-report measures of nocturnal sleep, sleep period variability, and waking correlates and consequences of insomnia. Setting: Sleep disorders clinic Patients: The sample consisted of 312 patients who presented to a group cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) at the sleep clinic. Measurements and Results: Participants completed the MECS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale (DBAS), and one week of sleep diary prior to treatment. Even after adjusting for total wake time as an index of insomnia severity, differences between the three chronotypes were present on several measures. Compared to the morning and intermediate types, evening types reported more total sleep time, more time in bed, greater variability in the time out of bed, and higher levels of distress on the DBAS and BDI. Conclusions: These results indicate that insomniacs presenting to a sleep specialist who endorse an evening chronotype report sleep/wake irregularities and waking distress greater than expected in association with the level of insomnia severity. These factors may serve to perpetuate the insomnia disorder and might be particularly important to consider when treating this subgroup of insomniacs. Citations: Ong J; Huang J; Kuo T et al. Characteristics of insomniacs with self-reported morning and evening chronotypes. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(3):289–294 PMID:17561599

  10. Colonoscopic polyp detection rate is stable throughout the workday including evening colonoscopy sessions

    PubMed Central

    Thurtle, David; Pullinger, Michael; Tsigarides, Jordan; McIntosh, Iris; Steytler, Carla; Beales, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Polyp detection rate (PDR) is an accepted measure of colonoscopy quality. Several factors may influence PDR including time of procedure and order of colonoscopy within a session. Our unit provides evening colonoscopy lists (6-9 pm). We examined whether colonoscopy performance declines in the evening. Design: Data for all National Health Service (NHS) outpatient colonoscopies performed at Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital in 2011 were examined. Timing, demographics, indication and colonoscopy findings were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression. Results: Data from 2576 colonoscopies were included: 1163 (45.1%) in the morning, 1123 (43.6%) in the afternoon and 290 (11.3%) in the evening.  Overall PDR was 40.80%. Males, increasing age and successful caecal intubation were all significantly associated with higher polyp detection. The indications ‘faecal occult blood screening’ (p<0.001) and ‘polyp surveillance’ (p<0.001) were strongly positively associated and ‘anaemia’ (p=0.01) was negatively associated with PDR. Following adjustment for  covariates, there was no significant difference in PDR between sessions. With the morning as the reference value, the odds ratio for polyp detection in the afternoon and evening were 0.93 (95% CI = 0.72-1.18) and 1.15 (95%CI = 0.82-1.61) respectively. PDR was not affected by rank of colonoscopy within a list, sedation dose or trainee-involvement. Conclusions: Time of day did not affect polyp detection rate in clinical practice. Evening colonoscopy had equivalent efficacy and is an effective tool in meeting increasing demands for endoscopy. Standardisation was shown to have a considerable effect as demographics, indication and endoscopist varied substantially between sessions. Evening sessions were popular with a younger population PMID:25132961

  11. Q, Break-even and the n{tau{sub E}} Diagram for Transient Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dale M. Meade

    1998-04-01

    Q, break-even and the Lawson diagram are well defined and understood for steady-state fusion plasma conditions. Since many fusion experiments are transient, it is necessary to clarify the definitions for instantaneous Q values and break-even so that the Lawson diagram can be interpreted for transient plasma conditions. This discussion shows that there are two mathematically correct methods to describe the Lawson diagram for a transient plasma: the Lawson/TFTR method and the JET/JT-60 method. These methods are discussed in detail in this paper.

  12. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebekah C.; Plassart, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli—for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)—elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been “rediscovered.” Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth. PMID:26034572

  13. Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G.; Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C.; Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.

    2011-08-15

    Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.

  14. A semiclassical formulation of the chiral magnetic effect and chiral anomaly in even d + 1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayi, Ömer F.; Elbistan, Mahmut

    2016-05-01

    In terms of the matrix valued Berry gauge field strength for the Weyl Hamiltonian in any even space-time dimensions a symplectic form whose elements are matrices in spin indices is introduced. Definition of the volume form is modified appropriately. A simple method of finding the path integral measure and the chiral current in the presence of external electromagnetic fields is presented. It is shown that within this new approach the chiral magnetic effect as well as the chiral anomaly in even d + 1 dimensions are accomplished straightforwardly.

  15. Chapter 1 Regular Even Start Project. Independent Evaluation Report, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Macias, Ana

    The report presents an evaluation of the Ysleta Independent School District (Texas) state-funded Even Start Project, a comprehensive family literacy program consisting of adult education (basic skills, English as a second language, citizenship, transition to college), intergenerational literacy classes with preschool children, early childhood…

  16. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  17. Evening flights of female northern pintails from a major roost site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    We monitored evening flights of female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) from Lacassine National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in southwestern Louisiana during winters of 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. We analyzed the influence of female age, winter, and date within wintering period on three flight parameters: distance, duration, and departure time. Flight distance and duration increased with date within wintering period, and age differences in flight distance and duration were not consistent between winters. Females departed 12 min later, on average, on clear, moonlit evenings than on overcast, moonless evenings, and 4 min later when winds were light rather than heavy. After controlling for variation due to environmental conditions, immature females departed Lacassine NWR 1.3 min earlier, on average, than did adults. Flight parameters of females did not differ between hunting and non-hunting time periods. Estimated daily transit costs ranged from 27-54% of basal metabolic rate, 7-19% of daily energy expenditure, and 8-20% of daily dietary intake of rice (Oryza sativa). Our findings that flight distance and duration increased with date within wintering period were consistent with predictions of refuging theory, but alternative hypotheses also could explain these results. Evening flights of Northern Pintails roosting on Lacassine NWR were greater in distance and duration than those reported for most other species of wintering waterfowl. We recommend that proximity of refuges to feeding sites be considered in conservation and management plans for wintering Northern Pintails and other refuging waterfowl.

  18. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  19. Even Low Levels of Alcohol during Pregnancy Can Affect Fetal Brain Development. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on GABAergic Neurons" (V. C. Cuzone; P. W. L. Yeh; Y. Yanagawa; K. Obata; and H. H. Yeh). Study results indicate that even exposure to low levels of alcohol during…

  20. You Can't Start Young Enough: Even a Kindergartner Can Be a Scientist!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrence E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    From the time they are born, children have a natural curiosity toward the world around them. Even though they can't speak, one can still observe that they are skilled at discovery. Science fair projects can nurture this natural curiosity and give elementary students the opportunity to explore their interests in a rewarding way. Participation in a…

  1. Odd-even staggering of binding energy for nuclei in the s d shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, G. J.; Cheng, Y. Y.; Jiang, H.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study odd-even staggering phenomena of binding energy in the framework of the nuclear shell model for nuclei in the s d shell. We decompose the USDB effective interaction into the monopole interaction and multipole (residual) interactions. We extract the empirical proton-neutron interaction, the Wigner energy, and the one-neutron separation energy using calculated binding energies. The monopole interaction, which represents the spherical mean field, provides contributions to the empirical proton-neutron interaction, the symmetry energy, and the Wigner energy. It does not induce odd-even staggering of the empirical proton-neutron interaction or the one-neutron separation energy. Isovector monopole and quadrupole pairing interactions and isoscalar spin-1 pairing interactions play a key role in reproducing an additional binding energy in both even-even and odd-odd nuclei. The Wigner energy coefficients are sensitive to residual two-body interactions. The nuclear shell structure has a strong influence on the evolution of the one-neutron separation energy, but not on empirical proton-neutron interactions. The so-called three-point formula is a good probe of the shell structure.

  2. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  3. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor’s degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor’s degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist’s career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor’s degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry. PMID:27170815

  4. Morning-to-evening differences in oxygen uptake kinetics in short-duration cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Bieuzen, François; Giacomoni, Magali; Tricot, Véronique; Falgairette, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed diurnal variations in oxygen (O(2)) uptake kinetics and efficiency during a moderate cycle ergometer exercise. Fourteen physically active diurnally active male subjects (age 23+/-5 yrs) not specifically trained at cycling first completed a test to determine their ventilatory threshold (T(vent)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)); one week later, they completed four bouts of testing in the morning and evening in a random order, each separated by at least 24 h. For each period of the day (07:00-08:30 h and 19:00-20:30 h), subjects performed two bouts. Each bout was composed of a 5 min cycling exercise at 45 W, followed after 5 min rest by a 10 min cycling exercise at 80% of the power output associated with T(vent). Gas exchanges were analyzed breath-by-breath and fitted using a mono-exponential function. During moderate exercise, the time constant and amplitude of VO(2) kinetics were significantly higher in the morning compared to the evening. The net efficiency increased from the morning to evening (17.3+/-4 vs. 20.5+/-2%; p<0.05), and the variability of cycling cadence was greater during the morning than evening (+34%; p<0.05). These findings suggest that VO(2) responses are affected by the time of day and could be related to variability in muscle activity pattern. PMID:17612947

  5. Effects of Different Intensities of Endurance Exercise in Morning and Evening on the Lipid Metabolism Response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Ando, Karina; Tabata, Hiroki; Konishi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaki; Nishimaki, Mio; Xiang, Mi; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    To study the effects of different exercise intensity performed at different exercise times on lipid metabolism response during prolonged exercise. Nine young men performed endurance exercise at different exercise intensities (60%VO2max or Fatmax) in the morning (9 am to 10 am) or evening (5 pm to 6 pm); blood samples were collected before exercise and immediately and one and two hours after exercise completion. Expired gas was analyzed from the start of exercise until two hours after exercise completion. There were no significant changes in catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) and free fatty acid levels between morning and evening trials for each endurance exercise intensity. However, the morning and evening trials both exhibited significantly higher lipid oxidation at Fatmax than that at 60%VO2max. These results suggest that exercise at Fatmax offers greater lipid oxidation than that at 60%VO2max, regardless of exercise timing. Key points It is important to consider exercise intensity when evaluating lipid oxidation. Few studies have investigated the effects of the intensity of exercise on lipid oxidation in the morning and evening. Fatmax exhibited greater total lipid oxidation compared to that of 60%VO2max when energy expenditure was equated, but time of day did not affect lipid oxidation in prolonged exercise. PMID:27803625

  6. How Integration of Services Facilitates Family Literacy: Testimony from Even Start Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Jeffrey; Myers-Jennings, Corine; Stowell, Daniel W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes how integrating services in an Even Start program in Gainesville, Florida, facilitated family literacy. Highlights specific examples from the experience that changed parents' lives. Participants gradually developed political awareness via improved self-esteem, self-confidence, assertiveness, involvement, and self-governance (in a…

  7. How Integration of Services Facilitates Family Literacy: Testimony from Even Start Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Jeffrey; Myers-Jennings, Corine

    A case study evaluated the effectiveness of the Even Start family literacy project, which integrates within a single continuum of service three formerly separate curricular components: adult education, early childhood education, and parent education. A series of case study interviews were conducted over a 4-year period with 11 adult participants…

  8. Literacy Engagement and Parental Development through Even Start Family Literacy Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Petra A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how parental participation in Even Start programs contributes to family literacy engagement and parental development. More specifically, its primary aim was to develop an understanding of how parental participation in the program influences their reading behaviors and other literacy practices as well as to highlight observed…

  9. Attempting to answer a meaningful question enhances subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed.

    PubMed

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., whale-???) that has no intrinsic answer. Experiment 1 replicated prior word pair studies, but in Experiment 2, when participants learned meaningful trivia questions, testing enhanced learning even when subsequent study was delayed. Even in Experiment 3, when subsequent study was delayed by up to 24 hr, tests enhanced learning on a final test another 24 hr later. These findings may give comfort to educators who worry that asking a question or giving a test, on which students inevitably make mistakes, impairs learning if feedback is not immediate. They also suggest that there is a consensus in the literature thus far: Questions with rich semantic content enhance subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed, but less meaningful questions without an intrinsic answer enhance learning only when feedback is immediate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Attempting to Answer a Meaningful Question Enhances Subsequent Learning Even When Feedback Is Delayed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., "whale-???") that has no…

  11. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-08-31

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems.

  12. The sterols isolated from Evening Primrose oil modulate the release of proinflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Fernández-Arche, Angeles; Angel-Martín, María; García-Giménez, María Dolores

    2012-09-15

    Evening Primrose oil is a natural product extracted by cold-pressed from Oenothera biennis L. seeds. The unsaponifiable matter of this oil is an important source of interesting minor compounds, like long-chain fatty alcohols, sterols and tocopherols. In the present study, sterols were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter of Evening Primrose oil, and the composition was identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS. The major components of sterols fraction were β-Sitosterol and campesterol. We investigated the ability of sterols from Evening Primrose oil to inhibit the release of different proinflammatory mediators in vitro by murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Sterols significantly and dose-dependently decreased nitric oxide production. Western blot analysis showed that nitric oxide reduction was a consequence of the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthetase expression. Sterols also reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukine 1β and tromboxane B₂. However, sterols did not reduce prostaglandin E₂. The reduction of eicosanoid release was related to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These results showed that sterols may have a protective effect on some mediators involved in inflammatory damage development, suggesting its potential value as a putative functional component of Evening Primrose oil.

  13. Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

  14. A STUDY IN ORGANIZATIONAL INTERACTION BETWEEN AN EVENING COLLEGE AND ITS PARENT INSTITUTION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACOBSON, MYRTLE S.

    THIS STUDY IN ORGANIZATIONAL INTERACTION ANALYZES THE STRUCTURAL TIES AND INTERACTIVE RELATIONSHIPS OF AN EDUCATIONAL SUB-ORGANIZATION (EVENING DEGREE PROGRAM) AND ITS PARENT COLLEGIATE INSTITUTION (BROOKLYN COLLEGE). AN EXAMINATION OF OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS, CORRESPONDENCE, POLICY STATEMENTS, AND MANY INTERVIEWS, QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEYS, AND…

  15. Need satisfaction during free evening hours: examining its role in daily recovery.

    PubMed

    van Hooff, Madelon L M; Geurts, Sabine A E

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to shed light on the role of satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness and competence in the recovery process during free evening hours. We examined to what extent (1) need satisfaction during free evening hours contributed to employees' recovery status before bedtime and (2) employees' recovery status at the end of the workday affected their subsequent need satisfaction. Vigour and (low) anxiety were included as indicators of recovery. Data were collected by means of a 5-day daily diary study (two measurements daily: at the end of the workday and before bedtime) among 64 participants. Multilevel analyses showed that need satisfaction during free evening hours was related to an improved recovery status (i.e. increased levels of vigour and decreased levels of anxiety) before bedtime. Furthermore, results showed that employees with a lower recovery status at the end of their workday reported less need satisfaction during the subsequent free evening. With these results, it can be concluded that employees who would benefit the most from satisfaction of their basic psychological needs have the least resources available to actually achieve this satisfaction. PMID:25100271

  16. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27589782

  17. The Development of Even-Aged Plantation Forests: An Exercise in Forest Stand Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. R.; Leslie, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a field-based practical exercise that allows students in forestry, ecology and natural resources to develop their understanding of forest stand dynamics. The exercise involves measurement of key tree growth parameters in four even-aged, single-species plantation stands of different age but occupying sites with similar soil…

  18. Feynman propagator for the nonbirefringent CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension

    SciTech Connect

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr.; Santos, Frederico E. P. dos; Gomes, Adalto R.

    2010-12-15

    The CPT-even gauge sector of the standard model extension is composed of 19 components comprised in the tensor (K{sub F}){sub {mu}{nu}{rho}{sigma}}, of which nine do not yield birefringence. In this work, we examine the Maxwell electrodynamics supplemented by these nine nonbirefringent CPT-even components in aspects related to the Feynman propagator and full consistency (stability, causality, unitarity). We adopt a prescription that parametrizes the nonbirefringent components in terms of a symmetric and traceless tensor, K{sub {mu}{nu}}, and second parametrization that writes K{sub {mu}{nu}} in terms of two arbitrary four-vectors, U{sub {mu}} and V{sub {nu}}. We then explicitly evaluate the gauge propagator of this electrodynamics in a tensor closed way. In the sequel, we show that this propagator and involved dispersion relations can be specialized for the parity-odd and parity-even sectors of the tensor (K{sub F}){sub {mu}{nu}{rho}{sigma}}. In this way, we reassess some results of the literature and derive some new outcomes showing that the parity-even anisotropic sector engenders a stable, noncausal and unitary electrodynamics.

  19. Back to School: An Examination of the Evening University and the Caribbean's Nontraditional Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pragg, Karima

    2015-01-01

    The Evening University (EU) programme at the University of the West Indies offers an opportunity for working adults and nontraditional students to earn undergraduate degrees. A qualitative framework was used to explore the reasons those enrolled in this programme sought tertiary education and to identify any challenges they faced throughout their…

  20. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27589782

  1. Does lowering evening rectal temperature to morning levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    PubMed

    Robinson, William R; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Giacomoni, Magali; Robertson, Colin M; Burniston, Jatin G; Waterhouse, James M; Edwards, Ben J

    2013-10-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral, and central factors and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether decreasing evening resting rectal temperatures to morning values, by immersion in a water tank, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to morning values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 1.3 yrs; body mass, 80.1 ± 7.8 kg; height, 1.72 ± 0.05 m) completed the study, which was approved by the local ethics committee of the university. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed three sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up on a cycle ergometer at 150 W) and then a further session at 17:30 h but preceded by an immersion in cold water (~16.5 °C) to lower rectal temperature (Trec) to morning values. During each trial, three measures of grip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and three measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric dynamometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Trec, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal comfort (TC) were also measured after the subjects had reclined for 30 min at the start of the protocol and prior to the measures for grip, isokinetic, and isometric dynamometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up or water immersion and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Data were analyzed using general linear models with repeated measures. Trec values were higher at rest in the evening (by 0.37 °C; p < 0.05) than the morning, but

  2. Morning versus evening dosing of desloratadine in seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized controlled study [ISRCTN23032971].

    PubMed Central

    Haye, Rolf; Høye, Kjetil; Berg, Olof; Frønes, Sissel; Ødegård, Tone

    2005-01-01

    Background A circadian rhythm of symptoms has been reported in allergic rhinitis and some studies have shown the dosing time of antihistamines to be of importance for optimizing symptom relief in this disease. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of morning vs. evening dosing of the antihistamine desloratadine at different time points during the day. Methods Patients ≥ 18 years, with seasonal allergic rhinitis received desloratadine 5 mg orally once daily in the morning (AM-group) or evening (PM-group) for two weeks. Rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, sneezing and eye symptoms were scored morning and evening. Wilcoxon rank sum and 2-way ANOVA test were used. Results Six-hundred and sixty-three patients were randomized; 336 in the AM-group; 327 in the PM-group. No statistically significant differences were seen between the AM and PM group at any time points. In the sub-groups with higher morning or evening total symptom score no difference in treatment efficacy was seen whether the dose was taken 12 or 24 hours before the higher score time. There was a circadian variation in baseline total symptom score; highest during daytime and lowest at night. The circadian variation in symptoms was reduced during treatment. This reduction was highest for daytime symptoms. Conclusions A circadian rhythm was seen for most symptoms being more pronounced during daytime. This was less apparent after treatment with desloratadine. No statistically significant difference in efficacy was seen whether desloratadine was given in the morning or in the evening. This gives the patients more flexibility in choosing dosing time. PMID:15686600

  3. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ivy N.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G.; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism. PMID:27191727

  4. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ivy N; Zee, Phyllis C; Shalman, Dov; Malkani, Roneil G; Kang, Joseph; Reid, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux). Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group) or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group). All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism. PMID:27191727

  5. Identifying risky drinking patterns over the course of Saturday evenings: An event-level study.

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Otten, Roy; Labhart, Florian

    2015-09-01

    Gaining a better understanding of young adults' excessive drinking on nights out is crucial to ensure prevention efforts are effectively targeted. This study aims to identify Saturdays with similar evening drinking patterns and corresponding situation-specific and person-specific determinants. Growth mixture modeling and multilevel logistic regressions were based on 3,084 questionnaires completed by 164 young adults on 514 evenings via the Internet-based cell phone optimized assessment technique (ICAT). The results showed that the 2-group solution best fitted the data with a "stable low" drinking pattern (64.0% of all evenings, 0.2 drinks per hour on average, 1.5 drinks in total) and an "accelerated" drinking pattern (36.0%, increased drinking pace from about 1 drink per hour before 8 p.m. to about 2 drinks per hour after 10 p.m.; 11.5 drinks in total). The presence of more same-sex friends (ORwomen = 1.29, 95% CI [1.09-1.53]; ORmen = 1.35, 95% CI [1.15-1.58], engaging in predrinking (ORwomen = 2.80, 95% CI [1.35-5.81]; ORmen = 3.78, 95% CI [1.67-8.55] and more time spent in drinking establishments among men (ORmen = 1.46, 95% CI [1.12-1.90] predicted accelerated drinking evenings. Accelerated drinking was also likely among women scoring high on coping motives at baseline (ORwomen = 2.40, 95% CI [1.43-4.03] and among men scoring high on enhancement motives (ORmen = 2.36, 95% CI [1.46-3.80]. To conclude, with a total evening consumption that is almost twice the threshold for binge drinking, the identified accelerated drinking pattern signifies a burden for individual and public health. Promoting personal goal setting and commitment, and reinforcing self-efficacy and resistance skills training appear to be promising strategies to impede the acceleration of drinking pace on Saturday evenings. PMID:25844829

  6. Niveau socioéconomique et processus du recours aux soins par les familles de patients souffrant de troubles psychiques au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Sommer, Alain; Moulaï, Pierre; Chebili, Saïd; Abaoub-Germain, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le Burkina Faso a connu une amélioration constante depuis deux décennies de l'offre de soins en psychiatrie. De même, le taux d'alphabétisation sans cesse croissant s'accompagne d'une profonde modification des conceptions et des comportements. La présente étude visait à déterminer l′impact des déterminants socioéconomiques sur le processus du recours aux soins par les familles. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale portant sur 200 familles, menée dans le service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou. Variable à expliquer: premier recours aux soins par les familles (guérisseur traditionnel ou prières religieuses vs. consultations psychiatrique ou médicale). Variable explicative: catégorie socioprofessionnelle classée en suivant la nomenclature des professions et catégories socioprofessionnelles; niveau d’études. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée à l'aide du logiciel SAS version 9.2. Le test du Khi deux a été utilisé. Résultats Il existait une association entre le choix du premier recours et la Profession et la catégorie socioprofessionnelledu « décideur » (p = 0.0006) ainsi que leniveau d’études du « décideur » (p = 0.0001). Conclusion La Profession et Catégorie Sociale et le niveau d'instruction scolaire pourraient être un marqueur important dans les politiques visant à optimiser les processus de recours aux soins des patients dans le circuit de soins. PMID:25161751

  7. A velocity map imaging study of gold-rare gas complexes: Au-Ar, Au-Kr, and Au-Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, W. Scott; Woodham, Alex P.; Plowright, Richard J.; Wright, Timothy G.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.

    2010-06-01

    The ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the gold-rare gas atom van der Waals complexes (Au-RG, RG=Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been studied by velocity map imaging. Photofragmentation of Au-Ar and Au-Kr at several wavelengths permits extrapolation to zero of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra as monitored in the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p]) fragment channel, facilitating the determination of ground state dissociation energies of D0″(Au-Ar)=149±13 cm-1 and D0″(Au-Kr)=240±19 cm-1, respectively. In the same spectral region, transitions to vibrational levels of an Ω'=1/2 state of the Au-Xe complex result in predissociation to the lower Au(P21/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) fragment channel for which TKER extrapolation yields a value of D0″(Au-Xe)=636±27 cm-1. Asymmetric line shapes for transitions to the v'=14 level of this state indicate coupling to the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) continuum, which allows us to refine this value to D0″(Au-Xe)=607±5 cm-1. The dissociation dynamics of this vibrational level have been studied at the level of individual isotopologues by fitting the observed excitation spectra to Fano profiles. These fits reveal a remarkable variation in the predissociation dynamics for different Au-Xe isotopologues. For Au-Ar and Au-Xe, the determined ground state dissociation energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations; the agreement of the Au-Kr value with theory is less satisfactory.

  8. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  9. Thermospheric meridional wind control of equatorial spread F and evening prereversal electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, M. A.; Iyer, K. N.; de Medeiros, R. T.; Batista, I. S.; Sobral, J. H. A.

    2006-04-01

    The role of the evening prereversal zonal electric field enhancement (PRE) as conducive to equatorial spread F (ESF)/plasma bubble development versus that of the magnetic meridional wind as a suppressing factor is examined using digital ionosonde data from an equatorial site, Sao Luis (SL), and a low latitude site, Cachoeira Paulista (CP) in Brazil. The evening vertical plasma drift (Vz) over SL is used, together with the F layer peak height (hmF2) over CP, to compute the magnetic meridional wind. The analysis performed for two epochs, that is, March-April of 1999 and 2001, provide consistent evidence that the magnetic meridional wind can negatively influence the ESF development in two ways: (a) by reduced development of the PRE and. (b) by direct suppression of the bubble growth

  10. Stability of elongated cross-section tokamaks to axisymmetric even poloidal mode number deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Pomphrey, N.

    1989-06-01

    A recent paper by Nakayama, Sato and Matsuoka suggests that elliptical cross section tokamaks with aspect ratio R/a = 3.2 and with elongation kappa = 2.6 are unstable to a splitting (m = 2, n = 0) instability for plasma ..beta.. > 5%, and that kappa /> =/ 4.0 plasmas are unstable to splitting for ..beta.. /> =/ 1%. We have tried to reproduce these results using the MHD evolution code TSC, but find these configurations to be stable, not even near a stability boundary. Even a kappa = 3.7 plasma with ..beta.. = 23.0% is stable to the splitting mode. However, the addition of pinching coils at the waist will cause the plasma to split if the current in these coils exceeds a critical value I/sub c/ which decreases with increasing ..beta... 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome. PMID:19330183

  12. Solar and geomagnetic trends of equatorial evening and nighttime F region vertical ion drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekola, O. S.; Oluwafemi, C. O.

    2008-12-01

    F region vertical ion drifts were inferred from the evening and nighttime ionosonde data for two magnetic equatorial stations in West Africa: Ouagadougou (geographic: 12°N, 1.5°W; 5.9°N dip) and Ibadan (geographic: 7.9°N, 3.9°E; 6°S dip). We examine and discuss the short-term patterns of behavior of ionospheric variability over Ouagadougou for 1986-1987 years of low solar activity (F10.7 = 80) and 1988-1989 years of high solar activity (F10.7 = 180) for quiet time, while that of Ibadan is for undisturbed (Kp ≤ 3.0) and disturbed (Kp > 3.0) geomagnetic conditions during the 1958 International Geophysical Year (IGY) period, corresponding to high solar flux conditions (F10.7 = 208). Our results indicate that the evening and nighttime ion drift exhibits strong variations with the phase of the solar cycle but only small variations with geomagnetic activity. The characteristic values of evening prereversal velocity enhancements (PRE) vary between about 2-14 m/s and 12-22 m/s and 17-42 m/s and 18-40 m/s for low and high solar flux, unperturbed and perturbed conditions, in that order. The solar minimum evening reversal times are strongly season dependent, while the morning reversal times are season independent except during December solstice, which occurs earliest. During solar maximum, reversal times near dawn and dusk are essentially season independent except during June solstice season, which occurs late. The average occurrence time (1900 LT) of PRE is strongly independent of solar and magnetic variations apart from June solstice of high solar activity periods.

  13. Memory and mood during the night and in the morning after repeated evening doses of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; Wingen, M; Ramaekers, J G

    2008-11-01

    Previously it has been shown that MDMA causes memory impairment during daytime testing. However, MDMA is usually taken in the evening or during the night. In addition, it is known that sleep deprivation also causes memory impairment. The present study aimed to assess whether evening doses of MDMA added to, or interacted with the memory impairment due to sleep deprivation. Fourteen healthy subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way cross-over study. Treatments consisted of MDMA 75 and 50 mg divided over the evening or double placebo. Memory tests and subjective measures of mood were conducted at baseline and three times post dosing that is at 6.30 pm, 9.30 pm, 1.30 am and 7 am, respectively -1.5, 1.5, 5.5 and 11 h relative to drug intake (first dose). Memory performance detoriated progessively over time as a function of sleep loss, independent of treatment. MDMA added to this impairment as indicated by a significant main effect of MDMA on verbal and spatial memory performance. Mood ratings and response speed revealed an MDMA by Time interaction. After administration of MDMA response speed improved and feelings of vigor, friendliness, elation, anxiety, confusion, arousal and positive mood increased in magnitude during the night, while all these parameters returned to placebo-like levels on the final morning session. It is concluded that evening doses of MDMA selectively impair memory performance, and that this impairment is additional to the effect of sleep deprivation on memory performance.

  14. Identification of Evening Complex Associated Proteins in Arabidopsis by Affinity Purification and Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhouxin; Kay, Steve A.

    2016-01-01

    Many species possess an endogenous circadian clock to synchronize internal physiology with an oscillating external environment. In plants, the circadian clock coordinates growth, metabolism and development over daily and seasonal time scales. Many proteins in the circadian network form oscillating complexes that temporally regulate myriad processes, including signal transduction, transcription, protein degradation and post-translational modification. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a tripartite complex composed of EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), and LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX), named the evening complex, modulates daily rhythms in gene expression and growth through transcriptional regulation. However, little is known about the physical interactions that connect the circadian system to other pathways. We used affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP-MS) methods to identify proteins that associate with the evening complex in A. thaliana. New connections within the circadian network as well as to light signaling pathways were identified, including linkages between the evening complex, TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), TIME FOR COFFEE (TIC), all phytochromes and TANDEM ZINC KNUCKLE/PLUS3 (TZP). Coupling genetic mutation with affinity purifications tested the roles of phytochrome B (phyB), EARLY FLOWERING 4, and EARLY FLOWERING 3 as nodes connecting the evening complex to clock and light signaling pathways. These experiments establish a hierarchical association between pathways and indicate direct and indirect interactions. Specifically, the results suggested that EARLY FLOWERING 3 and phytochrome B act as hubs connecting the clock and red light signaling pathways. Finally, we characterized a clade of associated nuclear kinases that regulate circadian rhythms, growth, and flowering in A. thaliana. Coupling mass spectrometry and genetics is a powerful method to rapidly and directly identify novel components and connections within and between complex signaling

  15. Prospective Study on Salivary Evening Melatonin and Sleep before and after Pinealectomy in Humans.

    PubMed

    Slawik, Helen; Stoffel, Michael; Riedl, Lina; Veselý, Zdenko; Behr, Michael; Lehmberg, Jens; Pohl, Corina; Meyer, Bernhard; Wiegand, Michael; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-02-01

    Melatonin is secreted systemically from the pineal gland maximally at night but is also produced locally in many tissues. Its chronobiological function is mainly exerted by pineal melatonin. It is a feedback regulator of the main circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei and of many peripheral oscillators. Although exogenous melatonin is approved for circadian rhythm sleep disorders and old-age insomnia, research on endogenous melatonin in humans is hindered by the great interindividual variability of its amount and circadian rhythm. Single case studies on pinealectomized patients report on disrupted but also hypersomnic sleep. This is the first systematic prospective report on sleep with respect to pinealectomy due to pinealocytoma World Health Organization grade I without chemo- or radiotherapy. Before and after pinealectomy, 8 patients completed questionnaires on sleep quality and circadian rhythm (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire), 2 nights of polysomnography, salivary evening melatonin profiles, and qualitative assessment of 2 weeks of actigraphy and sleep logs. Six patients were assessed retrospectively up to 4 years after pinealectomy. Before pinealectomy, all but 1 patient showed an evening melatonin rise typical for indifferent chronotypes. After pinealectomy, evening saliva melatonin was markedly diminished, mostly below the detection limit of the assay (0.09 pg/mL). No systematic change in subjective sleep quality or standard measures of polysomnography was found. Mean pre- and postoperative sleep efficiency was 94% and 95%, and mean sleep-onset latency was 21 and 17 min, respectively. Sleep-wake rhythm during normal daily life did not change. Retrospective patients had a reduced sleep efficiency (90%) and more stage changes, although this was not significantly different from prospective patients. In conclusion, melatonin does seem to have a modulatory, not a

  16. On inducing finite dimensional physical field representations for massless particles in even dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhansali, Vineer

    1993-01-01

    Assuming trivial action of Euclidean translations, the method of induced representations is used to derive a correspondence between massless field representations transforming under the full generalized even dimensional Lorentz group, and highest weight states of the relevant little group. This gives a connection between 'helicity' and 'chirality' in all dimensions. Restrictions on 'gauge independent' representations for physical particles that this induction imposes are also stated.

  17. Even with Improved Screens, e-Book Devices Not Ready for College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    Hoping to do for electronic books what the iPod has done for digital music, a new generation of e-book devices recently hit the market. This article argues that even with improved screens, the new e-book devices are not ready for college. The screen is the big innovation in the new e-book devices, the most prominent example of which is the Sony…

  18. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  19. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2015-04-10

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  20. Ethnic differences in sleep duration and morning–evening type in a population sample

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Patterson, Freda; Lu, Yinghui; Lozano, Alicia; Hanlon, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional population study examined associations of sleep duration and morning–evening type with sociodemographic and cardiometabolic disease in adults participating in the UK Biobank study (N = 439 933). Multivariable Poisson regression models of sleep duration and morning–evening type with a robust error variance were generated to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. All models were adjusted for sex, race, college attendance, employment status and age. Twenty five percent of the sample reported short sleep; 27% were morning, 64% intermediate and 9% evening type. Black ethnicity emerged as most strongly associated with sleep behavior. Short sleep was twice as prevalent, and morning versus intermediate type was 1.4 times more prevalent in Black than White participants. The greater prevalence of short sleep and morning type among Blacks suggests that sleep-based approaches to improving cardiometabolic outcomes may require a more multidimensional approach that encompasses adequate sleep and circadian alignment in this population. PMID:26654569

  1. A New Q-Band EPR Probe for Quantitative Studies of Even Electron Metalloproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petasis, D. T.; Hendrich, M. P.

    1999-02-01

    Existing Q-band (35 GHz) EPR spectrometers employ cylindrical cavities for more intense microwave magnetic fields B1, but are so constructed that only one orientation between the external field B and B1is allowed, namely the B ⊥ B1orientation, thus limiting the use of the spectrometer to measurements on Kramers spin systems (odd electron systems). We have designed and built a Q-band microwave probe to detect EPR signals in even electron systems, which operates in the range 2 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K for studies of metalloprotein samples. The cylindrical microwave cavity operates in the TE011mode with cylindrical wall coupling to the waveguide, thus allowing all orientations of the external magnetic field B relative to the microwave field B1. Such orientations allow observation of EPR transitions in non-Kramers ions (even electron) which are either forbidden or significantly weaker for B ⊥ B1. Rotation of the external magnetic field also permits easy differentiation between spin systems from even and odd electron oxidation states. The cavity consists of a metallic helix and thin metallic end walls mounted on epoxy supports, which allows efficient penetration of the modulation field. The first quantitative EPR measurements from a metalloprotein (Hemerythrin) at 35 GHz with B1‖ B are presented.

  2. Effects of species evenness and dominant species identity on multiple ecosystem functions in model grassland communities.

    PubMed

    Orwin, Kate H; Ostle, Nick; Wilby, Andrew; Bardgett, Richard D

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystems provide multiple services upon which humans depend. Understanding the drivers of the ecosystem functions that support these services is therefore important. Much research has investigated how species richness influences functioning, but we lack knowledge of how other community attributes affect ecosystem functioning. Species evenness, species spatial arrangement, and the identity of dominant species are three attributes that could affect ecosystem functioning, by altering the relative abundance of functional traits and the probability of synergistic species interactions such as facilitation and complementary resource use. We tested the effect of these three community attributes and their interactions on ecosystem functions over a growing season, using model grassland communities consisting of three plant species from three functional groups: a grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), a forb (Plantago lanceolata), and a N-fixing forb (Lotus corniculatus). We measured multiple ecosystem functions that support ecosystem services, including ecosystem gas exchange, water retention, C and N loss in leachates, and plant biomass production. Species evenness and dominant species identity strongly influenced the ecosystem functions measured, but spatial arrangement had few effects. By the end of the growing season, evenness consistently enhanced ecosystem functioning and this effect occurred regardless of dominant species identity. The identity of the dominant species under which the highest level of functioning was attained varied across the growing season. Spatial arrangement had the weakest effect on functioning, but interacted with dominant species identity to affect some functions. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the role of multiple community attributes in driving ecosystem functioning. PMID:24213721

  3. Experimental factors affecting PCR-based estimates of microbial species richness and evenness

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Zvenigorodsky, Natasha; Chen, Feng; Ochman, Howard; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for microbial community profiling can, for equivalent costs, yield greater than two orders of magnitude more sensitivity than traditional PCR-cloning and Sanger sequencing. With this increased sensitivity and the ability to analyze multiple samples in parallel, it has become possible to evaluate several technical aspects of PCRbased community structure profiling methods. We tested the effect of amplicon length and primer pair on estimates of species richness number of species and evenness relative abundance of species by assessing the potentially tractable microbial community residing in the termite hindgut. Two regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced from one of two common priming sites, spanning the V1-V2 or V8 regions, using amplicons ranging n length from 352 to 1443 bp. Our results demonstrate that both amplicon length and primer pair markedly influence estimates of richness and evenness. However, estimates of species evenness are consistent among different primer pairs targeting the same region. These results highlight the importance of experimental methodology when comparing diversity estimates across communities.

  4. Effects of species evenness and dominant species identity on multiple ecosystem functions in model grassland communities.

    PubMed

    Orwin, Kate H; Ostle, Nick; Wilby, Andrew; Bardgett, Richard D

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystems provide multiple services upon which humans depend. Understanding the drivers of the ecosystem functions that support these services is therefore important. Much research has investigated how species richness influences functioning, but we lack knowledge of how other community attributes affect ecosystem functioning. Species evenness, species spatial arrangement, and the identity of dominant species are three attributes that could affect ecosystem functioning, by altering the relative abundance of functional traits and the probability of synergistic species interactions such as facilitation and complementary resource use. We tested the effect of these three community attributes and their interactions on ecosystem functions over a growing season, using model grassland communities consisting of three plant species from three functional groups: a grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), a forb (Plantago lanceolata), and a N-fixing forb (Lotus corniculatus). We measured multiple ecosystem functions that support ecosystem services, including ecosystem gas exchange, water retention, C and N loss in leachates, and plant biomass production. Species evenness and dominant species identity strongly influenced the ecosystem functions measured, but spatial arrangement had few effects. By the end of the growing season, evenness consistently enhanced ecosystem functioning and this effect occurred regardless of dominant species identity. The identity of the dominant species under which the highest level of functioning was attained varied across the growing season. Spatial arrangement had the weakest effect on functioning, but interacted with dominant species identity to affect some functions. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the role of multiple community attributes in driving ecosystem functioning.

  5. Ethnic differences in sleep duration and morning-evening type in a population sample.

    PubMed

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Patterson, Freda; Lu, Yinghui; Lozano, Alicia; Hanlon, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional population study examined associations of sleep duration and morning-evening type with sociodemographic and cardiometabolic disease in adults participating in the UK Biobank study (N = 439 933). Multivariable Poisson regression models of sleep duration and morning-evening type with a robust error variance were generated to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. All models were adjusted for sex, race, college attendance, employment status and age. Twenty five percent of the sample reported short sleep; 27% were morning, 64% intermediate and 9% evening type. Black ethnicity emerged as most strongly associated with sleep behavior. Short sleep was twice as prevalent, and morning versus intermediate type was 1.4 times more prevalent in Black than White participants. The greater prevalence of short sleep and morning type among Blacks suggests that sleep-based approaches to improving cardiometabolic outcomes may require a more multidimensional approach that encompasses adequate sleep and circadian alignment in this population. PMID:26654569

  6. Time-resolved dynamics of odd and even harmonic emission from oriented asymmetric molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Yu, Shujuan; Chen, Yanjun; Jiang, Xiangqian; Sun, Xiudong

    2015-11-01

    We study the time-resolved dynamics of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from oriented asymmetric molecules in intense laser fields theoretically. Previous studies have shown that the odd-even HHG spectra of asymmetric molecules don't show the striking two-center-interference-induced minimum, as the symmetric molecules do, due to the symmetry breaking. Surprisingly, with considering only the short-trajectory contribution, an apparent groove with small amplitudes is observed in the HHG time-frequency distribution, which implies that the harmonic emission is strongly suppressed in a specific time-frequency region. The position of this groove is sensitive to the molecular parameters and the orientation. Our analyses on this origin of the groove reveal different time-frequency properties of odd versus even signals, where the interplay of intramolecular interference and the permanent-dipole effect plays an important role. We show that the even-odd ratio often used in high-harmonic spectroscopy can be influenced significantly by the interference effect.

  7. UHP lamps for projection systems: getting always brighter, smaller, and even more colorful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichmann, Ulrich; Giese, Hermann; Hechtfischer, Ulrich; Heusler, Gero; Koerber, Achim; Moench, Holger; Noertemann, Folke-Charlotte; Pekarski, Pavel; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Ritz, Arnd

    2004-05-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid development of projection systems. Projectors as small as only a few liters in size deliver several thousand screen lumens and are, with an efficacy of over 10 lm/W, the most efficient display systems realized today. This has been made possible by breakthroughs in lamp technology, particularly by the development of the UHP-lamp. This broadband light source with its outstanding brightness and lifetimes of over 10000 hours is ideal for projection applications. In this paper we want to describe three major technological trend lines in the development of UHP-lamps over the past decade: First, there is a trend towards brighter projectors, which is fostered by a brightness increase of the UHP-lamps. At the same time, projectors have seen a dramatic reduction in size, which has been made possible mostly by reducing lamp- and driver-size by even a factor of 10. This was only possible by the development of new ignition concepts as well as new optical designs of the reflector. And finally, UHP-lamps have seen quite some improvement in color rendering by using even higher pressures and shorter arc gaps. This allows for more colorful pictures and even more efficient projector designs.

  8. Singular eigenstates in the even(odd) length Heisenberg spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Giri, Pulak; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-05-01

    We study the implications of the regularization for the singular solutions on the even(odd) length spin-1/2 XXX chains in some specific down-spin sectors. In particular, the analytic expressions of the Bethe eigenstates for three down-spin sector have been obtained along with their numerical forms in some fixed length chains. For an even-length chain if the singular solutions \\{{{λ }α }\\} are invariant under the sign changes of their rapidities \\{{{λ }α }\\}=\\{-{{λ }α }\\}, then the Bethe ansatz equations are reduced to a system of (M-2)/2((M-3)/2) equations in an even (odd) down-spin sector. For an odd N length chain in the three down-spin sector, it has been analytically shown that there exist singular solutions in any finite length of the spin chain of the form N=3(2k+1) with k=1,2,3,\\cdots . It is also shown that there exist no singular solutions in the four down-spin sector for some odd-length spin-1/2 XXX chains.

  9. Élaboration de couches minces de carbone par ablation laser femtoseconde pour application aux biomatériaux implantables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-06-01

    Des films de tetrahedral amorphous-Carbon (ta-C) ont été déposés, sous vide poussé, par ablation d'une cible de graphite avec un laser Ti : saphir (durée d'impulsion 170 fs, fréquence de répétition 1 kHz, énergie maximale par impulsion 1,5 mJ, longueur d'onde 800 nm) sur substrats standard et sur biomatériaux (acier AISI 316L, polyéthylène à très haut poids moléculaire). Les propriétés de ces couches (structure, propriétés nanomécaniques et tribologiques) ont été caractérisées, en fonction des conditions d'élaboration, en examinant l'intérêt de l'utilisation d'un laser femtoseconde et leur capacité à satisfaire aux exigences spécifiques du domaine biomédical. Les propriétés d'adhérence des films ont été considérablement améliorées lors du dépôt sur des substrats en acier inoxydable préalablement préparés par décapage ionique in situ sous atmosphère d'argon. La surface hémisphérique d'une tête fémorale, en acier inoxydable, de prothèse de hanche de diamètre 22,2 mm a été revêtue d'un film de DLC adhérent et homogène en épaisseur. La résistance à l'usure de ce revêtement sera quantifiée à l'aide d'un simulateur de marche durant un million de cycles (correspondant à une année d'activité physique d'un être humain).

  10. Gender, family structure and cardiovascular activity during the working day and evening.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, A; Lundwall, K; Cropley, M

    2000-02-01

    This study applied psychophysiological methods to the investigation of social roles and well-being, using cardiovascular function over a working day and evening as an index of physiological activation. One hundred and sixty-two full-time school teachers (102 women and 60 men) were assessed using automated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring apparatus, with readings every 20 min through the working day (9.00 am-5.40 pm), and every 30 min in the evening (6.00-10.30 pm). The influence of gender, marital status and parenthood (defined as having at least one child living at home) on blood pressure during the working day and on day-evening differences was examined. There were no differences in blood pressure and heart rate across the working day in relation to marital roles or family structure. However, the decrease in blood pressure between working day and evening was greatest in parents, intermediate in married non-parents, and smallest in single participants without children. Differences in systolic pressure adjusted for age and body mass index averaged -4.46, -1.76 and +0.22 mmHg in the three groups, respectively. A similar pattern was observed for diastolic pressure but not heart rate. We also found that the day-evening fall in systolic pressure was moderated by social support, with the greatest change (mean adjusted difference -6.76 mmHg) in parents who reported high levels of social support. These blood pressure responses did not differ between men and women, and there was no indication of multiple role strain for full-time working mothers. The results were independent of concomitant physical activity, location during measurement, or reported job strain. We argue that findings are consistent with an enhancement model of multiple social roles, and with lower allostatic load on individuals who are working, married and parents. Psychophysiological studies of daily life can complement epidemiological and sociological investigations of social roles and health. PMID

  11. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential.

    PubMed

    Burley, Simon D; Whittingham-Dowd, Jayde; Allen, Jeremy; Grosset, Jean-Francois; Onambele-Pearson, Gladys L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol). Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg) with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP). Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP) protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM) in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs) and evening (PM: 1800 hrs), with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P<0.001) and post (AM: 98.0±9.0, PM: 52.7±6.0 ng/ml, P<0.001) exercise. Interestingly, individual cortisol differences pre vs post exercise indicate a time-of-day effect (AM difference: -2±2.6%, PM difference: 14.0±6.7%, P = 0.03). A time-of-day related elevation in serum IGFBP-3 (AM: 3274.9 ± 345.2, PM: 3605.1 ± 367.5, p = 0.032) was also evident. Pre exercise myogenic index (AM: 8.0±0.6%, PM: 16.8±1.1%) and myotube width (AM: 48.0±3.0, PM: 71.6±1.9 μm) were significantly elevated (P<0.001) in the evening

  12. The Differential Hormonal Milieu of Morning versus Evening May Have an Impact on Muscle Hypertrophic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jeremy; Grosset, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Substantial gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy are clearly associated with the routine performance of resistance training. What is less evident is the optimal timing of the resistance training stimulus to elicit these significant functional and structural skeletal muscle changes. Therefore, this investigation determined the impact of a single bout of resistance training performed either in the morning or evening upon acute anabolic signalling (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), myogenic index and differentiation) and catabolic processes (cortisol). Twenty-four male participants (age 21.4±1.9yrs, mass 83.7±13.7kg) with no sustained resistance training experience were allocated to a resistance exercise group (REP). Sixteen of the 24 participants were randomly selected to perform an additional non-exercising control group (CP) protocol. REP performed two bouts of resistance exercise (80% 1RM) in the morning (AM: 0800 hrs) and evening (PM: 1800 hrs), with the sessions separated by a minimum of 72 hours. Venous blood was collected immediately prior to, and 5 min after, each resistance exercise and control sessions. Serum cortisol and IGFBP-3 levels, myogenic index, myotube width, were determined at each sampling period. All data are reported as mean ± SEM, statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. As expected a significant reduction in evening cortisol concentration was observed at pre (AM: 98.4±10.5, PM: 49.8±4.4 ng/ml, P<0.001) and post (AM: 98.0±9.0, PM: 52.7±6.0 ng/ml, P<0.001) exercise. Interestingly, individual cortisol differences pre vs post exercise indicate a time-of-day effect (AM difference: -2±2.6%, PM difference: 14.0±6.7%, P = 0.03). A time-of-day related elevation in serum IGFBP-3 (AM: 3274.9 ± 345.2, PM: 3605.1 ± 367.5, p = 0.032) was also evident. Pre exercise myogenic index (AM: 8.0±0.6%, PM: 16.8±1.1%) and myotube width (AM: 48.0±3.0, PM: 71.6±1.9 μm) were significantly elevated (P<0.001) in the evening

  13. Voluntary breath-holding in the morning and in the evening.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Gerardo; Ionadi, Alessandro; Data, Piergiorgio G; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2004-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not voluntary breath-holding time (BHT) changes with the time of the day. BHT with airways closed at end-expiration was measured in six male subjects in the sitting position during the morning (08.00-12.00 hours, on days 1, 6, 7 and 8) and evening (20.00-24.00 hours, on days 2 and 4). BHT increased with the number of days of testing and, at day 8, the morning values averaged 160% of those on day 1. Also, Delta P ACO2 [the difference between end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 ( P CO2) and alveolar P CO2 ( P ACO2) at the breaking point] increased in proportion to BHT. Hence the BHT/Delta P ACO2 ratio remained nearly constant. Voluntary hyperventilation prolonged BHT and increased Delta P ACO2. Conversely, in hypoxia (13% O2 for 1-2 h), BHT and Delta P ACO2 were reduced proportionally. During the evening sessions, most of the BHT/Delta P ACO2 ratios in normoxia, hypoxia or after hyperventilation were higher than the corresponding morning values, with the group difference reaching statistical significance for the measurements in normoxia and hypoxia. In conclusion, voluntary BHT varies in both duration and its relationship with Delta P ACO2 between the morning and evening hours. The results should also imply that, with an interruption of breathing, changes in alveolar and arterial gases are not the same at different times of the day.

  14. Predictors and Trajectories of Morning Fatigue Are Distinct from Evening Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Fay; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo; Hammer, Marilyn; Schmidt, Brian L.; Knobf, M. Tish; Paul, Steven M.; Cartwright, Frances; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.; Chen, Lee-May; Melisko, Michelle; Levine, Jon D.; Kober, Kord; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Fatigue is the most common symptom in oncology patients during chemotherapy (CTX). Little is known about the predictors of interindividual variability in initial levels and trajectories of morning fatigue severity in these patients. Objectives An evaluation was done to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with initial levels as well as the trajectories of morning fatigue and to compare findings with our companion paper on evening fatigue. Methods A sample of outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and lung cancer (N=586) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Fatigue severity was evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to answer the study objectives. Results A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the morning fatigue trajectories. A piecewise model fit the data best. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI), who did not exercise regularly, with a lower functional status, and who had higher levels of state anxiety, sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms, reported higher levels of morning fatigue at enrollment. Variations in the trajectories of morning fatigue were predicted by the patients’ ethnicity and younger age. Conclusion The modifiable risk factors that were associated with only morning fatigue were BMI, exercise, and state anxiety. Modifiable risk factors that were associated with both morning and evening fatigue included functional status, depressive symptoms, and sleep disturbance. Using this information, clinicians can identify patients at higher risk for more severe morning fatigue and evening fatigue, provide individualized patient education, and tailor interventions to address the modifiable risk factors. PMID:25828559

  15. Prolonged Hypoxia Increases Survival Even in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Showing Cardiac Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Renate; Bauer, Ines; Ramalingam, Anil; Egg, Margit; Schwerte, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Tolerance towards hypoxia is highly pronounced in zebrafish. In this study even beneficial effects of hypoxia, specifically enhanced survival of zebrafish larvae, could be demonstrated. This effect was actually more pronounced in breakdance mutants, which phenotypically show cardiac arrhythmia. Breakdance mutants (bre) are characterized by chronically reduced cardiac output. Despite an about 50% heart rate reduction, they become adults, but survival rate significantly drops to 40%. Normoxic bre animals demonstrate increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 a (Hif-1α) expression, which indicates an activated hypoxic signaling pathway. Consequently, cardiovascular acclimation, like cardiac hypertrophy and increased erythrocyte concentration, occurs. Thus, it was hypothesized, that under hypoxic conditions survival might be even more reduced. When bre mutants were exposed to hypoxic conditions, they surprisingly showed higher survival rates than under normoxic conditions and even reached wildtype values. In hypoxic wildtype zebrafish, survival yet exceeded normoxic control values. To specify physiological acclimation, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured before hypoxia started (3 dpf), when the first differences in survival rate occurred (7 dpf) and when survival rate plateaued (15 dpf). Hypoxic animals expectedly demonstrated Hif-1α accumulation and consequently enhanced convective oxygen carrying capacity. Moreover, bre animals showed a significantly enhanced heart rate under hypoxic conditions, which reached normoxic wildtype values. This improvement in convective oxygen transport ensured a sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply and was also reflected in the significantly higher mitochondrial activity. The highly optimized energy metabolism observed in hypoxic zebrafish larvae might be decisive for periods of higher energy demand due to organ development, growth and increased activity. However, hypoxia increased survival only during a short period of

  16. Contribution of evening macronutrient intake to total caloric intake and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Baron, Kelly Glazer; Reid, Kathryn J; Horn, Linda Van; Zee, Phyllis C

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep timing and macronutrient intake as an approach towards better understanding of how sleep and eating affect weight regulation. Fifty-two volunteers (25 women) completed 7 days of wrist actigraphy and food logs. "Average sleepers" (56%) were defined as having a midpoint of sleep <5:30 am and "late sleepers" (44%) were defined as having a midpoint of sleep ≥ 5:30 am. Data were analyzed using t-tests, correlations and regression. Late sleepers consumed a greater amount of protein fat and carbohydrates in the evening (defined as after 8:00 pm) but less fat in the 4 h before sleep. Total protein, protein, carbohydrate, and fat consumed after 8:00 pm, protein consumed within 4h of sleep as well as the percentage of fat consumed after 8:00 were associated with higher BMI. The amount of protein and carbohydrates consumed within 4h of sleep and the amount and percentage of carbohydrate and fat consumed after 8:00 pm were associated with greater total calories. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, sleep timing and duration, protein consumed 4 h before sleep was associated with BMI; carbohydrates consumed after 8 pm, protein and carbohydrates consumed 4h before sleep were associated with higher total calories. Results indicate that evening intake of macronutrients and intake before sleep are not synonymous, particularly among late sleepers. Eating in the evening or before sleep may predispose individuals to weight gain through higher total calories.

  17. The hockey-stick method to estimate evening dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in humans.

    PubMed

    Danilenko, Konstantin V; Verevkin, Evgeniy G; Antyufeev, Viktor S; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Cajochen, Christian

    2014-04-01

    The onset of melatonin secretion in the evening is the most reliable and most widely used index of circadian timing in humans. Saliva (or plasma) is usually sampled every 0.5-1 hours under dim-light conditions in the evening 5-6 hours before usual bedtime to assess the dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO). For many years, attempts have been made to find a reliable objective determination of melatonin onset time either by fixed or dynamic threshold approaches. The here-developed hockey-stick algorithm, used as an interactive computer-based approach, fits the evening melatonin profile by a piecewise linear-parabolic function represented as a straight line switching to the branch of a parabola. The switch point is considered to reliably estimate melatonin rise time. We applied the hockey-stick method to 109 half-hourly melatonin profiles to assess the DLMOs and compared these estimates to visual ratings from three experts in the field. The DLMOs of 103 profiles were considered to be clearly quantifiable. The hockey-stick DLMO estimates were on average 4 minutes earlier than the experts' estimates, with a range of -27 to +13 minutes; in 47% of the cases the difference fell within ±5 minutes, in 98% within -20 to +13 minutes. The raters' and hockey-stick estimates showed poor accordance with DLMOs defined by threshold methods. Thus, the hockey-stick algorithm is a reliable objective method to estimate melatonin rise time, which does not depend on a threshold value and is free from errors arising from differences in subjective circadian phase estimates. The method is available as a computerized program that can be easily used in research settings and clinical practice either for salivary or plasma melatonin values.

  18. Testing effects of consumer richness, evenness and body size on ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Julia; Bailey, R A; Perkins, Daniel M; Pluchinotta, Angela; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    1. Numerous studies have revealed (usually positive) relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (B-EF), but the underpinning drivers are rarely addressed explicitly, hindering the development of a more predictive understanding. 2. We developed a suite of statistical models (where we combined existing models with novel ones) to test for richness and evenness effects on detrital processing in freshwater microcosms. Instead of using consumer species as biodiversity units, we used two size classes within three species (six types). This allowed us to test for diversity effects and also to focus on the role of body size and biomass. 3. Our statistical models tested for (i) whether performance in polyculture was more than the sum of its parts (non-additive effects), (ii) the effects of specific type combinations (assemblage identity effects) and (iii) whether types behaved differently when their absolute or relative abundances were altered (e.g. because type abundance in polyculture was lower compared with monoculture). The latter point meant we did not need additional density treatments. 4. Process rates were independent of richness and evenness and all types performed in an additive fashion. The performance of a type was mainly driven by the consumers' metabolic requirements (connected to body size). On an assemblage level, biomass explained a large proportion of detrital processing rates. 5. We conclude that B-EF studies would benefit from widening their statistical approaches. Further, they need to consider biomass of species assemblages and whether biomass is comprised of small or large individuals, because even if all species are present in the same biomass, small species (or individuals) will perform better.

  19. Ion-neutral coupling effects on low-latitude thermospheric evening winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evonosky, W.; Richmond, A. D.; Fang, T.-W.; Maute, A.

    2016-05-01

    We examine the forces that determine zonal wind structure in the low-latitude evening thermosphere and its relation with ion-neutral coupling. These winds drive the evening F region dynamo that affects the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and the generation of plasma irregularities. Forces are calculated using the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model coupled with the Global Ionosphere-Plasmasphere model. At 19 LT, the horizontal pressure gradient dominates the net acceleration of neutral winds below ˜220 km, while it tends to be offset by ion drag and viscosity higher up. The eastward pressure-gradient acceleration above 200 km increases approximately linearly with height and tends to be similar for different latitudes and different levels of solar activity. The pressure-gradient and ion-drag forces in the central F region approximately balance for field lines that pass through the EIA. Viscosity is an important additional force at non-EIA latitudes and in the bottomside and topside EIA ionosphere. An increase in E region drag on plasma convection due to increased nighttime ionization causes both the ion and neutral velocities in the F region to decrease, while the velocity difference tends to be maintained. The presence of a low-latitude evening time vertical shear in the zonal wind is associated primarily with a strong eastward pressure-gradient acceleration at high altitude that reverses the daytime westward wind and a weak low-altitude pressure-gradient acceleration of either eastward or westward direction that fails to reverse the low-altitude westward wind present in the afternoon.

  20. Predictable surface ablation of dielectrics with few-cycle laser pulse even beyond air ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquier, C.; Sentis, M.; Utéza, O.; Sanner, N.

    2016-08-01

    We study surface ablation of dielectrics with single-shot few-cycle optical pulse (˜10 fs) in air, at intensities below and above the onset of air ionization. We perform 3D analysis and careful calibration of the fluence distribution at the laser focus, spanning from linear- to nonlinear- focusing regimes, enabling to thoroughly characterize the severe limitation of the fluence delivered onto the sample surface upon increase of incident pulse energy. Despite significant beam reshaping taking place at high fluence, we demonstrate that it is nevertheless possible to confidently predict the resulting crater profiles on fused silica surface, even in the regime of filamentation.

  1. STS-48 Discovery, OV-103, soars into the evening sky after KSC liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, soars into the evening sky after lifting off from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39A at 7:11:04 pm (Eastern Daylight Time). OV-103's port side, left solid rocket booster (SRB), and the external tank (ET) are visible as it rides atop the glow of the SRB/space shuttle main engine (SSME) firings and a huge exhaust plume which has engulfed the launch pad area. The launch glow is reflected in a nearby waterway. The diamond shock effect appears at the SSME nozzles.

  2. Human respiratory epithelial cells from nasal turbinate expressed stem cell genes even after serial passaging.

    PubMed

    Ruszymah, B H I; Izham, B A Azrul; Heikal, M Y Mohd; Khor, S F; Fauzi, M B; Aminuddin, B S

    2011-12-01

    Current development in the field of tissue engineering led to the idea of repairing and regenerating the respiratory airway through in vitro reconstruction using autologous respiratory epithelial (RE). To ensure the capability of proliferation, the stem cell property of RE cells from the nasal turbinate should be evaluated. Respiratory epithelial cells from six human nasal turbinates were harvested and cultured in vitro. The gene expression of FZD-9 and BST-1 were expressed in passage 2 (P2) and passage 4 (P4). The levels of expression were not significant between both passages. The RE cells exhibit the stem cell properties, which remains even after serial passaging.

  3. Quadrupole moments of some doubly-even molibden nuclei and the onset of collectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Turkan, N.; Ibis, I.; Maras, I.

    2012-07-15

    A good description of the quadrupole moments is obtained by investigating {sup 94,96,98,100,102,104,106,108}Mo isotopes in terms of the interacting boson model. After the positiveparity states and electromagnetic-transition rates B(E2) of even-mass Mo nuclei were calculated it was seen that there is a good agreement between the obtained results and some previous experimental data. At the end of the quadrupole moment calculations it was proved that the results agree well with the previous experimental data.

  4. Parallel FE Approximation of the Even/Odd Parity Form of the Linear Boltzmann Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Drumm, Clifton R.; Lorenz, Jens

    1999-07-21

    A novel solution method has been developed to solve the linear Boltzmann equation on an unstructured triangular mesh. Instead of tackling the first-order form of the equation, this approach is based on the even/odd-parity form in conjunction with the conventional mdtigroup discrete-ordinates approximation. The finite element method is used to treat the spatial dependence. The solution method is unique in that the space-direction dependence is solved simultaneously, eliminating the need for the conventional inner iterations, and the method is well suited for massively parallel computers.

  5. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yazar, Harun Resit

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  6. Entropy production by active particles: Coupling of odd and even functions of velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Debasish

    2016-09-01

    Nonequilibrium stochastic dynamics of several active Brownian systems are modeled in terms of nonlinear velocity dependent force. In general, this force may consist of both even and odd functions of velocity. We derive the expression for total entropy production in such systems using the Fokker-Planck equation. The result is consistent with the expression for stochastic entropy production in the reservoir that we obtain from probabilities of time-forward and time-reversed trajectories, leading to fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulation is used to find probability distribution of entropy production, which shows good agreement with the detailed fluctuation theorem.

  7. Energy levels of odd-even nuclei using broken pair model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamammu, I. M.; Haq, S.; Eldahomi, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    A method to calculate energy levels and wave functions of odd-even nuclei, in the frame work of the broken pair model have been developed. The accuracy of the model has been tested by comparing the shell model results of limiting cases in which the broken pair model exactly coincides with the shell model, where there are two-proton/neutron + one-neutron/proton in the valence levels. The model is then applied to calculate the energy levels of some nuclei in the Zirconium region. The model results compare reasonably well with the shell model as well as with the experimental data.

  8. Even- and Odd-Parity Charmed Meson Masses in Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen; Roxanne Springer

    2005-03-01

    We derive mass formulae for the ground state, J{sup P} = 0{sup -} and 1{sup -}, and first excited even-parity, J{sup P} = 0{sup +} and 1{sup +}, charmed mesons including one loop chiral corrections and {Omicron}(1/m{sub c}) counterterms in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. We show a variety of fits to the current data. We find that certain parameter relations in the parity doubling model are not renormalized at one loop, providing a natural explanation for the equality of the hyperfine splittings of ground state and excited doublets.

  9. LATERAL ROOT PRIMORDIA 1 of maize acts as a transcriptional activator in auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA gene rootless with undetectable meristem 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; von Behrens, Inga; Zimmermann, Roman; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Only little is known about target genes of auxin signalling downstream of the Aux/IAA-ARF module. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that maize lateral root primordia 1 (lrp1) encodes a transcriptional activator that is directly regulated by the Aux/IAA protein ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 (RUM1). Expression of lrp1 is confined to early root primordia and meristems and is auxin-inducible. Based on its primary protein structure, LRP1 is predicted to be a transcription factor. This notion is supported by exclusive LRP1 localization in the nucleus and its ability to activate downstream gene activity. Based on the observation that lrp1 transcription is completely repressed in the semi-dominant gain of function mutant rum1, it was demonstrated that the lrp1 promoter is a direct target of RUM1 proteins. Subsequently, promoter activation assays indicated that RUM1 represses the expression of a GFP reporter fused to the native promoter of lrp1. Constitutive repression of lrp1 in rum1 mutants is a consequence of the stability of mutated rum1 proteins which cannot be degraded by the proteasome and thus constitutively bind to the lrp1 promoter and repress transcription. Taken together, the repression of the transcriptional activator lrp1 by direct binding of RUM1 to its promoter, together with specific expression of lrp1 in root meristems, suggests a function in maize root development via the RUM1-dependent auxin signalling pathway. PMID:25911745

  10. Endosidin1 defines a compartment involved in endocytosis of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the auxin transporters PIN2 and AUX1.

    PubMed

    Robert, Stéphanie; Chary, S Narasimha; Drakakaki, Georgia; Li, Shundai; Yang, Zhenbiao; Raikhel, Natasha V; Hicks, Glenn R

    2008-06-17

    Although it is known that proteins are delivered to and recycled from the plasma membrane (PM) via endosomes, the nature of the compartments and pathways responsible for cargo and vesicle sorting and cellular signaling is poorly understood. To define and dissect specific recycling pathways, chemical effectors of proteins involved in vesicle trafficking, especially through endosomes, would be invaluable. Thus, we identified chemicals affecting essential steps in PM/endosome trafficking, using the intensely localized PM transport at the tips of germinating pollen tubes. The basic mechanisms of this localized growth are likely similar to those of non-tip growing cells in seedlings. The compound endosidin 1 (ES1) interfered selectively with endocytosis in seedlings, providing a unique tool to dissect recycling pathways. ES1 treatment induced the rapid agglomeration of the auxin translocators PIN2 and AUX1 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 into distinct endomembrane compartments termed "endosidin bodies"; however, the markers PIN1, PIN7, and other PM proteins were unaffected. Endosidin bodies were defined by the syntaxin SYP61 and the V-ATPase subunit VHA-a1, two trans-Golgi network (TGN)/endosomal proteins. Interestingly, brassinosteroid (BR)-induced gene expression was inhibited by ES1 and treated seedlings displayed a brassinolide (BL)-insensitive phenotype similar to a bri1 loss-of-function mutant. No effect was detected in auxin signaling. Thus, PIN2, AUX1, and BRI1 use interactive pathways involving an early SYP61/VHA-a1 endosomal compartment.

  11. Conception, elaboration et mise a l'essai d'un simulateur interactif permettant une approche modelisante: Application aux lois de la genetique mendelienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasri, Abdel-Halim

    Dans cette recherche-developpement, nous avons concu, developpe et mis a l'essai un simulateur interactif pour favoriser l'apprentissage des lois probabilistes impliqees dans la genetique mendelienne. Cet environnement informatise devra permettre aux etudiants de mener des experiences simulees, utilisant les statistiques et les probebilites comme outils mathematiques pour modeliser le phenomene de la transmission des caracteres hereditaires. L'approche didactique est essentiellement orientee vers l'utilisation des methodes quantitatives impliquees dans l'experimentation des facteurs hereditaires. En incorporant au simulateur le principe de la "Lunette cognitive" de Nonnon (1986), l'etudiant fut place dans une situation ou il a pu synchroniser la perception de la representation iconique (concrete) et symbolique (abstraite) des lois probabilistes de Mendel. A l'aide de cet environnement, nous avons amene l'etudiant a identifier le(s) caractere(s) hereditaire(s) des parents a croiser, a predire les frequences phenotypiques probables de la descendance issue du croisement, a observer les resultats statistiques et leur fluctuation au niveau de l'histogramme des frequences, a comparer ces resultats aux predictions anticipees, a interpreter les donnees et a selectionner en consequence d'autres experiences a realiser. Les etapes de l'approche inductive sont privilegiees du debut a la fin des activites proposees. L'elaboration, du simulateur et des documents d'accompagnement, a ete concue a partir d'une vingtaine de principes directeurs et d'un modele d'action. Ces principes directeurs et le modele d'action decoulent de considerations theoriques psychologiques, didactiques et technologiques. La recherche decrit la structure des differentes parties composant le simulateur. L'architecture de celui-ci est construite autour d'une unite centrale, la "Principale", dont les liens et les ramifications avec les autres unites confere a l'ensemble du simulateur sa souplesse et sa

  12. Observation of an Even-odd Anisotropic Transport in High Landau Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangtong; Yang, Changli; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Yuying; Pang, Yuan; Fan, Jie; Jing, Xiunian; Ji, Zhongqing; Lu, Li; Du, Rui-Rui; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Insititute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Team; International CenterQuantum Materials, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China Collaboration; Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA Collaboration

    Magnetotransport experiments (including tilt fields) were performed on ultrahigh mobility L-shaped Hall-bar samples of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. The low-temperature longitudinal resistance Rxx data demonstrate that a striking even-odd anisotropic transport exists only along the [110] direction at half filling in N >= 2 high Landau levels. Although the origin for the peculiar even-odd anisotropy remains unclear, we propose that the coupling strength between electrons within the same Landau level and between the neighboring two Landau levels should be considered in future studies. The tilt field data show that the in-plane field can suppress the formation of both bubble and stripe phases. The work at IOP was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under the Grant No. 2014CB920904 and 2011CB921702. The work at Princeton University was funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through the EPiQS initiative Grant GBMF4420.

  13. Evening hyperphagia and food motivation: a preliminary study of neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jennifer D; Patrician, Trisha M; Breslin, Florence J; Martin, Laura E; Donnelly, Joseph E; Savage, Cary R

    2013-12-01

    Evening hyperphagia (EH; consumption of ≥25% of total daily calories after the evening meal) is a circadian delay in the pattern of daily food intake and is a core criterion of night eating syndrome (Allison et al., 2010). This preliminary study examined the brain response to food cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in seven obese adults with EH compared to seven obese adults without EH. When contrasting food to non-food and blurry baseline images pre-meal, groups differed in brain activation in the inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and cerebellum. At post meal, groups differed in brain activation in the fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and the cerebellum. Significant interactions between time (pre-meal, post-meal) and group (EH, control) when contrasting food to non-food images were also noted in the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. Further research is necessary to replicate these findings and determine if they have a mechanistic role in the development of circadian delayed eating behavior in obese adults with EH.

  14. Spatial properties of odd and even low order harmonics generated in gas

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, G.; Andreev, A.; Gautier, J.; Giannessi, L.; Malka, V.; Petralia, A.; Sebban, S.; Stremoukhov, S.; Tissandier, F.; Vodungbo, B.; Zeitoun, Ph.

    2015-01-01

    High harmonic generation in gases is developing rapidly as a soft X-ray femtosecond light-source for applications. This requires control over all the harmonics characteristics and in particular, spatial properties have to be kept very good. In previous literature, measurements have always included several harmonics contrary to applications, especially spectroscopic applications, which usually require a single harmonic. To fill this gap, we present here for the first time a detailed study of completely isolated harmonics. The contribution of the surrounding harmonics has been totally suppressed using interferential filtering which is available for low harmonic orders. In addition, this allows to clearly identify behaviors of standard odd orders from even orders obtained by frequency-mixing of a fundamental laser and of its second harmonic. Comparisons of the spatial intensity profiles, of the spatial coherence and of the wavefront aberration level of 5ω at 160 nm and 6ω at 135 nm have then been performed. We have established that the fundamental laser beam aberrations can cause the appearance of a non-homogenous donut-shape in the 6ω spatial intensity distribution. This undesirable effect can be easily controlled. We finally conclude that the spatial quality of an even harmonic can be as excellent as in standard generation. PMID:25585715

  15. No evidence that sex and transposable elements drive genome size variation in evening primroses.

    PubMed

    Ågren, J Arvid; Greiner, Stephan; Johnson, Marc T J; Wright, Stephen I

    2015-04-01

    Genome size varies dramatically across species, but despite an abundance of attention there is little agreement on the relative contributions of selective and neutral processes in governing this variation. The rate of sex can potentially play an important role in genome size evolution because of its effect on the efficacy of selection and transmission of transposable elements (TEs). Here, we used a phylogenetic comparative approach and whole genome sequencing to investigate the contribution of sex and TE content to genome size variation in the evening primrose (Oenothera) genus. We determined genome size using flow cytometry for 30 species that vary in genetic system and find that variation in sexual/asexual reproduction cannot explain the almost twofold variation in genome size. Moreover, using whole genome sequences of three species of varying genome sizes and reproductive system, we found that genome size was not associated with TE abundance; instead the larger genomes had a higher abundance of simple sequence repeats. Although it has long been clear that sexual reproduction may affect various aspects of genome evolution in general and TE evolution in particular, it does not appear to have played a major role in genome size evolution in the evening primroses.

  16. Systematics of the α-decay fine structure in even–even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Delion, D.S.; Dumitrescu, A.

    2015-01-15

    We describe α-transitions to low-lying states in even–even nuclei with Z>50,N>82 using the Coherent State Model (CSM). We reproduce the energy levels and electromagnetic transition rates between the states of the ground band employing two parameters, namely the deformation parameter and the strength of the harmonic CSM Hamiltonian. The B(E2) values are described in terms of an effective charge which depends linearly on the deformation parameter. The treatment of the α-emission process is based on an α–daughter interaction containing a monopole component, calculated through a double folding procedure with a M3Y interaction plus a repulsive core simulating the Pauli principle, and a quadrupole–quadrupole (QQ) interaction. The decaying states are identified with the lowest narrow outgoing resonances obtained through the coupled channels method. The α-branching ratios to 2{sup +} states are reproduced by means of the QQ strength. This interaction strength can be fitted with a linear dependence on the deformation parameter, as predicted by the CSM. The theoretical intensities to 4{sup +} and 6{sup +} states are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. Predictions are made for spherical, transitional and well deformed even–even α-emitters.

  17. The effect of shadow fronts on dynamics of the surface layer during evening transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardyjak, E.; Hoch, S. W.; Jensen, D. D.; Gunawardena, N.; Di Sabatino, S.; Whiteman, C. D.; Leo, L.; Hocut, C. M.; Higgins, C. W.; Fernando, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Two MATERHORN-X (Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observation Program) field campaigns were conducted at Dugway, UT, USA during the last year. An Autumn Campaign from 25 September - 21 October 2012 and a Spring Campaign from 1- 31 May 2013. A subset of the campaigns included dense observations along the East Slope of Granit Peak (40.096° N, -113.253° W). Observations included five multi-sonic anemometer eddy covariance towers (two with full energy budget stations), eleven small energy budget stations, fifteen automated weather stations, a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system, hot-film anemometry, infrared camera surface temperature observations and up to three Doppler lidars. For this presentation, our analysis will focus on characterizing the response of mean wind and thermodynamics variables, as well as turbulence quantities during the evening transitions on East Slope. Previous observations have indicated that the dynamics of turbulence during evening transitions in steep mountainous terrain rapidly follows surface temperature changes associated with shadows produced by the local topography. The observations of flow transitions over the more moderate East Slope of Granite (~3-8%) indicate that wind shift direction and turbulence decay is not as tightly coupled to the shadow. Details of the transition response will be presented in the context of a new process model.

  18. Morphine causes persistent induction of nitrated neurofilaments in cortex and subcortex even during abstinence.

    PubMed

    Pal, A; Das, S

    2015-04-16

    Morphine has a profound role in neurofilament (NF) expression. However, there are very few studies on the fate of NFs during morphine abstinence coinciding with periods of relapse. Mice were treated chronically with morphine to render them tolerant to and dependent on morphine and sacrificed thereafter while another group, treated similarly, was left for 2 months without morphine. A long-lasting alteration in the stoichiometric ratio of the three NFs was observed under both conditions in both the cortex and subcortex. Morphine abstinence caused significant alterations in the phosphorylated and nitrated forms of the three NF subunits. Nitrated neurofilament light polypeptide chain (NFL) was significantly increased during chronic morphine treatment which persisted even after 2 months of morphine withdrawal. Mass spectrometric analysis following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE)-gel electrophoresis of cytoskeleton fractions of both cortex and subcortex regions identified enzymes associated with energy metabolism, cytoskeleton-associated proteins as well as NFs which showed sustained regulation even after abstinence of morphine for 2 months. It is suggestive that alteration in the levels of some of these proteins may be instrumental in the increased nitration of NFL during morphine exposure. Such gross alteration in NF dynamics is indicative of a concerted biological process of neuroadaptation during morphine abstinence.

  19. Emerging Ecosystems Change the Spatial Distribution of Top Carnivores Even in Poorly Populated Areas

    PubMed Central

    Barbar, Facundo; Werenkraut, Victoria; Morales, Juan Manuel; Lambertucci, Sergio Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Humans affect biological diversity and species distribution patterns by modifying resource availability and generating novel environments where generalist species benefit and specialist species are rare. In particular, cities create local homogenization while roads fragment habitat, although both processes can increase food availability for some species that may be able to take advantage of this new source. We studied space use by birds of prey in relation to human construction, hypothesizing that these birds would be affected even in poorly populated areas. We worked in Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which is experiencing a high population growth, but still having very large unpopulated areas. We related the presence of raptors with different sources of human disturbance and found that both the abundance and richness of these birds were positively associated with anthropogenic environments. These results are driven mostly by a strong association between the medium-sized generalist species and these novel environments (mainly roads and cities). This may create an imbalance in intra-guild competitive abilities, modifying the normal structures of top carnivore hierarchies. Indeed, the structure of raptor communities seems to be changing, even in poorly populated areas, with anthropogenic constructions seemingly producing changes in wild areas more promptly than thought, a cause for concern in ecosystems conservation issues. PMID:25799547

  20. What Type of Person Are You? Old-Fashioned Thinking Even in Modern Science

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Kenneth M.; Lambert, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    People around the world have folk origin myths, stories that explain where they came from and account for their place in the world and their differences from other peoples. As scientists, however, we claim to be seeking literal historical truth. In Western culture, typological ideas about human variation are at least as ancient as written discussion of the subject, and have dominated both social and scientific thinking about race. From Herodotus to the Biblical lost tribes of Israel, and surprisingly even to today, it has been common to view our species as composed of distinct, or even discrete groups, types, or “races,” with other individuals admixed from among those groups. Such rhetoric goes so much against the well-known evolutionary realities that it must reflect something deep about human thought, at least in Western culture. Typological approaches can be convenient for some pragmatic aspects of scientific analysis, but they can be seductively deceiving. We know how to think differently and should do so, given the historical abuses that have occurred as a result of typological thinking that seem always to lurk in the human heart. PMID:24384573

  1. Emerging ecosystems change the spatial distribution of top carnivores even in poorly populated areas.

    PubMed

    Barbar, Facundo; Werenkraut, Victoria; Morales, Juan Manuel; Lambertucci, Sergio Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Humans affect biological diversity and species distribution patterns by modifying resource availability and generating novel environments where generalist species benefit and specialist species are rare. In particular, cities create local homogenization while roads fragment habitat, although both processes can increase food availability for some species that may be able to take advantage of this new source. We studied space use by birds of prey in relation to human construction, hypothesizing that these birds would be affected even in poorly populated areas. We worked in Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which is experiencing a high population growth, but still having very large unpopulated areas. We related the presence of raptors with different sources of human disturbance and found that both the abundance and richness of these birds were positively associated with anthropogenic environments. These results are driven mostly by a strong association between the medium-sized generalist species and these novel environments (mainly roads and cities). This may create an imbalance in intra-guild competitive abilities, modifying the normal structures of top carnivore hierarchies. Indeed, the structure of raptor communities seems to be changing, even in poorly populated areas, with anthropogenic constructions seemingly producing changes in wild areas more promptly than thought, a cause for concern in ecosystems conservation issues. PMID:25799547

  2. Observation of even denominator fractional quantum Hall effect in suspended bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Ki, Dong-Keun; Fal'ko, Vladimir I; Abanin, Dmitry A; Morpurgo, Alberto F

    2014-01-01

    We investigate low-temperature magneto-transport in recently developed, high-quality multiterminal suspended bilayer graphene devices, enabling the independent measurement of the longitudinal and transverse resistance. We observe clear signatures of the fractional quantum Hall effect with different states that are either fully developed, and exhibit a clear plateau in the transverse resistance with a concomitant dip in longitudinal resistance or incipient, and exhibit only a longitudinal resistance minimum. All observed states scale as a function of filling factor ν, as expected. An unprecedented even-denominator fractional state is observed at ν = -1/2 on the hole side, exhibiting a clear plateau in Rxy quantized at the expected value of 2h/e(2) with a precision of ∼0.5%. Many of our observations, together with a recent electronic compressibility measurement performed in graphene bilayers on hexagonal boron-nitride (hBN) substrates, are consistent with a recent theory that accounts for the effect of the degeneracy between the N = 0 and N = 1 Landau levels in the fractional quantum Hall effect and predicts the occurrence of a Moore-Read type ν = -1/2 state. Owing to the experimental flexibility of bilayer graphene, which has a gate-dependent band structure, can be easily accessed by scanning probes, and can be contacted with materials such as superconductors, our findings offer new possibilities to explore the microscopic nature of even-denominator fractional quantum Hall effect.

  3. Even modest prediction accuracy of genomic models can have large clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Vazquez, Ana I; Argyropoulos, George A; Allison, David B

    2014-01-01

    Whole Genome Prediction (WGP) jointly fits thousands of SNPs into a regression model to yield estimates for the contribution of markers to the overall variance of a particular trait, and for their associations with that trait. To date, WGP has offered only modest prediction accuracy, but in some cases even modest prediction accuracy may be useful. We provide an illustration of this using a theoretical simulation that used WGP to predict weight loss after bariatric surgery with moderate accuracy (R (2) = 0.07) to assess the clinical utility of WGP despite these limitations. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) post-surgery was considered the major outcome. Treating only patients above predefined threshold of predicted weight loss in our simulation, in the realistic context of finite resources for the surgery, significantly reduced lifetime risk of T2DM in the treatable population by selecting those most likely to succeed. Thus, our example illustrates how WGP may be clinically useful in some situations, and even with moderate accuracy, may provide a clear path for turning personalized medicine from theory to reality.

  4. Even modest prediction accuracy of genomic models can have large clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Vazquez, Ana I.; Argyropoulos, George A.; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Whole Genome Prediction (WGP) jointly fits thousands of SNPs into a regression model to yield estimates for the contribution of markers to the overall variance of a particular trait, and for their associations with that trait. To date, WGP has offered only modest prediction accuracy, but in some cases even modest prediction accuracy may be useful. We provide an illustration of this using a theoretical simulation that used WGP to predict weight loss after bariatric surgery with moderate accuracy (R2 = 0.07) to assess the clinical utility of WGP despite these limitations. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) post-surgery was considered the major outcome. Treating only patients above predefined threshold of predicted weight loss in our simulation, in the realistic context of finite resources for the surgery, significantly reduced lifetime risk of T2DM in the treatable population by selecting those most likely to succeed. Thus, our example illustrates how WGP may be clinically useful in some situations, and even with moderate accuracy, may provide a clear path for turning personalized medicine from theory to reality. PMID:25506355

  5. Genetic architecture underlying morning and evening circadian phenotypes in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Vaze, K M; Nikhil, K L; Sharma, V K

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are perhaps among the genetically best characterized behaviours. Several mutations with drastic effects on circadian processes have been identified and models developed to explain how clock genes and their products generate self-sustained oscillations. Although natural variations in circadian phenotypes have been studied extensively, the genetic basis of such adaptive variations remains largely unknown. Here we report the results of a preliminary genetic analysis of adaptive divergence of circadian phenotypes in populations of fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster. Two sets of populations, ‘early' and ‘late', were created in a long-term laboratory selection for morning and evening emergence, with four independent replicates each. Over the course of ∼55 generations, the early flies evolved increased morning emergence and a shorter circadian period, whereas late flies evolved increased evening emergence and longer period. To examine the genetic basis of circadian phenotypes, we set up crosses between early and late flies, and monitored emergence and activity/rest rhythms in the F1, backcrossed and F2 progeny. Our analysis suggests that the genetic basis of divergent circadian phenotypes in early and late stocks is primarily autosomal. Line-cross analysis revealed that additive and non-additive genetic effects contribute to the divergence of circadian phenotypes in early and late flies. PMID:23612693

  6. The relationship between work-related rumination and evening and morning salivary cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Cropley, Mark; Rydstedt, Leif W; Devereux, Jason J; Middleton, Benita

    2015-04-01

    The perseverative cognition hypothesis suggests that worry/ruminative thinking prolongs stress-related physiological activation. This study explored the association of work-related rumination with salivary cortisol sampled at 10 pm and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) the following morning. On a mid-week evening, 108 school teachers completed a small diary about their work-related thoughts and gave a saliva cortisol sample at 10 pm. The following morning, they gave four additional saliva samples: at awakening and at 15, 30 and 45 min after awakening, along with a rating of their anticipatory thoughts about work. The CAR was calculated as the percentage increase in cortisol secretion from awakening to 30 min, and the sample was divided at their respective medians to classify participants into low and high rumination groups. Cortisol secretion was found to be significantly greater in the high compared with the low ruminators at 10 pm, and this effect was not related to leisure activities or work patterns during the evening. For the morning measures, high ruminators demonstrated a flattened CAR relative to the low ruminators, and this effect appeared to be associated with sleep disturbance during the night. Ruminating about work-related issues is associated with cortisol secretion, and our findings support the perseverative cognition hypothesis.

  7. Emerging ecosystems change the spatial distribution of top carnivores even in poorly populated areas.

    PubMed

    Barbar, Facundo; Werenkraut, Victoria; Morales, Juan Manuel; Lambertucci, Sergio Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Humans affect biological diversity and species distribution patterns by modifying resource availability and generating novel environments where generalist species benefit and specialist species are rare. In particular, cities create local homogenization while roads fragment habitat, although both processes can increase food availability for some species that may be able to take advantage of this new source. We studied space use by birds of prey in relation to human construction, hypothesizing that these birds would be affected even in poorly populated areas. We worked in Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, which is experiencing a high population growth, but still having very large unpopulated areas. We related the presence of raptors with different sources of human disturbance and found that both the abundance and richness of these birds were positively associated with anthropogenic environments. These results are driven mostly by a strong association between the medium-sized generalist species and these novel environments (mainly roads and cities). This may create an imbalance in intra-guild competitive abilities, modifying the normal structures of top carnivore hierarchies. Indeed, the structure of raptor communities seems to be changing, even in poorly populated areas, with anthropogenic constructions seemingly producing changes in wild areas more promptly than thought, a cause for concern in ecosystems conservation issues.

  8. Adaptive molecular evolution of a defence gene in sexual but not functionally asexual evening primroses.

    PubMed

    Hersch-Green, E I; Myburg, H; Johnson, M T J

    2012-08-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction provides evolutionary advantages over asexual reproduction by reducing mutational load and increasing adaptive potential. Here, we test the latter prediction in the context of plant defences against pathogens because pathogens frequently reduce plant fitness and drive the evolution of plant defences. Specifically, we ask whether sexual evening primrose plant lineages (Onagraceae) have faster rates of adaptive molecular evolution and altered gene expression of a class I chitinase, a gene implicated in defence against pathogens, than functionally asexual evening primrose lineages. We found that the ratio of amino acid to silent substitutions (K(a) /K(s) = 0.19 vs. 0.11 for sexual and asexual lineages, respectively), the number of sites identified to be under positive selection (four vs. zero for sexual and asexual lineages, respectively) and the expression of chitinase were all higher in sexual than in asexual lineages. Our results are congruent with the conclusion that a loss of sexual recombination and segregation in the Onagraceae negatively affects adaptive structural and potentially regulatory evolution of a plant defence protein.

  9. Magnetic Dipole Moment Measurements of Picosecond States in Even and Odd Heavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballon, Douglas Jude

    The perturbed angular correlation and transient field technique is used to measure the precession of nuclear magnetic moments of low lying excited states in isotopes of silver, neodymium, samarium, and gadolinium. The precession measurements are used to explore three main areas of study. First, from the measurements made on ('150)Sm traversing gadolinium targets, the temperature dependence of the transient hyperfine field is deduced at ('150)Sm nuclei traveling at 2 < v/v(,0) < 4. These are compared with similar measurements made using iron targets. Second, the deduced values of the g-factors of the 2(,1)('+) states in even neodymium, samarium and gadolinium isotopes are discussed in connection with a possible proton shell closure at Z = 64. Third, the deduced values of the g-factors of the 3/2(,1)('-) and 5/2(,1)('-) states of ('107,109)Ag are compared to various theoretical predictions in order to explore any simple relationships that may exist between these states and the first 2(,1)('+) states of neighboring even-even nuclei. The following is a list of g-factors that were measured during the course of this work: (UNFORMATTED TABLE FOLLOWS). g(('107)Ag, 3/2(,1)('-)) = 0.607 (119). g(('109)Ag, 3/2(,1)('-)) = 0.661 (105). g(('107)Ag, 5/2(,1)('-)) = 0.409 (66). g(('109)Ag, 5/2(,1)('-)) = 0.287 (57). g(('144)Nd, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.166 (41). g(('146)Nd, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.312 (49). g(('148)Nd, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.411 (42). g(('150)Nd,2(,1)('+)) = 0.418 (38). g(('148)Sm, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.301 (33). g(('150)Sm, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.381 (27). g(('152)Gd, 2(,1)('+)) = 0.444 (40). (TABLE ENDS). The results of the temperature dependence experiment show deviations from an earlier measurement made using thulium in iron. The g-factors measured in the lighter isotopes of neodymium and samarium are significantly below the collective Z/A value. Fair agreement with the data can be obtained if proton shell closure is assumed at Z = 64 for N < 88. The measured g-factors in the silver isotopes

  10. Croissance Par Epitaxie EN Phase Vapeur aux Organo - et Caracterisation des Heterostructures Contraintes a Base de Phosphur de Indium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chuong Anh

    Trois systemes heteroepitaxiaux a base de InP:InP/Si, InAs/InP et InAsP/InP ont ete fabriques par epitaxie en phase vapeur aux organo-metalliques (EPVOM)conventionelle. En plus l'epitaxie par couches atomiques (ECA) a ete utilisee pour fabriquer des puits quantiques ultra-minces et des superreseaux a courte periode InAs/InP. L'epitaxie de InP sur le silicium pose des problemes lies a un desaccord de maille de 8%. Les resultats indiquent une relaxation totale de la couche de InP a la temperature de croissance. La contrainte residuelle observee par diffraction de rayons X a haute resolution (DRXHR) et photoluminescence s'explique par une difference dans les coefficients de dilatation thermique de InP et due Si. L'incorporation des impuretes ainsi que la diffusion d'atomes de Si du substrat dans la couche epitaxiale de InP dependent fortement des parametres de croissance. Les resultats montrents que le reseau de dislocations dans les couches de InP deposees sur un substrat de Si mesoriente est suffisamment asymetrique pour creer des constraintes locales. Celles-ci peuvent etre analysees par diffraction de rayons X. Par contre le systeme heteroepitaxial InAs/InP, dont le desaccord de maille est 3.2% peut etre realise sans dislocation a condition que l'epaisseur de toute heterostructure soit gardee inferieure a l'epaisseur critique. Des puits quantiques InAsP/InP a la temperature ambiante montre clairement l'inter et technologique du systeme InAs_ {x}P_{1-x}/InP pour la realisation de dispositifs tels que les modulateurs optiques. L'ECA a ete utilisee pour realiser des puits quantiques simples et des superreseaux a courte periode InAs/InP. Nous avons demontre que cette technique permet d'obtenir des interfaces tres abruptes et des epaisseurs bien definies, et de faire des heterostructures que peuvent combiner une large gamme de semiconducteurs de composition et desaccords de maille varies. Finalement nous avons fait une etude approfondie des modes vibratoires dans les

  11. Multi-channel quantum dragons from rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkoom, Godfred; Novotny, Mark

    Recently, a large class of nanostructures called quantum dragons have been discovered theoretically. Quantum dragons are nanostuctures with correlated disorder but have an electron transmission probability  (E) =1 for all energies E when connected to idealized leads. Hence for a single channel, the electrical conductance for a two-probe measurement should give the quantum of conductance Go =2e2/h . The time independent Schrödinger equation for the single band tight binding model is solved exactly to obtain  (E) . We have generalized the matrix method and the mapping methods of in order to study multi-channel quantum dragons for rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure. The studies may be relevant for experimental rectangular nanotubes, such as MgO, copper phthalocyanine or some types of graphyne.. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  12. Even therapeutic antimicrobial use in animal husbandry may generate environmental hazards to human health.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P

    2016-02-01

    The potential negative impact for human health of veterinary use of antimicrobials in prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and growth promotion in animal husbandry was first established in the 1960s and 1970s. Determination of the molecular structure of antimicrobial resistance plasmids at that time explained the ability of antimicrobial resistance genes to disseminate among bacterial populations and elucidated the reasons for the negative effects of antimicrobials used in food animals for human health. In this issue of Environmental Microbiology, Liu et al. (2016) show that even therapeutic use of antimicrobials in dairy calves has an appreciable environmental microbiological footprint. We discuss the negative implications of this footprint for human health and the possibility they may lead to calls for increased regulation of veterinary antimicrobial use in terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  13. Quantum dots with even number of electrons: kondo effect in a finite magnetic field

    PubMed

    Pustilnik; Avishai; Kikoin

    2000-02-21

    We show that the Kondo effect can be induced by an external magnetic field in quantum dots with an even number of electrons. If the Zeeman energy B is close to the single-particle level spacing Delta in the dot, the scattering of the conduction electrons from the dot is dominated by an anisotropic exchange interaction. A Kondo resonance then occurs despite the fact that B exceeds by far the Kondo temperature T(K). As a result, at low temperatures T

  14. N and Z odd-even staggering in Kr+Sn collisions at Fermi energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Carboni, S.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Valdrè, S.; Bougault, R.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Gruyer, D.; Lopez, O.; Le Neindre, N.; Pârlog, M.; Rivet, M. F.; Vient, E.; Rosato, E.; Spadaccini, G.; Vigilante, M.; Bruno, M.; Marchi, T.; Morelli, L.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Gramegna, F.; Kozik, T.; Twaróg, T.; Alba, R.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.

    2013-12-01

    The odd-even staggering of the yield of final reaction products has been studied as a function of proton (Z) and neutron (N) numbers for the collisions 84Kr+112Sn and 84Kr+124Sn at 35 MeV/nucleon in a wide range of elements (up to Z≈20). The experimental data show that staggering effects rapidly decrease with increasing size of the fragments. Moreover the staggering in N is definitely larger than the one in Z. Similar general features are qualitatively reproduced by the gemini code. Concerning the comparison of the two systems, the staggering in N is in general rather similar, being slightly larger only for the lightest fragments produced in the n-rich system. In contrast the staggering in Z, although smaller than that in N, is sizably larger for the n-poor system with respect to the n-rich one.

  15. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-06-21

    Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006) separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  16. Even perturbations of the self-similar Vaidya space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Brien C.; Waters, Thomas J.

    2005-05-15

    We study even parity metric and matter perturbations of all angular modes in self-similar Vaidya space-time. We focus on the case where the background contains a naked singularity. Initial conditions are imposed, describing a finite perturbation emerging from the portion of flat space-time preceding the matter-filled region of space-time. The most general perturbation satisfying the initial conditions is allowed to impinge upon the Cauchy horizon (CH), where the perturbation remains finite: There is no 'blue-sheet' instability. However, when the perturbation evolves through the CH and onto the second future similarity horizon of the naked singularity, divergence necessarily occurs: This surface is found to be unstable. The analysis is based on the study of individual modes following a Mellin transform of the perturbation. We present an argument that the full perturbation remains finite after resummation of the (possibly infinite number of) modes.

  17. Even therapeutic antimicrobial use in animal husbandry may generate environmental hazards to human health.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P

    2016-02-01

    The potential negative impact for human health of veterinary use of antimicrobials in prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and growth promotion in animal husbandry was first established in the 1960s and 1970s. Determination of the molecular structure of antimicrobial resistance plasmids at that time explained the ability of antimicrobial resistance genes to disseminate among bacterial populations and elucidated the reasons for the negative effects of antimicrobials used in food animals for human health. In this issue of Environmental Microbiology, Liu et al. (2016) show that even therapeutic use of antimicrobials in dairy calves has an appreciable environmental microbiological footprint. We discuss the negative implications of this footprint for human health and the possibility they may lead to calls for increased regulation of veterinary antimicrobial use in terrestrial and aquatic environments. PMID:26913818

  18. Linearisation of asymmetrical Doherty amplifier by the even-order non-linear signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleš-Ilić, Nataša; Atanasković, Aleksandar; Blau, Kurt; Hein, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    This paper considers the linearisation of an asymmetrical two-way Doherty amplifier by the method that uses the second harmonics and fourth-order non-linear signals for linearisation. These even-order signals for linearisation are extracted at the output of the peaking amplifier, adjusted in amplitude and phase and injected at the input and output of the carrier amplifier transistor in the Doherty configuration. The effect of linearisation has been experimentally confirmed on a fabricated asymmetrical Doherty amplifier with the additional circuit for linearisation. The suppression of the third-order intermodulation products has been carried out for two-tone test, 64QAM and WCDMA digitally modulated signals in a range of signal power.

  19. Isospin Dependence in the Odd-Even Staggering of Nuclear Binding Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinov, Yu.A.; Geissel, H.; Buervenich, T.J.; Novikov, Yu.N.; Patyk, Z.; Scheidenberger, C.; Attallah, F.; Beckert, K.; Bosch, F.; Franzke, B.; Klepper, O.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nolden, F.; Radon, T.; Steck, M.; Typel, S.; Audi, G.; Falch, M.

    2005-07-22

    The FRS-ESR facility at GSI provides unique conditions for precision measurements of large areas on the nuclear mass surface in a single experiment. Values for masses of 604 neutron-deficient nuclides (30{<=}Z{<=}92) were obtained with a typical uncertainty of 30 {mu}u. The masses of 114 nuclides were determined for the first time. The odd-even staggering (OES) of nuclear masses was systematically investigated for isotopic chains between the proton shell closures at Z=50 and Z=82. The results were compared with predictions of modern nuclear models. The comparison revealed that the measured trend of OES is not reproduced by the theories fitted to masses only. The spectral pairing gaps extracted from models adjusted to both masses, and density related observables of nuclei agree better with the experimental data.

  20. Acne vulgaris: an inflammatory disease even before the onset of clinical lesions.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marco Alexandre; Costa, Caroline Sousa; Bagatin, Edileia

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a chronic self-limited disease, which affects mostly teenagers, without gender difference. In recent years, the incidence has increased in female adults. The factors involved in this epidemiological observation are still under discussion in the literature. Clinically, acne is characterized by different types of lesions. The disease affects the regions rich in sebaceous glands (face, chest and upper back). The clinical lesions are: open and closed comedones, erythematous papules, pustules, nodules and different types of scars. Taking into consideration the general concept of inflammation (redness, pain, heat and loss of function), acne is traditionally classified as non-inflammatory (open and closed comedones) and inflammatory (other primary lesions). With the knowledge advancement this concept seems to be wrong and therefore acne would be an inflammatory disease even before the onset of their clinical lesions.

  1. Even-odd alternation in mass spectrum of thymine and uracil clusters: Evidence of intracluster photodimerization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Joon; Kang, Hyuk; Jeong, Gawoon; Kim, Yung Sam; Lee, Kang Taek; Kim, Seong Keun

    2001-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization of thymine and uracil clusters generated by a supersonic molecular beam gave rise to a remarkable alternation of mass spectral intensities between even- and odd-numbered clusters. Such alternation was observed in clusters of up to 30 molecules. Excitation to the two lowest electronically excited states seemed to be a strong prerequisite. In view of the well known photodimerization reaction of thymine and uracil in the bulk phase, it is proposed that such alternation in the mass spectral intensity resulted from formation of photodimer units within the cluster on intense UV irradiation. Several analogues of thymine with no known propensity for photodimerization in the bulk phase did not exhibit any sign of such alternation in the cluster mass spectrum. The intrinsic UV window for photodimerization, and hence photoinduced mammalian mutagenesis, was estimated to be approximately 210–280 nm, significantly narrower than the previously reported bulk values of 150–300 nm. PMID:11296267

  2. Phototropins do not alter accumulation of evening-phased circadian transcripts under blue light

    PubMed Central

    Litthauer, Suzanne; Battle, Martin W.; Jones, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The circadian system induces rhythmic variation in a suite of biochemical and physiological processes that serve to optimise plant growth in diel cycles. To be of greatest utility, these rhythmic behaviors are coordinated with regular environmental changes such as the rising and setting of the sun. Photoreceptors, along with metabolites produced during photosynthesis, act to synchronise the internal timing mechanism with lighting cues. We have recently shown that phototropins help maintain robust rhythms of photosynthetic operating efficiency (φPSII or Fq′/Fm′) under blue light, although rhythmic accumulation of morning-phased circadian transcripts in the nucleus was unaffected. Here we report that evening-phased nuclear clock transcripts were also unaffected. We also observe that rhythms of nuclear clock transcript accumulation are maintained in phototropin mutant plants under a fluctuating lighting regime that induced a loss of Fq′/Fm′ rhythms. PMID:26653107

  3. Spherically symmetric self-dual Yang-Mills instantons on curved backgrounds in all even dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D. H.; Yang Yisong

    2008-02-15

    We present several different classes of self-dual Yang-Mills instantons in all even d-dimensional backgrounds with Euclidean signature. In d=4p+2 the only solutions we found are on constant curvature dS (de Sitter) and AdS (anti-de Sitter) backgrounds and are evaluated in closed form. In d=4p an interesting class of instantons are given on black hole backgrounds. One class of solutions are (Euclidean) time-independent and spherically symmetric in d-1 dimensions, and the other class are spherically symmetric in all d dimensions. Some of the solutions in the former class are evaluated numerically, all the rest being given in closed form. Analytic proofs of existence covering all numerically evaluated solutions are given. All instantons studied have finite action and vanishing energy momentum tensor and do not disturb the geometry.

  4. Representations of U ¯ q s ℓ ( 2 | 1 ) at even roots of unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semikhatov, A. M.; Tipunin, I. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    We construct all projective modules of the restricted quantum group U ¯ q s ℓ ( 2 | 1 ) at an even, 2p th, root of unity. This 64p4-dimensional Hopf algebra is a common double bosonization of two rank-2 Nichols algebras 𝔅(X) with fermionic generator(s). We show that the category of U ¯ q s ℓ ( 2 | 1 ) -modules is equivalent to the category of Yetter-Drinfeld 𝔅(X)-modules in C ρ =H H Y for H = ℤ2p ⊗ ℤ2p, where the coaction is defined by a universal R-matrix ρ ∈ H ⊗ H. As an application of the projective module construction, we study the basic algebra of U ¯ q s ℓ ( 2 | 1 ) and find the associative algebra structure and the dimension, 5p2 - p + 4, of its center.

  5. CP-even scalar boson production via gluon fusion at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiou, Charalampos; Duhr, Claude; Dulat, Falko; Furlan, Elisabetta; Gehrmann, Thomas; Herzog, Franz; Lazopoulos, Achilleas; Mistlberger, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    In view of the searches at the LHC for scalar particle resonances in addition to the 125 GeV Higgs boson, we present the cross-section for a CP-even scalar produced via gluon fusion at N3LO in perturbative QCD assuming that it couples directly to gluons in an effective theory approach. We refine our prediction by taking into account the possibility that the scalar couples to the top-quark and computing the corresponding contributions through NLO in perturbative QCD. We assess the theoretical uncertainties of the crosssection due to missing higher-order QCD effects and we provide the necessary information for obtaining the cross-section value and uncertainty from our results in specific scenarios beyond the Standard Model. We also give detailed results for the case of a 750 GeV scalar, which will be the subject of intense experimental studies.

  6. Odd-Even Mass Staggering Described by Relativistic Hartree-Fock Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long Jun; Long, Wen Hui

    2013-11-01

    The neutron and proton odd-even mass staggering (OES) are systematically studied within the density-dependent relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (DDRHFB) theory and the density-dependent relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (DDRHB) theory. In terms of the finite-range Gogny D1S as the pairing force, both DDRHFB and DDRHB theories can well reproduce the experimental OES, including C, O, Ca, Ni, Zr, Sn, Ce, Gd and Pb isotopes, and N = 50 and 82 isotones. In addition, the optimizations on the pairing force with the prefix factors bring systematical improvements on the OES for the light and heavy nuclei. It is also found that the pairing effects are essentially related with the appropriate description of the nuclear structures, in which the ρ-tensor correlations play an important role.

  7. [Evenly floating attention, models and theories of the cognitive process of the psychoanalyst].

    PubMed

    König, H

    1996-04-01

    The perception process taking place in the mind of the analyst in the psycho-analytic situation is a constant oscillation between the temptation to be guided too much by theory and the dangers of trusting to feelings and intuition alone. In order to avoid the pitfalls of this Scylla and Charybdis situation and with a view to reconciling empathy and knowledge in such a way as to provide optimal access to the patient's unconscious, the author draws upon a model devised by W.R. Bion. The author claims that Bion's model, an intermedium between affect and cognition, achieves the integration of evenly suspended attention and theory-guided perception by taking account of patient's experiential objects while at the same time allowing scope for cognitive activity, a process which Bion calls "intervening phase" König then briefly recounts a case study illustrating the possibility of achieving interpretations that combine both empathy and knowledge. PMID:8685384

  8. The even-odd systematics in R-process nuclide abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.; Suess, H. E.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reports and discusses solar system N(R) abundances for nuclides A greater than 70, obtained as differences between measured solar system abundances and calculated S-process contributions. The abundance peak at A of about 163 in the rare earth element region reveals properties which are similar to those of the R-process peaks corresponding to magic neutron numbers N = 82 and N = 126. Systematic differences in the N(R) abundances of even-A and odd-A nuclides are restricted to specific mass regions. It is concluded that these differences are most probably related to the properties of nuclear species during beta(-) decay to the stability valley.

  9. Fe I OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS FOR TRANSITIONS FROM HIGH-LYING EVEN-PARITY LEVELS

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Brewer, N. R.; Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.; Lind, K.

    2015-01-01

    New radiative lifetimes, measured to ±5% accuracy, are reported for 31 even-parity levels of Fe I ranging from 45061 cm{sup –1} to 56842 cm{sup –1}. These lifetimes have been measured using single-step and two-step time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam of iron atoms. Branching fractions have been attempted for all of these levels, and completed for 20 levels. This set of levels represents an extension of the collaborative work reported in Ruffoni et al. The radiative lifetimes combined with the branching fractions yields new oscillator strengths for 203 lines of Fe I. Utilizing a 1D-LTE model of the solar photosphere, spectral syntheses for a subset of these lines which are unblended in the solar spectrum yields a mean iron abundance of (log[ε(Fe)]) = 7.45 ± 0.06.

  10. [Evenly floating attention, models and theories of the cognitive process of the psychoanalyst].

    PubMed

    König, H

    1996-04-01

    The perception process taking place in the mind of the analyst in the psycho-analytic situation is a constant oscillation between the temptation to be guided too much by theory and the dangers of trusting to feelings and intuition alone. In order to avoid the pitfalls of this Scylla and Charybdis situation and with a view to reconciling empathy and knowledge in such a way as to provide optimal access to the patient's unconscious, the author draws upon a model devised by W.R. Bion. The author claims that Bion's model, an intermedium between affect and cognition, achieves the integration of evenly suspended attention and theory-guided perception by taking account of patient's experiential objects while at the same time allowing scope for cognitive activity, a process which Bion calls "intervening phase" König then briefly recounts a case study illustrating the possibility of achieving interpretations that combine both empathy and knowledge.

  11. Repeating the Past: Prevention Focus Motivates Repetition, Even For Unethical Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Cornwell, James F.M.; Higgins, E. Tory

    2013-01-01

    Prevention-focused individuals are motivated to maintain the status quo. Given this, we predicted that individuals with a strong prevention focus, either as a chronic predisposition or situationally induced, would treat their initial decision of how to behave on a first task as the status quo, and thus be motivated to repeat that decision on a subsequent task—even for decisions that are ethically questionable. Five studies supported this prediction in multiple ethical domains: whether or not to overstate performance (Studies 1, 2a, 2b), to disclose disadvantageous facts (Study 3), and to pledge a donation (Study 4). The prevention-repetition effect was observed when initial and subsequent decisions were in the same domain (Studies 1-3) and in different domains (Study 4). Alternative accounts such as justification for the initial decision and preference for consistency were ruled out (Study 2b). PMID:24277774

  12. Equations of motion solved by the Cremmer-Scherk configuration on even-dimensional spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kihara, Hironobu

    2013-01-15

    Equations of motion of low-energy effective theories of quantum electrodynamics include infinitely many interaction terms, which make them difficult to solve. The self-duality property has facilitated research on the solutions to these equations. In this paper, equations of motion of systems of non-Abelian gauge fields on even-dimensional spheres are considered. It is demonstrated that the Cremmer-Scherk configuration, which satisfies certain generalized self-duality equations, becomes the classical solution for the class of systems that are given by arbitrary functions of class C{sup 1} of 2m+ 1 quantities. For instance, Lagrangians consisting of multi-trace terms are included in this class. This result is likely to generate several new and interesting directions of research, including the classification of actions with respect to the stability condition against the Cremmer-Scherk configuration.

  13. Downwelling spectral irradiance during evening twilight as a function of the lunar phase.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Glenn; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-02-01

    We measured downwelling spectral vector irradiance (from 350 to 800 nm) during evening civil and nautical twilight (solar elevation down to -12°). Nine sets of measurements were taken to cover the first half of the lunar cycle (from the new to full moon) and were also used to calculate chromaticity (CIE 1976 u'v'). The lunar phase had no consistent effect on downwelling irradiance until solar elevation was less than -8°. For lower solar elevations, the effect of the moon increased with the fraction of the illuminated lunar disk until the fraction was approximately 50%. For fractions greater than 50%, the brightness and chromaticity of the downwelling irradiance were approximately independent of the fraction illuminated, likely because the greater brightness of a fuller moon was offset by its lower elevation during twilight. Given the importance of crepuscular periods to animal activity, including predation, reproductive cycles, and color vision in dim light, these results may have significant implications for animal ecology.

  14. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-01-01

    Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006) separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia. PMID:16790045

  15. Chinese children excel on novel mathematics problems even before elementary school.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Mu, Yan

    2008-08-01

    Kindergartners in China showed greater numerical knowledge than their age peers in the United States, not only when tested with arithmetic problems, which Chinese parents present to their children more often than U.S. parents do, but also when tested with number-line estimation problems, which were novel to the children in both countries. The Chinese kindergartners' number-line estimates were comparable to those of U.S. children 1 to 2 years more advanced in school. Individual differences in arithmetic and number-line-estimation performance were positively correlated within each country. These results indicate that performance differences between Chinese and U.S. children on both practiced and unpracticed mathematical tasks are substantial even before the children begin elementary school. PMID:18816281

  16. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  17. SU(6) quadrupole phonon model for even and odd nuclei and the SU(3) limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, V.; Brant, S.; Canto, L. F.; Leander, G.; Vouk, M.

    1982-04-01

    Analogous to the equivalence between the SU(6) quadrupole-phonon model (TQM) and the interacting boson model (IBM), the equivalence is pointed out for odd systems between the SU(6) particle quadrupole-phonon coupling model (PTQM) and the interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM). PTQM is formulated starting from the Dyson representation for the odd system. Different aspects of the SU(3) limit of TQM and PTQM are studied; the quadrupole-phonon block structure of rotational bands in even and odd nuclei and analytic expressions based on the coherent state; signature effects generated in PTQM; electromagnetic properties and correction factors for PTQM; overlaps of the PTQM analogs of Nilsson states with Coriolis-coupled Nilsson states and the relation to the rotational model representation.

  18. Outbreeding depression in hybrids between odd-and even-broodyear pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gharrett, A.J.; Smoker, W.W.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Taylor, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fewer F2 hybrids between even- and odd-broodline pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), which are lines that are genetically isolated by their strict two-year life cycle, survived than did F2 controls, indicating outbreeding depression. Cryopreserved sperm of 40 broodyear 1990 males and of 40 broodyear 1991 males fertilized equal subsamples of eggs from 40 broodyear 1992 females. Return rates of F1 hybrids (1.73%) and controls (1.63%) in 1994 did not differ significantly (P=0.30). F2 hybrid and control crosses were made from 40 males and 40 females selected at random from each return group. Offspring were differentially marked and released. In 1996, returns differed significantly (P=0.011) between hybrids (n=34, 0.34%) and controls (n=44, 0.42%). The low rate of return of the control fish was similar to the measured return of a much larger group of tagged Auke Creek pink salmon, and probably not an artifact of the experiment. Although no increase in fluctuating asymmetry of paired meristic counts was observed in either F1or F2 hybrids, size and some meristic counts of hybrids exceed measurements of controls, suggesting heterosis for those traits. The observations of decreased survival in F2 hybrids confirm previous work [Gharrett, A.J., Smoker, W.W., 1991. Two generations of hybrids between even- and odd-year pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48(9) 1744–1749]. Although genetic divergence between pink salmon broodlines is large and outbreeding depression might be expected in such unlikely hybrids, the results document the occurrence of outbreeding depression in salmon and signal caution in making management and aquacultural decisions that may create the possibility of outbreeding depression in self-sustaining or cultured populations.

  19. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6–7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  20. Even a Chronic Mild Hyperglycemia Affects Membrane Fluidity and Lipoperoxidation in Placental Mitochondria in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-García, María del Consuelo; Espinosa-García, María Teresa; Martinez-Montes, Federico; Palomar-Morales, Martín; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    It is known the deleterious effects of diabetes on embryos, but the effects of diabetes on placenta and its mitochondria are still not well known. In this work we generated a mild hyperglycemia model in female wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 48 hours-old rats. The sexual maturity onset of the female rats was delayed around 6-7 weeks and at 16 weeks-old they were mated, and sacrificed at day 19th of pregnancy. In placental total tissue and isolated mitochondria, the fatty acids composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and lipoperoxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Membrane fluidity in mitochondria was measured with the excimer forming probe dipyrenylpropane and mitochondrial function was measured with a Clark-type electrode. The results show that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia increases lipoperoxidation and decreases mitochondrial function in placenta. Simultaneously, placental fatty acids metabolism in total tissue is modified but in a different way than in placental mitochondria. Whereas the chronic mild hyperglycemia induced a decrease in unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (U/S) in placental total tissue, the ratio increased in placental mitochondria. The measurements of membrane fluidity showed that fluidity of placenta mitochondrial membranes increased with hyperglycemia, showing consistency with the fatty acids composition through the U/S index. The thermotropic characteristics of mitochondrial membranes were changed, showing lower transition temperature and activation energies. All of these data together demonstrate that even a chronic mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy of early reproductive Wistar rats, generates an increment of lipoperoxidation, an increase of placental mitochondrial membrane fluidity apparently derived from changes in fatty acids composition and consequently, mitochondrial malfunction. PMID:26630275

  1. Seasonal analysis of the planetary boundary-layer afternoon and evening transition through observational measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Yagüe, Carlos; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Maqueda, Gregorio

    2016-04-01

    From a typically convective diurnal situation to a stably stratified nocturnal one, the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) experiences the so-called afternoon and evening transition. This period is complex to study due to the presence of many different forcings, usually weak and opposite [1]. In this work, the transitional processes are studied by using 6-year data from permanent instrumentation at CIBA, a research center located in the Spanish Northern plateau. These measurements include particulate matter (PM) and turbulent records. Certain variables display a twin pattern in their time evolution for all the seasons, only differing in their absolute values. On the contrary, the air specific humidity behaves differently for each season, which is distinct to the results from a previous study at a different location [2]. Besides, a common pattern of increasing PM values near sunset is found, with a number of influences playing a role in PM concentrations: stability, turbulence and ABL thickness among others. In particular, the competing thermal and mechanical turbulent effects result in PM concentration reduction (settling on the ground or being advected) or increase, depending in each case on the specific season and particle group. Furthermore, the relative importance of the bigger PM (between 2.5 and 10 μm) is linked to the wind minimum around sunset, especially during summer. [1] Lothon, M. and coauthors (2014): The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10931-10960. [2] Wingo, S. M. and Knupp, K. R. (2015): Multi-platform observations characterizing the afternoon-to-evening transition of the planetary boundary layer in Northern Alabama, USA, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 155, 29-53.

  2. The atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions: an observational and numerical study from two different datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre, Mariano; Yagüe, Carlos; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Ander Arrillaga, Jon

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the temporal evolution of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) along the transition period from a diurnal typical convection to a nocturnal more frequently stable situation. This period is known as late afternoon or evening transition, depending on the specific definitions employed by different authors [1]. In order to obtain a proper characterization, we try to learn whether or not the behaviour of these transitional boundary layers is strongly dependent on local conditions. To do so, two sets of evening transitions are studied from data collected at two different experimental sites. These locations correspond to research facilities named CIBA (Spain) and CRA (France), which are the places where atmospheric field campaigns have been conducted during the last years, such as CIBA2008 and BLLAST 2011, respectively. In order to get comparable situations, we focus especially on transitions with weak synoptic forcing, and consider daily astronomical sunset as a reference time. A statistical analysis on main parameters related to the transition is carried out for both locations, and the average behaviour is shown as well as extreme values according to the timing. A similar pattern in the qualitative evolution of many variables is found. Nevertheless, several relevant differences in the progress of key variables are obtained too. Moisture, both from the soil and the air, is thought to have great relevance in explaining many of the differences found between the two sites. Some case studies are explored, focusing on the role played by the atmospheric turbulence. Complementary, numerical experiments are also performed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, in order to test the role of humidity, by artificially varying it in some of the simulations. [1] Lothon, M. and coauthors (2014): The BLLAST field experiment: Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10931-10960.

  3. Waiting for what comes later: capuchin monkeys show self-control even for nonvisible delayed rewards.

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Bramlett, Jessica L; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Self-control tasks used with nonhuman animals typically involve the choice between an immediate option and a delayed, but more preferred option. However, in many self-control scenarios, not only does the more impulsive option come sooner in time, it is often more concrete than the delayed option. For example, studies have presented children with the option of eating a visible marshmallow immediately, or foregoing it for a better reward that can only be seen later. Thus, the immediately available option is visible and concrete, whereas the delayed option is not visible and more abstract. We tested eight capuchin monkeys to better understand this potential effect by manipulating the visibility of the response options and the visibility of the baiting itself. Monkeys observed two food items (20 or 5 g pieces of banana) each being placed either on top of or inside of one of the two opaque containers attached to a revolving tray apparatus, either in full view of monkeys or occluded by a barrier. Trials ended when monkeys removed a reward from the rotating tray. To demonstrate self-control, monkeys should have allowed the smaller piece of food to pass if the larger piece was forthcoming. Overall, monkeys were successful on the task, allowing a smaller, visible piece of banana to pass from reach in order to access the larger, nonvisible banana piece. This was true even when the entire baiting process took place out of sight of the monkeys. This finding suggests that capuchin monkeys succeed on self-control tasks even when the delayed option is also more abstract than the immediate one-a situation likely faced by primates in everyday life.

  4. Nuclear structure of even 120-136Ba under the framework of IBM, IVBM and new method (SEF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jubbori, Mushtaq A.; Kassim, Huda H.; Sharrad, Fadhil I.; Hossain, I.

    2016-11-01

    The positive and negative-state bands of even-even 120-136Ba nuclei have been studied. The energy levels for the ground-state band of 120-136Ba have been calculated using Interacting Boson Model (IBM), Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM) and a new method called Semi-Empirical Formula (SEF). The negative parity band of even-even 120-136Ba isotopes has been also calculated using (IVBM) and (SEF). The γ and β-bands of even-even 120-136Ba isotopes have been calculated using IBM and SEF. The parameters of the best fit to the measured data are determined. The reduced transition probabilities B (E 2) of these nuclei was calculated. The critical points have been determined for 134,136Ba isotopes. The potential energy surfaces for even-even Ba isotopes are studied using the simplified form of Interacting Boson Model (IBM) with an intrinsic coherent state.

  5. Study of the evening transition to the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer: statistical analysis and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre, Mariano; Viana, Samuel; Maqueda, Gregorio; Yagüe, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Turbulence is probably the most important feature dealing with the diffusion of contaminants in the planetary boundary layer. The main characteristics of turbulence are governed, apart from synoptic conditions, by the daily cycle of the Earth surface heating and cooling, so that, simplifying, two configurations are often found: convective and stable. The transition from a diurnal convective boundary layer to a typically stable nocturnal one is not still well understood (Edwards, 2009). Different micrometeorological conditions at sunset or a few hours previously may be critical for the establishment of a strong surface-based stability or a weak one, even for similar synoptic conditions. This work focuses on the characterization of the evening transition which takes place at the atmospheric boundary layer, considering the temporal interval 17.00-23.00 GMT. The methodology includes looking for some relations between meteorological variables, turbulent parameters and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) concentrations measured by a GRIMM particle monitor (MODEL 365). Observational data (Summer 2009) is provided from permanent instrumentation at the Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere (CIBA) in Valladolid (Spain), which is on a quite flat terrain (Cuxart et al., 2000). A 10m height mast equipped with temperature, wind speed and direction, and moisture sensors at several levels are available. Also two sonic anemometers (20 Hz sampling rate) at 1.5 and 10m were deployed in the mast. The database is complemented by a triangle of microbarometers installed next to the surface, and another three microbarometers placed in a 100m meteorological tower at 20, 50 and 100m respectively, which are ideal to study coherent structures present in the boundary layer. Statistical parameters of meteorological variables have been calculated and studied in order to find out connections with the most relevant physical processes. Moreover different cases studies will be analyzed

  6. Another Inconvenient Truth: Even a Small Nuclear War Could be Much Worse Than you Think

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, O. B.

    2008-05-01

    The number of nuclear warheads in the world has fallen by about a factor of three since its peak in 1986. However, the potential exists for numerous regional nuclear arms races, and for a significant expansion in the number of nuclear weapons states. Eight countries are known to have nuclear weapons, 2 are constructing them, and an additional 32 nations already have the fissile material needed to build weapons if they so desire. Population and economic activity worldwide are congregated to an increasing extent in "megacities", which are ideal targets for nuclear weapons. Based upon observations of the damage caused by nuclear explosions in World War II and in nuclear tests, a group of researchers has estimated the area that might be consumed in firestorms following a regional war between the smallest current nuclear states involving 100, 15-kt explosions (less than 0.1% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal). Based upon observations of large forest fires these firestorms should inject smoke into the upper troposphere. Using estimates of the mass of flammable material in the areas that would burn we find that 5x1012 g of elemental carbon could be injected into the upper troposphere in a regional nuclear war. A suite of numerical models show that this upper tropospheric soot will be transported due to solar heating into the stratosphere and will rise to altitudes above 40 km. The elemental carbon will absorb sunlight, heating the stratosphere and cooling the ground. The heating of the stratosphere could cause column ozone losses in excess of 20% globally, 25-45% at mid-latitudes, and 50- 70% at northern high latitudes persisting for 5 years, with substantial losses continuing for 5 additional years. Column ozone amounts would remain near or below 220 Dobson units at all latitudes even after three years, constituting an extra-tropical "ozone hole". The cooling at the ground would reduce precipitation globally by about 10%, create lower

  7. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by

  8. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies.

    PubMed

    di Virgilio, Agustina; Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals' foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals' space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals' social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by classes

  9. Spatial variability of turbulent fluxes in the roughness sublayer of an even-aged pine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katul, G.; Hsieh, C.-I.; Bowling, D.; Clark, K.; Shurpali, N.; Turnipseed, A.; Albertson, J.; Tu, K.; Hollinger, D.; Evans, B. M.; Offerle, B.; Anderson, D.; Ellsworth, D.; Vogel, C.; Oren, R.

    1999-01-01

    The spatial variability of turbulent flow statistics in the roughness sublayer (RSL) of a uniform even-aged 14 m (= h) tall loblolly pine forest was investigated experimentally. Using seven existing walkup towers at this stand, high frequency velocity, temperature, water vapour and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured at 15.5 m above the ground surface from October 6 to 10 in 1997. These seven towers were separated by at least 100 m from each other. The objective of this study was to examine whether single tower turbulence statistics measurements represent the flow properties of RSL turbulence above a uniform even-aged managed loblolly pine forest as a best-case scenario for natural forested ecosystems. From the intensive space-time series measurements, it was demonstrated that standard deviations of longitudinal and vertical velocities (??(u), ??(w)) and temperature (??(T)) are more planar homogeneous than their vertical flux of momentum (u(*)2) and sensible heat (H) counterparts. Also, the measured H is more horizontally homogeneous when compared to fluxes of other scalar entities such as CO2 and water vapour. While the spatial variability in fluxes was significant (> 15%), this unique data set confirmed that single tower measurements represent the 'canonical' structure of single-point RSL turbulence statistics, especially flux-variance relationships. Implications to extending the 'moving-equilibrium' hypothesis for RSL flows are discussed. The spatial variability in all RSL flow variables was not constant in time and varied strongly with spatially averaged friction velocity u(*), especially when u(*) was small. It is shown that flow properties derived from two-point temporal statistics such as correlation functions are more sensitive to local variability in leaf area density when compared to single point flow statistics. Specifically, that the local relationship between the reciprocal of the vertical velocity integral time scale (I(w)) and the arrival

  10. Global bubble distribution seen from ROCSAT-1 and its association with the evening prereversal enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kil, Hyosub; Paxton, Larry J.; Oh, Seung-Jun

    2009-06-01

    The occurrence statistics of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) obtained from low-inclination orbit satellites are significantly affected by the way the data are sampled and the way that the EPBs are counted. To resolve the discrepancy between the EPB occurrence frequency determined by ground-based observations and in situ sampling of plasma density from spacecraft, we have developed a new EPB detection method that minimizes the dependence of the EPB occurrence rate on the data processing method. The global EPB distribution maps are created by analyzing the measurements of the ion density from the first Republic of China satellite (ROCSAT-1) during March 1999 to June 2004. The EPB occurrence probability obtained using our new EPB detection method is a few times greater than that obtained using the conventional method. Our results are comparable to the ground observations. The good agreement of the global EPB distribution with the global morphology of the evening prereversal enhancement (PRE) of vertical ion velocity supports the notion that the PRE is an important factor on a global scale in the generation of EPBs. However, the generation of EPBs is not guaranteed by the occurrence of an intense PRE. Other mechanisms, in addition to the PRE, should be considered as an explanation for the occurrence of EPBs on the topside.

  11. Systematics of magnetic dipole strength in the stable even-mass Mo isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusev, G.; Schwengner, R.; Dönau, F.; Erhard, M.; Frauendorf, S.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Käubler, L.; Kosev, K.; Kostov, L. K.; Mallion, S.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A.; Garrel, H. Von; Kneissl, U.; Kohstall, C.; Kreutz, M.; Pitz, H. H.; Scheck, M.; Stedile, F.; Brentano, P. Von; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Linnemann, A.; Pietralla, N.; Werner, V.

    2006-04-01

    The nuclides Mo92, Mo98, and Mo100 have been studied in photon-scattering experiments by using bremsstrahlung produced at an electron energy of 6 MeV at the ELBE accelerator of the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf and at electron energies from 3.2 to 3.8 MeV at the Dynamitron accelerator at the University of Stuttgart. Six dipole transitions in Mo98 and 19 in Mo100 were observed for the first time in the energy range from 2 to 4 MeV. The experimental results are compared with predictions of the shell model and with predictions of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) in a deformed basis. The latter show significant contributions of isovector-orbital and isovector-spin vibrations. The change of the magnetic dipole strength in the isotopic chain of the even-mass isotopes from Mo92 to Mo100 is discussed. The calculations within the QRPA are extrapolated to the particle-separation energies to estimate the possible influence of M1 strength on the stability of the nuclides against photodissociation in cosmic scenarios.

  12. Long term repeated prescribed burning increases evenness in the basidiomycete laccase gene pool in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Artz, Rebekka R E; Reid, Eileen; Anderson, Ian C; Campbell, Colin D; Cairney, John W G

    2009-03-01

    Repeated prescribed burning alters the biologically labile fraction of nutrients and carbon of soil organic matter (SOM). Using a long-term (30 years) repeated burning experiment where burning has been carried out at a 2- or 4-year frequency, we analysed the effect of prescribed burning on gross potential C turnover rates and phenol oxidase activity in relation to shifts in SOM composition as observed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. In tandem, we assessed the genetic diversity of basidiomycete laccases. While the overall effect of burning was a decline in phenol oxidase activity, Shannon diversity and evenness of laccases was significantly higher in burned sites. Co-correspondence analysis of SOM composition and laccase operational taxonomic unit frequency data also suggested a strong correlation. While this correlation could indicate that the observed increase in laccase genetic diversity due to burning is due to increased resource diversity, a temporal replacement of the most abundant members of the assembly by an otherwise dormant pool of fungi cannot be excluded. As such, our results fit the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Effects were stronger in plots burned in 2-year rotations, suggesting that the 4-year burn frequency may be a more sustainable practice to ensure the long-term stability of C cycling in such ecosystems.

  13. Spatial attention does not modulate holistic face processing, even when multiple faces are present.

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Tokarev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The perception of faces is often considered to be unique in comparison with that of other objects in the world. The fact that faces are processed not by their constituent components but by the spatial configuration between those components (holistic face processing--HFP) is often used to support this. Despite two decades of research, however, there is no consensus as to whether or not HFP is a process that is subject to attentional modulation. Here, in two experiments, we used a method to direct spatial attention not previously used in studies of HFP--an exogenous spatial cue--as it offers a robust, rapid, and involuntary method of directing attention. In one experiment we demonstrate that the degree of HFP afforded to a face is not reduced when attention is directed away from that face. In a second experiment we replicate this finding even when the face is simultaneously flanked by other faces--a condition under which a face-specific processing module would, hypothetically, be more sensitive to attentional guidance. These results add to the argument that HFP is carried out independently of attention.

  14. Alterations of hippocampal glucose metabolism by even versus uneven medium chain triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are used to treat neurologic disorders with metabolic impairments, including childhood epilepsy and early Alzheimer's disease. However, the metabolic effects of MCTs in the brain are still unclear. Here, we studied the effects of feeding even and uneven MCTs on brain glucose metabolism in the mouse. Adult mice were fed 35% (calories) of trioctanoin or triheptanoin (the triglycerides of octanoate or heptanoate, respectively) or a matching control diet for 3 weeks. Enzymatic assays and targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify metabolites in extracts from the hippocampal formations (HFs). Both oils increased the levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, but no other significant metabolic alterations were observed after triheptanoin feeding. The levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were increased in the HF of mice fed trioctanoin, whereas levels of metabolites further downstream in the glycolytic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway were reduced. This indicates that trioctanoin reduces glucose utilization because of a decrease in phosphofructokinase activity. Trioctanoin and triheptanoin showed similar anticonvulsant effects in the 6 Hz seizure model, but it remains unknown to what extent the anticonvulsant mechanism(s) are shared. In conclusion, triheptanoin unlike trioctanoin appears to not alter glucose metabolism in the healthy brain. PMID:24169853

  15. Human observers have optimal introspective access to perceptual processes even for visually masked stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Megan A K; Lau, Hakwan

    2015-01-01

    Many believe that humans can ‘perceive unconsciously’ – that for weak stimuli, briefly presented and masked, above-chance discrimination is possible without awareness. Interestingly, an online survey reveals that most experts in the field recognize the lack of convincing evidence for this phenomenon, and yet they persist in this belief. Using a recently developed bias-free experimental procedure for measuring subjective introspection (confidence), we found no evidence for unconscious perception; participants’ behavior matched that of a Bayesian ideal observer, even though the stimuli were visually masked. This surprising finding suggests that the thresholds for subjective awareness and objective discrimination are effectively the same: if objective task performance is above chance, there is likely conscious experience. These findings shed new light on decades-old methodological issues regarding what it takes to consider a neurobiological or behavioral effect to be 'unconscious,' and provide a platform for rigorously investigating unconscious perception in future studies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09651.001 PMID:26433023

  16. Functional diversity exhibits a diverse relationship with area, even a decreasing one

    PubMed Central

    Karadimou, Elpida K.; Kallimanis, Athanasios S.; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Dimopoulos, Panayotis

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between species richness and area is one of the few well-established laws in ecology, and one might expect a similar relationship with functional diversity (FD). However, only a few studies investigate the relationship between trait-based FD and area, the Functional Diversity - Area Relationship (FDAR). To examine FDAR, we constructed the species accumulation curve and the corresponding FD curve. We used plant diversity data from nested plots (1–128 m2), recorded on the Volcanic islands of Santorini Archipelagos, Greece. Six multidimensional FD indices were calculated using 26 traits. We identified a typology of FDARs depending on the facet of FD analyzed: (A) strongly positive for indices quantifying the range of functional traits in the community, (B) negative correlation for indices quantifying the evenness in the distribution of abundance in the trait space, (C) no clear pattern for indices reflecting the functional similarity of species and (D) idiosyncratic patterns with area for functional divergence. As area increases, the range of traits observed in the community increases, but the abundance of traits does not increase proportionally and some traits become dominant, implying a reliance on some functions that may be located in either the center or the periphery of the trait space. PMID:27752086

  17. Transient even and odd order nonlinearity of a YBCO transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizen, Richard; Remillard, Stephen

    Second (IMD2) and third (IMD3) order intermodulation distortions were found to exhibit dependencies on temperature and magnetic field. A carrier wave at the 890 MHz resonant frequency of the type-II YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting resonator circuit, with TC = 89K, was introduced into the circuit via an electric coupling antenna. Two off-resonance probe signals were injected into the circuit via a separate magnetic coupling element. The combination of these three signals locally excited synchronous second and third order IMD. A static magnetic field was applied perpendicularly to the film which induced magnetic flux vortices in the sample. Upon removal of the static magnetic field, IMD2 and IMD3 exhibited distinct transient decay modes correlating to temperature. Between 85.0K and 87.5K, IMD3 decayed exponentially. Above 87.5K, IMD3 exhibited bounded exponential growth, while within a narrow temperature range around 87.5K, removal of a static magnetic field strongly suppressed IMD3. IMD2 exhibited exponential decay at all temperatures. Even and odd order microwave nonlinearities were thus shown to result from different, magnetically coupled, physical mechanisms. Funding for this project was provided by Award Number DMR-1206149 from the National Science Foundation.

  18. Energy dependence of nuclear charge distribution in neutron induced fission of Z-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshchenko, V. A.; Piksaikin, V. M.; Isaev, S. G.; Goverdovski, A. A.

    2006-07-01

    For the first time the distribution of nuclear charge of fission products with mass numbers 87, 88, 89, 91, 93, 94, 95, 137, 138, 139, and 140 and their complementary products have been studied for neutron induced fission of U235 and Pu239 in the energy range from thermal up to 1.2 MeV. The energy dependences of the cumulative yields of Br87, Br88, Br89, Br91, Kr93, Rb94, Rb95, I137, I138, I139, and I140 have been obtained by delayed neutron measurements. The most probable charge ZP(A)in the appropriate isobaric β-decay chains was estimated. The results were analyzed in terms of the deviation ΔZP(A') of the most probable charge of isobaric β-decay chains from the unchanged charge distribution before prompt neutron emission (nuclear charge polarization) and they are compared with experimental data of other authors and with predictions from Nethaway's ZP-formula and Wahl's ZP-model. We show that the nuclear charge polarization of primary fission fragments <ΔZP(A')> before prompt neutron evaporation decreases as the excitation energy of the compound nucleus increases. This decrease is more pronounced for fission of U235. The energy dependencies of ΔZP(A') and ΔZP(ZP) obtained in the present work show an attenuation of the odd-even effects in the charge distribution as the excitation energy of the compound nucleus increases.

  19. B-DNA structure is intrinsically polymorphic: even at the level of base pair positions

    SciTech Connect

    Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Woods, Kristen Kruger; Moulaei, Tinoush; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2012-10-23

    Increasingly exact measurement of single crystal X-ray diffraction data offers detailed characterization of DNA conformation, hydration and electrostatics. However, instead of providing a more clear and unambiguous image of DNA, highly accurate diffraction data reveal polymorphism of the DNA atomic positions and conformation and hydration. Here we describe an accurate X-ray structure of B-DNA, painstakingly fit to a multistate model that contains multiple competing positions of most of the backbone and of entire base pairs. Two of ten base-pairs of CCAGGCCTGG are in multiple states distinguished primarily by differences in slide. Similarly, all the surrounding ions are seen to fractionally occupy discrete competing and overlapping sites. And finally, the vast majority of water molecules show strong evidence of multiple competing sites. Conventional resolution appears to give a false sense of homogeneity in conformation and interactions of DNA. In addition, conventional resolution yields an average structure that is not accurate, in that it is different from any of the multiple discrete structures observed at high resolution. Because base pair positional heterogeneity has not always been incorporated into model-building, even some high and ultrahigh-resolution structures of DNA do not indicate the full extent of conformational polymorphism.

  20. Even and odd subharmonic frequencies and chaos in Josephson junctions: Impact on parametric amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Levinsen, M.T.

    1982-06-01

    The Stewart-McCumber model of a Josephson junction has been shown to exhibit period-doubling bifurcation cascades, as described by the Feigenbaum bifurcation theory. Chaotic states, sometimes associated with the bifurcations, are also prevalent. The present paper deals with the questions of subharmonic generation and chaotic states in the aforementioned model, and in addition with the problem of the ubiquitous noise rise found in Josephson junction parametric amplifiers. The bifurcation is first discussed by drawing on analytical results on the Duffing equation which is an approximation to the complete ac-driven Stewart-McCumber model. The complete model is then solved on an analog computer. Thereafter it is shown that besides the even subharmonics predicted by the bifurcation theory, the natural subharmonic to expect at small dc currents is the odd. This may then have associated its own bifurcation tree. The role of spontaneous symmetry breaking will be discussed. This reconciles the earlier treatment of the 3-photon amplifier with the Feigenbaum scheme. Finally, analog calculations on a model of an externally pumped Josephson junction parametric amplifier will be discussed. The conclusion seems to be that chaotic noise cannot account for the noise rise.

  1. Downwelling spectral irradiance during evening twilight as a function of the lunar phase.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Glenn; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-02-01

    We measured downwelling spectral vector irradiance (from 350 to 800 nm) during evening civil and nautical twilight (solar elevation down to -12°). Nine sets of measurements were taken to cover the first half of the lunar cycle (from the new to full moon) and were also used to calculate chromaticity (CIE 1976 u'v'). The lunar phase had no consistent effect on downwelling irradiance until solar elevation was less than -8°. For lower solar elevations, the effect of the moon increased with the fraction of the illuminated lunar disk until the fraction was approximately 50%. For fractions greater than 50%, the brightness and chromaticity of the downwelling irradiance were approximately independent of the fraction illuminated, likely because the greater brightness of a fuller moon was offset by its lower elevation during twilight. Given the importance of crepuscular periods to animal activity, including predation, reproductive cycles, and color vision in dim light, these results may have significant implications for animal ecology. PMID:25967843

  2. Dermoscopy could be useful in differentiating sarcoidosis from necrobiotic granulomas even after treatment with systemic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Shahira; Hossam, Dalia; Saleh, Marwah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing cutaneous sarcoidosis and necrobiotic granulomas is challenging. Objective: Assessing the value of dermoscopy in differentiating cutaneous sarcoidosis from necrobiotic granulomas and evaluating whether their dermoscopic features will be altered after treatment. Methods: Nineteen cutaneous sarcoidosis and 11 necrobiotic granuloma patients (2 necrobiosis lipoidica, 4 granuloma annulare and 5 rheumatoid nodule) were included in this study. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin biopsy. The lesions were examined using non-contact polarized dermoscope (Dermlite 2 HR-Pro; 3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA). Results: Ten out of 19 cutaneous sarcoidosis patients and 7/11 necrobiotic cases group were receiving treatments (topical, intralesional or systemic steroids ± chloroquine) but still have cutaneous lesions. Treatment duration in the sarcoidosis group ranged from 2 months to 10 years (median 3 years) and in the necrobiotic cases group ranged from 3 months to 16 years (median 2 years). Pink homogenous background, translucent orange areas, white scar-like depigmentation and fine white scales were significantly associated with the cutaneous sarcoidosis compared to necrobiotic cases group. On the other hand mixed pink, white and yellowish background was significantly associated with the necrobiotic cases group. No significant difference in the dermoscopic findings was detected between treated and non-treated patients. Conclusion: Some dermoscopic findings are shared between the cutaneous sarcoidosis group and the necrobiotic cases group, yet dermoscopy could be a useful aid in differentiating them even after treatment.

  3. Characterization of small inclusions: SEM vs TEM, or is it even worth considering SEM?

    SciTech Connect

    Blais, C.; L`Esperance, G.; Baril, E.; Forget, C.

    1996-12-31

    Inclusions of technological importance are often in the size range from 0.1 to 1 {mu}m. These inclusions are generally too thick for EEL-spectrometry and require the use of EDS to characterize their chemical composition. Recent Monte Carlo simulations indicated that scanning electron electron microscopes (SEM`s) equipped with a field emission gun (FEG) might challenge transmission electron microscopes (TEM`s) for the characterization of small inclusions. In the light of these results, we investigated the possibility of using a FEGSEM to characterize inclusions found in micro-alloyed steel welds used for arctic applications. The main setbacks of using EDS for such a task are due to the presence of small phases of unknown thicknesses, non-homogeneity of the X-ray generation volumes, variation in absorption along the path length of the X-rays, etc. Even though these problems are encountered in both the SEM and the TEM, the relative ease of imaging the very small inclusions in TEM confers a definite advantage to this technique. Furthermore, TEM allows to obtain convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns (CBED) which complement the chemical composition characterization, thereby allowing the unambiguous identification of the phases present (chemistry and crystal structure).

  4. Exploring myriapod segmentation: the expression patterns of even-skipped, engrailed, and wingless in a centipede.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Cynthia L; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2002-07-01

    Segment formation is critical to arthropod development, yet there is still relatively little known about this process in most arthropods. Here, we present the expression patterns of the genes even-skipped (eve), engrailed, and wingless in a centipede, Lithobius atkinsoni. Despite some differences when compared with the patterns in insects and crustaceans, the expression of these genes in the centipede suggests that their basic roles are conserved across the mandibulate arthropods. For example, unlike the seven pair-rule stripes of eve expression in the Drosophila embryonic germband, the centipede eve gene is expressed strongly in the posterior of the embryo, and in only a few stripes between newly formed segments. Nonetheless, this pattern likely reflects a conserved role for eve in the process of segment formation, within the different context of a short-germband mode of embryonic development. In the centipede, the genes wingless and engrailed are expressed in stripes along the middle and posterior of each segment, respectively, similar to their expression in Drosophila. The adjacent expression of the engrailed and wingless stripes suggests that the regulatory relationship between the two genes may be conserved in the centipede, and thus this pathway may be a fundamental mechanism of segmental development in most arthropods.

  5. Third-party punishers are rewarded, but third-party helpers even more so.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-04-01

    Punishers can benefit from a tough reputation, where future partners cooperate because they fear repercussions. Alternatively, punishers might receive help from bystanders if their act is perceived as just and other-regarding. Third-party punishment of selfish individuals arguably fits these conditions, but it is not known whether third-party punishers are rewarded for their investments. Here, we show that third-party punishers are indeed rewarded by uninvolved bystanders. Third parties were presented with the outcome of a dictator game in which the dictator was either selfish or fair and were allocated to one of three treatments in which they could choose to do nothing or (1) punish the dictator, (2) help the receiver, or (3) choose between punishment and helping, respectively. A fourth player (bystander) then sees the third-party's decision and could choose to reward the third party or not. Third parties that punished selfish dictators were more likely to be rewarded by bystanders than third parties that took no action in response to a selfish dictator. However, helpful third parties were rewarded even more than third-party punishers. These results suggest that punishment could in principle evolve via indirect reciprocity, but also provide insights into why individuals typically prefer to invest in positive actions. PMID:25756463

  6. Dermoscopy could be useful in differentiating sarcoidosis from necrobiotic granulomas even after treatment with systemic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Shahira; Hossam, Dalia; Saleh, Marwah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing cutaneous sarcoidosis and necrobiotic granulomas is challenging. Objective: Assessing the value of dermoscopy in differentiating cutaneous sarcoidosis from necrobiotic granulomas and evaluating whether their dermoscopic features will be altered after treatment. Methods: Nineteen cutaneous sarcoidosis and 11 necrobiotic granuloma patients (2 necrobiosis lipoidica, 4 granuloma annulare and 5 rheumatoid nodule) were included in this study. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin biopsy. The lesions were examined using non-contact polarized dermoscope (Dermlite 2 HR-Pro; 3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA). Results: Ten out of 19 cutaneous sarcoidosis patients and 7/11 necrobiotic cases group were receiving treatments (topical, intralesional or systemic steroids ± chloroquine) but still have cutaneous lesions. Treatment duration in the sarcoidosis group ranged from 2 months to 10 years (median 3 years) and in the necrobiotic cases group ranged from 3 months to 16 years (median 2 years). Pink homogenous background, translucent orange areas, white scar-like depigmentation and fine white scales were significantly associated with the cutaneous sarcoidosis compared to necrobiotic cases group. On the other hand mixed pink, white and yellowish background was significantly associated with the necrobiotic cases group. No significant difference in the dermoscopic findings was detected between treated and non-treated patients. Conclusion: Some dermoscopic findings are shared between the cutaneous sarcoidosis group and the necrobiotic cases group, yet dermoscopy could be a useful aid in differentiating them even after treatment. PMID:27648379

  7. Third-party punishers are rewarded, but third-party helpers even more so.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-04-01

    Punishers can benefit from a tough reputation, where future partners cooperate because they fear repercussions. Alternatively, punishers might receive help from bystanders if their act is perceived as just and other-regarding. Third-party punishment of selfish individuals arguably fits these conditions, but it is not known whether third-party punishers are rewarded for their investments. Here, we show that third-party punishers are indeed rewarded by uninvolved bystanders. Third parties were presented with the outcome of a dictator game in which the dictator was either selfish or fair and were allocated to one of three treatments in which they could choose to do nothing or (1) punish the dictator, (2) help the receiver, or (3) choose between punishment and helping, respectively. A fourth player (bystander) then sees the third-party's decision and could choose to reward the third party or not. Third parties that punished selfish dictators were more likely to be rewarded by bystanders than third parties that took no action in response to a selfish dictator. However, helpful third parties were rewarded even more than third-party punishers. These results suggest that punishment could in principle evolve via indirect reciprocity, but also provide insights into why individuals typically prefer to invest in positive actions.

  8. Positional distribution of FA in TAG of enzymatically modified borage and evening primrose oils.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, S P J Namal; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2002-08-01

    Stereospecific analysis was carried out to establish positional distribution of FA in the TAG of DHA, EPA, and (EPA + DHA)-enriched oils. In this study, TAG of enzymatically modified oils were purified using a silicic acid column. The TAG were then subjected to positional distribution analysis using a modified procedure involving reductive cleavage with Grignard reagent. The results showed that in DHA-enriched borage oil (BO), DHA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, whereas gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was mainly esterified at the sn-2 and -3 positions. In DHA-enriched evening primrose oil (EPO), however, DHA and GLA were concentrated in the sn-2 position. In EPA-enriched BO, EPA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, similar to that observed for DHA. In EPA-enriched EPO, however, this FA was mainly located at the primary positions (sn-1 and sn-3) of TAG. In both oils, GLA was preferentially esterified at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched BO, EPA and DHA were mainly esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions of TAG, whereas GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched EPO, GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 and -3 positions; EPA was preferentially esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions, and DHA was found mainly at the sn-3 position. PMID:12371752

  9. State-space models' dirty little secrets: even simple linear Gaussian models can have estimation problems.

    PubMed

    Auger-Méthé, Marie; Field, Chris; Albertsen, Christoffer M; Derocher, Andrew E; Lewis, Mark A; Jonsen, Ian D; Mills Flemming, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    State-space models (SSMs) are increasingly used in ecology to model time-series such as animal movement paths and population dynamics. This type of hierarchical model is often structured to account for two levels of variability: biological stochasticity and measurement error. SSMs are flexible. They can model linear and nonlinear processes using a variety of statistical distributions. Recent ecological SSMs are often complex, with a large number of parameters to estimate. Through a simulation study, we show that even simple linear Gaussian SSMs can suffer from parameter- and state-estimation problems. We demonstrate that these problems occur primarily when measurement error is larger than biological stochasticity, the condition that often drives ecologists to use SSMs. Using an animal movement example, we show how these estimation problems can affect ecological inference. Biased parameter estimates of a SSM describing the movement of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) result in overestimating their energy expenditure. We suggest potential solutions, but show that it often remains difficult to estimate parameters. While SSMs are powerful tools, they can give misleading results and we urge ecologists to assess whether the parameters can be estimated accurately before drawing ecological conclusions from their results. PMID:27220686

  10. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities. PMID:26560705

  11. Subliminal gamma flicker draws attention even in the absence of transition-flash cues.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, Samuel W; Parton, Andrew; Müller, Hermann J; Usher, Marius

    2011-02-01

    We recently reported evidence indicating that selective attention is deployed to a target location in a multi-object display, when the target event (a change of one of the objects) is preceded by subliminal flicker in the gamma range. However, concerns have been raised regarding the stimuli used in this study and the possible contribution of an artifactual cue: a "transition flash" between pretarget flicker offset and target onset. Here, we report a series of experiments investigating the existence and potential contribution to selective attention of this transition-flash cue under different presentation conditions. We find that, although the transition flash is a real phenomenon (detection rates ≃ 15% > chance), it cannot, on its own, explain the original effects of gamma flicker on the response time to target detection. Even after eliminating this flash, detection was significantly faster, or more accurate, for targets preceded (vs. not preceded) by flicker. This congruency effect (≈ 15 ms) demonstrates that gamma flicker on its own is sufficient to engage selective attention. This interpretation is further strengthened by a reevaluation of 1) experiment 7 reported by van Diepen and colleagues and 2) the validity effect experiment reported by Bauer and colleagues. Possible reasons for the discrepant results are also discussed.

  12. Sepsid even-skipped Enhancers Are Functionally Conserved in Drosophila Despite Lack of Sequence Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Venky N.; Meier, Rudolf; Eisen, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    The gene expression pattern specified by an animal regulatory sequence is generally viewed as arising from the particular arrangement of transcription factor binding sites it contains. However, we demonstrate here that regulatory sequences whose binding sites have been almost completely rearranged can still produce identical outputs. We sequenced the even-skipped locus from six species of scavenger flies (Sepsidae) that are highly diverged from the model species Drosophila melanogaster, but share its basic patterns of developmental gene expression. Although there is little sequence similarity between the sepsid eve enhancers and their well-characterized D. melanogaster counterparts, the sepsid and Drosophila enhancers drive nearly identical expression patterns in transgenic D. melanogaster embryos. We conclude that the molecular machinery that connects regulatory sequences to the transcription apparatus is more flexible than previously appreciated. In exploring this diverse collection of sequences to identify the shared features that account for their similar functions, we found a small number of short (20–30 bp) sequences nearly perfectly conserved among the species. These highly conserved sequences are strongly enriched for pairs of overlapping or adjacent binding sites. Together, these observations suggest that the local arrangement of binding sites relative to each other is more important than their overall arrangement into larger units of cis-regulatory function. PMID:18584029

  13. Medical therapy reduces microbiota diversity and evenness in surgically recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cindy M.; Soldanova, Katerina; Nordstrom, Lora; Dwan, Michael G.; Moss, Owain L.; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Keim, Paul; Price, Lance B.; Lane, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous condition frequently treated with antibiotics and corticosteroid therapy. However, the effect of medical therapy on sinus microbiota remains unknown. Methods We enrolled CRS participants (n = 6) with patent maxillary antrostomies and active mucosal inflammation, who had not received antibiotics or corticosteroids in the previous eight weeks. A pre- and post-treatment maxillary sinus swab was collected, from which DNA was extracted, pyrosequenced, and analyzed using Naïve Bayesian Classifier and ecological analyses. Results Four participants showed significant improvement in endoscopic appearance. The shifts in microbiota in response to therapy were highly individualized. There was no single common microbiota profile among participants with similar clinical outcomes, but overall there was significant decrease in microbiota diversity (t(5) = 2.05, p = 0.10) and evenness (t(5) = 2.28, p = 0.07) after treatment. Conclusions Our findings strongly correlate with earlier studies that examined the impact of antibiotics on human microbiota. We observed that post-treatment, participants frequently became colonized by taxa that are less susceptible to the prescribed antibiotics. Our findings highlight the challenge in seeking generalizable diagnostic and therapeutic options in CRS, particularly regarding microbiological response and outcomes. PMID:23843343

  14. Stability of evenly spaced, tightly packed systems of Earth-massed planets around M-dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa L.; Obertas, Alysa; Tamayo, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    M-dwarf stars are prime targets in the search for habitable exoplanets because the stars are smaller and the habitable zone is quite close to the star. Surveys have revealed a considerable number of tightly packed planetary systems around small stars, and this raises the question of how closely planets can be packed together and stay stable for billions of years. Using numerical simulations, we have investigated the stability of hypothetical systems comprised of several Earth-mass planets around an M-dwarf star, where the planets' orbits are all evenly spaced in mutual Hill Radii. We reproduce the obvious: that, in general, the more tightly packed a system is the faster it will go unstable. However, we see structure superimposed on this general trend that can cause a system's lifetime to differ by several orders of magnitude over a small difference in planet spacing. We will discuss implications for the maximum number Earth-mass planets that can fit in an M-dwarfs' habitable zone.

  15. Translocations of chromosome end-segments and facultative heterochromatin promote meiotic ring formation in evening primroses.

    PubMed

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Massouh, Amid; Greiner, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Due to reciprocal chromosomal translocations, many species of Oenothera (evening primrose) form permanent multichromosomal meiotic rings. However, regular bivalent pairing is also observed. Chiasmata are restricted to chromosomal ends, which makes homologous recombination virtually undetectable. Genetic diversity is achieved by changing linkage relations of chromosomes in rings and bivalents via hybridization and reciprocal translocations. Although the structural prerequisite for this system is enigmatic, whole-arm translocations are widely assumed to be the mechanistic driving force. We demonstrate that this prerequisite is genome compartmentation into two epigenetically defined chromatin fractions. The first one facultatively condenses in cycling cells into chromocenters negative both for histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 and for C-banding, and forms huge condensed middle chromosome regions on prophase chromosomes. Remarkably, it decondenses in differentiating cells. The second fraction is euchromatin confined to distal chromosome segments, positive for histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation and for histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. The end-segments are deprived of canonical telomeres but capped with constitutive heterochromatin. This genomic organization promotes translocation breakpoints between the two chromatin fractions, thus facilitating exchanges of end-segments. We challenge the whole-arm translocation hypothesis by demonstrating why reciprocal translocations of chromosomal end-segments should strongly promote meiotic rings and evolution toward permanent translocation heterozygosity. Reshuffled end-segments, each possessing a major crossover hot spot, can furthermore explain meiotic compatibility between genomes with different translocation histories. PMID:24681616

  16. The Stability of Tightly-packed and Evenly-spaced Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obertas, Alysa; Van Laerhoven, Christa L.; Tamayo, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Many of the multi-planet systems discovered to date have been notable for their compactness, with neighbouring planets closer together than any in the Solar System. Interestingly, planet hosting stars have a wide range of ages, suggesting that such compact systems can survive for extended periods of time. We have used numerical simulations to investigate how quickly systems go unstable in relation to thecompactness of a system. So far, we have focused on hypothetical systems of Earth-mass planets on evenly spaced orbits (in mutual Hill Radii). In general, the further apart the planets are initially, the longer it takes for a pair of planets to undergo a close encounter. We recover the results of previous studies, showing a linear trend in the initial planet spacing between 3-8 Hill Radii and the log of close encounter time. However, investigating thousands of simulations reveals further, more detailed structure superimposed on this relationship. We discuss the impact of this structure and the implications on the stability of compact multi-planet systems.

  17. Direct Repression of Evening Genes by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Mari; Takao, Saori; Suzuki, Takamasa; Taki, Kyomi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Nakamichi, Norihito

    2016-03-01

    The circadian clock is a biological timekeeping system that provides organisms with the ability to adapt to day-night cycles. Timing of the expression of four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR(PRR) family is crucial for proper clock function, and transcriptional control of PRRs remains incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that direct regulation of PRR5 by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) determines the repression state of PRR5 in the morning. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses indicated that CCA1 associates with three separate regions upstream of PRR5 CCA1 and its homolog LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) suppressed PRR5 promoter activity in a transient assay. The regions bound by CCA1 in the PRR5 promoter gave rhythmic patterns with troughs in the morning, when CCA1 and LHY are at high levels. Furthermore,ChIP-seq revealed that CCA1 associates with at least 449 loci with 863 adjacent genes. Importantly, this gene set contains genes that are repressed but upregulated incca1 lhy double mutants in the morning. This study shows that direct binding by CCA1 in the morning provides strong repression of PRR5, and repression by CCA1 also temporally regulates an evening-expressed gene set that includes PRR5. PMID:26941090

  18. Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Boersma, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios) and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity. PMID:22442696

  19. Unsafe abortion: regulation of the social body even beyond time and space.

    PubMed

    Webster, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of women's performance of unsafe abortion in rural Ghana despite significant cultural sanctions that forbid the practice. Findings demonstrate how women in the study balance sanctions inherent in traditional belief structures against their own immediate physical and social best interests. In rural Ghana, a woman's body is not always her own to do with as she would wish. It is also a social body, which is embedded in multiple sets of relationships and subject to social regulation. Traditional authority over a woman's body belongs not only to the community elders in the immediate physical environment of the village but also extends beyond time and space to immaterial ancestral persons who watch over the actions and behaviours of those on earth. Authority resides also with Mawu, the Ewe God, who is offended by the practice of abortion. Data from this study reveal that the performance of unsafe abortion in this Ewe community is a desperate act in which the women must not only risk their physical lives, but must also step outside the boundaries of ideological cultural conformity to traditional values and carry the risk of their actions even into life after death.

  20. Visual object individuation occurs over object wholes, parts, and even holes.

    PubMed

    Porter, Katharine B; Mazza, Veronica; Garofalo, Annie; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Segmentation of the world into meaningful units has typically been described as object individuation, emphasizing the spatially disconnected quality that comes as a result of objecthood. This segmentation can occur rapidly, even in parallel for multiple objects. It remains unclear whether objecthood is a necessary requirement for parallel individuation, or whether target features in distinct locations, such as object parts, may also be individuated in parallel. In a series of six experiments, we used a rapid enumeration task to test whether subitizing, a phenomenon believed to result from parallel individuation, occurs over object parts. We found that subitizing and individuation occur over connected object parts as well as physically separate objects of varied shapes and sizes. We also observed subitizing when target items are indents, features intrinsic to the shape of the object, and when cues for occlusion were removed. The results of these studies suggest that parallel individuation is not bound to objecthood, and can occur over object parts existing in separate locations. PMID:26883839

  1. Problems associated with scuba diving are not evenly distributed across a menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    St Leger Dowse, M; Gunby, A; Phil, D; Moncad, R; Fife, C; Morsman, J; Bryson, P

    2006-04-01

    The problems encountered during scuba diving may be a contributing factor in an episode of decompression illness (DCI). Evidence exists that there may be a relationship between the position in the menstrual cycle and the occurrence of DCI. We examined, by prospective observation in female recreational scuba divers, any interaction between reported problems during diving (RPDD) and the position in the menstrual cycle. A total of 533 women, aged between 14 and 57 years, returned diaries for >6 months, with 61% returning diaries for 3 consecutive years. A total of 34,625 dives were reported within 11,461 menstrual cycles between 21 and 40 days in length, with 65% of women reporting at least one RPDD. Logistic regression showed a significant non-linear relationship between the position in the menstrual cycle and RPDD (p = 0.004). RPDD were not evenly distributed over the menstrual cycle; the rate per 1,000 dives varied from 39.2 at start of the cycle to 19.7 during week 3, and 31.9 in week 4. We concluded these field data suggest a possible correlation between the incidence of RPDD and the position in which they occurred in the menstrual cycle.

  2. Evening primrose oil ameliorates platelet aggregation and improves cardiac recovery in myocardial-infarct hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Abo-Gresha, Noha M; Abel-Aziz, Eman Z; Greish, Sahar M

    2014-01-01

    Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) are well known for their role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We proposed that Evening prime rose oil (EPO) can improve the outcome of a heart with myocardial infarction (MI) in the presence of diet-induced hyperaggregability. This study was designed to examine its cholesterol lowering, antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects. High fat diet was administered for 4 weeks then MI was induced by isoproterenol (85 mg/kg/s.c./24 h). Treatment with EPO (5 or 10 gm/kg/day) for 6 weeks improved the electrocardiographic pattern, serum lipid profile, cardiac biomarkers as well as Platelet aggregation percent. We reported decreased serum level of TNF-α, IL-6 and COX-2 with attenuation of TNF-α and TGF-β in the cardiac homogenate. Moreover, histopathology revealed marked amelioration. Finally, we provide evidence that EPO improve cardiac recovery in hypercholesterolemic myocardial infarct rats. These effects are attributed to direct hypocholesterolemic effect and indirect effect on the synthesis of eicosanoids (prostaglandins, cytokines).

  3. Effect of evening primrose and fish oils on two stage skin carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, G; Das, U N

    1998-09-01

    The effect of fish oil (FO, given in the form of MaxEPA) rich in n-3 fatty acids and evening primrose oil (EPO) rich in n-6 fatty acids on two-stage skin carcinogenesis in mice was studied. Both FO and EPO inhibited the papilloma formation to a significant degree only during the promotion stage which was associated with an increase in lipid peroxidation. Both FO and EPO inhibited the binding of benzo(a)-pyrene to skin cell DNA suggesting that this could be one of the mechanism(s) by which these oils could be preventing papilloma development. Neither EPO nor FO influenced epidermal cell proliferation. In the FO group, LA (linoleic acid), AA (arachidonic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) were increased, whereas in the EPO group a significant increase in the AA content was noted. No specific changes in the fatty acid pattern were observed in any of the groups that could be attributed to the papilloma incidence. These results suggest that FO and EPO can influence papilloma formation which can be attributed, at least in part, to their ability to prevent benzo(a)pyrene binding to DNA and to an increase the lipid peroxidation process. PMID:9844986

  4. Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Boersma, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios) and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity.

  5. State-space models' dirty little secrets: even simple linear Gaussian models can have estimation problems.

    PubMed

    Auger-Méthé, Marie; Field, Chris; Albertsen, Christoffer M; Derocher, Andrew E; Lewis, Mark A; Jonsen, Ian D; Mills Flemming, Joanna

    2016-05-25

    State-space models (SSMs) are increasingly used in ecology to model time-series such as animal movement paths and population dynamics. This type of hierarchical model is often structured to account for two levels of variability: biological stochasticity and measurement error. SSMs are flexible. They can model linear and nonlinear processes using a variety of statistical distributions. Recent ecological SSMs are often complex, with a large number of parameters to estimate. Through a simulation study, we show that even simple linear Gaussian SSMs can suffer from parameter- and state-estimation problems. We demonstrate that these problems occur primarily when measurement error is larger than biological stochasticity, the condition that often drives ecologists to use SSMs. Using an animal movement example, we show how these estimation problems can affect ecological inference. Biased parameter estimates of a SSM describing the movement of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) result in overestimating their energy expenditure. We suggest potential solutions, but show that it often remains difficult to estimate parameters. While SSMs are powerful tools, they can give misleading results and we urge ecologists to assess whether the parameters can be estimated accurately before drawing ecological conclusions from their results.

  6. Numerosity processing is context driven even in the subitizing range: An fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Leibovich, Tali; Henik, Avishai; Salti, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Numerical judgments are involved in almost every aspect of our daily life. They are carried out so efficiently that they are often considered to be automatic and innate. However, numerosity of non-symbolic stimuli is highly correlated with its continuous properties (e.g., density, area), and so it is hard to determine whether numerosity and continuous properties rely on the same mechanism. Here we examined the behavioral and neuronal mechanisms underlying such judgments. We scanned subjects' hemodynamic responses to a numerosity comparison task and to a surface area comparison task. In these tasks, numerical and continuous magnitudes could be either congruent or incongruent. Behaviorally, an interaction between the order of the tasks and the relevant dimension modulated the congruency effects. Continuous magnitudes always interfered with numerosity comparison. Numerosity, on the other hand, interfered with the surface area comparison only when participants began with the numerosity task. Hemodynamic activity showed that context (induced by task order) determined the neuronal pathways in which the dimensions were processed. Starting with the numerosity task led to enhanced activity in the right hemisphere, while starting with the continuous task led to enhanced left hemisphere activity. Continuous magnitudes processing relied on activation of the frontal eye field and the post-central gyrus. Processing of numerosities, on the other hand, relied on deactivation of these areas, suggesting active suppression of the continuous dimension. Accordingly, we suggest that numerosities, even in the subitizing range, are not always processed automatically; their processing depends on context and task demands. PMID:26297625

  7. Unsafe abortion: regulation of the social body even beyond time and space.

    PubMed

    Webster, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of women's performance of unsafe abortion in rural Ghana despite significant cultural sanctions that forbid the practice. Findings demonstrate how women in the study balance sanctions inherent in traditional belief structures against their own immediate physical and social best interests. In rural Ghana, a woman's body is not always her own to do with as she would wish. It is also a social body, which is embedded in multiple sets of relationships and subject to social regulation. Traditional authority over a woman's body belongs not only to the community elders in the immediate physical environment of the village but also extends beyond time and space to immaterial ancestral persons who watch over the actions and behaviours of those on earth. Authority resides also with Mawu, the Ewe God, who is offended by the practice of abortion. Data from this study reveal that the performance of unsafe abortion in this Ewe community is a desperate act in which the women must not only risk their physical lives, but must also step outside the boundaries of ideological cultural conformity to traditional values and carry the risk of their actions even into life after death. PMID:23323931

  8. Poor stroke-related risk factor control even after stroke: an opportunity for rehabilitation professionals.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Charles; Breland, Hazel L

    2014-01-01

    The burden of chronic disease worldwide is substantial. Unfortunately, risk factor control for most chronic diseases remains poor even after diagnoses. This is a major concern because poor risk factor control often leads to secondary consequences of the disease and the development of co-existing diseases. Stroke is a chronic condition that frequently requires the services of rehabilitation professionals who can also play an important role in risk factor management to reduce recurrent stroke. Approaches to the management of stroke risk factors in stroke survivors vary greatly and consequently outcomes vary in a similar fashion. The current literature suggests that uniform offering of structured risk factor control programs over time to individuals with chronic disease can improve knowledge of stroke risk factors, knowledge of action to control risk factors and in turn facilitate self-management practices that reduce the negative consequences of chronic diseases. Rehabilitation professionals can play a vital role in the management and secondary prevention of chronic diseases during the rehabilitation process via patient education and training. Implications for Rehabilitation Evidence suggests that risk factor control remains poor in many individuals with chronic conditions such as stroke. Rehabilitation professionals can play a key role in programs designed to improve risk factor control in chronic conditions. Future risk factor control programs can be structured and implemented over time to include rehabilitation professionals.

  9. Even and odd subharmonic frequencies and chaos in Josephson junctions: Impact on parametric amplifiers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinsen, M. T.

    1982-06-01

    The Stewart-McCumber model of a Josephson junction has been shown to exhibit period-doubling bifurcation cascades, as described by the Feigenbaum bifurcation theory. Chaotic states, sometimes associated with the bifurcations, are also prevalent. The present paper deals with the questions of subharmonic generation and chaotic states in the aforementioned model, and in addition with the problem of the ubiquitous noise rise found in Josephson junction parametric amplifiers. The bifurcation is first discussed by drawing on analytical results on the Duffing equation which is an approximation to the complete ac-driven Stewart-McCumber model. The complete model is then solved on an analog computer. Thereafter it is shown that besides the even subharmonics predicted by the bifurcation theory, the natural subharmonic to expect at small dc currents is the odd. This may then have associated its own bifurcation tree. The role of spontaneous symmetry breaking will be discussed. This reconciles the earlier treatment of the 3-photon amplifier with the Feigenbaum scheme. Finally, analog calculations on a model of an externally pumped Josephson junction parametric amplifier will be discussed. The conclusion seems to be that chaotic noise cannot account for the noise rise.

  10. The Relationship between Microbial Community Evenness and Function in Slow Sand Filters

    PubMed Central

    Quince, Christopher; Davies, Robert L.; Dorea, Caetano C.; Collins, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two full-scale slow sand filters (SSFs) were sampled periodically from April until November 2011 to study the spatial and temporal structures of the bacterial communities found in the filters. To monitor global changes in the microbial communities, DNA from sand samples taken at different depths and locations within the SSFs and at different filters ages was used for Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Additionally, 15 water quality parameters were monitored to assess filter performance, with functionally relevant microbial members being identified by using multivariate statistics. The bacterial diversity in the SSFs was found to be much larger than previously documented, with community composition being shaped by the characteristics of the SSFs (filter age and depth) and sampling characteristics (month, side, and distance from the influent and effluent pipes). We found that several key genera (Acidovorax, Halomonas, Sphingobium, and Sphingomonas) were associated with filter performance. In addition, at the whole-community level, a strong positive correlation was found between species evenness and filter performance. This study is the first to comprehensively characterize the microbial community of SSFs and link specific microbes to water quality parameters. In doing so, we reveal key patterns in microbial community structure that relate to overall community function. PMID:26463159

  11. Surgery Is Associated with Improved Survival for Adrenocortical Cancer, Even in Metastatic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Livhits, Masha; Li, Ning; Yeh, Michael W.; Harari, Avital

    2016-01-01

    Background Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but lethal tumor. Predictors of survival include earlier stage at presentation and complete surgical resection. We assessed effect of treatment and demographic variables on survival. Methods ACC cases were abstracted from the California Cancer Registry and Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (1999-2008). Predictors included patient demographics, comorbidities, tumor size, stage, and treatment (none, surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation (CRT), and surgery plus CRT (S+CRT)). Results We studied 367 patients with median tumor size of 10cm. At presentation, 37% had localized, 17% had regional, and 46% had metastatic disease. Median survival was 1.7 years (7.4 years local, 2.6 years regional, and 0.3 years metastatic, P<0.0001). One-year and five-year survival was: 92%/62% (local); 73%/39% (regional); 24%/7% (metastatic). Increased age (HR 1.16) and Cushing's syndrome (HR 1.66) worsened survival (P<0.05). Low socioeconomic status worsened survival in local and regional disease (P<0.05). In multivariable regression, both surgery (regional HR 0.13; metastatic HR 0.52) and S+CRT (regional HR 0.15; metastatic HR 0.31) improved survival compared to no treatment (P<0.02). Conclusion In ACC, surgery is associated with improved survival, even in metastatic disease. Surgery should be considered for select patients as part of multi-modality treatment. PMID:25456949

  12. Cellular resolution models for even skipped regulation in the entire Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Ilsley, Garth R; Fisher, Jasmin; Apweiler, Rolf; DePace, Angela H; Luscombe, Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional control ensures genes are expressed in the right amounts at the correct times and locations. Understanding quantitatively how regulatory systems convert input signals to appropriate outputs remains a challenge. For the first time, we successfully model even skipped (eve) stripes 2 and 3+7 across the entire fly embryo at cellular resolution. A straightforward statistical relationship explains how transcription factor (TF) concentrations define eve’s complex spatial expression, without the need for pairwise interactions or cross-regulatory dynamics. Simulating thousands of TF combinations, we recover known regulators and suggest new candidates. Finally, we accurately predict the intricate effects of perturbations including TF mutations and misexpression. Our approach imposes minimal assumptions about regulatory function; instead we infer underlying mechanisms from models that best fit the data, like the lack of TF-specific thresholds and the positional value of homotypic interactions. Our study provides a general and quantitative method for elucidating the regulation of diverse biological systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00522.001 PMID:23930223

  13. State-space models’ dirty little secrets: even simple linear Gaussian models can have estimation problems

    PubMed Central

    Auger-Méthé, Marie; Field, Chris; Albertsen, Christoffer M.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Lewis, Mark A.; Jonsen, Ian D.; Mills Flemming, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    State-space models (SSMs) are increasingly used in ecology to model time-series such as animal movement paths and population dynamics. This type of hierarchical model is often structured to account for two levels of variability: biological stochasticity and measurement error. SSMs are flexible. They can model linear and nonlinear processes using a variety of statistical distributions. Recent ecological SSMs are often complex, with a large number of parameters to estimate. Through a simulation study, we show that even simple linear Gaussian SSMs can suffer from parameter- and state-estimation problems. We demonstrate that these problems occur primarily when measurement error is larger than biological stochasticity, the condition that often drives ecologists to use SSMs. Using an animal movement example, we show how these estimation problems can affect ecological inference. Biased parameter estimates of a SSM describing the movement of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) result in overestimating their energy expenditure. We suggest potential solutions, but show that it often remains difficult to estimate parameters. While SSMs are powerful tools, they can give misleading results and we urge ecologists to assess whether the parameters can be estimated accurately before drawing ecological conclusions from their results. PMID:27220686

  14. Characterisation of the nocturnal canopy sublayer above an even-aged pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cava, D.; Katul, G.; Siqueira, M.; Giostra, U.

    2003-04-01

    The nocturnal canopy Sublayer (CSL) at the top of a 15 m tall even-aged pine forest has been studied. We quantified the role of organised motion on scalar and momentum transport close to the canopy-atmosphere interface using time series measurements of velocity, temperature, carbon dioxide and water vapour concentration. Our analysis highlights that the nocturnal CSL has 2 end-members -- both dominated by organised motion. These end-members represent fully developed turbulence for near-neutral or slightly stable atmospheric stratification and no turbulence for very stable stratification. Ramps dominate scalar transport for near-neutral and slightly stable conditions, while canopy waves dominate the flow dynamics for very stable stratification. Spectral analysis suggests that both organised structures contribute to the spectral properties of scalar time series; nevertheless, co-spectral analysis suggests that ramps are the most efficient net scalar mass transporting agent, while linear canopy waves contribute little to net scalar transport between the canopy and atmosphere. Ramps are the most frequently occurring organised motion in the nocturnal CSL; however, numerous night-time runs reside between the two end members. Our analysis also suggests that canopy waves can be readily destroyed by passage of clouds or other radiative perturbations. In fact, if radiative perturbations are sufficiently large (>20 W m-2 in net radiation), the flow can switch from canopy waves to ramps. Moreover, when ramps are the dominant eddy motion in the nocturnal CSL, radiative perturbations have minor impact on scalar transport.

  15. The Timed Depolarization of Morning and Evening Oscillators Phase Shifts the Circadian Clock of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Eck, Saskia; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Rieger, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Phase response curves (PRCs) for light or temperature stimuli have been shown to be most valuable in understanding how circadian clocks are entrained to daily environmental cycles. Nowadays, PRC experiments in which clock neurons are manipulated in a temporally restricted manner by thermogenetic or optogenetic tools are also useful to comprehend clock network properties. Here, we temporally depolarized specific clock neurons of Drosophila melanogaster by activating temperature-sensitive dTrpA1 channels to unravel their role in phase shifting the flies' activity rhythm. The depolarization of all clock neurons caused a PRC resembling the flies' light PRC, with strong phase delays in the first half of the subjective night and modest phase advances in its second half. However, the activation of the flies' pigment-dispersing factor (PDF)-positive morning (M) neurons (s-LNvs) only induced phase advances, and these reached into the subjective day, where the light PRC has its dead zone. This indicates that the M neurons are very potent in accelerating the clock, which is in line with previous observations. In contrast, the evening (E) neurons together with the PDF-positive l-LNvs appear to mediate phase delays. Most interestingly, the molecular clock (Period protein cycling) of the depolarized clock neurons was shifted in parallel to the behavior, and this shift was already visible within the first cycle after the temperature pulse. We identified cAMP response element binding protein B (CREB) as a putative link between membrane depolarization and the molecular clock.

  16. Positional distribution of FA in TAG of enzymatically modified borage and evening primrose oils.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, S P J Namal; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2002-08-01

    Stereospecific analysis was carried out to establish positional distribution of FA in the TAG of DHA, EPA, and (EPA + DHA)-enriched oils. In this study, TAG of enzymatically modified oils were purified using a silicic acid column. The TAG were then subjected to positional distribution analysis using a modified procedure involving reductive cleavage with Grignard reagent. The results showed that in DHA-enriched borage oil (BO), DHA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, whereas gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was mainly esterified at the sn-2 and -3 positions. In DHA-enriched evening primrose oil (EPO), however, DHA and GLA were concentrated in the sn-2 position. In EPA-enriched BO, EPA was randomly distributed over the three positions of TAG, similar to that observed for DHA. In EPA-enriched EPO, however, this FA was mainly located at the primary positions (sn-1 and sn-3) of TAG. In both oils, GLA was preferentially esterified at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched BO, EPA and DHA were mainly esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions of TAG, whereas GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 position. In (EPA + DHA)-enriched EPO, GLA was mainly located at the sn-2 and -3 positions; EPA was preferentially esterified at the sn-1 and -3 positions, and DHA was found mainly at the sn-3 position.

  17. Auditory white noise reduces postural fluctuations even in the absence of vision.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jessica Marie; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2015-08-01

    The contributions of somatosensory, vestibular, and visual feedback to balance control are well documented, but the influence of auditory information, especially acoustic noise, on balance is less clear. Because somatosensory noise has been shown to reduce postural sway, we hypothesized that noise from the auditory modality might have a similar effect. Given that the nervous system uses noise to optimize signal transfer, adding mechanical or auditory noise should lead to increased feedback about sensory frames of reference used in balance control. In the present experiment, postural sway was analyzed in healthy young adults where they were presented with continuous white noise, in the presence and absence of visual information. Our results show reduced postural sway variability (as indexed by the body's center of pressure) in the presence of auditory noise, even when visual information was not present. Nonlinear time series analysis revealed that auditory noise has an additive effect, independent of vision, on postural stability. Further analysis revealed that auditory noise reduced postural sway variability in both low- and high-frequency regimes (> or <0.3 Hz) of sway, suggesting that both spontaneous and feedback-driven aspects of postural fluctuations were influenced by acoustic noise. Our results support the idea that auditory white noise reduces postural sway, suggesting that auditory noise might be used for therapeutic and rehabilitation purposes in older individuals and those with balance disorders. PMID:25953650

  18. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities. PMID:26560705

  19. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described. PMID:14676360

  20. Paternité des articles et intérêts concurrents : une analyse des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique

    PubMed Central

    Courbon, Ève; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : La présence d’auteurs honorifiques et fantômes ainsi que les intérêts concurrents représentent des difficultés bien documentées, liées à la publication d’articles scientifiques. Il existe des lignes directrices encadrant la rédaction et la publication de manuscrits scientifiques, notamment celles de l’International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Objectifs : L’objectif principal de cette étude descriptive et transversale visait à recenser les instructions portant sur la paternité des articles et les intérêts concurrents provenant des recommandations aux auteurs des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. L’objectif secondaire visait à déterminer des mesures correctrices pour une paternité des articles plus transparente. Méthode : La recherche a débuté par l’identification des journaux traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. La consultation des instructions aux auteurs des journaux a permis ensuite de recenser les recommandations destinées à éviter les problèmes de paternité des articles et d’intérêts concurrents. Finalement, les membres de l’équipe de recherche se sont consultés afin de définir des mesures correctrices possibles à l’intention des chercheurs. Résultats : Des 232 journaux traitant de pharmacie, 33 ont été définis comme traitant de pratique pharmaceutique. Un total de 24 (73 %) journaux mentionnaient suivre la politique de l’ICMJE, 14 (42 %) demandaient aux auteurs de remplir un formulaire de déclaration d’intérêts concurrents au moment de la soumission de l’article, 17 (52 %) présentaient une définition de la qualité d’auteur et 5 (15 %) demandaient de détailler les contributions de chaque auteur. Une grille de 40 critères a été élaborée pour définir l’attribution du statut d’auteur. Conclusion : Moins de la moitié des journaux demandait aux auteurs de transmettre un formulaire de déclaration des intérêts concurrents au moment de la

  1. ELF3-PIF4 interaction regulates plant growth independently of the Evening Complex.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Cristina; López-Salmerón, Vadir; Davière, Jean-Michel; Prat, Salomé

    2015-01-19

    The circadian clock plays a pivotal role in the control of Arabidopsis hypocotyl elongation by regulating rhythmic expression of the bHLH factors PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 and 5 (PIF4 and 5). Coincidence of increased PIF4/PIF5 transcript levels with the dark period allows nuclear accumulation of these factors, and in short days it phases maximal hypocotyl growth at dawn. During early night, PIF4 and PIF5 transcription is repressed by the Evening Complex (EC) proteins EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), EARLY FLOWERING4 (ELF4), and LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX). While ELF3 has an essential role in EC complex assembly, several lines of evidence indicate that this protein controls plant growth via other mechanisms that are presently unknown. Here, we show that the ELF3 and PIF4 proteins interact in an EC-independent manner, and that this interaction prevents PIF4 from activating its transcriptional targets. We also show that PIF4 overexpression leads to ELF3 protein destabilization, and that this effect is mediated indirectly by negative feedback regulation of photoactive PHYTOCHROME B (phyB). Physical interaction of the phyB photoreceptor with ELF3 has been reported, but its functional relevance remains poorly understood. Our findings establish that phyB is needed for ELF3 accumulation in the light, most likely by competing for CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1)-mediated ubiquitination and the proteasomal degradation of ELF3. Our results explain the short hypocotyl phenotype of ELF3 overexpressors, despite their normal clock function, and provide a molecular framework for understanding how warm temperatures promote hypocotyl elongation and affect the endogenous clock.

  2. Why AGU is important in Eastern Europe and should increase its role even more?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocanu, V.

    2007-12-01

    , to push the frontiers of science. This is why AGU is a certain model to follow and we expect even closer relationships with its sister societies from East Europe.

  3. Natural variation of the expression pattern of the segmentation gene even-skipped in melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pengyao; Ludwig, Michael Z; Kreitman, Martin; Reinitz, John

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of canalized traits is a central question in evolutionary biology. Natural variation in highly conserved traits can provide clues about their evolutionary potential. Here we investigate natural variation in a conserved trait-even-skipped (eve) expression at the cellular blastoderm stage of embryonic development in Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of the pair-rule gene eve was quantitatively measured in three inbred lines derived from a natural population of D. melanogaster. One line showed marked differences in the spacing, amplitude and timing of formation of the characteristic seven-striped pattern over a 50-min period prior to the onset of gastrulation. Stripe 5 amplitude and the width of the interstripe between stripes 4 and 5 were both reduced in this line, while the interstripe distance between stripes 3 and 4 was increased. Engrailed expression in stage 10 embryos revealed a statistically significant increase in the length of parasegment 6 and a decrease in the length of parasegments 8 and 9. These changes are larger than those previously reported between D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura, two species that are thought to have diverged from a common ancestor over 25 million years ago. This line harbors a rare 448 bp deletion in the first intron of knirps (kni). This finding suggested that reduced Kni levels caused the deviant eve expression, and indeed we observed lower levels of Kni protein at early cycle 14A in L2 compared to the other two lines. A second of the three lines displayed an approximately 20% greater level of expression for all seven eve stripes. The three lines are each viable and fertile, and none display a segmentation defect as adults, suggesting that early-acting variation in eve expression is ameliorated by developmental buffering mechanisms acting later in development. Canalization of the segmentation pathway may reduce the fitness consequences of genetic variation, thus allowing the persistence of mutations with

  4. High and specialty-related musculoskeletal disorders afflict dental professionals even since early training years

    PubMed Central

    YI, Jianru; HU, Xiangxiang; YAN, Boxi; ZHENG, Wei; LI, Yu; ZHAO, Zhihe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine how early musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) develop in dental professionals and to explore the potential differences among distinct dental specialties. Material and Methods 271 dental postgraduates majoring in five dental specialties were recruited, i.e., orthodontics, prosthodontics, endodontics, periodontics and alveolar surgery. 254 age-matched non-dental postgraduates served as the control. The standardized Nordic questionnaire on MSDs and a self-report questionnaire regarding correlative factors (only for dental postgraduates) were answered through emails. Reliability of responses was assessed applying test-retest method. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient of participants' answers ranged from 0.89 to 0.96. Dental postgraduates had significantly higher prevalence of MSDs than the control group, especially at neck, upper back and lower back. In all dental specialties included, high prevalence of MSDs was reported at neck (47.5%-69.8%), shoulders (50.8%-65.1%), lower back (27.1%-51.2%) and upper back (25.6%-46.5%), with lower prevalence at elbows (5.1%-18.6%), hips (3.4%-16.3%) and ankles (5.1%-11.6%). Periodontics students reported the worst MSDs in most body regions except wrists and knees, which were more prevalent for prosthodontic and alveolar surgery students, respectively. Furthermore, year of clinical work, clinical hours per week and desk hours per week were found as risk factors for MSDs, whereas physical exercise and rest between patients as protective factors. Conclusions High and specialty-related MSDs afflict dental professionals even since very early stage of careers. Prevention aimed at the specialty-related characteristics and the risk/protective factors revealed in this study should be introduced to dental personnel as early as possible. PMID:24037079

  5. Review of even element super-heavy nuclei and search for element 120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, S.; Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Antalic, S.; Barth, W.; Burkhard, H. G.; Dahl, L.; Eberhardt, K.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J. H.; Henderson, R. A.; Kenneally, J. M.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lang, R.; Lommel, B.; Miernik, K.; Miller, D.; Moody, K. J.; Morita, K.; Nishio, K.; Popeko, A. G.; Roberto, J. B.; Runke, J.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Saro, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schött, H. J.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Tinschert, K.; Trautmann, N.; Uusitalo, J.; Yeremin, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    The reaction 54Cr + 248Cm was investigated at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI, Darmstadt, with the intention to study production and decay properties of isotopes of element 120. Three correlated signals were measured, which occurred within a period of 279ms. The heights of the signals correspond with the expectations for a decay sequence starting with an isotope of element 120. However, a complete decay chain cannot be established, since a signal from the implantation of the evaporation residue cannot be identified unambiguously. Measured properties of the event chain are discussed in detail. The result is compared with theoretical predictions. Previously measured decay properties of even element super-heavy nuclei were compiled in order to find arguments for an assignment from the systematics of experimental data. In the course of this review, a few tentatively assigned data could be corrected. New interpretations are given for results which could not be assigned definitely in previous studies. The discussion revealed that the cross-section for production of element 120 could be high enough so that a successful experiment seems possible with presently available techniques. However, a continuation of the experiment at SHIP for a necessary confirmation of the results obtained in a relatively short irradiation of five weeks is not possible at GSI presently. Therefore, we decided to publish the results of the measurement and of the review as they exist now. In the summary and outlook section we also present concepts for the continuation of research in the field of super-heavy nuclei.

  6. Impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation at extreme high altitude even after acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Ken-ichi; Zhang, Rong; Zuckerman, Julie H; Ogawa, Yojiro; Hansen, Lærke H; Levine, Benjamin David

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases and dynamic cerebral autoregulation is impaired by acute hypoxia. We hypothesized that progressive hypocapnia with restoration of arterial oxygen content after altitude acclimatization would normalize CBF and dynamic cerebral autoregulation. To test this hypothesis, dynamic cerebral autoregulation was examined by spectral and transfer function analyses between arterial pressure and CBF velocity variabilities in 11 healthy members of the Danish High-Altitude Research Expedition during normoxia and acute hypoxia (10.5% O(2)) at sea level, and after acclimatization (for over 1 month at 5,260 m at Chacaltaya, Bolivia). Arterial pressure and CBF velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), were recorded on a beat-by-beat basis. Steady-state CBF velocity increased during acute hypoxia, but normalized after acclimatization with partial restoration of SaO(2) (acute, 78% ± 2%; chronic, 89% ± 1%) and progression of hypocapnia (end-tidal carbon dioxide: acute, 34 ± 2 mm Hg; chronic, 21 ± 1 mm Hg). Coherence (0.40 ± 0.05 Units at normoxia) and transfer function gain (0.77 ± 0.13 cm/s per mm Hg at normoxia) increased, and phase (0.86 ± 0.15 radians at normoxia) decreased significantly in the very-low-frequency range during acute hypoxia (gain, 141% ± 24%; coherence, 136% ± 29%; phase, -25% ± 22%), which persisted after acclimatization (gain, 136% ± 36%; coherence, 131% ± 50%; phase, -42% ± 13%), together indicating impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation in this frequency range. The similarity between both acute and chronic conditions suggests that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is impaired by hypoxia even after successful acclimatization to an extreme high altitude.

  7. Heat generation above break-even from laser-induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Holmlid, Leif

    2015-08-15

    Previous results from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0) give conclusive evidence for ejection of neutral massive particles with energy >10 MeV u{sup −1}. Such particles can only be formed from nuclear processes like nuclear fusion at the low laser intensity used. Heat generation is of interest for future fusion energy applications and has now been measured by a small copper (Cu) cylinder surrounding the laser target. The temperature rise of the Cu cylinder is measured with an NTC resistor during around 5000 laser shots per measured point. No heating in the apparatus or the gas feed is normally used. The fusion process is suboptimal relative to previously published studies by a factor of around 10. The small neutral particles H{sub N}(0) of ultra-dense hydrogen (size of a few pm) escape with a substantial fraction of the energy. Heat loss to the D{sub 2} gas (at <1 mbar pressure) is measured and compensated for under various conditions. Heat release of a few W is observed, at up to 50% higher energy than the total laser input thus a gain of 1.5. This is uniquely high for the use of deuterium as fusion fuel. With a slightly different setup, a thermal gain of 2 is reached, thus clearly above break-even for all neutronicity values possible. Also including the large kinetic energy which is directly measured for MeV particles leaving through a small opening gives a gain of 2.3. Taking into account the lower efficiency now due to the suboptimal fusion process, previous studies indicate a gain of at least 20 during long periods.

  8. Change blindness for cast shadows in natural scenes: Even informative shadow changes are missed.

    PubMed

    Ehinger, Krista A; Allen, Kala; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-05-01

    Previous work has shown that human observers discount or neglect cast shadows in natural and artificial scenes across a range of visual tasks. This is a reasonable strategy for a visual system designed to recognize objects under a range of lighting conditions, since cast shadows are not intrinsic properties of the scene-they look different (or disappear entirely) under different lighting conditions. However, cast shadows can convey useful information about the three-dimensional shapes of objects and their spatial relations. In this study, we investigated how well people detect changes to cast shadows, presented in natural scenes in a change blindness paradigm, and whether shadow changes that imply the movement or disappearance of an object are more easily noticed than shadow changes that imply a change in lighting. In Experiment 1, a critical object's shadow was removed, rotated to another direction, or shifted down to suggest that the object was floating. All of these shadow changes were noticed less often than changes to physical objects or surfaces in the scene, and there was no difference in the detection rates for the three types of changes. In Experiment 2, the shadows of visible or occluded objects were removed from the scenes. Although removing the cast shadow of an occluded object could be seen as an object deletion, both types of shadow changes were noticed less often than deletions of the visible, physical objects in the scene. These results show that even informative shadow changes are missed, suggesting that cast shadows are discounted fairly early in the processing of natural scenes. PMID:26846753

  9. Evenly-spaced columns in the Bishop Tuff as relicts of hydrothermal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph-Flagg, N. G.; Breen, S. J.; Hernandez, A.; Self, S.; Manga, M.

    2015-12-01

    A few square km of the Bishop Tuff in eastern California, USA have evenly spaced erosional columns. These columns are more resistant to erosion due to the precipitation of the low-temperature zeolite (120-200 ºC), mordenite, which is not found in the surrounding tuff. Similar features observed in the Bandelier Tuff were hypothesized to form when cold water from above infiltrated into the still-hot tuff interior. This water would become gravitationally unstable and produced convection with steam upwellings and liquid water downwellings. These downwellings became cemented with mordenite while the upwellings were too dry for chemical reactions. We use two methods to quantitatively assess this hypothesis. First, scaling that ignores the effects of latent heat and mineral precipitation suggests the Rayleigh number (Ra, a measure of convective vigor) for this system is ~103 well above the critical Ra of 4π2. Second, to account for the effect of multiphase flow and latent heat, we use two-dimensional numerical models in the finite difference code HYDROTHERM. We find that the geometry of flow is consistent with field observations and confirm that geometry is sensitive to permeability and topography. These tests suggest a few things about low-pressure hydrothermal systems. 1) The geometry of at least some convection appears to be broadly captured by linear stability theory that ignores reactive transport, heterogeneity of host rock, and the effects of latent heat. 2) Topographic flow sets the wavelength of convection meaning that these columns formed somewhere without topography—probably a lake. Finally, these observations imply a wet paleoclimate in the Eastern Sierra namely that, in the aftermath of the Long Valley eruption, either rain or snow was able to pool in the caldera before the tuff cooled on the order of a hundred years after the eruption.

  10. The Effect of Caffeine Ingestion during Evening Exercise on Subsequent Sleep Quality in Females.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; O'Donnell, J M; Starck, C; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K J

    2015-06-01

    In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 10 females taking monophasic oral contraceptives completed 90 min intermittent treadmill-running 45 min after ingestion of 6 mg∙kg(-1) body mass anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo). Water (3 mL∙kg(-1)) was provided every 15 min during exercise. Venous blood samples were taken before, during and after exercise, as well as after sleep (~15 h post-ingestion), and levels of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Sleep quality was assessed using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Plasma caffeine concentration peaked 100 min after ingestion. Caffeine clearance was 0.95±0.14 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) while the elimination half-life of caffeine was 17.63±8.06 h. Paraxanthine and theophylline levels were significantly elevated at 15 h with no significant change in theobromine. Sleep latency and subsequent quality of sleep was impaired following caffeine supplementation (P<0.05); there were no differences between trials for how participants were feeling upon awakening. This is the first controlled study to examine caffeine supplementation on sleep quality in female athletes taking a low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive steroid following an intermittent-exercise running protocol. The data shows that female athletes using monophasic oral contraceptive steroids will have impaired sleep quality following evening caffeine ingestion. PMID:25700100

  11. Urinary arsenic profile affects the risk of urothelial carcinoma even at low arsenic exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Y.-S.; Yang, S.-M.; Huang, Y.-K.; Chung, C.-J.; Huang, Steven K.; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yang, M.-H.; Chen, C.-J.; Hsueh, Y.-M. . E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw

    2007-01-15

    Arsenic exposure is associated with an increased risk of urothelial carcinoma (UC). To explore the association between individual risk and urinary arsenic profile in subjects without evident exposure, 177 UC cases and 313 age-matched controls were recruited between September 2002 and May 2004 for a case-control study. Urinary arsenic species including the following three categories, inorganic arsenic (As{sup III} + As{sup V}), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}), were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Arsenic methylation profile was assessed by percentages of various arsenic species in the sum of the three categories measured. The primary methylation index (PMI) was defined as the ratio between MMA{sup V} and inorganic arsenic. Secondary methylation index (SMI) was determined as the ratio between DMA{sup V} and MMA{sup V}. Smoking is associated with a significant risk of UC in a dose-dependent manner. After multivariate adjustment, UC cases had a significantly higher sum of all the urinary species measured, higher percent MMA{sup V}, lower percent DMA{sup V}, higher PMI and lower SMI values compared with controls. Smoking interacts with the urinary arsenic profile in modifying the UC risk. Differential carcinogenic effects of the urinary arsenic profile, however, were seen more prominently in non-smokers than in smokers, suggesting that smoking is not the only major environmental source of arsenic contamination since the UC risk differs in non-smokers. Subjects who have an unfavorable urinary arsenic profile have an increased UC risk even at low exposure levels.

  12. Change blindness for cast shadows in natural scenes: Even informative shadow changes are missed.

    PubMed

    Ehinger, Krista A; Allen, Kala; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-05-01

    Previous work has shown that human observers discount or neglect cast shadows in natural and artificial scenes across a range of visual tasks. This is a reasonable strategy for a visual system designed to recognize objects under a range of lighting conditions, since cast shadows are not intrinsic properties of the scene-they look different (or disappear entirely) under different lighting conditions. However, cast shadows can convey useful information about the three-dimensional shapes of objects and their spatial relations. In this study, we investigated how well people detect changes to cast shadows, presented in natural scenes in a change blindness paradigm, and whether shadow changes that imply the movement or disappearance of an object are more easily noticed than shadow changes that imply a change in lighting. In Experiment 1, a critical object's shadow was removed, rotated to another direction, or shifted down to suggest that the object was floating. All of these shadow changes were noticed less often than changes to physical objects or surfaces in the scene, and there was no difference in the detection rates for the three types of changes. In Experiment 2, the shadows of visible or occluded objects were removed from the scenes. Although removing the cast shadow of an occluded object could be seen as an object deletion, both types of shadow changes were noticed less often than deletions of the visible, physical objects in the scene. These results show that even informative shadow changes are missed, suggesting that cast shadows are discounted fairly early in the processing of natural scenes.

  13. Cortical hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in Parkinson's disease is extensive: probably even at early disease stages.

    PubMed

    Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, Mallar; Jonsdottir, Kristjana Yr; Sato, Noriko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ito, Kengo; Arahata, Yutaka; Kato, Takashi; Gjedde, Albert

    2010-05-01

    Recent cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose consumption (CMRglc) studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) revealed conflicting results. Using simulated data, we previously demonstrated that the often-reported subcortical hypermetabolism in PD could be explained as an artifact of biased global mean (GM) normalization, and that low-magnitude, extensive cortical hypometabolism is best detected by alternative data-driven normalization methods. Thus, we hypothesized that PD is characterized by extensive cortical hypometabolism but no concurrent widespread subcortical hypermetabolism and tested it on three independent samples of PD patients. We compared SPECT CBF images of 32 early-stage and 33 late-stage PD patients with that of 60 matched controls. We also compared PET FDG images from 23 late-stage PD patients with that of 13 controls. Three different normalization methods were compared: (1) GM normalization, (2) cerebellum normalization, (3) reference cluster normalization (Yakushev et al.). We employed standard voxel-based statistics (fMRIstat) and principal component analysis (SSM). Additionally, we performed a meta-analysis of all quantitative CBF and CMRglc studies in the literature to investigate whether the global mean (GM) values in PD are decreased. Voxel-based analysis with GM normalization and the SSM method performed similarly, i.e., both detected decreases in small cortical clusters and concomitant increases in extensive subcortical regions. Cerebellum normalization revealed more widespread cortical decreases but no subcortical increase. In all comparisons, the Yakushev method detected nearly identical patterns of very extensive cortical hypometabolism. Lastly, the meta-analyses demonstrated that global CBF and CMRglc values are decreased in PD. Based on the results, we conclude that PD most likely has widespread cortical hypometabolism, even at early disease stages. In contrast, extensive subcortical hypermetabolism is probably not a feature of PD. PMID

  14. Mechanism of Evenness Interrupted (Evi)-Exosome Release at Synaptic Boutons*

    PubMed Central

    Koles, Kate; Nunnari, John; Korkut, Ceren; Barria, Romina; Brewer, Cassandra; Li, Yihang; Leszyk, John; Zhang, Bing; Budnik, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays critical roles during synaptic development and plasticity. However, the mechanisms by which Wnts are released and travel to target cells are unresolved. During synaptic development, the secretion of Drosophila Wnt1, Wingless, requires the function of Evenness Interrupted (Evi)/Wls, a Wingless-binding protein that is secreted along with Wingless at the neuromuscular junction. Given that Evi is a transmembrane protein, these studies suggested the presence of a novel vesicular mechanism of trans-synaptic communication, potentially in the form of exosomes. To establish the mechanisms for the release of Evi vesicles, we used a dsRNA assay in cultured cells to screen for genes that when down-regulated prevent the release of Evi vesicles. We identified two proteins, Rab11 and Syntaxin 1A (Syx1A), that were required for Evi vesicle release. To determine whether the same mechanisms were used in vivo at the neuromuscular junction, we altered the activity of Rab11 and Syx1A in motoneurons and determined the impact on Evi release. We found that Syx1A, Rab11, and its effector Myosin5 were required for proper Evi vesicle release. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of synaptic boutons demonstrated the presence of multivesicular bodies, organelles involved in the production and release of exosomes, and these multivesicular bodies contained Evi. We also used mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and biochemical techniques to characterize the exosome fraction from cultured cells. Our studies revealed that secreted Evi vesicles show remarkable conservation with exosomes in other systems. In summary, our observations unravel some of the in vivo mechanisms required for Evi vesicle release. PMID:22437826

  15. Alcohol hangover effects on memory functioning and vigilance performance after an evening of binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; van Duin, Danielle; Volkerts, Edmund R; Schreuder, Antonia H C M L; Verbaten, Marinus N

    2003-04-01

    The impairing effects on memory functioning after acute alcohol intoxication in healthy volunteers and after chronic use in alcoholics are well established. However, research determining the next-morning effects of a single episode of binge drinking on memory functioning is scarce. A total of 48 healthy volunteers participated in a single-blind study comprising an evening (baseline) session, followed by a treatment administration (ethanol 1.4 g/kg or placebo), and a morning session. Memory was tested with a word-learning test (including immediate and delayed recall, and recognition). Further, a 45-min Mackworth clock test for measuring vigilance was included (parameters: number of hits and false alarms) and subjective alertness was assessed, to infer whether word-learning test findings reflect sedation or specific memory impairments. Delayed recall in the morning session was significantly worse in the alcohol group when compared to the placebo group (F(1,42)=6.0, p<0.02). In contrast, immediate recall and recognition were unimpaired in the alcohol group. In the morning session, relative to the placebo group, subjective alertness was significantly reduced in the alcohol group before and after the tests (F(1,44)=8.7, p<0.005; F(1,44)=13.3, p&<0.001, respectively). However, in the Mackworth clock test, the alcohol group and placebo group did not differ significantly in the morning session. The specific findings of impaired delayed recall show that memory retrieval processes are significantly impaired during alcohol hangover. Vigilance performance was not significantly affected, indicating that this memory impairment does not reflect sedation.

  16. Elevated Seismic Activity Beneath the Slumbering Morne aux Diables Volcano, Northern Dominica and the Monitoring Role of the Seismic Research Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, R. B.; Robertson, R. E.; Abraham, W.; Cole, P.; de Roche, T.; Edwards, S.; Higgins, M.; Johnson, M.; Joseph, E. P.; Latchman, J.; Lynch, L.; Nath, N.; Ramsingh, C.; Stewart, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Since June 2009, periods of elevated seismic activity have been experienced around the flanks of Morne Aux Diables Volcano in northern Dominica. This long-dormant volcano is a complex of 7 andesitic lava domes with a central depression where a cold soufrière is evident. Prior to this activity, seismicity was very quiet except for a short period in 2000 and an intense short-lived swarm in April 2003. The most recent earthquake activity has been regularly felt by residents in villages on all flanks of the complex. In Dec 09/Jan10, scientists from the Seismic Research Centre (SRC), based in Trinidad & Tobago, in collaboration with staff of the Office of Disaster Management (ODM) and Dominica Public Seismic Network (DPSN) improved the monitoring capacity around this volcano from 1 to 7 seismic stations. Earthquakes are determined to be volcano-tectonic in nature and located at shallow depths (<4 km) beneath the central depression. Additionally, in Jan/Feb 10 geothermal sampling was undertaken and 2 permanent GPS sites were deployed. Public information leaflets prepared by SRC scientists using a "Question & Answer" format have been distributed to concerned citizens whilst many public meetings were carried out by ODM staff. Field investigations indicate that the previous Late Pleistocene activity of Morne Aux Diables switched from Pelèan dome growth and gravitational collapse to more explosive pumice-falls and associated ignimbrites, both styles forming extensive pyroclastic fans around the central complex. The town of Portsmouth is located on one of these fans ~5 km southwest of the central depression. Sporadic, short bursts of seismic activity continue at the time of writing.

  17. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission. PMID:27695465

  18. Auxin responsiveness of the MONOPTEROS-BODENLOS module in primary root initiation critically depends on the nuclear import kinetics of the Aux/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS.

    PubMed

    Herud, Ole; Weijers, Dolf; Lau, Steffen; Jürgens, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes. Aux/IAA proteins are continually synthesized and degraded, which is essential for rapid transcriptional responses to changing auxin concentrations. Nuclear translocation of bdl:3×GFP was slowed down in impα6 mutants as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which correlated with the reduced inhibition of MP by bdl in transient expression assays in impα6 knock-down protoplasts. The MP-BDL module acts like an auxin-triggered genetic switch because MP activates its own expression as well as the expression of its inhibitor BDL. Using an established simulation model, we determined that the reduced nuclear translocation rate of BDL in impα6 mutant embryos rendered the auxin-triggered switch unstable, impairing the fast response to changes in auxin concentration. Our results suggest that the instability of the inhibitor BDL necessitates a fast nuclear uptake in order to reach the critical threshold level required for auxin responsiveness of the MP-BDL module in primary root initiation.

  19. Conserved and unique features of the homeologous maize Aux/IAA proteins ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1 and RUM1-like 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Marcon, Caroline; Tai, Huanhuan; von Behrens, Inga; Ludwig, Yvonne; Hey, Stefan; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1) is a key regulator of lateral and seminal root formation. An ancient maize genome duplication resulted in the emergence of its homeolog rum1-like1 (rul1), which displays 92% amino acid sequence identity with RUM1. Both, RUL1 and RUM1 exhibit the canonical four domain structure of Aux/IAA proteins. Moreover, both are localized to the nucleus, are instable and have similar short half-lives of ~23min. Moreover, RUL1 and RUM1 can be stabilized by specific mutations in the five amino acid degron sequence of domain II. In addition, proteins encoded by both genes interact in vivo with auxin response factors (ARFs) such as ZmARF25 and ZmARF34 in protoplasts. Although it was demonstrated that RUL1 and RUM1 can homo and heterodimerize in vivo, rul1 expression is independent of rum1. Moreover, on average rul1 expression is ~84-fold higher than rum1 in the 12 tested tissues and developmental stages, although the relative expression levels in different root tissues are very similar. While RUM1 and RUL1 display conserved biochemical properties, yeast-two-hybrid in combination with BiFC experiments identified a RUM1-associated protein 1 (RAP1) that specifically interacts with RUM1 but not with RUL1. This suggests that RUM1 and RUL1 are at least in part interwoven into different molecular networks. PMID:26672614

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Petal Abscission Zone and Functional Analysis of an Aux/IAA Family Gene RhIAA16 Involved in Petal Shedding in Rose

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuerong; Liu, Chun; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Haiqian; Liang, Yue; Ma, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Roses are one of the most important cut flowers among ornamental plants. Rose flower longevity is largely dependent on the timing of petal shedding occurrence. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying petal abscission in rose, we performed transcriptome profiling of the petal abscission zone during petal shedding using Illumina technology. We identified a total of 2592 differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) during rose petal shedding. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analysis revealed that major biochemical pathways the DTGs were involved in included ethylene biosynthesis, starch degradation, superpathway of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle, photorespiration and the lactose degradation III pathway. This suggests that alterations in carbon metabolism are an important part of rose petal abscission. Among these DTGs, approximately 150 genes putatively encoding transcription factors were identified in rose abscission zone. These included zinc finger, WRKY, ERF, and Aux/IAA gene families, suggesting that petal abscission involves complex transcriptional reprogramming. Approximately 108 DTGs were related to hormone pathways, of which auxin and ethylene related DTGs were the largest groups including 52 and 41 genes, respectively. These also included 12 DTGs related to gibberellin and 6 DTGs in jasmonic acid pathway. Surprisingly, no DTGs involved in the biosynthesis/signaling of abscisic acid, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, and salicylic acid pathways were detected. Moreover, among DTGs related to auxin, we identified an Aux/IAA gene RhIAA16 that was up-regulated in response to petal shedding. Down-regulation of RhIAA16 by virus-induced gene silencing in rose promoted petal abscission, suggesting that RhIAA16 plays an important role in rose petal abscission.

  1. Day and night shift schedules are associated with lower sleep quality in Evening-types.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Laberge, Luc; Sasseville, Alexandre; Bérubé, Marilie; Alain, Samuel; Houle, Jérôme; Hébert, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Eveningness has been suggested as a facilitating factor in adaptation to shift work, with several studies reporting evening chronotypes (E-types) as better sleepers when on night shifts. Conversely, eveningness has been associated with more sleep complaints during day shifts. However, sleep during day shifts has received limited attention in previous studies assessing chronotypes in shift workers. Environmental light exposure has also been reported to differ between chronotypes in day workers. Activity is also known to provide temporal input to the circadian clock. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare objective sleep, light exposure and activity levels between chronotypes, both during the night and day shifts. Thirty-nine patrol police patrol officers working on a fast rotating shift schedule (mean age ± SD: 28.9 ± 3.2 yrs; 28 males) participated in this study. All subjects completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Sleep and activity were monitored with actigraphy (Actiwatch-L; Mini-Mitter/Respironics, Bend, OR) for four consecutive night shifts and four consecutive day shifts (night work schedule: 00:00 h-07:00 h; day work schedule: 07:00 h-15:00 h). Sleep and activity parameters were calculated with Actiware software. MEQ scores ranged from 26 to 56; no subject was categorized as Morning-type. E-types (n = 13) showed significantly lower sleep efficiency, longer snooze time and spent more time awake after sleep onset than Intermediate-types (I-types, n = 26) for both the night and day shifts. E-types also exhibited shorter and more numerous sleep bouts. Furthermore, when napping was taken into account, E-types had shorter total sleep duration than I-types during the day shifts. E-types were more active during the first hours of their night shift when compared to I-types. Also, all participants spent more time active and had higher amount of activity per minute during day shifts when compared to night shifts. No

  2. First Steps toward School Success: Promising Practices in Even Start Family Projects Serving Infants and Toddlers and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Sara; Stief, Elizabeth; Marzke, Carolyn; O'Brien, Eileen

    The federally funded Even Start Family Literacy Program supports local family-centered education projects intended to help families with young children break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy. This report documents the efforts of nine Even Start projects that demonstrate promising practices in serving infants and toddlers and their families. The…

  3. Students in Nova Southeastern University's Shepard Broad Law Center Judge the Inaugural Year of the Evening Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    This report summarizes results of a survey of students in the recently-initiated part-time evening program of Nova Southeastern University (Florida) law school. Respondents included all 54 evening program students enrolled in spring 1997. Results indicate that about half the students hold a job that is either highly or moderately related to their…

  4. Ecologically relevant geomorphic attributes of streams are impaired by even low levels of watershed effective imperviousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietz, Geoff J.; Sammonds, Michael J.; Walsh, Christopher J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Rutherfurd, Ian D.; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2014-02-01

    studies even though TI has been found to be ineffective (e.g., Bledsoe et al., 2012). A direct measure of EI - one that specifically accounts for the drainage from each impervious surface rather than using a generic reduction factor (e.g., Booth and Jackson, 1997; Wang et al., 2001) - has not previously been used in geomorphic investigations. In this paper, we advance on past studies by testing if EI is a stronger predictor than TI for urban-induced channel change.A second limitation of previous studies of urban-induced morphologic change is the common focus on channel dimensions (Chin, 2006). These are important for infrastructure and flood protection but do not necessarily have a strong mechanistic link to stream ecosystems. While some notable exceptions exist (Finkenbine et al., 2000; McBride and Booth, 2005), other geomorphic attributes are rarely investigated.This study examines how urbanization of a watershed can result in the impairment of a suite of geomorphic attributes of relevance to aquatic ecosystem condition, such as large wood, sediment availability, and structural and hydraulic complexity (of the bed, bank, and water column), represented by the following variables:

  5. PARAMETRIC TENSION BETWEEN EVEN AND ODD MULTIPOLE DATA OF THE WMAP POWER SPECTRUM: UNACCOUNTED CONTAMINATION OR MISSING PARAMETERS?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-12-01

    There exists power contrast in even and odd multipoles of the WMAP power spectrum at low and intermediate multipole ranges. This anomaly is explicitly associated with the angular power spectrum, which is heavily used for cosmological model fitting. Having noted this, we have investigated whether even (odd) multipole data set is individually consistent with the WMAP concordance model. Our investigation shows that the WMAP concordance model does not make a good fit for even (odd) multipole data set, which indicates parametric tension between even and odd multipole data set. Noting that tension is highest in primordial power spectrum parameters, we have additionally considered a running spectral index, but found that tension increases to even a higher level. We believe these parametric tensions may be indications of unaccounted contamination or imperfection of the model.

  6. A warmer indoor environment in the evening and shorter sleep onset latency in winter: The HEIJO-KYO study.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Tone, Nobuhiro; Kurumatani, Norio

    2015-10-01

    Difficulty in initiating sleep is an important problem because it is associated with an increased incidence of depression, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and higher all-cause mortality. Although experimental studies in controlled settings have shown that warm skin temperature of the extremities (feet and hands) before bedtime is associated with shorter sleep onset latency (SOL), evidence from real life situations is limited. We assessed the relationship between indoor temperatures in the evening (2h before bedtime) and SOL among 861 home-dwelling elderly participants. Subjective SOL was determined according to a self-administered sleep diary. Actigraphic (objective) SOL, indoor temperature, and bed temperature were simultaneously measured at participants' homes for 48h during the colder seasons (October-April). The association between evening indoor temperature and SOL was assessed using a multilevel linear regression model with random intercept for individual participants. Evening indoor temperature showed a significant inverse association with log-transformed subjective SOL (β=-0.021, P<0.01) and actigraphic SOL (β=-0.019, P<0.01), independent of potential confounders including gender, insomnia medication, evening physical activity, and bedtime. Higher bed temperature during the 2h after bedtime was significantly associated with shorter log-transformed actigraphic SOL (β=-0.028, P<0.01). These significant associations were maintained even after adjustment for evening outdoor temperature. The clinically important findings of the present study indicate that SOL may be shortened by modification of evening indoor temperature and bed temperature for 2h after bedtime.

  7. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  8. A Combination of Species Evenness and Functional Diversity Is the Best Predictor of Disease Risk in Multihost Communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lifan; Zhou, Shurong

    2015-12-01

    Although accumulated evidence has shown that biodiversity can play an important role in disease transmission and prevalence, it remains unclear how different measures of diversity based on taxonomy or function perform in predicting disease risk. In this article, we assess the relative ability of species richness, Shannon's evenness index, single functional traits, and several functional diversity metrics and their interactions to predict disease risk in both nonequilibrium and equilibrium communities simulated by a multihost epidemiological model. On the basis of generalized linear models and Akaike's information criterion, we found that Shannon's evenness index outperforms species richness as a single variable in explaining variation in disease risk, while the best combination consists of Shannon's evenness index and functional diversity. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate the important role played by species evenness and functional diversity in accounting for variation in disease risk in multihost communities.

  9. Fission studies of secondary beams from relativistic uranium projectiles: The proton even-odd effect in fission fragment charge yields

    SciTech Connect

    Junghans, A. R.; Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Voss, B.; Boeckstiegel, C.; Clerc, H.-G.; Grewe, A.; Heinz, A.; Jong, M. de; Mueller, J.; Steinhaeuser, S.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1999-09-02

    Nuclear-charge yields of fragments produced by fission of neutron-deficient isotopes of uranium, protactinium, actinium, and radium have been measured. These radioactive isotopes were produced as secondary beams, and electromagnetic fission was induced in a lead target with an average excitation energy around 11 MeV. The local even-odd effect in symmetric and in asymmetric fission of thorium isotopes is found to be independent of Z{sup 2}/A. The charge yields of the fission fragments of the odd-Z fissioning protactinium and actinium show a pronounced even-odd effect. In asymmetric fission the unpaired proton predominantly sticks to the heavy fragment. A statistical model based on the single-particle level density at the Fermi energy is able to reproduce the overall trend of the local even-odd effects both in even-Z and odd-Z fissioning systems.

  10. Possible origin of n -alkanes with a remarkable even-to-odd predominance in recent marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Mitsugu; Baker, Earl W.

    1986-02-01

    N- alkane distributions with a remarkable even-to-odd predominance (C 16-C 24) were found in marine surface sediments. The previously proposed diagenetic reduction of the corresponding n- fatty acids could not be considered as a source for these N- alkane. Based on a comparison of compositional features of n- alkane, n- fatty acid and n- alcohol distributions, carbon isotope analyses, and other geochemical parameters, the data indicate that the even-predominant n- alkanes were derived directly from marine bacteria.

  11. An altered neural response to reward may contribute to alcohol problems among late adolescents with an evening chronotype

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Brant P.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2013-01-01

    Evening chronotypes not only differ from morning-types in their sleep and circadian timing, but they are prone to problematic outcomes involving reward function, including affective disturbance, sensation seeking, and substance involvement. We explored the neural mechanisms underlying these chronotype differences by comparing the neural response to reward in morning- and evening-types. Using a monetary reward fMRI paradigm, we compared the neural response to reward in 13 morning-types and 21 evening-types (all 20 y/o males). Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses focused on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral striatum (VS), comparing the chronotype groups in these ROIs during anticipation and outcome conditions, and adjusting for time of scan. Chronotype groups were also compared on measures of sensation-seeking, substance involvement, and sleep quality. Evening-types reported significantly greater levels of alcohol dependence and worse sleep quality. Furthermore, evening-types showed an altered neural response to reward relative to morning-types, specifically, reduced mPFC reactivity during reward anticipation and increased VS reactivity during win outcome. In turn, less activation in the mPFC region in response to reward was associated with greater alcohol consumption, while increased activation in the VS in response to reward was associated with more symptoms of alcohol dependence. Increased reward-related problems among evening-types may be accompanied by altered neural responses to reward. PMID:24144507

  12. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  13. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism.

  14. Transposition des gros vaisseaux associée aux communications interventriculaire et interauriculaire: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Mutombo, Augustin Mulangu; Mukuku, Olivier; Lubala, Toni Kasole; Kabuya, Maguy Sangaji; Ilunga, Paul Makinko; Bugeme, Marcellin; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2013-01-01

    Nous rapportons une observation d'un nourrisson de 5 mois présentant une transposition des gros vaisseaux associée aux communications interventriculaire et interauriculaire. Il est né à terme sans aucun facteur de risque retrouvé dans les antécédents maternels. Le diagnostic est posé, grâce à une échocardiographie, à 5 mois après sa naissance lors de la survenue d'une cyanose et d'un malaise anoxique. Une prise en charge symptomatique a permis de stabiliser l’état du patient mais suite à l'absence d'un traitement chirurgical, il est décédé à domicile 3 semaines après sa sortie de l'hôpital. Dans les pays en développement, le diagnostic de la transposition des gros vaisseaux est souvent fait en période postnatale et son pronostic reste fatal par manque des centres médico-chirurgicaux spécialisés. PMID:24009800

  15. Growth and development, and auxin polar transport in higher plants under microgravity conditions in space: BRIC-AUX on STS-95 space experiment.

    PubMed

    Ueda, J; Miyamoto, K; Yuda, T; Hoshino, T; Fujii, S; Mukai, C; Kamigaichi, S; Aizawa, S; Yoshizaki, I; Shimazu, T; Fukui, K

    1999-12-01

    The principal objectives of the space experiment, BRIC-AUX on STS 95, were the integrated analysis of the growth and development of etiolated pea and maize seedlings in space and a study of the effects of microgravity conditions in space on auxin polar transport in these segments. Microgravity significantly affected the growth and development of etiolated pea and maize seedlings. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings were the most oriented toward about 40 to 60 degrees from the vertical. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings were curved at random during space flight but coleoptiles were almost straight. Finally the growth inhibition of these seedlings in space was also observed. Roots of some pea seedlings grew toward to the aerial space of Plant Growth Chamber. Extensibilities of cell walls of the third internode of etiolated pea epicotyls and the top region of etiolated maize coleoptiles, which were germinated and grown under microgravity conditions in space, were significantly low as compared with those grown on the ground of the earth. Activities of auxin polar transport in the second internode segments of etiolated pea seedlings and coleoptile segments of etiolated maize seedlings were significantly inhibited and promoted, respectively, under microgravity conditions in space. These results strongly suggest that auxin polar transport as well as the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on the earth.

  16. Generation d'impulsions breves utilisant la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres dans des semi-conducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Isabelle

    Dans cette these, nous utilisons la non-linearite associee aux porteurs de charge libres generes par absorption multi-photonique dans des semi-conducteurs pour produire des impulsions breves dans l'infrarouge moyen. Nous proposons d'abord la methode de generation par suppression de la transmission et auto-defocalisation, ou le faisceau incident a l'angle de Brewster genere les porteurs de charge libres, creant un profil d'indice qui defocalise le faisceau. L'impulsion resultante presente un temps de montee calque sur l'impulsion initiale, suivie d'une coupure abrupte. En polarisation TE, on obtient le decoupage par effet d'etalon ou le faisceau est incident sur un etalon oriente sur un minimum de transmission; le debut de l'impulsion est reflechi. Le changement d'indice accompagnant la creation de porteurs de charge libres syntonise la transmission de l'etalon et seule la partie centrale de l'impulsion est transmise. Enfin, le decoupage peut aussi s'effectuer en configuration pompe-sonde; un faisceau continu (sonde) est incident sur un etalon simultanement soumis a l'illumination d'une d'impulsion breve (pompe). Cette derniere genere des porteurs de charge libres, conduisant a un glissement de la frequence instantanee de la sonde. Le faisceau est envoye dans un filtre spectral qui ne transmet que la portion ayant subi un important glissement de frequence.

  17. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  18. Even Geniuses Work Hard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol S.

    2010-01-01

    In her well-known research, Carol Dweck has documented how individuals' attitudes about intelligence affect their behavior and achievement. People with a fixed mindset, she writes, believe that intelligence is inborn and unchangeable, whereas those with a growth mindset believe that intelligence can grow through practice and effort. In this…

  19. Even Playing Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) governs intercollegiate sports under the premise of amateurism. That premise is incompatible with the idea of paying players. But "amateur" in no way means "nonprofit." The NCAA signed a 14-year, $10.8 billion contract last year with CBS and Turner Sports to air March Madness, the men's Division…

  20. Growing evening primroses (Oenothera).

    PubMed

    Greiner, Stephan; Köhl, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The model plant Oenothera has contributed significantly to the biological sciences and it dominated the early development of plant genetics, cytogenetics, and evolutionary biology. The great advantage of using Oenothera as a model system is a large body of genetic, cytological, morphological, and ecological information collected over more than a century. The Oenothera system offers a well-studied taxonomy, population structure, and ecology. Cytogenetics and formal genetics at the population level are extensively developed, providing an excellent basis to study evolutionary questions. Further, Oenothera is grown as an oil seed crop for the production of essential fatty acids (gamma-linoleic acid) and is considered to be a medicinal plant due to its many pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, such as ellagitannins. Although Oenothera has been cultivated as a laboratory organism since the end of the 19th century, there is a substantial lack of literature dealing with modern greenhouse techniques for the genus. This review compiles an overview about the growth requirements for the genus Oenothera, with a special focus on its genetically best-studied subsections Oenothera and Munzia. Requirements for greenhouse, field, and agronomic cultures are presented, together with information on substrate types, pest control, as well as vegetative and seed propagation, cross pollination, harvest, and seed storage. Particular aspects like germination, bolting, and flowering induction in taxonomically diverse material are reviewed. Methods recommended are supported by ecological and experimental data. An overview of the possibilities for wide hybridization and polyploidy induction in the genus is given. Germplasm resources are referenced. In summary, a comprehensive guideline for successful laboratory cultivation of Oenothera species is provided. PMID:24592268

  1. Evening Primrose Oil

    MedlinePlus

    63057 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/eveningprimrose ... us ... 63057 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/eveningprimrose ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 63057 ... https:// ...

  2. Tree species richness decreases while species evenness increases with disturbance frequency in a natural boreal forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Daniel; Chen, Han Y H; Kingston, Steve

    2016-02-01

    Understanding species diversity and disturbance relationships is important for biodiversity conservation in disturbance-driven boreal forests. Species richness and evenness may respond differently with stand development following fire. Furthermore, few studies have simultaneously accounted for the influences of climate and local site conditions on species diversity. Using forest inventory data, we examined the relationships between species richness, Shannon's index, evenness, and time since last stand-replacing fire (TSF) in a large landscape of disturbance-driven boreal forest. TSF has negative effect on species richness and Shannon's index, and a positive effect on species evenness. Path analysis revealed that the environmental variables affect richness and Shannon's index only through their effects on TSF while affecting evenness directly as well as through their effects on TSF. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate that species richness and Shannon's index decrease while species evenness increases with TSF in a boreal forest landscape. Furthermore, we show that disturbance frequency, local site conditions, and climate simultaneously influence tree species diversity through complex direct and indirect effects in the studied boreal forest. PMID:26865971

  3. Tree species richness decreases while species evenness increases with disturbance frequency in a natural boreal forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Daniel; Chen, Han Y H; Kingston, Steve

    2016-02-01

    Understanding species diversity and disturbance relationships is important for biodiversity conservation in disturbance-driven boreal forests. Species richness and evenness may respond differently with stand development following fire. Furthermore, few studies have simultaneously accounted for the influences of climate and local site conditions on species diversity. Using forest inventory data, we examined the relationships between species richness, Shannon's index, evenness, and time since last stand-replacing fire (TSF) in a large landscape of disturbance-driven boreal forest. TSF has negative effect on species richness and Shannon's index, and a positive effect on species evenness. Path analysis revealed that the environmental variables affect richness and Shannon's index only through their effects on TSF while affecting evenness directly as well as through their effects on TSF. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate that species richness and Shannon's index decrease while species evenness increases with TSF in a boreal forest landscape. Furthermore, we show that disturbance frequency, local site conditions, and climate simultaneously influence tree species diversity through complex direct and indirect effects in the studied boreal forest.

  4. A global perspective of the richness and evenness of traditional crop-variety diversity maintained by farming communities

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Devra I.; Brown, Anthony H. D.; Cuong, Pham Hung; Collado-Panduro, Luis; Latournerie-Moreno, Luis; Gyawali, Sanjaya; Tanto, Tesema; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Mar, Istvan; Sadiki, Mohammed; Hue, Nguyen Thi-Ngoc; Arias-Reyes, Luis; Balma, Didier; Bajracharya, Jwala; Castillo, Fernando; Rijal, Deepak; Belqadi, Loubna; Rana, Ram; Saidi, Seddik; Ouedraogo, Jeremy; Zangre, Roger; Rhrib, Keltoum; Chavez, Jose Luis; Schoen, Daniel; Sthapit, Bhuwon; De Santis, Paola; Fadda, Carlo; Hodgkin, Toby

    2008-01-01

    Varietal data from 27 crop species from five continents were drawn together to determine overall trends in crop varietal diversity on farm. Measurements of richness, evenness, and divergence showed that considerable crop genetic diversity continues to be maintained on farm, in the form of traditional crop varieties. Major staples had higher richness and evenness than nonstaples. Variety richness for clonal species was much higher than that of other breeding systems. A close linear relationship between traditional variety richness and evenness (both transformed), empirically derived from data spanning a wide range of crops and countries, was found both at household and community levels. Fitting a neutral “function” to traditional variety diversity relationships, comparable to a species abundance distribution of “neutral ecology,” provided a benchmark to assess the standing diversity on farm. In some cases, high dominance occurred, with much of the variety richness held at low frequencies. This suggested that diversity may be maintained as an insurance to meet future environmental changes or social and economic needs. In other cases, a more even frequency distribution of varieties was found, possibly implying that farmers are selecting varieties to service a diversity of current needs and purposes. Divergence estimates, measured as the proportion of community evenness displayed among farmers, underscore the importance of a large number of small farms adopting distinctly diverse varietal strategies as a major force that maintains crop genetic diversity on farm. PMID:18362337

  5. Identification of highly deformed even-even nuclei in the neutron- and proton-rich regions of the nuclear chart from the B(E2)↑ and E2 predictions in the generalized differential equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, R. C.; Pattnaik, S.

    2015-11-01

    We identify here the possible occurrence of large deformations in the neutron- and proton-rich (n-rich and p-rich) regions of the nuclear chart from extensive predictions of the values of the reduced quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ for the transition from the ground state to the first 2+ state and the corresponding excitation energy E2 of even-even nuclei in the recently developed generalized differential equation (GDE) model exclusively meant for these physical quantities. This is made possible from our analysis of the predicted values of these two physical quantities and the corresponding deformation parameters derived from them such as the quadrupole deformation β2, the ratio of β2 to the Weisskopf single-particle β2(sp) and the intrinsic electric quadrupole moment Q0, calculated for a large number of both known as well as hitherto unknown even-even isotopes of oxygen to fermium (0 to FM; Z = 8-100). Our critical analysis of the resulting data convincingly support possible existence of large collectivity for the nuclides 30,32Ne,34Mg, 60Ti, 42,62,64Cr,50,68Fe, 52,72Ni, 72,70,96Kr,74,76Sr,78,80,106,108Zr, 82,84,110,112Mo, 140Te,144Xe, 148Ba,122Ce, 128,156Nd,130,132,158,160Sm and 138,162,164,166Gd, whose values of β2 are found to exceed 0.3 and even 0.4 in some cases. Our findings of large deformations in the exotic n-rich regions support the existence of another “island of inversion” in the heavy-mass region possibly caused by breaking of the N = 70 subshell closure.

  6. Large odd{endash}even effect in RbC{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} cluster size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbosch, R.; Will, D.I.

    1996-04-01

    RbC{sub {ital n}} cluster anions have been produced by Rb sputtering of graphite. The intensity ratio of clusters with an even number of carbon atoms to those with an odd number of carbons is much larger for RbC{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} clusters than for C{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} clusters. {ital Ab} {ital initio} quantum mechanical calculations suggest that this arises from RbC{sub {ital n}} electron affinities that are close to zero or negative for odd {ital n}, rather than from an enhanced odd{endash}even alternation in the affinities. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. On the linear stability of solitons and hairy black holes with a negative cosmological constant: the even-parity sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstanley, E.; Sarbach, O.

    2002-02-01

    Using a recently developed perturbation formalism based on curvature quantities, we complete our investigation of the linear stability of black holes and solitons with Yang-Mills hair and a negative cosmological constant. We show that those solutions which have no linear instabilities under odd- and even-parity spherically symmetric perturbations remain stable under even-parity, linear, non-spherically symmetric perturbations. Together with the result from a previous work, we have therefore established the existence of stable hairy black holes and solitons with anti-de Sitter asymptotic.

  8. State Administration of the Even Start Family Literacy Program: Structure, Process and Practices. Doc # 2003-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Fumiyo; Ricciuti, Anne; St.Pierre, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The Even Start Family Literacy Program addresses the basic educational needs of parents and children from birth through age seven from low-income families. The program provides unified, multi-component services consisting of (1) interactive literacy activities between parents and their children; (2) training for parents to be the primary teachers…

  9. Inversion of the Odd-Even Effect in Cold Fission from the Time-Dependent Pairing Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirea, M.

    2016-06-01

    A peculiar phenomenon was observed experimentally in cold fission: the odd partition yields are favored over the even ones for excitations energies of the fragments smaller than 4 MeV. In this contribution, a microscopic model is proposed for the explanation of this odd-even effect in cold fission. This explanation is based on a mixing configuration mechanism that is produced during the fission process. This configuration mixing mechanism is obtained dynamically by solving a the generalized system of time-dependent pairing equations, which include a pair-breaking effect. The time dependent equations of motion for the pair breaking effect were corroborated with a condition that fixes dynamically the number of particles on the two fission fragment. The single particle level scheme was calculated with the Woods-Saxon superasymmetric two center shell model, providing a continuous variation of the single particle energies and of the wave functions from one nucleus up to two separated fragments. A first rule can be extracted from this model. The even-even fission products cannot be obtained at zero excitation energies because of the existence of dynamical excitations produced in the avoided- level-crossing regions when the nuclear system deforms slowly.

  10. Predicting Success for Nontraditional Students in an Afternoon and Evening/Weekend Associate Degree in Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, Hernani Luison, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Mount St. Mary's College has offered a nontraditional Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) Program since 1992. The program has an afternoon and evening/weekend format. There has been one previous research study published in 2005 that described the student population that Mount St. Mary's College serves. This present study will examine the…

  11. Class and Homework Problems: The Break-Even Radius of Insulation Computed Using Excel Solver and WolframAlpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Greg

    2014-01-01

    A problem that illustrates two ways of computing the break-even radius of insulation is outlined. The problem is suitable for students who are taking an introductory module in heat transfer or transport phenomena and who have some previous knowledge of the numerical solution of non- linear algebraic equations. The potential for computer algebra,…

  12. Even the Janitor Is White: Educating for Cultural Diversity in Small Colleges and Universities. Critical Education and Ethics. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, M. Gail, Ed.; Lanahan, Brian K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Even the Janitor Is White" addresses challenges faced by teacher educators who are committed to diversity education. The chapters in this volume invite readers to reflect on their own practice as teacher educators as well as consider ways in which that practice might be improved. More than forty percent of students in U.S. schools are of…

  13. Mobile Phones in a Traffic Flow: A Geographical Perspective to Evening Rush Hour Traffic Analysis Using Call Detail Records

    PubMed Central

    Järv, Olle; Ahas, Rein; Saluveer, Erki; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Excessive land use and suburbanisation around densely populated urban areas has gone hand in hand with a growth in overall transportation and discussions about causality of traffic congestions. The objective of this paper is to gain new insight regarding the composition of traffic flows, and to reveal how and to what extent suburbanites’ travelling affects rush hour traffic. We put forward an alternative methodological approach using call detail records of mobile phones to assess the composition of traffic flows during the evening rush hour in Tallinn, Estonia. We found that daily commuting and suburbanites influence transportation demand by amplifying the evening rush hour traffic, although daily commuting trips comprises only 31% of all movement at that time. The geography of the Friday evening rush hour is distinctive from other working days, presumably in connection with domestic tourism and leisure time activities. This suggests that the rise of the overall mobility of individuals due to societal changes may play a greater role in evening rush hour traffic conditions than does the impact of suburbanisation. PMID:23155461

  14. Activity Report: "Escola de Cultura de Pau", the Laureate of the First Evens Prize for Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvou, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    On March 18th 2011 an independent jury of experts convened in Antwerp, Belgium, to select the laureate of the first Evens Prize for Peace Education from a shortlist of eleven organizations from all over Europe. After a long day of intense discussions, the jury agreed unanimously to award the prize to the "Escola de Cultura de Pau" (Barcelona,…

  15. Washington State Even Start 1993-1994: Final Evaluation. A Report to the Office of Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglitzin, Lynne; Wandschneider, Mary

    All 18 Washington State Even Start sites participated in the program's evaluation. Site coordinators administered the assessment and evaluation measures to the adults served by the program and to teachers working with children at both entry and exit from the program. An indepth study was conducted of 134 families for whom there were complete sets…

  16. Even More Brain-Powered Science: Teaching and Learning with Discrepant Events. Brain-Powered Science Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    How can water and a penny demonstrate the power of mathematics and molecular theory? Do spelling and punctuation really matter to the human brain? The third of Thomas O'Brien's books designed for 5-12 grade science teachers, "Even More Brain-Powered Science" uses the questions above and 11 other inquiry-oriented discrepant events--experiments or…

  17. Differences in toxicity and outcome associated with circadian variations between patients undergoing daytime and evening radiotherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Feng-Ming; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Wang, Chia-Chun; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Tsai, Yu-Chieh; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study tested the hypothesis that disease control and treatment-related toxicity in patients undergoing high-dose radiotherapy (HDRT) for prostate cancer varies in a circadian manner. Patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma receiving HDRT (median 78 Gy) to the prostate and involved seminal vesicle(s) without elective pelvic irradiation were divided into a daytime treatment (before 5 PM) group (n = 267) and evening treatment (after 5 PM) group (n = 142). Biochemical failure (Phoenix definition), acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary toxicities (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4), biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) and freedom from late toxicity were assessed. Analyses were performed by binary logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard regression. The median follow-up was 68 months, and 75% of patients were ≥70 years old. Evening HDRT was significantly associated with worse freedom from ≥grade 2 late GI complications (hazard ratio = 2.96; p < 0.001). The detrimental effect of evening HDRT was significant in patients older than 70 years old (p < 0.001) but not in younger patients (p = 0.63). In a subgroup of propensity score-matched cohort with T2b-T3 disease (n = 154), the 5-year BFFS was worse in the evening group than the daytime group (72% vs. 85%, hazard ratio = 1.95, p = 0.05). Our study indicates that evening HDRT may lead to more GI complications, especially in older patients, and worse BFFS in patients with T2b-T3 disease. PMID:26818960

  18. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  19. Administration d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens aux enfants ayant des antécédents de sibilance

    PubMed Central

    Sih, Kendra; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Un enfant qui fréquente ma clinique s’est récemment fait une entorse à la cheville et il éprouve de la douleur et de la difficulté à supporter son poids sur la jambe affectée. Sa mère lui donne de l’acétaminophène parce qu’on lui a dit de ne jamais utiliser d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS) en raison de son asthme contrôlé par pharmacologie. L’asthme chez un enfant est-il une contre-indication à l’administration d’AINS? La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par les AINS existe-t-elle comme entité réelle? Réponse Les AINS sont des médicaments analgésiques et antipyrétiques efficaces. La maladie respiratoire exacerbée par des AINS a été décrite chez des adultes ayant certains facteurs de prédisposition, mais n’a pas été clairement identifiée chez un grand nombre d’enfants. Les AINS peuvent donc être recommandés aux enfants ayant une sibilance connue qui n’ont pas d’antécédents de maladie respiratoire déclenchée par des AINS. PMID:27521406

  20. The Aux/IAA gene rum1 involved in seminal and lateral root formation controls vascular patterning in maize (Zea mays L.) primary roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Liu, Sanzhen; Tai, Huanhuan; Nestler, Josefine; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Opitz, Nina; Lanz, Christa; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    The maize (Zea mays L.) Aux/IAA protein RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEMS 1) controls seminal and lateral root initiation. To identify RUM1-dependent gene expression patterns, RNA-Seq of the differentiation zone of primary roots of rum1 mutants and the wild type was performed in four biological replicates. In total, 2 801 high-confidence maize genes displayed differential gene expression with Fc ≥2 and FDR ≤1%. The auxin signalling-related genes rum1, like-auxin1 (lax1), lax2, (nam ataf cuc 1 nac1), the plethora genes plt1 (plethora 1), bbm1 (baby boom 1), and hscf1 (heat shock complementing factor 1) and the auxin response factors arf8 and arf37 were down-regulated in the mutant rum1. All of these genes except nac1 were auxin-inducible. The maize arf8 and arf37 genes are orthologues of Arabidopsis MP/ARF5 (MONOPTEROS/ARF5), which controls the differentiation of vascular cells. Histological analyses of mutant rum1 roots revealed defects in xylem organization and the differentiation of pith cells around the xylem. Moreover, histochemical staining of enlarged pith cells surrounding late metaxylem elements demonstrated that their thickened cell walls displayed excessive lignin deposition. In line with this phenotype, rum1-dependent mis-expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes was observed. In summary, RNA-Seq of RUM1-dependent gene expression in maize primary roots, in combination with histological and histochemical analyses, revealed the specific regulation of auxin signal transduction components by RUM1 and novel functions of RUM1 in vascular development.