Science.gov

Sample records for auxin-induced cucumber adventitious

  1. Calcium and calcium-dependent protein kinases are involved in nitric oxide- and auxin-induced adventitious root formation in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Lanteri, María Luciana; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    A few years ago it was demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP are involved in the auxin response during adventitious root (AR) formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). More recently, a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade was shown to be induced by IAA in a NO-dependent, but cGMP-independent, pathway. In the present study, the involvement of Ca2+ and the regulation of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) activity during IAA- and NO-induced AR formation was evaluated in cucumber explants. The effectiveness of several broad-spectrum Ca2+ channel inhibitors and Ca2+ chelators in affecting AR formation induced by IAA or NO was also examined. Results indicate that the explants response to IAA and NO depends on the availability of both intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ pools. Protein extracts from cucumber hypocotyls were assayed for CDPK activity by using histone IIIS or syntide 2 as substrates for in-gel or in vitro assays, respectively. The activity of a 50 kDa CDPK was detected after 1 d of either NO or IAA treatments and it extended up to the third day of treatment. This CDPK activity was affected in both extracts from NO- and IAA-treated explants in the presence of the specific NO-scavenger cPTIO, suggesting that NO is required for its maximal and sustained activity. The in-gel and the in vitro CDPK activity, as well as the NO- or IAA-induced AR formation, were inhibited by calmodulin antagonists. Furthermore, the induction of CDPK activity by NO and IAA was shown to be reliant on the activity of the enzyme guanylate cyclase.

  2. High miR156 Expression Is Required for Auxin-Induced Adventitious Root Formation via MxSPL26 Independent of PINs and ARFs in Malus xiaojinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaozhao; Li, Xu; Hu, Xingwang; Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Xu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai

    2017-01-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the vegetative propagation of perennial woody plants. During the juvenile-to-adult phase change mediated by the microRNA156 (miR156), the adventitious rooting ability decreases dramatically in many species, including apple rootstocks. However, the mechanism underlying how miR156 affects adventitious root formation is unclear. In the present study, we showed that in the presence of the synthetic auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), semi-lignified leafy cuttings from juvenile phase (Mx-J) and rejuvenated (Mx-R) Malus xiaojinensis trees exhibited significantly higher expression of miR156, PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1), PIN10, and rootless concerning crown and seminal roots-like (RTCS-like) genes, thus resulting in higher adventitious rooting ability than those from adult phase (Mx-A) trees. However, the expression of SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE26 (SPL26) and some auxin response factor (ARF) gene family members were substantially higher in Mx-A than in Mx-R cuttings. The expression of NbRTCS-like but not NbPINs and NbARFs varied with miR156 expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants transformed with 35S:MdMIR156a6 or 35S:MIM156 constructs. Overexpressing the miR156-resistant MxrSPL genes in tobacco confirmed the involvement of MxSPL20, MxSPL21&22, and MxSPL26 in adventitious root formation. Together, high expression of miR156 was necessary for auxin-induced adventitious root formation via MxSPL26, but independent of MxPINs and MxARFs expression in M. xiaojinensis leafy cuttings. PMID:28674551

  3. Nitric oxide is required for hydrogen gas-induced adventitious root formation in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongchao; Liao, Weibiao; Wang, Meng; Niu, Lijuan; Xu, Qingqing; Jin, Xin

    2016-05-20

    Hydrogen gas (H2) is involved in plant development and stress responses. Cucumber explants were used to study whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in H2-induced adventitious root development. The results revealed that 50% and 100% hydrogen-rich water (HRW) apparently promoted the development of adventitious root in cucumber. While, the responses of HRW-induced adventitious rooting were blocked by a specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), NO synthase (NOS) enzyme inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methylester hydrochloride (l-NAME) and nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor NaN3. HRW also increased NO content and NOS and NR activity both in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Moreover, molecular evidence showed that HRW up-regulated NR genes expression in explants. The results indicate the importance of NOS and NR enzymes, which might be responsible for NO production in explants during H2-induced root organogenesis. Additionally, peroxidase (POD) and indoleacetic acid oxidase (IAAO) activity was significantly decreased in the explants treated with HRW, while HRW treatment significantly increased polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. In addition, cPTIO, l-NAME and NaN3 inhibited the actions of HRW on the activity of these enzymes. Together, NO may be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting, and NO may be acting downstream in plant H2 signaling cascade.

  4. A Comparison of Oligogalacturonide- and Auxin-Induced Extracellular Alkalinization and Growth Responses in Roots of Intact Cucumber Seedlings1

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Mark D.; Bowers, Jonathan F.; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Oligogalacturonic acid (OGA) affects plant growth and development in an antagonistic manner to that of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the mechanism by which remains to be determined. This study describes the relationship between IAA and OGA activity in intact cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Both OGA and IAA induced rapid and transient extracellular alkalinization; however, the characteristics of the OGA and IAA responses differed in their kinetics, magnitude, calcium dependence, and region of the root in which they induced their maximal response. IAA (1 μm) induced a saturating alkalinization response of approximately 0.2 pH unit and a rapid reduction (approximately 80%) in root growth that only partially recovered over 20 h. OGAs, specifically those with a degree of polymerization of 10 to 13, induced a maximal alkalinization response of 0.48 pH unit, but OGA treatment did not alter root growth. Saturating concentrations of OGA did not block IAA-induced alkalinization or the initial IAA-induced inhibition of root growth but allowed IAA-treated roots to recover their initial growth rate within 270 min. IAA-induced alkalinization occurs primarily in the growing apical region of the root, whereas OGA induced its maximal response in the basal region of the root. This study demonstrates that OGA and IAA act by distinct mechanisms and that OGA does not simply act by inhibition of IAA action. These results also suggest that IAA-induced extracellular alkalinization is not sufficient to account for the mechanism by which IAA inhibits root growth. PMID:12376654

  5. Light inhibits gravity-regulated peg formation and asymmetric mRNA accumulation of auxin-inducible CsIAA1 in the cortex of the transition zone in cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Nobuharu; Saito, Yuko; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    When cucumber seedlings are grown horizontally, a specialized protuberance, termed the peg, develops on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. Gravimorphogenesis regulates the lateral positioning of the peg in the transition zone and it has been suggested that auxin plays an important role in peg formation in cucumber seedlings. Here, we found that light inhibited auxin-regulated peg formation. In the transition zone of horizontally positioned cucumber seedlings grown in the dark, we detected an asymmetric accumulation of mRNA from the auxin-inducible gene CsIAA1 in the epidermis and cortex. However, in seedlings grown under illumination, this asymmetry was greatly reduced. In dark- and light-grown seedlings, application of 10 -3 M indole-3-acetic acid induced peg formation on both the lower and upper sides of the transition zone. These results suggest that light inhibits peg formation via modification of auxin distribution and/or levels in the transition zone of cucumber seedlings.

  6. Inheritance and quantitative trail loci mapping of adventitious root numbers in cucumber seedlings under waterlogging conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuewen; Ji, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2017-04-01

    The hypocotyl-derived adventitious root (AR) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress; however, its genetic basis has not been adequately understood. In the present study, a mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model was used to analyze AR numbers (ARN) 7 days after waterlogging treatment in six generations (P1, P2, F1, B1, B2, and F2), using cucumber waterlogging tolerant line Zaoer-N and sensitive Pepino as parents. The results showed that the genetic model D-4, mixed one negative dominance major gene and additive-dominance polygenes, is the best-fitting genetic model for waterlogging-triggered ARN phenotype. A genetic linkage map spanning 550.8 cM and consisting of 149 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers segregating into seven linkage groups was constructed. Three QTLs (ARN3.1, ARN5.1, and ARN6.1) distributed on chromosomes 3, 5, and 6 were identified by composite interval mapping. The major-effect QTL, ARN6.1, located between SSR12898 and SSR04751, was the only locus detected in three seasons, with least likelihood (LOD) scores of 8.8, 10.4, and 9.5 and account for 17.6, 24, and 19.8% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Using five additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) makers, the ARN6.1 was narrowed down to a 0.79 Mb interval franked by SSR12898 and SNP25558853. Illumina RNA-sequencing data generated on hypocotyls of two parents 48 h after waterlogging treatment revealed 15 genes in the 0.79 Mb interval were differentially expressed, including Csa6G503880 encoding a salicylic acid methyl transferase-like protein, Csa6G504590 encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, and Csa6G505230 encoding a heavy metal-associated protein. Our findings shed light on the genetic architecture underlying adventitious rooting during waterlogging stress in cucumber, and provide a list of potential gene targets for further elucidating waterlogging tolerance in plants.

  7. Hydrogen-rich water regulates cucumber adventitious root development in a heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuting; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Fang; Cui, Weiti; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-15

    Hydrogen gas (H2) is an endogenous gaseous molecule in plants. Although its reputation is as a "biologically inert gas", recent results suggested that H2 has therapeutic antioxidant properties in animals and plays fundamental roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. However, whether H2 regulates root morphological patterns is largely unknown. In this report, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize H2 physiological roles and possible signaling transduction pathways in the promotion of adventitious root (AR) formation in cucumber explants. Our results showed that a 50% concentration of HRW was able to mimic the effect of hemin, an inducer of a carbon monoxide (CO) synthetic enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in restoring AR formation in comparison with the inhibition effect conferred by auxin-depletion treatment alone. It was further shown that the inducible effect of HRW could be further blocked by the co-treatment with N-1-naphthylphtalamic acid (NPA; an auxin transport inhibitor). The HRW-induced response, at least partially, was HO-1-dependent. This conclusion was supported by the fact that the exposure of cucumber explants to HRW up-regulates cucumber HO-1 gene expression and its protein levels. HRW-mediated induction of representative target genes related to auxin signaling and AR formation, such as CsDNAJ-1, CsCDPK1/5, CsCDC6, CsAUX22B-like, and CsAUX22D-like, and thereafter AR formation (particularly in the AR length) was differentially sensitive to the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). Above blocking actions were clearly reversed by CO, further confirming that the above response was HO-1/CO-specific. However, the addition of a well-known antioxidant, ascorbic acid (AsA), failed to influence AR formation triggered by HRW, thus ruling out the involvement of redox homeostasis in this process. Together, these results indicated that HRW-induced adventitious rooting is, at least partially, correlated with the HO-1/CO

  8. Carbon Monoxide Is Involved in Hydrogen Gas-Induced Adventitious Root Development in Cucumber under Simulated Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Wang, Meng; Hu, Linli; Liao, Weibiao; Dawuda, Mohammed M.; Li, Chunlan

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are involved in plant growth and developmental processes and may induce plant tolerance to several stresses. However, the independent roles and interaction effect of H2 and CO in adventitious root development under drought conditions have still not received the needed research attention. We hypothesize that there exists crosstalk between H2 and CO during adventitious root development under drought stress. The results of our current study revealed that 50% (v/v) hydrogen-rich water (HRW), 500 μM Hemin (the CO donor) and 30% (w/v) CO aqueous solution apparently promoted the development of adventitious roots in cucumber explants (Cucumis Sativus L.) under drought stress. H2 and CO increased relative water content (RWC), leaf chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a, b, and a+b), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), PSII actual photochemical efficiency and photochemical quench coefficient] under drought condition. When the CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) was added to HRW/CO aqueous solution, the positive effect of HRW/CO aqueous solution on RWC, leaf chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were reversed. Additionally, superoxide dismutases, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase was significantly increased in the explants treated with HRW and CO aqueous solution under drought stress, thus alleviating oxidative damage, as indicated by decreases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2-) levels. H2 and CO also improved the levels of water soluble carbohydrate, total soluble protein, and proline content. However, the above CO/H2-mediated effects were reversed by CO scavenger Hb or CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX. Therefore, CO may be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting under drought stress and alleviate oxidative damage by enhancing RWC, leaf

  9. Carbon Monoxide Is Involved in Hydrogen Gas-Induced Adventitious Root Development in Cucumber under Simulated Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Wang, Meng; Hu, Linli; Liao, Weibiao; Dawuda, Mohammed M; Li, Chunlan

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are involved in plant growth and developmental processes and may induce plant tolerance to several stresses. However, the independent roles and interaction effect of H2 and CO in adventitious root development under drought conditions have still not received the needed research attention. We hypothesize that there exists crosstalk between H2 and CO during adventitious root development under drought stress. The results of our current study revealed that 50% (v/v) hydrogen-rich water (HRW), 500 μM Hemin (the CO donor) and 30% (w/v) CO aqueous solution apparently promoted the development of adventitious roots in cucumber explants (Cucumis Sativus L.) under drought stress. H2 and CO increased relative water content (RWC), leaf chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a, b, and a+b), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), PSII actual photochemical efficiency and photochemical quench coefficient] under drought condition. When the CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) was added to HRW/CO aqueous solution, the positive effect of HRW/CO aqueous solution on RWC, leaf chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were reversed. Additionally, superoxide dismutases, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase was significantly increased in the explants treated with HRW and CO aqueous solution under drought stress, thus alleviating oxidative damage, as indicated by decreases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2(-)) levels. H2 and CO also improved the levels of water soluble carbohydrate, total soluble protein, and proline content. However, the above CO/H2-mediated effects were reversed by CO scavenger Hb or CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX. Therefore, CO may be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting under drought stress and alleviate oxidative damage by enhancing RWC

  10. Molecular cloning and expression of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) heme oxygenase-1 gene, CsHO1, which is involved in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Yue; Cao, Ze-Yu; Shen, Wen-Biao; Cui, Jin

    2011-10-15

    Our previous work showed that in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), auxin rapidly induces heme oxygenase (HO) activity and the product of HO action, carbon monoxide (CO), then triggers the signal transduction events leading to adventitious root formation. In this study, the cucumber HO-1 gene (named as CsHO1) was isolated and sequenced. It contains four exons and three introns and encodes a polypeptide of 291 amino acids. Further results show that CsHO1 shares a high homology with plant HO-1 proteins and codes a 33.3 kDa protein with a 65-amino transit peptide, predicting a mature protein of 26.1 kDa. The mature CsHO1 was expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a fusion protein, which exhibits HO activity. The CsHO1:GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast. Related biochemical analyses of mature CsHO1, including Vmax, Km, Topt and pHopt, were also investigated. CsHO1 mRNA was found in germinating seeds, roots, stem, and especially in leaf tissues. Several well-known adventitious root inducers, including auxin, ABA, hemin, nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), CaCl(2), and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), differentially up-regulate CsHO1 transcripts and corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that CsHO1 may be involved in cucumber adventitious rooting.

  11. N-3-Oxo-Decanoyl-l-Homoserine-Lactone Activates Auxin-Induced Adventitious Root Formation via Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-Dependent Cyclic GMP Signaling in Mung Bean1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xuegui; Todd, Christopher D.; Desikan, Radhika; Yang, Yongping; Hu, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    N-Acyl-homoserine-lactones (AHLs) are bacterial quorum-sensing signaling molecules that regulate population density. Recent evidence demonstrates their roles in plant defense responses and root development. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), and cyclic GMP (cGMP) are essential messengers that participate in various plant physiological processes, but how these messengers modulate the plant response to N-acyl-homoserine-lactone signals remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the N-3-oxo-decanoyl-homoserine-lactone (3-O-C10-HL), in contrast to its analog with an unsubstituted branch chain at the C3 position, efficiently stimulated the formation of adventitious roots and the expression of auxin-response genes in explants of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. This response was mimicked by the exogenous application of auxin, H2O2, NO, or cGMP homologs but suppressed by treatment with scavengers or inhibitors of H2O2, NO, or cGMP metabolism. The 3-O-C10-HL treatment enhanced auxin basipetal transport; this effect could be reversed by treatment with H2O2 or NO scavengers but not by inhibitors of cGMP synthesis. Inhibiting 3-O-C10-HL-induced H2O2 or NO accumulation impaired auxin- or 3-O-C10-HL-induced cGMP synthesis; however, blocking cGMP synthesis did not affect auxin- or 3-O-C10-HL-induced H2O2 or NO generation. Additionally, cGMP partially rescued the inhibitory effect of H2O2 or NO scavengers on 3-O-C10-HL-induced adventitious root development and auxin-response gene expression. These results suggest that 3-O-C10-HL, unlike its analog with an unmodified branch chain at the C3 position, can accelerate auxin-dependent adventitious root formation, possibly via H2O2- and NO-dependent cGMP signaling in mung bean seedlings. PMID:22138973

  12. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Provides Insight into the Key Proteins Involved in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Adventitious Root Emergence under Waterlogging Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuewen; Ji, Jing; Ma, Xiaotian; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2016-01-01

    Waterlogging is a common abiotic stress in both natural and agricultural systems, and it primarily affects plant growth by the slow oxygen diffusion in water. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, a key adaptation for waterlogging tolerant plants is the formation of adventitious roots (ARs). We found that cucumber waterlogging tolerant line Zaoer-N seedlings adapt to waterlogging stress by developing a larger number of ARs in hypocotyls, while almost no AR is generated in sensitive line Pepino. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying AR emergence, the iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach was employed to map the proteomes of hypocotyls cells of the Zaoer-N and Pepino under control and waterlogging conditions. A total of 5508 proteins were identified and 146 were differentially regulated proteins (DRPs), of which 47 and 56 DRPs were specific to tolerant and sensitive line, respectively. In the waterlogged Zaoer-N hypocotyls, DRPs related to alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylicacid oxidases, peroxidases, 60S ribosomal proteins, GSDL esterases/lipases, histone deacetylases, and histone H5 and were strongly overrepresented to manage the energy crisis, promote ethylene release, minimize oxidative damage, mobilize storage lipids, and stimulate cell division, differentiation and growth. The evaluations of ethylene production, ADH activity, pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity and ethanol production were in good agreement with the proteomic results. qRT-PCR analysis of the corresponding 146 genes further confirmed the accuracy of the observed protein abundance. These findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying waterlogging triggered cucumber ARs emergence, and provided valuable information for the breeding of cucumber with enhanced tolerance to waterlogging. PMID:27790230

  13. Soybean GH3 promoter contains multiple auxin-inducible elements.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z B; Ulmasov, T; Shi, X; Hagen, G; Guilfoyle, T J

    1994-01-01

    The soybean GH3 gene is transcriptionally induced in a wide variety of tissues and organs within minutes after auxin application. To determine the sequence elements that confer auxin inducibility to the GH3 promoter, we used gel mobility shift assays, methylation interference, deletion analysis, linker scanning, site-directed mutagenesis, and gain-of-function analysis with a minimal cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We identified at least three sequence elements within the GH3 promoter that are auxin inducible and can function independently of one another. Two of these elements are found in a 76-bp fragment, and these consist of two independent 25- and 32-bp auxin-inducible elements. Both of these 25- and 32-bp auxin-inducible elements contain the sequence TGTCTC just upstream of an AATAAG. An additional auxin-inducible element was found upstream of the 76-bp auxin-inducible fragment; this can function independently of the 76-bp fragment. Two TGA-box or Hex-like elements (TGACGTAA and TGACGTGGC) in the promoter, which are strong binding sites for proteins in plant nuclear extracts, may also elevate the level of auxin inducibility of the GH3 promoter. The multiple auxin-inducible elements within the GH3 promoter contribute incrementally to the overall level of auxin induction observed with this promoter. PMID:8038604

  14. Thermospermine suppresses auxin-inducible xylem differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Kaori; Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Shirasu, Ken; Takahashi, Taku; Motose, Hiroyasu

    2012-08-01

    Thermospermine, a structural isomer of spermine, is synthesized by a thermospermine synthase designated ACAULIS5 (ACL5). Thermospermine-deficient acl5 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana shows severe dwarfism and excessive xylem differentiation. By screening for compounds that affect xylem differentiation in the acl5 mutant, we identified auxin analogs that remarkably enhanced xylem vessel differentiation in the acl5 mutant but not in the wild type. The xylem-inducing effect of auxin analogs was clearly suppressed by thermospermine, indicating that auxin-inducible xylem differentiation is normally limited by thermospermine. Here, we further characterized xylem-inducing effect of auxin analogs in various organs. Auxin analogs promoted protoxylem differentiation in roots and cotyledons in the acl5 mutant. Our results indicate that the opposite action between thermospermine and auxin in xylem differentiation is common in different organs and also suggest that thermospermine might be required for the suppression of protoxylem differentiation.

  15. Thermospermine suppresses auxin-inducible xylem differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Kaori; Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Shirasu, Ken; Takahashi, Taku; Motose, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Thermospermine, a structural isomer of spermine, is synthesized by a thermospermine synthase designated ACAULIS5 (ACL5). Thermospermine-deficient acl5 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana shows severe dwarfism and excessive xylem differentiation. By screening for compounds that affect xylem differentiation in the acl5 mutant, we identified auxin analogs that remarkably enhanced xylem vessel differentiation in the acl5 mutant but not in the wild type. The xylem-inducing effect of auxin analogs was clearly suppressed by thermospermine, indicating that auxin-inducible xylem differentiation is normally limited by thermospermine. Here, we further characterized xylem-inducing effect of auxin analogs in various organs. Auxin analogs promoted protoxylem differentiation in roots and cotyledons in the acl5 mutant. Our results indicate that the opposite action between thermospermine and auxin in xylem differentiation is common in different organs and also suggest that thermospermine might be required for the suppression of protoxylem differentiation. PMID:22751360

  16. The beta-subunit of the Arabidopsis G protein negatively regulates auxin-induced cell division and affects multiple developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Hemayet; Chen, Jin-Gui; Temple, Brenda; Boyes, Douglas C; Alonso, José M; Davis, Keith R; Ecker, Joseph R; Jones, Alan M

    2003-02-01

    Plant cells respond to low concentrations of auxin by cell expansion, and at a slightly higher concentration, these cells divide. Previous work revealed that null mutants of the alpha-subunit of a putative heterotrimeric G protein (GPA1) have reduced cell division. Here, we show that this prototypical G protein complex acts mechanistically by controlling auxin sensitivity toward cell division. Loss-of-function G protein mutants have altered auxin-mediated cell division throughout development, especially during the auxin-induced formation of lateral and adventitious root primordia. Ectopic expression of the wild-type Galpha-subunit phenocopies the Gbeta mutants (auxin hypersensitivity), probably by sequestering the Gbetagamma-subunits, whereas overexpression of Gbeta reduces auxin sensitivity and a constitutively active (Q222L) mutant Galpha behaves like the wild type. These data are consistent with a model in which Gbetagamma acts as a negative regulator of auxin-induced cell division. Accordingly, basal repression of approximately one-third of the identified auxin-regulated genes (47 of 150 upregulated genes among 8300 quantitated) is lost in the Gbeta transcript-null mutant. Included among these are genes that encode proteins proposed to control cell division in root primordia formation as well as several novel genes. These results suggest that although auxin-regulated cell division is not coupled directly by a G protein, the Gbeta-subunit attenuates this auxin pathway upstream of the control of mRNA steady state levels.

  17. Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by two mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, S. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by at least two mechanisms. First, it inhibits auxin-induced H(+)-excretion needed for the initiation of rapid elongation. Galactose cannot be doing so by directly interfering with the ATPase since fusicoccin-induced H(+)-excretion is not affected. Secondly, galactose inhibits long-term auxin-induced growth, even in an acidic (pH 4.5) solution. This may be due to an inhibition of cell wall synthesis. However, galactose does not reduce the capacity of walls to be loosened by H+, given exogenously or excreted in response to fusicoccin.

  18. Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by two mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, S. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by at least two mechanisms. First, it inhibits auxin-induced H(+)-excretion needed for the initiation of rapid elongation. Galactose cannot be doing so by directly interfering with the ATPase since fusicoccin-induced H(+)-excretion is not affected. Secondly, galactose inhibits long-term auxin-induced growth, even in an acidic (pH 4.5) solution. This may be due to an inhibition of cell wall synthesis. However, galactose does not reduce the capacity of walls to be loosened by H+, given exogenously or excreted in response to fusicoccin.

  19. Auxin Controls Arabidopsis Adventitious Root Initiation by Regulating Jasmonic Acid Homeostasis[W

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Laurent; Mongelard, Gaëlle; Floková, Kristýna; Păcurar, Daniel I.; Novák, Ondřej; Staswick, Paul; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Păcurar, Monica; Demailly, Hervé; Geiss, Gaia; Bellini, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Vegetative shoot-based propagation of plants, including mass propagation of elite genotypes, is dependent on the development of shoot-borne roots, which are also called adventitious roots. Multiple endogenous and environmental factors control the complex process of adventitious rooting. In the past few years, we have shown that the auxin response factors ARF6 and ARF8, targets of the microRNA miR167, are positive regulators of adventitious rooting, whereas ARF17, a target of miR160, is a negative regulator. We showed that these genes have overlapping expression profiles during adventitious rooting and that they regulate each other’s expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by modulating the homeostasis of miR160 and miR167. We demonstrate here that this complex network of transcription factors regulates the expression of three auxin-inducible Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) genes, GH3.3, GH3.5, and GH3.6, encoding acyl-acid-amido synthetases. We show that these three GH3 genes are required for fine-tuning adventitious root initiation in the Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl, and we demonstrate that they act by modulating jasmonic acid homeostasis. We propose a model in which adventitious rooting is an adaptive developmental response involving crosstalk between the auxin and jasmonate regulatory pathways. PMID:22730403

  20. Improvement of adventitious root formation in flax using hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Takáč, Tomáš; Obert, Bohuš; Rolčík, Jakub; Šamaj, Jozef

    2016-09-25

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of oil and fiber. In vitro manipulations of flax are used for genetic improvement and breeding while improvements in adventitious root formation are important for biotechnological programs focused on regeneration and vegetative propagation of genetically valuable plant material. Additionally, flax hypocotyl segments possess outstanding morphogenetic capacity, thus providing a useful model for the investigation of flax developmental processes. Here, we investigated the crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and auxin with respect to reprogramming flax hypocotyl cells for root morphogenetic development. Exogenous auxin induced the robust formation of adventitious roots from flax hypocotyl segments while the addition of hydrogen peroxide further enhanced this process. The levels of endogenous auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) were positively correlated with increased root formation in response to exogenous auxin (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; NAA). Histochemical staining of the hypocotyl segments revealed that hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase, but not superoxide, were positively correlated with root formation. Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that endogenous levels of hydrogen peroxide were controlled by peroxidases during root formation from hypocotyl segments. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide positively affected flax adventitious root formation by regulating the endogenous auxin levels. Consequently, this agent can be applied to increase flax regeneration capacity for biotechnological purposes such as improved plant rooting.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Different Mutant Genotypes of Arabidopsis Led to the Identification of 11 Proteins Correlating with Adventitious Root Development1[W

    PubMed Central

    Sorin, Céline; Negroni, Luc; Balliau, Thierry; Corti, Hélène; Jacquemot, Marie-Pierre; Davanture, Marlène; Sandberg, Göran; Zivy, Michel; Bellini, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings or explants in vitro occurs routinely and is an obstacle for the clonal propagation and rapid fixation of elite genotypes. Adventitious rooting is known to be a quantitative genetic trait. We performed a proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants affected in their ability to develop adventitious roots in order to identify associated molecular markers that could be used to select genotypes for their rooting ability and/or to get further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Comparison of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis protein profiles resulted in the identification of 11 proteins whose abundance could be either positively or negatively correlated with endogenous auxin content, the number of adventitious root primordia, and/or the number of mature adventitious roots. One protein was negatively correlated only to the number of root primordia and two were negatively correlated to the number of mature adventitious roots. Two putative chaperone proteins were positively correlated only to the number of primordia, and, interestingly, three auxin-inducible GH3-like proteins were positively correlated with the number of mature adventitious roots. The others were correlated with more than one parameter. The 11 proteins are predicted to be involved in different biological processes, including the regulation of auxin homeostasis and light-associated metabolic pathways. The results identify regulatory pathways associated with adventitious root formation and represent valuable markers that might be used for the future identification of genotypes with better rooting abilities. PMID:16377752

  2. Auxin-inducible protein depletion system in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Kanke, Mai; Nishimura, Kohei; Kanemaki, Masato; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Tatsuro S; Nakagawa, Takuro; Masukata, Hisao

    2011-02-11

    Inducible inactivation of a protein is a powerful approach for analysis of its function within cells. Fission yeast is a useful model for studying the fundamental mechanisms such as chromosome maintenance and cell cycle. However, previously published strategies for protein-depletion are successful only for some proteins in some specific conditions and still do not achieve efficient depletion to cause acute phenotypes such as immediate cell cycle arrest. The aim of this work was to construct a useful and powerful protein-depletion system in Shizosaccaromyces pombe. We constructed an auxin-inducible degron (AID) system, which utilizes auxin-dependent poly-ubiquitination of Aux/IAA proteins by SCFTIR1 in plants, in fission yeast. Although expression of a plant F-box protein, TIR1, decreased Mcm4-aid, a component of the MCM complex essential for DNA replication tagged with Aux/IAA peptide, depletion did not result in an evident growth defect. We successfully improved degradation efficiency of Mcm4-aid by fusion of TIR1 with fission yeast Skp1, a conserved F-box-interacting component of SCF (improved-AID system; i-AID), and the cells showed severe defect in growth. The i-AID system induced degradation of Mcm4-aid in the chromatin-bound MCM complex as well as those in soluble fractions. The i-AID system in conjunction with transcription repression (off-AID system), we achieved more efficient depletion of other proteins including Pol1 and Cdc45, causing early S phase arrest. Improvement of the AID system allowed us to construct conditional null mutants of S. pombe. We propose that the off-AID system is the powerful method for in vivo protein-depletion in fission yeast.

  3. A chemical pollen suppressant inhibits auxin-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, M.J. ); Cross, J.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Chemical inhibitors of pollen development having a phenylcinnoline carboxylate structure were found to inhibit IAA- and 1-NAA-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections. The inhibitor (100 {mu}M) used in these experiments caused approx. 35% reduction in auxin-induced growth over the auxin concentration range of 0.3 to 100 {mu}M. Growth inhibition was noted as a lengthening of the latent period and a decrease in the rate of an auxin-induced growth response. An acid growth response to pH 5 buffer in abraded sections was not impaired. The velocity of basipetal transport of ({sup 3}H)IAA through the coleoptile sections also was not inhibited by the compound, nor was uptake of ({sup 3}H)IAA. Similarly, the inhibitor does not appear to alter auxin-induced H{sup +} secretion. We suggest that the agent targets some other process necessary for auxin-dependent growth.

  4. Evidence that auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyls involves proton excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Rayle, D.L.; Cleland, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    The role of H/sup +/ excretion in auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyl tissues has been investigated, using tissues whose cuticle was rendered permeable to protons or buffers by scarification (scrubbing). Indoleacetic acid induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion after a lag of 10 to 12 minutes. Cycloheximide inhibits growth and causes the tissues to remove protons from the medium. Neutral buffers (pH 7.0) inhibit auxin-induced growth of scrubbed but not intact sections; the inhibition increases as the buffers strength is increased. Both live and frozen-thawed sections, in the absence of auxin, extend in response to exogenously supplied protons. Fusicoccin induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion at rates greater than does auxin. These results indicate that H/sup +/ excretion is involved in the initiation of auxin-induced elongation in soybean hypocotyl tissue.

  5. A positive role for hydrogen gas in adventitious root development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongchao; Liao, Weibiao

    2016-06-02

    Our recent study highlights the role of hydrogen gas (H2) in adventitious root development in cucumber. H2 is an effective gaseous signal molecule with the abilities to regulate plant growth and development and enhance plant resistance to environmental stimulus. In addition, the effect of H2 on fruit senescence and flowering time also has been reported. Adventitious root development is a critical step in plant vegetative propagation affected by a serious of signaling molecules, such as auxin, nitric oxide (NO), carbon oxide (CO), ethylene and Ca(2+). Observational evidence has shown that H2 can regulate adventitious root development in a dose-dependent manner. H2 may regulate HO-1/CO pathway through or not through NO pathway during adventitious rooting. Rooting-related enzymes, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, indoleacetic acid oxidase were required for H2-induced adventitious root. CsDNAJ-1, CsCPDK1/5, CsCDC6, CsAUX228-like, and CsAUX22D-like genes also were involved in this process.

  6. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is <5 and the elongation varies inversely with the solution pH). Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  7. Rapid auxin-induced root growth inhibition requires the TIR and AFB auxin receptors.

    PubMed

    Scheitz, Katharina; Lüthen, Hartwig; Schenck, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the relation between auxin-induced gene expression and the rapid auxin-induced growth inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. The natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced a strong activation of gene expression as visualized by the DR5rev::GFP reporter gene technique. This effect was specific for active auxins and was abolished in knockout mutants of the F-box auxin receptors. We measured the IAA-induced growth inhibition at high time resolution and show that the F-box auxin receptor mutants failed to display this effect. We conclude that the F-box auxin receptors are needed for the response. In hypocotyls, auxin induces an increase in elongation growth, and this effect has been earlier shown to be independent of the F-box receptors. Based on these findings, we discuss differences in the growth control modes in roots and shoots. We demonstrate that the rapid auxin-induced root growth inhibition, unlike the induction of growth in hypocotyls, requires the presence of the F-box auxin receptors.

  8. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is <5 and the elongation varies inversely with the solution pH). Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  9. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima.

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, R E

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is <5 and the elongation varies inversely with the solution pH). Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic. PMID:11537888

  10. Cucumber fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Indole-3-Butyric Acid-Induced Adventitious Root Formation in Nodal Cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Li, Hai-Lin; Tan, Li-Qiang; Cao, Hong-Li; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties. PMID:25216187

  12. Transcriptome analysis of indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.).

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Li, Hai-Lin; Tan, Li-Qiang; Cao, Hong-Li; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties.

  13. Isolation of cucumber CsARF cDNAs and expression of the corresponding mRNAs during gravity-regulated morphogenesis of cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Yamasaki, S.; Fujii, N.; Hagen, G.; Guilfoyle, T.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber seedlings grown in a horizontal position develop a protuberance called peg on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. We have suggested that peg formation on the upper side of the gravistimulated transition zone is suppressed because cucumber seedlings grown in a vertical position or microgravity symmetrically develop two pegs on the transition zone. Plant hormone, auxin, is considered to play a crucial role in the gravity-regulated formation of peg. We have shown that the mRNAs of auxin-inducible genes (CsIAAs) isolated from cucumber accumulate more abundantly in the lower side of the transition zone than in the upper side when peg formation initiates. To reveal the mechanism of transcriptional regulation by auxin for peg formation, we isolated five cDNAs of Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) from cucumber and compared their mRNA accumulation with those of CsIAA1 and CsIAA2. The tissue specificity of mRNA accumulation of CsARF2 was similar to those of CsIAA1 and CsIAA2. The structural character of CsARF2 predicts it is transcriptional activator. These results suggest that CsARF2 may be involved in activation of the transcription of auxin-inducible genes including CsIAA1 for peg formation. Because mRNA accumulation of five CsARFs, including CsARF2, were affected by neither gravity nor auxin, transcriptional activity of CsARF2 may be regulated at post-transcriptional level to induce asymmetric mRNA accumulation of auxin-inducible genes in the transition zone.

  14. The epidermis coordinates auxin-induced stem growth in response to shade

    PubMed Central

    Procko, Carl; Burko, Yogev; Long, Jeff A.; Chory, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Growth of a complex multicellular organism requires coordinated changes in diverse cell types. These cellular changes generate organs of the correct size, shape, and functionality. In plants, the growth hormone auxin induces stem elongation in response to shade; however, which cell types of the stem perceive the auxin signal and contribute to organ growth is poorly understood. Here, we blocked the transcriptional response to auxin within specific tissues to show that auxin signaling is required in many cell types for correct hypocotyl growth in shade, with a key role for the epidermis. Combining genetic manipulations in Arabidopsis thaliana with transcriptional profiling of the hypocotyl epidermis from Brassica rapa, we show that auxin acts in the epidermis in part by inducing activity of the locally acting, growth-promoting brassinosteroid pathway. Our findings clarify cell-specific auxin function in the hypocotyl and highlight the complexity of cell type interactions within a growing organ. PMID:27401556

  15. Properties and synthesis de novo of auxin-induced α-amylase in pea cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, E; Yamamoto, S

    1991-07-01

    Analysis of starch-degrading enzymes in a crude extract of detached cotyledons of Pisum sativum L. by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) demonstrated the presence of one band of α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) activity. The activity of only this amylase was promoted in cotyledons incubated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The auxin-induced α-amylase from pea cotyledons was purified to homogeneity, as judged by the criterion of a single band after PAGE. The relative molecular mass (Mr), estimated by gel filtration, was approx. 42 000 and the enzyme contained no carbohydrate moiety. Sodium dodecylsulfate-PAGE yielded a single band that corresponded to an Mr of 41 000. The isoelectric point was 5.85 and the aminoacid composition was similar to that of α-amylase from other plants. When [(3)H]leucine was fed to detached dry cotyledons prior to incubation, the radioactivity in α-amylase from cotyledons incubated in the presence of 2,4-D was found to be approx. 10-fold higher than that from cotyledons incubated in distilled water. When α-amylase from cotyledons incubated with (2)H2O that contained 2,4-D and the tritiated amylase were centrifuged together in a CsCl density gradient, the peak of enzymatic activity of deuterated α-amylase was shifted to a denser fraction than the peak of radioactivity of the tritiated enzyme. These results show that auxin-induced α-amylase in pea cotyledons is synthesized de novo.

  16. Effects of three auxin-inducible LBD members on lateral root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhenhua; Zhu, Jian; Du, Xiling; Cui, Xianghuan

    2012-10-01

    In Arabidopsis, two Auxin Response Factors (ARF7 and ARF19) and several Aux/IAAs regulate auxin-induced lateral root (LR) formation. As direct targets of ARF7 and ARF19, Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain 16 (LBD16), LBD29, and LBD18 have a biological function in the formation of lateral roots (LRs). However, the details of the functions of these three LBDs have remained unclear. Each single T-DNA insert mutant has been shown to have slightly fewer LRs than the wild type. We then created a triple mutant, which exhibited a dramatic defect in the LR formation. Our results show that the lbd mutations can lead to impairment in auxin-induced pericycle cell division and in the expression levels of some D-type cyclins (CYCDs). Simultaneously, Plethora (PLT) and PIN-formed (PIN), which have been well documented to promote cell mitotic activity and are required for auxin response effects, were down-regulated by these lbd mutations. Our results so far indicate that CYCDs, PLT, and PINs are the main targets of the LBDs. We believe that these three LBDs are involved in cell cycle progression of the pericycle in response to auxin. Overexpression of any of these three LBD genes in the triple mutant was found incapable of completely replacing the other two LBDs. The phenotypes of lbd29 mutants were not completely consistent with lbd16 or lbd18 mutants. This indicates that LBD29 may play a distinctive role compared with LBD16 or LBD18 and LBDs might play partially independent roles during the formation of LRs.

  17. Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

  18. Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

  19. Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Jaffe, M J

    1984-01-01

    The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

  20. Conditional Budding Yeast Mutants with Temperature-Sensitive and Auxin-Inducible Degrons for Screening of Suppressor Genes.

    PubMed

    Devrekanli, Asli; Kanemaki, Masato T

    2016-01-01

    The conditional control of protein expression is useful to characterize the function of proteins, especially of those that are essential for cell viability. Two degron-based systems, temperature-sensitive and auxin-inducible degrons, can be used to generate conditional mutants of budding yeast, simply by transforming appropriate cells with PCR-amplified DNA. We describe a protocol for the generation of temperature-sensitive and auxin-inducible degron mutants. We also show that a conditional mutant with few spontaneous revertants was generated by combining two degron systems for the Inn1 protein. Finally, we describe a suppressor screening method that uses the dual degron-Inn1 mutant to identify mutant proteins that suppress Inn1-K31A, which has a defect in cytokinesis.

  1. Role of chloride ions in the promotion of auxin-induced growth of maize coleoptile segments

    PubMed Central

    Burdach, Zbigniew; Kurtyka, Renata; Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Karcz, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The mechanism of auxin action on ion transport in growing cells has not been determined in detail. In particular, little is known about the role of chloride in the auxin-induced growth of coleoptile cells. Moreover, the data that do exist in the literature are controversial. This study describes experiments that were carried out with maize (Zea mays) coleoptile segments, this being a classical model system for studies of plant cell elongation growth. Methods Growth kinetics or growth and pH changes were recorded in maize coleoptiles using two independent measuring systems. The growth rate of the segments was measured simultaneously with medium pH changes. Membrane potential changes in parenchymal cells of the segments were also determined for chosen variants. The question of whether anion transport is involved in auxin-induced growth of maize coleoptile segments was primarily studied using anion channel blockers [anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C) and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS)]. In addition, experiments in which KCl was replaced by KNO3 were also performed. Key Results Both anion channel blockers, added at 0·1 mm, diminished indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-induced elongation growth by ∼30 %. Medium pH changes measured simultaneously with growth indicated that while DIDS stopped IAA-induced proton extrusion, A-9-C diminished it by only 50 %. Addition of A-9-C to medium containing 1 mm KCl did not affect the characteristic kinetics of IAA-induced membrane potential changes, while in the presence of 10 mm KCl the channel blocker stopped IAA-induced membrane hyperpolarization. Replacement of KCl with KNO3 significantly decreased IAA-induced growth and inhibited proton extrusion. In contrast to the KCl concentration, the concentration of KNO3 did not affect the growth-stimulatory effect of IAA. For comparison, the effects of the cation channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA-Cl) on IAA-induced growth and

  2. Auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weiming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    Gravitropism is the asymmetric growth or curvature of plant organs in response to gravistimulation. There is a complex signal transduction cascade which involved in the differential growth of plants in response to changes in the gravity vector. The role of auxin in gravitropism has been demonstrated by many experiments, but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects. In our studies before, mediation of the gravitropic bending of soybean roots and rice leaf sheath bases by nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins, are induced by auxin. The asymmetrical distribution of nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins resulted from the asymmetrical synthesis of them in bending sites. In soybean roots, inhibitions of NO and cGMP synthesis reduced differential NO and cGMP accumulation respectively, which both of these effects can lead to the reduction of gravitropic bending. Gibberellin-induced OsXET, OsEXPA4 and OsRWC3 were also found involved in the gravitropic bending. These data indicated that auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism. More experiments need to prove the more detailed mechanism of them.

  3. Auxin-induced degradation dynamics set the pace for lateral root development.

    PubMed

    Guseman, Jessica M; Hellmuth, Antje; Lanctot, Amy; Feldman, Tamar P; Moss, Britney L; Klavins, Eric; Calderón Villalobos, Luz Irina A; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Auxin elicits diverse cell behaviors through a simple nuclear signaling pathway initiated by degradation of Aux/IAA co-repressors. Our previous work revealed that members of the large Arabidopsis Aux/IAA family exhibit a range of degradation rates in synthetic contexts. However, it remained an unresolved issue whether differences in Aux/IAA turnover rates played a significant role in plant responses to auxin. Here, we use the well-established model of lateral root development to directly test the hypothesis that the rate of auxin-induced Aux/IAA turnover sets the pace for auxin-regulated developmental events. We did this by generating transgenic plants expressing degradation rate variants of IAA14, a crucial determinant of lateral root initiation. Progression through the well-established stages of lateral root development was strongly correlated with the engineered rates of IAA14 turnover, leading to the conclusion that Aux/IAAs are auxin-initiated timers that synchronize developmental transitions.

  4. Quantitative predictions on auxin-induced polar distribution of PIN proteins during vein formation in leaves.

    PubMed

    Alim, K; Frey, E

    2010-10-01

    The dynamic patterning of the plant hormone auxin and its efflux facilitator the PIN protein are the key regulators for the spatial and temporal organization of plant development. In particular auxin induces the polar localization of its own efflux facilitator. Due to this positive feedback, auxin flow is directed and patterns of auxin and PIN arise. During the earliest stage of vein initiation in leaves auxin accumulates in a single cell in a rim of epidermal cells from which it flows into the ground meristem tissue of the leaf blade. There the localized auxin supply yields the successive polarization of PIN distribution along a strand of cells. We model the auxin and PIN dynamics within cells with a minimal canalization model. Solving the model analytically we uncover an excitable polarization front that triggers a polar distribution of PIN proteins in cells. As polarization fronts may extend to opposing directions from their initiation site, we suggest a possible resolution to the puzzling occurrence of bipolar cells, thus we offer an explanation for the development of closed, looped veins. Employing non-linear analysis, we identify the role of the contributing microscopic processes during polarization. Furthermore, we deduce quantitative predictions on polarization fronts establishing a route to determine the up to now largely unknown kinetic rates of auxin and PIN dynamics.

  5. The epidermis coordinates auxin-induced stem growth in response to shade.

    PubMed

    Procko, Carl; Burko, Yogev; Jaillais, Yvon; Ljung, Karin; Long, Jeff A; Chory, Joanne

    2016-07-01

    Growth of a complex multicellular organism requires coordinated changes in diverse cell types. These cellular changes generate organs of the correct size, shape, and functionality. In plants, the growth hormone auxin induces stem elongation in response to shade; however, which cell types of the stem perceive the auxin signal and contribute to organ growth is poorly understood. Here, we blocked the transcriptional response to auxin within specific tissues to show that auxin signaling is required in many cell types for correct hypocotyl growth in shade, with a key role for the epidermis. Combining genetic manipulations in Arabidopsis thaliana with transcriptional profiling of the hypocotyl epidermis from Brassica rapa, we show that auxin acts in the epidermis in part by inducing activity of the locally acting, growth-promoting brassinosteroid pathway. Our findings clarify cell-specific auxin function in the hypocotyl and highlight the complexity of cell type interactions within a growing organ. © 2016 Procko et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F

    2015-12-15

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3' UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17.

    PubMed

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-12-30

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III-IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III-IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼ 10- to ∼ 100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes.

  8. Structural basis for the auxin-induced transcriptional regulation by Aux/IAA17

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mookyoung; Park, Yangshin; Kim, Iktae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Rhee, Sangkee; Suh, Jeong-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Auxin is the central hormone that regulates plant growth and organ development. Transcriptional regulation by auxin is mediated by the auxin response factor (ARF) and the repressor, AUX/IAA. Aux/IAA associates with ARF via domain III−IV for transcriptional repression that is reversed by auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation. It has been known that Aux/IAA and ARF form homo- and hetero-oligomers for the transcriptional regulation, but what determines their association states is poorly understood. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first solution structure of domain III−IV of Aux/IAA17 (IAA17), and characterize molecular interactions underlying the homotypic and heterotypic oligomerization. The structure exhibits a compact β-grasp fold with a highly dynamic insert helix that is unique in Aux/IAA family proteins. IAA17 associates to form a heterogeneous ensemble of front-to-back oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. IAA17 and ARF5 associate to form homo- or hetero-oligomers using a common scaffold and binding interfaces, but their affinities vary significantly. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for homo-oligomerization are 6.6 μM and 0.87 μM for IAA17 and ARF5, respectively, whereas hetero-oligomerization reveals a ∼10- to ∼100-fold greater affinity (KD = 73 nM). Thus, individual homo-oligomers of IAA17 and ARF5 spontaneously exchange their subunits to form alternating hetero-oligomers for transcriptional repression. Oligomerization is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, so that charge complementarity at the interface determines the binding affinity. Variable binding affinity by surface charge modulation may effectively regulate the complex interaction network between Aux/IAA and ARF family proteins required for the transcriptional control of auxin-response genes. PMID:25512488

  9. Auxin-induced hydrogen sulfide generation is involved in lateral root formation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fang, Tao; Cao, Zeyu; Li, Jiale; Shen, Wenbiao; Huang, Liqin

    2014-03-01

    Similar to auxin, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mainly produced by l-cysteine desulfhydrase (DES; EC 4.4.1.1) in plants, could induce lateral root formation. The objective of this study was to test whether H2S is also involved in auxin-induced lateral root development in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. We observed that auxin depletion-induced down-regulation of transcripts of SlDES1, decreased DES activity and endogenous H2S contents, and the inhibition of lateral root formation were rescued by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor). However, No additive effects were observed when naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was co-treated with NaHS (lower than 10 mM) in the induction of lateral root formation. Subsequent work revealed that a treatment with NAA or NaHS could simultaneously induce transcripts of SlDES1, DES activity and endogenous H2S contents, and thereafter the stimulation of lateral root formation. It was further confirmed that H2S or HS(-), not the other sulfur-containing components derived from NaHS, was attributed to the stimulative action. The inhibition of lateral root formation and decreased of H2S metabolism caused by an H2S scavenger hypotaurine (HT) were reversed by NaHS, but not NAA. Molecular evidence revealed that both NaHS- or NAA-induced modulation of some cell cycle regulatory genes, including the up-regulation of SlCDKA;1, SlCYCA2;1, together with simultaneous down-regulation of SlKRP2, were differentially reversed by HT pretreatment. To summarize, above results clearly suggested that H2S might, at least partially, act as a downstream component of auxin signaling to trigger lateral root formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The Physiology of Adventitious Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Bianka; Rasmussen, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious roots are plant roots that form from any nonroot tissue and are produced both during normal development (crown roots on cereals and nodal roots on strawberry [Fragaria spp.]) and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. They are important economically (for cuttings and food production), ecologically (environmental stress response), and for human existence (food production). To improve sustainable food production under environmentally extreme conditions, it is important to understand the adventitious root development of crops both in normal and stressed conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and physiology of adventitious root formation is critical for breeding programs. Recent work shows that different adventitious root types are regulated differently, and here, we propose clear definitions of these classes. We use three case studies to summarize the physiology of adventitious root development in response to flooding (case study 1), nutrient deficiency (case study 2), and wounding (case study 3). PMID:26697895

  11. Cucumber gene list 2017

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is an update of the 2010 version of Cucumber Gene List. Since the release of the cucumber draft genome in 2009, significant progress has been made in developing cucumber genetic and genomics resources. A number of genes or QTLs have been tagged with molecular markers, which provides us a better...

  12. A Rosa canina WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene, RcWOX1, is involved in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Wen, Chao; Fan, Lusheng; Kou, Yaping; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2014-12-01

    Homeobox (HB) proteins are important transcription factors that regulate the developmental decisions of eukaryotes. WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factors, known as a plant-specific HB family, play a key role in plant developmental processes. Our previous work has indicated that rhizoids are induced by auxin in rose (Rosa spp.), which acts as critical part of an efficient plant regeneration system. However, the function of WOX genes in auxin-induced rhizoid formation remains unclear. Here, we isolated and characterized a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene from Rosa canina, RcWOX1, containing a typical homeodomain with 65 amino acid residues. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that RcWOX1 was expressed in the whole process of callus formation and in the early stage of rhizoid formation. Moreover, its expression was induced by auxin treatment. In Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing the RcWOX1pro::GUS and 35S::GFP-RcWOX1, RcWOX1 was specifically expressed in roots and localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of RcWOX1 in Arabidopsis increased lateral root density and induced upregulation of PIN1 and PIN7 genes. Therefore, we postulated that RcWOX1 is a functional transcription factor that plays an essential role in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.

  13. P-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid impairs auxin response for gravity-regulated peg formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Minobu; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Fujii, Nobuharu; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2008-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings form a specialized protuberance, the peg, on the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. When cucumber seeds germinate in a horizontal position, the seedlings develop a peg on the lower side of the transition zone. To verify the role of auxin action in peg formation, we examined the effect of the anti-auxin, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB), on peg formation and mRNA accumulation of auxin-regulated genes. Application of PCIB to cucumber seedlings inhibited peg formation. The application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) competed with PCIB and induced peg formation. Furthermore, application of PCIB decreased auxin-inducible CsIAA1 mRNA and increased auxin-repressible CsGRP1 mRNA in the lower side of the transition zone. The differential accumulation of CsIAA1 and CsGRP1 mRNAs in the transition zone of cucumber seedlings grown in a horizontal position was smaller in the PCIB-treated seedlings. These results demonstrate that endogenous auxin redistributes and induces the differential expression of auxin-regulated genes, and ultimately results in the suppression or induction of peg formation in the gravistimulated transition zone of cucumber seedlings.

  14. Proteomic changes in the base of chrysanthemum cuttings during adventitious root formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is an obstacle for the rapid fixation of elite genotypes. We performed a proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum cultivar ‘Jinba’ during adventitious root formation (ARF) in order to identify rooting ability associated protein and/or to get further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Results The protein profiles during ARF were analyzed by comparing the 2-DE gels between 0-day-old (just severed from the stock plant) and 5-day-old cutting bases of chrysanthemum. A total of 69 differentially accumulated protein spots (two-fold change; t-test: 95% significance) were excised and analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF, among which 42 protein spots (assigned as 24 types of proteins and 7 unknown proteins) were confidently identified using the NCBI database. The results demonstrated that 19% proteins were related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, 16% to photosynthesis, 10% to protein fate, 7% to plant defense, 6% to cell structure, 7% to hormone related, 3% to nitrate metabolism, 3% to lipid metabolism, 3% to ascorbate biosynthesis and 3% to RNA binding, 23% were unknown proteins. Twenty types of differentially accumulated proteins including ACC oxidase (CmACO) were further analyzed at the transcription level, most of which were in accordance with the results of 2-DE. Moreover, the protein abundance changes of CmACO are supported by western blot experiments. Ethylene evolution was higher during the ARF compared with day 0 after cutting, while silver nitrate, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, pretreatment delayed the ARF. It suggested that ACC oxidase plays an important role in ARF of chrysanthemum. Conclusions The proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum allowed us to identify proteins whose expression was related to ARF. We identified auxin-induced protein PCNT115 and ACC oxidase positively or

  15. Proteomic changes in the base of chrysanthemum cuttings during adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruixia; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhu, Lu; Zheng, Chen; Han, Shuang; Gu, Jing; Sun, Jing; Li, Huiyun; Wang, Haibin; Song, Aiping; Chen, Fadi

    2013-12-26

    A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is an obstacle for the rapid fixation of elite genotypes. We performed a proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum cultivar 'Jinba' during adventitious root formation (ARF) in order to identify rooting ability associated protein and/or to get further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. The protein profiles during ARF were analyzed by comparing the 2-DE gels between 0-day-old (just severed from the stock plant) and 5-day-old cutting bases of chrysanthemum. A total of 69 differentially accumulated protein spots (two-fold change; t-test: 95% significance) were excised and analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF, among which 42 protein spots (assigned as 24 types of proteins and 7 unknown proteins) were confidently identified using the NCBI database. The results demonstrated that 19% proteins were related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, 16% to photosynthesis, 10% to protein fate, 7% to plant defense, 6% to cell structure, 7% to hormone related, 3% to nitrate metabolism, 3% to lipid metabolism, 3% to ascorbate biosynthesis and 3% to RNA binding, 23% were unknown proteins. Twenty types of differentially accumulated proteins including ACC oxidase (CmACO) were further analyzed at the transcription level, most of which were in accordance with the results of 2-DE. Moreover, the protein abundance changes of CmACO are supported by western blot experiments. Ethylene evolution was higher during the ARF compared with day 0 after cutting, while silver nitrate, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, pretreatment delayed the ARF. It suggested that ACC oxidase plays an important role in ARF of chrysanthemum. The proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum allowed us to identify proteins whose expression was related to ARF. We identified auxin-induced protein PCNT115 and ACC oxidase positively or negatively correlated to ARF

  16. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber occasionally produces polyploid plants, which are problematic for growers because these plants produce misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative study to estimate the frequency of spontaneous polyploids in cucumber. Seeds of recombinant inbre...

  17. Cucumber leaf spot virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber leaf spot virus (CLSV) was originally identified from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in Germany, but has since been found in various parts of Europe, the UK, and the Middle East, including Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Bulgaria, Poland, and Spain. CLSV is known to cause symptoms ranging from chloroti...

  18. Transcription of TIR1-Controlled Genes Can be Regulated within 10 Min by an Auxin-Induced Process. Can TIR1 be the Receptor?

    PubMed Central

    Labusch, Corinna; Effendi, Yunus; Fulda, Martin; Scherer, Günther F. E.

    2016-01-01

    ABP1 and TIR1/AFBs are known as auxin receptors. ABP1 is linked to auxin responses several of which are faster than 10 min. TIR1 regulates auxin-induced transcription of early auxin genes also within minutes. We use transcription of such TIR1-dependent genes as indicator of TIR1 activity to show the rapid regulation of TIR1 by exogenous auxin. To this end, we used quantification of transcription of a set of fifteen early auxin-induced reporter genes at t = 10 and t = 30 min to measure this as a TIR1-dependent auxin response. We conducted this study in 22 mutants of auxin transporters (pin5, abcb1, abcb19, and aux1/lax3), protein kinases and phosphatases (ibr5, npr1, cpk3, CPK3-OX, d6pk1, d6pkl1-1, d6pkl3-2, d6pkl1-1/d6pkl2-2, and d6pkl1-1/d6pkl3-2), of fatty acid metabolism (fad2-1, fad6-1, ssi2, lacs4, lacs9, and lacs4/lacs9) and receptors (tir1, tir1/afb2, and tir1/afb3) and compared them to the wild type. After 10 min auxin application, in 18 out of 22 mutants mis-regulated expression of at least one reporter was found, and in 15 mutants transcription of two-to-three out of five selected auxin reporter genes was mis-regulated. After 30 min of auxin application to mutant plants, mis-regulation of reporter genes ranged from one to 13 out of 15 tested reporter genes. Those genes chosen as mutants were themselves not regulated in their expression by auxin for at least 1 h, excluding an influence of TIR1/AFBs on their transcription. The expression of TIR1/AFB genes was also not modulated by auxin for up to 3 h. Together, this excludes a feedback or feedforward of these mutant genes/proteins on TIR1/AFBs output of transcription in this auxin-induced response. However, an auxin-induced response needed an as yet unknown auxin receptor. We suggest that the auxin receptor necessary for the fast auxin-induced transcription modulation could be, instead, ABP1. The alternative hypothesis would be that auxin-induced expression of a protein, initiated by TIR1/AFBs receptors

  19. Congenitally Blind Counselor, Adventitiously Blind Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    A counselor blind from birth describes personal difficulties in fully understanding the experience of clients who are adventitiously blind. Congenitally blind counselors are urged to recognize that adaptive methods cannot compensate for the panoramic view of the environment provided by vision and that recently blinded individuals need to deal with…

  20. Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-04-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation.

  1. A Developmental and Molecular View of Formation of Auxin-Induced Nodule-Like Structures in Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hiltenbrand, Ryan; Thomas, Jacklyn; McCarthy, Hannah; Dykema, Karl J.; Spurr, Ashley; Newhart, Hamilton; Winn, Mary E.; Mukherjee, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that plant hormones play important roles during legume–rhizobia symbiosis. For instance, auxins induce the formation of nodule-like structures (NLSs) on legume roots in the absence of rhizobia. Furthermore, these NLS can be colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which favor nitrogen fixation compared to regular roots and subsequently increase plant yield. Interestingly, auxin also induces similar NLS in cereal roots. While several genetic studies have identified plant genes controlling NLS formation in legumes, no studies have investigated the genes involved in NLS formation in cereals. In this study, first we established an efficient experimental system to induce NLS in rice roots, using auxin, 2,4-D, consistently at a high frequency (>90%). We were able to induce NLS at a high frequency in Medicago truncatula under similar conditions. NLS were characterized by a broad base, a diffuse meristem, and increased cell differentiation in the vasculature. Interestingly, NLS formation appeared very similar in both rice and Medicago, suggesting a similar developmental program. We show that NLS formation in both rice and Medicago occurs downstream of the common symbiotic pathway. Furthermore, NLS formation occurs downstream of cytokinin-induced step(s). We performed a comprehensive RNA sequencing experiment to identify genes differentially expressed during NLS formation in rice and identified several promising genes for control of NLS based on their biological and molecular functions. We validated the expression patterns of several genes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and show varied expression patterns of these genes during different stages of NLS formation. Finally, we show that NLS induced on rice roots under these conditions can be colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Azorhizobium caulinodans. PMID:27891144

  2. A Developmental and Molecular View of Formation of Auxin-Induced Nodule-Like Structures in Land Plants.

    PubMed

    Hiltenbrand, Ryan; Thomas, Jacklyn; McCarthy, Hannah; Dykema, Karl J; Spurr, Ashley; Newhart, Hamilton; Winn, Mary E; Mukherjee, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that plant hormones play important roles during legume-rhizobia symbiosis. For instance, auxins induce the formation of nodule-like structures (NLSs) on legume roots in the absence of rhizobia. Furthermore, these NLS can be colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which favor nitrogen fixation compared to regular roots and subsequently increase plant yield. Interestingly, auxin also induces similar NLS in cereal roots. While several genetic studies have identified plant genes controlling NLS formation in legumes, no studies have investigated the genes involved in NLS formation in cereals. In this study, first we established an efficient experimental system to induce NLS in rice roots, using auxin, 2,4-D, consistently at a high frequency (>90%). We were able to induce NLS at a high frequency in Medicago truncatula under similar conditions. NLS were characterized by a broad base, a diffuse meristem, and increased cell differentiation in the vasculature. Interestingly, NLS formation appeared very similar in both rice and Medicago, suggesting a similar developmental program. We show that NLS formation in both rice and Medicago occurs downstream of the common symbiotic pathway. Furthermore, NLS formation occurs downstream of cytokinin-induced step(s). We performed a comprehensive RNA sequencing experiment to identify genes differentially expressed during NLS formation in rice and identified several promising genes for control of NLS based on their biological and molecular functions. We validated the expression patterns of several genes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and show varied expression patterns of these genes during different stages of NLS formation. Finally, we show that NLS induced on rice roots under these conditions can be colonized by nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Azorhizobium caulinodans.

  3. Gravity-induced modification of auxin transport and distribution for peg formation in cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, M.; Fujii, N.; Higashitani, A.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber seedlings grown in microgravity developed a peg on each side of the transition zone between hypocotyl and root, whereas seedlings grown in a horizontal position on the ground developed a peg on the concave (lower) side of the gravitropically bending transition zone. Using an auxin-inducible gene, CS-IAA1, we showed that upon gravistimulation the auxin concentration on the upper side of the horizontally placed transition zone is reduced to a level below the threshold necessary for peg formation. In this study, to elucidate the role of auxin in the lateral placement of peg formation, we measured the contents of endogenous auxin in the transition zone. The content of free IAA was lower and conjugated IAA was more abundant on the upper side of the transition zone of the gravistimulated seedlings compared with the lower side. These results support the idea that a decrease in auxin level due to a modification of auxin transport or metabolism causes the suppression of peg formation on the upper side of the transition zone in a horizontal position. Cucumber seedlings treated with auxin transport inhibitors exhibited agravitropic growth and developed a peg on each side of the transition zone. Application of auxin transport inhibitors caused an increase in CS-IAA1 mRNA (an auxin-inducible gene) at the transition zone. To analyze auxin transport system for peg formation, we isolated auxin influx carrier, CS-AUX1, and auxin efflux carrier, CS-PIN1, from cucumber plants. The accumulation of CS-AUX1 and CS-PIN1 mRNAs was observed at vascular tissue and epidermis in the transition zone. The level of CS-AUX1 mRNA was lower on the upper side of the transition zone in a horizontal position. The results suggest that the transition zone is an additional source of auxin, and that both influx and efflux of auxin in the cells of the transition zone control cytoplasmic concentration of auxin for peg formation.

  4. [Influencing factors on culture of medicinal plants adventitious roots].

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuang-Shuang; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Juan; Liu, Hui; Zuo, Bei-Mei

    2012-12-01

    With the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, medicinal plants resources cannot meet the request of Chinese medicine industry. Medicinal plants adventitious roots culture in a large scale is an important way to achieve Chinese medicine industrialization. However, how to establish good adventitious roots culture system is its key, such as plant hormones, explant, sucrose, innoculum and salt strength.

  5. Cystic adventitial disease of popliteal artery with significant stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ranjana; Mittal, Puneet; Gupta, Praveen; Jindal, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Cystic adventitial disease of popliteal artery is a rare condition of unknown etiology which usually presents in middle-aged men. We present Doppler and computed tomography angiography findings in a case of cystic adventitial disease with significant obstruction of popliteal artery, with secondary narrowing of popliteal vein. PMID:24082480

  6. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber breeders and growers have observed off-type plants in hybrid cultivars with darker green leaves with pronounced serration, shorter stature, and misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. Field-grown plants were identified with these characteristics and flow cytometry revealed that these plants...

  7. Cucumber vein yellowing virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of CVYV and the disease it causes....

  8. Adventitial inflammation and its interaction with intimal atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Wangler, Susanne; Gleissner, Christian A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Katus, Hugo A.; Erbel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The presence of adventitial inflammation in correlation with atherosclerotic lesions has been recognized for decades. In the last years, several studies have investigated the relevance and impact of adventitial inflammation on atherogenesis. In the abdominal aorta of elderly Apoe−/− mice, adventitial inflammatory structures were characterized as organized ectopic lymphoid tissue, and therefore termed adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs). These ATLOs possess similarities in development, structure and function to secondary lymphoid organs. A crosstalk between intimal atherosclerotic lesions and ATLOs has been suggested, and several studies could demonstrate a potential role for medial vascular smooth muscle cells in this process. We here review the development, phenotypic characteristics, and function of ATLOs in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the possible role of medial vascular smooth muscle cells and their interaction between plaque and ATLOs. PMID:25152736

  9. Current testing methods and challenges for detection of adventitious viruses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arifa S

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) Adventitious viruses are a major safety concern in biological products. This paper discusses various sources of virus contamination and approaches to develop a comprehensive detection and mitigation strategy for product safety. Additionally, general safety concerns related to adventitious agents in biologics and current testing recommendations by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research for demonstrating the absence of adventitious agents in viral vaccines will be presented. The limitations of the conventional assays and the need for and consideration of new technologies for broad detection of novel agents will also be discussed.

  10. Adventitial vasa vasorum arteriosclerosis in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Onoue, Kenji; Ikegami, Koji; Morita, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Naoto; Mano, Yuuki; Sano, Masaki; Saito, Takaaki; Sato, Kohji; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease among elderly individuals. However, the precise pathophysiology of AAA remains unknown. In AAA, an intraluminal thrombus prevents luminal perfusion of oxygen, allowing only the adventitial vaso vasorum (VV) to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the aortic wall. In this study, we examined changes in the adventitial VV wall in AAA to clarify the histopathological mechanisms underlying AAA. We found marked intimal hyperplasia of the adventitial VV in the AAA sac; further, immunohistological studies revealed proliferation of smooth muscle cells, which caused luminal stenosis of the VV. We also found decreased HemeB signals in the aortic wall of the sac as compared with those in the aortic wall of the neck region in AAA. The stenosis of adventitial VV in the AAA sac and the malperfusion of the aortic wall observed in the present study are new aspects of AAA pathology that are expected to enhance our understanding of this disease.

  11. De novo sequencing and comparative transcriptome analysis of adventitious root development induced by exogenous indole-3-butyric acid in cuttings of tetraploid black locust.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jine; Meng, Seng; Guo, Erhui; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Zhong; Yang, Xitian

    2017-02-16

    and 12 ethylene-related genes, associated with the KEGG pathway cysteine and methionine metabolism. The GO enrichment, pathway mapping, and gene expression profile analyses revealed molecular traits for root induction and initiation. Our study presents a global view of the transcriptomic profiles of tetraploid black locust cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting.

  12. [Cultivation of Panax ginseng adventitious roots in bubble bioreactors].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Bei-Mei; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Juan; Yin, Shuang-Shuang; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2012-12-01

    To study cultivation of Panax ginseng adventitious roots in bubble bioreactors. The adventitious roots were obtained through tissue culture different types of bioreactors. The contents of ginsenosides Re, Rb1 and Rg1 were determined by HPLC while the contents of polysaccharides were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The results showed that of the three types tested, the most efficient bioreactor for cultivation of the ginseng adventitious roots was the cone-type bioreactors (with the 120 degrees ), in which, the growth curve of adventitious roots was S-shaped. The maximum biomass was obtained on the 40th day, with the fresh weight, dry weight and growth rate reaching the maximum, which were 113.15 g, 9.62 g and 63.13 times respectively, and the concomitant contents of polysaccharide and ginsenoside were 2.73% and 2.25 mg x g(-1). The results showed that the most efficient bioreactor for cultivation of the ginseng adventitious roots was the cone-type bioreactors (with the 120 degrees). These results provide a theoretical reference for developing an efficient production process of active metabolites of ginseng in the scale-up cultivation.

  13. [Effect of bagging on greenhouse cucumber].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Zhang, Shulian; Liang, Yinli; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Fuli; Quan, Qingzhuan

    2004-07-01

    The study showed that culturing cucumber with film bag increased cucumber yield by 12.3% - 15.1%, reduced abnormal cucumber by 65.3% - 72.8%, and the shape of cucumber was straight and smooth. The keeping-fresh period of the cucumber prolonged to 20 - 25 days, its vitamin C increased 21.9%, and total sugar increased to 5.1%. Paper bagging increased cucumber yield by 7.2% - 10.1%, and reduced abnormal cucumber by 52.2% - 57.7%. Bag body could efficiently prevent the cucumber from the direct pollution of chemicals spray. The survival pesticides in film and paper bags was 0.760 mg x kg(-1) and 1.2208 mg x kg(-1), reduced by 83.3% and 73.2%, respectively, compared to non-bagging.

  14. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Bowyer, Stuart; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established. To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works. A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016) and IEEExplore (1984-2016) databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification. Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated. Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved. A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43%) of the studies focused on wheeze, 40 (51.95%) on crackle, 9 (11.69%) on stridor, 9 (11

  15. A chloroplast-localized and auxin-induced glutathione S-transferase from phreatophyte Prosopis juliflora confer drought tolerance on tobacco.

    PubMed

    George, Suja; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2010-03-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Prosopis juliflora, a drought-tolerant tree species of Fabaceae, as a model plant system for mining genes functioning in abiotic stress tolerance. Large-scale random EST sequencing from a cDNA library obtained from drought-stressed leaves of 2-month-old P. juliflora plants resulted in identification of three different auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferases. In this paper, we report the cellular localization and the ability to confer drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco of one of these GSTs (PjGSTU1). PjGSTU1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and GST and GPX activities in total protein samples were assayed and compared with controls. The results indicated that PjGSTU1 protein forms a functional homo-dimer in recombinant bacteria with glutathione transferase as well as glutathione peroxidase activities. PjGSTU1 transgenic tobacco lines survived better under conditions of 15% PEG stress compared with control un-transformed plants. In vivo localization studies for PjGSTU1 using GFP fusion revealed protein localization in chloroplasts of transgenic plants. The peroxidase activity of PjGSTU1 and its localization in the chloroplast indicates a possible role for PjGSTU1 in ROS removal.

  16. iAID: an improved auxin-inducible degron system for the construction of a 'tight' conditional mutant in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Miyazawa-Onami, Mayumi; Iida, Tetsushi; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Isolation of a 'tight' conditional mutant of a gene of interest is an effective way of studying the functions of essential genes. Strategies that use ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation to eliminate the product of a gene of interest, such as heat-inducible degron (td) and auxin-inducible degron (AID), are powerful methods for constructing conditional mutants. However, these methods do not work with some genes. Here, we describe an improved AID system (iAID) for isolating tight conditional mutants in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this method, transcriptional repression by the 'Tet-OFF' promoter is combined with proteolytic elimination of the target protein by the AID system. To provide examples, we describe the construction of tight mutants of the replication factors Dpb11 and Mcm10, dpb11-iAID, and mcm10-iAID. Because Dpb11 and Mcm10 are required for the initiation of DNA replication, their tight mutants are unable to enter S phase. This is the case for dpb11-iAID and mcm10-iAID cells after the addition of tetracycline and auxin. Both the 'Tet-OFF' promoter and the AID system have been shown to work in model eukaryotes other than budding yeast. Therefore, the iAID system is not only useful in budding yeast, but also can be applied to other model systems to isolate tight conditional mutants.

  17. Oxygen absorption by adventitious roots promotes the survival of completely submerged terrestrial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ayi, Qiaoli; Zeng, Bo; Liu, Jianhui; Li, Siqi; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants because it results in oxygen deficiency, which is considered a major problem for submerged plants. A common response of terrestrial plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Some studies have shown that adventitious roots on submerged plants are capable of absorbing water and nutrients. However, there is no experimental evidence for the possible oxygen uptake function of adventitious roots or for how important this function might be for the survival of plants during prolonged submergence. This study aims to investigate whether adventitious roots absorb oxygen from the water column, and whether this new function is beneficial to the survival of completely submerged plants. Methods Taking Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. as a representative species, the profiling of the underwater oxygen gradient towards living and dead adventitious roots on completely submerged plants was conducted, the oxygen concentration in stem nodes with and without adventitious roots was measured, and the growth, survival and non-structural carbohydrate content of completely submerged plants with and without adventitious roots was investigated. Key Results Oxygen profiles in the water column of adventitious roots showed that adventitious roots absorbed oxygen from water. It is found that the oxygen concentration in stem nodes having adventitious roots was higher than that in stem nodes without adventitious roots, which implies that the oxygen absorbed by adventitious roots from water was subsequently transported from the roots to other plant tissues. Compared with plants whose adventitious roots had been pruned, those with intact adventitious roots had slower leaf shedding, slower plant mass reduction, more efficient carbohydrate economy and prolonged survival when completely submerged. Conclusions The adventitious roots of A. philoxeroides formed upon submergence can absorb oxygen from

  18. Oxygen absorption by adventitious roots promotes the survival of completely submerged terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Ayi, Qiaoli; Zeng, Bo; Liu, Jianhui; Li, Siqi; van Bodegom, Peter M; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2016-04-10

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants because it results in oxygen deficiency, which is considered a major problem for submerged plants. A common response of terrestrial plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Some studies have shown that adventitious roots on submerged plants are capable of absorbing water and nutrients. However, there is no experimental evidence for the possible oxygen uptake function of adventitious roots or for how important this function might be for the survival of plants during prolonged submergence. This study aims to investigate whether adventitious roots absorb oxygen from the water column, and whether this new function is beneficial to the survival of completely submerged plants. TakingAlternanthera philoxeroides(Mart.) Griseb. as a representative species, the profiling of the underwater oxygen gradient towards living and dead adventitious roots on completely submerged plants was conducted, the oxygen concentration in stem nodes with and without adventitious roots was measured, and the growth, survival and non-structural carbohydrate content of completely submerged plants with and without adventitious roots was investigated. Oxygen profiles in the water column of adventitious roots showed that adventitious roots absorbed oxygen from water. It is found that the oxygen concentration in stem nodes having adventitious roots was higher than that in stem nodes without adventitious roots, which implies that the oxygen absorbed by adventitious roots from water was subsequently transported from the roots to other plant tissues. Compared with plants whose adventitious roots had been pruned, those with intact adventitious roots had slower leaf shedding, slower plant mass reduction, more efficient carbohydrate economy and prolonged survival when completely submerged. The adventitious roots ofA. philoxeroidesformed upon submergence can absorb oxygen from ambient water, thereby alleviating the adverse effects of

  19. Adventitious Agents and Smallpox Vaccine in Strategic National Stockpile

    PubMed Central

    Osburn, Bennie I.

    2005-01-01

    In keeping with current standards, we urge that old smallpox vaccines that were made in animal skin and are still a key part of our strategic national stockpile be tested for adventitious infectious agents. The advisory especially applies to viruses that have the potential for zoonotic transmission to human vaccine recipients. PMID:16022785

  20. Adventitious agents and smallpox vaccine in strategic national stockpile.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Frederick A; Osburn, Bennie I

    2005-07-01

    In keeping with current standards, we urge that old smallpox vaccines that were made in animal skin and are still a key part of our strategic national stockpile be tested for adventitious infectious agents. The advisory especially applies to viruses that have the potential for zoonotic transmission to human vaccine recipients.

  1. LTB4 activates pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblasts in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xinguo; Tamosiuniene, Rasa; Sung, Yon K.; Shuffle, Eric M.; Tu, Allen B.; Valenzuela, Antonia; Jiang, Shirley; Zamanian, Roham T.; Fiorentino, David F.; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Peters-Golden, Marc; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Chung, Lorinda; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Nicolls, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent study demonstrated a significant role for leukotriene B4 (LTB4) causing pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). LTB4 was found to directly injure luminal endothelial cells and promote growth of the smooth muscle cell layer of pulmonary arterioles. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of LTB4 on the pulmonary adventitial layer, largely composed of fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate that LTB4 enhanced human pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblast (HPAAF) proliferation, migration and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner through its cognate G-protein coupled receptor, BLT1. LTB4 activated HPAAF by up-regulating p38 MAPK as well as Nox4 signaling pathways. In an autoimmune model of PH, inhibition of these pathways blocked perivascular inflammation, decreased Nox4 expression, reduced reactive oxygen species production, reversed arteriolar adventitial fibroblast activation and attenuated PH development. This study uncovers a novel mechanism by which LTB4 further promotes PAH pathogenesis, beyond its established effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cells, by activating adventitial fibroblasts. PMID:26558820

  2. Combining the auxin-inducible degradation system with CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing for the conditional depletion of endogenous Drosophila melanogaster proteins.

    PubMed

    Bence, Melinda; Jankovics, Ferenc; Lukácsovich, Tamás; Erdélyi, Miklós

    2017-02-16

    Inducible protein degradation techniques have considerable advantages over classical genetic approaches, which generate loss-of-function phenotypes at the gene or mRNA level. The plant-derived auxin-inducible degradation system (AID) is a promising technique which enables the degradation of target proteins tagged with the AID motif in non-plant cells. Here, we present a detailed characterization of this method employed during the adult oogenesis of Drosophila. Furthermore, with the help of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, we improve the utility of the AID system in the conditional elimination of endogenously expressed proteins. We demonstrate that the AID system induces efficient and reversible protein depletion of maternally provided proteins both in the ovary and the early embryo. Moreover, the AID system provides a fine spatiotemporal control of protein degradation and allows for the generation of different levels of protein knockdown in a well-regulated manner. These features of the AID system enable the unravelling of the discrete phenotypes of genes with highly complex functions. We utilized this system to generate a conditional loss-of-function allele which allows for the specific degradation of the Vasa protein without affecting its alternative splice variant (solo) and the vasa intronic gene (vig). With the help of this special allele, we demonstrate that dramatic decrease of Vasa protein in the vitellarium does not influence the completion of oogenesis as well as the establishment of proper anteroposterior and dorsoventral polarity in the developing oocyte. Our study suggests that both the localization and the translation of gurken mRNA in the vitellarium is independent from Vasa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitric oxide is required for the auxin-induced activation of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and protein denitrosylation during root growth responses in arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; Cejudo, Francisco J.; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Auxin is the main phytohormone controlling root development in plants. This study uses pharmacological and genetic approaches to examine the role of auxin and nitric oxide (NO) in the activation of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR), and the effect that this activity has on root growth responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with auxin with or without the NTR inhibitors auranofin (ANF) and 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB). NTR activity, lateral root (LR) formation and S-nitrosothiol content were measured in roots. Protein S-nitrosylation was analysed by the biotin switch method in wild-type arabidopsis and in the double mutant ntra ntrb. Key Results The auxin-mediated induction of NTR activity is inhibited by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO), suggesting that NO is downstream of auxin in this regulatory pathway. The NTR inhibitors ANF and DNCB prevent auxin-mediated activation of NTR and LR formation. Moreover, ANF and DNCB also inhibit auxin-induced DR5 : : GUS and BA3 : : GUS gene expression, suggesting that the auxin signalling pathway is compromised without full NTR activity. Treatment of roots with ANF and DNCB increases total nitrosothiols (SNO) content and protein S-nitrosylation, suggesting a role of the NTR-thioredoxin (Trx)-redox system in protein denitrosylation. In agreement with these results, the level of S-nitrosylated proteins is increased in the arabidopsis double mutant ntra ntrb as compared with the wild-type. Conclusions The results support for the idea that NTR is involved in protein denitrosylation during auxin-mediated root development. The fact that a high NO concentration induces NTR activity suggests that a feedback mechanism to control massive and unregulated protein S-nitrosylation could be operating in plant cells. PMID:26229066

  4. Cucumber mosaic virus in Rubus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been reported on red raspberry in Chile, Scotland and the Soviet Union and in Chile on blackberry. Its occurrence in Rubus is rare and seems to cause little damage. Except for one early, unconfirmed report, CMV has not been reported on Rubus in North America. This vir...

  5. Organogenesis versus embryogenesis from long-term suspension cultures of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Bergervoet, J H; van der Mark, F; Custers, J B

    1989-02-01

    Suspension cultures were initiated from leaf explant-derived callus of cucumber,Cucumis sativus cv. Hokus, and maintained under two different conditions; (I) continuously in medium with 5 μM 2,4-D + 5 μM BA, and (II) alternately three cultures in medium containing 5 μM NAA + 5 μM BA and one culture in 5 μM 2,4-D + 5 μM BA. After plating on solid medium with 0.5 μM KIN + 0.1 μM IAA, suspension aggregates from long-term culture in medium with 2,4-D developed into callus, and subsequently formed somatic embryos. These embryos, however, hardly developed into plants. They showed growth arrest and several structural abnormalities. In contrast, organogenesis took place when suspension aggregates from NAA containing medium were plated on solid medium with 0.5 μM KIN + 0.1 μM IAA. Numerous adventitious buds were regenerated, which quite normally developed into plants. Sucrose at low concentration of 1% improved plant formation. On the average thirty complete plants were obtained from each ml of suspension. It is discussed why adventitious buds develop into plants so well, whereas somatic embryos are prone to growth arrest and abnormal development.

  6. Regulatory expectations of validation/qualification of adventitious virus assays.

    PubMed

    Baylis, S A; Blümel, J

    2010-01-01

    The European Union (EU) guideline concerning the virus safety evaluation of biotechnological investigational medicinal products (CPMP/BWP/398498/2005) recently came into force. In the guideline it is stated that analytical procedures supporting the qualification of cell banking systems, starting materials, as well as testing of unprocessed bulks for the presence of adventitious viruses, should be supported by appropriate qualification/validation studies. The validation protocols should prospectively set claims for assay performance, which should be verified by the validation experiments and demonstrate that a particular procedure is suitable for its intended purpose. Assay parameters for adventitious virus testing are discussed, and examples of validation of qualitative and quantitative assays for the detection of blood-borne viruses in human plasma are considered.

  7. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bowyer, Stuart; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Background Automatic detection or classification of adventitious sounds is useful to assist physicians in diagnosing or monitoring diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and pneumonia. While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised approach and comparison has not been well established. Objective To provide a review of existing algorithms for the detection or classification of adventitious respiratory sounds. This systematic review provides a complete summary of methods used in the literature to give a baseline for future works. Data sources A systematic review of English articles published between 1938 and 2016, searched using the Scopus (1938-2016) and IEEExplore (1984-2016) databases. Additional articles were further obtained by references listed in the articles found. Search terms included adventitious sound detection, adventitious sound classification, abnormal respiratory sound detection, abnormal respiratory sound classification, wheeze detection, wheeze classification, crackle detection, crackle classification, rhonchi detection, rhonchi classification, stridor detection, stridor classification, pleural rub detection, pleural rub classification, squawk detection, and squawk classification. Study selection Only articles were included that focused on adventitious sound detection or classification, based on respiratory sounds, with performance reported and sufficient information provided to be approximately repeated. Data extraction Investigators extracted data about the adventitious sound type analysed, approach and level of analysis, instrumentation or data source, location of sensor, amount of data obtained, data management, features, methods, and performance achieved. Data synthesis A total of 77 reports from the literature were included in this review. 55 (71.43%) of the

  8. Massively parallel sequencing, a new method for detecting adventitious agents.

    PubMed

    Onions, David; Kolman, John

    2010-05-01

    There has been an upsurge of interest in developing new veterinary and human vaccines and, in turn, this has involved the development of new mammalian and insect cell substrates. Excluding adventitious agents from these cells can be problematic, particularly for cells derived from species with limited virological investigation. Massively parallel sequencing is a powerful new method for the identification of viruses and other adventitious agents, without prior knowledge of the nature of the agent. We have developed methods using random priming to detect viruses in the supernatants from cell substrates or in virus seed stocks. Using these methods we have recently discovered a new parvovirus in bovine serum. When applied to sequencing the transcriptome, massively parallel sequencing can reveal latent or silent infections. Enormous amounts of data are developed in this process usually between 100 and 400 Mbp. Consequently, sophisticated bioinformatic algorithms are required to analyse and verify virus targets.

  9. Transcript expression profiling for adventitious roots of Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Park, Jun-Hyung; Yang, Deok Chun

    2014-08-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer is one of the major medicinal plants in oriental countries belonging to the Araliaceae family which are the primary source for ginsenosides. However, very few genes were characterized for ginsenoside pathway, due to the limited genome information. Through this study, we obtained a comprehensive transcriptome from adventitious roots, which were treated with methyl jasmonic acids for different time points (control, 2h, 6h, 12h, and 24h) and sequenced by RNA 454 pyrosequencing technology. Reference transcriptome 39,304,529 (0.04GB) was obtained from 5,724,987,880 bases (5.7GB) of 22 libraries by de novo assembly and 35,266 (58.5%) transcripts were annotated with biological schemas (GO and KEGG). The digital gene expression patterns were obtained from in vitro grown adventitious root sequences which mapped to reference, from that, 3813 (6.3%) unique transcripts were involved in ≥2 fold up and downregulations. Finally, candidates for ginsenoside pathway genes were predicted from observed expression patterns. Among them, 30 transcription factors, 20 cytochromes, and 11 glycosyl transferases were predicted as ginsenoside candidates. These data can remarkably expand the existing transcriptome resources of Panax, especially to predict existence of gene networks in P. ginseng. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform to reveal more on secondary metabolism and abiotic stresses from P. ginseng in vitro grown adventitious roots.

  10. Theory and practice of conventional adventitious virus testing.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) For decades conventional tests in cell cultures and in laboratory animals have served as standard methods for broad-spectrum screening for adventitious viruses. New virus detection methods based on molecular biology have broadened and improved our knowledge about potential contaminating viruses and about the suitability of the conventional test methods. This paper summarizes and discusses practical aspects of conventional test schemes, such as detectability of various viruses, questionable or false-positive results, animal numbers needed, time and cost of testing, and applicability for rapidly changing starting materials. Strategies to improve the virus safety of biological medicinal products are proposed. The strategies should be based upon a flexible application of existing and new methods along with a scientifically based risk assessment. However, testing alone does not guarantee the absence of adventitious agents and must be accompanied by virus removing or virus inactivating process steps for critical starting materials, raw materials, and for the drug product.

  11. Detection of adventitious viruses in biologicals--a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Nims, R W

    2006-01-01

    Adventitious virus assays are performed as part of raw materials testing, cell-line characterization, and lot-release testing of biologicals such as monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy vectors, recombinant proteins, and vaccines. The testing methods follow guidance provided in the 9 CFR (bovine and porcine raw materials testing, and certain vaccine products) or Points to Consider documents (cell line characterization and evaluation of the majority of biologicals). The methodologies used and the types of adventitious viruses detected during testing of the various types of samples are discussed in this paper. The detection of adventitious viruses is quite rare, especially during evaluation of cell banks and biologicals produced in human, mouse, or insect cell substrates. The most common detection scenarios include bovine viral diarrhoea virus in foetal bovine serum samples, porcine parvovirus in porcine substrates, and murine minute virus, REO virus, and Cache Valley virus in Chinese hamster cell-derived bulk harvests. The two last-named viral entities are believed to be introduced via bovine serum used during the manufacturing process (during scale-up or during the entire process). Knowledge of the types of agents being detected is useful in designing viral clearance methodologies for purification processes and in engineering manufacturing processes and facilities.

  12. Nitric oxide is required for the auxin-induced activation of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and protein denitrosylation during root growth responses in arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; Cejudo, Francisco J; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    Auxin is the main phytohormone controlling root development in plants. This study uses pharmacological and genetic approaches to examine the role of auxin and nitric oxide (NO) in the activation of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR), and the effect that this activity has on root growth responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with auxin with or without the NTR inhibitors auranofin (ANF) and 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB). NTR activity, lateral root (LR) formation and S-nitrosothiol content were measured in roots. Protein S-nitrosylation was analysed by the biotin switch method in wild-type arabidopsis and in the double mutant ntra ntrb. The auxin-mediated induction of NTR activity is inhibited by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO), suggesting that NO is downstream of auxin in this regulatory pathway. The NTR inhibitors ANF and DNCB prevent auxin-mediated activation of NTR and LR formation. Moreover, ANF and DNCB also inhibit auxin-induced DR5 : : GUS and BA3 : : GUS gene expression, suggesting that the auxin signalling pathway is compromised without full NTR activity. Treatment of roots with ANF and DNCB increases total nitrosothiols (SNO) content and protein S-nitrosylation, suggesting a role of the NTR-thioredoxin (Trx)-redox system in protein denitrosylation. In agreement with these results, the level of S-nitrosylated proteins is increased in the arabidopsis double mutant ntra ntrb as compared with the wild-type. The results support for the idea that NTR is involved in protein denitrosylation during auxin-mediated root development. The fact that a high NO concentration induces NTR activity suggests that a feedback mechanism to control massive and unregulated protein S-nitrosylation could be operating in plant cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  13. SlTIR1 is involved in crosstalk of phytohormones, regulates auxin-induced root growth and stimulates stenospermocarpic fruit formation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhenxin; Wang, Xiaomin

    2016-12-01

    TIR1 and its homologs act as auxin receptors and play important roles in plant growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. An auxin receptor homolog Solanum lycopersicum TIR1 (SlTIR1) has been isolated from tomato cultivar Micro-Tom, and SlTIR1 over-expression results in parthenocarpic fruit formation. In this study, the promoter driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression vector was constructed and stably transformed into Micro-Tom seedlings. The SlTIR1 promoter driving GUS expression accumulated predominantly in the leaf and vasculature in transgenic seedlings. Promoter analysis identified an auxin-response element (AuxRE) and two gibberellic acid (GA)-response elements in the SlTIR1 promoter. Quantitative PCR showed that SlTIR1 transcript level was down-regulated by naphthaleneacetic acid, ethephon and abscisic acid and up-regulated by GA. Furthermore, because of the lack of ability to form reproductive seeds in SlTIR1 over-expressing Micro-Tom, this limits further exploration of potential roles of SlTIR1 in auxin signaling. Here, an antisense vector and an over-expression vector of the SlTIR1 gene were stably transformed into Micro-Tom and Ailsa Craig tomato, respectively. Phenotypes and physiological analyses indicated that SlTIR1 regulated primary root growth and auxin-associated lateral root formation in Micro-Tom. Meanwhile, SlTIR1 also stimulated abnormal seed development, so-called stenospermocarpy, in Ailsa Craig. Transcript accumulations of auxin-signaling genes determined by quantitative PCR were consistent with the idea that SlTIR1 regulated plant growth and development, partially mediated by controlling the mRNA levels of auxin-signaling genes. Our work demonstrates that SlTIR1 regulated auxin-induced root growth and stimulated stenospermocarpic fruit formation. SlTIR1 may be a key mediator of the crosstalk among auxin and other hormones to co-regulate plant growth and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pentatricopeptide 336 and mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber is a unique model plant for organellar genetics because its three genomes show differential transmission: maternal for chloroplast, paternal for mitochondrial and bi-parental for nuclear. A cucumber line has been selected showing a paternally transmitted, strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotype as...

  15. Adventitious Root Formation of Forest Trees and Horticultural Plants - From Genes to Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adventitious root formation is a key step in the clonal propagation of forest trees and horticultural crops. Difficulties in forming adventitious roots (ARs) on stem cuttings and plants produced in vitro hinders the propagation of elite trees and efficient production of many horticultural plant spec...

  16. Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Echinacea purpurea for the production of caffeic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo

    2009-01-01

    Echinacace purpurea (purple cone flower) is an important medicinal plant, and widely used for phytochemical purposes. The roots are traditionally used in herbal medicines and dietary supplements as an immunostimulant in treating inflammatory and viral diseases. Extensive research work has been carried out on both the induction of adventitious roots from E. purpurea as well as established small-scale (shake flask) to large-scale (bioreactor) cultures for the production of adventitious root biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. This chapter describes the methodologies of induction of adventitious roots from explants of E. purpurea, propagation of adventitious roots in suspension cultures, estimation of total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities. The detailed methodology for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of caffeic acid derivatives present in the adventitious roots is also discussed.

  17. Hypoperfusion of the Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Develops an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Takaaki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Sato, Kohji; Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The aortic wall is perfused by the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV). Tissue hypoxia has previously been observed as a manifestation of enlarged abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether hypoperfusion of the adventitial VV could develop AAAs. We created a novel animal model of adventitial VV hypoperfusion with a combination of a polyurethane catheter insertion and a suture ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in rats. VV hypoperfusion caused tissue hypoxia and developed infrarenal AAA, which had similar morphological and pathological characteristics to human AAA. In human AAA tissue, the adventitial VV were stenotic in both small AAAs (30–49 mm in diameter) and in large AAAs (> 50 mm in diameter), with the sac tissue in these AAAs being ischemic and hypoxic. These results indicate that hypoperfusion of adventitial VV has critical effects on the development of infrarenal AAA. PMID:26308526

  18. Hypoperfusion of the Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Develops an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Takaaki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Sato, Kohji; Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The aortic wall is perfused by the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV). Tissue hypoxia has previously been observed as a manifestation of enlarged abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether hypoperfusion of the adventitial VV could develop AAAs. We created a novel animal model of adventitial VV hypoperfusion with a combination of a polyurethane catheter insertion and a suture ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in rats. VV hypoperfusion caused tissue hypoxia and developed infrarenal AAA, which had similar morphological and pathological characteristics to human AAA. In human AAA tissue, the adventitial VV were stenotic in both small AAAs (30-49 mm in diameter) and in large AAAs (> 50 mm in diameter), with the sac tissue in these AAAs being ischemic and hypoxic. These results indicate that hypoperfusion of adventitial VV has critical effects on the development of infrarenal AAA.

  19. Endothelial Cells Inhibit the Angiotensin II Induced Phenotypic Modulation of Rat Vascular Adventitial Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Ying; Chang, Neng-Bin; Li, Tao; Jiang, Rui; Sun, Xiao-Lei; He, Yan-Zheng; Jiang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    The phenotypic modulation of vascular adventitial fibroblasts plays an important role in vascular remodeling. Evidence have shown that endothelial cells and adventitial fibroblasts interact under certain conditions. In this study, we investigated the influence of endothelial cells on the phenotypic modulation of adventitial fibroblasts. Endothelial cells and adventitial fibroblasts from rat thoracic aorta were cultivated in a co-culture system and adventitial fibroblasts were induced with angiotensin II (Ang II). Collagen I and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and migration of adventitial fibroblasts were analyzed. Ang II upregulated the expression of collagen I and α-SMA and the migration of adventitial fibroblasts. Adventitial fibroblasts-endothelial cells co-culturing attenuated the effects of Ang II. Homocysteine-treated endothelial cells, which are functionally impaired, were less inhibitory of the phenotypic modulation of adventitial fibroblasts. Supplementation of endothelial cells with L-arginine (L-Arg) or 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP) enhanced the trends, while with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) the opposite effect was observed. Under the influence of Ang II, adventitial fibroblasts were prone to undergo phenotypic modulation, which was closely related to vascular remodeling. Our study showed that endothelial cells influenced fibroblast phenotypic transformation and such effect would be mediated through the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1921-1927, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    PubMed

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  1. The TOR Pathway Is Involved in Adventitious Root Formation in Arabidopsis and Potato.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kexuan; Dong, Pan; Wang, Wanjing; Feng, Li; Xiong, Fangjie; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shumin; Feng, Shun; Wang, Bangjun; Zhang, Jiankui; Ren, Maozhi

    2017-01-01

    In the agriculture industry, adventitious root formation is a core issue of plants asexual propagation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of adventitious root formation is far beyond understanding. In present study we found that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling plays a key role in adventitious root formation in potato and Arabidopsis. The core components of TOR complex including TOR, RAPTOR, and LST8 are highly conserved in potato, but the seedlings of potato are insensitive to rapamycin, implying FK506 Binding Protein 12 KD (FKBP12) lost the function to bridge the interaction of rapamycin and TOR in potato. To dissect TOR signaling in potato, the rapamycin hypersensitive potato plants (BP12-OE) were engineered by introducing yeast FKBP12 (ScFKBP12) into potato. We found that rapamycin can significantly attenuate the capability of adventitious root formation in BP12-OE potatoes. KU63794 (KU, an active-site TOR inhibitor) combined with rapamycin can more significantly suppress adventitious root formation of BP12-OE potato than the single treatments, such as KU63794 or rapamycin, indicating its synergistic inhibitory effects on potato adventitious root formation. Furthermore, RNA-seq data showed that many genes associated with auxin signaling pathway were altered when BP12-OE potato seedlings were treated with rapamycin + KU, suggesting that TOR may play a major role in adventitious root formation via auxin signaling. The auxin receptor mutant tir1 was sensitive to TOR inhibitors and the double and quadruple mutants including tir1afb2, tir1afb3, and tir1afb1afb2afb3 displayed more sensitive to asTORis than single mutant tir1. Consistently, overexpression of AtTIR1 in Arabidopsis and potato can partially overcome the inhibitory effect of asTORis and promote adventitious root formation under asTORis treatments. These observations suggest that TOR signaling regulates adventitious root formation by mediating auxin signaling in Arabidopsis and potato.

  2. The TOR Pathway Is Involved in Adventitious Root Formation in Arabidopsis and Potato

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kexuan; Dong, Pan; Wang, Wanjing; Feng, Li; Xiong, Fangjie; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shumin; Feng, Shun; Wang, Bangjun; Zhang, Jiankui; Ren, Maozhi

    2017-01-01

    In the agriculture industry, adventitious root formation is a core issue of plants asexual propagation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of adventitious root formation is far beyond understanding. In present study we found that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling plays a key role in adventitious root formation in potato and Arabidopsis. The core components of TOR complex including TOR, RAPTOR, and LST8 are highly conserved in potato, but the seedlings of potato are insensitive to rapamycin, implying FK506 Binding Protein 12 KD (FKBP12) lost the function to bridge the interaction of rapamycin and TOR in potato. To dissect TOR signaling in potato, the rapamycin hypersensitive potato plants (BP12-OE) were engineered by introducing yeast FKBP12 (ScFKBP12) into potato. We found that rapamycin can significantly attenuate the capability of adventitious root formation in BP12-OE potatoes. KU63794 (KU, an active-site TOR inhibitor) combined with rapamycin can more significantly suppress adventitious root formation of BP12-OE potato than the single treatments, such as KU63794 or rapamycin, indicating its synergistic inhibitory effects on potato adventitious root formation. Furthermore, RNA-seq data showed that many genes associated with auxin signaling pathway were altered when BP12-OE potato seedlings were treated with rapamycin + KU, suggesting that TOR may play a major role in adventitious root formation via auxin signaling. The auxin receptor mutant tir1 was sensitive to TOR inhibitors and the double and quadruple mutants including tir1afb2, tir1afb3, and tir1afb1afb2afb3 displayed more sensitive to asTORis than single mutant tir1. Consistently, overexpression of AtTIR1 in Arabidopsis and potato can partially overcome the inhibitory effect of asTORis and promote adventitious root formation under asTORis treatments. These observations suggest that TOR signaling regulates adventitious root formation by mediating auxin signaling in Arabidopsis and potato. PMID

  3. Venous cystic adventitial disease presenting as an enlarging groin mass.

    PubMed

    Scott, Mark F; Gavin, Timothy; Levin, Steven

    2014-02-01

    Venous cystic adventitial disease is an exceedingly rare vascular disorder, with 12 cases reported in the past decade. A 60-year-old woman presented with a painful, palpable groin mass without leg swelling. She was initially thought to have a nonreducible inguinal hernia. A computed tomography scan was obtained that revealed a cystic mass involving the right common femoral vein. Previous imaging revealed that the mass had enlarged over time. In the operating room, the cyst wall was excised without compromising vein integrity. The patient had an uneventful recovery and her pain resolved. We review the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition. We believe that the rapid evolution of this lesion suggests that an unknown inciting factor triggers its onset and growth.

  4. Adventitious Carbon on Primary Sample Containment Metal Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, M. J.; Fries, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Future missions that return astromaterials with trace carbonaceous signatures will require strict protocols for reducing and controlling terrestrial carbon contamination. Adventitious carbon (AC) on primary sample containers and related hardware is an important source of that contamination. AC is a thin film layer or heterogeneously dispersed carbonaceous material that naturally accrues from the environment on the surface of atmospheric exposed metal parts. To test basic cleaning techniques for AC control, metal surfaces commonly used for flight hardware and curating astromaterials at JSC were cleaned using a basic cleaning protocol and characterized for AC residue. Two electropolished stainless steel 316L (SS- 316L) and two Al 6061 (Al-6061) test coupons (2.5 cm diameter by 0.3 cm thick) were subjected to precision cleaning in the JSC Genesis ISO class 4 cleanroom Precision Cleaning Laboratory. Afterwards, the samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Cucumber applied genomics: where we are five years after release of cucumber draft genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The first cucumber draft genome (North China fresh market type inbred line 9930) was released in 2009 (Version 1.0). Since then, due to the use of next generation sequencing technologies, seven high-density SSR- or SNP-based cucumber genetic maps have been constructed with mapped loci ranging from 7...

  6. First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), in the genus Tobamovirus and family Virgaviridae, is a seed-borne pathogen on cucurbits. In early 2013, serious viral disease outbreaks on greenhouse cucumber crops were experienced by greenhouse vegetable growers in Alberta, Canada. CGMMV was detected i...

  7. Adventitious Reinforcement of Maladaptive Stimulus Control Interferes with Learning.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Kathryn J; Hine, Kathleen; Hayashi, Yusuke; Williams, Dean C

    2016-09-01

    Persistent error patterns sometimes develop when teaching new discriminations. These patterns can be adventitiously reinforced, especially during long periods of chance-level responding (including baseline). Such behaviors can interfere with learning a new discrimination. They can also disrupt already learned discriminations, if they re-emerge during teaching procedures that generate errors. We present an example of this process. Our goal was to teach a boy with intellectual disabilities to touch one of two shapes on a computer screen (in technical terms, a simple simultaneous discrimination). We used a size-fading procedure. The correct stimulus was at full size, and the incorrect-stimulus size increased in increments of 10 %. Performance was nearly error free up to and including 60 % of full size. In a probe session with the incorrect stimulus at full size, however, accuracy plummeted. Also, a pattern of switching between choices, which apparently had been established in classroom instruction, re-emerged. The switching pattern interfered with already-learned discriminations. Despite having previously mastered a fading step with the incorrect stimulus up to 60 %, we were unable to maintain consistently high accuracy beyond 20 % of full size. We refined the teaching program such that fading was done in smaller steps (5 %), and decisions to "step back" to a smaller incorrect stimulus were made after every 5-instead of 20-trials. Errors were rare, switching behavior stopped, and he mastered the discrimination. This is a practical example of the importance of designing instruction that prevents adventitious reinforcement of maladaptive discriminated response patterns by reducing errors during acquisition.

  8. Developmental Stages of Cucumber Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Rami; Vernon, Leo P.; Porath, Dan; Arzee, Tova

    1990-01-01

    The changes in morphology during dark germination and subsequent growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings in the light go through three different phases described as latent, active, and steady-state. This pattern is consistently observed for several related developmental processes. The latent period lasts about 2 days following water imbibition after which the following capabilities appear in concert: (a) root and stem elongation, (b) pigment synthesis including protochlorophyll, chlorophyll, carotenoid, and phytochrome, (c) synthesis of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, and (d) enhancement of greening by excision. Following the active phase, which lasts for another 2 to 3 days, these processes slow to a steady-state. Inhibition of chlorphyll accumulation by SO2 was only observed for seedlings in the steady-state phase. PMID:16667373

  9. Significant parent-of-origin effects in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber is a useful plant to study organellar effects because chloroplasts are maternally and mitochondria paternally transmitted. We produced doubled haploids (DH) from divergent cucumber populations, generated reciprocal crosses in a diallel mating scheme, measured weights of plants approximately...

  10. Adventitial fibroblasts are activated in the early stages of atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Fang; Ji Jian; Li Li; Chen Rong; Hu Weicheng . E-mail: huweicheng@sdu.edu.cn

    2007-01-19

    The role of the adventitia in vascular function and vascular lesion formation has been largely ignored. This study observed the activation of the adventitia and specifically the fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis in the apoE(-/-) mouse. The results showed a gradual increase in expression of collagen types I and III after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of hyperlipidic diet. The earliest expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) protein and mRNA was detected in the adventitial fibroblast before the formation of intimal lesions. Proliferation, too, was first found in the adventitial fibroblasts. We hypothesize that the adventitial fibroblast is activated in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Adventitial inflammation may be an early event in the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  11. Psoralen production in hairy roots and adventitious roots cultures of Psoralea coryfolia.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, P; Jayabalan, N

    2009-07-01

    Psoralea corylifolia is an endangered plant producing various compounds of medical importance. Adventitious roots and hairy roots were induced in cultures prepared from hypocotyl explants. Psoralen content was evaluated in both root types grown either in suspension cultures or on agar solidified medium. Psoralen content was approximately 3 mg g(-1) DW in suspension grown hairy roots being higher than in solid grown hairy roots and in solid and suspension-grown adventitious roots.

  12. Adventitial gene transfer of catalase attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cun-Fei; Zhang, Jia; Shen, Kai; Gao, Ping-Jin; Wang, Hai-Ya; Jin, Xin; Meng, Chao; Fang, Ning-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Vascular adventitia and adventitia‑derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to vascular remodeling following vascular injury. A previous ex vivo study in adventitial fibroblasts showed that catalase, one of most important anti‑oxide enzymes, was downregulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adventitial gene transfer of catalase affects AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in vivo. Adenoviruses co‑expressing catalase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or expressing eGFP only were applied to the adventitial surface of common carotid arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Alzet minipumps administering AngII (0.75 mg/kg/day) were then implanted subcutaneously for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure and biological parameters of vascular remodeling were measured in each group. Adventitial fibroblasts were cultured and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was measured using western blot analysis. The results showed that adventitial gene transfer of catalase had no effect on AngII‑induced systolic blood pressure elevation. However, catalase adenovirus transfection significantly inhibited AngII‑induced media hypertrophy compared with that of the control virus (P<0.05). In addition, catalase transfection significantly attenuated AngII‑induced ROS generation, macrophage infiltration, collagen deposition and adventitial α‑smooth muscle actin expression. Furthermore, catalase transfection significantly inhibited the AngII‑induced increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that adventitial gene transfer of catalase significantly attenuated AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in rats via inhibition of adventitial p38MAPK phosphorylation.

  13. Molecularly tagged genes and quantitative trait loci in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since the release of the cucumber draft genome, significant progress has been made in molecular mapping, tagging or cloning of horticulturally important genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in cucumber, which provides the foundation for practicing marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding. ...

  14. An anatomically based imaging sign to detect adventitial cyst derived from the superior tibiofibular joint.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Blouin, Marie-Noëlle; Pirola, Elena; Amrami, Kimberly K; Wang, Huan; Desy, Nicholas M; Spinner, Robert J

    2011-10-01

    The origin for complex intraneural cysts remains controversial despite recent emerging evidence to support their articular origin. The coexistence of intraneural and adventitial cysts has been described due to the proximate neurovascular bundle, i.e., the articular (neural) branch and vessels at the joint capsule. To clarify the pathogenesis, anatomically based imaging patterns can be identified. This paper characterizes a common finding identified on MRI describing the adventitial component originating from the superior tibiofibular joint (STFJ). MRIs of patients with fibular (peroneal) (n = 24) and tibial (n = 7) intraneural ganglion cysts were reviewed. Eleven patients with fibular intraneural ganglion cysts were identified as having a coexisting adventitial component. In all cases, the adventitial cyst extended from the anterior portion of the STFJ, within the capsular vessels, and along the anterior tibial vessels. The reproducible anatomy permitted the identification of an imaging pattern: the "vascular U" sign, consisting of cystic anterior tibial vessels running through the interosseous membrane between the proximal tibia and fibula. This sign was seen on axial MR image(s) obtained at the level of the fibular neck in all cases. To generalize these findings, the rare tibial intraneural ganglion cysts (derived from the posterior aspect of the STFJ) were examined; two cases had coexisting adventitial cysts with visualization of the vascular U sign. This new imaging pattern can improve the identification of adventitial cysts at the level of the STFJ.

  15. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  16. The architecture of adventitial elastin in the canine infrarenal aorta.

    PubMed

    Haas, K S; Phillips, S J; Comerota, A J; White, J V

    1991-05-01

    Although the artery wall consists of three distinct layers, only the structures of the intima and media have been well characterized. The adventitia has generally been overlooked. Our examination focused on the organization of elastin and collagen which are the major components of this tunic. Canine infrarenal aortas were excised, stretched to their in vivo length, then pressure fixed in formalin. Transverse, longitudinal, and frontal sections were prepared with specific elastin and collagen stains. Areas of adventitia in these sections were examined with LM, and interconnections between collagen and elastin were photographed at various magnifications. Subsequently, the slides were fractured for attachment to SEM stubs, and the coverslips were demounted. The identical areas were then examined with SEM using the LM micrographs as a guide to identify elastin and collagen. Whole mount aortic ring preparations were digested in formic acid for 72 and 96 h at 45 degrees C to confirm adventitial elastin architecture. The adventitia was organized in alternating lamellae of collagen and elastin. The elastin lamellae consisted of continuous sheets of elastin with a longitudinal fibrillar substructure. Finer circumferential elastin fibers were also identified. These attached to both longitudinal elastin and adjacent collagen lamellae. Collagen lamellae were arranged in broad corrugated bands of fibrils. The unique architecture of the adventitia may explain some of the visco-elastic properties of the aorta in both normal and pathologic states.

  17. Dissecting the contribution of microtubule behaviour in adventitious root induction.

    PubMed

    Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Rogovoy Stelmakh, Oksana; Mordehaev, Inna; Grumberg, Marina; Elbaum, Rivka; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O; Sadot, Einat

    2015-05-01

    Induction of adventitious roots (ARs) in recalcitrant plants often culminates in cell division and callus formation rather than root differentiation. Evidence is provided here to suggest that microtubules (MTs) play a role in the shift from cell division to cell differentiation during AR induction. First, it was found that fewer ARs form in the temperature-sensitive mutant mor1-1, in which the MT-associated protein MOR1 is mutated, and in bot1-1, in which the MT-severing protein katanin is mutated. In the two latter mutants, MT dynamics and form are perturbed. By contrast, the number of ARs increased in RIC1-OX3 plants, in which MT bundling is enhanced and katanin is activated. In addition, any1 plants in which cell walls are perturbed made more ARs than wild-type plants. MT perturbations during AR induction in mor1-1 or in wild-type hypocotyls treated with oryzalin led to the formation of amorphous clusters of cells reminiscent of callus. In these cells a specific pattern of polarized light retardation by the cell walls was lost. PIN1 polarization and auxin maxima were hampered and differentiation of the epidermis was inhibited. It is concluded that a fine-tuned crosstalk between MTs, cell walls, and auxin transport is required for proper AR induction.

  18. Dissecting the contribution of microtubule behaviour in adventitious root induction

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Rogovoy (Stelmakh), Oksana; Mordehaev, Inna; Grumberg, Marina; Elbaum, Rivka; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.; Sadot, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Induction of adventitious roots (ARs) in recalcitrant plants often culminates in cell division and callus formation rather than root differentiation. Evidence is provided here to suggest that microtubules (MTs) play a role in the shift from cell division to cell differentiation during AR induction. First, it was found that fewer ARs form in the temperature-sensitive mutant mor1-1, in which the MT-associated protein MOR1 is mutated, and in bot1-1, in which the MT-severing protein katanin is mutated. In the two latter mutants, MT dynamics and form are perturbed. By contrast, the number of ARs increased in RIC1-OX3 plants, in which MT bundling is enhanced and katanin is activated. In addition, any1 plants in which cell walls are perturbed made more ARs than wild-type plants. MT perturbations during AR induction in mor1-1 or in wild-type hypocotyls treated with oryzalin led to the formation of amorphous clusters of cells reminiscent of callus. In these cells a specific pattern of polarized light retardation by the cell walls was lost. PIN1 polarization and auxin maxima were hampered and differentiation of the epidermis was inhibited. It is concluded that a fine-tuned crosstalk between MTs, cell walls, and auxin transport is required for proper AR induction. PMID:25788735

  19. Jasmonates act positively in adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings.

    PubMed

    Lischweski, Sandra; Muchow, Anne; Guthörl, Daniela; Hause, Bettina

    2015-09-22

    Petunia is a model to study the process of adventitious root (AR) formation on leafy cuttings. Excision of cuttings leads to a transient increase in jasmonates, which is regarded as an early, transient and critical event for rooting. Here, the role of jasmonates in AR formation on petunia cuttings has been studied by a reverse genetic approach. To reduce the endogenous levels of jasmonates, transgenic plants were generated expressing a Petunia hybrida ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE (PhAOC)-RNAi construct. The transgenic plants exhibited strongly reduced PhAOC transcript and protein levels as well as diminished accumulation of cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine after wounding in comparison to wild type and empty vector expressing plants. Reduced levels of endogenous jasmonates resulted in formation of lower numbers of ARs. However, this effect was not accompanied by altered levels of auxin and aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC, precursor of ethylene) or by impaired auxin and ethylene-induced gene expression. Neither activity of cell-wall invertases nor accumulation of soluble sugars was altered by jasmonate deficiency. Diminished numbers of AR in JA-deficient cuttings suggest that jasmonates act as positive regulators of AR formation in petunia wild type. However, wound-induced rise in jasmonate levels in petunia wild type cuttings seems not to be causal for increased auxin and ethylene levels and for sink establishment.

  20. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Polanco, Mónica; Señorans, Jorge; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2012-06-27

    Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack seedlings to maintain water balance and gas exchange under

  1. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack seedlings to maintain water

  2. Adventitious rooting declines with the vegetative to reproductive switch and involves a changed auxin homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Druege, Uwe; Geelen, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious rooting, whereby roots form from non-root tissues, is critical to the forestry and horticultural industries that depend on propagating plants from cuttings. A major problem is that age of the tissue affects the ability of the cutting to form adventitious roots. Here, a model system has been developed using Pisum sativum to differentiate between different interpretations of ageing. It is shown that the decline in adventitious rooting is linked to the ontogenetic switch from vegetative to floral and is mainly attributed to the cutting base. Using rms mutants it is demonstrated that the decline is not a result of increased strigolactones inhibiting adventitious root formation. Monitoring endogenous levels of a range of other hormones including a range of cytokinins in the rooting zone revealed that a peak in jasmonic acid is delayed in cuttings from floral plants. Additionally, there is an early peak in indole-3-acetic acid levels 6h post excision in cuttings from vegetative plants, which is absent in cuttings from floral plants. These results were confirmed using DR5:GUS expression. Exogenous supplementation of young cuttings with either jasmonic acid or indole-3-acetic acid promoted adventitious rooting, but neither of these hormones was able to promote adventitious rooting in mature cuttings. DR5:GUS expression was observed to increase in juvenile cuttings with increasing auxin treatment but not in the mature cuttings. Therefore, it seems the vegetative to floral ontogenetic switch involves an alteration in the tissue’s auxin homeostasis that significantly reduces the indole-3-acetic acid pool and ultimately results in a decline in adventitious root formation. PMID:25540438

  3. Lipopolysaccharide promotes lipid accumulation in human adventitial fibroblasts via TLR4-NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic degenerative disease of the arteries and is thought to be one of the most common causes of death globally. In recent years, the functions of adventitial fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis and tissue repair have gained increased interests. LPS can increase the morbidity and mortality of atherosclerosis-associated cardiovascular disease. Although LPS increases neointimal via TLR4 activation has been reported, how LPS augments atherogenesis through acting on adventitial fibroblasts is still unknown. Here we explored lipid deposition within adventitial fibroblasts mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to imitate inflammatory conditions. Results In our study, LPS enhanced lipid deposition by the up-regulated expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) as the silencing of ADRP abrogated lipid deposition in LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts. In addition, pre-treatment with anti-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antibody diminished the LPS-induced lipid deposition and ADRP expression. Moreover, LPS induced translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which could markedly up-regulate lipid deposition as pre-treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC, significantly reduced lipid droplets. In addition, the lowering lipid accumulation was accompanied with the decreased ADRP expression. Furthermore, LPS-induced adventitial fibroblasts secreted more monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), compared with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that LPS promotes lipid accumulation via the up-regulation of ADRP expression through TLR4 activated downstream of NF-κB in adventitial fibroblasts. Increased levels of MCP-1 released from LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts and lipid accumulation may accelerate monocytes recruitment and lipid-laden macrophage foam cells formation. Here, our study provides a new explanation as to how bacterial infection contributes to

  4. CD14 Directs Adventitial Macrophage Precursor Recruitment: Role in Early Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Blomkalns, Andra L.; Gavrila, Daniel; Thomas, Manesh; Neltner, Bonnie S.; Blanco, Victor M.; Benjamin, Stephanie B.; McCormick, Michael L.; Stoll, Lynn L.; Denning, Gerene M.; Collins, Sean P.; Qin, Zhenyu; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.; Thompson, Robert W.; Weiss, Robert M.; Lindower, Paul D.; Pinney, Susan M.; Chatterjee, Tapan; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruitment of macrophage precursors to the adventitia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), but molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The innate immune signaling molecule CD14 was reported to be upregulated in adventitial macrophages in a murine model of AAA and in monocytes cocultured with aortic adventitial fibroblasts (AoAf) in vitro, concurrent with increased interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) expression. We hypothesized that CD14 plays a crucial role in adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment early during AAA formation. Methods and Results CD14−/− mice were resistant to AAA formation induced by 2 different AAA induction models: aortic elastase infusion and systemic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. CD14 gene deletion led to reduced aortic macrophage infiltration and diminished elastin degradation. Adventitial monocyte binding to AngII‐infused aorta in vitro was dependent on CD14, and incubation of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line‐1 (THP‐1) monocytes with IL‐6 or conditioned medium from perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) upregulated CD14 expression. Conditioned medium from AoAf and PVAT induced CD14‐dependent monocyte chemotaxis, which was potentiated by IL‐6. CD14 expression in aorta and plasma CD14 levels were increased in AAA patients compared with controls. Conclusions These findings link CD14 innate immune signaling via a novel IL‐6 amplification loop to adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment in the pathogenesis of AAA. PMID:23537804

  5. Detection of patients considering observation frequency of continuous and discontinuous adventitious sounds in lung sounds.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naoki; Yamashita, Masaru; Matsunaga, Shoichi

    2016-08-01

    We propose an improved approach for distinguishing between healthy subjects and patients with pulmonary emphysema by the use of one stochastic acoustic model for continuous adventitious sounds and another for discontinuous adventitious sounds. These models are able to represent the spectral features of the adventitious sounds for the detection of abnormal respiration. However, abnormal respiratory sounds with unclassifiable spectral features are present among the continuous and discontinuous adventitious sounds and mixing noises. These sounds cause difficulties in achieving a highly accurate classification. In this study, the difference in occurrence frequencies between two types of adventitious sounds for each considered auscultation point and inspiration/expiration was considered. This difference, in combination with the confusion tendency of the classifier, was formulated as the validity score of each respiratory sound. The conventional spectral likelihood and the newly formulated validity score were combined to perform detection of abnormal respiration and patients. In the classification of healthy subjects and patients, the proposed approach achieved a higher classification rate (87.7%) than the conventional method (85.2%), demonstrating the statistical superiority (5% level) of the former.

  6. Identification of new adventitious rooting mutants amongst suppressors of the Arabidopsis thaliana superroot2 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Pacurar, Daniel Ioan; Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara; Schwambach, Joseli; Bellini, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in adventitious rooting and is routinely used with many economically important, vegetatively propagated plant species to promote adventitious root initiation and development on cuttings. Nevertheless the molecular mechanisms through which it acts are only starting to emerge. The Arabidopsis superroot2-1 (sur2-1) mutant overproduces auxin and, as a consequence, develops excessive adventitious roots in the hypocotyl. In order to increase the knowledge of adventitious rooting and of auxin signalling pathways and crosstalk, this study performed a screen for suppressors of superroot2-1 phenotype. These suppressors provide a new resource for discovery of genetic players involved in auxin signalling pathways or at the crosstalk of auxin and other hormones or environmental signals. This study reports the identification and characterization of 26 sur2-1 suppressor mutants, several of which were identified as mutations in candidate genes involved in either auxin biosynthesis or signalling. In addition to confirming the role of auxin as a central regulator of adventitious rooting, superroot2 suppressors indicated possible crosstalk with ethylene signalling in this process. PMID:24596172

  7. Quantification of Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Vascularization in Double-injury Restenotic Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Meng; Zhang, Bai-Gen; Zhang, Lan; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates a potential role of adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of restenosis. However, characterization of VV vascularization in restenotic arteries with primary lesions is still missing. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the response of adventitial VV to vascular injury resulting from balloon angioplasty in diseased arteries. Methods: Primary atherosclerotic-like lesions were induced by the placement of an absorbable thread surrounding the carotid artery of New Zealand rabbits. Four weeks following double-injury induced that was induced by secondary balloon dilation, three-dimensional patterns of adventitial VV were reconstructed; the number, density, and endothelial surface of VV were quantified using micro-computed tomography. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed in order to examine the development of intimal hyperplasia. Results: Results from our study suggest that double injured arteries have a greater number of VV, increased luminal surface, and an elevation in the intima/media ratio (I/M), along with an accumulation of macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the intima, as compared to sham or single injury arteries. I/M and the number of VV were positively correlated (R2 = 0.82, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Extensive adventitial VV neovascularization occurs in injured arteries after balloon angioplasty, which is associated with intimal hyperplasia. Quantitative assessment of adventitial VV response may provide insight into the basic biological process of postangioplasty restenosis. PMID:26228224

  8. Determination of pymetrozine residues in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Talebi, K; Ghazizadeh Ahsaii, H

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the residues of pymetrozin in cucumber under field conditions. Plots of cucumber (cv. Daminus) were sprayed with pymetrozine (Chess, WG50) at two different rates; 0.5 and 1.0 kg/ha. Samples were collected 2 hours and 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after spraying and pymetrozin residues were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detector. Two hours after spraying, the residues was 0.326 mg/kg for 0.5 kg/ha treatment. The residues decreased to 0.013 mg/kg on the third day and no residue was detected four days after spraying. In 1.0 kg/ha treatment, the residue was 0.627 mg/kg, two hours after spraying, which decreased to 0.028 mg/kg, on the third day, but no residues was found in samples which collected four days after spraying. In farm plots which received 0.5 kg/ha pymetrozine, the residues in peels and peeled cucumber were 0.359 and 0.308 mg/kg respectively, two hours after spraying, but in plots which sprayed at 1.0 kg/ha, the residues were 0.648 and 0.609 mg/kg respectively. Furthermore the residues in peels showed a significant difference with those of peeled and unpeeled cucumber under field conditions.

  9. Mapping of Mitochondrial Sorting Locus in Cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In plants, DNA is located in three different places, the chloroplast, mitochondrion, and nucleus. Most angiosperms transmitted their organellar DNA through the egg (mitochondrial DNA), and through the egg and/ or pollen (chloroplast DNA). Transmission of the organellar DNA in cucumber is unique beca...

  10. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  11. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Regeneration of cucumber from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of specific regions of...

  12. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Regeneration of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of s...

  13. The Unique Mitochondrial Genetics of Cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant cells typically contain two organelles, plastids and mitochondria. For the vast majority of plants, both of these organelles are maternally transmitted. Cucumber and melon are exceptions to this rule because the mitochondria are paternally transmitted. These two plants also possess mitochon...

  14. Adventitious agents and live viral vectored vaccines: Considerations for archiving samples of biological materials for retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Klug, Bettina; Robertson, James S; Condit, Richard C; Seligman, Stephen J; Laderoute, Marian P; Sheets, Rebecca; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Gurwith, Marc; Kochhar, Sonali; Chapman, Louisa; Carbery, Baevin; Mac, Lisa M; Chen, Robert T

    2016-12-12

    Vaccines are one of the most effective public health medicinal products with an excellent safety record. As vaccines are produced using biological materials, there is a need to safeguard against potential contamination with adventitious agents. Adventitious agents could be inadvertently introduced into a vaccine through starting materials used for production. Therefore, extensive testing has been recommended at specific stages of vaccine manufacture to demonstrate the absence of adventitious agents. Additionally, the incorporation of viral clearance steps in the manufacturing process can aid in reducing the risk of adventitious agent contamination. However, for live viral vaccines, aside from possible purification of the virus or vector, extensive adventitious agent clearance may not be feasible. In the event that an adventitious agent is detected in a vaccine, it is important to determine its origin, evaluate its potential for human infection and pathology, and discern which batches of vaccine may have been affected in order to take risk mitigation action. To achieve this, it is necessary to have archived samples of the vaccine and ancillary components, ideally from developmental through to current batches, as well as samples of the biological materials used in the manufacture of the vaccine, since these are the most likely sources of an adventitious agent. The need for formal guidance on such vaccine sample archiving has been recognized but not fulfilled. We summarize in this paper several prior major cases of vaccine contamination with adventitious agents and provide points for consideration on sample archiving of live recombinant viral vector vaccines for use in humans.

  15. Occurrence of adventitious sprouting in short-lived monocarpic herbs: a field study of 22 weedy species.

    PubMed

    Malíková, Lenka; Smilauer, Petr; Klimesová, Jitka

    2010-06-01

    Adventitious sprouting from the hypocotyle and roots in monocarpic herbs has been confirmed in previous experimental studies as a means to avoid bud limitation after severe injury in annual and biennial plants. Data regarding the role of adventitious sprouting in natural populations, however, were lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations and how it is affected by plant size, plant injury, plant cover and environmental characteristics. Data were sampled from 14 037 individual plants from 389 populations belonging to 22 annual and biennial species. Growth parameters were measured in individual plants, species composition and plant cover in communities were evaluated, and environmental characteristics were estimated using Ellenberg indicator values. It was confirmed that adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations of all but five species examined. Adventitious sprouting was positively affected by plant size and plant injury. Environmental factors including availability of soil nitrogen were not shown to affect adventitious sprouting. Annual and biennial plants did not differ in sprouting, but upright annuals had a lower number of and longer adventitious shoots than prostrate annuals. Adventitious bud formation is used to overcome meristem limitation when stem parts are lost due to injury, and thus resprouting in short-lived monocarps should not be overlooked.

  16. miR-29a-3p attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension by inhibiting pulmonary adventitial fibroblast activation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying; Dong, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Bo; Feng, Zhao; Liu, Yi; Gao, Yu-Qi; Dong, Ming-Qing; Li, Zhi-Chao

    2015-02-01

    Activation of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts plays a key role in the pulmonary vascular remodeling in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Previous studies showed that miRNAs participated in the regulation of fibroblast activation. This study explored the role of miR-29 in the activation of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts and the therapeutic potential in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. We found that hypoxia-induced pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts activation was accompanied with a drastic decrease of miR-29a-3p expression. Knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α or Smad3 reversed the hypoxia-induced decrease of miR-29-3p in cultured pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts. In vitro, miR-29a-3p mimic inhibited the hypoxia-induced proliferation, migration, and secretion of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, suppressed the hypoxia-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix collagen in pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts; however, miR-29a-3p inhibitor mimicked the effect of hypoxia on the activation of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts. Further studies revealed that preventative or therapeutic administration of miR-29a-3p significantly decreased pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricle hypertrophy index and ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats. These findings suggest that miR-29a-3p regulates the activation and phenotype of pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts in hypoxia and has preventative and therapeutic potential in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  17. Proliferation and glucosinolates accumulation of broccoli adventitious roots in liquid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhut, Nguyen Minh; Tien, Le Thi Thuy

    2017-09-01

    Cotyledons from 7-day-old in vitro broccoli seedling were used as explant source in adventitious root induction on MS medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose, 1.6 mg/l IBA and 7 g/l agar. Adventitious roots from cotyledons were transferred to liquid medium containing the same components as rooting medium for two weeks, then subcultured to MS medium with diferent sugar, macrominerals and casein hydrolysate concentrations. The best adventitious root growth was observed in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 40 g/l sucrose, 600 mg/l casein hydrolysate and 1.6 mg/l IBA (growth index of 4.00 in about 14 culture days with inoculum density of 1.0 g fresh weight / 30 ml of culture medium). The culturing process can be stopped on the 28th day for root biomass and on the 35th day for glucosinolates.

  18. Adventitious Agents: Issues and Considerations during Pre-Approval Reviews and Inspections.

    PubMed

    Eltermann, John

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) There are potential risks for adventitious agent contamination at every stage in the lifecycle of a product. This can range from an impact on product quality that must be investigated and corrected to the temporary shutdown of manufacturing altogether. An assessment of the risk management plans and the associated testing and proper manufacturing controls will be part of the review and inspection at the pre-approval stage in the product lifecycle, and the effectiveness of the mitigating activities will be monitored as part of the activities as well. Appropriate measures aiming at preventing or reducing adventitious agents should be considered as part of the overall plan to ensure both product quality and continued manufacturing.

  19. Cortical Aerenchyma Formation in Hypocotyl and Adventitious Roots of Luffa cylindrica Subjected to Soil Flooding

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Aerenchyma formation is thought to be one of the important morphological adaptations to hypoxic stress. Although sponge gourd is an annual vegetable upland crop, in response to flooding the hypocotyl and newly formed adventitious roots create aerenchyma that is neither schizogenous nor lysigenous, but is produced by radial elongation of cortical cells. The aim of this study is to characterize the morphological changes in flooded tissues and the pattern of cortical aerenchyma formation, and to analyse the relative amount of aerenchyma formed. Method Plants were harvested at 16 d after the flooding treatment was initiated. The root system was observed, and sections of fresh materials (hypocotyl, tap root and adventitious root) were viewed with a light or fluorescence microscope. Distributions of porosity along adventitious roots were estimated by a pycnometer method. Key Results Under flooded conditions, a considerable part of the root system consisted of new adventitious roots which soon emerged and grew quickly over the soil surface. The outer cortical cells of these roots and those of the hypocotyl elongated radially and contributed to the development of large intercellular spaces. The elongated cortical cells of adventitious roots were clearly T-shaped, and occurred regularly in mesh-like lacunate structures. In these positions, slits were formed in the epidermis. In the roots, the enlargement of the gas space system began close to the apex in the cortical cell layers immediately beneath the epidermis. The porosity along these roots was 11–45 %. In non-flooded plants, adventitious roots were not formed and no aerenchyma developed in the hypocotyl or tap root. Conclusions Sponge gourd aerenchyma is produced by the unique radial elongation of cells that make the expansigeny. These morphological changes seem to enhance flooding tolerance by promoting tissue gas exchange, and sponge gourd might thereby adapt to flooding stress. PMID:17921518

  20. Cortical Aerenchyma formation in hypocotyl and adventitious roots of Luffa cylindrica subjected to soil flooding.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Toshihiro

    2007-12-01

    Aerenchyma formation is thought to be one of the important morphological adaptations to hypoxic stress. Although sponge gourd is an annual vegetable upland crop, in response to flooding the hypocotyl and newly formed adventitious roots create aerenchyma that is neither schizogenous nor lysigenous, but is produced by radial elongation of cortical cells. The aim of this study is to characterize the morphological changes in flooded tissues and the pattern of cortical aerenchyma formation, and to analyse the relative amount of aerenchyma formed. Plants were harvested at 16 d after the flooding treatment was initiated. The root system was observed, and sections of fresh materials (hypocotyl, tap root and adventitious root) were viewed with a light or fluorescence microscope. Distributions of porosity along adventitious roots were estimated by a pycnometer method. Under flooded conditions, a considerable part of the root system consisted of new adventitious roots which soon emerged and grew quickly over the soil surface. The outer cortical cells of these roots and those of the hypocotyl elongated radially and contributed to the development of large intercellular spaces. The elongated cortical cells of adventitious roots were clearly T-shaped, and occurred regularly in mesh-like lacunate structures. In these positions, slits were formed in the epidermis. In the roots, the enlargement of the gas space system began close to the apex in the cortical cell layers immediately beneath the epidermis. The porosity along these roots was 11-45 %. In non-flooded plants, adventitious roots were not formed and no aerenchyma developed in the hypocotyl or tap root. Sponge gourd aerenchyma is produced by the unique radial elongation of cells that make the expansigeny. These morphological changes seem to enhance flooding tolerance by promoting tissue gas exchange, and sponge gourd might thereby adapt to flooding stress.

  1. Adventitial stripping of the radial and ulnar arteries in Raynaud's disease.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Brigitta; Mayer, W; Vesely, M; Mayer, S; Partsch, H; Piza-Katzer, H

    2002-11-01

    Adventitial stripping of the palmar arch, the palmar common digital arteries, or the proper digital arteries is a last resort in the treatment of refractory primary or secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Seven patients who had adventitial stripping of the ulnar and radial arteries proximal to the wrist and resection of the nerve of Henle, if identifiable, are presented. All of them were evaluated by telethermography, acral rheography, and a questionnaire before and after surgery. All were asymptomatic after surgery with satisfactory healing of the ulcers at the fingertips. None of them relapsed during the follow-up time of 1.5 years.

  2. High spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging of cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery.

    PubMed

    Maged, Ismaeel M; Turba, Ulku C; Housseini, Ahmed M; Kern, John A; Kron, Irving L; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2010-02-01

    High spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with cystic adventitial disease can demonstrate connections between cysts in the adventitia and the adjacent joint, which is important for successful treatment. The inability to identify these during surgery can lead to a recurrence; thus, high spatial resolution MRI has the potential to affect therapy. This article presents the high spatial resolution MRI findings of cystic adventitial disease in a series of three consecutive patients and discusses the relevance of these findings to the etiology and therapy.

  3. The etiology and management of cystic adventitial disease.

    PubMed

    Desy, Nicholas M; Spinner, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare condition that affects arteries and veins. The etiology remains controversial and several treatment methods have been described. By understanding the pathogenesis of CAD, we can improve the surgical treatment, reduce recurrence rates, and improve patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the world's literature. We searched across multiple scientific databases and cross-referenced each article to collect the world's literature on CAD. Studies included were those that reported a case or case series of CAD. Each article was analyzed for site of CAD, patient demographic data, type of imaging, surgical management, presence of a joint connection on imaging or at surgery, and recurrences. A regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for cyst recurrence. We identified 503 reports (724 patients), which were included in our analysis. The most common vessel affected was the popliteal artery with 587 cysts. The mean age was 46 (range, 5-80) years with a male-to-female ratio of approximately 4:1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or angiography was performed for 182 cysts and conventional angiography was the most advanced imaging modality used in 355 patients who did not receive a MRI or computed tomography scan as part of their assessment. Multiple types of surgical interventions were reported with the most common being cyst resection and saphenous vein graft reconstruction (204 cases). There were 122 joint connections (17%) identified. Sixty-five patients (9%) developed at least one cyst recurrence or persistence. Percutaneous surgery (aspiration or angioplasty) was found to be a risk factor for cyst recurrence (odds ratio, 13.7; 95% confidence interval, 6.5-29.0; P < .0001). Because of the rarity of this condition, publications were limited to level IV evidence consisting of case series and case reports. Several reports had short or no follow-up and few patients had postoperative

  4. Dissipation kinetics of metalaxyl in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Rattan, G S; Sharma, Neeraj

    2012-05-01

    Residues of metalaxyl were estimated in cucumber fruits using Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC) with Nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD). Following three applications of Ridomil-MZ @ 0.3% and 0.6%, the average initial deposits of metalaxyl were observed to be 0.19 and 0.24 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after 10 days at both the dosages. The half-life values (T(1/2)) of metalaxyl was worked out to be 3.5 and 3.0 days, respectively at 0.3% and 0.6% concentration. Thus, a waiting period of 1 day was suggested for the safe consumption of metalaxyl treated cucumber.

  5. Bacterial contamination of cucumber fruit through adhesion.

    PubMed

    Reina, Laura D; Fleming, Henry P; Breidt, Frederick

    2002-12-01

    In this study, the adhesion of bacteria to fresh cucumber surfaces in aqueous suspension was shown to be dependent on time of incubation, inoculum species and concentration, and temperature. The adhesion of bacteria to the fruit in wash water was less extensive at lower temperatures and shorter exposure times. Various species of bacteria were adsorbed to cucumber surfaces in the following relative order: Salmonella Typhimurium > Staphylococcus aureus > Lactobacillus plantarum > Listeria monocytogenes. Cells were adsorbed at all temperatures tested (5, 15, 25, and 35 degrees C) at levels that depended on incubation time, but the numbers of cells adsorbed were larger at higher incubation temperatures. Levels of adhesion of bacteria to dewaxed fruit were higher for L. monocytogenes and lower for Salmonella Typhimurium, L. plantarum, and S. aureus than were levels of adhesion to waxed fruit.

  6. Comparative evaluation of oxidative enzyme activities during adventitious rooting in the cuttings of grapevine rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Kose, Cafer; Erdal, Serkan; Kaya, Ozkan; Atici, Okkeş

    2011-03-15

    This study investigated changes in peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities through adventitious rooting in hardwood cuttings of grapevine rootstocks. Three grapevine rootstocks with different propensity to produce adventitious roots were selected: recalcitrant (Ramsey), non-recalcitrant (Rupestris du Lot) and intermediate (99R) cultivars. The averages of root number at 65 days were 96 in Lot, 76 in 99R and 30 in Ramsey. Both enzyme activities characteristically increased before adventitious rooting, regardless of rooting ability of the rootstocks, and then decreased. POX activity increased in Ramsey cuttings at 22 days, in Lot and 99R cuttings at 14 days after planting, and then decreased gradually until 51 days. The highest POX activity was determined in Ramsey rootstock with the highest rooting ability and the lowest activity was determined in the rootstocks with the lowest rooting ability. PPO activity gradually increased in Ramsey rootstock cuttings from 10 days to 22 days, in Lot and 99R cuttings at 14 days, and then decreased until 51 days. A significant correlation was identified between high POX activity and adventitious rooting capability in rootstocks, but the same result was not determined with PPO activity. A recalcitrant rooting variety cannot increase POX activity sufficiently before rooting. Therefore applications that could increase POX activity in stem cuttings during rooting may facilitate increased rooting in such rootstocks. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Fernández-García, Nieves; Nicolás, Carlos; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied. To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation. We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base. Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting.

  8. Selecting Populus with different adventitious root types for environmental benefits, fiber, and energy

    Treesearch

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Jill A. Zalesny

    2009-01-01

    Primary roots from seeds, sucker roots in aspens, and adventitious roots (ARs) in poplars and their hybrids are prevalent within the genus Populus. Two AR types develop on hardwood cuttings: (i) lateral roots from either preformed or induced primordia along the length of the cutting and (ii) basal roots from callus at the base of the cutting in...

  9. Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Fraxinus nigra

    Treesearch

    Jun Hyung Lee; Paula M. Pijut

    2017-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an endangered hardwood tree species under threat of extirpation by the emerald ash borer (EAB), an aggressive exotic phloemfeeding beetle. We have developed an efficient regeneration system through adventitious shoot organogenesis in F. nigra using in vitro-derived leaf explants. Two types of leaf...

  10. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Chun, Ho Jong; Hwang, Jeong Kye; Kim, Ji Il; Kim, Sang Dong; Park, Sun-Cheol; Moon, In Sung

    2016-07-01

    Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review.

  11. Establishment of in vitro adventitious root cultures and analysis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Andrographolide is the principal bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, to which various diverse pharmacological properties are attributed. Traditionally, andrographolide was extracted from the leaves, stems and other parts of the plant. Leaves have the highest andrographolide content (2-3%) in comparison with the other plant parts. Adventitious root culture of leaf explants of A. paniculata was studied using different strength MS medium supplemented by different concentrations of auxins and a combination of NAA + kinetin for growth and andrographolide production. Among the different auxin treatments in adventitious root culture, only NAA was able to induce adventitious roots. Adventitious roots grown in modified strength MS medium showed the highest root growth (26.7 +/- 1.52), as well as the highest amount of andrographolide (133.3 +/- 1.5 mg/g DW) as compared with roots grown in half- and full-strength MS medium. Growth kinetics showed maximum biomass production after five weeks of culture in different strength MS liquid medium. The produced andrographolide content was 3.5 - 5.5 folds higher than that of the natural plant, depending on the medium strength.

  12. Tissue sealing device associated thermal spread: a comparison of histologic methods for detecting adventitial collagen denaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ryan M.; Grisez, Brian T.; Thomas, Aaron C.; Livengood, Ryan H.; Coad, James E.

    2013-02-01

    Thermal spread (thermal tissue damage) results from heat conduction through the tissues immediately adjacent to a hyperthermic tissue sealing device. The extent of such heat conduction can be assessed by the detection of adventitial collagen denaturation. Several histologic methods have been reported to measure adventitial collagen denaturation as a marker of thermal spread. This study compared hematoxylin and eosin staining, Gomori trichrome staining and loss of collagen birefringence for the detection of collagen denaturation. Twenty-eight ex vivo porcine carotid arteries were sealed with a commercially available, FDA-approved tissue sealing device. Following formalin fixation and paraffin embedding, two 5-micron tissue sections were hematoxylin and eosin and Gomori trichrome stained. The hematoxylin and eosin-stained section was evaluated by routine bright field microscopy and under polarized light. The trichromestained section was evaluated by routine bright field microscopy. Radial and midline adventitial collagen denaturation measurements were made for both the top and bottom jaw sides of each seal. The adventitial collagen denaturation lengths were determined using these three methods and statistically compared. The results showed that thermal spread, as represented by histologically detected collagen denaturation, is technique dependent. In this study, the trichrome staining method detected significantly less thermal spread than the hematoxylin and eosin staining and birefringence methods. Of the three methods, hematoxylin and eosin staining provided the most representative results for true thermal spread along the adjacent artery.

  13. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of southern highbush blueberry cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protocols were developed to optimize adventitious shoot regeneration from four southern highbush blueberry cultivars. Leaf explants from six-week-old shoots of the four cultivars were excised and cultured on ten WPM (woody plant medium)-based regeneration media each containing thidiazuron (TDZ) (4.5...

  14. The AINTEGUMENTA LIKE1 homeotic transcription factor PtAIL1 controls the formation of adventitious root primordia in poplar.

    PubMed

    Rigal, Adeline; Yordanov, Yordan S; Perrone, Irene; Karlberg, Anna; Tisserant, Emilie; Bellini, Catherine; Busov, Victor B; Martin, Francis; Kohler, Annegret; Bhalerao, Rishi; Legué, Valérie

    2012-12-01

    Adventitious rooting is an essential but sometimes rate-limiting step in the clonal multiplication of elite tree germplasm, because the ability to form roots declines rapidly with age in mature adult plant tissues. In spite of the importance of adventitious rooting, the mechanism behind this developmental process remains poorly understood. We have described the transcriptional profiles that are associated with the developmental stages of adventitious root formation in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Transcriptome analyses indicate a highly specific temporal induction of the AINTEGUMENTA LIKE1 (PtAIL1) transcription factor of the AP2 family during adventitious root formation. Transgenic poplar samples that overexpressed PtAIL1 were able to grow an increased number of adventitious roots, whereas RNA interference mediated the down-expression of PtAIL1 expression, which led to a delay in adventitious root formation. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of 15 genes, including the transcription factors AGAMOUS-Like6 and MYB36, was overexpressed in the stem tissues that generated root primordia in PtAIL1-overexpressing plants, whereas their expression was reduced in the RNA interference lines. These results demonstrate that PtAIL1 is a positive regulator of poplar rooting that acts early in the development of adventitious roots.

  15. Adventitial VEGF165 gene transfer prevents lumen loss through induction of positive arterial remodeling after PTCA in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Deiner, Carolin; Schwimmbeck, Peter Lothar; Koehler, Ina Sabine; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Noutsias, Michel; Nikol, Sigrid; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Pels, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    Negative arterial remodeling still plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary restenosis even in the era of interventional stenting (e.g. arterial narrowing occurs proximal and distal of a stented segment). Previous studies suggest that increased angiogenesis and inhibited regression of injury-induced adventitial microvessels prevents negative remodeling. We have examined the effect of local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)) gene transfer on adventitial microvessel angiogenesis/regression and arterial remodeling after coronary angioplasty. Twenty pigs underwent angioplasty, each one in two major coronary arteries, followed by plasmid liposome gene transfer with either VEGF(165) or control gene LacZ (50 microg DNA with 50 microg of Lipofectine) into the (peri)adventitial space using a needle injection catheter. Arteries were examined at days 1, 7, 14, and 28. Local delivery of VEGF(165) gene into the outer compartments of balloon-injured porcine coronary arteries reduced lumen area loss due to distinct positive remodeling (arterial enlargement). Prevention of adventitial microvessel regression, enhanced adventitial elastin accumulation, reduced adventitial myofibroblast numbers, and a pronounced adventitial inflammatory response considered as a part of arterial healing seem to be the main VEGF-mediated mechanisms indicating the therapeutic potential of VEGF for restenosis prevention.

  16. Unisexual cucumber flowers, sex and sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shu-Nong; Xu, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a universal phenomenon in the world of eukaryotes. Attempts have been made to understand regulatory mechanisms for plant sex determination by investigating unisexual flowers. The cucumber plant is one of the model systems for studying how sex determination is regulated by phytohormones. A systematic investigation of the development of unisexual cucumber flowers is summarized here, and it is suggested that the mechanism of the unisexual flower can help us to understand how the process leading to one type of gametogenesis is prevented. Based on these findings, we concluded that the unisexual cucumber flowers is not an issue of sex differentiation, but instead a mechanism for avoiding self-pollination. Sex differentiation is essentially the divergent point(s) leading to heterogametogenesis. On the basis of analyses of sex differentiation in unicellular organisms and animals as well as the core process of plant life cycle, a concept of "sexual reproduction cycle" is proposed for understanding the essential role of sex and a "progressive model" for future investigations of sex differentiation in plants.

  17. An Integrated Genetic and Cytogenetic Map of the Cucumber Genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops as cucumber, melon, watermelon, and squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular li...

  18. Detection of defect in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage due to adverse growth condition, improper harvest timing, and inappropriate harvesting and postharvest handling operations. There are typically five to 10 percentages of harvested pickling cucumbers that are not suitable for pickling and hence should be r...

  19. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter reviews the recent progress on hyperspectral imaging technology for defect inspection of pickling cucumbers. The chapter first describes near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. The technique showed good detection...

  20. Exploring Weighty Matters with "Cucumber Soup": An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columba, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature can play a significant role in integrating math and science concepts into real-world applications. One particularly delightful selection is "Cucumber Soup" (Krudwig, 1998). This book can create a context--making cucumber soup--for weighing and for a real-life on adding fractions. This kind of learning context takes children…

  1. Exploring Weighty Matters with "Cucumber Soup": An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columba, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature can play a significant role in integrating math and science concepts into real-world applications. One particularly delightful selection is "Cucumber Soup" (Krudwig, 1998). This book can create a context--making cucumber soup--for weighing and for a real-life on adding fractions. This kind of learning context takes children…

  2. USDA, ARS beit alpha cucumber inbred backcross line population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) market type inbred backcross were released in January 2010 by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. The IBL were made available to U.S. cucumber breeders to supply a source from which they may develop Beit Al...

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding genetic variation in germplasm collection is essential for the conservation and their efficient use in plant breeding. Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Previous studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop’s genetic structu...

  4. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  5. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J. W.; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Methods Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Key Results Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. Conclusions The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant’s life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow

  6. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J W; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-08-01

    Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant's life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow flooding among plants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  7. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Costilow, R. N.; Anderson, T. E.; Bell, T. A.

    1964-01-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  8. Rhizobacterial exopolysaccharides elicit induced resistance on cucumber.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2008-06-01

    The role of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia gladioli IN26, on elicitation of induced systemic resistance was investigated. A purified EPS induced expression of PR- 1a::GUS on tobacco and elicited induced resistance against Colletotrichum orbiculare on cucumber. The maximum level of disease protection was noted when seeds were soaked in 200 ppm of the EPS. Our results indicate that EPS from specific rhizobacteria can elicit induced resistance and suggest that bacterial EPS might be a useful elicitor of resistance under field conditions.

  9. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Etchells, J L; Costilow, R N; Anderson, T E; Bell, T A

    1964-11-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Birlanga, Virginia; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; Cano, Emilio A.; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR) formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i) during commercial production at a breeders’ rooting station and (ii) on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species. PMID:26230608

  11. Influences of polar auxin transport on polarity of adventitious bud formation in hybrid populas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myung Won ); Hackett, W. )

    1989-04-01

    The role of auxin and cytokinin distribution of polar regeneration of adventitious bud has been investigated. Explants from leaf midvein were labelled with {sup 14}C-NAA and {sup 14}C-BA and the radioactivity in proximal, mid, and distal portions was counted after 24h and 48h. Explants showing polar regeneration of buds on the proximal end showed a clear polar distribution of {sup 14}CNAA. Auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA) eliminated polar distribution of auxin and reduced polarity of bud formation and the total number of buds formed, but did not reduce callus formation. Increased concentration of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} decreased polarity of bud formation and increased the number of buds formed but did not affect the distribution of auxin of cytokinin. Some factor in addition to polar distribution of auxin or cytokinin-auxin ratio appears to influence the polarity of adventitious bud formation.

  12. Quantifying Adventitious Error in a Covariance Structure as a Random Effect

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Browne, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to quantifying errors in covariance structures in which adventitious error, identified as the process underlying the discrepancy between the population and the structured model, is explicitly modeled as a random effect with a distribution, and the dispersion parameter of this distribution to be estimated gives a measure of misspecification. Analytical properties of the resultant procedure are investigated and the measure of misspecification is found to be related to the RMSEA. An algorithm is developed for numerical implementation of the procedure. The consistency and asymptotic sampling distributions of the estimators are established under a new asymptotic paradigm and an assumption weaker than the standard Pitman drift assumption. Simulations validate the asymptotic sampling distributions and demonstrate the importance of accounting for the variations in the parameter estimates due to adventitious error. Two examples are also given as illustrations. PMID:25813463

  13. Results of Survey Regarding Prevalence of Adventitial Infections in Mice and Rats at Biomedical Research Facilities.

    PubMed

    Marx, James O; Gaertner, Diane J; Smith, Abigail L

    2017-09-01

    Control of rodent adventitial infections in biomedical research facilities is of extreme importance in assuring both animal welfare and high-quality research results. Sixty-three U.S. institutions participated in a survey reporting the methods used to detect and control these infections and the prevalence of outbreaks from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. These results were then compared with the results of 2 similar surveys published in 1998 and 2008. The results of the current survey demonstrated that the rate of viral outbreaks in mouse colonies was decreasing, particularly in barrier facilities, whereas the prevalence of parasitic outbreaks has remained constant. These results will help our profession focus its efforts in the control of adventitial rodent disease outbreaks to the areas of the greatest needs.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Birlanga, Virginia; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; Cano, Emilio A; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR) formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i) during commercial production at a breeders' rooting station and (ii) on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species.

  15. The quiescent center and the stem cell niche in the adventitious roots of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rovere, Federica Della; Fattorini, Laura; Ronzan, Marilena; Falasca, Giuseppina; Altamura, Maria Maddalena

    2016-05-03

    Adventitious rooting is essential for the survival of numerous species from vascular cryptogams to monocots, and is required for successful micropropagation. The tissues involved in AR initiation may differ in planta and in in vitro systems. For example, in Arabidopsis thaliana, ARs originate from the hypocotyl pericycle in planta and the stem endodermis in in vitro cultured thin cell layers. The formation of adventitious roots (ARs) depends on numerous factors, among which the hormones, auxin, in particular. In both primary and lateral roots, growth depends on a functional stem cell niche in the apex, maintained by an active quiescent center (QC), and involving the expression of genes controlled by auxin and cytokinin. This review summarizes current knowledge about auxin and cytokinin control on genes involved in the definition and maintenance of QC, and stem cell niche, in the apex of Arabidopsis ARs in planta and in longitudinal thin cell layers.

  16. Molecular Analysis of Signals Controlling Dormancy and Growth in Underground Adventitious Buds of Leafy Spurge

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, David P.; Chao, Wun S.; Anderson, James V.

    2002-01-01

    Dormancy and subsequent regrowth of adventitious buds is a critical physiological process for many perennial plants. We have used the expression of hormone and cell cycle-responsive genes as markers to follow this process in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). In conjunction with earlier studies, we show that loss of mature leaves results in decreased sugar levels and increased gibberellin perception in underground adventitious buds. Gibberellin is sufficient for induction of S phase-specific but not M phase-specific gene expression. Loss of both apical and axillary buds or inhibition of polar auxin transport did not result in induction of S phase- or M phase-specific gene expression. Loss of polar auxin transport was necessary for continuation of the cell cycle and further bud development if the S phase was previously initiated. PMID:11950992

  17. [Cloning of cDNA fragments related to adventitious root formation from mango cotyledon section].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie-Ning; Huang, Xue-Lin; Zhang, Yi-Shun; Li, Yin; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2004-04-01

    Two cut surfaces of mango cotyledon (distal and proximal cut surfaces) showed different capability of adventitious root formation, only proximal cut surface could be induced to form the roots and the distal cut surface did not. cDNA fragments related to adventitious root formation from the cut sections were isolated with suppressive subtractive hybridization. The forward substracted cDNA library was constructed using the cDNAs of distal (non-rooting) cut surface as driver and the cDNAs of proximal (rooting) cut surface as tester. Six positive clones were obtained by Virtual Northern blots. In this study, the putative up-regulated genes showed by sequence analysis were reported in mango for the first time, the deduced proteins among the positive clones were homologous to transporters, transcriptional regulators and enzymes.

  18. Gibberellins inhibit adventitious rooting in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis by affecting auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Petterle, Anna; Bellini, Catherine; Moritz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of processes involved in adventitious rooting is important to improve both fundamental understanding of plant physiology and the propagation of numerous plants. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloïdes) plants overexpressing a key gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis gene (AtGA20ox1) grow rapidly but have poor rooting efficiency, which restricts their clonal propagation. Therefore, we investigated the molecular basis of adventitious rooting in Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. The production of adventitious roots (ARs) in tree cuttings is initiated from the basal stem region, and involves the interplay of several endogenous and exogenous factors. The roles of several hormones in this process have been characterized, but the effects of GAs have not been fully investigated. Here, we show that a GA treatment negatively affects the numbers of ARs produced by wild-type hybrid aspen cuttings. Furthermore, both hybrid aspen plants and intact Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtGA20ox1, PttGID1.1 or PttGID1.3 genes (with a 35S promoter) produce few ARs, although ARs develop from the basal stem region of hybrid aspen and the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis. In Arabidopsis, auxin and strigolactones are known to affect AR formation. Our data show that the inhibitory effect of GA treatment on adventitious rooting is not mediated by perturbation of the auxin signalling pathway, or of the strigolactone biosynthetic and signalling pathways. Instead, GAs appear to act by perturbing polar auxin transport, in particular auxin efflux in hybrid aspen, and both efflux and influx in Arabidopsis.

  19. Targeting the adventitial microenvironment in pulmonary hypertension: A potential approach to therapy that considers epigenetic change

    PubMed Central

    Stenmark, Kurt R.; Frid, Maria G.; Yeager, Michael; Li, Min; Riddle, Suzette; McKinsey, Timothy; El Kasmi, Karim C.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that the adventitial compartment of blood vessels, in both the pulmonary and systemic circulations, like the connective tissue stroma in tissues throughout the body, is a critical regulator of vessel wall function in health and disease. It is clear that adventitial cells, and in particular the adventitial fibroblast, are activated early following vascular injury, and play essential roles in regulating vascular wall structure and function through production of chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The recognition of the ability of these cells to generate and maintain inflammatory responses within the vessel wall provides insight into why vascular inflammatory responses, in certain situations, fail to resolve. It is also clear that the activated adventitial fibroblast plays an important role in regulating vasa vasorum growth, which can contribute to ongoing vascular remodeling by acting as a conduit for delivery of inflammatory and progenitor cells. These functions of the fibroblast clearly support the idea that targeting chemokine, cytokine, adhesion molecule, and growth factor production in activated fibroblasts could be helpful in abrogating vascular inflammatory responses and thus in ameliorating vascular disease. Further, the recent observations that fibroblasts in vascular and fibrotic diseases may maintain their activated state through epigenetic alterations in key inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes suggests that current therapies used to treat pulmonary hypertension may not be sufficient to induce apoptosis or to inhibit key inflammatory signaling pathways in these fibroblasts. New therapies targeted at reversing changes in the acetylation or methylation status of key transcriptional networks may be needed. At present, therapies specifically targeting abnormalities of histone deacytelase (HDAC) activity in fibroblast-like cells appear to hold promise. PMID:22558514

  20. The role of strigolactones in photomorphogenesis of pea is limited to adventitious rooting.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Shelley; Foo, Eloise; Reid, James B

    2015-03-01

    The recently discovered group of plant hormones, the strigolactones, have been implicated in regulating photomorphogenesis. We examined this extensively in our strigolactone synthesis and response mutants and could find no evidence to support a major role for strigolactone signaling in classic seedling photomorphogenesis (e.g. elongation and leaf expansion) in pea (Pisum sativum), consistent with two recent independent reports in Arabidopsis. However, we did find a novel effect of strigolactones on adventitious rooting in darkness. Strigolactone-deficient mutants, Psccd8 and Psccd7, produced significantly fewer adventitious roots than comparable wild-type seedlings when grown in the dark, but not when grown in the light. This observation in dark-grown plants did not appear to be due to indirect effects of other factors (e.g. humidity) as the constitutively de-etiolated mutant, lip1, also displayed reduced rooting in the dark. This role for strigolactones did not involve the MAX2 F-Box strigolactone response pathway as Psmax2 f-box mutants did not show a reduction in adventitious rooting in the dark compared with wild-type plants. The auxin-deficient mutant bushy also reduced adventitious rooting in the dark, as did decapitation of wild-type plants. Rooting was restored by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to decapitated plants, suggesting a role for auxin in the rooting response. However, auxin measurements showed no accumulation of IAA in the epicotyls of wild-type plants compared with the strigolactone synthesis mutant Psccd8, suggesting that changes in the gross auxin level in the epicotyl are not mediating this response to strigolactone deficiency.

  1. Gravitropic response of adventitious roots cultivated in light and darkness on sucrose-free medium.

    PubMed

    Vinterhalter, D V; Vinterhalter, B S

    1999-11-30

    Elongation of adventitious roots of Dracaena fragrans was investigated under photoautotrophic conditions. Root elongation decreased and stopped when cultures were transferred to darkness. Upon return to light roots renewed growth after a 5 day lag period. During the first two days of intensive new growth roots were agravitropic elongating in random directions. Investigation showed that transient absence of geotropic response was connected with disappearance of starch grains in root tip which occurred due to sucrose starvation of cultures in continuous darkness.

  2. Recurrent cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery: successful treatment with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Maged, Ismaeel M; Kron, Irving L; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2009-01-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare vascular condition that most commonly affects the popliteal artery. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is generally not considered a valid therapeutic option due to high recurrence rate. We report a case of CAD of the popliteal artery that recurred after surgical cyst enucleation that was successfully treated with PTA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of successful PTA for the treatment of recurrent CAD of the popliteal artery.

  3. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery: an infrequent cause of intermittent claudication

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Paulo; Kuzniec, Sergio; Sacilotto, Roberto; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Wolosker, Nelson; Tachibana, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent claudication is frequently associated with atherosclerotic disease, but differential diagnosis must be sought in patients with no traditional risk factors. Cystic adventitial disease, of unknown etiology, most frequently affects the popliteal artery, and occasionally presents as intermittent claudication. We report a case of this disease and the surgical treatment, and discuss some aspects related to etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:25167336

  4. Detecting and quantifying the adventitious presence of transgenic seeds in safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Jed; McPherson, Marc; Topinka, Deborah; Hall, Linda; Good, Allen G

    2008-07-23

    Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L.) is currently being developed as a platform for the production of novel proteins. Methods for detecting and quantifying transgenic safflower are needed to ensure seed quality and to monitor for its adventitious presence. We developed and compared three methods of assaying for transgenic safflower presence in conventional seedlots: field bioassays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Limits for reliable quantification for both ELISA and Q-PCR are approximately 0.1%, although levels at least as low as 0.02% can be detected by Q-PCR. Levels of quantification for the field bioassay are limited only by space and resources available. Multiple sampling methods to detect and quantify transgenic safflower presence at levels lower than 0.1% were used on field collected samples from a pollen outcrossing experiment to quantify the adventitious presence of transgenic safflower. Taking into account the potential utility and relative advantages or disadvantages of each detection method, it is recommended that the initial testing for the adventitious presence of transgenic seed be carried out using an antibody-based test if available and that Q-PCR-based assays to quantify transgenic proportion be used when it is necessary to identify specific transgenic constructs or if antibody-based assays are not readily available.

  5. Adventitial lymphatic capillary expansion impacts on plaque T cell accumulation in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rademakers, Timo; van der Vorst, Emiel P. C.; Daissormont, Isabelle T. M. N.; Otten, Jeroen J. T.; Theodorou, Kosta; Theelen, Thomas L.; Gijbels, Marion; Anisimov, Andrey; Nurmi, Harri; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Schober, Andreas; Heeneman, Sylvia; Alitalo, Kari; Biessen, Erik A. L.

    2017-01-01

    During plaque progression, inflammatory cells progressively accumulate in the adventitia, paralleled by an increased presence of leaky vasa vasorum. We here show that next to vasa vasorum, also the adventitial lymphatic capillary bed is expanding during plaque development in humans and mouse models of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we investigated the role of lymphatics in atherosclerosis progression. Dissection of plaque draining lymph node and lymphatic vessel in atherosclerotic ApoE−/− mice aggravated plaque formation, which was accompanied by increased intimal and adventitial CD3+ T cell numbers. Likewise, inhibition of VEGF-C/D dependent lymphangiogenesis by AAV aided gene transfer of hVEGFR3-Ig fusion protein resulted in CD3+ T cell enrichment in plaque intima and adventitia. hVEGFR3-Ig gene transfer did not compromise adventitial lymphatic density, pointing to VEGF-C/D independent lymphangiogenesis. We were able to identify the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis, which has previously been shown to indirectly activate VEGFR3, as a likely pathway, in that its focal silencing attenuated lymphangiogenesis and augmented T cell presence. Taken together, our study not only shows profound, partly CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated, expansion of lymph capillaries in the adventitia of atherosclerotic plaque in humans and mice, but also is the first to attribute an important role of lymphatics in plaque T cell accumulation and development. PMID:28349940

  6. Large Scale Culture of Ginseng Adventitious Roots for Production of Ginsenosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is one of the most famous oriental medicinal plants used as crude drugs in Asian countries, and now it is being used worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Among diverse constituents of ginseng, saponins (ginsenosides) have been found to be major components responsible for their biological and pharmacological actions. On the other hand, difficulties in the supply of pure ginsenosides in quantity prevent the development of ginseng for clinical medicines. Cultivation of ginseng in fields takes a long time, generally 5-7 years, and needs extensive effort regarding quality control since growth is susceptible to many environmental factors including soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. To solve the problems, cell and tissue cultures have been widely explored for more rapid and efficient production of ginseng biomass and ginsenosides. Recently, cell and adventitious root cultures of P. ginseng have been established in large scale bioreactors with a view to commercial application. Various physiological and engineering parameters affecting the biomass production and ginsenoside accumulation have been investigated. Advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up are reviewed in this chapter. In addition, biosafety analyses of ginseng adventitious roots are also discussed for real application.

  7. Ethylene Induces Epidermal Cell Death at the Site of Adventitious Root Emergence in Rice1

    PubMed Central

    Mergemann, Heidi; Sauter, Margret

    2000-01-01

    In deepwater rice (Oryza sativa), adventitious root primordia initiate at the nodes as part of normal development. Emergence of the roots is dependent on flooding of the plant and is mediated by ethylene action. Root growth was preceded by the induced death of epidermal cells of the node external to the tip of the root primordium. Cell death proceeded until the epidermis split open. Through this crack the root eventually emerged. Induced death was confined to nodal epidermal cells covering the tip of the primordia. Our results suggest that this process facilitates adventitious root emergence and prevents injury to the growing root. Cell death was inducible not only by submergence but also by application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the natural precursor of ethylene and it was suppressed in the presence of 2,5-norbornadiene (bicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene), an inhibitor of ethylene action. Adventitious root growth and epidermal cell death are therefore linked to the ethylene signaling pathway, which is activated in response to low oxygen stress. PMID:11027711

  8. The entry of cucumber mosaic virus into cucumber xylem is facilitated by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Nobuhara, Shinya; Nishimura, Miho; Ryang, Bo-Song; Naoe, Masaki; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Kosaka, Yoshitaka; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that ZYMV was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. ZYMV-RNA was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of ZYMV-inoculated cucumber. Steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that ZYMV enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not cause systemic infection in the plant. CMV distribution in singly infected cucumbers was restricted to phloem tissue. By contrast, CMV was detected in the xylem tissue of cotyledons in plants co-infected with CMV and ZYMV. Although both ZYMV-RNA and CMV-RNA were detected in the xylem wash and upper internodes of steam-treated, co-infected cucumbers grown at 24 °C, neither virus was detected in the upper leaves using an ELISA assay. Genetically modified CMV harboring the ZYMV HC-Pro gene was distributed in the xylem and phloem tissues of singly inoculated cucumber cotyledons. These results indicate that the ZYMV HC-Pro gene facilitates CMV entry into the xylem vessels of co-infected cucumbers.

  9. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Aminin, Dmitry L.; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S.; Pisliagin, Evgeny A.; Silchenko, Alexandra S.; Avilov, Sergey A.; Kalinin, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics. PMID:25756523

  10. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  11. Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis by Cucumber Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth D.; Purves, William K.

    1970-01-01

    When intact etiolated 2-day cucumber (Cucumis sativus) embryos were treated with indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A7 (GA7), or kinetin, chromatin derived from the embryonic axes exhibited an increased capacity to support RNA synthesis in either the presence or the absence of bacterial RNA polymerase. An IAA effect on cucumber RNA polymerase activity was evident after 4 hours of hormone treatment; the IAA effect on DNA template activity (bacterial RNA polymerase added) occurred after longer treatments (12 hours). GA7 also promoted template activity, but again only after a prior stimulation of endogenous chromatin activity. After 12 hours of kinetin treatment, both endogenous chromatin and DNA template activities were substantially above control values, but longer kinetin treatments caused these activities to decline in magnitude. When chromatin was prepared from hypocotyl segments that were floated on a GA7 solution, a GA-induced increase in endogenous chromatin activity occurred, but only if cotyledon tissue was left attached to the segments during the period of hormone treatment. Age of the seedling tissue had a profound influence on the chromatin characteristics. With progression of development from the 2-day to the 4-day stage, the endogenous chromatin activity declined while the DNA template activity increased. PMID:16657509

  12. Anticancer activity of sea cucumber triterpene glycosides.

    PubMed

    Aminin, Dmitry L; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S; Pisliagin, Evgeny A; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Kalinin, Vladimir I

    2015-03-06

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.

  13. Histopathological Evidence of Adventitial or Medial Injury Is a Strong Predictor of Restenosis During Directional Atherectomy for Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Tarricone, Arthur; Ali, Ziad; Rajamanickam, Anitha; Gujja, Karthik; Kapur, Vishal; Purushothaman, K-Raman; Purushothaman, Meerarani; Vasquez, Miguel; Zalewski, Adrian; Parides, Micheal; Overbey, Jessica; Wiley, Jose; Krishnan, Prakash

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the impact on restenosis rates of deep injury to the adventitial layer during directional atherectomy. Between 2007 and 2010, 116 consecutive patients (mean age 69.6 years; 56 men) with symptomatic femoropopliteal stenoses were treated with directional atherectomy at a single center. All patients had claudication and TASC A/B lesions in the superficial femoral or popliteal arteries. Histopathology analysis of atherectomy specimens was performed to identify adventitial injury. Clinical follow-up included physical examination and duplex ultrasound scans at 3, 6, and 12 months in all patients. The primary endpoint was the duplex-documented 1-year rate of restenosis, which was determined by a peak systolic velocity ratio <2.4. Patients were dichotomized by the presence or absence of adventitial or medial cuts as evaluated by histopathology. Adventitial injury were identified in 62 (53%) of patients. There were no differences in baseline demographic and clinical features (p>0.05), lesion length (58.7±12.8 vs 56.2±13.6 mm, p=0.40), or vessel runoff (1.9±0.6 vs 2.0±0.6, p=0.37) between patients with and without adventitial injury, respectively. The overall 1-year incidence of restenosis was 57%, but the rate was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in patients with adventitial or medial injury (97%, 60/62) as compared with those without (11%, 6/54). Lack of adventitial injury after atherectomy for femoropopliteal stenosis is strongly related to patency at 1 year. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Effects of glycoalkaloids from Solanum plants on cucumber root growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang; Li, Shengyu; He, Dajun; Cao, Gang; Ni, Xiuzhen; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa; Wang, Deli

    2010-09-01

    The phytotoxic effect of four glycoalkaloids and two 6-O-sulfated glycoalkaloid derivatives were evaluated by testing their inhibition of cucumber root growth. The bioassays were performed using both compounds singly and in equimolar mixtures, respectively. Cucumber root growth was reduced by chaconine (C), solanine (S), solamargine (SM) and solasonine (SS) with IC(50) values of 260 (C), 380 (S), 530 (SM), and 610 microM (SS). The inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent. 6-O-sulfated chaconine and 6-O-sulfated solamargine had no inhibitory effects, which indicated that the carbohydrate moieties play an important role in inhibiting cucumber root growth. The equimolar mixtures of paired glycoalkaloids, both chaconine/solanine and solamargine/solasonine, produced synergistic effects on inhibition of cucumber root growth. By contrast, mixtures of unpaired glycoalkaloids from different plants had no obviously synergistic effects. The growth inhibited plant roots lacked hairs, which implied that inhibition was perhaps at the level of root hair growth.

  15. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  16. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Qi, Jianjian; Shi, Qiuxiang; Shen, Di; Zhang, Shengping; Shao, Guangjin; Li, Hang; Sun, Zhanyong; Weng, Yiqun; Shang, Yi; Gu, Xingfang; Li, Xixiang; Zhu, Xiaoguo; Zhang, Jinzhe; van Treuren, Robbert; van Dooijeweert, Willem; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in germplasm collections is essential for the conservation and utilization of biodiversity in cultivated plants. Cucumber is the fourth most important vegetable crop worldwide and is a model system for other Cucurbitaceae, a family that also includes melon, watermelon, pumpkin and squash. Previous isozyme studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop's genetic structure and diversity are largely missing. We have fingerprinted 3,342 accessions from the Chinese, Dutch and U.S. cucumber collections with 23 highly polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers evenly distributed in the genome. The data reveal three distinct populations, largely corresponding to three geographic regions. Population 1 corresponds to germplasm from China, except for the unique semi-wild landraces found in Xishuangbanna in Southwest China and East Asia; population 2 to Europe, America, and Central and West Asia; and population 3 to India and Xishuangbanna. Admixtures were also detected, reflecting hybridization and migration events between the populations. The genetic background of the Indian germplasm is heterogeneous, indicating that the Indian cucumbers maintain a large proportion of the genetic diversity and that only a small fraction was introduced to other parts of the world. Subsequently, we defined a core collection consisting of 115 accessions and capturing over 77% of the SSR alleles. Insight into the genetic structure of cucumber will help developing appropriate conservation strategies and provides a basis for population-level genome sequencing in cucumber.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Guangjin; Li, Hang; Sun, Zhanyong; Weng, Yiqun; Shang, Yi; Gu, Xingfang; Li, Xixiang; Zhu, Xiaoguo; Zhang, Jinzhe; van Treuren, Robbert; van Dooijeweert, Willem; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in germplasm collections is essential for the conservation and utilization of biodiversity in cultivated plants. Cucumber is the fourth most important vegetable crop worldwide and is a model system for other Cucurbitaceae, a family that also includes melon, watermelon, pumpkin and squash. Previous isozyme studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop's genetic structure and diversity are largely missing. We have fingerprinted 3,342 accessions from the Chinese, Dutch and U.S. cucumber collections with 23 highly polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers evenly distributed in the genome. The data reveal three distinct populations, largely corresponding to three geographic regions. Population 1 corresponds to germplasm from China, except for the unique semi-wild landraces found in Xishuangbanna in Southwest China and East Asia; population 2 to Europe, America, and Central and West Asia; and population 3 to India and Xishuangbanna. Admixtures were also detected, reflecting hybridization and migration events between the populations. The genetic background of the Indian germplasm is heterogeneous, indicating that the Indian cucumbers maintain a large proportion of the genetic diversity and that only a small fraction was introduced to other parts of the world. Subsequently, we defined a core collection consisting of 115 accessions and capturing over 77% of the SSR alleles. Insight into the genetic structure of cucumber will help developing appropriate conservation strategies and provides a basis for population-level genome sequencing in cucumber. PMID:23071663

  19. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-05-12

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.

  20. Genetic dissection of the role of ethylene in regulating auxin-dependent lateral and adventitious root formation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Negi, Sangeeta; Sukumar, Poornima; Liu, Xing; Cohen, Jerry D; Muday, Gloria K

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of ethylene in the formation of lateral and adventitious roots in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) using mutants isolated for altered ethylene signaling and fruit ripening. Mutations that block ethylene responses and delay ripening -Nr (Never ripe), gr (green ripe), nor (non ripening), and rin (ripening inhibitor) - have enhanced lateral root formation. In contrast, the epi (epinastic) mutant, which has elevated ethylene and constitutive ethylene signaling in some tissues, or treatment with the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC), reduces lateral root formation. Treatment with ACC inhibits the initiation and elongation of lateral roots, except in the Nr genotype. Root basipetal and acropetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport increase with ACC treatments or in the epi mutant, while in the Nr mutant there is less auxin transport than in the wild type and transport is insensitive to ACC. In contrast, the process of adventitious root formation shows the opposite response to ethylene, with ACC treatment and the epi mutation increasing adventitious root formation and the Nr mutation reducing the number of adventitious roots. In hypocotyls, ACC treatment negatively regulated IAA transport while the Nr mutant showed increased IAA transport in hypocotyls. Ethylene significantly reduces free IAA content in roots, but only subtly changes free IAA content in tomato hypocotyls. These results indicate a negative role for ethylene in lateral root formation and a positive role in adventitious root formation with modulation of auxin transport as a central point of ethylene-auxin crosstalk.

  1. A case study of human migration and the sea cucumber crisis in the Galapagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Bremner, Jason; Perez, Jaime

    2002-06-01

    The sea cucumber fishing crisis in Galapagos is an example of the potential consequences of rapid migration, growing economic competition, and weak regulatory mechanisms. In a short period of time sea cucumber fishing has become the most inflammatory issue in the Galapagos. The key factors that allowed for the efficient exploitation of the new resource were not the fishermen themselves but rather the new fishing techniques and access to credit and markets. This suggests that the annual sea cucumber crisis is due to factors more complex than simply more fishermen generating greater sea cucumber catches. This paper examines census data and fisher registries to analyze population growth in the islands. A public opinion survey is used to determine the population's attitudes toward sea cucumber fishing and regulations. Qualitative interviews explore the history of the sea cucumber boom. Information from the sea cucumber monitoring program provides estimates for the annual sea cucumber catches.

  2. Diallel crossing among doubled haploids of cucumber reveals significant reciprocal-cross differences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber is an excellent plant for studying organellar effects on phenotypes because chloroplasts show maternal and mitochondria paternal transmission. We produced doubled haploids (DH) from divergent cucumber populations, generated reciprocal crosses in a diallel mating scheme, measured fresh and d...

  3. Aquatic adventitious root development in partially and completely submerged wetland plants Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii.

    PubMed

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Colmer, Timothy David

    2012-07-01

    A common response of wetland plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Observations of aquatic root growth are widespread; however, controlled studies of aquatic roots of terrestrial herbaceous species are scarce. Submergence tolerance and aquatic root growth and physiology were evaluated in two herbaceous, perennial wetland species Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii. Plants were raised in large pots with 'sediment' roots in nutrient solution and then placed into individual tanks and shoots were left in air or submerged (completely or partially). The effects on growth of aquatic root removal, and of light availability to submerged plant organs, were evaluated. Responses of aquatic root porosity, chlorophyll and underwater photosynthesis, were studied. Both species tolerated 4 weeks of complete or partial submergence. Extensive, photosynthetically active, aquatic adventitious roots grew from submerged stems and contributed up to 90 % of the total root dry mass. When aquatic roots were pruned, completely submerged plants grew less and had lower stem and leaf chlorophyll a, as compared with controls with intact roots. Roots exposed to the lowest PAR (daily mean 4.7 ± 2.4 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) under water contained less chlorophyll, but there was no difference in aquatic root biomass after 4 weeks, regardless of light availability in the water column (high PAR was available to all emergent shoots). Both M. brownii and C. coronopifolia responded to submergence with growth of aquatic adventitious roots, which essentially replaced the existing sediment root system. These aquatic roots contained chlorophyll and were photosynthetically active. Removal of aquatic roots had negative effects on plant growth during partial and complete submergence.

  4. Aquatic adventitious root development in partially and completely submerged wetland plants Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Colmer, Timothy David

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims A common response of wetland plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Observations of aquatic root growth are widespread; however, controlled studies of aquatic roots of terrestrial herbaceous species are scarce. Submergence tolerance and aquatic root growth and physiology were evaluated in two herbaceous, perennial wetland species Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii. Methods Plants were raised in large pots with ‘sediment’ roots in nutrient solution and then placed into individual tanks and shoots were left in air or submerged (completely or partially). The effects on growth of aquatic root removal, and of light availability to submerged plant organs, were evaluated. Responses of aquatic root porosity, chlorophyll and underwater photosynthesis, were studied. Key Results Both species tolerated 4 weeks of complete or partial submergence. Extensive, photosynthetically active, aquatic adventitious roots grew from submerged stems and contributed up to 90 % of the total root dry mass. When aquatic roots were pruned, completely submerged plants grew less and had lower stem and leaf chlorophyll a, as compared with controls with intact roots. Roots exposed to the lowest PAR (daily mean 4·7 ± 2·4 µmol m−2 s−1) under water contained less chlorophyll, but there was no difference in aquatic root biomass after 4 weeks, regardless of light availability in the water column (high PAR was available to all emergent shoots). Conclusions Both M. brownii and C. coronopifolia responded to submergence with growth of aquatic adventitious roots, which essentially replaced the existing sediment root system. These aquatic roots contained chlorophyll and were photosynthetically active. Removal of aquatic roots had negative effects on plant growth during partial and complete submergence. PMID:22419759

  5. Hypoxia induces unique proliferative response in adventitial fibroblasts by activating PDGFβ receptor-JNK1 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W. Michael; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Das, Mita

    2012-01-01

    Aims Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating condition for which no disease-modifying therapies exist. PH is recognized as proliferative disease of the pulmonary artery (PA). In the experimental newborn calf model of hypoxia-induced PH, adventitial fibroblasts in the PA wall exhibit a heightened replication index. Because elevated platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβ-R) signalling is associated with PH, we tested the hypothesis that the activation of PDGFβ-R contributes to fibroblast proliferation and adventitial remodelling in PH. Methods and results Newborn calves were exposed to either ambient air (PB = 640 mmHg) (Neo-C) or high altitude (PB = 445 mm Hg) (Neo-PH) for 2 weeks. PDGFβ-R phosphorylation was markedly elevated in PA adventitia of Neo-PH calves as well as in cultured PA fibroblasts isolated from Neo-PH animals. PDGFβ-R activation with PDGF-BB stimulated higher replication in Neo-PH cells compared with that of control fibroblasts. PDGF-BB-induced proliferation was dependent on reactive oxygen species generation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activation in both cell populations; however, only Neo-PH cell division via PDGFβ-R activation displayed a unique dependence on c-Jun N-terminal kinase1 (JNK1) stimulation as the blockade of JNK1 with SP600125, a pharmacological antagonist of the JNK pathway, and JNK1-targeted siRNA selectively blunted Neo-PH cell proliferation. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that hypoxia-induced modified cells engage the PDGFβ-R-JNK1 axis to confer distinctively heightened proliferation and adventitial remodelling in PH. PMID:22735370

  6. Panax ginseng Adventitious Root Suspension Culture: Protocol for Biomass Production and Analysis of Ginsenosides by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in Chinese and Oriental medicines since thousands of years. Ginseng products are generally used as a tonic and an adaptogen to resist the adverse influence of a wide range of physical, chemical and biological factors, and to restore homeostasis. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins are the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Since ginseng cultivation process is very slow and needs specific environment for field cultivation, cell and tissue cultures are sought as alternatives for the production of ginseng biomass and bioactive compounds. In this chapter, we focus on methods of induction of adventitious roots from ginseng roots, establishment of adventitious root suspension cultures using bioreactors, procedures for processing of adventitious roots, and analysis of ginsenosides by high pressure liquid chromatography.

  7. Production of tropane alkaloids by small-scale bubble column bioreactor cultures of Scopolia parviflora adventitious roots.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji Yun; Jung, Hee Young; Kang, Seung Mi; Kim, Yong Duck; Kang, Young Min; Park, Dong Jin; Prasad, Doddananjappa Theertha; Choi, Myung Suk

    2007-07-01

    The mass production of tropane alkaloids from adventitious root cultures of Scopolia parviflora, in small-scale bubble column bioreactor (BCB) was attempted. Adventitious roots of S. parviflora produced relatively enhanced levels of scopolamine and hyoscyamine in bioreactor compared to flask type cultures, and rapidly produced root clumps, with continuously increasing biomass throughout the culture period. The production of scopolamine and hyoscyamine in the top and bottom regions of root clumps were higher than in the core region. The adventitious root cultures of S. parviflora in the BCB required a relatively high level of aeration. The optimized conditions for the bioreactor culture growth and alkaloid production were found to be 3g of inoculum, on a fresh weight basis, a 15-day culture period and 0.4vvm of airflow. The elicitation by Staphylococus aureus increased the specific compound of scopolamine, while the production of hyoscyamine was slightly inhibited in BCB cultures.

  8. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  9. Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to external and internal damage during growth, harvest, transport, and postharvest handling. It is estimated that approximately 5-10% of harvested pickling cucumbers fall into the defect category. Pickling cucumber quality defect can occur in the form of soft or wa...

  10. Fine mapping of short hypocotyl locus in semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In cucumber, hypocotyl length is a useful trait in establishing strong seedlings before transplanting or grafting. The semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber (XIS) exhibits very short hypocotyl as compared with most cultivated cucumbers. In this study, we investigated the inheritance of short hypocotyl wi...

  11. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  12. QTL mapping of parthenocarpic fruit set in North American processing cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait with potential for increasing yield and quality in US processing cucumber production. Many successful parthenocarpic fresh market cucumber varieties have been developed, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms for parthenocarpic expression in cucumber is largely u...

  13. De novo assembly of a draft genome for Cucumis hystrix, the closest relative of cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumis hystrix (2n = 2x = 24, HH) is the only known species that is cross-compatible with cucumber and has a great potential for cucumber improvement, To facilitate introgression of C. hystrix chromatins into cucumber genetic background through development of introgression library, we sequenced two...

  14. Gonadotropin promotion of adventitious root production on cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leshem, Y; Lunenfeld, B

    1968-03-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA(3)-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems.

  15. Gonadotropin Promotion of Adventitious Root Production on Cuttings of Begonia semperflorens and Vitis vinifera 1

    PubMed Central

    Leshem, Y.; Lunenfeld, B.

    1968-01-01

    Adventitious rooting of Begonia semperflorens cv. Indian Maid and Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Basal sections of HCG treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (GA) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. HCG also inhibited GA3-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosperm halves. These findings are discussed in the light of a possible analogy to gonadotropin action in animal systems. PMID:5641189

  16. Hydrogen peroxide is a second messenger in the salicylic acid-triggered adventitious rooting process in mung bean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypertensive response (HR). SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L) hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N'-dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings.

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide Is a Second Messenger in the Salicylic Acid-Triggered Adventitious Rooting Process in Mung Bean Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypertensive response (HR). SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L) hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N’-dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings. PMID:24386397

  18. Cloning and characterization of a type-A response regulator differentially expressed during adventitious shoot formation in Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Cortizo, M; Alvarez, J M; Rodríguez, A; Fernández, B; Ordás, R J

    2010-08-15

    Type-A response regulators play an important role in cytokinin-induced adventitious shoot formation, acting as negative regulators of cytokinin signal transduction. In this work, we obtained the full-length cDNA clone of a type-A response regulator from the conifer Pinus pinea, designated PipiRR1. The derived peptide sequence showed all the characteristic motifs found in angiosperms. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was differentially expressed during adventitious shoot formation in P. pinea cotyledons, suggesting that PipiRR1 may play a role in caulogenesis in conifers. This is the first type-A response regulator identified in gymnosperms.

  19. Identification of genes differentially expressed during adventitious shoot induction in Pinus pinea cotyledons by subtractive hybridization and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Pablo; Cortizo, Millán; Cantón, Francisco R; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Centeno, Maria L; Cánovas, Francisco M; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2007-12-01

    As part of a study aimed at understanding the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in adventitious shoot bud formation in pine cotyledons, we conducted a transcriptome analysis to identify early-induced genes during the first phases of adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinea L. cotyledons cultured in the presence of benzyladenine. A subtractive cDNA library with more than 700 clones was constructed. Of these clones, 393 were sequenced, analyzed and grouped according to their putative function. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed to confirm the differential expression of 30 candidate genes. Results are contrasted with available data for other species.

  20. Case report of adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery presented with the ''dog-leg'' sign.

    PubMed

    Nano, G; Dalainas, I; Casana, R; Stegher, S; Malacrida, G; Tealdi, D G

    2007-03-01

    Adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery constitutes an infrequent cause of claudication in non-atherosclerotic young or middle-aged population. Here, we report the case of a 43-year-old female with adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery causing left lower leg claudication, detected by duplex scanning. The angio-CT showed the "dog-leg" sign, typical of the aneurysm of the popliteal artery. Surgery was performed through the posterior approach. The cyst and the affected segment of the artery were successfully excised and replaced with an autogenous saphenous vein graft. In 1 year follow-up the graft is patent and the patient is completely asymptomatic.

  1. Chemical composition and nutritional quality of sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Hu, Chaoqun; Fan, Sigang

    2010-11-01

    The dried form of sea cucumbers has been a seafood and medicinal cure for Asians over many centuries. In this study the chemical composition and nutritional quality of eight common sea cucumbers (Stichopus herrmanni, Thelenota ananas, Thelenota anax, Holothuria fuscogilva, Holothuria fuscopunctata, Actinopyga mauritiana, Actinopyga caerulea and Bohadschia argus) were determined. All species except T. anax and A. caerulea had higher protein and lower fat levels. A. mauritiana and B. argus had less ash content. Glycine was the dominant amino acid found in all species, and content ranged from 126 to 216 mg g(-1) of crude protein. All species exhibited low lysine:arginine ratio and higher essential amino acid scores were obtained by threonine and phenylalanine + tyrosine. A. mauritiana had proportionally less saturated fatty acids (31.23%), and more monounsaturated fatty acids (45.64%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 23.13%) than other species. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) was the major PUFA in all species. T. ananas, A. mauritiana and A. caerulea contained more n-3 PUFA. The n-3/n-6 ratios of eight sea cucumbers species ranged from 0.25 to 0.61. Sea cucumbers are a seafood with high protein and low fat levels. The amino acid contents were similar but fatty acid profiles were different among species. The comparison showed that T. ananas, A. mauritiana and B. argus possessed higher nutritional values than other sea cucumber species. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  2. A review of the immune molecules in the sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Li, Hui; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Xia; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Cenjie

    2015-05-01

    It is very important to identify and characterize the immune-related genes that respond to pathogens. Until recently, only some of the immune-related genes in sea cucumbers had been characterized. Their expression patterns after pathogen challenges have been analyzed via expressed sequence tag libraries, microarray studies and proteomic approaches. These genes include lectins, antimicrobial peptides, lysozyme, enzymes, clotting protein, pattern recognition proteins, Toll receptors, complement C3 and other humoral factors that might participate in the innate immune system of sea cucumbers. Although the participation of some of these immune molecules in the sea cucumber's innate immune defense against invading pathogens has been demonstrated, the functions of many of the molecules remain unclear. This review focuses on the discovery and functional characterization of the immune-related molecules from the sea cucumber for the first time and provides new insights into the immune mechanisms of the sea cucumber, which opens new possibilities for developing drugs for novel anti-bacterial and antiviral applications in fisheries.

  3. BIG LEAF is a regulator of organ size and adventitious root formation in poplar

    DOE PAGES

    Yordanov, Yordan S.; Ma, Cathleen; Yordanova, Elena; ...

    2017-07-07

    Here we report the discovery through activation tagging and subsequent characterization of the BIG LEAF (BL) gene from poplar. In poplar, BL regulates leaf size via positively affecting cell proliferation. Up and downregulation of the gene led to increased and decreased leaf size, respectively, and these phenotypes corresponded to increased and decreased cell numbers. BL function encompasses the early stages of leaf development as native BL expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia and was absent from the later stages of leaf development and other organs. Consistently, BL downregulation reduced leaf size at the earliest stagesmore » of leaf development. Ectopic expression in mature leaves resulted in continued growth most probably via sustained cell proliferation and thus the increased leaf size. In contrast to the positive effect on leaf growth, ectopic BL expression in stems interfered with and significantly reduced stem thickening, suggesting that BL is a highly specific activator of growth. Additionally, stem cuttings from BL overexpressing plants developed roots, whereas the wild type was difficult to root, demonstrating that BL is a positive regulator of adventitious rooting. Large transcriptomic changes in plants that overexpressed BL indicated that BL may have a broad integrative role, encompassing many genes linked to organ growth. Here, we conclude that BL plays a fundamental role in control of leaf size and thus may be a useful tool for modifying plant biomass productivity and adventitious rooting.« less

  4. Pulmonary Artery Adventitial Fibroblasts Cooperate with Vasa Vasorum Endothelial Cells to Regulate Vasa Vasorum Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Neil J.; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V.; Hofmeister, Stephen E.; Richman, Aaron P.; Jones, Peter L.; Reeves, John T.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2006-01-01

    The precise cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating adventitial vasa vasorum neovascularization, which occurs in the pulmonary arterial circulation in response to hypoxia, remain unknown. Here, using a technique to isolate and culture adventitial fibroblasts (AdvFBs) and vasa vasorum endothelial cells (VVECs) from the adventitia of pulmonary arteries, we report that hypoxia-activated pulmonary artery AdvFBs exhibited pro-angiogenic properties and influenced the angiogenic phenotype of VVEC, in a process of cell-cell communication involving endothelin-1 (ET-1). We demonstrated that AdvFBs, either via co-culture or conditioned media, stimulated VVEC proliferation and augmented the self-assembly and integrity of cord-like networks that formed when VVECs where cultured on Matrigel. In addition, hypoxia-activated AdvFBs produced ET-1, suggesting a paracrine role for this pro-angiogenic molecule in these processes. When co-cultured on Matrigel, AdvFBs and VVECs self-assembled into heterotypic cord-like networks, a process augmented by hypoxia but attenuated by either selective endothelin receptor antagonists or oligonucleotides targeting prepro-ET-1 mRNA. From these observations, we propose that hypoxia-activated AdvFBs exhibit pro-angiogenic properties and, as such, communicate with VVECs, in a process involving ET-1, to regulate vasa vasorum neovascularization occurring in the adventitia of pulmonary arteries in response to chronic hypoxia. PMID:16723696

  5. A Methodology for Concomitant Isolation of Intimal and Adventitial Endothelial Cells from the Human Thoracic Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Anne; Veillat, Véronique; Loriot, Sandrine; Spuul, Pirjo; Madonna, Francesco; Roques, Xavier; Génot, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Aortic diseases are diverse and involve a multiplicity of biological systems in the vascular wall. Aortic dissection, which is usually preceded by aortic aneurysm, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies. Although the endothelium is now known to play an important role in vascular diseases, its contribution to aneurysmal aortic lesions remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to define a reliable methodology for the isolation of aortic intimal and adventitial endothelial cells in order to throw light on issues relevant to endothelial cell biology in aneurysmal diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings We set up protocols to isolate endothelial cells from both the intima and the adventitia of human aneurysmal aortic vessel segments. Throughout the procedure, analysis of cell morphology and endothelial markers allowed us to select an endothelial fraction which after two rounds of expansion yielded a population of >90% pure endothelial cells. These cells have the features and functionalities of freshly isolated cells and can be used for biochemical studies. The technique was successfully used for aortic vessel segments of 20 patients and 3 healthy donors. Conclusions/Significance This simple and highly reproducible method allows the simultaneous preparation of reasonably pure primary cultures of intimal and adventitial human endothelial cells, thus providing a reliable source for investigating their biology and involvement in both thoracic aneurysms and other aortic diseases. PMID:26599408

  6. Gene expression profiling during adventitious root formation in carnation stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Villacorta-Martín, Carlos; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; van de Rhee, Miranda; de Haan, Jorn; Acosta, Manuel; Passarinho, Paul; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-10-14

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical step in vegetative propagation of most ornamental plants, such as carnation. AR formation from stem cuttings is usually divided into several stages according to physiological and metabolic markers. Auxin is often applied exogenously to promote the development of ARs on stem cuttings of difficult-to-root genotypes. By whole transcriptome sequencing, we identified the genes involved in AR formation in carnation cuttings and in response to exogenous auxin. Their expression profiles have been analysed through RNA-Seq during a time-course experiment in the stem cutting base of two cultivars with contrasting efficiencies of AR formation. We explored the kinetics of root primordia formation in these two cultivars and in response to exogenously-applied auxin through detailed histological and physiological analyses. Our results provide, for the first time, a number of molecular, histological and physiological markers that characterize the different stages of AR formation in this species and that could be used to monitor adventitious rooting on a wide collection of carnation germplasm with the aim to identify the best-rooting cultivars for breeding purposes.

  7. Venous Adventitial Cystic Disease: A Review of 45 Cases Treated Since 1963

    PubMed Central

    Bascone, Corey; Szuchmacher, Mauricio; Cicchillo, Michael; Krishnasastry, Kambhampaty V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To review and identify the most accurate ways of diagnosing and treating adventitial cystic disease (ACD) of the venous system. Methods. Cases of ACD were collected through three popular medical databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, OVID, and MEDLINE. After reviewing the literature, the sites of occurrence of 323 cases of adventitial cystic disease were documented, and all cases of arterial ACD were excluded. The clinical features, treatment, and subsequent course of 45 cases of venous ACD are included in this paper. Results. After reviewing all 45 cases of venous ACD , we have confirmed that the most common vessel affected is the common femoral vein, which reproduces the most common symptom of venous ACD: asymmetric lower extremity swelling worsening over time. Conclusion. Venous ACD most commonly affects the common femoral vein. When unilateral leg swelling occurs with or without a noticeable mass, ACD should be considered. It is best confirmed with CT venography and the treatment of choice is transluminal cyst evacuation and excision. PMID:27885342

  8. Comparison of phytohormone levels and transcript profiles during seasonal dormancy transitions in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that maintains its perennial growth habit through generation of underground adventitious buds (UABs) on the crown and lateral roots. These UABs undergo seasonal phases of dormancy under natural conditions, namely para-, endo-, and eco...

  9. Chromate induces adventitious root formation via auxin signalling and SOLITARY-ROOT/IAA14 gene function in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    López-Bucio, José; Ortiz-Castro, Randy; Ruíz-Herrera, León Francisco; Juárez, Consuelo Vargas; Hernández-Madrigal, Fátima; Carreón-Abud, Yazmín; Martínez-Trujillo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Morphological root plasticity optimizes nutrient and water uptake by plants and is a promising target to improve tolerance to metal toxicity. Exposure to sublethal chromate [Cr(VI)] concentrations inhibits root growth, decreases photosynthesis and compromises plant development and productivity. Despite the increasing environmental problem that Cr(VI) represents, to date, the Cr tolerance mechanisms of plants are not well understood, and it remains to be investigated whether root architecture remodelling is important for plant adaptation to Cr(VI) stress. In this report, we analysed the growth response of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to concentrations of Cr(VI) that strongly repress primary and lateral root growth. Interestingly, adventitious roots started developing, branched and allowed seedlings to grow under highly growth-repressing Cr(VI) concentrations. Cr(VI) negatively regulates auxin transport and response gene expression in the primary root tip, as evidenced by decreased expression of auxin-related reporters DR5::GFP, DR5::uidA and PIN1::PIN1::GFP, and then, another auxin maximum is established at the site of adventitious root initiation that drives adventitious root organogenesis. Both primary root growth inhibition and adventitious root formation induced by high Cr(VI) levels are blocked by a gain-of-function mutation in the SOLITARY-ROOT/IAA14 gene of Arabidopsis. These data provide evidence that suggests a critical role for auxin transport and signalling via IAA14/SLR1 in the developmental program linking Cr(VI) to root architecture remodelling.

  10. Effects of light regime and IBA concentration on adventitious rooting of an eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) clone

    Treesearch

    Alexander P. Hoffman; Joshua P. Adams; Andrew Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) has received a substantial amount of interest from invitro studies within the past decade. The ability to efficiently multiply the stock of established clones such as clone 110412 is a valuable asset for forest endeavors. However, a common problem encountered is initiating adventitious rooting in new micropropagation protocols....

  11. Triterpene glycosides of sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) as taxonomic markers.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Avilov, Sergey A; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Stonik, Valentin A

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). The majority of the glycosides belong to the holostane type {lanostane derivatives with an 18(20)-lactone}. Carbohydrate chains of these glycosides contain xylose, glucose, quinovose, 3-O-methylglucose, and, rarely, 3-O-methylxylose, 3-O-methylglucuronic acid, 3-O-methylquinovose, and 6-O-acetyl-glucose. The glycosides are specific for genera, groups of genera and even for species. The advantages and problems in the use of triterpene glycosides as taxonomic markers in the systematics of sea cucumbers are discussed.

  12. Adventitious Root Production and Plastic Resource Allocation to Biomass Determine Burial Tolerance in Woody Plants from Central Canadian Coastal Dunes

    PubMed Central

    DECH, JEFFERY P.; MAUN, M. ANWAR

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Burial is a recurrent stress imposed upon plants of coastal dunes. Woody plants are buried on open coastal dunes and in forested areas behind active blowouts; however, little is known about the burial responses and adaptive traits of these species. The objectives of this study were: (a) to determine the growth and morphological responses to burial in sand of seven woody plant species native to central Canadian coastal dunes; and (b) to identify traits that determine burial tolerance in these species. • Methods Field experiments were conducted to determine the responses of each species to burial. Saplings were exposed to burial treatments of 0, 10, 25, 50 and 75 % of their height. Burial responses were evaluated based on regressions of total biomass, height, adventitious root production and percentage allocation to shoot, root and adventitious root biomass on percentage burial. • Key Results Pinus strobus and Picea glauca lacked burial tolerance. In response to the burial gradient, these species showed a strong linear decline in total biomass, minimal adventitious root production that peaked at moderate levels (25–50 % burial) and no change in allocation to shoots vs. roots. The tolerant species Juniperus virginiana, Thuja occidentalis and Picea mariana showed a quadratic response to burial, with little change in biomass up to 50 % burial, but a large decline at 75 %. These species produced abundant adventitious roots up to 50 % burial, but did not alter allocation patterns over the range of burial levels. Populus balsamifera and Salix cordata were stimulated by burial. These species showed linear increases in biomass with increasing burial, produced copious adventitious roots across the gradient and showed a clear shift in allocation to vertical shoot growth and adventitious root production at the expense of the original roots under high burial conditions. • Conclusions Adventitious root production and plastic resource

  13. Adventitial adipogenic degeneration is an unidentified contributor to aortic wall weakening in the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Doderer, Stefan A; Gäbel, Gabor; Kokje, Vivianne B C; Northoff, Bernd H; Holdt, Lesca M; Hamming, Jaap F; Lindeman, Jan H N

    2017-09-11

    The processes driving human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) progression are not fully understood. Although antiinflammatory and proteolytic strategies effectively quench aneurysm progression in preclinical models, so far all clinical interventions failed. These observations hint at an incomplete understanding of the processes involved in AAA progression and rupture. Interestingly, strong clinical and molecular associations exist between popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) and AAAs; however, PAAs have an extremely low propensity to rupture. We thus reasoned that differences between these aneurysms may provide clues toward (auxiliary) processes involved in AAA-related wall debilitation. A better understanding of the pathophysiologic processes driving AAA growth can contribute to pharmaceutical treatments in the future. Aneurysmal wall samples were collected during open elective and emergency repair. Control perirenal aorta was obtained during kidney transplantation, and reference popliteal tissue obtained from the anatomy department. This study incorporates various techniques including (immuno)histochemistry, Western Blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, microarray, and cell culture. Histologic evaluation of AAAs, PAAs, and control aorta shows extensive medial (PAA) and transmural fibrosis (AAA), and reveals abundant adventitial adipocytes aggregates as an exclusive phenomenon of AAAs (P < .001). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and microarray analysis showed enrichment of adipogenic mediators (C/EBP family P = .027; KLF5 P < .000; and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, P = .032) in AAA tissue. In vitro differentiation tests indicated a sharply increased adipogenic potential of AAA adventitial mesenchymal cells (P < .0001). Observed enrichment of adipocyte-related genes and pathways in ruptured AAA (P < .0003) supports an association between the extent of fatty degeneration and rupture. This

  14. Evidence to support that adventitial cysts, analogous to intraneural ganglion cysts, are also joint-connected.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Robert J; Desy, Nicholas M; Agarwal, Gautum; Pawlina, Wojciech; Kalra, Manju; Amrami, Kimberly K

    2013-03-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare condition in which cyst is found within a vessel, typically producing symptoms of vascular compromise. Most commonly located in the popliteal artery near the knee, it has been reported in arteries and veins throughout the body. Its pathogenesis has been poorly understood and various surgical approaches have been recommended. We extrapolated some recent information about a similar condition, intraneural ganglion cyst affecting the deep fibular (peroneal) nerve, to the prototype, CAD of the popliteal artery. In intraneural ganglion cysts affecting the deep fibular nerve we have shown that an articular (neural) branch is the conduit between the superior tibiofibular joint and the main parent nerve for which epineurial dissection of joint fluid can occur. We hypothesized that the same principles would apply to CAD and that an articular (vascular) branch would be the conduit from the knee joint leading to dissection to the main parent vessel. We reviewed five patients with CAD of the popliteal artery in whom MRIs were available: two treated by the primary author well familiar with the proposed articular theory, and three treated by others at our institution, less familiar with it. We then reviewed the literature critically to assess for additional evidence to support our articular (synovial) theory and an anatomic explanation. In the two cases treated by the primary author a joint connection was identified on high resolution MRI prospectively and intraoperatively through the middle genicular artery (MGA); postoperatively in these cases there was no recurrence. In the other three cases, a joint connection was not identified on imaging or at operation. Reinterpretation of these cases revealed a joint connection through the MGA in the one patient who had preoperative imaging and subclinical persistence/recurrence in the two patients who underwent postoperative MRIs done for other reasons. Our review of the literature and imaging

  15. Survival of Salmonella Newport on Whole and Fresh-Cut Cucumbers Treated with Lytic Bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manan; Dashiell, Gwendolyn; Handy, Eric T; East, Cheryl; Reynnells, Russell; White, Chanelle; Nyarko, Esmond; Micallef, Shirley; Hashem, Fawzy; Millner, Patricia D

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers ( Cucumis sativus ) has led to foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to S. enterica contamination during growing, harvesting, and postharvest handling. The application of lytic bacteriophages specific for S. enterica was evaluated to reduce Salmonella populations on cucumbers. Unwaxed cucumbers ('Lisboa' variety, or mini-cucumbers purchased at retail) were inoculated with Salmonella Newport (5 log CFU per cucumber) and were sprayed with 3.2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (control) or 10 log PFU/ml of SalmoFresh, a Salmonella-specific bacteriophage preparation (phage), to deliver 4.76 × 10(7) PFU/cm(2). Cucumbers were stored at 10 or 22°C for 7 days. Inoculated mini-cucumbers were sliced with a sterile knife to investigate Salmonella transfer to mesocarp, and cut pieces were stored at 4°C for 2 days. Populations (log CFU per cucumber) of Salmonella Newport on phage-treated whole cucumbers were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller (2.44 ± 0.94) than on control-treated cucumbers (4.27 ± 0.37) on day 0. Populations on phage-treated cucumbers stored at 10°C were 1.72 ± 0.77 and 1.56 ± 0.46, which were significantly lower than those on control-treated cucumbers (3.20 ± 0.48 and 2.33 ± 0.25) on days 1 and 4, respectively. Between days 0 and 1, populations on control-treated cucumbers stored at 10 and 22°C declined by 1.07 and 2.47 log CFU per cucumber, respectively. At 22°C, Salmonella Newport populations declined by 2.37 log CFU per cucumber between days 0 and 1. Phage application to whole cucumbers before slicing did not reduce the transfer of Salmonella Newport to fresh-cut slices. Lytic phage application may be a potential intervention to reduce Salmonella populations on whole cucumbers.

  16. Summary of cases of adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery.

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, D P; Burnham, S J; Goodreau, J J; Bergan, J J

    1979-01-01

    Adventitial cystic disease of the popliteal artery is explored. The results of correspondence with authors reporting this condition are elaborated upon. This has provided an opportunity to discuss the history of the condition, the findings in 115 cases which have come to the attention of the Correspondence Office dealing with this entity, and the results of treatment. A discussion of the suspected etiology of the condition is presented. The condition remains one of unknown etiology which can be treated by cyst evacuation or aspiration when the popliteal artery is patent and which is best treated by arterial reconstruction when the artery is occluded. The results of such treatment are good but are dependent upon technical excellence of the operative procedure. PMID:426549

  17. Giant kelp vegetative propagation: Adventitious holdfast elements rejuvenate senescent individuals of the Macrocystis pyrifera "integrifolia" ecomorph.

    PubMed

    Murúa, Pedro; Müller, Dieter G; Patiño, David J; Westermeier, Renato

    2016-11-22

    Recent findings on holdfast development in the giant kelp highlighted its key importance for Macrocystis vegetative propagation. We report here for the first time the development of adventitious holdfasts from Macrocystis stipes. Swellings emerge spontaneously from different areas of the stipes, especially in senescent or creeping individuals. After being manually fastened to solid substrata, these swellings elongated into haptera, which became strongly attached after 1 month. Within 4 months, new thalli increased in size and vitality, and developed reproductive fronds. Our results suggest the usage of these structures for auxiliary attachment techniques. These could act as a backup, when primary holdfasts are weak, and thus improve the survival rate of the giant kelp in natural beds.

  18. Three-dimensional segmentation of luminal and adventitial borders in serial intravascular ultrasound images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekhar, R.; Cothren, R. M.; Vince, D. G.; Chandra, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Cornhill, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides exact anatomy of arteries, allowing accurate quantitative analysis. Automated segmentation of IVUS images is a prerequisite for routine quantitative analyses. We present a new three-dimensional (3D) segmentation technique, called active surface segmentation, which detects luminal and adventitial borders in IVUS pullback examinations of coronary arteries. The technique was validated against expert tracings by computing correlation coefficients (range 0.83-0.97) and William's index values (range 0.37-0.66). The technique was statistically accurate, robust to image artifacts, and capable of segmenting a large number of images rapidly. Active surface segmentation enabled geometrically accurate 3D reconstruction and visualization of coronary arteries and volumetric measurements.

  19. Three-dimensional segmentation of luminal and adventitial borders in serial intravascular ultrasound images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekhar, R.; Cothren, R. M.; Vince, D. G.; Chandra, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Cornhill, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides exact anatomy of arteries, allowing accurate quantitative analysis. Automated segmentation of IVUS images is a prerequisite for routine quantitative analyses. We present a new three-dimensional (3D) segmentation technique, called active surface segmentation, which detects luminal and adventitial borders in IVUS pullback examinations of coronary arteries. The technique was validated against expert tracings by computing correlation coefficients (range 0.83-0.97) and William's index values (range 0.37-0.66). The technique was statistically accurate, robust to image artifacts, and capable of segmenting a large number of images rapidly. Active surface segmentation enabled geometrically accurate 3D reconstruction and visualization of coronary arteries and volumetric measurements.

  20. Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant growth performance and foliar nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Ravnskov, S; Larsen, J

    2016-09-01

    Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant and fungal growth, and foliar nutrient composition from all possible combinations of six cucumber varieties and three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Measurements of foliar nutrient composition included N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Growth of AM fungi was measured in terms of root colonisation, as examined with microscopy and the AM fungus biomarker fatty acid 16:1ω5 from both phospholipids and neutral lipids. Different responses of plant growth and foliar nutrient profiles were observed for the different AM symbioses examined. The AM fungus Claroideoglomus claroideum caused growth depression in association with four out of six cucumber varieties; Rhizophagus irregularis caused growth promotion in one of six cucumber varieties; whereas Funneliformis mosseae had no effect on the growth performance of any of the cucumber varieties examined. All three AM fungi markedly altered host plant shoot nutrient composition, with the strongest contrast observed between cucumber-R. irregularis symbioses and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, independent of cucumber variety. On the other hand, AM fungal growth in roots differed between the three AM fungi, but was unaffected by host genotype. Strong build-up of storage lipids was observed for R. irregularis, which was more moderate in the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, strong differential responses of cucumber varieties to inoculation with different AM fungi in terms of growth and shoot nutrient composition revealed high functional diversity in AM symbioses in cucumber plants.

  1. An adventitious interaction of filamin A with RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu)

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mia; He, Qianjing; Berk, Benjamin-Andreas; Hartwig, John H.; Stossel, Thomas P.; Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2016-01-15

    Filamin A (FLNA) is an actin filament crosslinking protein with multiple intracellular binding partners. Mechanical force exposes cryptic FLNA binding sites for some of these ligands. To identify new force-dependent binding interactions, we used a fusion construct composed of two FLNA domains, one of which was previously identified as containing a force-dependent binding site as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid system and identified the Rho dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) as a potential interacting partner. A RhoGDI2 truncate with 81 N-terminal amino acid residues and a phosphomimetic mutant, RhoGDI(Tyr153Glu) interacted with the FLNA construct. However, neither wild-type or full-length RhoGDI2 phosphorylated at Y153 interacted with FLNA. Our interpretation of these contradictions is that truncation and/or mutation of RhoGDI2 perturbs its conformation to expose a site that adventitiously binds FLNA and is not a bona–fide interaction. Therefore, previous studies reporting that a RhoGDI(Y153E) mutant suppresses the metastasis of human bladder cancer cells must be reinvestigated in light of artificial interaction of this point mutant with FLNA. - Highlights: • RhoGDI2 is identified as a potential filamin A (FLNA)-binding partner. • Phosphomimetic mutant, RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu) interacts with FLNA. • RhoGDI2 phosphorylated (Tyr153) by src kinase does not interact with FLNA. • Mutation of Tyr-153 to Glu of RhoGDI2 does not mimic phosphorylation. • RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu) provokes an adventitious interaction with FLNA.

  2. Origin, timing, and gene expression profile of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis hypocotyls and stems.

    PubMed

    Welander, Margareta; Geier, Thomas; Smolka, Anders; Ahlman, Annelie; Fan, Jing; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is indispensable for vegetative propagation, but difficult to achieve in many crops. Understanding its molecular mechanisms is thus important for such species. Here we aimed at developing a rooting protocol for direct AR formation in stems, locating cellular AR origins in stems and exploring molecular differences underlying adventitious rooting in hypocotyls and stems. In-vitro-grown hypocotyls or stems of wild-type and transgenic ecotype Columbia (Col-0) of Arabidopsis thaliana were rooted on rooting media. Anatomy of AR formation, qRT-PCR of some rooting-related genes and in situ GUS expression were carried out during rooting from hypocotyls and stems. We developed a rooting protocol for AR formation in stems and traced back root origins in stems by anatomical and in situ expression studies. Unlike rooting in hypocotyls, rooting in stems was slower, and AR origins were mainly from lateral parenchyma of vascular bundles and neighboring starch sheath cells as well as, to a lesser extent, from phloem cap and xylem parenchyma. Transcript levels of GH3-3, LBD16, LBD29, and LRP1 in hypocotyls and stems were similar, but transcript accumulation was delayed in stems. In situ expression signals of DR5::GUS, LBD16::GUS, LBD29::GUS, and rolB::GUS reporters in stems mainly occurred at the root initiation sites, suggesting their involvement in AR formation. We have developed an efficient rooting protocol using half-strength Lepoivre medium for studying AR formation in stems, traced back the cellular AR origins in stems, and correlated expression of rooting-related genes with root initiation sites.

  3. Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explant of Dwarf Hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson)

    PubMed Central

    Karataş, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; Çınar, Ayşegül; Dogan, Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10–1.60 mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10 mg/L IBA and 500 mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10 mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10 mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10 mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20–1.00 mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6–9 for the best plant growth and development. PMID:23853539

  4. Acceleration of adventitious shoots by interaction between exogenous hormone and adenine sulphate in Althaea officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Naz, Ruphi; Anis, M

    2012-11-01

    In the current study attempts were made to investigate the effects of three different phases of callus induction followed by adventitious regeneration from leaf segments (central and lateral vein). Callus induction was observed in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 15.0 μM 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Adventitious shoot buds formation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 7.5 μM 2,4-D and 20.0 μM AdS in liquid medium as it induced 19.2 ± 0.58 buds in central vein explants. Addition of different growth regulators (cytokinins-6-benzyladenine, kinetin and 2-isopentenyl adenine alone or in combination with auxins-indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid, improved the shoot regeneration efficiency, in which 5.0 μM 6-benzyl adenine along with 0.25 μM α-naphthalene acetic acid was shown to be the most effective medium for maximum shoot regeneration (81.3 %) with 24.6 number of shoots and 4.4 ± 0.08 cm shoot length per explant. Leaf culture of central veins led to better shoot formation capacity in comparison to lateral vein. Rooting was readily achieved on the differentiated shoots on 1/2 MS medium augmented with 20.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid. The plants were successfully hardened off in sterile soilrite followed by their establishment in garden soil with 80 % survival rate.

  5. Analysis of indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation on Arabidopsis stem segments.

    PubMed

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Vertocnik, Amy; Town, Christopher D

    2005-08-01

    Root induction by auxins is still not well understood at the molecular level. In this study a system has been devised which distinguishes between the two active auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). IBA, but not IAA, efficiently induced adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis stem segments at a concentration of 10 microM. In wild-type plants, roots formed exclusively out of calli at the basal end of the segments. Root formation was inhibited by 10 microM 3,4,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. At intermediate IBA concentrations (3-10 microM), root induction was less efficient in trp1, a tryptophan auxotroph of Arabidopsis with a bushy phenotype but no demonstrable reduction in IAA levels. By contrast, two mutants of Arabidopsis with measurably higher levels of IAA (trp2, amt1) show root induction characteristics very similar to the wild type. Using differential display, transcripts specific to the rooting process were identified by devising a protocol that distinguished between callus production only and callus production followed by root initiation. One fragment was identical to the sequence of a putative regulatory subunit B of protein phosphatase 2A. It is suggested that adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis stem segments is due to an interaction between endogenous IAA and exogenous IBA. In stem explants, residual endogenous IAA is transported to the basal end of each segment, thereby inducing root formation. In stem segments in which the polar auxin transport is inhibited by TIBA, root formation does not occur.

  6. The Genome of the Cucumber, Cucumis Sativus L

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequen...

  7. In vitro auxin binding to cellular membranes of cucumber fruits.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, K R; Mudge, K W; Poovaiah, B W

    1981-04-01

    Specific binding of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to crude membrane preparations from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was demonstrated. This in vitro binding had a pH optimum of 3.75 and an equilibrium dissociation constant of 10 to 20 micromolar with 1250 picomoles binding sites per gram fresh weight. The NAA-binding sites were pronase sensitive. The supernatant from the fruit partially inhibited the in vitro NAA binding to fruit membranes. NAA, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 3-indoleacetic acid, 2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, which are reported to be very good inducers of parthenocarpy in cucumber, showed a high degree of specific binding to cucumber fruit membranes. In comparison, 2-naphthaleneacetic acid and indolepropionic acid, which are reported to be very weak auxins in corn coleoptile, pea stem, and strawberry fruit growth bioassays, did not bind efficiently to cucumber fruit membranes. In vitro binding studies with fruit membranes suggest that auxin stimulated fruit growth may be mediated by membrane-associated, auxin-binding protein(s).

  8. Suppression of cucurbit scab on cucumber leaves by photodynamic dyes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this study was to test the ability of the photodynamic dyes bengal rose, toluidine blue, and methylene blue, to protect systemically cucumber plants from cucurbit scab. At the stage of one true leaf, water or aqueous solutions of the dyes were applied to the leaf as droplets. When the se...

  9. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological util...

  10. Genome Wide Characterization of Simple Sequence Repeats in Cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The whole genome sequence of the cucumber cultivar Gy14 was recently sequenced at 15× coverage with the Roche 454 Titanium technology. The microsatellite DNA sequences (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) in the assembled scaffolds were computationally explored and characterized. A total of 112,073 SSRs ...

  11. Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica): New host for cucumber mosaic virus

    Treesearch

    Courtney L. Pariera Dinkins; Sue K. Brumfield; Robert K. D. Peterson; William E. Grey; Sharlene E. Sing

    2007-01-01

    To date, there have been no reports of Dalmatian toadflax serving as a host for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Infestations of Dalmatian toadflax may serve as a reservoir of CMV, thereby facilitating aphid transmission of CMV to both agricultural crops and native plants. The goal of this study was to determine whether Dalmatian toadflax is a host for CMV. Dalmatian...

  12. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  13. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and recombination among these repeats produces rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phen...

  14. Effects of wounding on cytokinin activity in cucumber cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Crane, K E; Ross, C W

    1986-12-01

    Three known physiological responses to exogenous cytokinins were measured in wounded and nonwounded cotyledons from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Marketer) seedlings grown in darkness. Enhanced cell division, chlorophyll formation, and cotyledon expansion were detected in wounded cotyledons. The data suggest that wounding enhances endogenous cytokinin activity.

  15. Neiella marinum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sea cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel strain, designated J221**T, was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, collected from earthen ponds in Qingdao, China. The strain is Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, aerobic, and rod-shaped cell. Growth of strain J221T was observed at temperatures between 10...

  16. [Analysis study of trace elements in abalone and sea cucumber].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kang, Wan-Li; Xin, Shi-Gang; Xing, Wan-Quan

    2009-02-01

    Abalone and sea cucumbers are useful, which is related with trace elements in them. In the present paper, using high-pressure sealed nitrifying pots for digestion of samples, Orthogonal test was applied to the determination of 15 kinds of trace elements in abalone and sea cucumber such as Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, Sr, Se, Hg, Cd etc by ICP-AES. The orthogonal table of L16 (4(4)) and experiment programs were designed. More information could be obtained with a small number of experimental times by combining chemistry with mathematical statistics, and the best experimental operation conditions could be chosen by square-error analysis. The method was simple, rapid, highly sensitive and accurate, but also features multi-element determination at the same time, with little environment pollution. The recovery rate of the method is in the range of 91.0%-110.0%, and relative standard deviations is less than 3.55%. The experimental results showed that both abalone and sea cucumber are of nutritional value of seafood, and are rich in Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, Sr and other kinds of trace elements helpful to the human body. At the same time, because of severe environment pollution, seawater pollution should not be neglected. When seawater was polluted, hazardous substances were deposited in abalone or sea cucumber body with high levels of harmful heavy metals. Therefore, it should be a reminder that people must be careful to eat them.

  17. Aroma evaluation of transgenic, thaumatin II-producing cucumber fruits.

    PubMed

    Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R; Gośliński, M; Szwacka, M; Gajc-Wolska, J; Mildner-Szkudlarz, S

    2009-04-01

    Fruits of transgenic cucumber lines expressing preprothaumatin II gene were evaluated concerning their aroma. Four homozygous lines, that is, 210 06, 212 01, 224 09, and 225 03 with different levels of transgene expression were selected. Recipient line cv. Borszczagowski, which was formed by inbred line of Cucumis sativus L., was used as a control. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and an outdoor experimental plot. The aroma of cucumber fruits was evaluated by GC/MS, as well as GC/MS/TOF in the distillates and by SPME. Irrespective of the isolation/separation technique used, the differences between aroma compounds in transgenic cucumbers and the control were quantitative, and not qualitative. Modified samples showed higher concentrations of volatiles, particularly of the main cucumber fruits odorant (E, Z)-2,6 nonadienal. Transgenic expression of the thaumatin II gene resulted not only in a sweeter taste of fruits in comparison with the control, but also higher aroma acceptability. This was shown by sensory profile analysis. Also electronic nose measurements differentiated between transgenic lines and the control.

  18. A sequencing-based linkage map of cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic maps are important tools for molecular breeding, gene cloning, and study of meiotic recombination. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), the marker density, resolution and genome coverage of previously developed genetic maps using PCR-based molecular markers are relatively low. In this study we ...

  19. Sequencing Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Chloroplast Genomes Identifies Differences Between Chilling-Tolerant and-Susceptible Cucumber Lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complete sequencing of cucumber chloroplast (cp)DNA was facilitated by the development of 414 consensus chloroplast sequencing primers (CCSPs) from conserved cpDNA sequences of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cpDNAs, using deg...

  20. Foliar application of glyphosate affects molecular mechanisms in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and alters their vegetative growth patterns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long term control of leafy spurge with glyphosate requires multiple applications because the plant reproduces vegetatively from abundant underground adventitious buds (UABs). Determining the molecular mechanisms involved in controlling vegetative reproduction in leafy spurge following foliar glyphos...

  1. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  2. Relationship between dieldrin uptake in cucumber and solvent-extractable residue in soil.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Mizuki; Seike, Nobuyasu; Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi

    2009-12-09

    To prevent the distribution of cucumbers with dieldrin contamination exceeding the limit set by the Japanese Food Sanitation Law, the extraction solvent for dieldrin-contaminated soil was selected prior to cultivation so that the dieldrin residue level in cucumber could be predicted. The exhaustive extraction from soil could not explain the dieldrin uptake by cucumber plants. However, significant correlation (R(2) = 0.966, P < 0.001) was observed between dieldrin concentrations in cucumber and dieldrin concentrations extracted with 50% (v/v) methanol-water solution from soils. This was a result of the phytoavailability of dieldrin to the cucumber plants. The extractability of soil dieldrin with the methanol-water solution decreased as the organic carbon content in the soils increased. This suggested that a 50% (v/v) methanol-water solution is the optimal solution for predicting dieldrin concentrations in cucumbers by soil analysis.

  3. [Effects of rotation and intercropping on bacterial communities in rhizosphere soil of cucumber].

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-zhi; Wang, Shu; Yang, Yang

    2008-12-01

    By the method of PCR-DGGE, this paper studied the effects of rotation with wheat, soybean, villose vetch, clover, and alfalfa and intercropping with onion and garlic on the bacterial communities in rhizosphere soil of cucumber. The results showed that rotation and intercropping with test plants increased the diversity and evenness indices of bacterial communities in cucumber rhizosphere soil, and also, cucumber yield. The sequencing of DGGE bands indicated that most of the bands had high homology with uncultured bacterial species, and were of Sphingobacterium and Proteobacteria. High bacterium G+C was only detected when cucumber was intercropped with onion. The diversity of soil bacterial communities varied with the growth stages of cucumber, being the highest at vigorous fruiting stage. It was suggested that intercropping with onion and rotation with wheat were the best cultivation modes of cucumber.

  4. Adventitious roots of wheat seedlings that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions have increased root diameters with highly developed lysigenous aerenchyma.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Takaki; Abe, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Kentaro; Oyanagi, Atsushi; Nakazono, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Exposing roots of plants to hypoxic conditions is known to greatly improve their anoxic stress tolerance. We previously showed that pre-treatment of wheat seedlings with an ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC), enhanced their tolerance of oxygen-deficient conditions. Although ACC-pretreated seminal roots of wheat seedlings grown under oxygen-deficient conditions avoided root tip death, they elongated very little. In the present study, we assessed the effects of ethylene on the responses of adventitious roots of wheat seedlings to oxygen-deficient conditions. Lysigenous aerenchyma formation in the adventitious roots of wheat seedlings pretreated with ACC appeared to reduce tip death under oxygen-deficient conditions, but the adventitious roots, like the seminal roots, hardly elongated. We also found that adventitious roots that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions continued to elongate even under such conditions. The adventitious roots emerged in oxygen-deficient conditions were found to have thicker root diameters than those emerged in aerated conditions. These results suggest that the adventitious roots with thicker root diameters can better cope with oxygen-deficient conditions. Measurements of the area of the lysigenous aerenchyma confirmed that the increased root diameters have a greater amount of air space generated by lysigenous aerenchyma formation.

  5. Adventitious roots of wheat seedlings that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions have increased root diameters with highly developed lysigenous aerenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Takaki; Abe, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Kentaro; Oyanagi, Atsushi; Nakazono, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Exposing roots of plants to hypoxic conditions is known to greatly improve their anoxic stress tolerance. We previously showed that pre-treatment of wheat seedlings with an ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC), enhanced their tolerance of oxygen-deficient conditions. Although ACC-pretreated seminal roots of wheat seedlings grown under oxygen-deficient conditions avoided root tip death, they elongated very little. In the present study, we assessed the effects of ethylene on the responses of adventitious roots of wheat seedlings to oxygen-deficient conditions. Lysigenous aerenchyma formation in the adventitious roots of wheat seedlings pretreated with ACC appeared to reduce tip death under oxygen-deficient conditions, but the adventitious roots, like the seminal roots, hardly elongated. We also found that adventitious roots that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions continued to elongate even under such conditions. The adventitious roots emerged in oxygen-deficient conditions were found to have thicker root diameters than those emerged in aerated conditions. These results suggest that the adventitious roots with thicker root diameters can better cope with oxygen-deficient conditions. Measurements of the area of the lysigenous aerenchyma confirmed that the increased root diameters have a greater amount of air space generated by lysigenous aerenchyma formation. PMID:24690588

  6. Whole-body Microbiota of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) from South Korea for Improved Seafood Management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Jin-Jae; Kim, Bong-Soo; Choi, Sang Ho

    2017-08-31

    Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is a popular seafood source in Asia, including South Korea, and its consumption has recently increased with recognition of its medicinal properties. However, because raw sea cucumber contains various microbes, its ingestion can cause foodborne illness. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota in the whole body of sea cucumber can extend our understanding of foodborne illness caused by microorganisms and help to better manage products. We collected 40 sea cucumbers from four different sites in August and November, which are known as the maximum production areas in Korea. The microbiota was analyzed by an Illumina Miseq system, and bacterial amounts were quantified by real-time PCR. The diversity and bacterial amounts in sea cucumber were higher in August than in November. Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria were common dominant classes in all samples. However, the microbiota composition differed according to sampling time and site. Staphylococcus warneri and Propionibacterium acnes were commonly detected potential pathogens in August and November samples, respectively. The effect of experimental Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on the indigenous microbiota of sea cucumber was analyzed at different temperatures, revealing clear alterations of Psychrobacter and Moraxella; thus, these shifts can be used as indicators for monitoring infection of sea cucumber. Although further studies are needed to clarify and understand the virulence and mechanisms of the identified pathogens of sea cucumber, our study provides a valuable reference for determining the potential of foodborne illness caused by sea cucumber ingestion and to develop monitoring strategies of products using microbiota information.

  7. Chemical characterization and prebiotic activity of fructo-oligosaccharides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures.

    PubMed

    Sanches Lopes, Sheila Mara; Francisco, Mariane Grigio; Higashi, Bruna; de Almeida, Rafaela Takako Ribeiro; Krausová, Gabriela; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; Oliveira, Arildo José Braz de

    2016-11-05

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is widely studied because of its foliar steviol glycosides. Fructan-type polysaccharides were recently isolated from its roots. Fructans are reserve carbohydrates that have important positive health effects and technological applications in the food industry. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) from S. rebaudiana roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures and evaluate the potential prebiotic effect of these molecules. The in vitro adventitious root cultures were obtained using a roller bottle system. Chemical analyses (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and off-line electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) revealed similar chemical properties of FOSs that were obtained from the different sources. The potential prebiotic effects of FOSs that were isolated from S. rebaudiana roots enhanced the growth of both bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, with strains specificity in their fermentation ability.

  8. Pilot-scale culture of Hypericum perforatum L. adventitious roots in airlift bioreactors for the production of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xi-Hua; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) is an important medicinal plant which is widely used in the treatment for depression and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also used as a dietary supplement. Major bioactive phytochemicals of H. perforatum are phenolics and flavonoids. Quality of these phytochemicals is dramatically influenced by environmental and biological factors in the field grown plants. As an alternative, we have developed adventitious root cultures in large-scale bioreactors for the production of useful phytochemicals. Adventitious roots of H. perforatum were cultured in 500 l pilot-scale airlift bioreactors using half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with an ammonium and nitrate ratio of 5:25 mM and supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole butyric acid, 0.1 mg l(-1) kinetin, and 3 % sucrose for the production of bioactive phenolics and flavonoids. Then 4.6 and 6.3 kg dry biomass were realized in the 500 l each of drum-type and balloon-type bioreactors, respectively. Accumulation of 66.9 mg g(-1) DW of total phenolics, 48.6 mg g(-1) DW of total flavonoids, 1.3 mg g(-1) DW of chlorogenic acid, 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of hyperin, 0.04 mg g(-1) DW of hypericin, and 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of quercetin could be achieved with adventitious roots cultured in 500 l balloon-type airlift bioreactors. Our findings demonstrate the possibilities of using H. perforatum adventitious root cultures for the production of useful phytochemicals to meet the demand of pharmaceutical and food industry.

  9. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mee, Edward T; Preston, Mark D; Minor, Philip D; Schepelmann, Silke

    2016-04-12

    Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4-14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation at Neutral and High pH by Adventitious Nickel at Nanomolar Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roger, Isolda; Symes, Mark D

    2015-11-04

    Electrolytic water oxidation using earth-abundant elements is a key challenge in the quest to develop cheap, large surface area arrays for solar-to-hydrogen conversion. There have been numerous studies in this area in recent years, but there remains an imperative to demonstrate that the current densities reported are indeed due to the species under consideration and not due to the presence of adventitious (yet possibly highly active) contaminants at low levels. Herein, we show that adventitious nickel at concentrations as low as 17 nM can act as a water oxidation catalyst in mildly basic aqueous solutions, achieving stable (tens of hours) current densities of 1 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials as low as 540 mV at pH 9.2 and 400 mV at pH 13. This nickel was not added to the electrolysis baths deliberately, but it was found to be present in the electrolytes as an impurity by ICP-MS. The presence of nickel on anodes from extended-time bulk electrolysis experiments was confirmed by XPS. In showing that such low levels of nickel can perform water oxidation at overpotentials comparable to many recently reported water oxidation catalysts, this work serves to raise the burden of proof required of new materials in this field: contamination by adventitious metal ions at trace loadings must be excluded as a possible cause of any observed water oxidation activity.

  11. Proliferation and ajmalicine biosynthesis of Catharanthus roseus (L). G. Don adventitious roots in self-built temporary immersion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc, Vo Thanh; Trung, Nguyen Minh; Thien, Huynh Tri; Tien, Le Thi Thuy

    2017-09-01

    Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) is a medicinal plant containing about 130 types of alkaloids that have important pharmacological effects. Ajmalicine in periwinkle root is an antihypertensive drug used in treatment of high blood pressure. Adventitious roots obtained from periwinkle leaves of in vitro shoots grew well in quarter-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/l IBA and 20 g/l sucrose. Dark condition was more suitable for root growth than light. However, callus formation also took place in addition to the growth of adventitious roots. Temporary immersion system was applied in the culture of adventitious roots in order to reduce the callus growth rate formed in shake flask cultures. The highest growth index of roots was achieved using the system with 5-min immersion every 45 min (1.676 ± 0.041). The roots cultured in this system grew well without callus formation. Ajmalicine content was highest in the roots cultured with 5-min immersion every 180 min (950 μg/g dry weight).

  12. Acetylcholinesterase-Inhibition and Antibacterial Activity of Mondia whitei Adventitious Roots and Ex vitro-Grown Somatic Embryogenic-Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Ponnusamy; Kumari, Aloka; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels is an important endangered medicinal and commercial plant in South Africa. In vitro propagation systems are required for biomass production and bioactivity analysis to supplement wild resources/stocks. Adventitious roots from somatic embryogenic explants using suspension culture and ex vitro-grown plants produced via somatic embryogenesis were established using different plant growth regulator treatments. The adventitious root biomass and different parts of ex vitro-grown and mother plants were used to investigate the potential for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antibacterial activities. Adventitious roots derived from 2.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatments and ex vitro-grown plants derived from meta-topolin riboside and IAA treatments gave the best AChE and antibacterial activities. The in vitro-established M. whitei and ex vitro biomass have comparable ability to function as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and antibacterial agents, and can be used as potent bioresources in traditional medicine. PMID:27752244

  13. Identification of pectin methylesterase 3 as a basic pectin methylesterase isoform involved in adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Guénin, Stéphanie; Mareck, Alain; Rayon, Catherine; Lamour, Romain; Assoumou Ndong, Yves; Domon, Jean-Marc; Sénéchal, Fabien; Fournet, Françoise; Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Percoco, Giuseppe; Mouille, Grégory; Rolland, Aurélia; Rustérucci, Christine; Guerineau, François; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Gillet, Françoise; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Gutierrez, Laurent; Pelloux, Jérôme

    2011-10-01

    • Here, we focused on the biochemical characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana pectin methylesterase 3 gene (AtPME3; At3g14310) and its role in plant development. • A combination of biochemical, gene expression, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and reverse genetics approaches were used. • We showed that AtPME3 is ubiquitously expressed in A. thaliana, particularly in vascular tissues. In cell wall-enriched fractions, only the mature part of the protein was identified, suggesting that it is processed before targeting the cell wall. In all the organs tested, PME activity was reduced in the atpme3-1 mutant compared with the wild type. This was related to the disappearance of an activity band corresponding to a pI of 9.6 revealed by a zymogram. Analysis of the cell wall composition showed that the degree of methylesterification (DM) of galacturonic acids was affected in the atpme3-1 mutant. A change in the number of adventitious roots was found in the mutant, which correlated with the expression of the gene in adventitious root primordia. • Our results enable the characterization of AtPME3 as a major basic PME isoform in A. thaliana and highlight its role in adventitious rooting.

  14. Integration of genetic, genomic and transcriptomic information identifies putative regulators of adventitious root formation in Populus

    DOE PAGES

    Ribeiro, Cintia L.; Silva, Cynthia M.; Drost, Derek R.; ...

    2016-03-16

    In this study, adventitious roots (AR) develop from tissues other than the primary root, in a process physiologically regulated by phytohormones. Adventitious roots provide structural support and contribute to water and nutrient absorption, and are critical for commercial vegetative propagation of several crops. Here we quantified the number of AR, root architectural traits and root biomass in cuttings from a pseudo-backcross population of Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and whole-transcriptome analysis of individuals with alternative QTL alleles for AR number were used to identify putative regulators of AR development. As a result, parental individuals andmore » progeny showed extensive segregation for AR developmental traits. Quantitative trait loci for number of AR mapped consistently in the same interval of linkage group (LG) II and LG XIV, explaining 7–10 % of the phenotypic variation. A time series transcriptome analysis identified 26,121 genes differentially expressed during AR development, particularly during the first 24 h after cuttings were harvested. Of those, 1929 genes were differentially regulated between individuals carrying alternative alleles for the two QTL for number of AR, in one or more time point. Eighty-one of these genes were physically located within the QTL intervals for number of AR, including putative homologs of the Arabidopsis genes SUPERROOT2 (SUR2) and TRYPTOPHAN SYNTHASE ALPHA CHAIN (TSA1), both of which are involved in the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis pathway. In conclusion, this study suggests the involvement of two genes of the tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway, SUR2 and TSA1, in the regulation of a critical trait for the clonal propagation of woody species. A possible model for this regulation is that poplar individuals that have poor AR formation synthesize auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily through the tryptophan (Trp) pathway. Much of

  15. Integration of genetic, genomic and transcriptomic information identifies putative regulators of adventitious root formation in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Cintia L.; Silva, Cynthia M.; Drost, Derek R.; Novaes, Evandro; Novaes, Carolina R. D. B.; Dervinis, Christopher; Kirst, Matias

    2016-03-16

    In this study, adventitious roots (AR) develop from tissues other than the primary root, in a process physiologically regulated by phytohormones. Adventitious roots provide structural support and contribute to water and nutrient absorption, and are critical for commercial vegetative propagation of several crops. Here we quantified the number of AR, root architectural traits and root biomass in cuttings from a pseudo-backcross population of Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and whole-transcriptome analysis of individuals with alternative QTL alleles for AR number were used to identify putative regulators of AR development. As a result, parental individuals and progeny showed extensive segregation for AR developmental traits. Quantitative trait loci for number of AR mapped consistently in the same interval of linkage group (LG) II and LG XIV, explaining 7–10 % of the phenotypic variation. A time series transcriptome analysis identified 26,121 genes differentially expressed during AR development, particularly during the first 24 h after cuttings were harvested. Of those, 1929 genes were differentially regulated between individuals carrying alternative alleles for the two QTL for number of AR, in one or more time point. Eighty-one of these genes were physically located within the QTL intervals for number of AR, including putative homologs of the Arabidopsis genes SUPERROOT2 (SUR2) and TRYPTOPHAN SYNTHASE ALPHA CHAIN (TSA1), both of which are involved in the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis pathway. In conclusion, this study suggests the involvement of two genes of the tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway, SUR2 and TSA1, in the regulation of a critical trait for the clonal propagation of woody species. A possible model for this regulation is that poplar individuals that have poor AR formation synthesize auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily through the tryptophan (Trp) pathway. Much of the Trp

  16. Construction of a Fosmid Library of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Comparative Analyses of the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E Regions from Cucumber and Melon (Cucumis melo)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber and melon are the most economically important plants in the family Cucurbitaceae and are members of distinct subgenera in the genus Cucumis. We undertook comparative sequence analyses to assess synteny between the cucumber and melon genomes. A fosmid library of cucumber was synthesized as...

  17. Quantitative proteomics identifies 38 proteins that are differentially expressed in cucumber in response to cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Wei; Liang, Chao-Qiong; Liu, Peng-Fei; Luo, Lai-Xin; Li, Jian-Qiang

    2015-12-15

    Since it was first reported in 1935, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) has become a serious pathogen in a range of cucurbit crops. The virus is generally transmitted by propagation materials, and to date no effective chemical or cultural methods of control have been developed to combat its spread. The current study presents a preliminary analysis of the pathogenic mechanisms from the perspective of protein expression levels in an infected cucumber host, with the objective of elucidating the infection process and potential strategies to reduce both the economic and yield losses associated with CGMMV. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) were used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in cucumber plants infected with CGMMV compared with mock-inoculated plants. The functions of the proteins were deduced by functional annotation and their involvement in metabolic processes explored by KEGG pathway analysis to identify their interactions during CGMMV infection, while their in vivo expression was further verified by qPCR. Infection by CGMMV altered both the expression level and absolute quantity of 38 proteins (fold change >0.6) in cucumber hosts. Of these, 23 were found to be up-regulated, while 15 were down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that 22 of the proteins had a combined function and were associated with molecular function (MF), biological process (BP) and cellular component (CC). Several other proteins had a dual function with 1, 7, and 2 proteins being associated with BP/CC, BP/MF, CC/MF, respectively. The remaining 3 proteins were only involved in MF. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis identified 18 proteins that were involved in 13 separate metabolic pathways. These pathways were subsequently merged to generate three network diagrams illustrating the interactions between the different

  18. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    PubMed

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  19. Characterization of the optical properties of normal and defective pickling cucumbers and whole pickles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.; Cen, Haiyan

    2010-04-01

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pickling cucumbers. This research was intended to measure the spectral absorption and scattering properties of normal and internally defective pickling cucumbers and whole pickles, using hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique. Spatially-resolved hyperspectral scattering images were acquired from 50 freshly harvested 'Journey' pickling cucumbers in the summer of 2008. The cucumbers were then subjected to rolling under mechanical load to induce internal damage. The damaged cucumbers were imaged again one hour and one day after the mechanical stress treatment. In addition, 20 whole pickles each of normal and defective (bloated) class were also measured by following the same procedure as that for pickling cucumbers. Spectra of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for pickling cucumbers and whole pickles were extracted from the spatially-resolved scattering profiles, using an inverse algorithm for a diffusion theory model, for the spectral range of 700-1,000 nm. It was found that within one hour after mechanical damage, changes in the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for the cucumbers were minimal. One day after mechanical damage, the absorption coefficient for the cucumbers increased noticeably for the wavelengths of 700-920 nm, whereas the reduced scattering coefficient decreased more significantly for the wavelengths of 700-1,000 nm. Overall mechanical damage had greater impact on the scattering properties than on the absorption properties. After brining, pickles became translucent and scattering was greatly diminished. Thus the diffusion theory model was no longer valid for determining the optical properties of whole pickles. This

  20. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    McFeeters, Roger F; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys

    2010-04-01

    Waste water containing high levels of NaCl from cucumber fermentation tank yards is a continuing problem for the pickled vegetable industry. A major reduction in waste salt could be achieved if NaCl were eliminated from the cucumber fermentation process. The objectives of this project were to ferment cucumbers in brine containing CaCl(2) as the only salt, to determine the course of fermentation metabolism in the absence of NaCl, and to compare firmness retention of cucumbers fermented in CaCl(2) brine during subsequent storage compared to cucumbers fermented in brines containing both NaCl and CaCl(2) at concentrations typically used in commercial fermentations. The major metabolite changes during fermentation without NaCl were conversion of sugars in the fresh cucumbers primarily to lactic acid which caused pH to decrease to less than 3.5. This is the same pattern that occurs when cucumbers are fermented with NaCl as the major brining salt. Lactic acid concentration and pH were stable during storage and there was no detectable production of propionic acid or butyric acid that would indicate growth of spoilage bacteria. Firmness retention in cucumbers fermented with 100 to 300 mM CaCl(2) during storage at a high temperature (45 degrees C) was not significantly different from that obtained in fermented cucumbers with 1.03 M NaCl and 40 mM CaCl(2). In closed jars, cucumber fermentations with and without NaCl in the fermentation brine were similar both in the chemical changes caused by the fermentative microorganisms and in the retention of firmness in the fermented cucumbers.

  1. Fruit removal increases root-zone respiration in cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Kläring, H.-P.; Hauschild, I.; Heißner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Many attempts have been made to avoid the commonly observed fluctuations in fruit initiation and fruit growth in crop plants, particularly in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Weak sinks of the fruit have been assumed to result in low sink/source ratios for carbohydrates, which may inhibit photosynthesis. This study focuses on the effects of low sink–source ratios on photosynthesis and respiration, and in particular root-zone respiration. Methods Mature fruit-bearing cucumber plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution. The root containers were designed as open chambers to allow measurement of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone. A similar arrangement in a gas-exchange cuvette enabled simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange in the shoot and root zones. Key Results Reducing the sinks for carbohydrates by removing all fruit from the plants always resulted in a doubling of CO2 exchange in the root zone within a few hours. However, respiration of the shoot remained unaffected and photosynthesis was only marginally reduced, if at all. Conclusions The results suggest that the increased level of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone after removing the carbon sinks in the shoot is due primarily to the exudation of organic compounds by the roots and their decomposition by micro-organisms. This hypothesis must be tested in further experiments, but if proved correct it would make sense to include carbon leakage by root exudation in cucumber production models. In contrast, inhibition of photosynthesis was measurable only at zero fruit load, a situation that does not occur in cucumber production systems, and models that estimate production can therefore ignore (end-product) inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:25301817

  2. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-04

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain.

  3. Fixation of Emerging Interviral Recombinants in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Justin S.

    2013-01-01

    Interstrain recombinants were observed in the progenies of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) reassortant L1L2F3 containing RNAs 1 and 2 from LS-CMV and RNA 3 from Fny-CMV. We characterized these recombinants, and we found that their fixation was controlled by the nature of the replicating RNAs 1 and 2. We demonstrate that the 2b gene partially affects this fixation process, but only in the context of homologous RNAs 1 and 2. PMID:23115282

  4. Fruit removal increases root-zone respiration in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Kläring, H-P; Hauschild, I; Heißner, A

    2014-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to avoid the commonly observed fluctuations in fruit initiation and fruit growth in crop plants, particularly in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Weak sinks of the fruit have been assumed to result in low sink/source ratios for carbohydrates, which may inhibit photosynthesis. This study focuses on the effects of low sink-source ratios on photosynthesis and respiration, and in particular root-zone respiration. Mature fruit-bearing cucumber plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution. The root containers were designed as open chambers to allow measurement of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone. A similar arrangement in a gas-exchange cuvette enabled simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange in the shoot and root zones. Reducing the sinks for carbohydrates by removing all fruit from the plants always resulted in a doubling of CO2 exchange in the root zone within a few hours. However, respiration of the shoot remained unaffected and photosynthesis was only marginally reduced, if at all. The results suggest that the increased level of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone after removing the carbon sinks in the shoot is due primarily to the exudation of organic compounds by the roots and their decomposition by micro-organisms. This hypothesis must be tested in further experiments, but if proved correct it would make sense to include carbon leakage by root exudation in cucumber production models. In contrast, inhibition of photosynthesis was measurable only at zero fruit load, a situation that does not occur in cucumber production systems, and models that estimate production can therefore ignore (end-product) inhibition of photosynthesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  5. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  11. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are exempt...

  12. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are exempt...

  13. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are exempt...

  14. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are exempt...

  15. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are exempt...

  16. Map-based cloning a multifunctional gene regulating leaf, flower and fruit development and plant architecture in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    standard-leaf type cucumbers as well as multi-branched vines not presented in standard-leaf type cucumbers. Littleleaf has the potential to address some problems in picking cucumber production. Littleleaf is controlled by a single, recessively inherited gene designated ll. In the present study, a hi...

  17. Evidence that a DEGS homologue in Enterobacter clocae is important for colonization and disease suppression on cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterobacter cloacae 501R3 shows promise as a biocontrol agent for damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. Enterobacter cloacae C10 is a mini-Tn5 Km transposon mutant of 501R3 that was reduced in colonization of cucumber roots and in suppression of damping-off of cucumber. Molecular char...

  18. Transcriptome profile analysis of floral sex determination in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Qin, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiuyan; Feng, Zhuo; Du, Yalin

    2010-07-15

    Cucumber has been widely studied as a model for floral sex determination. In this investigation, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of apical tissue of a gynoecious mutant (Csg-G) and the monoecious wild-type (Csg-M) of cucumber in an attempt to isolate genes involved in sex determination, using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to the mutation, which resulted in the down-regulation of 600 genes and the up-regulation of 143 genes. The Solexa data were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biogenesis, transport and organization of cellular component, macromolecular and cellular biosynthesis, localization, establishment of localization, translation and other processes. Furthermore, the expression of some of these genes depended upon the tissue and the developmental stage of the flowers of gynoecious mutant. The results of this study suggest two important concepts, which govern sex determination in cucumber. First, the differential expression of genes involved in plant hormone signaling pathways, such as ACS, Asr1, CsIAA2, CS-AUX1 and TLP, indicate that phytohormones and their crosstalk might play a critical role in the sex determination. Second, the regulation of some transcription factors, including EREBP-9, may also be involved in this developmental process.

  19. Enantioselective degradation of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiyun; Zhang, Qing; Cong, Lujing; Yin, Wei; Wang, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective degradation behaviors of the acylamino acid fungicide metalaxyl in vegetables (cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi) under field and greenhouse conditions were elucidated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methyl phenyl carbamate) chiral column (Lux Cellulose-2) was used for the chiral separation of the enantiomers using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution (40:60, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The two enantiomers could be completely separated with a resolution (Rs) of 5.2. The linearity range, matrix effect, precision and recovery were evaluated. The method was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi under different conditions. The results showed that R-enantiomer dissipated faster than S-enantiomer in cucumber of greenhouse. Inversely, a preferential degradation of S-form was found in spinach and pakchoi under field and greenhouse conditions. No stereoselective degradation in cabbage was observed. These results can be applied for evaluating the environmental risk and food safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiamin; Zhang, Libin; Pan, Yang; Lin, Chenggang; Wang, Fang; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The feeding behavior and digestive physiology of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are not well understood. A better understanding may provide useful information for the development of the aquaculture of this species. In this article the tentacle locomotion, feeding rhythms, ingestion rate (IR), feces production rate (FPR) and digestive enzyme activities were studied in three size groups (small, medium and large) of sea cucumber under a 12h light/12h dark cycle. Frame-by-frame video analysis revealed that all size groups had similar feeding strategies using a grasping motion to pick up sediment particles. The tentacle insertion rates of the large size group were significantly faster than those of the small and medium-sized groups (P<0.05). Feeding activities investigated by charge coupled device cameras with infrared systems indicated that all size groups of sea cucumber were nocturnal and their feeding peaks occurred at 02:00-04:00. The medium and large-sized groups also had a second feeding peak during the day. Both IR and FPR in all groups were significantly higher at night than those during the daytime (P<0.05). Additionally, the peak activities of digestive enzymes were 2-4h earlier than the peak of feeding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the light/dark cycle was a powerful environment factor that influenced biological rhythms of A. japonicus, which had the ability to optimize the digestive processes for a forthcoming ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polyamines induce adaptive responses in water deficit stressed cucumber roots.

    PubMed

    Kubiś, Jan; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous polyamines (PAs) on the membrane status and proline level in roots of water stressed cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Dar) seedlings. It was found that water shortage resulted in an increase of membrane injury, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, lipid peroxidation and proline concentration in cucumber roots during progressive dehydration. PA pretreatment resulted in a distinct reduction of the injury index, and this effect was reflected by a lower stress-evoked LOX activity increase and lipid peroxide levels at the end of the stress period. In contrast, PA-supplied stressed roots displayed a higher proline accumulation. The presented results suggest that exogenous PAs are able to alleviate water deficit-induced membrane permeability and diminish LOX activity. Observed changes were accompanied by an accumulation of proline, suggesting that the accumulation of this osmolyte might be another possible mode of action for PAs to attain higher membrane stability, and in this way mitigate water deficit effects in roots of cucumber seedlings.

  2. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A1, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins. PMID:27322290

  3. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-06-17

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A₁ was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A₁, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  4. [Thermal dissipation pathway in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Jia, Yong-xi; Sun, Jin; Wang, Li-ping; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shi-rong

    2011-03-01

    A water culture experiment was conducted to study the relationship between photosynthetic thermal dissipation and xanthophyll cycle in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress (the dissolved oxygen concentration in nutrient solution was 0.9-1.1 mg x L(-1)). Under the hypoxia stress, there was a significant decrease in the quantum yield of PS II photochemistry rate (phi(PS II)), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under saturation light intensity, quanta yield (AQY), and maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), suggesting that the photoinhibition of the seedling leaves was induced. Meanwhile, the thermal dissipation (NPQ) and the allocation of dissipation energy (D) by antenna increased, but the photochemical quenching apparent (q(p)) decreased, suggesting the enhancement of thermal dissipation in cucumber leaves under hypoxia stress. A positive correlation was observed between NPQ and xanthophyll de-epoxidation state (DEPS), and both of them were promoted by ascorbic acid (AsA) and inhibited by 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that xanthophyll cycle was the major pathway of photosynthetic thermal dissipation in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress.

  5. Sampling plan for Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on cucumber.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Leandro; Picanço, Marcelo C; Moura, Marcelo F; Semeão, Altair A; Fernandes, Flávio L; Morais, Elisangela G F

    2008-01-01

    This work determines the best technique, sampling unit and the number of samples to compose a sampling plan for Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Thrips palmi (Karny) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on cucumber. The efficacy of three sampling techniques: leaf beating on a plastic tray, direct counting of insects on the lower leaf surface, and whole leaf collection in bags were compared in nine commercial cucumber crops using three sampling units (a leaf from a branch located in the apical, median or basal third of the canopy). The number of samples was determined based on the relative variance and the economic precision for the best technique and sampling unit. The direct counting of insects on the apical third of the plant canopy was the best sampling technique for F. schultzei based on one leaf surveyed per plant using 38 plants per field. The best sampling technique for T. palmi was the leaf beating on a tray using one leaf of the apical third per plant and 35 plants per field. When joining both species, the best sampling system was the direct counting on the apical third, and it requires sampling one leaf per plant using at least 35 plants per field. These results facilitate the decision-making for the management of thrips on cucumber and aggregate the benefits of the correct decision for the adoption of strategies for population reduction.

  6. The complex character of photosynthesis in cucumber fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xiaolei; Shan, Nan; Hu, Liping; Yu, Changqing; Ren, Huazhong; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The surface area of a mature green cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) fruit is comparable with that of a functional leaf, but the characteristics of fruit photosynthesis and its contribution to growth are poorly understood. Here, the photosynthetic properties of two genotypes of cucumber (dark green and light green fruits) were studied using a combination of electron microscopy, immunogold enzyme localization, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, isotope tracer, and fruit darkening techniques. Chlorophyll content of the exocarp is similar to that of leaves, but there are no distinctive palisade and spongy tissues. The efficiency of PSII is similar to that in leaves, but with lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is found mainly in the exocarp, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is primarily localized to vascular bundles and placenta tissue. Rubisco and PEPC expression at both transcriptional and translational levels increases concurrently during fruit growth. The contribution of fruit photosynthesis in exocarp to its own C accumulation is 9.4%, while ~88% of respiratory CO2 in fruit was captured and re-fixed. Photosynthesis by cucumber fruits, through direct fixation of atmospheric CO2 and recapture of respired CO2, as verified by 14CO2 uptake and gas exchange, makes an important contribution to fruit growth. PMID:28369547

  7. The Arabidopsis Cop9 signalosome subunit 4 (CNS4) is involved in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Pacurar, Daniel Ioan; Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara; Lakehal, Abdellah; Pacurar, Andrea Mariana; Ranjan, Alok; Bellini, Catherine

    2017-04-04

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an evolutionary conserved multiprotein complex that regulates many aspects of plant development by controlling the activity of CULLIN-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). CRLs ubiquitinate and target for proteasomal degradation a vast number of specific substrate proteins involved in many developmental and physiological processes, including light and hormone signaling and cell division. As a consequence of CSN pleiotropic function, complete loss of CSN activity results in seedling lethality. Therefore, a detailed analysis of CSN physiological functions in adult Arabidopsis plants has been hampered by the early seedling lethality of csn null mutants. Here we report the identification and characterization of a viable allele of the Arabidopsis COP9 signalosome subunit 4 (CSN4). The allele, designated csn4-2035, suppresses the adventitious root (AR) phenotype of the Arabidopsis superroot2-1 mutant, potentially by altering its auxin signaling. Furthermore, we show that although the csn4-2035 mutation affects primary and lateral root (LR) formation in the 2035 suppressor mutant, CSN4 and other subunits of the COP9 complex seem to differentially control AR and LR development.

  8. Characterization of a type-A response regulator differentially expressed during adventitious caulogenesis in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, José M; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2012-12-15

    The molecular cloning and characterization of PipsRR1, a type-A response regulator in Pinus pinaster, is reported here. Type-A response regulators mediate downstream responses to cytokinin and act as negative feedback regulators of the signal transduction pathway. Some type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis have been related to de novo meristem formation. However, little information exists in Pinus spp. The PipsRR1 gene contains 5 exons, as do all type-A response regulators in Arabidopsis, and the deduced protein contains a receiver domain with the conserved DDK residues and a short C terminal extension. Expression analysis showed that the PipsRR1 gene is differentially expressed during the first phases of adventitious caulogenesis induced by benzyladenine in P. pinaster cotyledons, suggesting that PipsRR1 plays a role in caulogenesis in conifers. Additionally, a binary vector carrying the PipsRR1 promoter driving GFP:GUS expression was constructed to analyze the promoter activity in P. pinaster somatic embryos. The results of genetic transformation showed GUS activity during somatic embryo mass proliferation and embryo maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid flooding-induced adventitious root development from preformed primordia in Solanum dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Thikra; Rieu, Ivo; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Derksen, Emiel B.; Mariani, Celestina; Visser, Eric J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Flooding is a common stress factor in both natural and agricultural systems, and affects plant growth by the slow diffusion rate of gases in water. This results in low oxygen concentrations in submerged tissues, and hence in a decreased respiration rate. Understanding the responses of plants to flooding is essential for the management of wetland ecosystems, and may benefit research to improve the flood tolerance of crop species. This study describes the response to partial submergence of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara). Bittersweet is a Eurasian species that grows both in dry habitats such as coastal dunes, and in wetlands, and therefore is a suitable model plant for studying responses to a variety of environmental stresses. A further advantage is that the species is closely related to flood-intolerant crops such as tomato and eggplant. The species constitutively develops dormant primordia on the stem, which we show to have a predetermined root identity. We investigated adventitious root growth from these primordia during flooding. The synchronized growth of roots from the primordia was detected after 2–3 days of flooding and was due to a combination of cell division and cell elongation. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the molecular response to flooding began within 2 h and included activation of hypoxia and ethylene signalling genes. Unexpectedly, these early changes in gene expression were very similar in primordia and adjacent stem tissue, suggesting that there is a dominant general response in tissues during early flooding. PMID:24790121

  10. Early action of pea symbiotic gene NOD3 is confirmed by adventitious root phenotype.

    PubMed

    Novák, Karel

    2010-11-01

    A supernodulating and Nts (nitrate-tolerant symbiosis) symbiotic mutation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) line RisfixC was found to retain its expression in the distant genetic background of pea lines Afghanistan L1268, Zhodino E900, and cv. Arvika. This finding allowed for reliable scoring for the trait in mapping crosses. The RisfixC mutation was localized 8.2cM apart from SYM2 and cosegregated with molecular markers for SYM2-NOD3 region Psc923 and OA-1. Grafting experiments showed that supernodulation is root-determined, consistently with mutants in the NOD3 locus. Therefore, the mutation of RisfixC can be localized in gene NOD3. Like in other published nod3 alleles, the RisfixC mutation determines supernodulation when it is expressed in the root but not in the shoot. Supernodulated adventitious roots that are spontaneously formed in the wild-type scions on mutant rootstocks indicate that the descending systemic signal, which is inhibitory to nodule formation, is absent in this type of chimeric plants. Since the descending signal production in the wild-type shoot reflects the presence of the ascending root signal, the nod3-associated lesion must be located in the beginning of the systemic circuit regulating nodule number. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of miRNAs and Their Targets during Adventitious Shoot Organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lingyu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Fei; Wang, Weixuan; Liang, Di; Yang, Hailun; Jin, Yi; Xie, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    Organogenesis is an important process for plant regeneration by tissue or cell mass differentiation to regenerate a complete plant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in regulating plant development by mediating target genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, but the diversity of miRNAs and their potential roles in organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa have rarely been investigated. In this study, approximately 10 million sequence reads were obtained from a small RNA library, from which 189 conserved miRNAs from 57 miRNA families, and 7 novel miRNAs from 5 families, were identified from A. crassicarpa organogenetic tissues. Target prediction for these miRNAs yielded 237 potentially unique genes, of which 207 received target Gene Ontology annotations. On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis, one novel and 13 conserved miRNAs were selected to investigate their possible roles in A. crassicarpa organogenesis by qRT-PCR. The stage-specific expression patterns of the miRNAs provided information on their possible regulatory functions, including shoot bud formation, modulated function after transfer of the culture to light, and regulatory roles during induction of organogenesis. This study is the first to investigate miRNAs associated with A. crassicarpa organogenesis. The results provide a foundation for further characterization of miRNA expression profiles and roles in the regulation of diverse physiological pathways during adventitious shoot organogenesis of A. crassicarpa. PMID:24718555

  12. High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Martinez-Alonso, Montserrat; Belart, Montserrat; Vilar, Ana; Martín, Marisa; Craver, Lourdes; Betriu, Àngels; Mauricio, Dídac; Valdivielso, José Manuel; Fernández, Elvira; Borràs, Mercè

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV) surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1) evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2) explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D) and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT) were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.

  13. High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Alonso, Montserrat; Belart, Montserrat; Vilar, Ana; Martín, Marisa; Craver, Lourdes; Betriu, Àngels; Valdivielso, José Manuel; Fernández, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV) surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1) evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2) explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D) and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT) were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients. PMID:28133420

  14. Differential regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in varicella zoster virus-infected human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Rempel, April; Wyborny, Ann; Stenmark, Kurt; Gilden, Don

    2015-11-15

    Upon reactivation, varicella zoster virus (VZV) spreads transaxonally, infects cerebral arteries and causes ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, as well as aneurysms. The mechanism(s) of VZV-induced aneurysm formation is unknown. However, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which digest extracellular structural proteins in the artery wall, play a role in cerebral and aortic artery aneurysm formation and rupture. Here, we examined the effect of VZV infection on expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -9 in primary human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts (BRAFS). At 6 days post-infection, VZV- and mock-infected BRAFs were analyzed for mRNA levels of MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9 by RT-PCR and for corresponding total intra- and extracellular protein levels by multiplex ELISA. The activity of MMP-1 was also measured in a substrate cleavage assay. Compared to mock-infected BRAFs, MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 transcripts, cell lysate protein and conditioned supernatant protein were all increased in VZV-infected BRAFs, whereas MMP-2 transcripts, cell lysate protein and conditioned supernatant protein were decreased. MMP-1 from the conditioned supernatant of VZV-infected BRAFs showed increased cleavage activity on an MMP-1-specific substrate compared to mock-infected BRAFs. Differential regulation of MMPs in VZV-infected BRAFs may contribute to aneurysm formation in VZV vasculopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of polar auxin transport on adventitious branches formation in Gracilaria lichenoides in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenlei; Li, Huanqin; Lin, Xiangzhi; Zhang, Fang; Fang, Baishan; Wang, Zhaokai

    2016-11-01

    Seaweed tissue culture (STC) is an important micropropagation tool that has been applied for strain improvement, micropropagation and genetic engineering. Because the mechanisms associated with STC are poorly understood, its application to these organisms lags far behind that of tissue culture propagation of higher plants. Auxin, calcium (Ca(2+) ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) fluxes all play key roles during plant growth and development. In this study, we therefore measured indole-3-acetic acid, Ca(2+) and H2 O2 fluxes of Gracilaria lichenoides explants during adventitious branches (ABs) formation for the first time using noninvasive micro-test technology. We confirmed that polar auxin transport (PAT) also occurs in the marine red alga G. lichenoides. We additionally found that N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid may suppress auxin efflux via ABCB1 transporters and then inhibit ABs formation from the apical region of G. lichenoides segments. The involvement of Ca(2+) and H2 O2 fluxes in PAT-mediated AB formation in G. lichenoides was also investigated. We propose that complex feedback among Ca(2+) , H2 O2 and auxin signaling and response systems may occur during ABs polar formation in G. lichenoides explants, similar to that in higher plants. Our results provide innovative insights that should aid future elucidation of mechanisms operative during STC.

  16. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Swapnil M; Chandanshive, Vishal V; Rane, Niraj R; Khandare, Rahul V; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2016-04-01

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes.

  17. Cryopreservation of adventitious shoot tips of Paraisometrum mileense by droplet vitrification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang; Yuan, Bin; Wang, Dandan; Lin, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    Gesneriaceae family contains numerous species endemic to China, and many of them are listed as endangered species. There is a need for a simple and efficient method for long-term conservation of these species. The study aimed to establish an efficient procedure for cryopreserving Paraisometrum mileense, a critically endangered species endemic to Yunnan, China. Effects of sucrose concentration of preculture solution, duration of sucrose preculture, duration of plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) treatment, and cold acclimation on regeneration of cryopreserved adventitious shoot tips (ASTs) were assessed. Among different sucrose preculture regimes tested, preculture with 0.3M sucrose for 24h resulted in best regeneration of cryopreserved ASTs. PVS2 treatment also affected regeneration considerably with the maximum survival of ASTs after incubation in PVS2 for 90 min at 0 degrees C. With the optimised parameters, the level of shoot regeneration from cryopreserved ASTs reached 86%. No morphological abnormalities were observed during one year's growth of the plantlets developing from cryopreserved ASTs. Procedure established in this research is a promising technique for the cryopreservation of ASTs of this species.

  18. Percutaneous Image-Guided Aspiration and Sclerosis of Adventitial Cystic Disease of the Femoral Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jason M.; Kiankhooy, Armin; Bertges, Daniel J.; Morris, Christopher S.

    2009-07-15

    Adventitial cystic disease (ACD), also known as cystic mucoid or myxomatous degeneration, is a rare vascular disease mainly seen in arteries. Seventeen cases have been reported in the world literature. We report the first known case of ACD successfully treated with percutaneous image-guided ethanol sclerosis. Computed tomography showed a cystic mass adherent to the wall of the common femoral vein. An ultrasound examination revealed a deep venous thrombosis of the leg, secondary to extrinsic compression of the common femoral vein. Three years prior to our procedure, the cyst was aspirated, which partially relieved the patient's symptoms. Over the following 3 years the patient's symptoms worsened and a 10-cm discrepancy in thigh size developed, in addition to the deep venous thrombosis associated with lower-extremity edema. Using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopic control, the cyst was drained and then sclerosed with absolute ethanol. The patient's symptoms and leg swelling resolved completely within several weeks. Follow-up physical examination and duplex ultrasound 6 months following sclerosis demonstrated resolution of the symptoms and elimination of the extrinsic compression effect of the ACD on the common femoral vein.

  19. Rapid flooding-induced adventitious root development from preformed primordia in Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Thikra; Rieu, Ivo; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Derksen, Emiel B; Mariani, Celestina; Visser, Eric J W

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a common stress factor in both natural and agricultural systems, and affects plant growth by the slow diffusion rate of gases in water. This results in low oxygen concentrations in submerged tissues, and hence in a decreased respiration rate. Understanding the responses of plants to flooding is essential for the management of wetland ecosystems, and may benefit research to improve the flood tolerance of crop species. This study describes the response to partial submergence of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara). Bittersweet is a Eurasian species that grows both in dry habitats such as coastal dunes, and in wetlands, and therefore is a suitable model plant for studying responses to a variety of environmental stresses. A further advantage is that the species is closely related to flood-intolerant crops such as tomato and eggplant. The species constitutively develops dormant primordia on the stem, which we show to have a predetermined root identity. We investigated adventitious root growth from these primordia during flooding. The synchronized growth of roots from the primordia was detected after 2-3 days of flooding and was due to a combination of cell division and cell elongation. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the molecular response to flooding began within 2 h and included activation of hypoxia and ethylene signalling genes. Unexpectedly, these early changes in gene expression were very similar in primordia and adjacent stem tissue, suggesting that there is a dominant general response in tissues during early flooding.

  20. Comparative transcriptional analysis provides new insights into the molecular basis of adventitious rooting recalcitrance in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; de Bastiani, Daniela; Gaeta, Marcos Letaif; de Araújo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto; de Costa, Fernanda; Retallick, Jeffrey; Nolan, Lana; Tai, Helen H; Strömvik, Martina V; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-10-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is essential in clonal propagation. Eucalyptus globulus is relevant for the cellulose industry due to its low lignin content. However, several useful clones are recalcitrant to AR, often requiring exogenous auxin, adding cost to clonal garden operations. In contrast, E. grandis is an easy-to-root species widely used in clonal forestry. Aiming at contributing to the elucidation of recalcitrance causes in E. globulus, we conducted a comparative analysis with these two species differing in rooting competence, combining gene expression and anatomical techniques. Recalcitrance in E. globulus is reversed by exposure to exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which promotes important gene expression modifications in both species. The endogenous content of IAA was significantly higher in E. grandis than in E. globulus. The cambium zone was identified as an active area during AR, concentrating the first cell divisions. Immunolocalization assay showed auxin accumulation in cambium cells, further indicating the importance of this region for rooting. We then performed a cambium zone-specific gene expression analysis during AR using laser microdissection. The results indicated that the auxin-related genes TOPLESS and IAA12/BODENLOS and the cytokinin-related gene ARR1may act as negative regulators of AR, possibly contributing to the hard-to-root phenotype of E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sampling and modeling for the quantification of adventitious genetically modified presence in maize.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, Theodore Richard; Dwyer, Mark; McMillan, Jillian; Henry, Christine; Langrell, Stephen

    2008-05-14

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM crops is an important economic and political issue in the European Union. We examined the GM content in non-GM maize crops in Spain in 2005. Both the standing crop and the harvest were tested, and the %GM DNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We compared the level of GM as a function of distance from known GM source fields in a 1.2 km2 landscape. The distribution of GM was compared to predictions from previous studies, and good agreement was found. Control and monitoring of adventitious GM presence in non-GM crops can only be achieved by fit-for-purpose sampling and testing schemes. We used a GM dispersal function to simulate non-GM crops in the studied zone and tested the accuracy of five different sampling schemes. Random sampling was found to be the most accurate and least susceptible to bias by GM spatial structure or gradients. Simulations showed that to achieve greater than 95% confidence in a GM labeling decision of a harvest (when treated as a single marketed lot), 34 samples would be needed when the harvest was outside 50% of the GM threshold value. The number of samples required increased rapidly as the harvest approached the GM threshold, implying that accurate labeling when the harvest is within +/-17% of the threshold may not be possible with high confidence.

  2. A Co-Opted Hormonal Cascade Activates Dormant Adventitious Root Primordia upon Flooding in Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Thikra; Yang, Xinping; Visser, Eric J W; Te Beek, Tim A H; Kensche, Philip R; Cristescu, Simona M; Lee, Sangseok; Floková, Kristýna; Nguyen, Duy; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR primordium reactivation in the dicot species Solanum dulcamara Transcriptome analysis indicated that flooding imposes a state of quiescence on the stem tissue, while increasing cellular activity in the AR primordia. Flooding led to ethylene accumulation in the lower stem region and subsequently to a drop in abscisic acid (ABA) level in both stem and AR primordia tissue. Whereas ABA treatment prevented activation of AR primordia by flooding, inhibition of ABA synthesis was sufficient to activate them in absence of flooding. Together, this reveals that there is a highly tissue-specific response to reduced ABA levels. The central role for ABA in the response differentiates the pathway identified here from the AR emergence pathway known from rice (Oryza sativa). Flooding and ethylene treatment also induced expression of the polar auxin transporter PIN2, and silencing of this gene or chemical inhibition of auxin transport inhibited primordium activation, even though ABA levels were reduced. Auxin treatment, however, was not sufficient for AR emergence, indicating that the auxin pathway acts in parallel with the requirement for ABA reduction. In conclusion, adaptation of S. dulcamara to wet habitats involved co-option of a hormonal signaling cascade well known to regulate shoot growth responses, to direct a root developmental program upon soil flooding.

  3. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established.

  4. Distribution of myofibroblast and tenascin-C in cystic adventitial disease: comparison with ganglion.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Nishida, Naoki; Kawakami, Rika; Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Hirota, Seiichi

    2013-12-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare peripheral artery disorder which shows the development of gelatinous cysts in the adventitia. Although several theories for the pathogenesis of CAD have been postulated, the etiology of CAD remains unclear. Histological examination of three CAD cases revealed that these cyst walls were composed of fibrous tissue and lacked both epithelial and endothelial lining. The surfaces of these cysts were partially covered with spindle-shaped cells, similar to the interstitial cells within the cyst wall. A pool of mucinous material in the adventitia was evident. Distribution of vimentin-positive spindle-shaped cells and scattered CD68-positive oval-shaped cells in the cyst wall was revealed by immunohistochemistry. A part of vimentin-positive spindle-shaped cells demonstrated to be positive for α-smooth muscle actin, indicating the presence of myofibroblasts in the cyst wall. A focal tenascin-C-positive area was observed in the cyst wall of our CAD cases. Presence of two different cell types, proliferation of myofibroblasts and expression of tenascin-C were consistent with those of cyst walls of 20 surgically resected ganglions. These results suggest that CAD may arise as capsular synovial structures, similar to ganglion cysts.

  5. Excessive Adventitial Remodeling Leads to Early Aortic Maladaptation in Angiotensin-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bersi, Mathew R; Bellini, Chiara; Wu, Jing; Montaniel, Kim R C; Harrison, David G; Humphrey, Jay D

    2016-05-01

    The primary function of central arteries is to store elastic energy during systole and to use it to sustain blood flow during diastole. Arterial stiffening compromises this normal mechanical function and adversely affects end organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys. Using an angiotensin II infusion model of hypertension in wild-type mice, we show that the thoracic aorta exhibits a dramatic loss of energy storage within 2 weeks that persists for at least 4 weeks. This diminished mechanical functionality results from increased structural stiffening as a result of an excessive accumulation of adventitial collagen, not a change in the intrinsic stiffness of the wall. A detailed analysis of the transmural biaxial wall stress suggests that the exuberant production of collagen results more from an inflammatory response than from a mechano-adaptation, hence reinforcing the need to control inflammation, not just blood pressure. Although most clinical assessments of arterial stiffening focus on intimal-medial thickening, these results suggest a need to measure and control the highly active and important adventitia. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Evidence for a disease complex between Pythium aphanidermatum and root-knot nematodes in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field trial in 2012 indicated a possible disease complex between Pythium aphanidermatum and the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita in cucumber. Two growth chamber trials were conducted to investigate this potential disease complex. Treatments included inoculating nine-day-old cucumbe...

  7. Determination of germination quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed by LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: We developed a viability evaluation method for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Methods: Reflectance spectra of cucumber seeds in the 400 to 1000 nm range were collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED ill...

  8. A truncated F-box protein confers the dwarfism in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dwarfism is an important plant architecture trait for cucumber breeding. In the present study, we identified a dwarf mutant 406M in cucumber which showed a shorter internode length as compared with its wild type. In a BC1F2 population from the cross of 406M with its wild type parental line 406, the ...

  9. Survival of Salmonella Newport on whole and fresh-cut cucumbers treated with lytic bacteriophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) has led to foodborne outbreaks in the U.S. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to Salmonella spp. contamination during growing and harvesting. The application of lytic bacteriophages specific for Salmonella spp...

  10. Reduction of Salmonella populations on cucumber fruit by application of lytic bacteriophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Foodborne illness outbreaks of Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) in the U.S. in 2014 and 2015 sickened over 1000 people and caused 5 deaths. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to Salmonella contamination during growing and harvestin...

  11. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  12. First Complete Genome Sequence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Isolated from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Roger A. C.; Coutts, Brenda A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present here the first complete genome sequence of the tobamovirus Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) from Australia, obtained from an infected cucumber plant. Compared with other CGMMV genomes, its closest nucleotide identities were 99.6% to KP772568, 99.3% to KF155229, and 99.1% to DQ767631 from Canada, Israel, and India, respectively. PMID:28336589

  13. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  14. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  15. Metabolic footprinting of Lactobacillus buchneri strain LA1147 during anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lactobacillus buchneri has recently been associated with anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers due to its ability to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. However, we have limited knowledge of other chemical components in fermented cucumber that may be related to spoilage ...

  16. Identification of five sea cucumber species through PCR-RFLP analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yingchun; Zheng, Rong; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Yuming; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food and Chinese medicine in Asia. The rapid expansion of sea cucumber market has resulted in various problems, such as commercial fraud and mislabeling. Conventionally, sea cucumber species could be distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characteristics; however, their identification becomes difficult when they are processed. The aim of this study was to develop a new convenient method of identifying and distinguishing sea cucumber species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene ( COI) was used to identifing five sea cucumber species ( Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria frondosa, Thelenota ananas, Parastichopus californicus and Actinopyga lecanora). A 692 bp fragment of COI was searched for BamHI, KpnI, PstI, XbaI and Eco31I restriction sites with DNAMAN 6.0, which were then used to PCR-RFLP analysis. These five sea cucumber species can be discriminated from mixed sea cucumbers. The developed PCR-RFLP assay will facilitate the identification of sea cucumbers, making their source tracing and quality controlling feasible.

  17. Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report briefly summarizes the three studies performed in 2009 on cucumber defect detection. Hyperspectral imaging transmittance mode has demonstrated great potential for online sorting and grading of cucumbers and pickles. However, the technique is still limited by its speed in acquiring and pr...

  18. Rhizoctonia belly rot in cucumber fruit using Rhizoctonia solani isolated from sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumbers are grown in rotation with sugar beets in some areas in Michigan but their interaction with important diseases affecting sugar beets is not well known. Cucumbers are known to be primarily susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, but little is known about their susceptibility to AG 2-2 isola...

  19. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  20. Fine genetic mapping of target leaf spot resistance gene cca-3 in cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The target leaf spot (TLS) is a very important fungal disease in cucumber. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of a recessively inherited resistance gene, cca-2 against TLS with 1,083 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucumber inbred line D31 and the susceptible line D5. Initial mapp...

  1. Transcriptomic and QTL analysis suggest candidate fruit shape factors in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit size and shape are important determinants of market class and value in cucumber; however, underlying mechanisms regulating size and shape have not been identified. To gain insight into possible factors regulating cucumber fruit growth, we used a combined QTL and transcriptome approach to exami...

  2. QTL mapping for downy mildew resistance in cucumber inbred line WI7120 (PI 330628)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Downy mildew (DM) is the most devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. The molecular mechanism of DM resistance in cucumber is poorly understood, and use of marker-assisted breeding for DM resistance is not widely available. Here we reported QTL mapping of DM resistance with 243 F2:3 famili...

  3. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chilling temperatures (<10 degrees C) may cause damage to Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  4. Comparative mapping of ZYMV resistances in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Katzir, N; Brotman, Y; King, J; Bertrand, F; Havey, M

    2004-08-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) routinely causes significant losses in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) and melon ( Cucumis melo L.). ZYMV resistances from the cucumber population 'TMG1' and the melon plant introduction (PI) 414723 show different modes of inheritance and their genetic relationships are unknown. We used molecular markers tightly linked to ZYMV resistances from cucumber and melon for comparative mapping. A 5-kb genomic region (YCZ-5) cosegregating with the zym locus of cucumber was cloned and sequenced to reveal single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels distinguishing alleles from ZYMV-resistant (TMG1) and susceptible (Straight 8) cucumbers. A low-copy region of the YCZ-5 clone was hybridized to bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of melon and a 180-kb contig assembled. One end of this melon contig was mapped in cucumber and cosegregated with ZYMV resistance, demonstrating that physically linked regions in melon show genetic linkage in cucumber. However the YCZ-5 region segregated independently of ZYMV resistance loci in two melon families. These results establish that these sources of ZYMV resistances from cucumber TMG1 and melon PI414723 are likely non-syntenic.

  5. [Effects of wheat root exudates on cucumber growth and soil fungal community structure].

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-Zhi; Li, Min; Cao, Peng; Ma, Ya-Fei; Wang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    With wheat as the donor plant and cucumber as the receptor plant, this study investigated the effects of root exudates from wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials (positive or negative) and companion cropping with wheat on soil fungal community structure by PCR-DGGE method and cucumber growth. Results showed that the wheat root exudates with positive allelopathic potential increased height and stem diameter of cucumber seedlings significantly, compared to the control seedlings (W) after 6 days and 12 days treatment, respectively. Also, wheat root exudates with both positive and negative allelopathic potential increased the seedling height of cucumber significantly after 18 days treatment. The wheat root exudates with different allelopathic potentials decreased the band number, Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungal community significantly in cucumber seedling rhizosphere, and those in the soil with the control seedlings (W) were also significantly higher than that in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 6 days treatment. The band number, Shannon and evenness indices in all the treatments were significantly higher than those in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 18 days treatment. Companion cropping with negative allelopathic potential wheat decreased the Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungi community significantly in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere, suggesting the wheat root exudates and companion cropping with wheat changed soil fungal community structure in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere. The results of DGGE map and the principal component analysis showed that companion cropping with wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials changed soil fungal community structure in cucumber seedling rhizosphere.

  6. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Powdery mildew is a serious fungal disease of cucumber and other cucurbot crops in the US and many other parts of the world. Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber are not well understood. In a three-y...

  7. Pentatricopeptide repeat 336 as the candidate gene for paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a useful plant to study organellar-nuclear interactions because its three genomes show differential transmission: bi-parental nuclear, maternal chloroplast and paternal mitochondrial (mt). The mt DNA of cucumber is relatively large due in part to accumulation of rep...

  8. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( P<0.05). Energy budget of the animals showed that the food energy spent on respiration was much greater (about four folds) but energy deposited for growth was much less for (initially) smaller than for larger A. japonicus. The present result implies that there are obvious genetic differences among the sea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  9. Genome sequencing, genetic diversity and field detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using LAMP technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The recent outbreaks of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus on cucumber, melon and watermelon in Australia, Canada, and the U.S. highlight the importance in implementing a cleaned seed program to manage this seed-borne virus from introduction. Both Canadian and Australian isolates were closely relate...

  10. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  11. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber is susceptible to many foliage diseases. Although candidate genes for resistances to several pathogens in cucumber have been reported, the underlying defence mechanisms remain unclear. The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) proteins are a group of plant-specific transcription factors that ha...

  12. Biological characteristics and pathogenicity of a highly pathogenic Shewanella marisflavi infected sea cucumber (Apostichopus uaponicus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shewanella marisflavi isolate AP629 was characterized as a novel pathogen of sea cucumber. The LD50 values (14 days) in sea cucumber and swordtail fish were 3.89 × 106 and 4.85 × 104 CFU g-1 body weight, respectively. Studies on S. marisflavi had been conducted, including morphology, physiological a...

  13. Evaluation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic softening in low salt cucumber fermentations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Retention of a firm, crisp fruit texture is a major consideration for pickled vegetables including pickles made from fermented cucumbers. It is known that cucumbers soften rapidly when fermented at low salt concentrations (<3%) without added calcium. This study has shown that there is non-enzymati...

  14. First complete genome sequence of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus isolate in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nt) of an emerging Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of sRNA and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity to the Asian genotype, but only 90% t...

  15. Virus particles of cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus move systemically in the phloem of infected cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Simón-Buela, L; García-Arenal, F

    1999-02-01

    Systemic movement through the phloem of infected host plants is a key process in the life cycle of plant viruses, knowledge of which is scant. A main point to be elucidated is the structural form in which virus infection moves within the phloem. Indirect evidence suggests that virions might be the viral structure that moves in the phloem, but data from direct analysis in phloem sap have not been reported. We have done such analysis in the system cucumber (from which phloem exudate can be collected)/cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus (CGMMV). CGMMV has structurally well-characterized particles. Both CGMMV coat protein and RNA were found in phloem exudate from infected cucumbers. Analysis of the accessibility of CGMMV RNA in phloem exudate to RNase A indicates that it is protected within a ribonucleoprotein structure. The accessibility to RNase A of the RNA in these structures was as in virus particles. Centrifugation analyses showed that the ribonucleoprotein structures in the phloem exudate have the same mass and isopycnic density as virions. Virus particles indistinguishable from purified virions were detected by electron microscopy in phloem exudate. No evidence of free RNA or other CGMMV-related structure was found in phloem exudate of infected plants. These results indicate that CGMMV movement in the phloem occurs mainly, if not exclusively, in the form of virus particles.

  16. Expression patterns of genes encoding plasma membrane aquaporins during fruit development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Ren; Li, Dianbo; Xu, Fengfeng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Bin; Mao, Ai-Jun; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels precisely regulating water movement through cell membranes in most living organisms. Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit development, their participation during fruit development in cucumber still barely understood. In this paper, the expressions of 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analyzed during cucumber fruit development in our work. Based on the homology search with known PIPs from rice, Arabidopsis and strawberry, 12 cucumber PIP genes subfamily members were identified. Cellular localization assays indicated that CsPIPs were localized in the plasma membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis of CsPIPs showed that 12 CsPIPs were differentially expressed during fruit development. These results suggest that 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) play very important roles in cucumber life cycle and the data generated will be helpful in understanding their precise roles during fruit development in cucumber.

  17. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage.

  18. Influence of light and shoot development stage on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate status during the adventitious root formation in cuttings of Corylus avellana L.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Poni, Stefano; Farinelli, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different part of the shoot can have a different ability to fuel adventitious root formation in cutting stem. The aim of this work was to determine the role of leaf photosynthesis on adventitious root formation in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) (a hard-to-root specie) leafy cuttings and to investigate the possible influence of the shoot developmental stage on cutting rooting and survival in the post-rooting phase. Cutting rooting was closely related to carbohydrate content in cutting stems during the rooting process. Cutting carbohydrate status was positively influenced by leaf photosynthesis during rooting. Non-saturating light exposure of leafy cuttings can contribute to improve photosynthetic activity of leafy cuttings. Collection of cuttings from different part of the mother shoots influenced rooting percentage and this appear related to the different capability to concentrate soluble sugars in the cutting stem during rooting. Adventitious root formation depend on the carbohydrate accumulation at the base of the cutting. Mother shoot developmental stage and leaf photosynthesis appear pivotal factors for adventitious roots formation.

  19. Influence of light and shoot development stage on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate status during the adventitious root formation in cuttings of Corylus avellana L.

    PubMed Central

    Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Poni, Stefano; Farinelli, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different part of the shoot can have a different ability to fuel adventitious root formation in cutting stem. The aim of this work was to determine the role of leaf photosynthesis on adventitious root formation in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) (a hard-to-root specie) leafy cuttings and to investigate the possible influence of the shoot developmental stage on cutting rooting and survival in the post-rooting phase. Cutting rooting was closely related to carbohydrate content in cutting stems during the rooting process. Cutting carbohydrate status was positively influenced by leaf photosynthesis during rooting. Non-saturating light exposure of leafy cuttings can contribute to improve photosynthetic activity of leafy cuttings. Collection of cuttings from different part of the mother shoots influenced rooting percentage and this appear related to the different capability to concentrate soluble sugars in the cutting stem during rooting. Adventitious root formation depend on the carbohydrate accumulation at the base of the cutting. Mother shoot developmental stage and leaf photosynthesis appear pivotal factors for adventitious roots formation. PMID:26635821

  20. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  1. Characterization and expression profiling of cucumber kinesin genes during early fruit development: revealing the roles of kinesins in exponential cell production and enlargement in cucumber fruit

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Wei Jie

    2013-01-01

    Rapid cell division and expansion in early fruit development are important phases for cucumber fruit yield and quality. Kinesin proteins are microtubule-based motors responsible for modulating cell division and enlargement. In this work, the candidate kinesin genes involved in rapid cell division and expansion during cucumber fruit development were investigated. The morphological and cellular changes during early fruit development were compared in four cucumber genotypes with varied fruit size. The correlation between the expression profiles of cucumber kinesin genes and cellular changes in fruit was investigated. Finally, the biochemical characteristics and subcellular localizations of three candidate kinesins were studied. The results clarified the morphological and cellular changes during early cucumber fruit development. This study found that CsKF2–CsKF6 were positively correlated with rapid cell production; CsKF1 and CsKF7 showed a strongly positive correlation with rapid cell expansion. The results also indicated that CsKF1 localized to the plasma membrane of fast-expanding fruit cells, that CsKF2 might play a role in fruit chloroplast division, and that CsKF3 is involved in the function or formation of phragmoplasts in fruit telophase cells. The results strongly suggest that specific fruit-enriched kinesins are specialized in their functions in rapid cell division and expansion during cucumber fruit development. PMID:24023249

  2. Characterization and expression profiling of cucumber kinesin genes during early fruit development: revealing the roles of kinesins in exponential cell production and enlargement in cucumber fruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Wei Jie; Liu, Xiao Ling; Zhang, Xiao Meng; Yu, Hong Jun; Huang, San Wen; Liu, Guo Qin

    2013-11-01

    Rapid cell division and expansion in early fruit development are important phases for cucumber fruit yield and quality. Kinesin proteins are microtubule-based motors responsible for modulating cell division and enlargement. In this work, the candidate kinesin genes involved in rapid cell division and expansion during cucumber fruit development were investigated. The morphological and cellular changes during early fruit development were compared in four cucumber genotypes with varied fruit size. The correlation between the expression profiles of cucumber kinesin genes and cellular changes in fruit was investigated. Finally, the biochemical characteristics and subcellular localizations of three candidate kinesins were studied. The results clarified the morphological and cellular changes during early cucumber fruit development. This study found that CsKF2-CsKF6 were positively correlated with rapid cell production; CsKF1 and CsKF7 showed a strongly positive correlation with rapid cell expansion. The results also indicated that CsKF1 localized to the plasma membrane of fast-expanding fruit cells, that CsKF2 might play a role in fruit chloroplast division, and that CsKF3 is involved in the function or formation of phragmoplasts in fruit telophase cells. The results strongly suggest that specific fruit-enriched kinesins are specialized in their functions in rapid cell division and expansion during cucumber fruit development.

  3. Cucumber ECERIFERUM1 (CsCER1), which influences the cuticle properties and drought tolerance of cucumber, plays a key role in VLC alkanes biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjiao; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chong; Ren, Jiaojiao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Black, Kezia; Gai, Xinshuang; Wang, Qian; Ren, Huazhong

    2015-02-01

    Most land plants have a wax layer which covers their aerial parts to protect them from environmental stresses, such as drought, UV radiation, and pathogenic invasion. The wax biosynthesis has been well studied previously in Arabidopsis, but it still remains elusive in cucumber. Here, we isolated a CER1 homolog CsCER1 in cucumber, and we found that the expression of CsCER1 in the cucumber line 3401 which shows waxy fruit phenotype is much higher than that in the cucumber line 3413 which displays glossy fruit phenotype. Spatial and temporal expression analyses revealed that CsCER1 is specifically expressed in the epidermis where waxes are synthesized, and sub-cellular location showed that CsCER1 protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression of CsCER1 can be induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress and abscisic acid. In addition, abnormal expressions of CsCER1 in transgenic cucumber plants have dramatic effects on very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes biosynthesis, cuticle permeability, and drought resistance. Our data suggested that CsCER1 plays an important role in VLC alkanes biosynthesis in cucumber.

  4. Novel approach to continuous adventitious respiratory sound analysis for the assessment of bronchodilator response

    PubMed Central

    Fiz, José Antonio; Martínez-Rivera, Carlos; Torrents, Aurora; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Jané, Raimon

    2017-01-01

    Background A thorough analysis of continuous adventitious sounds (CAS) can provide distinct and complementary information about bronchodilator response (BDR), beyond that provided by spirometry. Nevertheless, previous approaches to CAS analysis were limited by certain methodology issues. The aim of this study is to propose a new integrated approach to CAS analysis that contributes to improving the assessment of BDR in clinical practice for asthma patients. Methods Respiratory sounds and flow were recorded in 25 subjects, including 7 asthma patients with positive BDR (BDR+), assessed by spirometry, 13 asthma patients with negative BDR (BDR-), and 5 controls. A total of 5149 acoustic components were characterized using the Hilbert spectrum, and used to train and validate a support vector machine classifier, which distinguished acoustic components corresponding to CAS from those corresponding to other sounds. Once the method was validated, BDR was assessed in all participants by CAS analysis, and compared to BDR assessed by spirometry. Results BDR+ patients had a homogenous high change in the number of CAS after bronchodilation, which agreed with the positive BDR by spirometry, indicating high reversibility of airway obstruction. Nevertheless, we also found an appreciable change in the number of CAS in many BDR- patients, revealing alterations in airway obstruction that were not detected by spirometry. We propose a categorization for the change in the number of CAS, which allowed us to stratify BDR- patients into three consistent groups. From the 13 BDR- patients, 6 had a high response, similar to BDR+ patients, 4 had a noteworthy medium response, and 1 had a low response. Conclusions In this study, a new non-invasive and integrated approach to CAS analysis is proposed as a high-sensitive tool for assessing BDR in terms of acoustic parameters which, together with spirometry parameters, contribute to improving the stratification of BDR levels in patients with

  5. Ethylene and auxin interaction in the control of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Veloccia, A.; Fattorini, L.; Della Rovere, F.; Sofo, A.; D’Angeli, S.; Betti, C.; Falasca, G.; Altamura, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious roots (ARs) are post-embryonic roots essential for plant survival and propagation. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the auxin that controls AR formation; however, its precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is known to enhance it. Ethylene affects many auxin-dependent processes by affecting IAA synthesis, transport and/or signaling, but its role in AR formation has not been elucidated. This research investigated the role of ethylene in AR formation in dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, and its interaction with IAA/IBA. A number of mutants/transgenic lines were exposed to various treatments, and mRNA in situ hybridizations were carried out and hormones were quantified In the wild-type, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) at 0.1 μM enhanced AR formation when combined with IBA (10 μM), but reduced it when applied alone; this effect did not occur in the ein3eil1 ethylene-insensitive mutant. ACC inhibited the expression of the IAA-biosynthetic genes WEI2, WEI7, and YUC6, but enhanced IBA-to-IAA conversion, as shown by the response of the ech2ibr10 mutant and an increase in the endogenous levels of IAA. The ethylene effect was independent of auxin-signaling by TIR1-AFB2 and IBA-efflux by ABCG carriers, but it was dependent on IAA-influx by AUX1/LAX3. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a crosstalk involving ethylene signaling, IAA-influx, and IBA-to-IAA conversion exists between ethylene and IAA in the control of AR formation. PMID:27831474

  6. SIRT1 Regulates the Inflammatory Response of Vascular Adventitial Fibroblasts through Autophagy and Related Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Rong; Li, Ting-Ting; Jing, Ting; Li, Yan-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Feng; He, Yan-Hao; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Rong; Zhang, Ji-Ye

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that is essential for cellular survival, differentiation, and homeostasis. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, plays a pivotal role in modulation of autophagy. Recent studies found that autophagy was involved in the regulation of inflammatory response. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of SIRT1 on autophagy and inflammation, and whether autophagy can regulate the inflammatory response in vascular adventitial fibroblasts (VAFs). Cell autophagy was evaluated by fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of protein and mRNA were determined by Western blot analysis and real time-PCR. The production of cytokine was detected by ELISA. TNF-α induced autophagy and increased SIRT1 expression in VAFs. SIRT1 activator resveratrol enhanced TNF-α-induced VAF autophagy. In contrast, SIRT1 knockdown attenuated VAF autophagy. Both the Akt inhibitor MK2206 and mTOR inhibitor rapamycin further increased TNF-α-induced VAF autophagy. Furthermore, SIRT1 knockdown increased Akt phosphorylation and inhibited the autophagy in VAFs. However, MK2206 attenuated the effect of SIRT1 knockdown on VAF autophagy. In addition, ingenuity pathway analysis showed that there is a relationship between cell autophagy and inflammation. We found that SIRT1 knockdown increased the expression of NLRP3 and interleukin (IL)-6 and promoted the production of IL-1β in VAFs. Further study showed that autophagy activation decreased the expression of NLRP3 and IL-6 and inhibited the production of IL-1β, whereas autophagy inhibition increased the inflammatory response of VAFs. More importantly, our study showed that autophagy was involved in the degradation of NLRP3 through the autophagy-lysosome pathway. SIRT1 not only regulates VAF autophagy through the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway but also suppresses the inflammatory response of VAFs through autophagy. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. When stress and development go hand in hand: main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Cibele T.; de Almeida, Márcia R.; Ruedell, Carolina M.; Schwambach, Joseli; Maraschin, Felipe S.; Fett-Neto, Arthur G.

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: (a) induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; (b) formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced concentration of cytokinins in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 (transport inhibitor response 1) and ABP1 (Auxin-Binding Protein 1). A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins

  8. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates.

  9. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gssat) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  10. Adventitial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs as Potential Source of MicroRNA Biomarkers for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Spear, Rafaelle; Boytard, Ludovic; Blervaque, Renaud; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Hot, David; Vanhoutte, Jonathan; Staels, Bart; Lemoine, Yves; Lamblin, Nicolas; Pruvot, François-René; Haulon, Stephan; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2015-05-18

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with marked changes in the cellular composition of the aortic wall. This study aims to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression in aneurysmal inflammatory cells isolated by laser microdissection from human tissue samples. The distribution of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells) was evaluated in human AAA biopsies. We observed in half of the samples that adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) with a thickness from 0.5 to 2 mm were located exclusively in the adventitia. Out of the 850 miRNA that were screened by microarray in isolated ATLOs (n = 2), 164 miRNAs were detected in ATLOs. The three miRNAs (miR-15a-3p, miR-30a-5p and miR-489-3p) with the highest expression levels were chosen and their expression quantified by RT-PCR in isolated ATLOs (n = 4), M1 (n = 2) and M2 macrophages (n = 2) and entire aneurysmal biopsies (n = 3). Except for the miR-30a-5p, a similar modulation was found in ATLOs and the two subtypes of macrophages. The modulated miRNAs were then evaluated in the plasma of AAA patients for their potential as AAA biomarkers. Our data emphasize the potential of miR-15a-3p and miR-30a-5p as biomarkers of AAA but also as triggers of ATLO evolution. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their targets in order to better understand AAA pathophysiology.

  11. When stress and development go hand in hand: main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Cibele T; de Almeida, Márcia R; Ruedell, Carolina M; Schwambach, Joseli; Maraschin, Felipe S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: (a) induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; (b) formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced concentration of cytokinins in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 (transport inhibitor response 1) and ABP1 (Auxin-Binding Protein 1). A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins

  12. Partial flooding enhances aeration in adventitious roots of black willow (Salix nigra) cuttings.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuwen; Reza Pezeshki, S; Douglas Shields, F

    2006-04-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra) cuttings are used for streambank stabilization where they are subjected to a range of soil moisture conditions including flooding. Flooding has been shown to adversely impact cutting performance, and improved understanding of natural adaptations to flooding might suggest handling and planting techniques to enhance success. However, data assessing the root aeration in adventitious roots that are developed on cuttings of woody species are scant. In addition, it appears that no data are available regarding aeration of the root system under partially flooded conditions. This experiment was designed to examine the effects of continuous flooding (CF) and partial flooding (PF) on aerenchyma formation and radial oxygen loss (ROL) in black willow cuttings. Photosynthetic and growth responses to these conditions were also investigated. Under laboratory condition, replicated potted cuttings were subjected to three treatments: no flooding (control, C), CF, and PF. Water was maintained above the soil surface in CF and at 10 cm depth in PF. Results indicated that after the 28-d treatments, root porosity ranged between 28.6% and 33.0% for the CF and C plants but was greater for the PF plants (39.2% for the drained and 37.2% for the flooded portions). A similar response pattern was found for ROL. In addition, CF treatment led to decreases in final root biomass and root/shoot ratio. Neither CF nor PF had any detectable adverse effects on plant gas exchange or photosystem II functioning. Our results indicated that S. nigra cuttings exhibited avoidance mechanisms in response to flooding, especially the partially flooded condition which is the most common occurrence in riparian systems.

  13. Galectin-3 Gene Inactivation Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesions and Adventitial Inflammation in ApoE-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigal, Maurice; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mayer, Eugene P.

    2008-01-01

    This study has examined the role of galectin-3 (GaL3), a multicompartmented N-acetyllactosamine-binding chimeric lectin, on atherogenesis in the ApoE-deficient mouse model of atherosclerosis. Pathological changes consisting of atheromatous plaques, atherosclerotic microaneurysms extending into periaortic vascular channels, and adventitial and periaortic inflammatory infiltrates were assessed in an equal number (n = 36) of apolipoprotein (Apo)E-deficient mice and ApoE-GaL3 double-knockout mice. These mice were divided into three age groups, 21 to 23 weeks, 25 to 31 weeks, and 36 to 44 weeks of age. Results of this morphological analysis have shown an age-related increase in the incidence of aorta atheromatous plaques and periaortic vascular channels in ApoE-deficient mice. By contrast ApoE/GaL3 double-knockout mice did not show an increase in pathological changes with age. The 36- to 44-week group of ApoE−/−/GaL3−/− mice had a significantly lower number of atherosclerotic lesions (P < 0.004) and fewer atheromatous plaques (P < 0.008) when compared with ApoE−/−/GaL3+/+ mice of the same age. ApoE−/−/GaL3−/− mice had a lower number of perivascular inflammatory infiltrates and mast cells than those found in ApoE−/−/GaL3+/+ mice. The reduced number of perivascular mast cells may have resulted in a low level of interleukin-4 that contributed to the reduction in the morphological parameters of atherogenesis correlated with the lack of GaL3 expression. The effect of GaL3 deficiency on atherogenesis decrease could be related to its function as a multifunctional protein implicated in macrophage chemotaxis, angiogenesis, lipid loading, and inflammation. PMID:18156214

  14. Protease-activated receptor 1 and 2 contribute to angiotensin II-induced activation of adventitial fibroblasts from rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    He, Rui-Qing; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Bao-Li; Li, Xiao-Dong; Hong, Mo-Na; Chen, Qi-Zhi; Han, Wei-Qing; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2016-04-29

    Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) can be activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and exert pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory effects in vascular remodeling. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 play a significant role in fibrogenic and inflammatory diseases. The present study hypothesized that PAR1 and PAR2 are involved in Ang II-induced AF activation and contribute to adventitial remodeling. We found that direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 with PAR1-AP and PAR2-AP led to AF activation, including proliferation and differentiation of AFs, extracellular matrix synthesis, as well as production of pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, PAR1 and PAR2 mediated Ang II-induced AF activation, since both PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists inhibited Ang II-induced proliferation, migration, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis and production of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in AFs. Finally, mechanistic study showed that Ang II, via Ang II type I receptor (AT1R), upregulated both PAR1 and PAR2 expression, and transactivated PAR1 and PAR2, as denoted by internalization of both proteins. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAR1 and PAR2 play a critical role in Ang II-induced AF activation, and this may contribute to adventitia-related pathological changes. - Highlights: • Direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 led to adventitial fibroblast (AF) activation. • PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists attenuated Ang II-induced AF activation. • Ang II induced the upregulation and transactivation of PAR1/PAR2 in AFs.

  15. Quantitative risk assessment relating to adventitious presence of allergens in food: a probabilistic model applied to peanut in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Rimbaud, Loup; Heraud, Fanny; La Vieille, Sébastien; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Crepet, Amélie

    2010-01-01

    Peanut allergy is a public health concern, owing to the high prevalence in France and the severity of the reactions. Despite peanut-containing product avoidance diets, a risk may exist due to the adventitious presence of peanut allergens in a wide range of food products. Peanut is not mentioned in their ingredients list, but precautionary labeling is often present. A method of quantifying the risk of allergic reactions following the consumption of such products is developed, taking the example of peanut in chocolate tablets. The occurrence of adventitious peanut proteins in chocolate and the dose-response relationship are estimated with a Bayesian approach using available published data. The consumption pattern is described by the French individual consumption survey INCA2. Risk simulations are performed using second-order Monte Carlo simulations, which separately propagates variability and uncertainty of the model input variables. Peanut allergens occur in approximately 36% of the chocolates, leading to a mean exposure level of 0.2 mg of peanut proteins per eating occasion. The estimated risk of reaction averages 0.57% per eating occasion for peanut-allergic adults. The 95% values of the risk stand between 0 and 3.61%, which illustrates the risk variability. The uncertainty, represented by the 95% credible intervals, is concentrated around these risk estimates. Children have similar results. The conclusion is that adventitious peanut allergens induce a risk of reaction for a part of the French peanut-allergic population. The method developed can be generalized to assess the risk due to the consumption of every foodstuff potentially contaminated by allergens.

  16. c-Myb Regulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Adventitial Sca1+ Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Progenitors by Transactivation of Myocardin.

    PubMed

    Shikatani, Eric A; Chandy, Mark; Besla, Rickvinder; Li, Cedric C; Momen, Abdul; El-Mounayri, Omar; Robbins, Clinton S; Husain, Mansoor

    2016-07-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are believed to dedifferentiate and proliferate in response to vessel injury. Recently, adventitial progenitor cells were implicated as a source of VSMCs involved in vessel remodeling. c-Myb is a transcription factor known to regulate VSMC proliferation in vivo and differentiation of VSMCs from mouse embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors in vitro. However, the role of c-Myb in regulating specific adult vascular progenitor cell populations was not known. Our objective was to examine the role of c-Myb in the proliferation and differentiation of Sca1(+) adventitial VSMC progenitor cells. Using mice with wild-type or hypomorphic c-myb (c-myb(h/h)), BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) uptake and flow cytometry revealed defective proliferation of Sca1(+) adventitial VSMC progenitor cells at 8, 14, and 28 days post carotid artery denudation injury in c-myb(h/h) arteries. c-myb(h/h) cKit(+)CD34(-)Flk1(-)Sca1(+)CD45(-)Lin(-) cells failed to proliferate, suggesting that c-myb regulates the activation of specific Sca1(+) progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Although expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 did not vary between wild-type and c-myb(h/h) carotid arteries, in vitro differentiation of c-myb(h/h) Sca1(+) cells manifested defective transforming growth factor-β1-induced VSMC differentiation. This is mediated by reduced transcriptional activation of myocardin because chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed c-Myb binding to the myocardin promoter only during differentiation of Sca1(+) cells, myocardin promoter mutagenesis identified 2 specific c-Myb-responsive binding sites, and adenovirus-mediated expression of myocardin rescued the phenotype of c-myb(h/h) progenitors. These data support a role for c-Myb in the regulation of VSMC progenitor cells and provide novel insight into how c-myb regulates VSMC differentiation through myocardin. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. High Spatial Resolution MRI of Cystic Adventitial Disease of the Iliofemoral Vein Communicating with the Hip Joint

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides, Michael; Pantziara, Maria Ioannidis, Kleanthis

    2013-05-14

    Venous cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is an extremely rare entity, and so far less than 20 cases have been described in the literature. Herein, we describe the imaging findings of CAD of iliofemoral vein in a 51-year-old woman who presented with leg swelling with special emphasis on high spatial resolution MRI, which demonstrated communication of the cyst with the hip joint. To our knowledge, this is the first description of high spatial resolution MRI findings in venous CAD supporting a new theory about the pathogenesis of venous CAD.

  18. Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Claudia I; Yandell, Brian S; Havey, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better-performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. Recombination among repetitive motifs in the cucumber mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. We previously reported nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F(2) family. A total of 425 F(2) plants were genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was therefore analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL; LOD >23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Nuclear genes previously shown to affect the prevalence of mitochondrial DNAs (MSH1, OSB1, and RECA homologs) were not located near this major QTL on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting.

  19. Characteristics of Spoilage-Associated Secondary Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Wendy; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; McFeeters, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (Eh, Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  20. Ultraviolet-C Light Sanitization of English Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Packaged in Polyethylene Film.

    PubMed

    Tarek, Abdussamad R; Rasco, Barbara A; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Food safety is becoming an increasing concern in the United States. This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a postpackaging bactericidal treatment on the quality of English cucumber packaged in polyethylene (PE) film. Escherichia coli k-12 was used as a surrogate microbe. The microbial growth and physical properties of packaged cucumbers were analyzed during a 28-d storage period at 5 °C. Inoculating packaged cucumbers treated at 23 °C for 6 min with UV-C (560 mJ/cm(2) ) resulted in a 1.60 log CFU/g reduction. However, this treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the water vapor transmission rate or oxygen transmission rate of the PE film. Results show that UV-C light treatment delayed the loss of firmness and yellowing of English cucumber up to 28 d at 5 °C. In addition, UV-C light treatment extended the shelf life of treated cucumber 1 wk longer compared to untreated cucumbers. Electron microscopy images indicate that UV-C light treatment influences the morphology of the E. coli k-12 cells. Findings demonstrate that treating cucumbers with UV-C light following packaging in PE film can reduce bacterial populations significantly and delay quality loss. This technology may also be effective for other similarly packaged fresh fruits and vegetables. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. [Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of inorganic elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie

    2011-11-01

    The present study is to investigate the feasibility of multi-elements analysis in determination of the geographical origin of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, and to make choice of the effective tracers in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin assessment. The content of the elements such as Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples from seven places of geographical origin were determined by means of ICP-MS. The results were used for the development of elements database. Cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin. Three principal components which accounted for over 89% of the total variance were extracted from the standardized data. The results of Q-type cluster analysis showed that the 26 samples could be clustered reasonably into five groups, the classification results were significantly associated with the marine distribution of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The CA and PCA were the effective methods for elements analysis of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The content of the mineral elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples was good chemical descriptors for differentiating their geographical origins.

  2. Melatonin Has the Potential to Alleviate Cinnamic Acid Stress in Cucumber Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juanqi; Li, Yang; Tian, Yongqiang; Qu, Mei; Zhang, Wenna; Gao, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    Cinnamic acid (CA), which is a well-known major autotoxin secreted by the roots in cucumber continuous cropping, has been proven to exhibit inhibitory regulation of plant morphogenesis and development. Melatonin (MT) has been recently demonstrated to play important roles in alleviating plant abiotic stresses. To investigate whether MT supplementation could improve cucumber seedling growth under CA stress, we treated cucumber seeds and seedlings with/without MT under CA- or non-stress conditions, and then tested their effects on cucumber seedling growth, morphology, nutrient element content, and plant hormone. Overall, 10 μM MT best rescued cucumber seedling growth under 0.4 mM CA stress. MT was found to alleviate CA-stressed seedling growth by increasing the growth rates of cotyledons and leaves and by stimulating lateral root growth. Additionally, MT increased the allocation of newly gained dry weight in roots and improved the tolerance of cucumber seedlings to CA stress by altering the nutrient elements and hormone contents of the whole plant. These results strongly suggest that the application of MT can effectively improve cucumber seedling tolerance to CA stress through the perception and integration of morphology, nutrient element content and plant hormone signaling crosstalk. PMID:28751899

  3. Antifungal active triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Yi, Yang-Hua; Li, Ling; Liu, Bao-Shu; La, Ming-Ping; Zhang, Hong-Wei

    2009-06-01

    To study the new antifungal active triterpene glycosides of sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. Triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra were separated and purified by silica gel chromatography, reversed-phase silica gel chromatography and RP-HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside A (1), echinoidea A (2) and holothurin A1 (3). Scabraside A (1) is a new triterpene glycoside, and compounds 2 and 3 were isolated from Holothuria scabra for the first time. They showed antifungal activities (1 < or = MIC80 < or = 16 microg mL(-1)).

  4. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins.

  5. Occurrence and biosynthesis of glyoxysomal enzymes in ripening cucumber seeds.

    PubMed

    Frevert, J; Köller, W; Kindl, H

    1980-10-01

    Glyoxysomal enzymes, being necessary during seed germination, are already synthesized at the stage of seed maturation. Two stages of embryogenesis of cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) were investigated. One was characterized by the presence of microbodies showing catalase and enoyl-CoA hydratase activities. Microbodies at a later stage contained, in addition, malate synthase and isocitrate lyase. The biosynthesis of three microbody components was followed in a pulse chase-labelling experiment which demonstrated that the biosynthesis of cytosolic species of malate synthase, isocitrate lyase and enoyl-CoA hydratase preceded the appearance of these proteins in microbodies.

  6. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  7. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500-1300 CE: two routes to Europe.

    PubMed

    Paris, Harry S; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia.

  8. Aquatic adventitious roots of the wetland plant Meionectes brownii can photosynthesize: implications for root function during flooding.

    PubMed

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy David

    2011-04-01

    • Many wetland plants produce aquatic adventitious roots from submerged stems. Aquatic roots can form chloroplasts, potentially producing endogenous carbon and oxygen. Here, aquatic root photosynthesis was evaluated in the wetland plant Meionectes brownii, which grows extensive stem-borne aquatic roots during submergence. • Underwater photosynthetic light and CO(2) response curves were determined for aquatic-adapted leaves, stems and aquatic roots of M. brownii. Oxygen microelectrode and (14)CO(2)-uptake experiments determined shoot inputs of O(2) and photosynthate into aquatic roots. • Aquatic adventitious roots contain a complete photosynthetic pathway. Underwater photosynthetic rates are similar to those of stems, with a maximum net photosynthetic rate (P(max)) of 0.38 μmol O(2) m(-2) s(-1); however, this is c. 30-fold lower than that of aquatic-adapted leaves. Under saturating light with 300 mmol m(-3) dissolved CO(2), aquatic roots fix carbon at 0.016 μmol CO(2) g(-1) DM s(-1). Illuminated aquatic roots do not rely on exogenous inputs of O(2). • The photosynthetic ability of aquatic roots presumably offers an advantage to submerged M. brownii as aquatic roots, unlike sediment roots, need little O(2) and carbohydrate inputs from the shoot when illuminated. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. AtTCTP2 mRNA and protein movement correlates with formation of adventitious roots in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Martínez-Navarro, Angélica Concepción; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Translationally Controlled Tumor Proteins, or TCTP, is a superfamily of exclusively eukaryotic proteins essential in the regulation of proliferation and general growth. However, it is clear that these are multifunctional proteins given (1) the pleiotropic effects of its mutations, and (2), the multiple processes in which this protein is involved. TCTP function in general is conserved, since Arabidopsis AtTCTP1 can rescue a Drosophila mutant, and vice versa. It has become clear, however, that these proteins may have “taxon-specific” functions. In the case of plants, mRNA and/or proteins have been found in the phloem translocation stream of different species, suggesting a role in long-distance signaling. We have found that a second Arabidopsis TCTP gene, AtTCTP2, codes for a protein that moves long-distance through a graft union in tobacco. Interestingly, the mRNA is also transported long-distance. Both mRNA and protein move long-distance; interestingly, the movement, while more efficient from source to sink tissues, also occurs in the opposite direction. The protein reaches the nuclei of parenchyma cells and adventitious roots. Furthermore, it is clear that the long-distance delivery of AtTCTP2 protein and mRNA is required for the induction of adventitious roots. A model is presented that accounts for these observations. PMID:26237533

  10. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Prior to an assessment of the role of aquaporins in root water uptake, the main path of water movement in different types of root and driving forces during day and night need to be known. In the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the two main root types of 14- to 17-d-old plants were analysed for hydraulic conductivity in dependence of the main driving force (hydrostatic, osmotic). Seminal roots contributed 92% and adventitious roots 8% to plant water uptake. The lower contribution of adventitious compared with seminal roots was associated with a smaller surface area and number of roots per plant and a lower axial hydraulic conductance, and occurred despite a less-developed endodermis. The radial hydraulic conductivity of the two types of root was similar and depended little on the prevailing driving force, suggesting that water uptake occurred along a pathway that involved crossing of membrane(s). Exudation experiments showed that osmotic forces were sufficient to support night-time transpiration, yet transpiration experiments and cuticle permeance data questioned the significance of osmotic forces. During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about –0.15 MPa. PMID:20974734

  11. Chronic adventitial inflammation, vasa vasorum expansion, and 5-lipoxygenase up-regulation in irradiated arteries from cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Halle, Martin; Christersdottir, Tinna; Bäck, Magnus

    2016-11-01

    Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease is an emerging problem in a steadily increasing population of survivors of cancer. However, the underlying biology is poorly described, and the late onset, which occurs several years after exposure, precludes adequate investigations in animal and cell culture models. We investigated the role of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)/leukotriene pathway in radiation-induced vascular changes. Use of paired samples of irradiated arteries and nonirradiated internal control arteries from the same patient that were harvested during surgery for cancer reconstruction ≤10 yr after radiotherapy provides a unique human model of chronic radiation-induced vascular changes. Immunohistochemical stainings and perioperative inspection revealed an adventitial inflammatory response, with vasa vasorum expansion and chronic infiltration of CD68(+) macrophages. These macrophages stained positive for the leukotriene-forming enzyme 5-LO. Messenger RNA levels of 5-LO and leukotriene B4 receptor 1 were increased in irradiated arterial segments compared with control vessels. These results point to targeting the 5-LO/leukotriene pathway as a therapeutic adjunct to prevent late adverse vascular effects of radiotherapy.-Halle, M., Christersdottir, T., Bäck, M. Chronic adventitial inflammation, vasa vasorum expansion, and 5-lipoxygenase up-regulation in irradiated arteries from cancer survivors. © The Author(s).

  12. Transcriptome profiling shows gene regulation patterns in ginsenoside pathway in response to methyl jasmonate in Panax Quinquefolium adventitious root

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie; Wu, Xiaolei; Li, Jing; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we combine elicitors and transcriptomics to investigate the inducible biosynthesis of the ginsenoside from the Panax quinquefolium. Treatment of P. quinquefolium adventitious root with methyl jasmonate (MJ) results in an increase in ginsenoside content (43.66 mg/g compared to 8.32 mg/g in control group). Therefore, we sequenced the transcriptome of native and MJ treated adventitious root in order to elucidate the key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Through DEG analysis, we found that 5,759 unigenes were up-regulated and 6,389 unigenes down-regulated in response to MJ treatment. Several defense-related genes (48) were identified, participating in salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), nitric oxide (NO) and abscisic acid (ABA) signal pathway. Additionally, we mapped 72 unigenes to the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Four cytochrome P450s (CYP450) were likely to catalyze hydroxylation at C-16 (c15743_g1, c39772_g1, c55422_g1) and C-30 (c52011_g1) of the triterpene backbone. UDP-xylose synthases (c52571_g3) was selected as the candidate, which was likely to involve in ginsenoside Rb3 biosynthesis. PMID:27876840

  13. [Effects of flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki on adventitial fibroblasts proliferation by advanced oxidation protein products in vitro].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ping; Liu, Shangxi; Bei, Weijian; Lai, Wenyan; Hou, Fanfan; Xu, Anlong

    2004-03-01

    To observe the effects of flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki on adventitial fibroblasts proliferation by advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in vitro. NIH-3T3 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with AOPP and flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki, respectively, and observed in comparison with the control group. The ratio of cell proliferation was determined by non-radioactive MTS/PES assay. The ratio of cell proliferation was 1.789 +/- 0.299 in the control group, and 2.064 +/- 0.141, 2.149 +/- 0.218, 2.108 +/- 0.165, 2.124 +/- 0.131 and 2.087 +/- 0.125 in AOPP groups corresponding to AOPP concentrations of 100, 50, 10, 1 and 0.1 microg/ml, respectively. It showed that AOPP significantly induced the fibroblasts proliferation when the concentration was above 100 ng/ml (P < 0.05). The ratio of cell proliferation was 1.714 +/- 0.179 in flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki group corresponding to concentration of 50 microg/ml. It also showed that flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki alone had no effect on fibroblasts proliferation (P > 0.05). With AOPP stimulation, flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki significantly inhibited fibroblasts proliferation (P < 0.05). Flavone from leaves of Diospyros kaki can significantly inhibit the adventitial fibroblasts proliferation stimulated by AOPP in vitro.

  14. Nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide alleviate drought stress in marigold explants and promote its adventitious root development.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Biao; Huang, Gao-Bao; Yu, Ji-Hua; Zhang, Mei-Ling

    2012-09-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important environmental factors that regulates plant growth and development. In this study, we examined the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on adventitious rooting in marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) under drought stress. The results showed that the promoting effect of NO or H(2)O(2) on rooting under drought stress was dose-dependent, with a maximal biological response at 10 μM NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or 600 μM H(2)O(2). Results also indicated that endogenous NO and H(2)O(2) may play crucial roles in rooting under drought conditions, and H(2)O(2) may be involved in rooting promoted by NO under drought stress. NO or H(2)O(2) treatment attenuated the destruction of mesophyll cells ultrastructure by drought stress. Similarly, NO or H(2)O(2) increased leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, ΦPS II and qP), and hypocotyls soluble carbohydrate and protein content, while decreasing starch content. Results suggest that the protection of mesophyll cells ultrastructure by NO or H(2)O(2) under drought conditions improves the photosynthetic performance of leaves and alleviates the negative effects of drought on carbohydrate and nitrogen accumulation in explants, thereby adventitious rooting being promoted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Plant Hormone Homeostasis, Signaling, and Function during Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene, and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism, and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs, and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF-, and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, and signaling via ERFs and early accumulation of

  16. Plant Hormone Homeostasis, Signaling, and Function during Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene, and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism, and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs, and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF-, and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, and signaling via ERFs and early accumulation of

  17. Metabolic responses to intestine regeneration in sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lina; Sun, Jingchun; Xu, Qinzeng; Li, Xiaoni; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-06-01

    Sea cucumbers are excellent models for studying organ regeneration due to their striking capacity to regenerate most of their viscera after evisceration. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to determine the metabolite changes that occur during the process of intestine regeneration in sea cucumbers. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis showed that there was significant differences in metabolism between regenerative intestines at 3, 7, and 14days post evisceration (dpe) and normal intestines. Changes in the concentration of 13 metabolites related to regeneration were observed and analyzed. These metabolites included leucine, isoleucine, valine, arginine, glutamate, hypotaurine, dimethylamine, N,N-dimethylglycine, betaine, taurine, inosine, homarine, and histidine. Three important genes (betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1, and dimethylglycine dehydrogenase) were differentially expressed to regulate the levels of betaine and N,N-dimethylglycine during intestine regeneration. These results provide an important basis for studying regenerative mechanisms and developing regenerative matrixes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Autolysis and extension of isolated walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Durachko, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Walls isolated from cucumber hypocotyls retain autolytic activities and the ability to extend when placed under the appropriate conditions. To test whether autolysis and extension are related, we treated the walls in various ways to enhance or inhibit long-term wall extension ('creep') and measured autolysis as release of various saccharides from the wall. Except for some non-specific inhibitors of enzymatic activity, we found no correlation between wall extension and wall autolysis. Most notably, autolysis and extension differed strongly in their pH dependence. We also found that exogenous cellulases and pectinases enhanced extension in native walls, but when applied to walls previously inactivated with heat or protease these enzymes caused breakage without sustained extension. In contrast, pretreatment of walls with pectinase or cellulase, followed by boiling in methanol to inactivate the enzymes, resulted in walls with much stronger expansin-mediated extension responses. Crude protein preparations from the digestive tracts of snails enhanced extension of both native and inactivated walls, and these preparations contained expansin-like proteins (assessed by Western blotting). Our results indicate that the extension of isolated cucumber walls does not depend directly on the activity of endogenous wall-bound autolytic enzymes. The results with exogenous enzymes suggest that the hydrolysis of matrix polysaccharides may not induce wall creep by itself, but may act synergistically with expansins to enhance wall extension.

  19. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    PubMed

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use.

  20. Autolysis and extension of isolated walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Durachko, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Walls isolated from cucumber hypocotyls retain autolytic activities and the ability to extend when placed under the appropriate conditions. To test whether autolysis and extension are related, we treated the walls in various ways to enhance or inhibit long-term wall extension ('creep') and measured autolysis as release of various saccharides from the wall. Except for some non-specific inhibitors of enzymatic activity, we found no correlation between wall extension and wall autolysis. Most notably, autolysis and extension differed strongly in their pH dependence. We also found that exogenous cellulases and pectinases enhanced extension in native walls, but when applied to walls previously inactivated with heat or protease these enzymes caused breakage without sustained extension. In contrast, pretreatment of walls with pectinase or cellulase, followed by boiling in methanol to inactivate the enzymes, resulted in walls with much stronger expansin-mediated extension responses. Crude protein preparations from the digestive tracts of snails enhanced extension of both native and inactivated walls, and these preparations contained expansin-like proteins (assessed by Western blotting). Our results indicate that the extension of isolated cucumber walls does not depend directly on the activity of endogenous wall-bound autolytic enzymes. The results with exogenous enzymes suggest that the hydrolysis of matrix polysaccharides may not induce wall creep by itself, but may act synergistically with expansins to enhance wall extension.

  1. Chain conformational and physicochemical properties of fucoidans from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Kunhao

    2016-11-05

    Although fucoidans from sea cucumber (SC-FUCs) have been proven as potential bioactive polysaccharides and functional food ingridents, their chain conformation and physicochemical properties were still poorly understood. This study investigated the chain conformation of fucoidans from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC) and Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC), of which primary structure has been recently clarified. Chain conformation parameters demonstrated that studied SC-FUCs adopted random coil conformation in 150mM NaCl solution (pH 7.4). Based on the worm-like cylinder model and atomic force microscopy, the chain stiffness of SC-FUCs was further evaluated as Am-FUC≈Ib-FUC>Aj-FUC. It was suggested that the existence of branch structure increased the chain flexibility, while sulfated pattern exerted limited influence. SC-FUCs demonstrated shear-thinning rheological behavior and negative charge. Am-FUC possessed a higher thermostability than Ib-FUC and Aj-FUC. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular characteristics of SC-FUCs, which could facilitate their further application.

  2. Use of species-specific PCR for the identification of 10 sea cucumber species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling

    2014-11-01

    We developed a species-specific PCR method to identify species among dehydrated products of 10 sea cucumber species. Ten reverse species-specific primers designed from the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with one forward universal primer, generated PCR fragments of ca. 270 bp length for each species. The specificity of the PCR assay was tested with DNA of samples of 21 sea cucumber species. Amplification was observed in specific species only. The species-specific PCR method we developed was successfully applied to authenticate species of commercial products of dehydrated sea cucumber, and was proven to be a useful, rapid, and low-cost technique to identify the origin of the sea cucumber product.

  3. Odontonema cuspidatum and Psychotria punctata, two new cucumber mosaic virus hosts identified in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wide host range of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been expanded by the identification of Odontonema cuspidatum (firespike) and Psychotria punctata (dotted wild coffee) as CMV hosts in Florida....

  4. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  5. [Effects of NO3- stress on cucumber seedling growth and magnesium absorbing under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Yang, Quan-yong; Wang, Xiu-feng; Han, Yu-rui; Yang, Jing-jing; Wei, Min; Yang, Feng-juan; Shi, Qing-hua; Li, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The effects of NO3- stress on the growth and the magnesium absorption of cucumber seedlings were investigated after 1 and 14 d of suboptimal temperature [18 °C/12 °C (day/night)] treatment. The results indicated that the growth, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII of cucumber seedlings were significantly inhibited by NO3- stress under suboptimal temperature. The magnesium content of cucumber seedlings was also significantly decreased compared with control treatment, especially in the IV treatment (suboptimal temperature +140 mmol · L(-1) NO3- + 1 mmol · L(-1) Mg2+), and the antagonistic impact of magnesium ion absorption on the absorption of potassium and calcium ion was observed. The magnesium deficiency symptom of cucumber seedlings could be partly alleviated by increasing the concentration of magnesium ion in the nutrient solution.

  6. Pasteuria penetrans for control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato and cucumber, and M. arenaria on snapdragon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria, are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Field microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumbe...

  7. [Effects of bio-fertilizer on organically cultured cucumber growth and soil biological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Cao, Dan; Zong, Liang-gang; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yan

    2010-10-01

    Field trials of organic farming were conducted to examine the effects of different bio-fertilizers on the organically cultured cucumber growth, soil enzyme activities, and soil microbial biomass. Four treatments were installed, i. e., organic fertilizer only (CK), bio-fertilizer "Zhonghe" combined with organic fertilizer (ZHH), bio-fertilizer "NST" combined with organic fertilizer (NST), and bio-fertilizer "Bio" combined with organic fertilizer (BIO). Bio-fertilizers combined with organic fertilizer increased the cucumber yield significantly, and improved the root growth and leaf chlorophyll content. Comparing with that in CK, the cucumber yield in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO was increased by 10.4%, 12.4%, and 29.2%, respectively. At the seedling stage, early flowering stage, and picking time of cucumber, the soil microbial biomass C and N in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO were significantly higher than that in CK, and the activities of soil urease, acid phosphatase, and catalase were also higher.

  8. Effect of sea cucumber (Australostichopus mollis) grazing on coastal sediments impacted by mussel farm deposition.

    PubMed

    Slater, Matthew J; Carton, Alexander G

    2009-08-01

    Deposit-feeding holothurians are important processors of surface sediments in many coastal marine systems. The present study examined the effect of grazing by the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis on sediment impacted by green-lipped mussel biodeposits (faeces and pseudofaeces) from coastal aquaculture activities. Grazing effects were investigated in a series of tank-based feeding experiments conducted over 1, 2, 4 and 8 week periods. Sediment quality indicators routinely applied to determine the impacts of coastal aquaculture were used to evaluate sediment health from grazed and ungrazed sediments. Sea cucumber grazing resulted in reductions in total organic carbon, chlorophyll a and phaeopigment, as well as chlorophyll a/phaeopigment ratio of impacted sediments. These results demonstrate that sea cucumber grazing significantly reduces the accumulation of both organic carbon and phytopigments associated with biodeposition from mussel farms. Sea cucumber grazing offers a means of constraining or reversing the pollutive impacts of coastal bivalve aquaculture.

  9. Learning and generalization in haptic classification of 2-D raised-line drawings of facial expressions of emotion by sighted and adventitiously blind observers.

    PubMed

    Abramowicz, Aneta; Klatzky, Roberta L; Lederman, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Sighted blindfolded individuals can successfully classify basic facial expressions of emotion (FEEs) by manually exploring simple 2-D raised-line drawings (Lederman et al 2008, IEEE Transactions on Haptics 1 27-38). The effect of training on classification accuracy was assessed by sixty sighted blindfolded participants (experiment 1) and by three adventitiously blind participants (experiment 2). We further investigated whether the underlying learning process(es) constituted token-specific learning and/or generalization. A hybrid learning paradigm comprising pre/post and old/new test comparisons was used. For both participant groups, classification accuracy for old (ie trained) drawings markedly increased over study trials (mean improvement --76%, and 88%, respectively). Additionally, RT decreased by a mean of 30% for the sighted, and 31% for the adventitiously blind. Learning was mostly token-specific, but some generalization was also observed for both groups. The sighted classified novel drawings of all six FEEs faster with training (mean RT decrease = 20%). Accuracy also improved significantly (mean improvement = 20%), but this improvement was restricted to two FEEs (anger and sadness). Two of three adventitiously blind participants classified new drawings more accurately (mean improvement = 30%); however, RTs for this group did not reflect generalization. Based on a limited number of blind subjects, our results tentatively suggest that adventitiously blind individuals learn to haptically classify FEEs as well as, or even better than, sighted persons.

  10. Application of quality by design in the control of adventitious viruses: gaps in current processes in the prevention of virus contaminants.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Barry

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA).

  11. Influence of Explant Position on Growth of Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. Adventitious Root in Solid Medium and Enhance Production Biomass in Balloon Type Bubble Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solim, M. H.; Kristanti, A. N.; Manuhara, Y. S. W.

    2017-03-01

    Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. is one of traditional medicinal plant in Indonesia as an aphrodisiac. This plant has various compounds which is accumulated in roots. In vitro culture of this plant can enhance production of adventitious roots. The aim of this research was to know the influence of explants position on growth of T. paniculatum Gaertn. adventitious root in MS solid medium and enhance the production of biomass in balloon type bubble bioreactor. Explants from leaf were cultured at abaxial and adaxial positions in solid MS medium supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1. Adventitious roots were cultured in bioreactor with various treatments (without IBA, supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 and supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 + buffer NaHCO3). Result showed that the main growth of abaxial root was higher than adaxial, however, the total of adaxial root branch was higher than abaxial. The highest biomass production of adventitious root cultured was achieved by MS medium supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 + buffer NaHCO3. This treatment has produced fresh biomass two fold of initial inoculum.

  12. Tamarack and black spruce adventitious root patterns are similar in their ability to estimate organic layer depths in northern temperate forests

    Treesearch

    Timothy J. Veverica; Evan S. Kane; Eric S. Kasischke

    2012-01-01

    Organic layer consumption during forest fires is hard to quantify. These data suggest that the adventitious root methods developed for reconstructing organic layer depths following wildfires in boreal black spruce forests can also be applied to mixed tamarack forests growing in temperate regions with glacially transported soils.

  13. Effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Du, Lantian; Yuan, Yinghui; Li, Bin; Sang, Ting; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. Methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. Using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. In this study, Fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vinegar residue compost-amended media (vinegar residue compost mixed with peat and vermiculite in a 6:3:1 ratio (v/v) vinegar residue substrate (VRS). Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of VRS on the growth of cucumber seedlings and disease suppression. The control was peat/vermiculite (2:1, v/v). To identify the mixed media most suitable for the growth of plants and their suppressiveness indicators, we evaluated the biological characteristics of cucumber, the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the growth media, and the enzyme activities. Total organic C (C(org)), microbial biomass C (C(mic)), basal respiration (R(mic)), and enzyme (catalase, invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) activities increased significantly after vinegar waste compost amendment. The compost media also showed a significantly positive effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the suppression of the disease severity index (DSI, 38% reduction). The cucumber rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was significantly lower in VRS than in the control. These results demonstrate convincingly that vinegar residue compost-amended media has a beneficial effect on cucumber growth and could be applied as a method for biological control of cucumber Fusarium wilt.

  14. Spectral Changes of Cucumber Leaf During Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus to Led Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viazau, Y. V.; Kozel, N. V.; Domanski, V. P.; Shalygo, N. V.

    2015-01-01

    A direct correlation between the change of fluorescence at 77 K in leaves of cucumber plants growing under LED lighting and the change of the quantitative composition of structural proteins of PS1 and PS2 was established. It was shown that light absorption and the utilization of its energy during the long-term action of narrow-band light on cucumber plants could affect considerably spectra of the leaves because of changes in the synthesis of photosystem structural proteins.

  15. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  16. Triterpene glycosides from the deep-water North-Pacific sea cucumber Synallactes nozawai Mitsukuri.

    PubMed

    Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Antonov, Alexandr A; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Smirnov, Alexey V; Riguera, Ricardo; Jiménez, Carlos

    2002-12-01

    Five non-sulfated triterpene glycosides, synallactosides A(1) (1), A(2) (2), B(1) (3), B(2) (4), and C (5), have been isolated from the sea cucumber Synallactes nozawai. Their structures have been deduced by extensive analysis of NMR and mass spectra. The glycosides 2-5 are new glycosides. Glycosides 2-4 have carbohydrate chains without precedent in the glycosides from sea cucumbers. This is the first time glycosides are found in members of the family Synallactidae.

  17. Two biologically distinct isolates of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus lack seed transmissibility in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Glasa, M; Kollerova, E

    2007-01-01

    The seed transmission of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was studied in cucumber using two isolates unrelated in their biological characteristics. Although the virus could be readily detected in mature seeds harvested from infected cucumbers, the seedlings obtained from infected germinated seeds tested negative for ZYMV using both ELISA and RT-PCR assays. No evidence was obtained for transmission of two ZYMV isolates through seeds.

  18. Nitrate Increased Cucumber Tolerance to Fusarium Wilt by Regulating Fungal Toxin Production and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jinyan; Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Saydin, Asanjan; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber Fusarium wilt, induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), causes severe losses in cucumber yield and quality. Nitrogen (N), as the most important mineral nutrient for plants, plays a critical role in plant–pathogen interactions. Hydroponic assays were conducted to investigate the effects of different N forms (NH4+ vs. NO3‒) and supply levels (low, 1 mM; high, 5 mM) on cucumber Fusarium wilt. The NO3‒-fed cucumber plants were more tolerant to Fusarium wilt compared with NH4+-fed plants, and accompanied by lower leaf temperature after FOC infection. The disease index decreased as the NO3‒ supply increased but increased with the NH4+ level supplied. Although the FOC grew better under high NO3− in vitro, FOC colonization and fusaric acid (FA) production decreased in cucumber plants under high NO3− supply, associated with lower leaf membrane injury. There was a positive correlation between the FA content and the FOC number or relative membrane injury. After the exogenous application of FA, less FA accumulated in the leaves under NO3− feeding, accompanied with a lower leaf membrane injury. In conclusion, higher NO3− supply protected cucumber plants against Fusarium wilt by suppressing FOC colonization and FA production in plants, and increasing the plant tolerance to FA. PMID:28287458

  19. [Research on identification of cucumber, stem and leaf based on spectrum analysis technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Qing; Ji, Chang-Ying; Chen, Kun-Jie

    2011-10-01

    To be able to quickly identify the cucumber real time, the present paper studied the near infrared reflectance characteristics of cucumber, stem and leaf. Spectral reflectance of 138 samples (46 cucumbers, 46 stems and 46 leaves) was collected using near infrared spectroscopy in the band range of 600-1 099 nm indoor. After Savitzky-Golay smoothing preprocessing, random 108 spectral samples were put forward as calibration set. The weighted deviation method was used for choosing the spectral bands 690-950 nm that include much more information. The samples were analyzed by PCA method to extract the principal component scores, combining the Mahalanobis distance method the recognition model was established, and seven abnormal samples were excluded. The partial least squares (PLS) model was established by remaining 101 samples spectra of calibration set, which was used for predicting the validation set (30 samples except of the calibration set). The result shows that the correlation of the predicted value and the actual value reaches up to 0.994 1, and the correct recognition rate is 100%. This significantly illustrates that the near infrared spectral reflectance characteristics are different among the cucumbers, stems and leaves, which can be successfully applied to recognition of cucumber by the method. The developed technique can provide a new method for cucumber identification.

  20. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  1. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  2. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-05-11

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar 'EP6392' which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns.

  3. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar ‘EP6392’ which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns. PMID:25959296

  4. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was increased by added Si in cucumber. The total content of organic acids was decreased in tomato leaves but increased in cucumber roots and leaves by Si application under Cd stress. Si application also increased the cell wall polysaccharide levels in the roots of both species under Cd toxicity. Si-mediated changes in levels of organic acids and cell wall polysaccharides might contribute to the differences in Cd transport in the two species. In addition, Si application also mitigated Cd-induced oxidative damage in both species. The results indicate that there were different mechanisms for Si-mediated decrease in shoot Cd accumulation: in tomato, Si supply decreased root-to-shoot Cd transport; whereas in cucumber, Si supply reduced the Cd uptake by roots. It is suggested that Si-mediated Cd tolerance is associated with different physiological responses in tomato and cucumber plants. PMID:26136764

  5. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  6. RNA-Seq improves annotation of protein-coding genes in the cucumber genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As more and more genomes are sequenced, genome annotation becomes increasingly important in bridging the gap between sequence and biology. Gene prediction, which is at the center of genome annotation, usually integrates various resources to compute consensus gene structures. However, many newly sequenced genomes have limited resources for gene predictions. In an effort to create high-quality gene models of the cucumber genome (Cucumis sativus var. sativus), based on the EVidenceModeler gene prediction pipeline, we incorporated the massively parallel complementary DNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) reads of 10 cucumber tissues into EVidenceModeler. We applied the new pipeline to the reassembled cucumber genome and included a comparison between our predicted protein-coding gene sets and a published set. Results The reassembled cucumber genome, annotated with RNA-Seq reads from 10 tissues, has 23, 248 identified protein-coding genes. Compared with the published prediction in 2009, approximately 8, 700 genes reveal structural modifications and 5, 285 genes only appear in the reassembled cucumber genome. All the related results, including genome sequence and annotations, are available at http://cmb.bnu.edu.cn/Cucumis_sativus_v20/. Conclusions We conclude that RNA-Seq greatly improves the accuracy of prediction of protein-coding genes in the reassembled cucumber genome. The comparison between the two gene sets also suggests that it is feasible to use RNA-Seq reads to annotate newly sequenced or less-studied genomes. PMID:22047402

  7. Residue dynamic of pyrimorph on tomatoes, cucumbers and soil under greenhouse trails.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Lianlian; Li, Xuesheng; Jiang, Yaping; Li, Nan; Qin, Zhaohai; Pan, Canping

    2011-03-01

    A modified QuEChERS method for analysis of pyrimorph residue in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil was developed and validated. Residue dynamics and final residues in greenhouse vegetables and soil were studied. At fortification levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 1 mg kg(-1) in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil, the method got recoveries ranged from 86.1% to 99.3% with relative standard deviations of 1.0%-7.7%, in agreement with directives for method validation in residue analysis. The limit of determination in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil was 0.05 mg kg(-1). The proposed method was successfully employed for the determination of pyrimorph residue levels and dissipation rates in vegetables and soil. At six experimental sites, pyrimorph residues in tomatoes and cucumbers showed relatively fast dissipation rates, with half-lives of 5.8-7.7 days and 5.7-7.1 days respectively. Half-lives of pyrimorph in soil were 8.5-11.0 days. The final residues of pyrimorph in tomatoes ranged from 0.19 to 3.66 mg kg(-1), 0.18 to 4.35 mg kg(-1) in cucumbers and 0.22 to 16.5 mg kg(-1) in soil with pre-harvest interval of 3-7 days. 5 mg kg(-1) was proposed as the MRL of pyrimorph in tomatoes and cucumbers.

  8. Habitat characteristic of two selected locations for sea cucumber ranching purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartati, Retno; Trianto, Agus; Widianingsih

    2017-02-01

    Sea cucumbers face heavily overfished because of their high prices and very strong market demand. One effort suggested to overcome this problem is sea ranching. The objectives of present works were to determine biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of prospective location for sea ranching of sea cucumber Holothuria atra. Two location at Jepara Waters (Teluk Awur and Bandengan WateRs of Jepara Regency) were selected. The determination of chemical (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen of water, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium of water and sediment, organic matters of sediment), physical (transparancy, sedimen grains size, water current direction and its velocity), biologycal characteristic (coverage of seagrass and its macroalgae associated, phytoplankton as well as chlorophyl-a and phaeopytin of water and sediment) ware determined. The result of present work showed that some characteristic were matched with requirement as sea ranching location of sea cucumber because the density of sea cucumber in the sea is a function of habitat features. For sediment feeding holothurians of the family Aspidochirotida, the biologycal characteristic act as very important considerations by providing sea cucumber food. High cholophyl-a and phaeopytin in sediment also represent a prosperous habitat for sea cucumber ranching.

  9. De Novo Characterization of the Mung Bean Transcriptome and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adventitious Rooting in Seedlings Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Weng; Shi, Rui-Fang; Leng, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious rooting is the most important mechanism underlying vegetative propagation and an important strategy for plant propagation under environmental stress. The present study was conducted to obtain transcriptomic data and examine gene expression using RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analysis, thereby providing a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Three cDNA libraries constructed from mRNA samples from mung bean hypocotyls during adventitious rooting were sequenced. These three samples generated a total of 73 million, 60 million, and 59 million 100-bp reads, respectively. These reads were assembled into 78,697 unigenes with an average length of 832 bp, totaling 65 Mb. The unigenes were aligned against six public protein databases, and 29,029 unigenes (36.77%) were annotated using BLASTx. Among them, 28,225 (35.75%) and 28,119 (35.62%) unigenes had homologs in the TrEMBL and NCBI non-redundant (Nr) databases, respectively. Of these unigenes, 21,140 were assigned to gene ontology classes, and a total of 11,990 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG functional categories. A total of 7,357 unigenes were annotated to 4,524 KOs, and 4,651 unigenes were mapped onto 342 KEGG pathways using BLAST comparison against the KEGG database. A total of 11,717 unigenes were differentially expressed (fold change>2) during the root induction stage, with 8,772 unigenes down-regulated and 2,945 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 12,737 unigenes were differentially expressed during the root initiation stage, with 9,303 unigenes down-regulated and 3,434 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 5,334 unigenes were differentially expressed between the root induction and initiation stage, with 2,167 unigenes down-regulated and 3,167 unigenes up-regulated. qRT-PCR validation of the 39 genes with known functions indicated a strong correlation (92.3%) with the RNA-Seq data. The GO enrichment, pathway mapping, and gene expression profiles reveal

  10. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L).

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, C; Liu, Zongrang; Scorza, Ralph

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with the apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KNOX1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a medium lacking cytokinin. Ectopic expression of KNOX genes retarded shoot growth by suppressing elongation of internodes in transgenic tobacco plants. Expression of each of the three KNOX1 genes induced malformation and extensive lobbing in tobacco leaves. In situ regeneration of adventitious shoots was observed from leaves and roots of transgenic tobacco plants expressing each of the three KNOX genes. In vitro culture of leaf explants and internode sections excised from in vitro grown MdKN1 expressing tobacco shoots regenerated adventitious shoots on MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962) basal medium in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Transgenic plum plants that expressed the MdKN2 or corn KNOX1 gene grew normally but MdKN1 caused a significant reduction in plant height, leaf shape and size and produced malformed curly leaves. A high frequency of adventitious shoot regeneration (96%) was observed in cultures of leaf explants excised from corn KNOX1-expressing transgenic plum shoots. In contrast to KNOX1-expressing tobacco, leaf and internode explants of corn KNOX1-expressing plum required synthetic cytokinin (thidiazuron) in the culture medium to induce adventitious shoot regeneration. The induction of high-frequency regeneration of adventitious shoots in vitro from leaves and stem internodal sections of plum through the ectopic expression of a KNOX1 gene is the first such report for a woody perennial fruit trees.

  11. Production of biomass and bioactive compounds from adventitious roots by optimization of culturing conditions of Eurycoma longifolia in balloon-type bubble bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Lulu, Tao; Park, So-Young; Ibrahim, Rusli; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to optimize the conditions for the production of adventitious roots from Eurycoma longifolia Jack, an important medicinal woody plant, in bioreactor culture. The effects of the type and concentration of auxin on root growth were studied, as well as the effects of the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio on adventitious root growth and the production of phenolics and flavonoids. Approximately 5 g L(-1) fresh weight of adventitious roots was inoculated into a 3 L balloon-type bubble bioreactor, which contained 2 L 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 30 g L(-1) sucrose and cultures were maintained in the dark for 7 weeks at 24 ± 1°C. Higher concentrations of IBA (7.0 and 9.0 mg L(-1)) and NAA (5.0 mg L(-1)) enhanced the biomass and accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids. The adventitious roots were thin, numerous, and elongated in 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 5.0 and 7.0 mg L(-1) IBA, whereas the lateral roots were shorter and thicker with 5.0 mg L(-1) NAA compared with IBA treatment. The optimum biomasses of 50.22 g L(-1) fresh weight and 4.60 g L(-1) dry weight were obtained with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 15:30. High phenolic and flavonoid productions (38.59 and 11.27 mg L(-1) medium, respectively) were also obtained with a ratio of 15:30. Analysis of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity indicated higher antioxidant activity with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 30:15. These results suggest that balloon-type bubble bioreactor cultures are suitable for the large-scale commercial production of E. longifolia adventitious roots which contain high yield of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber.

  13. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.) chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2 × = 14) and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2 × = 24) are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae). Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon through chromosome fusion, but the details of this process are largely unknown. In this study, comparative genetic mapping between cucumber and melon was conducted to examine syntenic relationships of their chromosomes. Results Using two melon mapping populations, 154 and 127 cucumber SSR markers were added onto previously reported F2- and RIL-based genetic maps, respectively. A consensus melon linkage map was developed through map integration, which contained 401 co-dominant markers in 12 linkage groups including 199 markers derived from the cucumber genome. Syntenic relationships between melon and cucumber chromosomes were inferred based on associations between markers on the consensus melon map and cucumber draft genome scaffolds. It was determined that cucumber Chromosome 7 was syntenic to melon Chromosome I. Cucumber Chromosomes 2 and 6 each contained genomic regions that were syntenic with melon chromosomes III+V+XI and III+VIII+XI, respectively. Likewise, cucumber Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, and 5 each was syntenic with genomic regions of two melon chromosomes previously designated as II+XII, IV+VI, VII+VIII, and IX+X, respectively. However, the marker orders in several syntenic blocks on these consensus linkage maps were not co-linear suggesting that more complicated structural changes beyond simple chromosome fusion events have occurred during the evolution of cucumber. Conclusions Comparative mapping conducted herein supported the hypothesis that cucumber chromosomes may be the result of chromosome fusion from a 24-chromosome progenitor species. Except for a possible inversion, cucumber Chromosome 7 has largely remained intact in the past nine million years

  14. Heterogeneity in pepper isolates of cucumber mosaic virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez-Alvarado, G.; Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) field isolates from pepper crops in Cali-fornia were characterized and compared by nucleic acid hybridization subgrouping, virion electrophoresis, and biological effects in several hosts. Isolates, belonging to subgroup I or subgroup II, were found that induced severe symptoms in mechanically inoculated bell pep-pers. Only two isolates, both from subgroup II, were mild. A group of 19 isolates collected from a single field were all in subgroup II and appeared identical by virion electrophoresis, but they exhibited varying degrees of symptom severity in peppers. As a more detailed indicator of heterogeneity, these 19 isolates were examined by RNase protection assays to delect sequence variation in the coat protein gene region of their genomes. The patterns of bands observed were complex and a high degree of genomic heterogeneity was detected between isolates, with no apparent correlation to symptomatology in bell pepper.

  15. Differential permeation of artemia cysts and cucumber seeds by alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.; Siegel, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of penetration of the simpler alcohols into brine shrimp cysts and cucumber seeds was studied. In solutions below 70% the rate of penetration is related to lipid solvent capacity of the alcohol. In concentrations above 70%, particularly in absolute alcohols, methanol penetrates brine shrimp rapidly and ethanol penetrates slowly. All the other alcohols tested did not penetrate the dormant structures. Ethionine and deuteroxy-methanol did not affect the rate of penetration of methanol. It is suggested that in dehydrated membranes the lipid moiety is protected by a continuous sheet of protein. Methanol, which is fairly similar to water, is probably able to penetrate the membrane by initiating a conformation change in the protein, exposing the lipid which subsequently dissolves in the methanol thus destroying the membrane.

  16. A Development-Dependent Hemagglutinin from Cucumber Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Skubatz, Hanna; Kessler, Bezalel

    1984-01-01

    During studies on the chemistry of plant surfaces, we observed that concomitant with the development of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv `ELEM') cotyledons an agglutinin that agglutinates human erythrocytes appeared on epicuticular surfaces. The agglutinin was released from cotyledon surfaces into distilled water by a 1-minute immersion (or even less). Homogenization of the washed cotyledons released residual agglutinating activity. The surface-located hemagglutinating activity was age-dependent and occurred in dark- and light-grown cotyledons. Agglutinating activities were present in light-grown cotyledons of 2- to 14-day-old seedlings and in dark-grown cotyledons of 3- to 17-day-old seedlings. Agglutinating activities were maximal in cotyledons of 3- to 4-day-old seedlings. No activity could be detected in dry seeds or in seedlings up to 2 days and after 17 days of germination. The hemagglutinating activity was specifically inhibited by N,N′,N″-triacetylchitotriose, chitin, and chitosan. PMID:16663822

  17. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Furukawa, Ayumi; Shiga, Ikumi; Muroi, Yoshikage; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hongo, Yayoi; Takahashi, Shunya; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses. The lipid fraction of H. atra contained lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, and inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in the macrophage cell line J774A.1. The antioxidant activity of the lysophospholipid-containing lipid fraction of H. atra was confirmed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Our results suggest that the lysophospholipids from H. atra are potential therapeutic agents for the inflammation induced by oxidative stress. PMID:26275144

  18. Differential permeation of artemia cysts and cucumber seeds by alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.; Siegel, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of penetration of the simpler alcohols into brine shrimp cysts and cucumber seeds was studied. In solutions below 70% the rate of penetration is related to lipid solvent capacity of the alcohol. In concentrations above 70%, particularly in absolute alcohols, methanol penetrates brine shrimp rapidly and ethanol penetrates slowly. All the other alcohols tested did not penetrate the dormant structures. Ethionine and deuteroxy-methanol did not affect the rate of penetration of methanol. It is suggested that in dehydrated membranes the lipid moiety is protected by a continuous sheet of protein. Methanol, which is fairly similar to water, is probably able to penetrate the membrane by initiating a conformation change in the protein, exposing the lipid which subsequently dissolves in the methanol thus destroying the membrane.

  19. Backcross introgression of plastomic factors controlling chilling tolerance into elite cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm: Early generation recovery of recurrent parent phenotytpe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can decrease germination, emergence, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). While response to chilling injury in cucumber is controlled by simple plastidic (matern...

  20. Incorporation of a Reporter Peptide in FPOP Compensates for Adventitious Scavengers and Permits Time-Dependent Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ben; Mackness, Brian C.; Rempel, Don. L.; Zhang, Hao; Cui, Weidong; Matthews, C. Robert; Zitzewitz, Jill A.; Gross, Michael L.

    2017-02-01

    Incorporation of a reporter peptide in solutions submitted to fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) allows for the correction of adventitious scavengers and enables the normalization and comparison of time-dependent results. Reporters will also be useful in differential experiments to control for the inclusion of a radical-reactive species. This incorporation provides a simple and quick check of radical dosage and allows comparison of FPOP results from day-to-day and lab-to-lab. Use of a reporter peptide in the FPOP workflow requires no additional measurements or spectrometers while building a more quantitative FPOP platform. It requires only measurement of the extent of reporter-peptide modification in a LC/MS/MS run, which is performed by using either data-dependent scanning or an inclusion list.

  1. Gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: biophysical mechanism of altered growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the changes in cell elongation rate during gravitropism was examined in aetiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls. Bulk osmotic pressures on the two sides of the stem and in the epidermal cells were not altered during the early time course of gravitropism. By the pressure-probe technique, a small increase in turgor (0.3 bar, 30 kPa) was detected on the upper (inhibited) side, whereas there was a negligible decrease in turgor on the lower (stimulated) side. These small changes in turgor and water potential appeared to be indirect, passive consequences of the altered growth and the small resistance for water movement from the xylem, and indicated that the change in growth was principally due to changes in wall properties. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductance of the water-transport pathway was large (.25 h-1 bar-1) and the water potential difference supporting cell expansion was no greater than 0.3 bar (30 kPa). From pressure-block experiments, it appeared that upon gravitropic stimulation (1) the yield threshold of the lower half of the stem did not decrease and (2) the wall on the upper side of the stem was not made more rigid by a cross-linking process. Mechanical measurements of the stress/strain properties of the walls showed that the initial development of gravitropism did not involve an alteration of the mechanical behaviour of the isolated walls. Thus, gravitropism in cucumber hypocotyls occurs principally by an alteration of the wall relaxation process, without a necessary change in wall mechanical properties.

  2. The magnesium-chelatase in developing cucumber cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Mg-chelatase in chloroplasts catalyzes the insertion of Mg into protoporphyrin. This step is the first in the tetrapyrrole pathway unique to chlorophyll biosynthesis. Mg-chelatase was assayed in semi-green cucumber cotyledons by an adaptation of the method of Fuesler at al, (1984) Plant Physiol. 74, 928-933. Plastid intactness was essential for Mg-chelatase activity. The estimated Km for the protoporphyrin substrate was between 0.5 and 1.0 {mu}M. In the presence of 4 mM ATP and an ATP regenerating system, activities of 500 pmol Mg-Protoporphyrin/mg protein/20 min were routinely recorded. In greening cotyledons, the specific activity of the Mg-chelatase increased steadily until the chlorophyll content of the plastids reached about 30 nmol/mg plastid protein, at which point further greening caused a decrease in Mg-chelatase activity. The total heme content of the plastids also rose with greening and paralleled the increase in Mg-chelatase activity. The regulation of heme levels and Mg-chelatase activity in greening cotyledons will be discussed. Substrate specificity studies showed that mesoporphyrin and deuteroporphyrin were active substrates for Mg chelation. The Mg-chelatase was not inhibited by its product, Mg-Protoporphyrin, but was inhibited by N-methyl mesoporphyrin (I{sub 50} = 2.5 {mu}M). Mg-chelatase activity was also measured in fully mature pea and corn chloroplasts (grown under diurnal light); the specific activities were comparable with those in cucumber.

  3. Gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: biophysical mechanism of altered growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the changes in cell elongation rate during gravitropism was examined in aetiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls. Bulk osmotic pressures on the two sides of the stem and in the epidermal cells were not altered during the early time course of gravitropism. By the pressure-probe technique, a small increase in turgor (0.3 bar, 30 kPa) was detected on the upper (inhibited) side, whereas there was a negligible decrease in turgor on the lower (stimulated) side. These small changes in turgor and water potential appeared to be indirect, passive consequences of the altered growth and the small resistance for water movement from the xylem, and indicated that the change in growth was principally due to changes in wall properties. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductance of the water-transport pathway was large (.25 h-1 bar-1) and the water potential difference supporting cell expansion was no greater than 0.3 bar (30 kPa). From pressure-block experiments, it appeared that upon gravitropic stimulation (1) the yield threshold of the lower half of the stem did not decrease and (2) the wall on the upper side of the stem was not made more rigid by a cross-linking process. Mechanical measurements of the stress/strain properties of the walls showed that the initial development of gravitropism did not involve an alteration of the mechanical behaviour of the isolated walls. Thus, gravitropism in cucumber hypocotyls occurs principally by an alteration of the wall relaxation process, without a necessary change in wall mechanical properties.

  4. Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Amal Badshah; Bibi, Nizakat; Chaudry, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Jamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of irradiation of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber on microbial safety, texture, and sensory quality was investigated. Minimally processed, polyethylene-packed, and irradiated cabbage and cucumber were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 degrees C) for 2 weeks. The firmness values ranged from 3.23 kg (control) to 2.82 kg (3.0-kGy irradiated samples) for cucumbers, with a gradual decrease in firmness with increasing radiation dose (0 to 3 kGy). Cucumbers softened just after irradiation with a dose of 3.0 kGy and after 14 days storage, whereas the texture remained within acceptable limits up to a radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The radiation treatment had no effect on the appearance scores of cabbage; however, scores decreased from 7.0 to 6.7 during storage. The appearance and flavor scores of cucumbers decreased with increasing radiation dose, and overall acceptability was better after radiation doses of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy. The aerobic plate counts per gram for cabbage increased from 3 to 5 log CFU (control), from 1.85 to 2.93 log CFU (2.5 kGy), and from a few colonies to 2.6 log CFU (3.0 kGy) after 14 days of storage at 5 degrees C. A similar trend was noted for cucumber samples. No coliform bacteria were detected at radiation doses greater than 2.0 kGy in either cabbage or cucumber samples. Total fungal counts per gram of sample were within acceptable limits for cucumbers irradiated at 3.0 kGy, and for cabbage no fungi were detected after 2.0-kGy irradiation. The D-values for Escherichia coli in cucumber and cabbage were 0.19 and 0.17 kGy, and those for Salmonella Paratyphi A were 0.25 and 0.29 kGy for cucumber and cabbage, respectively.

  5. An adventitial IL-6/MCP1 amplification loop accelerates macrophage-mediated vascular inflammation leading to aortic dissection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tieu, Brian C.; Lee, Chang; Sun, Hong; LeJeune, Wanda; Recinos, Adrian; Ju, Xiaoxi; Spratt, Heidi; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Milewicz, Dianna; Tilton, Ronald G.; Brasier, Allan R.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular inflammation contributes to cardiovascular diseases such as aortic aneurysm and dissection. However, the precise inflammatory pathways involved have not been clearly defined. We have shown here that subcutaneous infusion of Ang II, a vasopressor known to promote vascular inflammation, into older C57BL/6J mice induced aortic production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the monocyte chemoattractant MCP-1. Production of these factors occurred predominantly in the tunica adventitia, along with macrophage recruitment, adventitial expansion, and development of thoracic and suprarenal aortic dissections. In contrast, a reduced incidence of dissections was observed after Ang II infusion into mice lacking either IL-6 or the MCP-1 receptor CCR2. Further analysis revealed that Ang II induced CCR2+CD14hiCD11bhiF4/80– macrophage accumulation selectively in aortic dissections and not in aortas from Il6–/– mice. Adoptive transfer of Ccr2+/+ monocytes into Ccr2–/– mice resulted in selective monocyte uptake into the ascending and suprarenal aorta in regions of enhanced ROS stress, with restoration of IL-6 secretion and increased incidence of dissection. In vitro, coculture of monocytes and aortic adventitial fibroblasts produced MCP-1– and IL-6–enriched conditioned medium that promoted differentiation of monocytes into macrophages, induced CD14 and CD11b upregulation, and induced MCP-1 and MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that leukocyte-fibroblast interactions in the aortic adventitia potentiate IL-6 production, inducing local monocyte recruitment and activation, thereby promoting MCP-1 secretion, vascular inflammation, ECM remodeling, and aortic destabilization. PMID:19920349

  6. Elk-1-mediated 15-lipoxygenase expression is required for hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular adventitial fibroblast dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, L; Wang, X; Chen, M; Liu, Y; Xing, Y; Wang, X; Gao, S; Zhu, D

    2016-12-01

    15-Lipoxygenase (15-LO) is an important factor in the pathogenesis of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). However, the role of 15-LO in the adventitia of the pulmonary arterial wall is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of 15-LO in the modulation of pulmonary adventitial fibroblast (PAF) dynamics. Rats were exposed to normoxic or hypoxic (fraction of inspired O2  = 0.12) treatments for 7 days. PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations were measured by MTT assay, cell immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The 15-LO promoter was analysed by luciferase reporter and ChIP assays. Our results showed that hypoxia induced 15-LO expression in PAFs both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, hypoxia stimulated JNK phosphorylation in PAFs. Blocking 15-LO or JNK suppressed 15-LO-induced PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations. The inhibition of p27(kipl) by gene silencing attenuated 15-LO-induced PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations. Furthermore, JNK inhibition or Elk-1 knockdown suppressed hypoxia-induced 15-LO expression in PAFs. Luciferase reporter and ChIP assays revealed that the 15-LO promoter contains Elk-1-binding sites and also that Elk-1 increased the hypoxia-induced activity of the 15-LO promoter. These results suggest that hypoxia promotes changes in the cellular dynamics of PAFs by inducing 15-LO expression, which leads to vascular adventitial remodelling. The modulation of p27(kipl) expression by 15-LO enhances PAF proliferation and cell cycle alterations. Furthermore, the JNK-dependent increase in Elk-1 signalling is required for hypoxia-induced 15-LO expression in PAFs. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The interaction of transient receptor potential melastatin 7 with macrophages promotes vascular adventitial remodeling in transverse aortic constriction rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Hui; Ruan, Chengchao; Zhong, Jiuchang; Gao, Pingjin; Zhu, Dingliang; Niu, Wenquan; Guo, Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a novel channel kinase, has been recently identified in the vasculature. However, its regulation and function in vascular diseases remain poorly understood. To address this lack of knowledge, we sought to examine whether TRPM7 can mediate the vascular remodeling process induced by pressure overload in the right common carotid artery proximal to the band (RCCA-B) in male Sprague-Dawley rats with transverse aortic constriction (TAC). The contribution of TRPM7 to amplified vascular remodeling after TAC was tested using morphometric and western blot analyses. Pressure overload-induced vascular wall thickening, especially in the adventitia, was readily detected in RCCA-B. The TRPM7 level was increased with a simultaneous accumulation of macrophages in the adventitia of RCCA-B, whereas the anti-inflammatory molecule annexin-1, a TRPM7 downstream target, was decreased. After the addition of the TRPM7 inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), significant reductions in macrophage accumulation as well as the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, SM-22-α and collagen I were observed, whereas annexin-1 was rescued. Finally, in cultured vascular adventitial fibroblasts treated with macrophage-conditioned medium, there were marked increases in the expression of TRPM7 and SM-22-α with a concurrent reduction in annexin-1 expression; these effects were largely prevented by treatment with 2-APB and specific anti-TRPM7 small interfering RNA. Our findings provide the first demonstration of the potential regulatory roles of TRPM7 in the vascular inflammation, pressure overload-mediated vascular adventitial collagen accumulation and cell phenotypic transformation in TAC rats. The targeting of TRPM7 has potential therapeutic importance for vascular diseases.

  8. Adventitious Arsenate Reductase Activity of the Catalytic Domain of the Human Cdc25B and Cdc25C Phosphatases†

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Sheng, Ju; Ajees, A. Abdul; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Rosen, Barry P.

    2013-01-01

    A number of eukaryotic enzymes that function as arsenate reductases are homologues of the catalytic domain of the human Cdc25 phosphatase. For example, the Leishmania major enzyme LmACR2 is both a phosphatase and an arsenate reductase, and its structure bears similarity to the structure of the catalytic domain of human Cdc25 phosphatase. These reductases contain an active site C-X5-R signature motif, where C is the catalytic cysteine, the five X residues form a phosphate binding loop, and R is a highly conserved arginine, which is also present in human Cdc25 phosphatases. We therefore investigated the possibility that the three human Cdc25 isoforms might have adventitious arsenate reductase activity. The sequences for the catalytic domains of Cdc25A, -B, and -C were cloned individually into a prokaryotic expression vector, and their gene products were purified from a bacterial host using nickel affinity chromatography. While each of the three Cdc25 catalytic domains exhibited phosphatase activity, arsenate reductase activity was observed only with Cdc25B and -C. These two enzymes reduced inorganic arsenate but not methylated pentavalent arsenicals. Alteration of either the cysteine and arginine residues of the Cys-X5-Arg motif led to the loss of both reductase and phosphatase activities. Our observations suggest that Cdc25B and -C may adventitiously reduce arsenate to the more toxic arsenite and may also provide a framework for identifying other human protein tyrosine phosphatases containing the active site Cys-X5-Arg loop that might moonlight as arsenate reductases. PMID:20025242

  9. Benefits of flooding-induced aquatic adventitious roots depend on the duration of submergence: linking plant performance to root functioning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Huber, Heidrun; Beljaars, Simone J M; Birnbaum, Diana; de Best, Sander; de Kroon, Hans; Visser, Eric J W

    2017-07-01

    Temporal flooding is a common environmental stress for terrestrial plants. Aquatic adventitious roots (aquatic roots) are commonly formed in flooding-tolerant plant species and are generally assumed to be beneficial for plant growth by supporting water and nutrient uptake during partial flooding. However, the actual contribution of these roots to plant performance under flooding has hardly been quantified. As the investment into aquatic root development in terms of carbohydrates may be costly, these costs may - depending on the specific environmental conditions - offset the beneficial effects of aquatic roots. This study tested the hypothesis that the balance between potential costs and benefits depends on the duration of flooding, as the benefits are expected to outweigh the costs in long-term but not in short-term flooding. The contribution of aquatic roots to plant performance was tested in Solanum dulcamara during 1-4 weeks of partial submergence and by experimentally manipulating root production. Nutrient uptake by aquatic roots, transpiration and photosynthesis were measured in plants differing in aquatic root development to assess the specific function of these roots. As predicted, flooded plants benefited from the presence of aquatic roots. The results showed that this was probably due to the contribution of roots to resource uptake. However, these beneficial effects were only present in long-term but not in short-term flooding. This relationship could be explained by the correlation between nutrient uptake and the flooding duration-dependent size of the aquatic root system. The results indicate that aquatic root formation is likely to be selected for in habitats characterized by long-term flooding. This study also revealed only limited costs associated with adventitious root formation, which may explain the maintenance of the ability to produce aquatic roots in habitats characterized by very rare or short flooding events.

  10. Automatic Differentiation of Normal and Continuous Adventitious Respiratory Sounds Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Instantaneous Frequency.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Manuel; Fiz, José Antonio; Jané, Raimon

    2016-03-01

    Differentiating normal from adventitious respiratory sounds (RS) is a major challenge in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Particularly, continuous adventitious sounds (CAS) are of clinical interest because they reflect the severity of certain diseases. This study presents a new classifier that automatically distinguishes normal sounds from CAS. It is based on the multiscale analysis of instantaneous frequency (IF) and envelope (IE) calculated after ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). These techniques have two major advantages over previous techniques: high temporal resolution is achieved by calculating IF-IE and a priori knowledge of signal characteristics is not required for EEMD. The classifier is based on the fact that the IF dispersion of RS signals markedly decreases when CAS appear in respiratory cycles. Therefore, CAS were detected by using a moving window to calculate the dispersion of IF sequences. The study dataset contained 1494 RS segments extracted from 870 inspiratory cycles recorded from 30 patients with asthma. All cycles and their RS segments were previously classified as containing normal sounds or CAS by a highly experienced physician to obtain a gold standard classification. A support vector machine classifier was trained and tested using an iterative procedure in which the dataset was randomly divided into training (65%) and testing (35%) sets inside a loop. The SVM classifier was also tested on 4592 simulated CAS cycles. High total accuracy was obtained with both recorded (94.6% ± 0.3%) and simulated (92.8% ± 3.6%) signals. We conclude that the proposed method is promising for RS analysis and classification.

  11. Using ChromaFlo intra-vascular ultrasound (IVUS) to analyze adventitial vasa vasorum distribution: considerations and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redwood, Abena; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard

    2006-03-01

    The adventitia and outer media of large blood vessels are supplied with nutrients by microscopic blood vessels called vasa vasorum. While vasa vasorum have been implicated in a number of diseases including atherosclerosis, knowledge of their functional anatomy and specific role in these diseases has been hindered due to the small size of the vasa vasorum, and difficulty in accessing them. Micro-CT and histological methods have been used in ex-vivo animal studies of the vasa vasorum, but these techniques are limited by their inability to be used for in-vivo investigation. As such, there is very little in-vivo human data available. Intra-vascular ultrasound can acquire high-resolution anatomic images of coronary vessels. ChromaFlo IVUS has been used to identify blood flow in vessel lumens and has exciting prospect for in-vivo studies of vasa vasorum functional anatomy. In this study, ChromaFlo IVUS images of the human mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) were segmented to analyze the distribution of adventitial vasa vasorum proximal to intimal plaque. Previous animal studies suggest that formation of intimal plaque is accompanied by increased density of adventitial vasa vasorum. The data collected with ChromaFlo ultrasound is inconsistent with the current literature. While IVUS has the fidelity to acquire high-resolution US images of the coronary arteries, ChromaFlo lacks the necessary resolving power to differentiate the vasa vasorum. Further study of IVUS and other imaging methods on a large cohort will provide the basis for future in-vivo analysis of coronary disease.

  12. Effect of nitrogen source on biomass and bioactive compound production in submerged cultures of Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai adventitious roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium to nitrate ratios of 0:30, 5:25, 10:20, 15:15, 20:10, 25:5, and 30:0 mM were tested to determine the optimal NH(4)(+) :NO(3)(-) ratio for improving biomass and bioactive compound production in Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai adventitious roots using 3-L bulb-type bubble bioreactors. A high ammonium nitrogen ratio had a negative effect on root growth, and the highest fresh and dry weights were obtained when NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratios were 5:25 and 10:20 (mM) after 5 weeks of culture. Although the total production of eleutherosides B and E was slightly higher at the 10:20 ratio than at the 5:25 ratio (NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-)), we proposed that the optimal NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratio was 5:25 mM. This ratio achieved both the highest total production of five target bioactive compounds (eleutherosides B and E, chlorogenic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids) and the highest root biomass. Furthermore, increasing NH(4)(+):NO(3)(-) ratios to 10:20 decreased pH in the medium, interrupted the absorption of essential minerals from the culture medium, and resulted in low biomass and increased relative oxidative stress levels, which were evaluated by determining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Therefore, nitrate rather than ammonium nitrogen was more essential not for only biomass production but also for bioactive compound production in E. koreanum adventitious root cultures. The optimal nitrogen source ratio produced 5.63 g L(-1) of biomass and 24.41 mg of the five total bioactive compounds per gram of biomass (dry weight basis). The development of such in vitro culture technology will benefit the pilot-scale production of E. koreanum-based bioactive compounds for commercialization.

  13. [Effects of grafting on cucumber leaf SOD and CAT gene expression and activities under low temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-jie; Qin, Ai-guo; Yu, Xian-chang

    2009-01-01

    This paper studied the relative expression of Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD and CAT mRNAs and the changes of SOD, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD and CAT activities in grafted and own-rooted cucumber leaves under low temperature stress, and their relations with the cold resistance of cucumber. For both grafted and own-rooted cucumber leaves, the relative expression of Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD mRNAs under low temperature stress was respectively accordance with the changes of Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD activities, while the expression of CAT mRNA was not accordance with the change of CAT activity. The relative expression of Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD mRNAs and the activities of SOD, Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD in grafted cucumber leaves were higher than those in own-rooted cucumber leaves, while the MDA content and electrolytic leakage were in adverse. The higher SOD activity regulated by the higher SOD mRNAs expression in grafted cucumber leaves might be the key factor of grafted cucumber having a higher cold resistance to low temperature stress than own-rooted cucumber. The relative expression of CAT mRNA was slightly higher in functional leaves but lower in young leaves of grafted cucumber, while less difference was observed in CAT activity, comparing with own-rooted cucumber, which illustrated that low temperature stress had lesser effects on the relative expression of CAT mRNA and the activity of CAT in grafted cucumber leaves.

  14. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber of different market classes. The genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using three mapping populations developed from cross betwee...

  15. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs.

  16. Cucumber Lure Trapping of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii and Taiwan: Longevity and Nontargets Captures.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eric B; Carvalho, Lori A F N; Chen, Chung-Chien; Siderhurst, Matthew S

    2017-02-01

    The melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a serious pest of tropical horticulture, causing damage to cucurbits, tree fruits, and fruiting vegetables. Melon flies are especially attractive to freshly sliced cucumber, and this has led to the identification of a nine-compound kairomone lure that can be used to trap both female and male flies. In this study, a seven-compound lure, containing (Z)-6-nonenal, (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, hexanal, and 1-hexanol, was formulated into PVC plugs (100 or 300 mg/plug) for field testing in wet traps. In Hawaii, 100 mg of the seven-compound cucumber lure, loaded in either plugs or glass capillaries, attracted more flies than traps containing Solulys protein over a 9-wk period. However, both cucumber lure formulations showed marked declines in the number of flies trapped after 3 wk. Similar results were obtained during a 6-wk field trial using 100 mg cucumber lure plugs in Taiwan. Increasing the cucumber lure loading rate to 300 mg/lure increased the effective trapping life of the attractant during a second 9-wk field trial conducted in Hawaii. The synthetic cucumber lure showed female-biased sex ratios in trap captures in the Taiwanese and second Hawaiian field trials. Protein lures captures were female-biased in all three field trials. Wet traps in Hawaii containing the cucumber lure were found to capture 25-30 nontarget insects/trap/week, less than half that captured with Solulys. Captured nontarget insects represented 37 families in 10 orders. The most common families caught were Ceratopogonidae (∼9 flies/trap) and Gryllidae (∼7 crickets/trap). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-01-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber. PMID:25861120

  18. Influence of microbial growth on the redox potential of fermented cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Maegan J; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys M

    2009-01-01

    Commonly, pH measurements are used during the production of fermented cucumbers to indirectly monitor growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acid production. Redox potential (E(h)) measurements, which are determined by the potential of an electron to reduce an acceptor, could serve as an alternative tool to monitor the progress of fermentation allowing the detection of the metabolic activity and/or growth of LAB and other microorganisms. Pasteurized and inoculated jars of cucumbers were observed to better understand how the E(h) changes during the cucumber fermentation and how it could be used as a monitoring tool. Jars of diced, brined cucumbers were pasteurized and inoculated with microbes previously isolated from fermented cucumbers including Lactobacillus plantarum, Zygosaccharomyces globiformis, and Enterobacter aerogenes. Although an initial decrease in E(h) was observed for all microorganisms, distinctive trends in E(h) occurred when these organisms were inoculated. After a 2-wk fermentation period, the E(h) (Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) in jars inoculated with L. plantarum, Z. globiformis, and E. aerogenes was at +453 +/- 55, +104 +/- 5, and -156 +/- 73 mV, respectively. Cucumbers inoculated with a mixture of L. plantarum and Z. globiformis had a terminal E(h) value of +202 +/- 24 mV, which was between that found for the individual microorganisms. L. plantarum dominated the E(h) trend when inoculated along with E. aerogenes with a final E(h) of +411 +/- 72 mV. The results showed that changes in E(h) continued after pH measurements became stable. Thus E(h) measurement can provide a tool to continuously monitor microbial growth during the course of cucumber fermentations.

  19. Biocontrol activity and primed systemic resistance by compost water extracts against anthracnoses of pepper and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Ki Deok

    2011-06-01

    We investigated direct and indirect effects of compost water extracts (CWEs) from Iljuk-3, Iljuk-7, Shinong-8, and Shinong-9 for the control of anthracnoses caused by Colletotrichum coccodes on pepper and C. orbiculare on cucumber. All tested CWEs significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited in vitro conidial germination and appressorium formation of the fungal pathogens; however, DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) failed to inhibit the conidial development of the pathogens. Direct treatments of the CWEs and BABA on pepper and cucumber leaves at 1 and 3 days before or after inoculation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose severities; Iljuk-3, Shinong-9, and BABA for pepper and Iljuk-7 for cucumber had more protective activities than curative activities. In addition, root treatment of CWEs suppressed anthracnoses on the plants by the pathogens; however, CWE treatment on lower leaves failed to reduce the diseases on the upper leaves of the plants. The CWE root treatments enhanced not only the expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes CABPR1, CABGLU, CAChi2, CaPR-4, CAPO1, and CaPR-10 in pepper and PR1-1a, PR-2, PR-3, and APOX in cucumber but also the activity of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and peroxidase and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in pepper and cucumber under pathogen-inoculated conditions. However, the CWE treatments failed to induce the plant responses under pathogen-free conditions. These results indicated that the CWEs had direct effects, reducing anthracnoses by C. coccodes on pepper leaves and C. orbiculare on cucumber leaves through protective and curative effects. In addition, CWE root treatments could induce systemic resistance in the primed state against pathogens on plant leaves that enhanced PR gene expression, defense-related enzyme production, and hydrogen peroxide generation rapidly and effectively immediately after pathogen infection. Thus, the CWEs might suppress anthracnoses on leaves of both pepper and cucumber through primed

  20. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-03-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber.

  1. A method of genotyping by pedigree-based training-set for identification of QTLs associated with cucumber fruit size

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large sets of genomic data are becoming available for cucumber (Cucumis sativus), yet there is no tool for whole genome genotyping. Creation of saturated genetic maps depends on development of good markers. The present cucumber genetic maps are based on several hundreds of markers. However they are ...

  2. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a combination of fumaric acid and cinnamaldehyde that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The naturally occurring compound, fumaric acid, was evaluated as a potential preservative for the long-term storage of cucumbers. Fumaric acid inhibited growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in an acidified cucumber juice medium model system resembling conditions that could allow preservation of cucu...

  3. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  4. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  5. Nondestructive detection of chilling injury in cucumber fruit using hyperspectral imaging with feature selection and supervised classification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chilling injury, as a physiological disorder in cucumbers, occurs after the fruit has been subjected to low temperatures. It is thus desirable to detect chilling injury at early stages and/or remove chilling injured cucumbers during sorting and grading. This research was aimed to apply hyperspectral...

  6. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.) chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber and melon are two economically important vegetable species. Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon, where twelve melon chromosomes are thought to have undergone chromosome fusion to result in the ...

  7. Persistence and protection of mitochondrial DNA in the generative cell of cucumber is consistent with its paternal transmission

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber, unlike most plants, shows paternal inheritance of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); however, the mechanisms regulating this unique transmission mode are unclear. Here we monitored the amounts of mtDNA through the development of cucumber microspores to pollen and observed that mtDNA decreases ...

  8. QTLs for downy mildew resistance and their association with LRR-RLK resistance gene analogs in cucumber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by the obligate oomycete Pseudoperonospora cubensis is an important disease of cucumber and other cucurbit crops. For more than 50 years, DM was effectively controlled in cucumber through host resistance. The dm-1 gene became less effective in 2004 due to the appearance of a...

  9. Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

  10. Genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Until very recently, cucumber genetic and genomic resources, especially molecular markers, have been very limited, impeding progress of cucumber breeding efforts. Microsatellites are short tandemly repeated DNA sequences, which are frequently favored as genetic markers due to their high level of polymorphism and codominant inheritance. Data from previously characterized genomes has shown that these repeats vary in frequency, motif sequence, and genomic location across taxa. During the last year, the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced including the Chinese fresh market type inbred line '9930' and the North American pickling type inbred line 'Gy14'. These sequences provide a powerful tool for developing markers in a large scale. In this study, we surveyed and characterized the distribution and frequency of perfect microsatellites in 203 Mbp assembled Gy14 DNA sequences, representing 55% of its nuclear genome, and in cucumber EST sequences. Similar analyses were performed in genomic and EST data from seven other plant species, and the results were compared with those of cucumber. Results A total of 112,073 perfect repeats were detected in the Gy14 cucumber genome sequence, accounting for 0.9% of the assembled Gy14 genome, with an overall density of 551.9 SSRs/Mbp. While tetranucleotides were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, dinucleotide repeats, which had more repeat units than any other SSR type, had the highest cumulative sequence length. Coding regions (ESTs) of the cucumber genome had fewer microsatellites compared to its genomic sequence, with trinucleotides predominating in EST sequences. AAG was the most frequent repeat in cucumber ESTs. Overall, AT-rich motifs prevailed in both genomic and EST data. Compared to the other species examined, cucumber genomic sequence had the highest density of SSRs (although comparable to the density of poplar

  11. Effect of shrink wrap packaging for maintaining quality of cucumber during storage.

    PubMed

    Dhall, Rajinder Kumar; Sharma, Sanjeev R; Mahajan, B V C

    2012-08-01

    Immature green cucumber cv. 'Padmini' fruits were individually shrink wrapped with Cryovac D955 (60 guage) film and stored at 12 ± 1 °C, 90-95% RH as well as ambient conditions (29-33 °C, 65-70% RH). At 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH, individual shrink wrapped cucumber recorded minimum Physiological loss in weight (0.66%) as compared with unwrapped fruits (11.11%) at the end of refrigerated storage (15 days). The softening (loss of firmness) was maximum (1304.6-876.6 g force) in unwrapped cucumbers whereas in shrink wrapping, minimum loss in firmness (1304.6-1065.3 g force) was observed after 12 days storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH but greater loss of weight and firmness makes the control cucumbers unmarketable after 9 days of storage. There were no rotting at all both in shrink wrapped and unwrapped cucumbers upto 15 days of storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH. After 15 days storage of shrink wrapped cucumbers at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH, there was loss of green colour and development of yellowness and decay. The sensory attributes score was highest in shrink wrapped cucumbers as compared to unwrapped cucumbers at end of both storage conditions. Thus it can be concluded that individual shrink wrapped cucumber can be stored well upto 15 days at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH and for 5 days at ambient conditions (29-33 °C, 65-70% RH) with maximum retention of green colour, no spoilage, minimum weight and firmness loss and very good sensory quality attributes whereas, unwrapped fruits can be stored well upto 9 days at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH and for 2 days at ambient conditions with maximum retention of physico-chemical quality attributes.

  12. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chang-Long; Cheng, Qing; Zhao, Liqun; Mao, Aijun; Yang, Jingjing; Yu, Shuancang; Weng, Yiqun; Xu, Yong

    2016-03-16

    Cucumber is vulnerable to many foliage diseases. Recent studies reported cloning of candidate genes for several diseases in cucumber; however, the exact defence mechanisms remain unclear. Dof genes have been shown to play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof genes coding for plant-specific transcription factors can promote large-scale expression of defence-related genes at whole genome level. The genes in the family have been identified and characterized in several plant species, but not in cucumber. In the present study, we identified 36 CsDof members from the cucumber draft genomes which could be classified into eight groups. The proportions of the CsDof family genes, duplication events, chromosomal locations, cis-elements and miRNA target sites were comprehensively investigated. Consequently, we analysed the expression patterns of CsDof genes in specific tissues and their response to two biotic stresses (watermelon mosaic virus and downy mildew). These results indicated that CsDof may be involved in resistance to biotic stresses in cucumber.

  13. Paenibacillus polymyxa NSY50 suppresses Fusarium wilt in cucumbers by regulating the rhizospheric microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lu; Du, Nanshan; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Li, Shuzhan; Guo, Shirong

    2017-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa) NSY50, isolated from vinegar residue substrate, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NSY50 application on cucumber growth, soil properties and composition of the rhizospheric soil microbial community after exposure to Fusarium oxysporum. Bacterial and fungal communities were investigated by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1 and ITS2). The results showed that NSY50 effectively reduced the incidence of Fusarium wilt (56.4%) by altering the soil physico-chemical properties (e.g., pH, Cmic, Rmic, total N and Corg) and enzyme activities, especially of urease and β-glucosidase, which were significantly increased by 2.25- and 2.64-fold, respectively, relative to the pathogen treatment condition. More specifically, NSY50 application reduced the abundance of Fusarium and promoted potentially beneficial groups, including the Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Streptomyces, Actinospica, Catenulispora and Pseudomonas genera. Thus, our results suggest that NSY50 application can improve soil properties, shift the microbial community by increasing beneficial strains and decreasing pathogen colonization in the cucumber rhizosphere, and reduce the occurrence of cucumber Fusarium wilt, thereby promoting cucumber growth. PMID:28198807

  14. [Effects of nutrition medium on cucumber growth and soil microenvironment in greenhouse under continuous cropping].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Cheng; Li, Tian-Lai; Cao, Xia; Meng, Si-Da; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Yang, Li-Juan

    2014-05-01

    An experiment of continuous cropping of cucumber in nutrition medium (composted with straw, rural soil and puffed chicken manure) or soil was conducted in greenhouse in order to study the effects of medium type on the cucumber growth and soil microenvironment, respectively. The results showed that the two treatments both displayed different levels of obstacles resulted from continuous cropping. In the same cropping season, the nutrient content, soil invertase and urease activities and B/F (bacteria/fungi) ratio in the nutrition medium were obviously higher but fungi quantity was lower than in the soil medium, suggesting the use of nutrition medium changed the bacterial population structure as to improve the cucumber growth and yield. Under continuous cropping, correlation analysis showed that the bacterial quantity was significantly positively related with plant height and root dry mass, and markedly significantly positive correlation exited between the aboveground dry mass and yield of cucumber. The urease activity was also significantly positively related with the cucumber yield. Compared with the soil medium, the nutrition medium could greatly improve soil microenvironment and alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle.

  15. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P < 0.05). The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  16. Reliable reference genes for normalization of gene expression in cucumber grown under different nitrogen nutrition.

    PubMed

    Warzybok, Anna; Migocka, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    In plants, nitrogen is the most important nutritional factor limiting the yield of cultivated crops. Since nitrogen is essential for synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids and proteins, studies on gene expression in plants cultivated under different nitrogen availability require particularly careful selection of suitable reference genes which are not affected by nitrogen limitation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to select the most reliable reference genes for qPCR analysis of target cucumber genes under varying nitrogen source and availability. Among twelve candidate cucumber genes used in this study, five are highly homologous to the commonly used internal controls, whereas seven novel candidates were previously identified through the query of the cucumber genome. The expression of putative reference genes and the target CsNRT1.1 gene was analyzed in roots, stems and leaves of cucumbers grown under nitrogen deprivation, varying nitrate availability or different sources of nitrogen (glutamate, glutamine or NH3). The stability of candidate genes expression significantly varied depending on the tissue type and nitrogen supply. However, in most of the outputs genes encoding CACS, TIP41, F-box protein and EFα proved to be the most suitable for normalization of CsNRT1.1 expression. In addition, our results suggest the inclusion of 3 or 4 references to obtain highly reliable results of target genes expression in all cucumber organs under nitrogen-related stress.

  17. CsAP3: A Cucumber Homolog to Arabidopsis APETALA3 with Novel Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin-Jing; Li, Feng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Gu, Hai-Tao; Zou, Cheng; Luo, Jing-Chu; He, Chao-Xing; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2016-01-01

    In our previous efforts to understand the regulatory mechanisms of cucumber unisexual flower development, we observed a stamen-specific down-regulation of the ethylene receptor CsETR1 in stage 6 female flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). This down-regulation is correlated with the primordial anther-specific DNA damage that characterizes inappropriate stamen development in cucumber female flowers. To understand how CsETR1 is down regulated in the stamen, we characterized a cucumber MADS box gene homologous to Arabidopsis AP3, CsAP3. We demonstrated that CsAP3 is functionally equivalent to the Arabidopsis B-class MADS gene AP3. However, three novel characteristics of CsAP3 were found. These include firstly, binding and activating CsETR1 promoter in vitro and in vivo; secondly, containing a GV repeat in its C-terminus, which is conserved in cucurbits and required for the transcription activation; and thirdly, decreased expression as the node number increases, which is similar to that found for CsETR1. These findings revealed not only the conserved function of CsAP3 as a B-class floral identity gene, but also its unique functions in regulation of female flower development in cucumber. PMID:27540391

  18. Modification of the cellular heat sensitivity of cucumber by growth under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m{sup -2}) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to reduce triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was determined after treatment at 50{degrees}C for various times. Semilogarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of time at 50{degrees}were curvilinear. They were monophasic for the control cucumber and biphasic for cucumber grown in the presence of elevated UV-B. Treatment of cucumber plants at 37{degrees}C for 24 h or of tissue discs at acute UV-B levels for 1 h further modified their response to elevated temperature. These results suggest that growth of cucumber under enhanced UV-B radiation levels increased its ability to withstand elevated temperatures. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Identification and bioinformatics comparison of two novel phosphatases in monoecious and gynoecious cucumber lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Wojcieszek, Michał; Osipowski, Paweł; Krzywkowski, Tomasz; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Two Arabidopsis thaliana genes from the PP2C family of protein phosphatases (AtABI1 and AtABI2) were used to find orthologous genes in the Cucumis sativus L. cv. Borszczagowski (cucumber) genome. Cucumber has been used as a model plant for sex expression studies because although it has been defined as a monoecious species, numerous genotypes are known to produce only female, only male, or hermaphroditic flowers. We identified two new orthologous genes of AtABI1 and AtABI2 in the cucumber genome and named them CsABI1 and CsABI2. To determine the relationships between the regulation of CsABI1 and CsABI2 and flower morphogenesis in cucumber, we performed various computational analyses to define the structure of the genes, and to predict regulatory elements and protein motifs in their sequences. We also performed an expression analysis to identify differences in the expression levels of CsABI1 and CsABI2 in vegetative and generative tissues (leaf, shoot apex, and flower buds) of monoecious (B10) and gynoecious (2gg) cucumber lines. We found that the expressions of CsABI1 and CsABI2 differed in male and female floral buds, and correlated these findings with the abscisic acid signaling pathways in male and female flowers.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis reveals distinct resistant response by physcion and chrysophanol against cucumber powdery mildew

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanping; Tian, Shilin; Yang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    Physcion and chrysophanol induce defense responses against powdery mildew in cucumbers. The combination of these two compounds has synergistic interaction against the disease. We performed RNA-seq on cucumber leaf samples treated with physcion and chrysophanol alone and with their combination. We generated 17.6 Gb of high-quality sequencing data (∼2 Gb per sample) and catalogued the expressions profiles of 12,293 annotated cucumber genes in each sample. We identified numerous differentially expressed genes that exhibited distinct expression patterns among the three treatments. The gene expression patterns of the Chr and Phy treatments were more similar to each other than to the Phy × Chr treatment. The Phy × Chr treatment induced the highest number of differentially expressed genes. This dramatic transcriptional change after Phy × Chr treatment leaves reflects that physcion combined with chrysophanol treatment was most closely associated with induction of disease resistance. The analysis showed that the combination treatment caused expression changes of numerous defense-related genes. These genes have known or potential roles in structural, chemical and signaling defense responses and were enriched in functional gene categories potentially responsible for cucumber resistance. These results clearly demonstrated that disease resistance in cucumber leaves was significantly influenced by the combined physcion and chrysophanol treatment. Thus, physcion and chrysophanol are appealing candidates for further investigation of the gene expression and associated regulatory mechanisms related to the defense response. PMID:27231648

  1. Paenibacillus polymyxa NSY50 suppresses Fusarium wilt in cucumbers by regulating the rhizospheric microbial community.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lu; Du, Nanshan; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Li, Shuzhan; Guo, Shirong

    2017-02-13

    Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa) NSY50, isolated from vinegar residue substrate, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NSY50 application on cucumber growth, soil properties and composition of the rhizospheric soil microbial community after exposure to Fusarium oxysporum. Bacterial and fungal communities were investigated by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1 and ITS2). The results showed that NSY50 effectively reduced the incidence of Fusarium wilt (56.4%) by altering the soil physico-chemical properties (e.g., pH, Cmic, Rmic, total N and Corg) and enzyme activities, especially of urease and β-glucosidase, which were significantly increased by 2.25- and 2.64-fold, respectively, relative to the pathogen treatment condition. More specifically, NSY50 application reduced the abundance of Fusarium and promoted potentially beneficial groups, including the Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Streptomyces, Actinospica, Catenulispora and Pseudomonas genera. Thus, our results suggest that NSY50 application can improve soil properties, shift the microbial community by increasing beneficial strains and decreasing pathogen colonization in the cucumber rhizosphere, and reduce the occurrence of cucumber Fusarium wilt, thereby promoting cucumber growth.

  2. Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic analysis of the ERF gene family in cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lifang; Liu, Shiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Members of the ERF transcription-factor family participate in a number of biological processes, viz., responses to hormones, adaptation to biotic and abiotic stress, metabolism regulation, beneficial symbiotic interactions, cell differentiation and developmental processes. So far, no tissue-expression profile of any cucumber ERF protein has been reported in detail. Recent completion of the cucumber full-genome sequence has come to facilitate, not only genome-wide analysis of ERF family members in cucumbers themselves, but also a comparative analysis with those in Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, 103 hypothetical ERF family genes in the cucumber genome were identified, phylogenetic analysis indicating their classification into 10 groups, designated I to X. Motif analysis further indicated that most of the conserved motifs outside the AP2/ERF domain, are selectively distributed among the specific clades in the phylogenetic tree. From chromosomal localization and genome distribution analysis, it appears that tandem-duplication may have contributed to CsERF gene expansion. Intron/exon structure analysis indicated that a few CsERFs still conserved the former intron-position patterns existent in the common ancestor of monocots and eudicots. Expression analysis revealed the widespread distribution of the cucumber ERF gene family within plant tissues, thereby implying the probability of their performing various roles therein. Furthermore, members of some groups presented mutually similar expression patterns that might be related to their phylogenetic groups. PMID:22215967

  3. QTL mapping of cucumber fruit flesh thickness by SLAF-seq

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuewen; Lu, Lu; Zhu, Biyun; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber is an agriculturally and economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Fruit flesh thickness is an important trait for cucumber and also a central determinant of yield, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism of this trait. In this study, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) combined with specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was applied to finely map the gene that underlies fruit flesh thickness in cucumber. A 0.19-Mb-long quantitative trait locus on chromosome 2 controlling fruit flesh thickness (QTL fft2.1) was identified and further confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker-based classical QTL mapping in 138 F2 individuals. Gene prediction of this 0.19-Mb region identified 20 genes. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed higher expression levels of Csa2 M058670.1 (SET domain protein-lysine methyltransferase) in D8 (thick fruit flesh parent) compared with that in XUE1 (thin fruit flesh parent) during fruit development. Sequence alignment analysis of Csa2M058670.1 from thick and thin fruit flesh cucumber lines revealed a 4-bp deletion mutation in the promoter region of this candidate gene, which may result in the loss of Csa2M058670.1 activation in thin fruit flesh lines. The data presented herein suggest that Csa2M058670.1 is a possible candidate gene for controlling flesh thickness in cucumber. PMID:26508560

  4. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chang-long; Cheng, Qing; Zhao, Liqun; Mao, Aijun; Yang, Jingjing; Yu, Shuancang; Weng, Yiqun; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber is vulnerable to many foliage diseases. Recent studies reported cloning of candidate genes for several diseases in cucumber; however, the exact defence mechanisms remain unclear. Dof genes have been shown to play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof genes coding for plant-specific transcription factors can promote large-scale expression of defence-related genes at whole genome level. The genes in the family have been identified and characterized in several plant species, but not in cucumber. In the present study, we identified 36 CsDof members from the cucumber draft genomes which could be classified into eight groups. The proportions of the CsDof family genes, duplication events, chromosomal locations, cis-elements and miRNA target sites were comprehensively investigated. Consequently, we analysed the expression patterns of CsDof genes in specific tissues and their response to two biotic stresses (watermelon mosaic virus and downy mildew). These results indicated that CsDof may be involved in resistance to biotic stresses in cucumber. PMID:26979661

  5. A Multi Residue GC-MS Method for Determination of 12 Pesticides in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Azadeh; Amirahmadi, Maryam; Mousavi, Zahra; Shoeibi, Shahram; Khajeamiri, Alireza; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber is one of the main vegetables in Iranian food basket. A wide range of pesticides are used for crops protection during the cultivation of vegetables such as cucumber due to heavy pest infestation. Analysis of pesticide residues in food and other environmental commodities have become essential requirement for consumers, producers, and food quality control authorities. This study was aimed at determination of pesticides residues in cucumber as a main vegetable in Iranian food basket. A reliable, rapid and accurate method based on spiked calibration curves and modified QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of 12 pesticide residues in cucumber by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects. The recovery of pesticides at 5 concentration levels (n = 3) was in the range of 80.6-112.3. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSD lower than 20%. The limits of detection and quantification for all pesticides were <10 ng/g and <25 ng/g, respectively. The developed method was used for simultaneous determination of the selected pesticides in 60 greenhouse and garden cucumber samples. Among the 60 analyzed samples, 41.7% of them were contaminated with pesticide residues which 31.7% of samples had pesticide residues lower than maximum residue limit and 10% of samples had residue higher than maximum residue limit. PMID:28243277

  6. High-Throughput Sequencing, Characterization and Detection of New and Conserved Cucumber miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Germán; Forment, Javier; Llave, Cesar; Pallás, Vicente; Gómez, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Micro RNAS (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In plants, a great number of conserved and specific miRNAs, mainly arising from model species, have been identified to date. However less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in vegetal species with agricultural and/or horticultural importance. Here we report a combined approach of bioinformatics prediction, high-throughput sequencing data and molecular methods to analyze miRNAs populations in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants. A set of 19 conserved and 6 known but non-conserved miRNA families were found in our cucumber small RNA dataset. We also identified 7 (3 with their miRNA* strand) not previously described miRNAs, candidates to be cucumber-specific. To validate their description these new C. sativus miRNAs were detected by northern blot hybridization. Additionally, potential targets for most conserved and new miRNAs were identified in cucumber genome. In summary, in this study we have identified, by first time, conserved, known non-conserved and new miRNAs arising from an agronomically important species such as C. sativus. The detection of this complex population of regulatory small RNAs suggests that similarly to that observe in other plant species, cucumber miRNAs may possibly play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes. PMID:21603611

  7. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Modeling gene flow distribution within conventional fields and development of a simplified sampling method to quantify adventitious GM contents in maize

    PubMed Central

    Melé, Enric; Nadal, Anna; Messeguer, Joaquima; Melé-Messeguer, Marina; Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Peñas, Gisela; Piferrer, Xavier; Capellades, Gemma; Serra, Joan; Pla, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been commercially grown for two decades. GM maize is one of 3 species with the highest acreage and specific events. Many countries established a mandatory labeling of products containing GM material, with thresholds for adventitious presence, to support consumers’ freedom of choice. In consequence, coexistence systems need to be introduced to facilitate commercial culture of GM and non-GM crops in the same agricultural area. On modeling adventitious GM cross-pollination distribution within maize fields, we deduced a simple equation to estimate overall GM contents (%GM) of conventional fields, irrespective of its shape and size, and with no previous information on possible GM pollen donor fields. A sampling strategy was designed and experimentally validated in 19 agricultural fields. With 9 samples, %GM quantification requires just one analytical GM determination while identification of the pollen source needs 9 additional analyses. A decision support tool is provided. PMID:26596213

  9. The Cytokinin Type-B Response Regulator PtRR13 Is a Negative Regulator of Adventitious Root Development in Populus1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Carvajal, Gustavo A.; Morse, Alison M.; Dervinis, Christopher; Davis, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Adventitious root formation at the base of plant cuttings is an innate de novo organogenesis process that allows massive vegetative propagation of many economically and ecologically important species. The early molecular events following shoot excision are not well understood. Using whole-genome microarrays, we detected significant transcriptome remodeling during 48 h following shoot removal in Populus tremula × Populus alba softwood cuttings in the absence of exogenous auxin, with 27% and 36% of the gene models showing differential abundance between 0 and 6 h and between 6 and 24 h, respectively. During these two time intervals, gene networks involved in protein turnover, protein phosphorylation, molecular transport, and translation were among the most significantly regulated. Transgenic lines expressing a constitutively active form of the Populus type-B cytokinin response regulator PtRR13 (ΔDDKPtRR13) have a delayed rooting phenotype and cause misregulation of CONTINUOUS VASCULAR RING1, a negative regulator of vascularization; PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE TRANSPORTER9, an auxin efflux transporter; and two APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR genes with sequence similarity to TINY. Inappropriate cytokinin action via ΔDDKPtRR13 expression appeared to disrupt adventitious root development 24 h after shoot excision, when root founder cells are hypothesized to be sensitive to the negative effects of cytokinin. Our results are consistent with PtRR13 acting downstream of cytokinin to repress adventitious root formation in intact plants, and that reduced cytokinin signaling after shoot excision enables coordinated expression of ethylene, auxin, and vascularization pathways leading to adventitious root development. PMID:19395410

  10. Jasmonic acid and methyl dihydrojasmonate enhance saponin biosynthesis as well as expression of functional genes in adventitious roots of Panax notoginseng F.H. Chen.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxin; Wang, Juan; Wu, Xiaolei; Liu, Dahui; Li, Jing; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie; Gao, Wenyuan

    2017-03-01

    Panax notoginseng, an important herbal medicine, has wide uses for its bioactive compounds and health function. In this work, we compared the content of saponin in cultivation and adventitious root. The total content of saponins in adventitious root (8.48 mg⋅g(-1) ) was found lower than in the native one (3-year-old) (34.34 mg⋅g(-1) ). To enhance the content of bioactive compounds, we applied elicitors jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl dihydrojasmonate (MDJ) to the adventitious root culture. It was observed that the highest total content of saponins (71.94 mg⋅g(-1) ) was achieved after treatment with 5 mg⋅L(-1) JA, which was 2.09-fold higher than native roots and 8.45-fold higher than the control group. The findings from high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that six new compounds were present after the treatment with the elicitors. Furthermore, we found that JA and MDJ significantly upregulated the expression of the geranyl diphosphate synthase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, squalene synthase, squalene epoxidase, dammarenediol synthase, and CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2 (CYP450 enzyme) genes; downregulated the expression of the cycloartenol synthase gene; and increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the SAMS gene during adventitious root development in IBA-induced tetraploid black locust.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jine; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Chunxia; Meng, Sen; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Xuexuan

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor for ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis. Here, we report the isolation of the 1498 bp full-length cDNA sequence encoding tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SAMS (TrbSAMS), which contains an open reading frame of 1179 bp encoding 392 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of TrbSAMS has more than 94% sequence identity to SAMSs from other plants, with a closer phylogenetic relationship to SAMSs from legumes than to SAMS from other plants. The TrbSAMS monomer consists of N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the TrbSAMS protein localizes mainly to in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protoplasts. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treated cuttings showed higher levels of TrbSAMS transcript than untreated control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. TrbSAMS and its downstream genes showed differential expression in shoots, leaves, bark, and roots, with the highest expression observed in bark. IBA-treated cuttings also showed higher SAMS activity than control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. These results indicate that TrbSAMS might play an important role in the regulation of IBA-induced adventitious root development in tetraploid black locust cuttings.

  12. Identification of genes involved in indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Chengcai; Ma, Chunlei; Zhang, Liqun; Gong, Wuyun; Wu, Liyun

    2013-02-10

    The plant hormone auxin plays a key role in adventitious rooting. To increase our understanding of genes involved in adventitious root formation, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in single nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 77 differentially expressed transcripts, including 70 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated sequences, were identified in tea cuttings under IBA treatment. Seven candidate transcripts were selected and analyzed for their response to IBA, and IAA by real time RT-PCR. All these transcripts were up regulated by at least two folds one day after IBA treatment. Meanwhile, IAA showed less positive effects on the expression of candidate transcripts. The full-length cDNA of a F-box/kelch gene was also isolated and found to be similar to a group of At1g23390 like genes. These unigenes provided a new source for mining genes related to adventitious root formation, which facilitate our understanding of relative fundamental metabolism.

  13. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the SAMS Gene during Adventitious Root Development in IBA-Induced Tetraploid Black Locust

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Jine; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Chunxia; Meng, Sen; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Xuexuan

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor for ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis. Here, we report the isolation of the 1498 bp full-length cDNA sequence encoding tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SAMS (TrbSAMS), which contains an open reading frame of 1179 bp encoding 392 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of TrbSAMS has more than 94% sequence identity to SAMSs from other plants, with a closer phylogenetic relationship to SAMSs from legumes than to SAMS from other plants. The TrbSAMS monomer consists of N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the TrbSAMS protein localizes mainly to in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protoplasts. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treated cuttings showed higher levels of TrbSAMS transcript than untreated control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. TrbSAMS and its downstream genes showed differential expression in shoots, leaves, bark, and roots, with the highest expression observed in bark. IBA-treated cuttings also showed higher SAMS activity than control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. These results indicate that TrbSAMS might play an important role in the regulation of IBA-induced adventitious root development in tetraploid black locust cuttings. PMID:25285660

  14. [Effects of soil compaction stress on respiratory metabolism of cucumber root].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun-Xian; Sun, Yan; Han, Shou-Kun; Zhang, Hao

    2013-03-01

    A pot experiment with cucumber cultivar "Jingchun 4" was conducted to study the effects of soil compaction stress on the respiratory metabolism of cucumber root. Two treatments were installed, i.e. , soil bulk densities 1.20 and 1.55 g . cm-3. Under soil compaction stress, the activities of root pyruvate decarboxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase and the contents of root anaerobic respiration products alcohol, acetaldehyde, and lactate increased significantly, while the activities of the key enzymes involved in root aerobic respiration, including malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, decreased significantly, root pyruvate and succinate contents had significant increase, whereas root malate content decreased significantly. All the results illustrated that under soil compaction stress, the aerobic respiration of cucumber root was inhibited, while its anaerobic respiration was promoted.

  15. iTRAQ reveals proteomic changes during intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Xu, Qinzeng; Sun, Jingchun; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-06-01

    Sea cucumbers have a striking capacity to regenerate most of their viscera after evisceration, which has drawn the interest of many researchers. In this study, the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was utilized to investigate protein abundance changes during intestine regeneration in sea cucumbers. A total of 4073 proteins were identified, and 2321 proteins exhibited significantly differential expressions, with 1100 upregulated and 1221 downregulated proteins. Our results suggest that intestine regeneration constitutes a complex life activity regulated by the cooperation of various biological processes, including cytoskeletal changes, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and ECM-receptor interactions, protein synthesis, signal recognition and transduction, energy production and conversion, and substance transport and metabolism. Additionally, real-time PCR showed mRNA expression of differentially expressed genes correlated positively with their protein levels. Our results provided a basis for studying the regulatory mechanisms associated with sea cucumber regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-wide identification and domain organization of lectin domains in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2016-11-01

    Lectins are ubiquitous proteins in plants and play important roles in a diverse set of biological processes, such as plant defense and cell signaling. Despite the availability of the Cucumis sativus L. genome sequence since 2009, little is known with respect to the occurrence of lectins in cucumber. In this study, a total of 146 putative lectin genes belonging to 10 different lectin families were identified and localized in the cucumber genome. Domain architecture analysis revealed that most of these lectin gene sequences contain multiple domains, where lectin domains are linked with other domains, as such creating chimeric lectin sequences encoding proteins with dual activities. This study provides an overview of lectin motifs in cucumber and will help to understand their potential biological role(s). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Hilber, Isabel; Wyss, Gabriela S; Mäder, Paul; Bucheli, Thomas D; Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg(-1) of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg(-1), and total uptake from 2 to 1 microg in the 800 mg kg(-1) AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled.

  18. Characteristics of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus's population in the Sea of Japan (Kievka Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, G. S.; Sukhin, I. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    In Kievka Bay of the Sea of Japan, the population of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus inhabits the areas of coarse sediments and complex bottom topography. These distributional patterns are closely related to the species' ecology, i.e., to the demand for protection against the wave turbulence. The aggregationing coverage of the sea cucumber population is about 80 hectares, where ˜200 thousand animals were accounted for in the last years. The aggregation's area varies during the year, which is closely related to the species' biological peculiarities, such as their behavioral patterns and the redistribution of their food resources. A significant increase of the juvenile population occurred after the farm-reared sea cucumber spat were released in 2003.

  19. Lindane residues in cultivated cucumber and in the most consumed fish in Caspian Sea (Iran).

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, M; Saeedi Saravi, S S; Zehtab Yazdi, Y

    2009-09-01

    In this study, the concentrations of lindane residues (organochlorine pesticides) were analyzed in samples of cultivated cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) and four species of most consumed fish (Sefid, Koli, Kilca and Kafal fish). Samples of cucumber were collected from five sites in Sari city (north, south, east, west and central areas) and samples of fish were caught using electric fishing from four major fishing centers (Chalous and Babolsar cities, Khazar Abad and Miankaleh regions) in Mazandaran province of Iran. Quantitative determination of the lindane content was performed by gas chromatography electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The results showed that the concentration of lindane in cucumber samples and in the dorsal muscle of the selected fish were less than the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) recommended intake.

  20. Distribution and accumulative pattern of tetracyclines and sulfonamides in edible vegetables of cucumber, tomato, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Bedair M; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun; Vu, Ngoc Thang; Kim, Il Seop; Kang, Ho Min; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-01-21

    Veterinary antibiotics can be released to environment by the animals' excretions, which thereby poses human health and ecological risks. Six antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadimethoxine) at three concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) were employed in pots filled with a loamy sand upland soil. Three types of vegetable seedlings, including cucumber (Cucumis sativus), cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), were also cultivated during 45 d in the greenhouse. All antibiotics taken up by tested plants showed negative effects on growth. Relatively high levels of tetracyclines and sulfonamides (SAs) were detected in the nonedible parts, roots, and leaves of cucumber and tomato, but fruit parts accumulated them lower than acceptable daily intake. Indeed, cucumber roots accumulated SAs by up to 94.6% of total addition (at 5 mg kg(-1) soil).