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Sample records for av framtidens el

  1. Apparent AV junctional escape in Wenckebach AV block: markedly slow conduction through the slow AV pathway.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Shinji; Katoh, Takakazu; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Fukushima, Tsutomu; Ikawa, Shinji

    2009-02-01

    We report here two cases of Wenckebach atrioventricular (AV) block in which apparent AV junctional escape was observed, but most likely resulted from markedly slow conduction through the slow pathway of dual AV junctional pathways. In these cases, it seems that a blocked P-wave was followed by an AV junctional escape beat. However, a blocked P-wave occasionally failed to be followed by an escape beat, and the RR interval containing the blocked P-wave was markedly longer than the above escape interval. In one case, apparent AV junctional escape beats with aberrant ventricular conduction were found, and QRS complexes of the same configuration were also found without the preceding ventricular pause. This strengthens the possibility that apparent AV junctional escape occurred because of markedly slow conduction through the slow AV pathway.

  2. Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Reyes, George

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a new space radio astronomy mission for astrometry using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) called Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS). The ultimate goals of AVS are improving the accuracy of radio astrometry measurements to the microarcsecond level in one epoch of measurements and improving the accuracy of the transformation between the inertial radio and optical coordinate reference frames. This study will also assess the impact of this mission on astrophysics astrometry and geophysics.

  3. Physical, Structural and Operational Vulnerability of Critical Facilities in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case of study: Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Rodriguez, F.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    Valle de Chalco Solidaridad is located in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in Estado de Mexico, Mexico. In this town there is a sewage canal called “La Compañía”. A wall of this canal collapsed on February 5, 2010 due to heavy rains creating the flooding of four surrounding communities. It is important to point out that this area is frequently exposed to floods. In this work, we consider a critical facility as an essential structure for performance, health care and welfare within a community or/and as a place that can be used as shelter in case of emergency or disaster. Global vulnerability (the sum of the three measured vulnerabilities) of the 25 critical facilities identified in the locations of Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo was assessed using the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). For each critical facility we determined its operational, structural and physical vulnerabilities. For our analysis, we considered the four main natural hazards to which Valle de Chalco is exposed: earthquakes, floods, landslides and sinking. We considered five levels of vulnerability using a scale from 1 to 5, where values range from very low to very high vulnerability, respectively. A critical facilities database was generated by collecting general information for three categories: schools, government and church. Each facility was evaluated considering its location in relation to identified high-risk areas. Our results indicate that in average, the global vulnerability of all facilities is low, however, there are particular cases in which this global vulnerability is high. The average operational vulnerability of the three communities is moderate. The global structural vulnerability (sum of the structural vulnerability for the four analyzed hazards) is moderate. In particular, the structural vulnerability to earthquakes is low, to landslides is very low, to flooding is moderate and to sinking is

  4. Syncope and Idiopathic (Paroxysmal) AV Block.

    PubMed

    Brignole, Michele; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Guieu, Regis

    2015-08-01

    Syncope due to idiopathic AV block is characterized by: 1) ECG documentation (usually by means of prolonged ECG monitoring) of paroxysmal complete AV block with one or multiple consecutive pauses, without P-P cycle lengthening or PR interval prolongation, not triggered by atrial or ventricular premature beats nor by rate variations; 2) long history of recurrent syncope without prodromes; 3) absence of cardiac and ECG abnormalities; 4) absence of progression to persistent forms of AV block; 5) efficacy of cardiac pacing therapy. The patients affected by idiopathic AV block have low baseline adenosine plasma level values and show an increased susceptibility to exogenous adenosine. The APL value of the patients with idiopathic AV block is much lower than patients affected by vasovagal syncope who have high adenosine values.

  5. Arctic Visiting Speakers Series (AVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, S. E.; Griswold, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers (AVS) Series funds researchers and other arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic research topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Host applications are accepted on an on-going basis, depending on funding availability. Applications need to be submitted at least 1 month prior to the expected tour dates. Interested hosts can choose speakers from an online Speakers Bureau or invite a speaker of their choice. Preference is given to individuals and organizations to host speakers that reach a broad audience and the general public. AVS tours are encouraged to span several days, allowing ample time for interactions with faculty, students, local media, and community members. Applications for both domestic and international visits will be considered. Applications for international visits should involve participation of more than one host organization and must include either a US-based speaker or a US-based organization. This is a small but important program that educates the public about Arctic issues. There have been 27 tours since 2007 that have impacted communities across the globe including: Gatineau, Quebec Canada; St. Petersburg, Russia; Piscataway, New Jersey; Cordova, Alaska; Nuuk, Greenland; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Oslo, Norway; Inari, Finland; Borgarnes, Iceland; San Francisco, California and Wolcott, Vermont to name a few. Tours have included lectures to K-12 schools, college and university students, tribal organizations, Boy Scout troops, science center and museum patrons, and the general public. There are approximately 300 attendees enjoying each AVS tour, roughly 4100 people have been reached since 2007. The expectations for each tour are extremely manageable. Hosts must submit a schedule of events and a tour summary to be posted online

  6. Bradycardia: sinus and AV node dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Cara N; Scheinman, Melvin M

    2015-09-01

    The surface electrocardiogram (ECG) holds many clues with regard to the etiology of bradycardia and site of atrioventricular (AV) block. Bedside maneuvers may prove helpful in cases of 2:1 AV block or situations where the data is not all concordant. Wenckebach conduction may occur in any region of the heart, and there are nonpathologic mimickers of Mobitz II AV block as well. The surface ECG may aid in the inference of etiology for better than expected or slowed rather than blocked AV conduction. Sinus node dysfunction may present in several forms and often accompanies other conduction system disease. On occasion invasive studies may be required to help elucidate the mechanism of bradycardia.

  7. Pollen transmission of asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) may facilitate mixed infection by two AV-2 isolates in asparagus plants.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Ryusuke; Shimura, Hanako; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Ohki, Satoshi T; Masuta, Chikara

    2014-09-01

    Asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) is a member of the genus Ilarvirus and thought to induce the asparagus decline syndrome. AV-2 is known to be transmitted by seed, and the possibility of pollen transmission was proposed 25 years ago but not verified. In AV-2 sequence analyses, we have unexpectedly found mixed infection by two distinct AV-2 isolates in two asparagus plants. Because mixed infections by two related viruses are normally prevented by cross protection, we suspected that pollen transmission of AV-2 is involved in mixed infection. Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridization using AV-2-infected tobacco plants revealed that AV-2 was localized in the meristem and associated with pollen grains. To experimentally produce a mixed infection via pollen transmission, two Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were infected with each of two AV-2 isolates were crossed. Derived cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequence analysis identified each AV-2 isolate in the progeny seedlings, suggesting that pollen transmission could indeed result in a mixed infection, at least in N. benthamiana.

  8. 15 CFR 740.15 - Aircraft and vessels (AVS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft and vessels (AVS). 740.15... EXCEPTIONS § 740.15 Aircraft and vessels (AVS). This License Exception authorizes departure from the United States of foreign registry civil aircraft on temporary sojourn in the United States and of U.S....

  9. 15 CFR 740.15 - Aircraft and vessels (AVS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft and vessels (AVS). 740.15... EXCEPTIONS § 740.15 Aircraft and vessels (AVS). This License Exception authorizes departure from the United States of foreign registry civil aircraft on temporary sojourn in the United States and of U.S....

  10. 15 CFR 740.15 - Aircraft and vessels (AVS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft and vessels (AVS). 740.15... EXCEPTIONS § 740.15 Aircraft and vessels (AVS). This License Exception authorizes departure from the United States of foreign registry civil aircraft on temporary sojourn in the United States and of U.S....

  11. 15 CFR 740.15 - Aircraft and vessels (AVS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft and vessels (AVS). 740.15... EXCEPTIONS § 740.15 Aircraft and vessels (AVS). This License Exception authorizes departure from the United States of foreign registry civil aircraft on temporary sojourn in the United States and of U.S....

  12. Cofactor Requirement of HpyAV Restriction Endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siu-Hong; Opitz, Lars; Higgins, Lauren; O'loane, Diana; Xu, Shuang-yong

    2010-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is the etiologic agent of common gastritis and a risk factor for gastric cancer. It is also one of the richest sources of Type II restriction-modification (R-M) systems in microorganisms. Principal Findings We have cloned, expressed and purified a new restriction endonuclease HpyAV from H. pylori strain 26695. We determined the HpyAV DNA recognition sequence and cleavage site as CCTTC 6/5. In addition, we found that HpyAV has a unique metal ion requirement: its cleavage activity is higher with transition metal ions than in Mg++. The special metal ion requirement of HpyAV can be attributed to the presence of a HNH catalytic site similar to ColE9 nuclease instead of the canonical PD-X-D/EXK catalytic site found in many other REases. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to verify the catalytic residues of HpyAV. Mutation of the conserved metal-binding Asn311 and His320 to alanine eliminated cleavage activity. HpyAV variant H295A displayed approximately 1% of wt activity. Conclusions/Significance Some HNH-type endonucleases have unique metal ion cofactor requirement for optimal activities. Homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that HpyAV is a member of the HNH nuclease family. The identification of catalytic residues in HpyAV paved the way for further engineering of the metal binding site. A survey of sequenced microbial genomes uncovered 10 putative R-M systems that show high sequence similarity to the HpyAV system, suggesting lateral transfer of a prototypic HpyAV-like R-M system among these microorganisms. PMID:20140205

  13. Nanoscience and its relationship to the AVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murday, James S.

    2003-09-01

    Nanometer structures have played a role in technology for millennia, but empirically derived. The invention of surface analytical tools in the 1960s/70s enabled science with one dimension in the nanometer range; commercial products based on that science are significant and growing. The invention of the proximal probes (scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy) has stimulated science with all dimensions-0 (dots, clusters, macromolecules), 1 (wires, tubes), 2 (vicinal surfaces), 3 (nanostructured composites)-in the nanometer range. The U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative, and its equivalents in other countries, seek to accelerate progress in the scientific phase of discovery and invention, and to transition rapidly those innovations into technological opportunities. Building on its foundations in surface science, surface analysis, and electronics materials processing, the AVS has played a significant role in first creating and then promoting that progress.

  14. Functional mathematical model of dual pathway AV nodal conduction.

    PubMed

    Climent, A M; Guillem, M S; Zhang, Y; Millet, J; Mazgalev, T N

    2011-04-01

    Dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathway physiology is described as two different wave fronts that propagate from the atria to the His bundle: one with a longer effective refractory period [fast pathway (FP)] and a second with a shorter effective refractory period [slow pathway (SP)]. By using His electrogram alternance, we have developed a mathematical model of AV conduction that incorporates dual AV nodal pathway physiology. Experiments were performed on five rabbit atrial-AV nodal preparations to develop and test the presented model. His electrogram alternances from the inferior margin of the His bundle were used to identify fast and slow wave front propagations. The ability to predict AV conduction time and the interaction between FP and SP wave fronts have been analyzed during regular and irregular atrial rhythms (e.g., atrial fibrillation). In addition, the role of dual AV nodal pathway wave fronts in the generation of Wenckebach periodicities has been illustrated. Finally, AV node ablative modifications have been evaluated. The model accurately reproduced interactions between FP and SP during regular and irregular atrial pacing protocols. In all experiments, specificity and sensitivity higher than 85% were obtained in the prediction of the pathway responsible for conduction. It has been shown that, during atrial fibrillation, the SP ablation significantly increased the mean HH interval (204 ± 39 vs. 274 ± 50 ms, P < 0.05), whereas FP ablation did not produce significant slowing of ventricular rate. The presented mathematical model can help in understanding some of the intriguing AV node mechanisms and should be considered as a step forward in the studies of AV nodal conduction.

  15. Phase 4 paroxysmal AV block in a patient with scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Butschek, Ross; Powell, Brian D; Littmann, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    A 72-year-old man with limited cutaneous systemic scleroderma was hospitalized for two episodes of witnessed syncope. The baseline 12-lead electrocardiogram was normal but on telemetry there were numerous episodes of paroxysmal AV block with asystolic periods of up to 7.5 s duration. Analysis of the rhythm strips revealed phase 4 intra-His bundle block characterized by critical P-P intervals that triggered the AV block, and a narrow range of junctional escape to subsequent P wave intervals that were required to release the AV block. A dual chamber pacemaker was implanted.

  16. AV-95 Sun Devil: High-Speed Military Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The AV-95 Sun Devil must combine helicopter capabilities, such as vertical takeoff and landings (VTOL) and rotor-powered flight, along with long-duration cruise and high-speed dash capabilities unobtainable by conventional helicopters. To be able to perform both tasks, and perform them well, the AV-95 Sun Devil design incorporates several unconventional devices; the AV-95 uses two convertible turbofan engines, able to provide both shaft power for the main rotor and tall fan as well as jet thrust either separately or simultaneously. Other devices used for the AV-95 include a variable diameter main rotor and a blown flap. In helicopter mode, the AV-95 Sun Devil performs like a winged helicopter. The addition of wings to an attack helicopter results in two significant advantages. First, the addition of wings makes a helicopter more maneuverable than a wingless, but otherwise similar helicopter. Second, since the wings produce lift, rotor stall and compressibility effects can be significantly delayed at high tip velocities. In fixed-wing mode, the main rotor is completely off-loaded but slightly powered, and the rotor diameter has been minimized. The AV-95 Sun Devil has many advantages over other VTOL aircraft. The conversion process is simple and fast; conversion does not make the AV-95 vulnerable to enemy attack during conversion such as a tilt-wing or a tilt-rotor. Stop-rotor aircraft and a stowed rotor aircraft require heavy breaking of the rotor for conversion; this adds time for conversion and weight to the aircraft. Because the AV-95 never stops the rotor in flight, much weight is spared, and conversion is much simpler and faster.

  17. Accessory pathway reciprocating tachycardia involving twin AV nodes in a patient with atrioventricular discordance and mitral atresia.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Aya; Sakaguchi, Heima; Uchiyama, Takamichi; Kurita, Takashi; Ohuchi, Hideo; Yamada, Osamu

    2010-05-01

    The atrioventricular (AV) conduction system in AV discordance remains unclear, especially in cases with complex cardiac anomaly. We report a case of accessory pathway reciprocating tachycardia in atrioventricular discordance (AVD) and mitral atresia with twin AV nodes. In this case, the anterior AV node was located along the atretic mitral valve. The anterior AV node was involved in tachycardia and the posterior AV node acted as a bystander during tachycardia. The anterior AV node in AVD can be located along the atretic mitral valve, and one of twin AV nodes might act as a bystander during AV reciprocating tachycardia.

  18. Enhanced A-V nodal conduction (Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome) by congenitally hypoplastic A-V node.

    PubMed

    Ometto, R; Thiene, G; Corrado, D; Vincenzi, M; Rossi, L

    1992-11-01

    The basic anatomical substrate of enhanced A-V nodal conduction, manifesting or not as Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome, is still a controversial issue. We describe the case of a 34-year-old man who presented episodes of ventricular fibrillation. Electrophysiological studies showed that the AH interval was 55 ms, and increased by only 20 ms at paced cycle lengths of 300 ms; atrial pacing induced atrial fibrillation, with a shortest RR interval of 240 ms. Despite verapamil therapy, this patient died suddenly at home. Histological study disclosed a severe A-V node hypoplasia that was evidently congenital in nature; the rest of the conduction system was normal, and no accessory A-V pathways were present. We suggest that enhanced A-V nodal conduction in this patient was due to the developmental defect in the A-V node; this abnormality caused a loss of specific impulse-delaying function, and thus allowed rapid, unfiltered atrial impulses to reach the lower A-V junction and ventricles.

  19. Assessment of the NASA AvSTAR Project Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrey, Michael L.; Haraldsdottir, Aslaug; Berge, Matthew E.; Hopperstad, Craig A.; Schwab, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    This report is a preliminary evaluation of NASA's proposed Aviation System Technology Advanced Research (AvSTAR) Program during the early stages of its definition, in the first half of the year 2001. This evaluation focuses on how well the program goals address the needs of the U.S. National Airspace System, the technical feasibility of the program goals, and the logistical feasibility of the program plan. This report also provides recommendations on how the AvSTAR program could be strengthened and improved. This document has two appendices.

  20. A case of reversible third-degree AV block due to Lyme carditis.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Stefan A J; Boswijk, Dirk J; Kimman, Geert P; Germans, Tjeerd

    2016-01-01

    The most common manifestation of Lyme carditis is a varying degree of atrioventricular (AV) conduction block. This case describes a 45-year-old male with third-degree AV block due to Lyme carditis. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics resulted in complete normalization of AV conduction, thereby averting permanent pacemaker implantation.

  1. Prevention of AV Nodal Reentry Tachycardia by Oral Amiodarone: An Alternative Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Robert L.; Haffajee, Charles I.; Entes, Kenneth L.

    1987-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was noted to have atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentry tachycardia, which was induced during programmed electrical stimulation. After 1 month of oral amiodarone therapy, AV nodal reentry tachycardia was prevented by the prolongation of atrial refractoriness and not by direct action on the AV node itself. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:99-101) PMID:15227337

  2. Assessment of heavy metals pollution using AVS-SEM and fractionation techniques in Edku Lagoon sediments, Mediterranean Sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Zokm, Gehan M; Okbah, Mohamed A; Younis, Alaa M

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented to evaluate the fractionation of metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni), acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in Edku lagoon sediments. Thirteen sediment samples were collected from the study area in the period of 2010-2011 to assess the potential bioavailability and toxicity of the selected metals. According to classification of the Interim Sediment Quality Quidelines (ISQG), five stations near the drains exhibited 10% toxic probability. The high AVS and low ∑SEM ranges in Summer were identified as 6-138 and 0.86-3.3 µmol g(-1) dry wet, respectively which are referring to the low mobility of heavy metals in this season and vice versa for winter (2.5-23.9 and 1.16-3.82 µmol g(-1) dry wet, respectively). According to the evaluation of USEPA, all sediment samples showed ∑SEM/AVS < 1 and ΣSEM-AVS < 0 and this indicates that Edku lagoon sediments didn't cause any adverse effects. Meanwhile, the calculations of the global contamination factor (GCF) and the individual contamination factors (ICF) using fractionation technique gave values of 111.644 and 84.555 in El Bosily drain and station 1 near the cages of fish farm, respectively due to possible contamination. Interestingly, the collected data refer that the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in Edku lagoon sediments posed a low risk of adverse biological effects due to cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in all evaluated stations.

  3. Centralized Library Services for Audiovisual Media. AV in Action 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederlands Bibliotheek en Lektuur Centrum, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Designed to provide assistance to countries in developing centralized services to their libraries for nonbook materials, this pamphlet contains examples from five countries that have succeeded in establishing such services. Those examples include: (1) "The Central Library Service for AV-Materials in Denmark" (Suzanne Hemmeth…

  4. Cloning and characterization of a novel apolipoprotein gene, apolipoprotein AV, in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Luo, Huairong; Sun, Guotao; Wu, Guisheng; Wu, Gang; Wang, Yan; Man, Yong; Wang, Shu; Li, Jian; Chen, Baosheng

    2013-09-01

    Apolipoprotein AV (apoAV) modulates plasma triglyceride levels, which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. ApoAV is also involved in atherosclerosis lesion formation. In order to systematically evaluate the apolipoprotein-related gene profile in tree shrew, a model for its insusceptibility to atherosclerosis, we performed apoAV cloning and characterization. The full-length cDNA of apoAV was identified using SMART-RACE. ApoAV cDNA sequence revealed two transcripts, 1,948 and 1,397 base pairs, due to alternative polyadenylation. These two transcripts share the same open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a 369-amino acid protein with high identity to human apoAV (75 %), including a 23-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. ApoAV is expressed exclusively in the liver. Mature apoAV was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and purified by Ni-chelated resin. Lipoprotein lipase activity was significantly stimulated by this recombinant protein. The full-length ORF of apoAV was cloned into pDsRed-monomer-N1 vector with a red fluorescent protein tag and was primarily localized in cytoplasm of hepG2 cells. The successful cloning, expression and localization of apoAV in tree shrew has laid down the foundation for further investigation on its structure and functions.

  5. Toward robust AV conferencing on next-generation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haining; Cheng, Liang; El Zarki, Magda

    2004-12-01

    In order to enable a truly pervasive computing environment, next generation networks (including B3G and 4G) will merge the broadband wireless and wireline networking infrastructure. However, due to the tremendous complexity in administration and the unreliability of the wireless channel, provision of hard-guarantees for services on such networks will not happen in the foreseeable future. This consequently makes it particularly challenging to offer viable AV conferencing services due to their stringent synchronization, delay and data fidelity requirements. We propose in this paper a robust application-level solution for wireless mobile AV conferencing on B3G/4G networks. Expecting no special treatment from the network, we apply a novel adaptive delay and synchronization control mechanism to maintain the synchronization and reduce the latency as much as possible. We also employ a robust video coding technique that has better error-resilience capability. We investigate the performance of the proposed solution through simulations using a three-state hidden Markov chain as the generic end-to-end transport channel model. The results show that our scheme yields tight synchronization performance, relatively low end-to-end latency and satisfactory presentation quality. The scheme successfully provides a fairly robust AV conferencing service.

  6. Toward robust AV conferencing on next-generation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haining; Cheng, Liang; El Zarki, Magda

    2005-01-01

    In order to enable a truly pervasive computing environment, next generation networks (including B3G and 4G) will merge the broadband wireless and wireline networking infrastructure. However, due to the tremendous complexity in administration and the unreliability of the wireless channel, provision of hard-guarantees for services on such networks will not happen in the foreseeable future. This consequently makes it particularly challenging to offer viable AV conferencing services due to their stringent synchronization, delay and data fidelity requirements. We propose in this paper a robust application-level solution for wireless mobile AV conferencing on B3G/4G networks. Expecting no special treatment from the network, we apply a novel adaptive delay and synchronization control mechanism to maintain the synchronization and reduce the latency as much as possible. We also employ a robust video coding technique that has better error-resilience capability. We investigate the performance of the proposed solution through simulations using a three-state hidden Markov chain as the generic end-to-end transport channel model. The results show that our scheme yields tight synchronization performance, relatively low end-to-end latency and satisfactory presentation quality. The scheme successfully provides a fairly robust AV conferencing service.

  7. TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND INTERSTELLAR DUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.; Aldering, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND NON-UNIFORM INTERSTELLAR DUST ABSTRACT We investigate the time variation of the visual extinction, AV, and the total-to-selective extinction ratio, RV, resulting from interstellar dust in front of an expanding photospheric disk of a type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We simulate interstellar dust clouds according to a power law power spectrum and produce extinction maps that either follow a pseudo-Gaussian distribution or a lognormal distribution. The RV maps are produced through a correlation between AV and RV. With maps of AV and RV generated in each case (pseudo-Gaussian and lognormal), we then compute the effective AV and RV for a SN as its photospheric disk expands behind the dust screen. We find for a small percentage of SNe the AV and RV values can vary by a large factor from day to day in the first 40 days after explosion.

  8. Development of a Serological Assay for the Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) Anellovirus, ZcAV.

    PubMed

    Fahsbender, Elizabeth; Rosario, Karyna; Cannon, John P; Gulland, Frances; Dishaw, Larry J; Breitbart, Mya

    2015-05-12

    New diseases in marine animals are emerging at an increasing rate, yet methodological limitations hinder characterization of viral infections. Viral metagenomics is an effective method for identifying novel viruses in diseased animals; however, determining virus pathogenesis remains a challenge. A novel anellovirus (Zalophus californianus anellovirus, ZcAV) was recently reported in the lungs of captive California sea lions involved in a mortality event. ZcAV was not detected by PCR in the blood of these animals, creating the inability to assess the prevalence of ZcAV in live sea lions. This study developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to ZcAV in sea lion serum. To assess ZcAV prevalence, paired serum and lung samples (n = 96) from wild sea lions that stranded along the California coast were tested through ELISA and PCR, respectively. Over 50% of the samples tested positive for ZcAV by ELISA (34%), PCR (29%), or both (11%) assays. ZcAV is prevalent in stranded wild sea lion populations and results suggest that PCR assays alone may grossly underestimate ZcAV exposure. This ELISA provides a tool for testing live sea lions for ZcAV exposure and is valuable for subsequent studies evaluating the potential pathogenicity of this anellovirus.

  9. Development of a Serological Assay for the Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) Anellovirus, ZcAV

    PubMed Central

    Fahsbender, Elizabeth; Rosario, Karyna; Cannon, John P.; Gulland, Frances; Dishaw, Larry J.; Breitbart, Mya

    2015-01-01

    New diseases in marine animals are emerging at an increasing rate, yet methodological limitations hinder characterization of viral infections. Viral metagenomics is an effective method for identifying novel viruses in diseased animals; however, determining virus pathogenesis remains a challenge. A novel anellovirus (Zalophus californianus anellovirus, ZcAV) was recently reported in the lungs of captive California sea lions involved in a mortality event. ZcAV was not detected by PCR in the blood of these animals, creating the inability to assess the prevalence of ZcAV in live sea lions. This study developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to ZcAV in sea lion serum. To assess ZcAV prevalence, paired serum and lung samples (n = 96) from wild sea lions that stranded along the California coast were tested through ELISA and PCR, respectively. Over 50% of the samples tested positive for ZcAV by ELISA (34%), PCR (29%), or both (11%) assays. ZcAV is prevalent in stranded wild sea lion populations and results suggest that PCR assays alone may grossly underestimate ZcAV exposure. This ELISA provides a tool for testing live sea lions for ZcAV exposure and is valuable for subsequent studies evaluating the potential pathogenicity of this anellovirus. PMID:25965294

  10. An uncommon case of spontaneous conversion from AV re-entry tachycardia to AV nodal re-entry tachycardia in a patient with dual tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Zeljković, Ivan; Benko, Ivica; Manola, Šime; Radeljić, Vjekoslav; Pavlović, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 46-year old patient in whom an electrophysiology study (EP) was performed due to paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia documented in 12-lead ECG. During the EP study, supraventricular tachycardia was induced easily and it corresponded to orthodromic AV reentry tachycardia (AVRT) using a concealed left free wall accessory pathway. However, during the study AVRT spontaneously and repeatedly converted to the typical slow-fast AV node reentry tachycardia (AVNRT). Both accessory and AV nodal slow pathways were ablated, due to the finding that both AVRT and AVNRT were independently inducible during the EP study.

  11. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    PubMed

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  12. First Aviation System Technology Advanced Research (AvSTAR) Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denery, Dallas G. (Editor); Weathers, Del W. (Editor); Rosen, Robert (Technical Monitor); Edwards, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This Conference Proceedings documents the results of a two-day NASA/FAA/Industry workshop that was held at the NASA Ames Research Center, located at Moffett Field, CA, on September 21-22, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a representative cross section of leaders in air traffic management, from industry. FAA, and academia, to assist in defining the requirements for a new research effort, referred to as AvSTAR Aviation Systems Technology Advanced Research). The Conference Proceedings includes the individual presentation, and summarizes the workshop discussions and recommendations.

  13. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    PubMed

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field.

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  19. A 2:1 AV rhythm: an adverse effect of a long AV delay during DDI pacing and its prevention by the ventricular intrinsic preference algorithm in DDD mode.

    PubMed

    Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Oginosawa, Yasushi; Kohno, Ritsuko; Tamura, Masahito; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Otsuji, Yutaka; Abe, Haruhiko

    2012-07-01

    A 91-year-old woman received a dual-chamber pacemaker for sick sinus syndrome and intermittently abnormal atrioventricular (AV) conduction. The pacemaker was set in DDI mode with a 350-ms AV delay to preserve intrinsic ventricular activity. She complained of palpitation during AV sequential pacing. The electrocardiogram showed a 2:1 AV rhythm from 1:1 ventriculoatrial (VA) conduction during ventricular pacing in DDI mode with a long AV interval. After reprogramming of the pacemaker in DDD mode with a 250-ms AV interval and additional 100-ms prolongation of the AV interval by the ventricular intrinsic preference function, VA conduction disappeared and the patient's symptom were alleviated without increasing unnecessary right ventricular pacing.

  20. Developing a computational model of human hand kinetics using AVS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowitz, Mark S.

    1996-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop a finite element model of the human hand at the Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR), this project extended existing computational tools for analyzing and visualizing hand kinetics. These tools employ a commercial, scientific visualization package called AVS. FORTRAN and C code, originally written by David Giurintano of the Gillis W. Long Hansen`s Disease Center, was ported to a different computing platform, debugged, and documented. Usability features were added and the code was made more modular and readable. When the code is used to visualize bone movement and tendon paths for the thumb, graphical output is consistent with expected results. However, numerical values for forces and moments at the thumb joints do not yet appear to be accurate enough to be included in ISCR`s finite element model. Future work includes debugging the parts of the code that calculate forces and moments and verifying the correctness of these values.

  1. Validating novel tau PET tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (T807) on postmortem brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Marquie, Marta; Normandin, Marc D.; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Costantino, Isabel; Bien, Elizabeth A.; Rycyna, Lisa G.; Klunk, William E.; Mathis, Chester A.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.; Debnath, Manik L.; Vasdev, Neil; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Gomperts, Stephen N.; Growdon, John H.; Johnson, Keith A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Gomez-Isla, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine region and substrate-specific autoradiographic and in vitro binding patterns of PET tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (previously known as T807), tailored to allow in vivo detection of paired helical filament tau-containing lesions, and to determine whether there is off-target binding to other amyloid/non-amyloid proteins. Methods We applied [F-18]-AV-1451 phosphor screen autoradiography, [F-18]-AV-1451 nuclear emulsion autoradiography and [H-3]-AV-1451 in vitro binding assays to the study of postmortem samples from patients with a definite pathological diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-tau, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-TDP-43, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and elderly controls free of pathology. Results Our data suggest that AV-1451 strongly binds to tau lesions primarily made of paired helical filaments in Alzheimer’s brains e.g. intra and extraneuronal tangles and dystrophic neurites, but does not seem to bind to a significant extent to neuronal and glial inclusions mainly composed of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy brains or to β-amyloid, α-synuclein or TDP-43-containing lesions. AV-1451 off-target binding to neuromelanin- and melanin-containing cells and, to a lesser extent, to brain hemorrhagic lesions was identified. Interpretation Our data suggest that AV-1451 holds promise as surrogate marker for the detection of brain tau pathology in the form of tangles and paired helical filament-tau-containing neurites in Alzheimer’s brains but also point to its relatively lower affinity for lesions primarily made of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy cases and to the existence of some AV-1451 off-target binding. These findings provide important insights for interpreting in vivo patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 retention. PMID:26344059

  2. Reference Tissue-Based Kinetic Evaluation of 18F-AV-1451 for Tau Imaging.

    PubMed

    Baker, Suzanne L; Lockhart, Samuel N; Price, Julie C; He, Mark; Huesman, Ronald H; Schonhaut, Daniel; Faria, Jamie; Rabinovici, Gil; Jagust, William J

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this paper was to evaluate the in vivo kinetics of the novel tau-specific PET radioligand (18)F-AV-1451 in cognitively healthy control (HC) and Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects, using reference region analyses.

  3. Design Release Reliability Prediciton Test Set, Weapon Control, Aircraft, AN/ASM-184A(V).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report presents a design release reliability prediction for the Test Set, Weapon Control , Aircraft , AN/ASM-184A(V). The data and methods used to arrive at this prediction are included. (Author)

  4. Dynamics of AV coupling during human atrial fibrillation: role of atrial rate.

    PubMed

    Masè, M; Marini, M; Disertori, M; Ravelli, F

    2015-07-01

    The causal relationship between atrial and ventricular activities during human atrial fibrillation (AF) is poorly understood. This study analyzed the effects of an increase in atrial rate on the link between atrial and ventricular activities during AF. Atrial and ventricular time series were determined in 14 patients during the spontaneous acceleration of the atrial rhythm at AF onset. The dynamic relationship between atrial and ventricular activities was quantified in terms of atrioventricular (AV) coupling by AV synchrogram analysis. The technique identified n:m coupling patterns (n atrial beats in m ventricular cycles), quantifying their percentage, maximal length, and conduction ratio (= m/n). Simulations with a difference-equation AV model were performed to correlate the observed dynamics to specific atrial/nodal properties. The atrial rate increase significantly affected AV coupling and ventricular response during AF. The shortening of atrial intervals from 185 ± 32 to 165 ± 24 ms (P < 0.001) determined transitions toward AV patterns with progressively decreasing m/n ratios (from conduction ratio = 0.34 ± 0.09 to 0.29 ± 0.08, P < 0.01), lower occurrence (from percentage of coupled beats = 27.1 ± 8.0 to 21.8 ± 6.9%, P < 0.05), and higher instability (from maximal length = 3.9 ± 1.5 to 2.8 ± 0.7 s, P < 0.01). Advanced levels of AV block and coupling instability at higher atrial rates were associated with increased ventricular interval variability (from 123 ± 52 to 133 ± 55 ms, P < 0.05). AV pattern transitions and coupling instability in patients were predicted, assuming the filtering of high-rate irregular atrial beats by the slow recovery of nodal excitability. These results support the role of atrial rate in determining AV coupling and ventricular response and may have implications for rate control in AF.

  5. Update of the AN/AVS-7 Head-Up Display program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Robert K.; Troxel, David

    1996-06-01

    The AN/AVS-7 head up display (HUD) system is designed to enhance night vision goggle pilotage by superimposing aircraft, navigation and flight symbology on the aviator's night vision imaging system. The AN/AVS-7 system is produced by AEL Industries Inc., Cross Systems Division under a five year production contract with the Army's Communications and Electronics Command. The program is managed by the Army's Project Manager for Night Vision, Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition.

  6. First-degree AV block-an entirely benign finding or a potentially curable cause of cardiac disease?

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, Fredrik; Daubert, James P

    2013-05-01

    First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block is a delay within the AV conduction system and is defined as a prolongation of the PR interval beyond the upper limit of what is considered normal (generally 0.20 s). Up until recently, first-degree AV block was considered an entirely benign condition. In fact, some complain that it is a misnomer since there is only delay and no actual block in the AV conduction system (usually within the AV node). However, it has long been acknowledged that extreme forms of first-degree AV block (typically a PR interval exceeding 0.30 s) can cause symptoms due to inadequate timing of atrial and ventricular contractions, similar to the so-called pacemaker syndrome. Consequently, the current guidelines state that permanent pacemaker implantation is reasonable for first-degree AV block with symptoms similar to those of pacemaker syndrome or with hemodynamic compromise, but also stresses that there is little evidence to suggest that pacemakers improve survival in patients with isolated first-degree AV block. Recent reports suggest that it may be time to revisit the impact of first-degree AV block. Also, several findings in post hoc analyses of randomized device trials give important insights in possible treatment options. The present review aims to provide an update on the current knowledge concerning the impact of first-degree AV block and also to address the issue of pacing in patients with this condition.

  7. BMP-2 induces versican and hyaluronan that contribute to post-EMT AV cushion cell migration.

    PubMed

    Inai, Kei; Burnside, Jessica L; Hoffman, Stanley; Toole, Bryan P; Sugi, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    Distal outgrowth and maturation of mesenchymalized endocardial cushions are critical morphogenetic events during post-EMT atrioventricular (AV) valvuloseptal morphogenesis. We explored the role of BMP-2 in the regulation of valvulogenic extracellular matrix (ECM) components, versican and hyaluronan (HA), and cell migration during post-EMT AV cushion distal outgrowth/expansion. We observed intense staining of versican and HA in AV cushion mesenchyme from the early cushion expansion stage, Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage-17 to the cushion maturation stage, HH stage-29 in the chick. Based on this expression pattern we examined the role of BMP-2 in regulating versican and HA using 3D AV cushion mesenchymal cell (CMC) aggregate cultures on hydrated collagen gels. BMP-2 induced versican expression and HA deposition as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2 by CMCs in a dose dependent manner. Noggin, an antagonist of BMP, abolished BMP-2-induced versican and HA as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2. We further examined whether BMP-2-promoted cell migration was associated with expression of versican and HA. BMP-2- promoted cell migration was significantly impaired by treatments with versican siRNA and HA oligomer. In conclusion, we provide evidence that BMP-2 induces expression of versican and HA by AV CMCs and that these ECM components contribute to BMP-2-induced CMC migration, indicating critical roles for BMP-2 in distal outgrowth/expansion of mesenchymalized AV cushions.

  8. Amyloid deposition after cerebral hypoperfusion: evidenced on [(18)F]AV-45 positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Lun; Lin, Kun-Ju; Ho, Meng-Yang; Chang, Yeu-Jhy; Chang, Chien-Hung; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Lee, Tsong-Hai

    2012-08-15

    Animal studies have shown that cerebral hypoperfusion may be associated with amyloid plaque accumulation. Amyloid plaque is known to be associated with dementia and [(18)F]AV-45 is a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that binds to extracelluar plaques. We hypothesized that demented patients with cerebral hypoperfusion may have increased [(18)F]AV-45 uptake. Five demented patients with cerebral hypoperfusion due to unilateral carotid artery stenosis (CAS) were examined with [(18)F]AV-45 PET, and the results were compared with six elderly controls. The standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) of each region of interest (ROI) was created using whole cerebellum as the reference region. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for obtaining structural information. Patients with dementia and unilateral CAS had a higher global [(18)F]AV-45 SUVR (1.34 ± 0.06) as compared with controls (1.10 ± 0.04, p=0.0043), especially over the frontal, temporal, precuneus, anterior cingulate and occipital regions. The statistical distribution maps revealed a significantly increased [(18)F]AV-45 SUVR in the medial frontal, caudate, thalamus, posterior cingulate, occipital and middle and superior temporal regions ipsilateral to the side of CAS (p<0.01). The present study found that cerebral [(18)F]AV-45 binding is increased in demented patients with CAS, and its distribution is lateralized to the CAS side, suggesting that amyloid-related dementia may occur under cerebral hypoperfusion.

  9. A histone variant, H2AvD, is essential in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    van Daal, A; Elgin, S C

    1992-01-01

    H2AvD, a Drosophila melanogaster histone variant of the H2A.Z class, is encoded by a single copy gene in the 97CD region of the polytene chromosomes. Northern analysis shows that the transcript is expressed in adult females and is abundant throughout the first 12 h of embryogenesis but then decreases. The H2AvD protein is present at essentially constant levels in all developmental stages. Using D. melanogaster stocks with deletions in the 97CD region, we have localized the H2AvD gene to the 97D1-9 interval. A lethal mutation in this interval, l(3)810, exhibits a 311-base pair deletion in the H2AvD gene, which removes the second exon. P-element mediated transformation using a 4.1-kilobase fragment containing the H2AvD gene rescues the lethal phenotype. H2AvD is therefore both essential and continuously present, suggesting a requirement for its utilization, either to provide an alternative capability for nucleosome assembly or to generate an alternative nucleosome structure. Images PMID:1498368

  10. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis and Epigenetic Variations Associated with Congenital Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS)

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishna, Uppala; Albayrak, Samet; Alpay-Savasan, Zeynep; Zeb, Amna; Turkoglu, Onur; Sobolewski, Paul; Bahado-Singh, Ray O.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common cause of death from congenital anomaly. Among several candidate epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation may play an important role in the etiology of CHDs. We conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Illumina Infinium 450k human methylation assay in a cohort of 24 newborns who had aortic valve stenosis (AVS), with gestational-age matched controls. The study identified significantly-altered CpG methylation at 59 sites in 52 genes in AVS subjects as compared to controls (either hypermethylated or demethylated). Gene Ontology analysis identified biological processes and functions for these genes including positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Consistent with prior clinical data, the molecular function categories as determined using DAVID identified low-density lipoprotein receptor binding, lipoprotein receptor binding and identical protein binding to be over-represented in the AVS group. A significant epigenetic change in the APOA5 and PCSK9 genes known to be involved in AVS was also observed. A large number CpG methylation sites individually demonstrated good to excellent diagnostic accuracy for the prediction of AVS status, thus raising possibility of molecular screening markers for this disorder. Using epigenetic analysis we were able to identify genes significantly involved in the pathogenesis of AVS. PMID:27152866

  11. ADVANCED VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (RIC AVS) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Powell; M. Reich

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this AVS testing program is to use bench-scale test equipment to produce a vitrified product at maximum waste loading from the specified AZ-101 waste simulant and conduct a TTT analysis using laboratory scale melts to show compliance with the DOE Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS). The vitrified product complies with the following WAPS. A borosilicate glass with a waste loading of 60.9-wt% was produced from a slurry feed of AZ101 simulant. Glass durability testing, glass characterization testing, and testing methodology were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy approved Test Plan. The glass has two crystalline phases and good uniformity of composition. The Product Consistency Test on the 6 location-specific samples are at least 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below the mean PCT results for the EA glass. Standard deviations were less than 10% of measured values. The glass transition temperature averaged 658 {+-} 9 C. A TTT diagram was produced. There was measured cesium loss of about 2%, and compliance with the Universal Treatment Standards.

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  15. Clinical AV nodal reentrant tachycardia in a patient with left sided accessory pathway and immediate occurrence of antidromic AV reentrant tachycardia after slow pathway ablation.

    PubMed

    Surber, Ralf; Kühnert, Helmut; Heinke, Matthias; Malur, Frank-Michael; Sigusch, Holger H; Figulla, Hans R

    2002-06-01

    The only inducible arrhythmia in a patient with exclusive antegrade conducting left anterolateral accessory pathway, consists of slow/fast atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia. After radiofrequency catheter ablation of the slow pathway, true antidromic AV reentrant tachycardia was easily induced by atrial pacing. Following ablation of the accessory pathway no arrhythmia could be induced.

  16. Nodal recovery, dual pathway physiology, and concealed conduction determine complex AV dynamics in human atrial tachyarrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Masè, Michela; Glass, Leon; Disertori, Marcello; Ravelli, Flavia

    2012-11-15

    The genesis of complex ventricular rhythms during atrial tachyarrhythmias in humans is not fully understood. To clarify the dynamics of atrioventricular (AV) conduction in response to a regular high-rate atrial activation, 29 episodes of spontaneous or pacing-induced atrial flutter (AFL), covering a wide range of atrial rates (cycle lengths from 145 to 270 ms), were analyzed in 10 patients. AV patterns were identified by applying firing sequence and surrogate data analysis to atrial and ventricular activation series, whereas modular simulation with a difference-equation AV node model was used to correlate the patterns with specific nodal properties. AV node response at high atrial rate was characterized by 1) AV patterns of decreasing conduction ratios at the shortening of atrial cycle length (from 236.3 ± 32.4 to 172.6 ± 17.8 ms) according to a Farey sequence ordering (conduction ratio from 0.34 ± 0.12 to 0.23 ± 0.06; P < 0.01); 2) the appearance of high-order alternating Wenckebach rhythms, such as 6:2, 10:2, and 12:2, associated with ventricular interval oscillations of large amplitude (407.7 ± 150.4 ms); and 3) the deterioration of pattern stability at advanced levels of block, with the percentage of stable patterns decreasing from 64.3 ± 35.2% to 28.3 ± 34.5% (P < 0.01). Simulations suggested these patterns to originate from the combined effect of nodal recovery, dual pathway physiology, and concealed conduction. These results indicate that intrinsic nodal properties may account for the wide spectrum of AV block patterns occurring during regular atrial tachyarrhythmias. The characterization of AV nodal function during different AFL forms constitutes an intermediate step toward the understanding of complex ventricular rhythms during atrial fibrillation.

  17. A novel curve fitting method for AV optimisation of biventricular pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Jones, Siana; Sohaib, S M Afzal; Finegold, Judith A; Siggers, Jennifer H; Stegemann, Berthold; Whinnett, Zachary I; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we designed and tested a new algorithm, which we call the 'restricted parabola', to identify the optimum atrioventricular (AV) delay in patients with biventricular pacemakers. This algorithm automatically restricts the hemodynamic data used for curve fitting to the parabolic zone in order to avoid inadvertently selecting an AV optimum that is too long.We used R, a programming language and software environment for statistical computing, to create an algorithm which applies multiple different cut-offs to partition curve fitting of a dataset into a parabolic and a plateau region and then selects the best cut-off using a least squares method. In 82 patients, AV delay was adjusted and beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured non-invasively using our multiple-repetition protocol. The novel algorithm was compared to fitting a parabola across the whole dataset to identify how many patients had a plateau region, and whether a higher hemodynamic response was achieved with one method.In 9/82 patients, the restricted parabola algorithm detected that the pattern was not parabolic at longer AV delays. For these patients, the optimal AV delay predicted by the restricted parabola algorithm increased SBP by 1.36 mmHg above that predicted by the conventional parabolic algorithm (95% confidence interval: 0.65 to 2.07 mmHg, p-value = 0.002).AV optima selected using our novel restricted parabola algorithm give a greater improvement in acute hemodynamics than fitting a parabola across all tested AV delays. Such an algorithm may assist the development of automated methods for biventricular pacemaker optimisation.

  18. Integrated rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal functions: principles and assessment framework.

    PubMed

    Billette, Jacques; Tadros, Rafik

    2014-01-15

    The atrioventricular (AV) node conducts slowly and has a long refractory period. These features sustain the filtering of atrial impulses and hence are often modulated to optimize ventricular rate during supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The AV node is also the site of a clinically common reentrant arrhythmia. Its function is assessed for a variety of purposes from its responses to a premature protocol (S1S2, test beats introduced at different cycle lengths) repeatedly performed at different basic rates and/or to an incremental pacing protocol (increasingly faster rates). Puzzlingly, resulting data and interpretation differ with protocols as well as with chosen recovery and refractory indexes, and are further complicated by the presence of built-in fast and slow pathways. This problem applies to endocavitary investigations of arrhythmias as well as to many experimental functional studies. This review supports an integrated framework of rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal function that can account for these puzzling characteristics. The framework was established from AV nodal responses to S1S2S3 protocols that, compared with standard S1S2 protocols, allow for an orderly quantitative dissociation of the different factors involved in changes in AV nodal conduction and refractory indexes under rate-dependent and dual pathway function. Although largely based on data from experimental studies, the proposed framework may well apply to the human AV node. In conclusion, the rate-dependent and dual pathway properties of the AV node can be integrated within a common functional framework the contribution of which to individual responses can be quantitatively determined with properly designed protocols and analytic tools.

  19. 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Luca; Vázquez Rodríguez, Patricia; Hong, Young T; Allinson, Kieren S J; Williamson, David; Borchert, Robin J; Sami, Saber; Cope, Thomas E; Bevan-Jones, W Richard; Jones, P Simon; Arnold, Robert; Surendranathan, Ajenthan; Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Fryer, Tim D; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; O'Brien, John T; Rowe, James B

    2017-03-01

    The ability to assess the distribution and extent of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy in vivo would help to develop biomarkers for these tauopathies and clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies. New radioligands for positron emission tomography have generated considerable interest, and controversy, in their potential as tau biomarkers. We assessed the radiotracer 18F-AV-1451 with positron emission tomography imaging to compare the distribution and intensity of tau pathology in 15 patients with Alzheimer's pathology (including amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment), 19 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Regional analysis of variance and a support vector machine were used to compare and discriminate the clinical groups, respectively. We also examined the 18F-AV-1451 autoradiographic binding in post-mortem tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and a control case to assess the 18F-AV-1451 binding specificity to Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's tau pathology. There was increased 18F-AV-1451 binding in multiple regions in living patients with Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy relative to controls [main effect of group, F(2,41) = 17.5, P < 0.0001; region of interest × group interaction, F(2,68) = 7.5, P < 0.00001]. More specifically, 18F-AV-1451 binding was significantly increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease, relative to patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and with control subjects, in the hippocampus and in occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal cortices (t's > 2.2, P's < 0.04). Conversely, in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, relative to patients with Alzheimer's disease, 18F-AV-1451 binding was elevated in the midbrain (t = 2.1, P < 0.04); while patients with progressive supranuclear palsy showed, relative to controls, increased 18F-AV-1451 uptake in the putamen, pallidum

  20. Electrocardiographic and chronobiological features of paroxysmal AV block recorded by ambulatory electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ken; Takeda, Shiho; Saito, Yuko; Kawamura, Mami; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yano, Hayato; Sata, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the electrocardiographic and chronobio-logical features of paroxysmal atrioventricular (AV) block (PAVB) using data from ambulatory electrocardiography (AECG). The study population consisted of five men and six women aged from 47 to 82 years of age. Main presenting symptoms were pre-syncope in five patients (45.5%) and syncope in three patients (27.3%). Organic cardiovascular diseases were seen in eight patients (72.7%), and AV conduction disturbances were seen in six patients (54.5%), such as right bundle branch block, first to second degree AV block on standard 12-lead electrocardiography. Incidence of PAVB events were 1-329 (37.9 ± 98.0) episodes/patient/day, and the maximum pause during Holter recordings was 3.3-12.4 (6.39 ± 3.09) seconds. This maximum pause caused by intrinsic AV block was longer than that of vagally mediated AV block (8.4 ± 3.2 sec vs 4.7 ± 1.0 sec, p<0.05). In chronobiological analysis, episodes of PAVB exhibited a circadian rhythm characterized by a peak between 2:00 am and 4:00 am and a trough between 0:00 pm and 2:00 pm. AECG is a useful tool to detect the maximum pause occurring during sleep and provides critical data necessary to prevent the sudden cardiac death caused by PAVB.

  1. sugE: A gene involved in tributyltin (TBT) resistance of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andreia; Micaelo, Nuno; Félix, Vitor; Song, Jun-Young; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial resistance to tributyltin (TBT) is still unclear. The results herein presented contribute to clarify that mechanism in the TBT-resistant bacterium Aeromonas molluscorum Av27. We have identified and cloned a new gene that is involved in TBT resistance in this strain. The gene is highly homologous (84%) to the Aeromonas hydrophila-sugE gene belonging to the small multidrug resistance gene family (SMR), which includes genes involved in the transport of lipophilic drugs. In Av27, expression of the Av27-sugE was observed at the early logarithmic growth phase in the presence of a high TBT concentration (500 μM), thus suggesting the contribution of this gene for TBT resistance. E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to ethidium bromide (EtBr), chloramphenicol (CP) and tetracycline (TE), besides TBT. According to the Moriguchi logP (miLogP) values, EtBr, CP and TE have similar properties and are substrates for the sugE-efflux system. Despite the different miLogP of TBT, E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to this compound. So it seems that TBT is also a substrate for the SugE protein. The modelling studies performed also support this hypothesis. The data herein presented clearly indicate that sugE is involved in TBT resistance of this bacterium.

  2. The Unusual Resistance of Avian Defensin AvBD7 to Proteolytic Enzymes Preserves Its Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Geoffrey; Kravtzoff, Amanda; Joulin-Giet, Alix; Lecaille, Fabien; Labas, Valérie; Meudal, Hervé; Loth, Karine; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Gilbert, Florence B.; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Brömme, Dieter; Schouler, Catherine; Landon, Céline; Lalmanach, Gilles; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Defensins are frontline peptides of mucosal immunity in the animal kingdom, including birds. Their resistance to proteolysis and their ensuing ability to maintain antimicrobial potential remains questionable and was therefore investigated. We have shown by bottom-up mass spectrometry analysis of protein extracts that both avian beta-defensins AvBD2 and AvBD7 were ubiquitously distributed along the chicken gut. Cathepsin B was found by immunoblotting in jejunum, ileum, caecum, and caecal tonsils, while cathepsins K, L, and S were merely identified in caecal tonsils. Hydrolysis product of AvBD2 and AvBD7 incubated with a panel of proteases was analysed by RP-HPLC, mass spectrometry and antimicrobial assays. AvBD2 and AvBD7 were resistant to serine proteases and to cathepsins D and H. Conversely cysteine cathepsins B, K, L, and S degraded AvBD2 and abolished its antibacterial activity. Only cathepsin K cleaved AvBD7 and released Ile4-AvBD7, a N-terminal truncated natural peptidoform of AvBD7 that displayed antibacterial activity. Besides the 3-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet typical of beta-defensins, structural analysis of AvBD7 by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy highlighted the restricted accessibility of the C-terminus embedded by the N-terminal region and gave a formal evidence of a salt bridge (Asp9-Arg12) that could account for proteolysis resistance. The differential susceptibility of avian defensins to proteolysis opens intriguing questions about a distinctive role in the mucosal immunity against pathogen invasion. PMID:27561012

  3. 77 FR 41400 - AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. 76 FR 419 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft Aerospace GmbH; Fairchild Dornier GmbH; Dornier Luftfahrt GmbH) Model... (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft Aerospace GmbH; Fairchild Dornier GmbH; Dornier Luftfahrt.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate previously held by...

  5. Kinetic Modeling of the Tau PET Tracer 18F-AV-1451 in Human Healthy Volunteers and Alzheimer's Disease Subjects.

    PubMed

    Barret, Olivier; Alagille, David; Sanabria, Sandra; Comley, Robert A; Weimer, Robby M; Borroni, Edilio; Mintun, Mark; Seneca, Nicholas; Papin, Caroline; Morley, Thomas; Marek, Ken; Seibyl, John P; Tamagnan, Gilles D; Jennings, Danna

    2016-12-01

    (18)F-AV-1451 is currently the most widely used of several experimental tau PET tracers. The objective of this study was to evaluate (18)F-AV-1451 binding with full kinetic analysis using a metabolite corrected arterial input function, and to compare parameters derived from kinetic analysis with standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) calculated over different imaging time intervals.

  6. The Helminth-Derived Immunomodulator AvCystatin Reduces Virus Enhanced Inflammation by Induction of Regulatory IL-10+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schuijs, Martijn J.; Hartmann, Susanne; Selkirk, Murray E.; Roberts, Luke B.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a major pathogen causing low respiratory tract disease (bronchiolitis), primarily in infants. Helminthic infections may alter host immune responses to both helminths and to unrelated immune triggers. For example, we have previously shown that filarial cystatin (AvCystatin/Av17) ameliorates allergic airway inflammation. However, helminthic immunomodulators have so far not been tested in virus-induced disease. We now report that AvCystatin prevents Th2-based immunopathology in vaccine-enhanced RSV lung inflammation, a murine model for bronchiolitis. AvCystatin ablated eosinophil influx, reducing both weight loss and neutrophil recruitment without impairing anti-viral immune responses. AvCystatin also protected mice from excessive inflammation following primary RSV infection, significantly reducing neutrophil influx and cytokine production in the airways. Interestingly, we found that AvCystatin induced an influx of CD4+ FoxP3+ interleukin-10-producing T cells in the airway and lungs, correlating with immunoprotection, and the corresponding cells could also be induced by adoptive transfer of AvCystatin-primed F4/80+ macrophages. Thus, AvCystatin ameliorates enhanced RSV pathology without increasing susceptibility to, or persistence of, viral infection and warrants further investigation as a possible therapy for virus-induced airway disease. PMID:27560829

  7. The Helminth-Derived Immunomodulator AvCystatin Reduces Virus Enhanced Inflammation by Induction of Regulatory IL-10+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Schuijs, Martijn J; Hartmann, Susanne; Selkirk, Murray E; Roberts, Luke B; Openshaw, Peter J M; Schnoeller, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a major pathogen causing low respiratory tract disease (bronchiolitis), primarily in infants. Helminthic infections may alter host immune responses to both helminths and to unrelated immune triggers. For example, we have previously shown that filarial cystatin (AvCystatin/Av17) ameliorates allergic airway inflammation. However, helminthic immunomodulators have so far not been tested in virus-induced disease. We now report that AvCystatin prevents Th2-based immunopathology in vaccine-enhanced RSV lung inflammation, a murine model for bronchiolitis. AvCystatin ablated eosinophil influx, reducing both weight loss and neutrophil recruitment without impairing anti-viral immune responses. AvCystatin also protected mice from excessive inflammation following primary RSV infection, significantly reducing neutrophil influx and cytokine production in the airways. Interestingly, we found that AvCystatin induced an influx of CD4+ FoxP3+ interleukin-10-producing T cells in the airway and lungs, correlating with immunoprotection, and the corresponding cells could also be induced by adoptive transfer of AvCystatin-primed F4/80+ macrophages. Thus, AvCystatin ameliorates enhanced RSV pathology without increasing susceptibility to, or persistence of, viral infection and warrants further investigation as a possible therapy for virus-induced airway disease.

  8. In vivo imaging of neuromelanin in Parkinson's disease using 18F-AV-1451 PET.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Allan K; Knudsen, Karoline; Lillethorup, Thea P; Landau, Anne M; Parbo, Peter; Fedorova, Tatyana; Audrain, Hélène; Bender, Dirk; Østergaard, Karen; Brooks, David J; Borghammer, Per

    2016-07-01

    The tau tangle ligand (18)F-AV-1451 ((18)F-T807) binds to neuromelanin in the midbrain, and may therefore be a measure of the pigmented dopaminergic neuronal count in the substantia nigra. Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Extrapolation of post-mortem data predicts that a ∼30% decline of nigral dopamine neurons is necessary to cause motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Putamen dopamine terminal loss at disease onset most likely exceeds that of the nigral cell bodies and has been estimated to be of the order of 50-70%. We investigated the utility of (18)F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography to visualize the concentration of nigral neuromelanin in Parkinson's disease and correlated the findings to dopamine transporter density, measured by (123)I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography. A total of 17 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 16 age- and sex-matched control subjects had (18)F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography using a Siemens high-resolution research tomograph. Twelve patients with Parkinson's disease also received a standardized (123)I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography scan at our imaging facility. Many of the patients with Parkinson's disease displayed visually apparent decreased (18)F-AV-1451 signal in the midbrain. On quantitation, patients showed a 30% mean decrease in total nigral (18)F-AV-1451 volume of distribution compared with controls (P = 0.004), but there was an overlap of the individual ranges. We saw no significant correlation between symptom dominant side and contralateral nigral volume of distribution. There was no correlation between nigral (18)F-AV-1451 volume of distribution and age or time since diagnosis. In the subset of 12 patients, who also had a (123)I-FP-CIT scan, the mean total striatal dopamine transporter signal was decreased by 45% and the mean total (18)F-AV-1451 substantia nigra volume of distribution was decreased by 33% after

  9. Utility of High-Output His Pacing during Difficult AV Node Ablation. An Underutilized Strategy.

    PubMed

    Kanjwal, Khalil; Grubb, Blair P

    2016-06-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) node ablation is a commonly performed procedure for patients with chronic drug refractory atrial fibrillation (AF) with episodes of rapid ventricular response. We report on a 72-year-old man who had difficulty managing chronic drug refractory AFs with frequent hospitalizations for rapid ventricular rate. The patient was taken to the electrophysiology laboratory for AV node ablation. Extensive mapping and localization techniques of the compact AV node and ablation in the region were unsuccessful. Subsequently, high-output His bundle pacing using 20 mA at 2 ms of output energy was performed in an attempt to localize the His bundle in areas where high-output pacing resulted in a narrower QRS complex. Further ablations in the areas where pacing produced a narrower QRS complex resulted in complete heart block. This case highlights the importance of using this simple pacing maneuver to achieve complete heart block in patients in whom standard strategies to localize and ablate the compact AV node are unsuccessful.

  10. Dramatic Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With AV Delay Optimization in Narrow QRS Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Rikitake; Nakai, Toshiko; Ikeya, Yukitoshi; Mano, Hiroaki; Sonoda, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Naoko; Iso, Kazuki; Okumura, Yasuo; Ohkubo, Kimie; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Watanabe, Ichiro; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for heart failure. However, as outlined in the AHA/ACC/HRS Appropriate Use Criteria, CRT is not strongly recommended for patients with a narrow QRS complex. We describe a case of dilated cardiomyopathy and narrow QRS complex in which we obtained a dramatic response to CRT by optimizing the atrioventricular (AV) delay. The patient was a 61-year-old man with intractable heart failure. Echocardiography showed a low ejection fraction of 22% but no dyssynchrony. Because he had been hospitalized many times for congestive heart failure despite β-blocker and diuretic treatment, we decided to use CRT. However, after implantation of the CRT device, the QRS complex widened abnormally, and his symptoms worsened. He was re-admitted 2 months after CRT implantation. We examined the pacemaker status and optimized the AV delay to obtain a "narrow" QRS complex. The patient's condition improved dramatically after the AV delay optimization. His clinical status has been good, and there has been no subsequent hospitalization. Our case points to the effectiveness of CRT in patients with a narrow QRS complex and to the importance of AV optimization for successful CRT.

  11. [Promoting venous return in plaster cast by AV impulse system. A preclinical study].

    PubMed

    Bulitta, C; Kock, H J; Hanke, J; Sievers, K W; Schmit-Neuerburg, K P

    1996-08-01

    A new pneumatic compression pump--the AV-impulse system--causes increased return of venous blood from the lower limbs to the heart and increases total blood flow in the lower limbs by emptying the plantar venous plexus. Up to date there exist no experiences with using this system in plaster cast. We studied the maximum venous blood flow, the venous blood flow per minute and the venous diameters above the popliteal and femoral vein by duplexsonography in 12 lower limbs of 6 healthy persons before and after applying below-the-knee plaster casts. After applying the plaster cast we observed a slight increase in venous diameter (p = 0.02). By using the AV-impulse-system we observed a significant increase in maximum venous blood flow and venous blood flow per minute (p < 0.05). We demonstrated a significant increase of venous blood return in the deep veins of the lower limbs after applying a lower limb plaster cast by using the AV-impulse-system. These results indicate the possible benefit of using the AV-impulse-system as a physical method of thromboprophylaxis in orthopaedic and trauma patients with plaster cast immobilisation of the leg.

  12. AV delay optimization and management of DDD paced patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Guardigli, G; Ansani, L; Percoco, G F; Toselli, T; Spisani, P; Braggion, G; Antonioli, G E

    1994-11-01

    Ten DDD paced patients, suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy in the NYHA functional classes III or IV were studied by means of Doppler echocardiography at different programmed values of atrioventricular (AV) delay (200, 150, 120, 100, and 80 msec). The following variables were evaluated: LV diameter, ejection fraction, mitral and aortic flow velocity integrals, and stroke volume. During VDD pacing, a resting AV delay associated with the best diastolic filling and systolic function was identified and programmed individually. Shortening of the AV delay to about 100 msec was associated with a gradual and progressive improvement. Further decrease caused an impairment of systolic function. The patients were clinically and hemodynamically reevaluated after 2 months of follow-up. A reduction of NYHA class and an improvement of LV function were consistently found. The reported data suggest that programming of an optimal AV delay may improve myocardial function in DDD paced patients with congestive heart failure. This result may be the consequence of an optimization of left ventricular filling and a better use of the Frank-Starling law.

  13. Impact of e-AV Biology Website for Learning about Renewable Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugraini, Siti Hadiati; Choo, Koo Ah; Hin, Hew Soon; Hoon, Teoh Sian

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the design and development of a Website for Biology in senior high schools in Indonesia. The teaching media, namely e-AV Biology, was developed with the main features of video lessons and other features in supporting the students' learning process. Some video lessons describe the production process of Biofuel or Renewable…

  14. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    PubMed

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients.

  15. Ixodes ricinus immunogenic saliva protein, homologue to Amblyomma americanum AV422: Determining its potential for use in tick bite confirmation.

    PubMed

    Mihaljica, Darko; Marković, Dragana; Radulović, Željko; Mulenga, Albert; Ćakić, Sanja; Sukara, Ratko; Samardžić, Jelena; Tomanović, Snežana

    2017-03-01

    Tick bites often go unnoticed, so specific reliable tests are needed to confirm them for prompt diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. One of the promising candidates for developing such a test is AV422, a tick saliva protein that has been conserved across tick genera. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of the AV422 homologue from Ixodes ricinus to be used for tick bite detection for both Prostriata and Metastriata. We expressed recombinant (r) I. ricinus (Ir) AV422 in E. coli and subjected it to Western blot analysis using rat antibodies to saliva proteins of both I. ricinus (Prostriata) and Dermacentor reticulatus (Metastriata) larvae. Our data demonstrate that rIrAV422 specifically bound to antibodies from sera of rats used for both I. ricinus and D. reticulatus larvae feeding, but not to antibodies from control serum, emphasizing its specificity since tick bites were the sole cause of sera reactivity.

  16. Performance evaluation and optimization of BM4D-AV denoising algorithm for cone-beam CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuidong; Tian, Xiaofei; Zhang, Dinghua; Zhang, Hua

    2015-12-01

    The broadening application of cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in medical diagnostics and nondestructive testing, necessitates advanced denoising algorithms for its 3D images. The block-matching and four dimensional filtering algorithm with adaptive variance (BM4D-AV) is applied to the 3D image denoising in this research. To optimize it, the key filtering parameters of the BM4D-AV algorithm are assessed firstly based on the simulated CBCT images and a table of optimized filtering parameters is obtained. Then, considering the complexity of the noise in realistic CBCT images, possible noise standard deviations in BM4D-AV are evaluated to attain the chosen principle for the realistic denoising. The results of corresponding experiments demonstrate that the BM4D-AV algorithm with optimized parameters presents excellent denosing effect on the realistic 3D CBCT images.

  17. The relation between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates: implications of feeding behavior and ecology.

    PubMed

    De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-05-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in invertebrates with different feeding behavior and ecological preferences. Natural sediments, pore water and surface water, together with benthic and epibenthic invertebrates were sampled at 28 Flemish lowland rivers. Different metals as well as metal binding sediment characteristics including AVS were measured and multiple regression was used to study their relationship with accumulated metals in the invertebrates taxa. Bioaccumulation in the benthic taxa was primarily influenced by total metal concentrations in the sediment. Regarding the epibenthic taxa metal accumulation was mostly explained by the more bioavailable metal fractions in both the sediment and the water. AVS concentrations were generally better correlated with metal accumulation in the epibenthic invertebrates, rather than with the benthic taxa. Our results indicated that the relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology.

  18. HPCMP CREATE (trademark)-AV Quality Assurance: Best Practices for Validating and Supporting Computation-Based Engineering Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    30/2015 Oct 2008-Sep 2015 HPCMP CREATE™-AV Quality Assurance: Best Practices for Validating and Supporting Computation-Based Engineering Software...2) “Does this tool adequately perform any and all advertised capabilities?” This paper will describe how the HPCMP CREATE Air Vehicles (AV...project ensures positive answers to these questions through the functions performed by the Quality Assurance group. Industry quality standards will be

  19. Distinct binding of PET ligands PBB3 and AV-1451 to tau fibril strains in neurodegenerative tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Ono, Maiko; Sahara, Naruhiko; Kumata, Katsushi; Ji, Bin; Ni, Ruiqing; Koga, Shunsuke; Dickson, Dennis W; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Yoshida, Mari; Hozumi, Isao; Yoshiyama, Yasumasa; van Swieten, John C; Nordberg, Agneta; Suhara, Tetsuya; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Higuchi, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    Diverse neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by deposition of tau fibrils composed of conformers (i.e. strains) unique to each illness. The development of tau imaging agents has enabled visualization of tau lesions in tauopathy patients, but the modes of their binding to different tau strains remain elusive. Here we compared binding of tau positron emission tomography ligands, PBB3 and AV-1451, by fluorescence, autoradiography and homogenate binding assays with homologous and heterologous blockades using tauopathy brain samples. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated intense labelling of non-ghost and ghost tangles with PBB3 and AV-1451, while dystrophic neurites were more clearly detected by PBB3 in brains of Alzheimer's disease and diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification, characterized by accumulation of all six tau isoforms. Correspondingly, partially distinct distributions of autoradiographic labelling of Alzheimer's disease slices with 11C-PBB3 and 18F-AV-1451 were noted. Neuronal and glial tau lesions comprised of 4-repeat isoforms in brains of progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and familial tauopathy due to N279K tau mutation and 3-repeat isoforms in brains of Pick's disease and familial tauopathy due to G272V tau mutation were sensitively detected by PBB3 fluorescence in contrast to very weak AV-1451 signals. This was in line with moderate 11C-PBB3 versus faint 18F-AV-1451 autoradiographic labelling of these tissues. Radioligand binding to brain homogenates revealed multiple binding components with differential affinities for 11C-PBB3 and 18F-AV-1451, and higher availability of binding sites on progressive supranuclear palsy tau deposits for 11C-PBB3 than 18F-AV-1451. Our data indicate distinct selectivity of PBB3 compared to AV-1451 for diverse tau fibril strains. This highlights the more robust ability of PBB3 to capture wide-range tau pathologies.

  20. AV3V lesions attenuate the cardiovascular responses produced by blood-borne excitatory amino acid analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Beltz, T. G.; Lewis, S. J.; Johnson, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    Systemic injections of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), produce a pressor response in conscious rats that is caused by a centrally mediated activation of sympathetic drive and the release of arginine vasopressin (AVP). This study tested the hypothesis that the tissue surrounding the anteroventral part of the third ventricle (AV3V) plays a role in the expression of the pressor responses produced by systemically injected EAA analogs. Specifically, we examined whether prior electrolytic ablation of the AV3V region would affect the pressor responses to KA and NMDA (1 mg/kg iv) in conscious rats. The KA-induced pressor response was smaller in AV3V-lesioned than in sham-lesioned rats (11 +/- 2 vs. 29 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). After ganglion blockade, KA produced a pressor response in sham-lesioned but not AV3V-lesioned rats (+27 +/- 3 vs. +1 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). The KA-induced pressor response in ganglion-blocked sham-lesioned rats was abolished by a vasopressin V1-receptor antagonist. Similar results were obtained with NMDA. The pressor response to AVP (10 ng/kg iv) was slightly smaller in AV3V-lesioned than in sham-lesioned ganglion-blocked rats (45 +/- 3 vs. 57 +/- 4 mmHg; P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that the pressor responses to systemically injected EAA analogs are smaller in AV3V-lesioned rats. The EAA analogs may produce pressor responses by stimulation of EAA receptors in the AV3V region, or the AV3V region may play an important role in the expression of these responses.

  1. Apolipoprotein AV accelerates plasma hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by interaction with proteoglycan-bound lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Martin; Loeffler, Britta; Kluger, Malte; Fabig, Nathalie; Geppert, Gesa; Pennacchio, Len A; Laatsch, Alexander; Heeren, Joerg

    2005-06-03

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with differences in triglyceride levels and familial combined hyperlipidemia. In genetically engineered mice, apoAV plasma levels are inversely correlated with plasma triglycerides. To elucidate the mechanism by which apoAV influences plasma triglycerides, metabolic studies and in vitro assays resembling physiological conditions were performed. In human APOA5 transgenic mice (hAPOA5tr), catabolism of chylomicrons and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was accelerated due to a faster plasma hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Hepatic VLDL and intestinal chylomicron production were not affected. The functional interplay between apoAV and LPL was further investigated by cross-breeding a human LPL transgene with the apoa5 knock-out and the hAPOA5tr to an lpl-deficient background. Increased LPL activity completely normalized hypertriglyceridemia of apoa5-deficient mice; however, overexpression of human apoAV modulated triglyceride levels only slightly when LPL was reduced. To reflect the physiological situation in which LPL is bound to cell surface proteoglycans, we examined hydrolysis in the presence or absence of proteoglycans. Without proteoglycans, apoAV derived either from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, hAPOA5tr high density lipoprotein, or a recombinant source did not alter the LPL hydrolysis rate. In the presence of proteoglycans, however, apoAV led to a significant and dose-dependent increase in LPL-mediated hydrolysis of VLDL triglycerides. These results were confirmed in cell culture using a proteoglycan-deficient cell line. A direct interaction between LPL and apoAV was found by ligand blotting. It is proposed, that apoAV reduces triglyceride levels by guiding VLDL and chylomicrons to proteoglycan-bound LPL for lipolysis.

  2. Apolipoprotein AV Accelerates Plasma Hydrolysis OfTriglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins By Interaction With Proteoglycan BoundLipoprotein Lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Martin; Loeffler, Britta; Kluger, Malte; Fabig, Nathalie; Geppert, Gesa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Laatsch, Alexander; Heeren, Joerg

    2005-02-22

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with differences intriglyceride levels and familial combined hyperlipidemia. In genetically engineered mice, apoAV plasma levels are inversely correlated with plasmatriglycerides. To elucidate the mechanism by which apoAV influences plasma triglycerides, metabolic studies and in vitro assays resembling physiological conditions were performed. In hAPOA5 transgenic mice(hAPOA5tr), catabolism of chylomicrons and VLDL was accelerated due to a faster plasma hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase (LPL).Hepatic VLDL and intestinal chylomicron production were not affected. The functional interplay between apoAV and LPL was further investigated by crossbreeding a human LPL transgene with the apoa5 knockout, and the hAPOA5tr to an LPL deficient background. Increased LPL activity completely normalized hypertriglyceridemia of apoa5 deficient mice,however, over expression of human apoAV modulated triglyceride levels only slightly when LPL was reduced. To reflect the physiological situation in which LPL is bound to cell surface proteoglycans, we examined hydrolysis in the presence or absence of proteoglycans. Without proteoglycans, apoAV derived either from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, hAPOA5tr HDL, or a recombinant source did not alter the LPL hydrolysis rate. In the presence of proteoglycans, however, apoAV led to a significant and dose-dependent increase in LPL mediated hydrolysis of VLDL triglycerides. These results were confirmed in cell culture using a proteoglycan-deficient cell line.A direct interaction between LPL and apoAV was found by ligand blotting.It is proposed, that apoAV reduces triglyceride levels by guiding VLDL and chylomicrons to proteoglycans bound LPL for lipolysis.

  3. Molecular characterization of LvAV in response to white spot syndrome virus infection in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    He, Shulin; Song, Lei; Qian, Zhaoying; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Yongjie; Wang, Xianzong; Peng, Zhangming; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-07-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei is the most important farmed shrimp species globally, but its production is affected by several factors, including infectious disease. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), in particular, causes significant shrimp losses. To understand the shrimp's immune response against WSSV, we cloned LvAV from L. vannamei and analyzed its expression pattern in different tissues, in addition to its expression following infection. We employed dsRNA and recombinant (r)LvAV to explore the potential role of LvAV in shrimp immunity when infected with WSSV. We find that LvAV is a C-type Lectin composed of 176 amino acids with a signal peptide and a specific C-type Lectin-type domain (CTLD). It shares 81% amino acid similarity with PmAV, an antiviral-like C-type Lectin from Penaeus monodom, and it is highly expressed in the hepatopancreas. Its expression is affected by infection with both WSSV and V. parahaemolyticus. Significantly, injection with rLvAV slowed WSSV replication, while injection with LvAV dsRNA initially led to enhanced virus propagation. Surprisingly, LvAV dsRNA subsequently led to a dramatic decrease in viral load in the later stages of infection, suggesting that LvAV may be subverted by WSSV to enhance viral replication or immune avoidance. Our results indicate that LvAV plays an important, but potentially complex role in the Pacific white shrimp's immune defense.

  4. 18F-AV-1451 PET Imaging in Three Patients with Probable Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Cho, Hanna; Werring, David J; Jang, Young Kyoung; Kim, Yeo Jin; Lee, Jin San; Lee, Juyoun; Jun, Soomin; Park, Seongbeom; Ryu, Young Hoon; Choi, Jae Yong; Cho, Young Seok; Moon, Seung Hwan; Na, Duk L; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Seo, Sang Won

    2017-03-06

    Cerebrovascular deposition of amyloid-β, known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is associated with MRI findings of lobar hemorrhage, cerebral microbleeds, and cortical superficial siderosis. Although pathological studies suggest that tau may co-localize with vascular amyloid, this has not yet been investigated in CAA in vivo. Three patients with probable CAA underwent 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET or 18F-florbetaben PET to evaluate amyloid burden, and 18F-AV-1451 PET to evaluate paired helical filament tau burden. Regions that had cerebral microbleeds or cortical superficial siderosis largely overlapped with those showing increased 18F-AV-1451 and increased 11C-PiB uptake. Our preliminary study raised the possibility that lobar cerebral microbleeds, and cortical superficial siderosis, which are characteristic markers of vascular amyloid, may be associated with local production of paired helical filament tau.

  5. Integrating computation and visualization for biomolecular analysis: an example using python and AVS.

    PubMed

    Sanner, M F; Duncan, B S; Carrillo, C J; Olson, A J

    1999-01-01

    One of the challenges in biocomputing is to enable the efficient use of a wide variety of fast-evolving computational methods to simulate, analyze, and understand the complex properties and interactions of molecular systems. Our laboratory investigates several areas including molecular visualization, protein-ligand docking, protein-protein docking, molecular surfaces, and the derivation of phenomenological potentials. In this paper we present an approach based on the Python programming language to achieve a high level of integration between these different computational methods and our primary visualization system AVS. This approach removes many limitations of AVS while increasing dramatically the inter-operability of our computational tools. Several examples are shown to illustrate how this approach enables a high level of integration and inter-operability between different tools, while retaining modularity and avoiding the creation of a large monolithic package that is difficult to extend and maintain.

  6. Tissue and cell tropism of Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and its AV2 (precoat) gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenstein, Dirk; Krenz, Bjoern; Selchow, Olaf; Jeske, Holger . E-mail: holger.jeske@bio.uni-stuttgart.de

    2007-03-01

    In order to establish defined viruses for challenging plants in resistance breeding programmes, Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV; family Geminiviridae) DNA clones were modified to monitor viral spread in plants by replacing the coat protein gene with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene. Comparative in situ hybridization experiments showed that ICMV was restricted to the phloem in cassava and tobacco. GFP-tagged virus spread similarly, resulting in homogeneous fluorescence within nuclei and cytoplasm of infected cells. To analyze viral intercellular transport in further detail, GFP was fused to AV2, a protein that has been implicated in viral movement. Expressed from replicating viruses or from plasmids, AV2:GFP became associated with the cell periphery in punctate spots, formed cytoplasmic as well as nuclear inclusion bodies, the latter as conspicuous paired globules. Upon particle bombardment of expression plasmids, AV2:GFP was transported into neighboring cells of epidermal tissues showing that the intercellular transport of the AV2 protein is not restricted to the phloem. The results are consistent with a redundant function of ICMV AV2 acting as a movement protein, presumably as an evolutionary relic of a monopartite geminivirus that may still increase virus fitness but is no longer necessary in a bipartite genome. The fusion of ICMV ORF AV2 to the GFP gene is the first example of a reporter construct that follows the whole track of viral DNA from inside the nucleus to the cell periphery and to the next cell.

  7. A.V. Usova's Contribution to the Field of Concept Learning in Physics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavoruk, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A.V. Usova (1921-2014) has always been one of the leading figures in Russian physics education. Her theory of physics concept formation was formulated during the 1970s and the 1980s and directly influenced the process of physics education in the 20th and the 21st century. Over the years there have been a lot of theories of concept formation. Her…

  8. Investigation of Aeroelastic Flow Control of a Fluttering Wing with HPCMP CREATE(trademark)-AV Kestrel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    The aeroelastic behavior of a finite aspect ratio (AR=6) NACA0018 wing is computationally analyzed. HPCMP CREATE(trademark)-AV Kestrel, a fully...aeroelastically deforming wing . Externally controlled blowing slots distributed along the span of the wing are used to inject mass into the flow field to...coefficients. For the rigid wing , the lift is increased, as are the pitching and rolling moments. When aeroelastic deformation is considered, the

  9. Successful catheter ablation of a slow AV-nodal pathway from the left posteroseptal region.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, M; Höltgen, R; Djajadisastra, I

    2005-08-01

    We present the case of a 44 year old woman with recurrent episodes of supraventricular tachycardia due to AV-nodal reentry (AVNRT). She was refractory to conventional medical treatment and referred to our hospital with the view to catheter ablation of the slow AV-nodal pathway. AVNRT of the common type was easily induced performing stimulation from the high right atrium and proximal coronary sinus. Other forms of supraventricular tachycardia were definitely ruled out during further electrophysiologic study. Repetitive RF applications around the right posteroseptal region failed to cure the tachycardia which remained inducible with a typical jump in the AH interval. Extensive RF applications from posteroinferior to the midseptum including the area of the proximal coronary sinus and its os were ineffective as well.AVNRT was transiently but reproducibly eliminated while burns were applied to the high midseptum but AVNRT reoccured within 20 minutes. Finally after retrograde passage of the aortic valve with a 4 mm tip ablation catheter, RF was applied to the left postero to midseptal region. An accelerated junctional rhythm was immediately observed and AVNRT remained non-inducible from that time onwards. It is concluded that an atypical posterior extension of the AV node with predominant leftatrial course might be responsible for this unusual success of slow pathway elimination from left posteroseptal.

  10. Flow Induced Microvascular Network Formation of Therapeutic Relevant Arteriovenous (AV) Loop-Based Constructs in Response to Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Volker J; Covi, Jennifer M; Koepple, Christoph; Hilgert, Johannes G; Polykandriotis, Elias; Bigdeli, Amir K; Distel, Luitpold V; Horch, Raymund E; Kneser, Ulrich

    2017-02-15

    BACKGROUND The arteriovenous (AV) loop model enables axial vascularization to gain a functional microcirculatory system in tissue engineering constructs in vivo. These constructs might replace surgical flaps for the treatment of complex wounds in the future. Today, free flaps are often exposed to high-dose radiation after defect coverage, according to guideline-oriented treatment plans. Vascular response of AV loop-based constructs has not been evaluated after radiation, although it is of particular importance. It is further unclear whether the interposed venous AV loop graft is crucial for the induction of angiogenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We exposed the grafted vein to a single radiation dose of 2 Gy prior to loop construction to alter intrinsic and angio-inductive properties specifically within the graft. Vessel loops were embedded in a fibrin-filled chamber for 15 days and radiation-induced effects on flow-mediated vascularization were assessed by micro-CT and two-dimensional histological analysis. RESULTS Vessel amount was significantly impaired when an irradiated vein graft was used for AV loop construction. However, vessel growth and differentiation were still present. In contrast to vessel density, which was homogeneously diminished in constructs containing irradiated veins, vessel diameter was primarily decreased in the more peripheral regions. CONCLUSIONS Vascular luminal sprouts were significantly diminished in irradiated venous grafts, suggesting that the interposing vein constitutes a vital part of the AV loop model and is essential to initiate flow-mediate angiogenesis. These results add to the current understanding of AV loop-based neovascularization and suggest clinical implications for patients requiring combined AV loop-based tissue transfer and adjuvant radiotherapy.

  11. Flow Induced Microvascular Network Formation of Therapeutic Relevant Arteriovenous (AV) Loop-Based Constructs in Response to Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Volker J.; Covi, Jennifer M.; Koepple, Christoph; Hilgert, Johannes G.; Polykandriotis, Elias; Bigdeli, Amir K.; Distel, Luitpold V.; Horch, Raymund E.; Kneser, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Background The arteriovenous (AV) loop model enables axial vascularization to gain a functional microcirculatory system in tissue engineering constructs in vivo. These constructs might replace surgical flaps for the treatment of complex wounds in the future. Today, free flaps are often exposed to high-dose radiation after defect coverage, according to guideline-oriented treatment plans. Vascular response of AV loop-based constructs has not been evaluated after radiation, although it is of particular importance. It is further unclear whether the interposed venous AV loop graft is crucial for the induction of angiogenesis. Material/Methods We exposed the grafted vein to a single radiation dose of 2 Gy prior to loop construction to alter intrinsic and angio-inductive properties specifically within the graft. Vessel loops were embedded in a fibrin-filled chamber for 15 days and radiation-induced effects on flow-mediated vascularization were assessed by micro-CT and two-dimensional histological analysis. Results Vessel amount was significantly impaired when an irradiated vein graft was used for AV loop construction. However, vessel growth and differentiation were still present. In contrast to vessel density, which was homogeneously diminished in constructs containing irradiated veins, vessel diameter was primarily decreased in the more peripheral regions. Conclusions Vascular luminal sprouts were significantly diminished in irradiated venous grafts, suggesting that the interposing vein constitutes a vital part of the AV loop model and is essential to initiate flow-mediate angiogenesis. These results add to the current understanding of AV loop-based neovascularization and suggest clinical implications for patients requiring combined AV loop-based tissue transfer and adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:28199294

  12. Construction of Recombinant Pichia pastoris Carrying a Constitutive AvBD9 Gene and Analysis of Its Activity.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jian; Qi, Kezong; Xue, Ting; Wei, Haiting; Zhang, Yongzheng; Wu, Yanli; Zhou, Xiuhong; Lv, Xiaolong

    2015-12-28

    Avian beta-defensin 9 (AvBD9) is a small cationic peptide consisting of 41 amino acids that plays a crucial rule in innate immunity and acquired immunity in chickens. Owing to its wide antibacterial spectrum, lack of a residue, and failure to induce bacterial drug resistance, AvBD9 is expected to become a substitute for conventional antibiotics in the livestock and poultry industries. Using the preferred codon of Pichia pastoris, the mature AvBD9 peptide was designed and synthesized, based on the sequence from GenBank. The P. pastoris constitutive expression vector pGHKα was used to construct a pGHKα-AvBD9 recombinant plasmid. Restriction enzyme digestion was performed using SacI and BglII to remove the ampicillin resistance gene, and the plasmid was electrotransformed into P. pastoris GS115. High-expression strains with G418 resistance were screened, and the culture supernatant was analyzed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and western blot assay to identify target bands of about 6 kDa. A concentrate of the supernatant containing AvBD9 was used for determination of antimicrobial activity. The supernatant concentrate was effective against Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella pullorum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae. The fermentation product of P. pastoris carrying the recombinant AvBD9 plasmid was adjusted to 1.0 × 10(8) CFU/ml and added to the drinking water of white feather broilers at different concentrations. The daily average weight gain and immune organ indices in broilers older than 7 days were significantly improved by the AvBD9 treatment.

  13. Preclinical Properties of 18F-AV-45: A PET Agent for Aβ Plaques in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seok Rye; Golding, Geoff; Zhuang, Zhiping; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Nathaniel; Hefti, Franz; Benedum, Tyler E.; Kilbourn, Michael R.; Skovronsky, Daniel; Kung, Hank F.

    2011-01-01

    β-amyloid plaques (Aβ plaques) in the brain, containing predominantly fibrillary Aβ peptide aggregates, represent a defining pathologic feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). Imaging agents targeting the Aβ plaques in the living human brain are potentially valuable as biomarkers of pathogenesis processes in AD. (E)-4-(2-(6-(2-(2-(2-18F-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-N-methyl benzenamine (18F-AV-45) is such as an agent currently in phase III clinical studies for PET of Aβ plaques in the brain. Methods In vitro binding of 18F-AV-45 to Aβ plaques in the postmortem AD brain tissue was evaluated by in vitro binding assay and autoradiography. In vivo biodistribution of 18F-AV-45 in mice and ex vivo autoradiography of AD transgenic mice (APPswe/PSEN1) with Aβ aggregates in the brain were performed. Small-animal PET of a monkey brain after an intravenous injection of 18F-AV-45 was evaluated. Results 18F-AV-45 displayed a high binding affinity and specificity to Aβ plaques (Kd, 3.72 ± 0.30 nM). In vitro autoradiography of postmortem human brain sections showed substantial plaque labeling in AD brains and not in the control brains. Initial high brain uptake and rapid washout from the brain of healthy mice and monkey were observed. Metabolites produced in the blood of healthy mice after an intravenous injection were identified. 18F-AV-45 displayed excellent binding affinity to Aβ plaques in the AD brain by ex vivo autoradiography in transgenic AD model mice. The results lend support that 18F-AV-45 may be a useful PET agent for detecting Aβ plaques in the living human brain. PMID:19837759

  14. Frequency-dependent electrophysiological remodeling of the AV node by hydroalcohol extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) during experimental atrial fibrillation: the role of endogenous nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Khori, Vahid; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Yazdi, Hamidreza; Rakhshan, Elnaz; Mirabbasi, Abbas; Changizi, Shima; Mazandarani, Masumeh; Nayebpour, Mohsen

    2012-06-01

    The study assessed the hydroalcohol extract effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on (i) the basic and rate-dependent electrophysiological properties of the AV node, (ii) remodeling of the AV node during experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) and (iii) the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the effects of saffron on the AV node. Stimulation protocols in isolated AV node were used to quantify AV nodal recovery, facilitation and fatigue in four groups of rabbits (n = 8-16 per group). In addition, the nodal response to AF was evaluated at multiple cycle lengths and during AF. Saffron had a depressant effect on AV nodal rate-dependent properties; further, it increased Wenckebach block cycle length, functional refractory period, facilitation and fatigue (p < 0.05). A NO-synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) prevented the depressant effects of saffron on the AV node (p < 0.05). Saffron increased the zone of concealment in experimental AF (p < 0.05). The present research showed, for the first time, established electrophysiological remodeling of the AV node during AF by saffron. Saffron increased the AV nodal refractoriness and zone of concealment. These depressant effects of saffron were mediated by endogenous NO.

  15. 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography in Alzheimer’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez Rodríguez, Patricia; Hong, Young T.; Allinson, Kieren S. J.; Williamson, David; Borchert, Robin J.; Sami, Saber; Cope, Thomas E.; Bevan-Jones, W. Richard; Jones, P. Simon; Arnold, Robert; Surendranathan, Ajenthan; Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Fryer, Tim D.; Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; O’Brien, John T.; Rowe, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The ability to assess the distribution and extent of tau pathology in Alzheimer’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy in vivo would help to develop biomarkers for these tauopathies and clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies. New radioligands for positron emission tomography have generated considerable interest, and controversy, in their potential as tau biomarkers. We assessed the radiotracer 18F-AV-1451 with positron emission tomography imaging to compare the distribution and intensity of tau pathology in 15 patients with Alzheimer’s pathology (including amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment), 19 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Regional analysis of variance and a support vector machine were used to compare and discriminate the clinical groups, respectively. We also examined the 18F-AV-1451 autoradiographic binding in post-mortem tissue from patients with Alzheimer’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and a control case to assess the 18F-AV-1451 binding specificity to Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimer’s tau pathology. There was increased 18F-AV-1451 binding in multiple regions in living patients with Alzheimer’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy relative to controls [main effect of group, F(2,41) = 17.5, P < 0.0001; region of interest × group interaction, F(2,68) = 7.5, P < 0.00001]. More specifically, 18F-AV-1451 binding was significantly increased in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, relative to patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and with control subjects, in the hippocampus and in occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal cortices (t’s > 2.2, P’s < 0.04). Conversely, in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, relative to patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 18F-AV-1451 binding was elevated in the midbrain (t = 2.1, P < 0.04); while patients with progressive supranuclear palsy showed, relative to controls, increased 18F-AV-1451 uptake

  16. The Arteriovenous (AV) Loop in a Small Animal Model to Study Angiogenesis and Vascularized Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Weigand, Annika; Beier, Justus P; Arkudas, Andreas; Al-Abboodi, Majida; Polykandriotis, Elias; Horch, Raymund E; Boos, Anja M

    2016-11-02

    A functional blood vessel network is a prerequisite for the survival and growth of almost all tissues and organs in the human body. Moreover, in pathological situations such as cancer, vascularization plays a leading role in disease progression. Consequently, there is a strong need for a standardized and well-characterized in vivo model in order to elucidate the mechanisms of neovascularization and develop different vascularization approaches for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We describe a microsurgical approach for a small animal model for induction of a vascular axis consisting of a vein and artery that are anastomosed to an arteriovenous (AV) loop. The AV loop is transferred to an enclosed implantation chamber to create an isolated microenvironment in vivo, which is connected to the living organism only by means of the vascular axis. Using 3D imaging (MRI, micro-CT) and immunohistology, the growing vasculature can be visualized over time. By implanting different cells, growth factors and matrices, their function in blood vessel network formation can be analyzed without any disturbing influences from the surroundings in a well controllable environment. In addition to angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis studies, the AV loop model is also perfectly suited for engineering vascularized tissues. After a certain prevascularization time, the generated tissues can be transplanted into the defect site and microsurgically connected to the local vessels, thereby ensuring immediate blood supply and integration of the engineered tissue. By varying the matrices, cells, growth factors and chamber architecture, it is possible to generate various tissues, which can then be tailored to the individual patient's needs.

  17. ND2 AV: N-dimensional data analysis and visualization analysis for the National Ignition Campaign

    DOE PAGES

    Bremer, Peer -Timo; Maljovec, Dan; Saha, Avishek; ...

    2015-07-01

    Here, one of the biggest challenges in high-energy physics is to analyze a complex mix of experimental and simulation data to gain new insights into the underlying physics. Currently, this analysis relies primarily on the intuition of trained experts often using nothing more sophisticated than default scatter plots. Many advanced analysis techniques are not easily accessible to scientists and not flexible enough to explore the potentially interesting hypotheses in an intuitive manner. Furthermore, results from individual techniques are often difficult to integrate, leading to a confusing patchwork of analysis snippets too cumbersome for data exploration. This paper presents a case study on how a combination of techniques from statistics, machine learning, topology, and visualization can have a significant impact in the field of inertial confinement fusion. We present themore » $$\\mathrm{ND}^2\\mathrm{AV}$$: N-dimensional data analysis and visualization framework, a user-friendly tool aimed at exploiting the intuition and current workflow of the target users. The system integrates traditional analysis approaches such as dimension reduction and clustering with state-of-the-art techniques such as neighborhood graphs and topological analysis, and custom capabilities such as defining combined metrics on the fly. All components are linked into an interactive environment that enables an intuitive exploration of a wide variety of hypotheses while relating the results to concepts familiar to the users, such as scatter plots. $$\\mathrm{ND}^2\\mathrm{AV}$$ uses a modular design providing easy extensibility and customization for different applications. $$\\mathrm{ND}^2\\mathrm{AV}$$ is being actively used in the National Ignition Campaign and has already led to a number of unexpected discoveries.« less

  18. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements With the Automatic Mini UAV 'M2AV Carolo'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bange, J.; van den Kroonenberg, A. C.; Spieß, T.; Buschmann, M.; Krüger, L.; Heindorf, A.; Vörsmann, P.

    2007-05-01

    The limitations of manned airborne meteorological measurements led to the development of an autonomously operating mini aircraft, the Meteorological Mini-UAV (M2AV), at the Institute of Aerospace Systems, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. The task was to develop, test and verify a meteorological sensor package as payload for an already available automatic carrier aircraft, the UAV 'Carolo T200', which operates autonomously i.e. without remote control. The M2AV is a self constructed model aircraft with two electrically powered engines and a wingspan of two meters. The maximum take-off weight is 4.5~kg (the M2AV is therefore classified as an model plane which simplifies authority issues), including 1.5~kg of payload. It is hand-launched which makes operation of the aircraft easy. With an endurance of approximately 50 minutes, the range accounts for 60 km at a cruising speed of 20~m/s. The M2AV is capable of performing turbulence measurements (wind vector, temperature and humidity) within the troposphere and offers an economic component during meteorological campaigns. The meteorological sensors are mounted on a noseboom to minimise the aircraft's influence on the measurements and to position the sensors closely to each other. Wind is measured via a small five-hole probe, an inertia measurement unit and GPS. The flight mission (waypoints, altitudes, airspeed) is planned and assigned to the aircraft before the semi- automatic launch. The flight is only controlled by the on-board autopilot system which only communicates with a ground station (laptop PC) for the exchange of measured data and command updates like new waypoints etc. The talk gives details on the technical items, calibration and first missions. Results from first field experiments like the LAUNCH-2005 campaign near Berlin are used for data quality assessment by comparison with simultaneous lidar and sodar measurements. An in situ comparison with the highly accurate helicopter-borne turbulence

  19. Complete A-V block: incidental or a part of cor triatriatum dexter.

    PubMed

    Guler, Y; Akgun, T; Toprak, C; Guler, A; Esen, A M

    2014-05-01

    Cor triatriatum dexter (CTD) is an extremely rare cardiac anomaly in which the right atrium is divided into two distinct chambers by a membrane. The persistence of the right valve of sinus venosus results in a complete septation of the right atrium. This anomaly is frequently associated with other right-sided cardiac abnormalities. Its clinical manifestation and the need for intervention are determined by the number and the size of the fenestrations on the membrane, associated cardiac anomalies and arrhythmias. We describe a case of CTD in a patient with complete atrioventricular (A-V) block.

  20. Parachute-deployment-parameter identification based on an analytical simulation of Viking BLDT AV-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talay, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom analytical simulation of parachute deployment dynamics developed at the Langley Research Center is presented. A comparison study was made using flight results from the Viking Balloon Launched Decelerator Test (BLDT) AV-4. Since there are significant voids in the knowledge of vehicle and decelerator aerodynamics and suspension system physical properties, a set of deployment-parameter input has been defined which may be used as a basis for future studies of parachute deployment dynamics. The study indicates the analytical model is sufficiently sophisticated to investigate parachute deployment dynamics with reasonable accuracy.

  1. Chemometric formulation of bacterial consortium-AVS for improved decolorization of resonance-stabilized and heteropolyaromatic dyes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Madhava Anil; Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Premkumar, Manickam Periyaraman; Baskaralingam, Palanichamy; Thiruvengadaravi, Kadathur Varathachary; Dhanasekaran, Anuradha; Sivanesan, Subramanian

    2012-11-01

    A bacterial consortium-AVS, consisting of Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112, Kocuria rosea MTCC 1532 and Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM 2168 was formulated chemometrically, using the mixture design matrix based on the design of experiments methodology. The formulated consortium-AVS decolorized acid blue 15 and methylene blue with a higher average decolorization rate, which is more rapid than that of the pure cultures. The UV-vis spectrophotometric, Fourier transform infra red spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic analysis confirm that the decolorization was due to biodegradation by oxido-reductive enzymes, produced by the consortium-AVS. The toxicological assessment of plant growth parameters and the chlorophyll pigment concentrations of Phaseolus mungo and Triticum aestivum seedlings revealed the reduced toxic nature of the biodegraded products.

  2. A Comparison of the AVS-9 and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggles During Rotorcraft Hover and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Haworth, Loran; Simpson, Carol

    2000-01-01

    A flight test was conducted to assess any differences in pilot-vehicle performance and pilot opinion between the use of a current generation night vision goggle (the AVS-9) and one variant of the prototype panoramic night vision goggle (the PNVGII). The panoramic goggle has more than double the horizontal field-of-view of the AVS-9, but reduced image quality. Overall the panoramic goggles compared well to the AVS-9 goggles. However, pilot comment and data are consistent with the assertion that some of the benefits of additional field-of-view with the panoramic goggles were negated by the reduced image quality of the particular variant of the panoramic goggles tested.

  3. Autophagy impairment by Helicobacter pylori-induced methylation silencing of MAP1LC3Av1 promotes gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Jibran Sualeh; Nanjo, Sohachi; Ando, Takayuki; Yamashita, Satoshi; Maekita, Takao; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2017-05-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection induces methylation silencing of tumor suppressor genes causing gastric carcinogenesis. Impairment of autophagy induces DNA damage leading to genetic instability and carcinogenesis. We aimed to identify whether H. pylori infection induced methylation silencing of host autophagy-related (Atg) genes, impairing autophagy and enhancing gastric carcinogenesis. Gastric mucosae were obtained from 41 gastric cancer patients and 11 healthy volunteers (8 H. pylori-uninfected and 3 H. pylori-infected). Methylation status of Atg genes was analyzed by a methylation microarray and quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP); mRNA expression was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were assessed in normal rat gastric epithelial cells. Gene knock-down was performed by siRNA. Autophagy was assessed by western blotting. Of 34 Atg genes, MAP1LC3A variant 1 (MAP1LC3Av1) and ULK2 were identified by methylation microarray analysis as exhibiting specific methylation in H. pylori-infected mucosae and gastric cancer tissues. Methylation silencing of MAP1LC3Av1 was confirmed by qMSP, qRT-PCR and de-methylation treatment in two gastric cancer cell lines. Knock-down of map1lc3a, the rat homolog of the human MAP1LC3Av1, inhibited autophagy response and increased cell proliferation, migration and invasion in normal rat gastric epithelial cells, despite the presence of map1lc3b, the rat homolog of the human MAP1LC3B gene important for autophagy. Furthermore, MAP1LC3Av1 was methylation-silenced in 23.3% of gastric cancerous mucosae and 40% of non-cancerous mucosae with H. pylori infection. MAP1LC3Av1 is essential for autophagy and H. pylori-induced methylation silencing of MAP1LC3Av1 may impair autophagy, facilitating gastric carcinogenesis.

  4. Maillard reaction and enzymatic browning affect the allergenicity of Pru av 1, the major allergen from cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Gruber, Patrick; Vieths, Stefan; Wangorsch, Andrea; Nerkamp, Jörg; Hofmann, Thomas

    2004-06-16

    The influence of thermal processing and nonenymatic as well as polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed browning reaction on the allergenicity of the major cherry allergen Pru av 1 was investigated. After thermal treatment of the recombinant protein rPru av 1 in the absence or presence of carbohydrates, SDS-PAGE, enzyme allergosorbent tests, and inhibition assays revealed that thermal treatment of rPru av 1 alone did not show any influence on the IgE-binding activity of the protein at least for 30 min, thus correlating well with the refolding of the allergen in buffer solution as demonstrated by CD spectroscopic experiments. Incubation of the protein with starch and maltose also showed no effect on IgE-binding activity, whereas reaction with glucose and ribose and, even more pronounced, with the carbohydrate breakdown products glyceraldehyde and glyoxal induced a strong decrease of the IgE-binding capacity of rPru av 1. In the second part of the study, the effect of polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed oxidation of polyphenols on food allergen activity was investigated. Incubation of rPru av 1 with epicatechin in the presence of tyrosinase led to a drastic decrease in IgE-binding activity of the protein. Variations of the phenolic compound revealed caffeic acid and epicatechin as the most active inhibitors of the IgE-binding activity of rPru av 1, followed by catechin and gallic acid, and, finally, by quercetin and rutin, showing significantly lower activity. On the basis of these data, reactive intermediates formed during thermal carbohydrate degradation as well as during enzymatic polyphenol oxidation are suggested as the active chemical species responsible for modifying nucleophilic amino acid side chains of proteins, thus inducing an irreversible change in the tertiary structure of the protein and resulting in a loss of conformational epitopes of the allergen.

  5. 77 FR 1667 - Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil... a last known address of Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, and...

  6. First Case of Automatic His Potential Detection With a Novel Ultra High-density Electroanatomical Mapping System for AV Nodal Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Sebastian; Kosiuk, Jedrzej; John, Silke; Hindricks, Gerhard; Bollmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year old was considered for atrioventricular (AV) nodal ablation in view of atrial fibrillation (AF) with poorly controlled ventricular rate despite being on amiodarone. Targeted AV nodal ablation was successfully performed after identifying the target site for ablation by reviewing an ultra high-density map of the His region produced by automatic electrogram annotation. PMID:25852249

  7. Overexpression of an Apocynum venetum DEAD-Box Helicase Gene (AvDH1) in Cotton Confers Salinity Tolerance and Increases Yield in a Saline Field

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Wan, Sibao; Liu, Huaihua; Fan, Shuli; Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Wei; Xia, Minxuan; Yuan, Rui; Deng, Fenni; Shen, Fafu

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major environmental stress limiting plant growth and productivity. We have reported previously the isolation of an Apocynum venetum DEAD-box helicase 1 (AvDH1) that is expressed in response to salt exposure. Here, we report that the overexpression of AvDH1 driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in cotton plants confers salinity tolerance. Southern and Northern blotting analyses showed that the AvDH1 gene was integrated into the cotton genome and expressed. In this study, the growth of transgenic cotton expressing AvDH1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a growth chamber and in a saline field trial. Transgenic cotton overexpressing AvDH1 was much more resistant to salt than the wild-type plants when grown in a growth chamber. The lower membrane ion leakage, along with increased activity of superoxide dismutase, in AvDH1 transgenic lines suggested that these characteristics may prevent membrane damage, which increases plant survival rates. In a saline field, the transgenic cotton lines expressing AvDH1 showed increased boll numbers, boll weights and seed cotton yields compared with wild-type plants, especially at high soil salinity levels. This study indicates that transgenic cotton expressing AvDH1 is a promising option for increasing crop productivity in saline fields. PMID:26779246

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NH and AV Towards YSOs in the ONC (Hasenberger+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenberger, B.; Forbrich, J.; Alves, J.; Wolk, S. J.; Meingast, S.; Getman, K. V.; Pillitteri, I.

    2016-07-01

    Column density (NH) and extinction (AV) values are sample of YSO sources in the ONC. Near-infrared colours based on the VISION (Meingast et al., 2016A&A...587A.153M) catalogue were employed to calculate extinction values using the NICER algorithm (Lombardi et al., 2001A&A...377.1023L) and assuming RV=3.1. Column densities were adopted from the COUP (Getman et al., 2005, Cat. J/ApJS/160/319) catalogue. In addition to NH and AV, the following quantities are provided: JHK_s magnitudes, taken from the VISION catalogue; spectral types, adopted from the catalogue by Hillenbrand et al. (2013, Cat. J/AJ/146/85); intrinsic near-infrared colours, deduced from spectral types and data by Scandariato et al. (2012A&A...545A..19S); and the YSO classification, based on the classification by Megeath et al. (2012, Cat. J/AJ/144/192). 1-Sigma error estimates are given for all quantities in the table. (1 data file).

  9. Geologic Mapping of the Av-9 Numisia Quadrangle of Asteroid 4Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D.; Wyrick, D.; Capaccioni, F.; Scully, J.; Williams, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Garry, W.; Yingst, R.; LeCorre, L.; Nathues, A.; Schenk, P.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C.; Pieters, C.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Russell, C.

    2012-04-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 16, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, the Dawn Science Team has begun geologic map-ping of Vesta's surface at the global scale and as a series of 15 quadrangle maps that are being produced based on Framing Camera (FC) images, along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). We here concentrate on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle Av-9 Numisia, located in the equatorial region of Vesta, extending from 22˚N - 22˚S and from 216° - 288° E. Clear filter (monochrome) FC HAMO images (~70 m/p) were mosaicked to make a base for this quadrangle. Topography of Av-9, is observed in a colorized Digital Terrain Model (DTM) derived from Survey orbit FC data. Variations in surface composition are revealed by VIR hyperspectral images from Survey (700 m/p) and HAMO (200 m/p) orbits and FC color ratio images (250 m/p) from Survey orbit. Av-9 Numisia is dominated by Vestalia Terra, a distinct, albedo-bright, topographically high region of Vesta bound by steep scarps and crossed by a roughly linear unit of dark material from the northwest to the southeast. This "dark ribbon" is primarily evident in FC color ratio data but is also discernable in clear filter data. The dark material appears to fill a locally low region on top of Vestalia Terra. The ribbon-like feature is cut by Numisia crater, which shows both bright and dark layers in its walls; the dark layers may thus be exposures of subsurface "dark ribbon" material. The origin of the "dark ribbon" material has yet to be determined, but possibilities include impact ejecta flow and/or volcanism. FC color ratio images using standard Clementine ratios [Red (750/430 nm); Green (750/920 nm); Blue (430/750 nm)] show that many of the impact craters in Av-9 have

  10. AV Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Donna A., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two 35MM slide sets "Halley's Comet Revealed" and "Supernova 1987A"; and a videotape entitled "Experiments; Physics Level 1. Magnetic Fields." Features, availability, strengths and weaknesses are discussed. (CW)

  11. AV Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Donna A., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews three videotapes for physics teachers: (1) "Determination of the Newtonian Constant of Gravitation" showing the Cavendish experiment; (2) "Preview Film for RAM-Tutor Media" introducing a series of seven videocassettes covering physics; and (3) "Determination of the Velocity of Light" using a rotating mirror. (YP)

  12. AV Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Rachel, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are four videotapes for use in biology classrooms. Included are "The Biochemical Basis of Biology. Part 2--DNA and Protein Synthesis,""The Rocky Shores,""A Visit to the Rocky Shores," and "Our Immune System." Described are the content, cost, and availability of each video. (CW)

  13. AV Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Rachel, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presents teacher comments on audiovisual materials dealing with: biotechnology applications in immunology, agriculture, and cancer research; efforts to halt the eutrophication of Lake Tahoe; and banana slugs. Availability and costs of materials are included. (RT)

  14. COORDINATED AV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLEAVES, PAUL C.; AND OTHERS

    THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER IS LOCATED IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL AND SUPPLIES ALL SCHOOLS IN THE AREA. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT ORDERS, AFTER SELECTIONS ARE MADE BY THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, ARE PROCESSED BY THE CENTER, CONFIRMED AND DELIVERED BY TRUCK THREE TIMES EACH WEEK. EACH SCHOOL HAS A BUILDING COORDINATOR WHO CHECKS THE ORDERS INTO THE…

  15. Transcriptomic differences of genes in the avian target of rapamycin (avTOR) pathway in a divergent line of meat-type chickens selected for feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Aggrey, S E

    2016-06-30

    Avian target of rapamycin (avTOR) is a highly conserved serine-threonine kinase that serves as an intracellular energy and nutrient sensor and regulates cell division, growth, and apoptosis. The role of avTOR in mediating feed intake and growth in poultry is unknown. We studied avTOR signaling activities in duodenum and liver tissues at days 35 and 42 in chickens divergently selected for low (LRFI) or high (HRFI) residual feed intake. The differential expression of genes involved in the avTOR pathway was assayed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the duodenum, avTOR was up-regulated in the LRFI chickens at both time points as compared with the HRFI chickens. Other genes found to be differentially expressed at day 35 included v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1, 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70 kDa, polypeptide 1 (RPS6KP1), avTOR associated protein, LST8 homolog, ghrelin, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), forkhead box O1, and p53 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog (MDM2). At day 42, there was no change in the expression of the avTOR target RPS6KP1 or MDM2. In the liver, changes in the expression of components of the avTOR pathway primarily occurred at day 42, and differential gene expression suggests that avTOR complex 1 (avTORC1) affects feed efficiency at day 42. avTORC1 may be activated in the duodenum of feed-efficient birds to increase nutrient mobilization to other peripheral tissues. Furthermore, activation of avTOR in relation to feed efficiency may be tissue specific and may depend on the tissue's need for growth and nutrient transport. Genetic markers in key genes involved in the avTOR/PI3K pathway could be developed to improve feed efficiency in meat-type chickens.

  16. 18F-AV-1451 tau PET imaging correlates strongly with tau neuropathology in MAPT mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ruben; Puschmann, Andreas; Schöll, Michael; Ohlsson, Tomas; van Swieten, John; Honer, Michael; Englund, Elisabet; Hansson, Oskar

    2016-09-01

    Tau positron emission tomography ligands provide the novel possibility to image tau pathology in vivo However, little is known about how in vivo brain uptake of tau positron emission tomography ligands relates to tau aggregates observed post-mortem. We performed tau positron emission tomography imaging with (18)F-AV-1451 in three patients harbouring a p.R406W mutation in the MAPT gene, encoding tau. This mutation results in 3- and 4-repeat tau aggregates similar to those in Alzheimer's disease, and many of the mutation carriers initially suffer from memory impairment and temporal lobe atrophy. Two patients with short disease duration and isolated memory impairment exhibited (18)F-AV-1451 uptake mainly in the hippocampus and adjacent temporal lobe regions, correlating with glucose hypometabolism in corresponding regions. One patient died after 26 years of disease duration with dementia and behavioural deficits. Pre-mortem, there was (18)F-AV-1451 uptake in the temporal and frontal lobes, as well as in the basal ganglia, which strongly correlated with the regional extent and amount of tau pathology in post-mortem brain sections. Amyloid-β ((18)F-flutemetamol) positron emission tomography scans were negative in all cases, as were stainings of brain sections for amyloid. This provides strong evidence that (18)F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography can be used to accurately quantify in vivo the regional distribution of hyperphosphorylated tau protein.

  17. Structural features and formation of lower Cretaceous AV1 layer in the Soviet oil field (Tomsk Oblast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhamsaranova, A. B.; Osipova, E. N.; Gaydukova, T. A.; Aksenova, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of the collected geological and geophysical information on AV1 layer known as Ryabchik formation is carried out. The facial conditions of this formation which define structural features of «Ryabchik» sandstones formations are considered. Maps characterizing permeability and porosity of reservoir are plotted. Areal tracking technique of sand streaks is given.

  18. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16ar, ASASSN-16av and ASASSN-16ax as Type Ia SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, E.; Macri, L.; Stringer, K.; Prieto, J. L.; Challis, P.; Kirshner, R.

    2016-02-01

    We obtained optical spectra (range 350-760 nm) of ASASSN-16ar (ATel #8565), ASASSN-16av (ATel #8569), and ASASSN-16ax (ATel #8594) on UT 2016 Feb 4 with the F. L. Whipple Observatory 1.5-m telescope (+ FAST).

  19. Balloon launched decelerator test program: Post-flight test report, BLDT vehicle AV-3, Viking 1975 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, D.; Hicks, F.; Schlemmer, J.; Michel, F.; Moog, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    The pertinent events concerned with the launch, float, and flight of balloon launched decelerator test vehicle AV-3 are discussed. The performance of the decelerator system is analyzed. Data on the flight trajectory and decelerator test points at the time of decelerator deployment are provided. A description of the time history of vehicle events and anaomalies encounters during the mission is included.

  20. Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is a potential tributyltin (TBT) bioremediator: phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicates its safe application.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andreia; Areias, Dário; Duarte, Ana; Correia, António; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-09-01

    Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is an estuarine bacterium highly resistant to tributyltin (TBT). Also, the strain is able to degrade TBT into the less toxic compounds dibutyltin and monobutyltin. Therefore, this bacterium has potential to be employed in bioremediation processes. In this context, defining its biological safety is crucial. With that purpose a number of intrinsic characteristics, usually present/associated with virulent strains, were investigated. Few virulence factors were detected in strain Av27. For instance, a DNase gene is present, but it is not apparently expressed in vitro. Motility, adherence factor and phospholipase activity were also detected. Additionally, cytotoxicity to Vero cells was negative. Resistance to penicillin (10 μg ml(-1)), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (30 μg ml(-1)) and cephalothin (30 μg ml(-1)) and also to the vibriostatic agent O/129 was observed. Five plasmids (4, 7, 10, 100 kb and one greater than 100 kb) were identified. No Class I and II integrons were detected. Study of the optimal growth conditions showed that Av27 easily adapts to different environmental conditions. Overall, the results suggest that A. molluscorum Av27 can be considered safe to use to bioremediate TBT in contaminated environments.

  1. Assessment of the use of the AVS concept for the routine toxicity monitoring of contaminated freshwater sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Vangheluwe, M.L.; Janssen, C.R.; Goyvaerts, M.P.; Cooman, P.

    1995-12-31

    Acid volatile sulfides (AVS) have been shown to be an important factor mediating the bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments and have consequently been suggested as a possible predictive tool for toxicity assessment of these matrices. The potential use and limitations of the AVS method for predictive toxicity screening and priority setting was assessed in a large scale sediment monitoring study (Flanders, Belgium). The acute toxicity of 50 metal contaminated freshwater sediments, with varying metal concentrations and sediment characteristics, were tested using the Microtox{reg_sign} Solid Phase test and the 10 day test with Chironomus riparius and Hyalella azteca. Uni and multivariate statistical techniques were used to asses the relations between acute toxicity and SEM/AVS ratio`s and to evaluate the influence of sediment characteristics on metal bioavailability and toxicity. In general, the results of this study indicate that the AVS-toxicity relationship proposed in literature does have certain limitations. Finally, the potential use of a concentration-addition model for predicting metal-mixture toxicity in sediments will be presented and discussed.

  2. Balloon launched decelerator test program: Post-flight test report, BLDT vehicle AV-2, Viking 1975 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, D.; Hicks, F.; Schlemmer, J.; Michel, F.; Moog, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The pertinent events concerned with the launch, float, and flight of balloon launched decelerator test vehicle AV-2 are discussed. The performance of the decelerator system is analyzed. Data on the flight trajectory and decelerator test points at the time of decelerator deployment are provided. A description of the time history of vehicle events and anomalies encounters during the mission is included.

  3. A microcosm approach to evaluate the degradation of tributyltin (TBT) by Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 in estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andreia; Henriques, Isabel; Sousa, Ana C A; Baptista, Inês; Almeida, Adelaide; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Correia, António; Suzuki, Satoru; Anselmo, Ana Maria; Mendo, Sónia

    2014-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a biocide extremely toxic to a wide range of organisms, which has been used for decades in antifouling paints. Despite its global ban in 2008, TBT is still a problem of great concern due to the high levels trapped in sediments. Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is a TBT degrading bacterium that was isolated from an estuarine system. We investigated the ability and the role of this bacterium on TBT degradation in this estuarine system, using a microcosm approach in order to mimic environmental conditions. The experiment was established and followed for 150 days. Simultaneously, changes in the indigenous bacterial community structure were also investigated. The results revealed a maximum TBT degradation rate of 28% accompanied by the detection of the degradation products over time. Additionally, it was observed that TBT degradation was significantly enhanced by the presence of Av27. In addition a significantly higher TBT degradation occurred when the concentration of Av27 was higher. TBT degradation affected the bacterial community composition as revealed by the changes in the prevalence of Proteobacteria subdivisions, namely the increase of Deltaproteobacteria and the onset of Epsilonproteobacteria. However, the addition of Av27 strain did not affect the dominant phylotypes. Total bacterial number, bacterial biomass productivity, 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses also indicated alterations on the bacterial community structure over time, with bacteria non-tolerant to pollutants increasing their representativeness, as, for instance, the increase of the number of Alphaproteobacteria clones from 6% in the beginning to 12% at the end of the experiment. The work herein presented confirms the potential of Av27 strain to be used in the decontamination of TBT-polluted environments.

  4. Preparation and stability of ethanol-free solution of [18F]florbetapir ([18F]AV-45) for positron emission tomography amyloid imaging.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazutaka; Tachibana, Akiko; Tazawa, Shusaku; Mizukawa, Yosuke; Osaki, Katsuhiko; Morimoto, Yoko; Zochi, Riyo; Kurahashi, Masahiro; Aki, Hatsumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2013-05-15

    We have developed an ethanol-free formulation method of [(18) F]florbetapir ([(1) (8) F]AV-45) using a commercially available automated JFE multi-purpose synthesizer. We have also evaluated the radiochemical stability in an ethanol-free solution of [(18) F]AV-45 under visible light irradiation and dark conditions by comparison with a conventional 10% ethanol solution of [(18) F]AV-45. [(18) F]AV-45 was obtained with a radiochemical yield of 55.1 ± 2.2% (decay-corrected to end of bombardment), specific activity of 591.6 ± 90.3 GBq/µmol and radiochemical purity of >99% within a total synthesis time of about 73 min. The radiochemical purity of [(18) F]AV-45 formulated by dissolving the ethanol-free solution was found to decrease as a function of the period of exposure to visible light. In contrast, the visible light photolysis could be suppressed by adding 10% ethanol to the formulation or by avoiding exposure to visible light. In the radiosynthesis of [(18) F]AV-45 formulated by dissolving the ethanol-free solution, [(18) F]AV-45 could be obtained with high radiochemical purity and high stability by avoiding exposure to visible light.

  5. The Pattern of Brain Amyloid Load in Posterior Cortical Atrophy Using 18F-AV45: Is Amyloid the Principal Actor in the Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Beaufils, Emilie; Ribeiro, Maria Joao; Vierron, Emilie; Vercouillie, Johnny; Dufour-Rainfray, Diane; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Camus, Vincent; Mondon, Karl; Guilloteau, Denis; Hommet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is characterized by progressive higher-order visuoperceptual dysfunction and praxis declines. This syndrome is related to a number of underlying diseases, including, in most cases, Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to compare the amyloid load with 18F-AV45 positron emission tomography (PET) between PCA and AD subjects. Methods We performed 18F-AV45 PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker analysis and a neuropsychological assessment in 11 PCA patients and 12 AD patients. Results The global and regional 18F-AV45 uptake was similar in the PCA and AD groups. No significant correlation was observed between global 18F-AV45 uptake and CSF biomarkers or between regional 18F-AV45 uptake and cognitive and affective symptoms. Conclusion This 18F-AV45 PET amyloid imaging study showed no specific regional pattern of cortical 18F-AV45 binding in PCA patients. These results confirm that a distinct clinical phenotype in amnestic AD and PCA is not related to amyloid distribution. PMID:25538727

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Metals on Microorganisms in Flooded Paddy Soils Using the SEM/AVS-Based Approach and Measurements of Exchangeable Metal Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kunito, Takashi; Toya, Hitomi; Sumi, Hirotaka; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Toda, Hideshige; Nagaoka, Kazunari; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    We examined possible adverse effects of heavy metals on microbial activity, biomass, and community composition using the simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)/acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-based approach and measurements of exchangeable metal concentrations in three paddy soils (wastewater-contaminated soil, mine-contaminated soil, and noncontaminated soil) incubated for 60 days under flooded conditions. Incubation under flooding increased pH and decreased Eh in all samples. AVS increased when Eh decreased to approximately -200 mV for the mine-contaminated and noncontaminated soils, while the wastewater-contaminated soil originally had a high concentration of AVS despite its air-dried condition. Addition of rice straw or alkaline material containing calcium carbonate and gypsum increased AVS levels under flooded conditions. We observed no apparent relationship between soil enzyme activity (β-D-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) and concentrations of SEM, [∑SEM - AVS], and exchangeable metals. Bacterial and fungal community composition, assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis targeting rRNA genes, was largely influenced by site of collection and incubation time, but metal contamination did not influence community composition. We observed significant negative correlations between biomass C and [∑SEM - AVS] and between biomass C and ∑SEM, suggesting that [∑SEM - AVS] and ∑SEM might reflect the bioavailability of organic matter to microorganisms in these soils.

  7. Geologic Mapping of the Av-14 Urbinia Quadrangle of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mest, S. C.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Pieters, C. M.; Jaumann, R.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Sykes, M. V.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Schenk, P. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Neukum, G.; Schmedemann, N.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Ammannito, E.

    2012-04-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft is providing unprecedented views of the surface of 4 Vesta since it went into orbit in July 2011. Dawn is actively gathering an abundance of image, spectral and topographic data to characterize the geology, composition, shape and internal structure of the ~560-km-diameter asteroid. Geologic mapping of Vesta's surface is being undertaken at the global and regional scales by subdividing Vesta into 15 quadrangles. Here, we report the mapping results for quadrangle Av-14, the Urbinia quadrangle of Vesta, derived from data acquired during the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and Survey orbit. Base materials for mapping include HAMO-derived monochrome (clear filter) Framing Camera (FC) mosaic (~70 m/pixel and a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) derived from Survey orbit FC data (450 m/pixel). We also use FC color ratio images (~250 m/pixel) from Survey orbit and Visible and InfraRed (VIR) hyperspectral images from Survey (700 m/pixel) and HAMO (200 m/pixel) orbits to provide information on surface composition and refine unit boundaries. The Av-14 Quadrangle covers the region between 21°-66°S latitude and 270°-360°E longitude. The quadrangle is named after crater Urbinia (D=24 km; 30°S, 276°E), which displays an ejecta blanket with moderate albedo and a smooth, lightly cratered surface. The map area is dominated by moderately cratered equatorial terrains and lightly cratered, but highly deformed, southern terrains. The topographic gradient of the map area is declined toward the south from the more elevated equatorial terrain to the relatively lower interior of the Rheasilivia impact basin. Av-14 contains two dominant terrains - (1) intermediately-cratered equatorial terrain bearing flat-floored, E-W-trending troughs, and (2) relatively lightly-cratered south polar terrain, which contains the Rheasilvia impact basin and related terrains. The northern part of the quadrangle is covered by the moderately cratered equatorial ridge-and-trough terrain

  8. Introduction to COFFE: The Next-Generation HPCMP CREATE-AV CFD Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasby, Ryan S.; Erwin, J. Taylor; Stefanski, Douglas L.; Allmaras, Steven R.; Galbraith, Marshall C.; Anderson, W. Kyle; Nichols, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    HPCMP CREATE-AV Conservative Field Finite Element (COFFE) is a modular, extensible, robust numerical solver for the Navier-Stokes equations that invokes modularity and extensibility from its first principles. COFFE implores a flexible, class-based hierarchy that provides a modular approach consisting of discretization, physics, parallelization, and linear algebra components. These components are developed with modern software engineering principles to ensure ease of uptake from a user's or developer's perspective. The Streamwise Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SU/PG) method is utilized to discretize the compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations tightly coupled with a variety of turbulence models. The mathematics and the philosophy of the methodology that makes up COFFE are presented.

  9. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting ApoAV is a potent triglyceride modulator despite its low concentration. Together, these data indicate

  10. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety and immunogenicity study of 4 formulations of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed plus CPG 7909 (AV7909) in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert J; Daczkowski, Nancy F; Kaptur, Paulina E; Muse, Derek; Sheldon, Eric; LaForce, Craig; Sari, Suha; Rudge, Thomas L; Bernton, Edward

    2013-06-26

    A new anthrax vaccine that could accelerate the immune response and possibly reduce the number of injections needed for protection would be desirable in a post-exposure setting. This Phase 1 study compared the safety and immunogenicity of 2 IM doses (Days 0 and 14) of 4 formulations of AV7909 (AVA plus CPG 7909) with 2 IM doses of BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) and 2 IM doses of saline placebo administered on Days 0 and 14. A total of 105 healthy adults 18-50 years of age were randomized to 1 of 6 study groups: BioThrax (0.5 mL), AV7909 Formulation 1 (0.5 mL AVA+0.5mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 2 (0.5 mL AVA+0.25mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 3 (0.25 mL AVA+0.5mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 4 (0.25 mL AVA+0.25mg CPG 7909), or saline placebo (0.5 mL). All randomized subjects received at least 1 vaccination, and 100 subjects completed the trial. After 2 doses, mean peak normalized toxin neutralizing antibody responses (TNA NF50) in the AV7909 groups were higher than in the BioThrax group. Differences among the 4 AV7909 groups were not statistically significant. Subjects who received AV7909 reached peak titers on Day 28 vs. Day 35 in the BioThrax group. The most common adverse events (AEs) in the BioThrax and AV7909 groups assessed as related to vaccination were injection site reactions. Transient lymphopenia was observed after the first dose in each AV7909 group. Frequencies of injection site and systemic reactions recorded by subjects in diaries for 7 days after each injection were highest with AV7909 Formulation 1. No AEs of special interest (autoimmune events) were observed in the study. Further studies of doses and dosing regimens are planned to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of AV7909.

  11. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of 4 Formulations of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Plus CPG 7909 (AV7909) in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Robert J.; Daczkowski, Nancy F.; Kaptur, Paulina E.; Muse, Derek; Sheldon, Eric; LaForce, Craig; Sari, Suha; Rudge, Thomas L.; Bernton, Edward

    2013-01-01

    A new anthrax vaccine that could accelerate the immune response and possibly reduce the number of injections needed for protection would be desirable in a post-exposure setting. This Phase 1 study compared the safety and immunogenicity of 2 IM doses (Days 0 and 14) of 4 formulations of AV7909 (AVA plus CPG 7909) with 2 IM doses of BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) and 2 IM doses of saline placebo administered on Days 0 and 14. A total of 105 healthy adults 18 to 50 years of age were randomized to 1 of 6 study groups: BioThrax (0.5 mL), AV7909 Formulation 1 (0.5 mL AVA + 0.5 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 2 (0.5 mL AVA + 0.25 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 3 (0.25 mL AVA + 0.5 mg CPG 7909), AV7909 Formulation 4 (0.25 mL AVA + 0.25 mg CPG 7909), or saline placebo (0.5 mL). All randomized subjects received at least 1 vaccination, and 100 subjects completed the trial. After 2 doses, mean peak normalized toxin neutralizing antibody responses (TNA NF50) in the AV7909 groups were higher than in the BioThrax group. Differences among the 4 AV7909 groups were not statistically significant. Subjects who received AV7909 reached peak titers on Day 28 vs. Day 35 in the BioThrax group. The most common adverse events (AEs) in the BioThrax and AV7909 groups assessed as related to vaccination were injection site reactions. Transient lymphopenia was observed after the first dose in each AV7909 group. Frequencies of injection site and systemic reactions recorded by subjects in diaries for 7 days after each injection were highest with AV7909 Formulation 1. No AEs of special interest (autoimmune events) were observed in the study. Further studies of doses and dosing regimens are planned to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of AV7909. PMID:23701746

  12. The risk assessment of heavy metals in Futian mangrove forest sediment in Shenzhen Bay (South China) based on SEM-AVS analysis.

    PubMed

    Chai, Minwei; Shen, Xiaoxue; Li, Ruili; Qiu, Guoyu

    2015-08-15

    The risks of heavy metal in Futian mangrove forest sediment were assessed using the acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) methods. The results indicated that AVS distributions were more variable than the SEM distributions at all 16 sampling sites. The positive correlation between AVS and SEM indicated that their similar formative and existing conditions and that AVS acted as an important carrier for SEM. The major SEM component was Zn (69.7.3-94.2%), whereas the Cd contribution (the most toxic metal present) to SEM was no more than 1%. The possible adverse effects caused by heavy metals at ten sampling sites may be due to higher levels of SEMs, rather than AVSs. The total organic carbon (TOC) was an important metal-binding phase in the sediments. Taking into account the TOC concentration, there were no adverse effects due to heavy metals in any of the Futian mangrove forest sediments.

  13. The Streptomyces venezuelae pikAV gene contains a transcription unit essential for expression of enzymes involved in glycosylation of narbonolide and 10-deoxymethynolide.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Roberts, J B; Xue, Y; Sherman, D H; Reynolds, K A

    2001-01-24

    In Streptomyces venezuelae, four polyketide synthase (PKS) polypeptides encoded by pikAI-pikAIV are used to generate 10 and 12-membered macrocyclic structures, narbonolide and 10-deoxymethynolide. Sequence analysis suggests these genes are translationally coupled with downstream genes, pikAV (encoding a type II thioesterase), desVIII-desVI (encoding enzymes responsible for production of the final glycosylated products pikromycin, narbomycin, methymycin and neomethymycin) and desR (a resistance gene). Type II thioesterases have been suggested to have an editing function in polyketide biosynthesis and deletion of the corresponding genes often leads to decreased levels of polyketide production. Surprisingly an in-frame deletion of 687 bp of the 843 bp pikAV ORF led to a strain SC1022 that produced normal yields of polyketide products, but only in the aglycone form. Plasmid-based expression of the desVIII-VI and desR in the SC1022 strain completely restored production of glycosylated products, despite the absence of a functional pikAV gene product. Under these conditions the PikAV TEII therefore does not play an important role in polyketide biosynthesis, and its function remains an enigma. These observations also demonstrate that the region of pikAV DNA deleted in strain SC1022 contains a transcription unit essential for expression of the des genes. A sequence alignment of PikAV with members of the highly conserved type II thioesterases revealed a short divergent region at the carboxy terminus, suggesting a region of pikAV that might contain such a transcription unit. DNA containing this region of pikAV was shown to be able to increase plasmid-based expression of both crotonyl CoA reductase gene (ccr) and the erythromycin resistance gene (ermE) in S. venezuelae.

  14. The GRB Detected by Avs-F Apparatus Onboard Coronas-F Satellite in 2001-2005 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskaja, Irene V.; Arkhangelskiy, Andrey I.; Glyanenko, Alexander S.; Kotov, Yuri D.; Kuznetsov, Sergey N.

    2008-09-01

    The AVS-F apparatus onboard CORONAS-F satellite operated from 31.07.2001 up to 06.12.2005. This instrument constitutes the system for data processing from two detectors: SONG-D (CsI(TI) detector Ø200 mm and 100 mm height, fully surrounded by plastic anticoincidence shield) and XSS-1 (CdTe detector 4.9 mm × 4.9 mm). Despite of this satellite was Solar-oriented, over 30 GRB during August 2001 - December 2005 period were registered in the energy band of ~0.1-20 MeV by preliminary data analysis. The characteristics of GRB detected by AVS-F device are discussed.

  15. Modularization and Validation of FUN3D as a CREATE-AV Helios Near-Body Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Rohit; Biedron, Robert T.; Jones, William T.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Under a recent collaborative effort between the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) and NASA Langley, NASA's general unstructured CFD solver, FUN3D, was modularized as a CREATE-AV Helios near-body unstructured grid solver. The strategies adopted in Helios/FUN3D integration effort are described. A validation study of the new capability is performed for rotorcraft cases spanning hover prediction, airloads prediction, coupling with computational structural dynamics, counter-rotating dual-rotor configurations, and free-flight trim. The integration of FUN3D, along with the previously integrated NASA OVERFLOW solver, lays the ground for future interaction opportunities where capabilities of one component could be leveraged with those of others in a relatively seamless fashion within CREATE-AV Helios.

  16. Use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylen (ePTFE) stent graft in autogenic AV fistula with false aneurysm in lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Sieroń, Dominik; Wiggermann, Philipp; Knap, Daniel; Wawrzynek, Wojciech; Stroszczynski, Christian

    2012-04-01

    A 28-year-old German-Caucasian man arrived with deep vein thrombosis DVT, pain, oedema and rubor of right lower limb and drug abuse. The US Doppler imaging showed an autogenic AV fistula and false aneurysm of the right superficial femoral artery and femoral vein. The CT imaging showed additional closing of the left external iliac artery and common femoral artery, and of the distal and middle parts of the superficial femoral artery. The patient was treated within the angiography suite using a 8/25 mm (8 mm diameter/25 mm length) peripheral graft with expanded polytetrafluoroethylen ePTFE stent. After stent deployment, the dilatation was performed using 8/20 mm (8 mm diameter/20 mm length) balloons. After intervention, the digital subtraction angiography showed a good stent position with complete exclusion of false aneurysm and AV fistula. The outcome of US Doppler imaging also confirmed successful intervention.

  17. A Comparison of the AVS-9 and the Panoramic Night Vision Goggle During Rotorcraft Hover and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Haworth, Loran; Simpson, Carol; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this flight test was to measure any differences in pilot-vehicle performance and pilot opinion between the use of the current generation AVS-9 Night Vision Goggle and one variant of the prototype Panoramic Night Vision Goggle (the PNV.GII). The PNVGII has more than double the horizontal field-of-view of the AVS-9, but reduced image quality. The flight path of the AH-1S helicopter was used as a measure of pilot-vehicle performance. Also recorded were subjective measures of flying qualities, physical reserves of the pilot, situational awareness, and display usability. Pilot comment and data indicate that the benefits of additional FOV with the PNVGIIs are to some extent negated by the reduced image quality of the PNVGIIs.

  18. Sediment nickel bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine crustaceans of contrasting bioturbative behaviors--an evaluation of the SEM-AVS paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chandler, G Thomas; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R; He, Lijian; Washburn, Katherine M; Stewart, Emily R; Ferry, John L

    2014-11-04

    Robust sediment quality criteria require chemistry and toxicity data predictive of concentrations where population/community response should occur under known geochemical conditions. Understanding kinetic and geochemical effects on toxicant bioavailability is key, and these are influenced by infaunal sediment bioturbation. This study used fine-scale sediment and porewater measurement of contrasting infaunal effects on carbon-normalized SEM-AVS to evaluate safe or potentially toxic nickel concentrations in a high-binding Spartina saltmarsh sediment (4%TOC; 35-45 μmol-S2-·g(-1)). Two crustaceans producing sharply contrasting bioturbation--the copepod Amphiascus tenuiremis and amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus--were cultured in oxic to anoxic sediments with SEM[Ni]-AVS, TOC, porewater [Ni], and porewater DOC measured weekly. From 180 to 750 μg-Ni·g(-1) sediment, amphipod bioturbation reduced [AVS] and enhanced porewater [Ni]. Significant amphipod uptake, mortality, and growth-depression occurred at the higher sediment [Ni] even when [SEM-AVS]/foc suggested acceptable risk. Less bioturbative copepods produced higher AVS and porewater DOC but exhibited net population growth despite porewater [Ni] 1.3-1.7× their aqueous [Ni] LOEC. Copepod aqueous tests with/without dissolved organic matter showed significant aqueous DOC protection, which suggests porewater DOC attenuates sediment Ni toxicity. The SEM[Ni]-AVS relationship was predictive of acceptable risk for copepods at the important population-growth level.

  19. Effects of an ascovirus (HvAV-3e) on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and evidence for virus transmission by a larval parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Michael J; Asgari, Sassan

    2010-02-01

    Ascoviruses (AVs) are pathogenic to lepidopteran larvae, and most commonly attack species in the Noctuidae. The unique pathology includes cleavage of host cells into virion-containing vesicles which leads to the milky white colouration of the hemolymph as opposed to the clear hemolymph of healthy larvae. Recently, we showed that a Heliothis virescens AV (HvAV-3e) isolate is able to induce disease in Crocidolomia pavonana F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), affecting feeding, growth and survival of infected larvae. In this study, we investigated the effect of different variants of HvAV-3e on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) larvae, another non-noctuid host. In hemolymph inoculation bioassays fourth instar larvae showed a significant dose response to each of the HvAV-3e variants and significant differences between the virulence of the three variants were detected. Both second and fourth instars were readily infected with the virus and infected individuals demonstrated significant reductions in food consumption and growth. The majority of infected individuals died at the larval or pupal stage and individuals which developed into adults were usually deformed, less fecund than non-infected controls and died shortly after emergence. In transmission studies, Diadegmasemiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a key parasitoid of diamondback moth, infected healthy host larvae during oviposition following previous attack of HvAV-3e infected hosts. In choice tests D. semiclausum did not discriminate between infected individuals but host infection had no detectable impact on the development of immature D. semiclausum or on subsequent adults.

  20. Horizon-specific oxidation of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) in relation to the toxicity of cadmium spiked into a freshwater sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, E.N.; Mattson, V.R.; Ankley, G.T.

    1994-12-31

    To evaluate the effects of oxidative processes on acid volatile sulfide concentrations in various horizons of whole sediment cores, in relation to the toxicity of a metal (cadmium), the authors used an artificial system to ``age`` Cd-spiked sediment samples under a constant flow of fresh Lake Superior water. Sediments from Pequaywan Lake, MN (ca. 12 umol AVS/g) were spiked so as to achieve (nominal) cadmium: AVS molar ratios of 0.02 (control), 0.2, 0.8, 1.2 and 3.0. At 0, 24 and 48 days post-spiking, sediment cores were removed from the aging system and tested for toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. At the same time, horizons from replicate sediment cores were prepared for analysis by freezing, and then cutting them into 10--20 mm increments. The sediment horizons were analyzed for AVS and simultaneously extracted cadmium concentrations, and pore water concentrations of cadmium. Relatively little oxidation of surficial AVS concentrations was observed, even at aging times up to 48 d. By 48 d, pore water concentrations of cadmium were slightly elevated at all spiking concentrations, but were increased greatly at cadmium:AVS ratios greater than one. Hyalella azteca mortality was generally predictable based on surficial cadmium:AVS ratios or pore water cadmium concentrations.

  1. Videos for Science Communication and Nature Interpretation: The TIB|AV-Portal as Resource.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín Arraiza, Paloma; Plank, Margret; Löwe, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Scientific audiovisual media such as videos of research, interactive displays or computer animations has become an important part of scientific communication and education. Dynamic phenomena can be described better by audiovisual media than by words and pictures. For this reason, scientific videos help us to understand and discuss environmental phenomena more efficiently. Moreover, the creation of scientific videos is easier than ever, thanks to mobile devices and open source editing software. Video-clips, webinars or even the interactive part of a PICO are formats of scientific audiovisual media used in the Geosciences. This type of media translates the location-referenced Science Communication such as environmental interpretation into computed-based Science Communication. A new way of Science Communication is video abstracting. A video abstract is a three- to five-minute video statement that provides background information about a research paper. It also gives authors the opportunity to present their research activities to a wider audience. Since this kind of media have become an important part of scientific communication there is a need for reliable infrastructures which are capable of managing the digital assets researchers generate. Using the reference of the usecase of video abstracts this paper gives an overview over the activities by the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) regarding publishing and linking audiovisual media in a scientifically sound way. The German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) in cooperation with the Hasso Plattner Institute (HPI) developed a web-based portal (av.tib.eu) that optimises access to scientific videos in the fields of science and technology. Videos from the realms of science and technology can easily be uploaded onto the TIB|AV Portal. Within a short period of time the videos are assigned a digital object identifier (DOI). This enables them to be referenced, cited, and linked (e.g. to the

  2. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Cifelli, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. These GIFT workshops represented the first workshops specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  3. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, C. E.; Cifelli, F.

    2014-12-01

    Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. In 3 cases of the 4 cases, these GIFT workshops represented the first workshop specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  4. The glial cell modulator and phosphodiesterase inhibitor, AV411 (ibudilast), attenuates prime- and stress-induced methamphetamine relapse

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Patrick M.; Shelton, Keith L.; Hendrick, Elizabeth; Johnson, Kirk W.

    2010-01-01

    Stress and renewed contact with drug (a “slip”) have been linked to persisting relapse of methamphetamine abuse. Human brain microglial activation has been linked with methamphetamine abuse, and inhibitors of glial cell activation, certain phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) have been reported to modulate drug abuse effects. Our objective was to determine whether the glial cell attenuator, 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo-[1,5-a]pyridine (AV411, ibudilast), a non-selective PDE inhibitor and promoter of GDNF, could reduce stress- and methamphetamine prime-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior. Male Long-Evans hooded rats were trained to lever press reinforced with 0.1 mg/kg i.v. methamphetamine infusion according to fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedules during daily, 2-h experimental sessions. After performance had stabilized, lever pressing was extinguished for 12 consecutive sessions and doses of 0 (vehicle), 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg AV411 were then administered intraperitoneally b.i.d. on the last two days of extinction and then once on the testday to separate groups of 12 rats. During testing, the rats were given 15 min of intermittent footshock or a 1 mg/kg i.p. methamphetamine prime followed by a 2-h reinstatement test session. AV411 significantly reduced response levels of footshock-induced (2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg) and prime-induced (7.5 mg/kg) reinstatement of extinguished methamphetamine-maintained responding. AV411 has properties consistent with the ability to attenuate relapse precipitated by stress and methamphetamine “slips” during abstinence. These results thus reinforce interest in atypical neurobiological mechanisms which could be exploited for developing novel medications for treating drug abuse disorders. PMID:20399770

  5. Transient A-V dissociation and severe hypotension due to consumption of Ayurvedic medicine--Vatsanabha (aconitum ferox).

    PubMed

    Laddhad, Deepak; Sancheti, Saurabh R; Dinde, Yogita

    2014-05-01

    A 24 year old married, well educated, female patient presented with complaints of giddiness and blackouts. On evaluation, patient had hypotension and bradycardia. ECG findings were suggestive of complete A-V dissociation. On detailed history patient revealed consumption. of Ayurvedic medicine Vatsanabha for arthritis. This study impresses upon the need for complete history talking and generating awareness regarding the correct and observed use of any drug including alternative medicines.

  6. The glial cell modulator and phosphodiesterase inhibitor, AV411 (ibudilast), attenuates prime- and stress-induced methamphetamine relapse.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Patrick M; Shelton, Keith L; Hendrick, Elizabeth; Johnson, Kirk W

    2010-07-10

    Stress and renewed contact with drug (a "slip") have been linked to persisting relapse of methamphetamine abuse. Human brain microglial activation has been linked with methamphetamine abuse, and inhibitors of glial cell activation, certain phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) have been reported to modulate drug abuse effects. Our objective was to determine whether the glial cell attenuator, 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo-[1,5-a]pyridine (AV411, ibudilast), a non-selective PDE inhibitor and promoter of GDNF, could reduce stress- and methamphetamine prime-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior. Male Long-Evans hooded rats were trained to lever press reinforced with 0.1 mg/kg i.v. methamphetamine infusion according to fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedules during daily, 2-hour experimental sessions. After performance had stabilized, lever pressing was extinguished for 12 consecutive sessions and doses of 0 (vehicle), 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg AV411 were then administered intraperitoneally b.i.d. on the last 2 days of extinction and then once on the testday to separate groups of 12 rats. During testing, the rats were given 15 min of intermittent footshock or a 1 mg/kg i.p. methamphetamine prime followed by a 2-hour reinstatement test session. AV411 significantly reduced response levels of footshock-induced (2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg) and prime-induced (7.5 mg/kg) reinstatement of extinguished methamphetamine-maintained responding. AV411 has properties consistent with the ability to attenuate relapse precipitated by stress and methamphetamine "slips" during abstinence. These results thus reinforce interest in atypical neurobiological mechanisms which could be exploited for developing novel medications for treating drug abuse disorders.

  7. Re-entrant tachycardia using two bypass tracts and excluding AV node in short PR interval, normal QRS syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, D E; Camm, A J; Spurrell, R A

    1978-01-01

    In patients with the short PR interval, normal QRS complex syndrome, paroxysmal tachycardias are usually the result of circus movement involving the AV node and a partial or complete AV nodal bypass. We report 2 patients with this syndrome who suffered distressing rapid paroxysms of tachycardia but in whom there was evidence of a concealed direct VA connection. In both patients, tachycardia was initiated with critical AV prolongation distal to the His bundle, in response to programmed atrial premature stimuli. The constancy of the timing of the atrial echo from the onset of the QRS complex in the presence of a varying HV interval is evidence for involvement of the ventricles in the re-entry pathway. In addition, in both patients the appearance of left bundle-branch block during tachycardia was associated with appropriate prolongation of tachycardia cycle length consistent with the presence of a direct VA connection. The short AH interval during tachycardia and the absence of critical AH prolongation suggests the participation of a rapidly conducting pathway in the anterograde limb of the tachycardia circuit. PMID:708514

  8. Trifascicular block progressing to complete AV block on exercise: a rare presentation demonstrating the usefulness of exercise testing

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Ranjan K; Agarwal, Sumit; Ganiga Sanjeeva, Naveen Chandra; Rao, M Sudhakar

    2015-01-01

    A 41-year-old man presented with dyspnoea and giddiness on exertion for the last 1 month. A resting ECG during showed trifascicular block with complete right bundle branch block, left anterior fascicular block and a prolonged PR interval of >0.24 s. His echocardiography showed no evidence of wall motion abnormality. He was subjected to a treadmill test for exercise-induced ischaemia, which showed complete atrioventricular (AV) block during first stage of Bruce protocol. His symptoms of dyspnoea and giddiness were also reproduced. The test was terminated and ECG returned to trifascicular block, similar to that at his baseline ECG during recovery. Coronary angiogram (CAG) was performed to rule out any ischaemic cause for this exercise-induced AV block, which was normal. In view of his reproducible symptoms and demonstration of complete AV block on exercise, a dual-chamber pacemaker (DDD) was implanted. His symptoms disappeared and he remained asymptomatic on follow-up. PMID:25819829

  9. Authentication of Angelica anomala Avé-Lall cultivars through DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    He, Yang; Hou, Pei; Fan, Gang; Song, Zhen; Arain, Saima; Shu, Hao; Tang, Ce; Yue, Qinghong; Zhang, Yi

    2012-04-01

    Angelica anomala Avé-Lall (Chuanbaizhi in Chinese) is an important medicinal plant which can be used in traditional Chinese medicines; however, there are no authentic and universal methods to differentiate this Sichuan famous-region drug of A. anomala from a large number of non-famous-region and false drugs. It has been demonstrated that DNA barcoding is a molecular diagnostic method for species identification, which uses a single standardized DNA fragment. In this study, we tested five DNA barcoding candidates (matK, ITS, ITS2, rbcL, and psbA-trnH), and we found that ITS was the best candidate to authenticate the famous-region drug of A. anomala. Moreover, through comparative analysis of these five DNA barcodes between A. anomala and Angelica dahurica, we found that ITS had the most and ITS2 had more variable regions, but the psbA-trnH, rbcL, and matK regions were identical. Hence, we suggest ITS as the DNA barcoding to identify A. anomala and A. dahurica. Moreover, we are determined to adopt the A. anomala as the accurate Latin name of Chuanbaizhi.

  10. Unified transform architecture for AVC, AVS, VC-1 and HEVC high-performance codecs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Tiago; Roma, Nuno; Sousa, Leonel

    2014-12-01

    A unified architecture for fast and efficient computation of the set of two-dimensional (2-D) transforms adopted by the most recent state-of-the-art digital video standards is presented in this paper. Contrasting to other designs with similar functionality, the presented architecture is supported on a scalable, modular and completely configurable processing structure. This flexible structure not only allows to easily reconfigure the architecture to support different transform kernels, but it also permits its resizing to efficiently support transforms of different orders (e.g. order-4, order-8, order-16 and order-32). Consequently, not only is it highly suitable to realize high-performance multi-standard transform cores, but it also offers highly efficient implementations of specialized processing structures addressing only a reduced subset of transforms that are used by a specific video standard. The experimental results that were obtained by prototyping several configurations of this processing structure in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA show the superior performance and hardware efficiency levels provided by the proposed unified architecture for the implementation of transform cores for the Advanced Video Coding (AVC), Audio Video coding Standard (AVS), VC-1 and High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standards. In addition, such results also demonstrate the ability of this processing structure to realize multi-standard transform cores supporting all the standards mentioned above and that are capable of processing the 8k Ultra High Definition Television (UHDTV) video format (7,680 × 4,320 at 30 fps) in real time.

  11. Discovery of novel highly potent hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitor (AV4025).

    PubMed

    Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V; Mitkin, Oleg D; Yamanushkin, Pavel M; Kuznetsova, Irina V; Bulanova, Elena A; Shevkun, Natalia A; Koryakova, Angela G; Karapetian, Ruben N; Bichko, Vadim V; Trifelenkov, Andrey S; Kravchenko, Dmitry V; Vostokova, Natalia V; Veselov, Mark S; Chufarova, Nina V; Ivanenkov, Yan A

    2014-09-25

    A series of next in class small-molecule hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitors with picomolar potency containing 2-pyrrolidin-2-yl-5-{4-[4-(2-pyrrolidin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)buta-1,3-diynyl]phenyl}-1H-imidazole cores was designed based on the SAR studies available for the reported NS5A inhibitors. Compound 13a (AV4025), with (S,S,S,S)-stereochemistry (EC50 = 3.4 ± 0.2 pM, HCV replicon genotype 1b), was dramatically more active than were the compounds with two (S)- and two (R)-chiral centers. Human serum did not significantly reduce the antiviral activity (<4-fold). Relatively favorable pharmacokinetic features and good oral bioavailability were observed during animal studies. Compound 13a was well tolerated in rodents (in mice, LD50 = 2326 mg/kg or higher), providing a relatively high therapeutic index. During safety, pharmacology and subchronic toxicity studies in rats and dogs, it was not associated with any significant pathological or clinical findings. This compound is currently being evaluated in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of HCV infection.

  12. ApoAV reduces plasma triglycerides by inhibiting very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) production and stimulating lipoprotein lipase-mediated VLDL-TG hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Frank G; Rensen, Patrick C N; Voshol, Peter J; Vrins, Carlos; van der Vliet, Hendrik N; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Havekes, Louis M; Groen, Albert K; van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2004-07-02

    ApoAV has been discovered recently as a novel modifier of triglyceride (TG) metabolism, but the pathways involved are currently unknown. To gain insight into the function of apoAV, adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of murine apoa5 to C57Bl/6 mice was employed. The injection of low doses of Ad-apoa5 (1-5 x 10(8) plaqueforming units/mouse) dose-dependently reduced plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG levels. First, we evaluated whether a reduced hepatic VLDL production contributed to the TG-lowering effect. Ad-apoa5 treatment dose-dependently diminished (29-37%) the VLDL-TG production rate without affecting VLDL particle production, suggesting that apoAV impairs the lipidation of apoB. Second, Ad-apoa5 treatment dose-dependently reduced (68-88%) the postprandial hypertriglyceridemia following an intragastric fat load, suggesting that apoAV also stimulates the lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-dependent clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins. Indeed, recombinant apoAV was found to dose-dependently stimulate LPL activity up to 2.3-fold in vitro. Accordingly, intravenously injected VLDL-like TG-rich emulsions were cleared at an accelerated rate concomitant with the increased uptake of emulsion TG-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue in Ad-apoa5-treated mice. From these data, we conclude that apoAV is a potent stimulator of LPL activity. Thus, apoAV lowers plasma TG by both reducing the hepatic VLDL-TG production rate and by enhancing the lipolytic conversion of TG-rich lipoproteins.

  13. Molecular analysis of the sea anemone toxin Av3 reveals selectivity to insects and demonstrates the heterogeneity of receptor site-3 on voltage-gated Na+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Yehu; Kahn, Roy; Cohen, Lior; Gur, Maya; Karbat, Izhar; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Av3 is a short peptide toxin from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis shown to be active on crustaceans and inactive on mammals. It inhibits inactivation of Navs (voltage-gated Na+ channels) like the structurally dissimilar scorpion α-toxins and type I sea anemone toxins that bind to receptor site-3. To examine the potency and mode of interaction of Av3 with insect Navs, we established a system for its expression, mutagenized it throughout, and analysed it in toxicity, binding and electrophysiological assays. The recombinant Av3 was found to be highly toxic to blowfly larvae (ED50=2.65±0.46 pmol/100 mg), to compete well with the site-3 toxin LqhαIT (from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus) on binding to cockroach neuronal membranes (Ki=21.4±7.1 nM), and to inhibit the inactivation of Drosophila melanogaster channel, DmNav1, but not that of mammalian Navs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Moreover, like other site-3 toxins, the activity of Av3 was synergically enhanced by ligands of receptor site-4 (e.g. scorpion β-toxins). The bioactive surface of Av3 was found to consist mainly of aromatic residues and did not resemble any of the bioactive surfaces of other site-3 toxins. These analyses have portrayed a toxin that might interact with receptor site-3 in a different fashion compared with other ligands of this site. This assumption was corroborated by a D1701R mutation in DmNav1, which has been shown to abolish the activity of all other site-3 ligands, except Av3. All in all, the present study provides further evidence for the heterogeneity of receptor site-3, and raises Av3 as a unique model for design of selective anti-insect compounds. PMID:17492942

  14. El Nino.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, Joyce

    1988-01-01

    Information is presented regarding "El Nino," a warm ocean current which has a profound worldwide effect on ocean life and weather patterns. Suggestions are provided for teaching students about the current and other related topics. (CB)

  15. Geologic Mapping of the Av-5 Floronia Quadrangle of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Scully, J. E. C.; Blewett, D. T.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Jaumann, R.; Schenk, P. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Garry, W. B.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; De Sanctis, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft is spending one year in orbit of asteroid 4Vesta to characterize its geology, chemical and mineralogical composition, topography, shape, and internal structure. The Dawn Team is conducting geological mapping of the surface in the form of 15 quadrangle maps, and here we report results from the mapping of Floronia quadrangle Av-5. Mapping is based on a Framing Camera (FC) mosaic produced from High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) data with a spatial resolution of ~70 m/pixel, supplemented by a Digital Terrain Model (DTM: lateral spacing of 450 m/pixel and vertical accuracy of ~30 meters), FC color images, and Visible and InfraRed (VIR) hyperspectral images. Av-5 Floronia Quadrangle is located between ~20-66˚N and 270˚-360˚E and covers a portion of the heavily-cratered northern hemisphere of Vesta. This very heavily-cratered terrain is partly obscured by shadows from topographic highs such as crater rims. Crater Floronia is 17 km (W-E) x 19 km (N-S), and its floor is also obscured. A NW-SE-trending trough extends for ~56 km across the SW corner of this quad. As of April 2012 only the southern half of the quad (~20-45˚N) has been illuminated. The northern cratered terrain on Vesta is the most heavily cratered surface on the asteroid, suggesting that it represents the oldest exposed surface. Craters are overlapping and many are heavily degraded, with smooth rims and flat rather than bowl-shaped floors indicative of mass wasting processes. In several locations, old craters overlap to form irregularly-shaped depressions, perhaps influenced by tectonic fractures. Bright ejecta from several younger, large impact craters has smoothed the underlying older cratered surface. Part of a NW-SE-trending trough occurs in the SW corner of this quadrangle. This trough has been degraded by superposed impacts, and has a relatively flatter floor compared to the equatorial troughs. Structural analysis suggests that the formation of this NW-SE-trending trough (and

  16. The First Observation of the Submillimeter Polarization Spectrum in a Low-AV Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell Ashton, Peter; Ade, Peter; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gandilo, Natalie; Klein, Jeffrey; Li, Zhi-Yun; Korotkov, Andrei; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; nakamura, fumitaka; Barth Netterfield, Calvin; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil; Soler, Juan D.; Thomas, Nicholas; tucker, carole; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek; BLASTPol

    2017-01-01

    Polarized emission from aligned interstellar dust is both a crucial tool for studies of magnetism in the interstellar medium and a troublesome contaminant in studies of the polarized cosmic microwave background. In each case, an understanding of the significance of the dust polarization signal requires well-calibrated models that accurately describe dust grains’ physical properties and interactions with their environment. Despite decades of progress in both theory and observation, polarized dust emission models remain largely underconstrained. During its 2012 flight, BLASTPol (the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry) obtained simultaneous broad-band polarimetric maps at 250, 350, and 500 μm of a several degree-scale region containing several low-AV molecular clouds. Combining these data with polarimetric observations from the Planck 850 μm band, we have produced a submillimeter polarization spectrum for one of these objects for the first time. We find the polarization degree to be largely constant across the four submillimeter bands. This result introduces a new observable with the potential to place strong empirical constraints on polarized dust models of the ISM in a density regime that has not been accessible to previous experiments. Comparing with the work of Draine & Fraisse (2009), our result is inconsistent with two of their four models. In particular, the two models for which all polarization arises from the aligned silicate component yield submillimeter polarization spectra that rise steeply with wavelength, in disagreement with our observations. This line of investigation will continue in the near future, as new experiments like The Next-Generation BLAST Polarimeter (BLAST-TNG) use their enhanced sensitivities to characterize polarized dust emission in even more diffuse environments.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-V gene therapy for disease prevention / treatment: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Forte, Trudy M; Sharma, Vineeta; Ryan, Robert O

    2016-03-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-V is a novel member of the class of exchangeable apo's involved in triacylglycerol (TG) homeostasis. Whereas a portion of hepatic-derived apoA-V is secreted into plasma and functions to facilitate lipoprotein lipase-mediated TG hydrolysis, another portion is recovered intracellularly, in association with cytosolic lipid droplets. Loss of apoA-V function is positively correlated with elevated plasma TG and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the APOA5 locus can affect transcription efficiency or introduce deleterious amino acid substitutions. Likewise, rare mutations in APOA5 that compromise functionality are associated with increased plasma TG and premature myocardial infarction. Genetically engineered mouse models and human population studies suggest that, in certain instances, supplementation with wild type (WT) apoA-V may have therapeutic benefit. It is hypothesized that individuals that manifest elevated plasma TG owing to deleterious APOA5 SNPs or rare mutations would respond to WT apoA-V supplementation with improved plasma TG clearance. On the other hand, subjects with hypertriglyceridemia of independent origin (unrelated to apoA-V function) may not respond to apoA-V augmentation in this manner. Improvement in the ability to identify individuals predicted to benefit, advances in gene transfer technology and the strong connection between HTG and heart disease, point to apoA-V supplementation as a viable disease prevention / therapeutic strategy. Candidates would include individuals that manifest chronic TG elevation, have low plasma apoA-V due to an APOA5 mutation/polymorphism and not have deleterious mutations/polymorphisms in other genes known to influence plasma TG levels.

  18. Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - IX. SN 2014av, and characterization of Type Ibn SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, A.; Wang, X.-F.; Ciabattari, F.; Bersier, D.; Mazzali, P. A.; Gao, X.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, J.-J.; Tokuoka, S.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Huang, F.; Miluzio, M.; Mo, J.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric data of the Type Ibn supernova (SN) 2014av, discovered by the Xingming Observatory Sky Survey. Stringent pre-discovery detection limits indicate that the object was detected for the first time about 4 d after the explosion. A prompt follow-up campaign arranged by amateur astronomers allowed us to monitor the rising phase (lasting 10.6 d) and to accurately estimate the epoch of the maximum light, on 2014 April 23 (JD = 245 6771.1 ± 1.2). The absolute magnitude of the SN at the maximum light is MR = -19.76 ± 0.16. The post-peak light curve shows an initial fast decline lasting about three weeks, and is followed by a slower decline in all bands until the end of the monitoring campaign. The spectra are initially characterized by a hot continuum. Later on, the temperature declines and a number of lines become prominent mostly in emission. In particular, later spectra are dominated by strong and narrow emission features of He I typical of Type Ibn supernovae (SNe), although there is a clear signature of lines from heavier elements (in particular O I, Mg II and Ca II). A forest of relatively narrow Fe II lines is also detected showing P-Cygni profiles, with the absorption component blueshifted by about 1200 km s-1. Another spectral feature often observed in interacting SNe, a strong blue pseudo-continuum, is seen in our latest spectra of SN 2014av. We discuss in this paper the physical parameters of SN 2014av in the context of the Type Ibn SN variety.

  19. ND2 AV: N-dimensional data analysis and visualization analysis for the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, Peer -Timo; Maljovec, Dan; Saha, Avishek; Wang, Bei; Gaffney, Jim; Spears, Brian K.; Pascucci, Valerio

    2015-07-01

    Here, one of the biggest challenges in high-energy physics is to analyze a complex mix of experimental and simulation data to gain new insights into the underlying physics. Currently, this analysis relies primarily on the intuition of trained experts often using nothing more sophisticated than default scatter plots. Many advanced analysis techniques are not easily accessible to scientists and not flexible enough to explore the potentially interesting hypotheses in an intuitive manner. Furthermore, results from individual techniques are often difficult to integrate, leading to a confusing patchwork of analysis snippets too cumbersome for data exploration. This paper presents a case study on how a combination of techniques from statistics, machine learning, topology, and visualization can have a significant impact in the field of inertial confinement fusion. We present the $\\mathrm{ND}^2\\mathrm{AV}$: N-dimensional data analysis and visualization framework, a user-friendly tool aimed at exploiting the intuition and current workflow of the target users. The system integrates traditional analysis approaches such as dimension reduction and clustering with state-of-the-art techniques such as neighborhood graphs and topological analysis, and custom capabilities such as defining combined metrics on the fly. All components are linked into an interactive environment that enables an intuitive exploration of a wide variety of hypotheses while relating the results to concepts familiar to the users, such as scatter plots. $\\mathrm{ND}^2\\mathrm{AV}$ uses a modular design providing easy extensibility and customization for different applications. $\\mathrm{ND}^2\\mathrm{AV}$ is being actively used in the National Ignition Campaign and has already led to a number of unexpected discoveries.

  20. Single primitive ventricle with normally related great arteries and atresia of the left A-V valve.

    PubMed Central

    Coto, E O; Raggio, J M; Malo, P; Sainz, C; Aparisi, R; Gomez-Ullate, J M

    1978-01-01

    A child aged 2 years and 9 months was angiocardiographically diagnosed to have a single ventricle with normally related great arteries and atresia of the left A-V valve. A Blalock-Hanlon procedure and division of a large patent ductus arteriosus were followed by reduction in pulmonary artery pressure, but after operation the patient showed signs of left ventricular failure unresponsive to medical treatment, necessitating pulmonary artery banding. We have found only three similar published cases, and this is the only one with full angiographic documentation. Images PMID:725830

  1. [Role of the AV node and adrenergic stimulation in initiation of fascicular and atrioventricular nodal tachycardias--a case report].

    PubMed

    Szumowski, Łukasz; Miszczak-Knecht, Maria; Bieganowska, Katarzyna; Rekawek, Joanna; Szymaniak, Elzbieta; Kawalec, Wanda; Walczak, Franciszek

    2008-05-01

    Fascicular tachycardia is an uncommon form of left ventricular tachycardia in young patients with normal heart. Ventriculo-atrial conduction during VT is usually absent. Retrograde conduction was observed in a 14-year old boy with left posterior fascicular VT (LPF-VT) triggered by exercise. During isoproterenol infusion, atrial stimulation induced a cascade of arrhythmias--echo, pair or runs of AVNRT and fascicular tachycardia triggered by fascicular beats. Also, during infusion LPF-VT was initiated spontaneously. After successful ablation of VT, sustained typical AVNRT was inducible. Finally, ablation of slow pathway of AV node was performed. After ablation,no arrhythmia was inducible following isoproterenol and exercise.

  2. Cerebral [(18) F]T807/AV1451 retention pattern in clinically probable CTE resembles pathognomonic distribution of CTE tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, D L; Pullman, M Y; Fernandez, C; Short, J A; Kostakoglu, L; Knesaurek, K; Soleimani, L; Jordan, B D; Gordon, W A; Dams-O'Connor, K; Delman, B N; Wong, E; Tang, C Y; DeKosky, S T; Stone, J R; Cantu, R C; Sano, M; Hof, P R; Gandy, S

    2016-09-27

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder most commonly associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) and characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein, known as a tauopathy. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE can only be definitively established postmortem. However, a new positron emission tomography (PET) ligand, [(18)F]T807/AV1451, may provide the antemortem detection of tau aggregates, and thus various tauopathies, including CTE. Our goal was to examine [(18)F]T807/AV1451 retention in athletes with neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with a history of multiple concussions. Here we report a 39-year-old retired National Football League player who suffered 22 concussions and manifested progressive neuropsychiatric symptoms. Emotional lability and irritability were the chief complaints. Serial neuropsychological exams revealed a decline in executive functioning, processing speed and fine motor skills. Naming was below average but other cognitive functions were preserved. Structural analysis of longitudinally acquired magenetic resonance imaging scans revealed cortical thinning in the left frontal and lateral temporal areas, as well as volume loss in the basal ganglia. PET with [(18)F]florbetapir was negative for amyloidosis. The [(18)F]T807/AV1451 PET showed multifocal areas of retention at the cortical gray matter-white matter junction, a distribution considered pathognomonic for CTE. [(18)F]T807/AV1451 standard uptake value (SUV) analysis showed increased uptake (SUVr⩾1.1) in bilateral cingulate, occipital, and orbitofrontal cortices, and several temporal areas. Although definitive identification of the neuropathological underpinnings basis for [(18)F]T807/AV1451 retention requires postmortem correlation, our data suggest that [(18)F]T807/AV1451 tauopathy imaging may be a promising tool to detect and diagnose CTE-related tauopathy in living subjects.

  3. Cerebral [18 F]T807/AV1451 retention pattern in clinically probable CTE resembles pathognomonic distribution of CTE tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dickstein, D L; Pullman, M Y; Fernandez, C; Short, J A; Kostakoglu, L; Knesaurek, K; Soleimani, L; Jordan, B D; Gordon, W A; Dams-O'Connor, K; Delman, B N; Wong, E; Tang, C Y; DeKosky, S T; Stone, J R; Cantu, R C; Sano, M; Hof, P R; Gandy, S

    2016-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder most commonly associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) and characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein, known as a tauopathy. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE can only be definitively established postmortem. However, a new positron emission tomography (PET) ligand, [18F]T807/AV1451, may provide the antemortem detection of tau aggregates, and thus various tauopathies, including CTE. Our goal was to examine [18F]T807/AV1451 retention in athletes with neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with a history of multiple concussions. Here we report a 39-year-old retired National Football League player who suffered 22 concussions and manifested progressive neuropsychiatric symptoms. Emotional lability and irritability were the chief complaints. Serial neuropsychological exams revealed a decline in executive functioning, processing speed and fine motor skills. Naming was below average but other cognitive functions were preserved. Structural analysis of longitudinally acquired magenetic resonance imaging scans revealed cortical thinning in the left frontal and lateral temporal areas, as well as volume loss in the basal ganglia. PET with [18F]florbetapir was negative for amyloidosis. The [18F]T807/AV1451 PET showed multifocal areas of retention at the cortical gray matter–white matter junction, a distribution considered pathognomonic for CTE. [18F]T807/AV1451 standard uptake value (SUV) analysis showed increased uptake (SUVr⩾1.1) in bilateral cingulate, occipital, and orbitofrontal cortices, and several temporal areas. Although definitive identification of the neuropathological underpinnings basis for [18F]T807/AV1451 retention requires postmortem correlation, our data suggest that [18F]T807/AV1451 tauopathy imaging may be a promising tool to detect and diagnose CTE-related tauopathy in living subjects. PMID:27676441

  4. A dual mechanism involved in membrane and nucleic acid disruption of AvBD103b, a new avian defensin from the king penguin, against Salmonella enteritidis CVCC3377.

    PubMed

    Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Xi, Di; Mao, Ruoyu; Zhang, Yong; Guan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    The food-borne bacterial gastrointestinal infection is a serious public health threat. Defensins are evolutionarily conserved innate immune components with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity that do not easily induce resistance. AvBD103b, an avian defensin with potent activity against Salmonella enteritidis, was isolated from the stomach contents of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). To elucidate further the antibacterial mechanism of AvBD103b, its effect on the S. enteritidis CVCC3377 cell membrane and intracellular DNA was researched. The cell surface hydrophobicity and a N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine uptake assay demonstrated that AvBD103b treatment increased the cell surface hydrophobicity and outer membrane permeability. Atomic absorption spectrometry, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that AvBD103b treatment can lead to the release of the cellular contents and cell death through damage of the membrane. DNA gel retardation and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that AvBD103b interacted with DNA and intercalated into the DNA base pairs. A cell cycle assay demonstrated that AvBD103b affected cellular functions, such as DNA synthesis. Our results confirmed that AvBD103b exerts its antibacterial activity by damaging the cell membrane and interfering with intracellular DNA, ultimately causing cell death, and suggested that AvBD103b may be a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics against S. enteritidis.

  5. Influence of reactive sulfide (AVS) and supplementary food on Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.-S.; Lee, B.-G.; Yoo, H.; Koh, C.-H.; Luoma, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay determined the relative contribution of various pathways of Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to moderately contaminated sediments. Juvenile worms were exposed for 25 d to experimental sediments containing 5 different reactive sulfide (acid volatile sulfides, AVS) concentrations (1 to 30 ??mol g-1), but with constant Ag, Cd, and Zn concentrations of 0.1, 0.1 and 7 ??mol g-1, respectively. The sediments were supplemented with contaminated food (TetraMin??) containing 3 levels of Ag-Cd-Zn (uncontaminated, 1?? or 5??1 metal concentrations in the contaminated sediment). The results suggest that bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn in the worms occurred predominantly from ingestion of contaminated sediments and contaminated supplementary food. AVS or dissolved metals (in porewater and overlying water) had a minor effect on bioaccumulation of the 3 metals in most of the treatments. The contribution to uptake from the dissolved source was most important in the most oxic sediments, with maximum contributions of 8% for Ag, 30% for Cd and 20% for Zn bioaccumulation. Sediment bioassays where uncontaminated supplemental food is added could seriously underestimate metal exposures in an equilibrated system; N. arenaceodentata feeding on uncontaminated food would be exposed to 40-60% less metal than if the food source was equilibrated (as occurs in nature). Overall, the results show that pathways of metal exposure are dynamically linked in contaminated sediments and shift as external geochemical characteristics and internal biological attributes vary.

  6. Large-scale atmospheric processes in the Arctic region reproduced by Sl-AV model and reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikova, Irina; Kruglova, Ekaterina; Khan, Valentina; Kiktev, Dmitry; Tischenko, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    The variability of large-scale atmospheric processes in the Arctic region was analyzed on the base of the NCEP/DOE reanalysis data and seasonal hindcasts from global semi-Lagrangian model (SL-AV), developed in collaboration of Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia with Institute of Numerical Mathematics. Using the factor analysis it was shown that the model reproduces well the first major variability modes to explain 85-90% of the accumulated dispersion. Teleconnection indices as the quantitative characteristics of low-frequency variability are used to identify zonal and meridional flow regimes. Composite maps indicating the spatial distribution of anomalies of the main meteorological variables (500 hPa geopotential height, the sea level atmospheric pressure, the temperature at 850 hPa, 2m air temperature, precipitation, zonal and meridional wind component) for positive and negative phases of each index of atmospheric circulation are created. Average values of composite maps are accompanied with their statistical significance assessed using the "bootstrap" technique. Main characteristics of field configuration in Arctic region of cited above meteorological parameters corresponding to positive and negative phases of circulation indices are analyzed and discussed. Ability of SL-AV model to reproduce these characteristics at monthly and seasonal time scale is discussed as well. Results of this study are aimed to improve the quality of long-range forecasts and increase the "limit of predictability" and can be useful in the practice to develop monthly and seasonal weather forecasts for the Arctic region.

  7. Apolipoprotein A-V Deficiency Results in MarkedHypertriglyceridemia Attributable to Decreased Lipolysis ofTriglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Removal of Their Remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Grosskopf, Itamar; Baroukh, Nadine; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kamari,Yehuda; Harats, Dror; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Cooper, AllenD.

    2005-09-01

    Objective--ApoAV, a newly discovered apoprotein, affectsplasma triglyceride level. To determine how this occurs, we studiedtriglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism in mice deficient inapoAV. Methods and Results No significant difference in triglycerideproduction rate was found between apoa5_/_ mice and controls. Thepresence or absence of apoAV affected TRL catabolism. After the injectionof 14C-palmitate and 3H-cholesterol labeled chylomicrons and 125I-labeledchylomicron remnants, the disappearance of 14C, 3H, and 125I wassignificantly slower in apoa5_/_ mice relative to controls. This wasbecause of diminished lipolysis of TRL and the reduced rate of uptake oftheir remnants in apoa5_/_ mice. Observed elevated cholesterol level wascaused by increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol inapoa5_/_ mice. VLDL from apoa5_/_ mice were poor substrate forlipoprotein lipase, and did not bind to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)receptor as well as normal very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). LDLreceptor levels were slightly elevated in apoa5_/_ mice consistent withlower remnant uptake rates. These alterations may be the result of thelower apoE-to-apoC ratio found in VLDL isolated from apoa5_/_mice.Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that the absence ofapoAV slows lipolysis of TRL and the removal of their remnants byregulating their apoproteins content after secretion.

  8. Cytochrome P450s from Cynara cardunculus L. CYP71AV9 and CYP71BL5, catalyze distinct hydroxylations in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Eljounaidi, Kaouthar; Cankar, Katarina; Comino, Cinzia; Moglia, Andrea; Hehn, Alain; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Bouwmeester, Harro; Menin, Barbara; Lanteri, Sergio; Beekwilder, Jules

    2014-06-01

    Cynara cardunculus (Asteraceae) is a cross pollinated perennial crop which includes the two cultivated taxa globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon. The leaves of these plants contain high concentrations of sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) among which cynaropicrin is the most represented, and has recently attracted attention because of its therapeutic potential as anti-tumor and anti-photoaging agent. Costunolide is considered the common precursor of the STLs and three enzymes are involved in its biosynthetic pathway: i.e. the germacrene A synthase (GAS), the germacrene A oxidase (GAO) and the costunolide synthase (COS). Here we report on the isolation of two P450 genes, (i.e. CYP71AV9 and CYP71BL5), in a set of ∼19,000 C. cardunculus unigenes, and their functional characterization in yeast and in planta. The metabolite analyses revealed that the co-expression of CYP71AV9 together with GAS resulted in the biosynthesis of germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid in yeast. The co-expression of CYP71BL5 and CYP71AV9 with GAS led to biosynthesis of the free costunolide in yeast and costunolide conjugates in Nicotiana benthamiana, demonstrating their involvement in STL biosynthesis as GAO and COS enzymes. The substrate specificity of CYP71AV9 was investigated by testing its ability to convert amorpha-4,11-diene, (+)-germacrene D and cascarilladiene to their oxidized products when co-expressed in yeast with the corresponding terpene synthases.

  9. AVS: Experimental Tests of a New Process to Inductively Vitrify HLW Inside the Final Disposal Containers at Very High Waste Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Jordan, J.; Ventre, L.; Barletta, R.; Manowitz, B.; Steinberg, M.; Grossman, W.; Maise, G.; Salzano, F.; Hess, C.; Ramsey, W. G.; Plodinec, M. J.

    2002-02-26

    The design and performance capabilities of the Advanced Vitrification System (AVS) are described, together with the results of experimental tests. The AVS is an in-can melting system in which high-level waste (HLW) is vitrified directly inside the final disposal container. The AVS container, or module, consists of an outer stainless steel canister and an alumina-lined, inner graphite crucible, which is thermally insulated from the outer stainless canister. The graphite crucible is inductively heated to very high temperatures (up to 1500 C) by an external low frequency (30 Hertz) alternating current (AC) transformer coil. The actively cooled outer stainless canister remains at near ambient temperature. The HLW/frit mixture is fed into the hot graphite crucible, where it is vitrified. After cooldown, the HLW/frit feed and off-gas pipes are disconnected from the top of the module, which is then sealed and readied for shipment or storage. All radioactively contaminated melter components inside the module are disposed of along with the vitrified waste. The graphite crucible also provides a geologically stable barrier for the vitrified product. The AVS potentially can double HLW loading over that obtained from Joule melters; lower vitrification costs by about half; reduce the number of disposal canisters required by about half; handle diverse waste feeds with high concentrations of problem elements such as chromium and zirconium; and reduce the time needed to vitrify a given inventory of HLW.

  10. Effects of AV119, a natural sugar from avocado, on Malassezia furfur invasiveness and on the expression of HBD-2 and cytokines in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Giovanna; Buommino, Elisabetta; Baroni, Adone; Auricchio, Lucia; De Filippis, Anna; Cozza, Valentina; Msika, Philippe; Piccardi, Nathalie; Tufano, Maria Antonietta

    2007-11-01

    AV119 is a patented blend of two sugars from avocado that can induce human beta-defensin-2 production by normal human keratinocytes. In this study, we analysed the effect of AV119 on growth and invasiveness of Malassezia furfur, a dimorphic, lipid-dependent yeast that is part of the normal human cutaneous commensal flora. The ability to modulate the expression of the proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines in normal human keratinocytes was also investigated. Microbiological assay demonstrated that this sugar induced the aggregation of yeast cells and inhibited the invasiveness of M. furfur, without affecting its growth. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that AV119 was able to modulate the HBD-2 response in treated keratinocytes, reaching a maximum after 48-h treatment, and to induce the recovery of a satisfactory proinflammatory response in human keratinocytes. As AV119 can induce aggregation of yeast cells, thus inhibiting their penetration into the keratinocytes, the sugar could be used in the preparation of cosmetics or pharmacological drugs to inhibit colonization of the skin by pathogenic strains of M. furfur.

  11. Modeling Strategies for Quantification of In Vivo (18)F-AV-1451 Binding in Patients with Tau Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Schain, Martin; Erlandsson, Maria; Sjölin, Petter; James, Gregory M; Strandberg, Olof T; Hägerström, Douglas; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Jögi, Jonas; Olsson, Tomas G; Smith, Ruben; Hansson, Oskar

    2017-04-01

    Aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau is a major hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In vivo imaging with PET may offer important insights into pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnosis, and disease progression. We describe different strategies for quantification of (18)F-AV-1451 (T807) tau binding, including models with blood sampling and noninvasive alternatives. Methods: Fifteen subjects (4 controls, 6 AD, 3 progressive supranuclear palsy, 2 cortico basal syndrome) underwent 180-min PET with (18)F-AV-1451 and arterial blood sampling. Modeling with arterial input functions included 1-, 2-, and 3-tissue-compartment models and the Logan plot. Using the cerebellum as reference region, we applied the simplified reference tissue model 2 and Logan reference plot. Finally, simplified outcome measures were calculated as ratio, with reference to cerebellar concentrations (SUV ratio [SUVR]) and SUVs. Results: Tissue compartment models were not able to describe the kinetics of (18)F-AV-1451, with poor fits in 33%-53% of cortical regions and 80% in subcortical areas. In contrast, the Logan plot showed excellent fits and parameter variance (total volume of distribution SE < 5%). Compared with the 180-min arterial-based Logan model, strong agreement was obtained for the Logan reference plot also for a reduced scan time of 100 min (R(2) = 0.91) and SUVR 100-120 min (R(2) = 0.94), with 80-100 min already representing a reasonable compromise between duration and accuracy (R(2) = 0.93). Time-activity curves and kinetic parameters were equal for cortical regions and the cerebellum in control subjects but different in the putamen. Cerebellar total volumes of distribution were higher in controls than patients. For these methods, increased cortical binding was observed for AD patients and to some extent for cortico basal syndrome, but not progressive supranuclear palsy. Conclusion: The Logan plot provided the best estimate of tau binding using

  12. Regional profiles of the candidate tau PET ligand 18F-AV-1451 recapitulate key features of Braak histopathological stages.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Adam J; Yu, Peng; Miller, Bradley B; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Dickson, James; Navitsky, Michael; Joshi, Abhinay D; Devous, Michael D; Mintun, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    SEE THAL AND VANDENBERGHE DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW057 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Post-mortem Braak staging of neurofibrillary tau tangle topographical distribution is one of the core neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The recent development of positron emission tomography tracers targeting neurofibrillary tangles has enabled the distribution of tau pathology to be imaged in living subjects. Methods for extraction of classic Braak staging from in vivo imaging of neurofibrillary tau tangles have not yet been explored. Standardized uptake value ratio images were calculated from 80-100 minute (18)F-AV-1451 (also known as T807) positron emission tomography scans obtained from n = 14 young reference subjects (age 21-39 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29-30) and n = 173 older test subjects (age 50-95 years) comprising amyloid negative cognitively normal (n = 42), clinically-diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (amyloid positive, n = 47, and amyloid negative, n = 40) and Alzheimer's disease (amyloid positive, n = 28, and amyloid negative, n = 16). We defined seven regions of interest in anterior temporal lobe and occipital lobe sections corresponding closely to those used as decision points in Braak staging. An algorithm based on the Braak histological staging procedure was applied to estimate Braak stages directly from the region of interest profiles in each subject. Quantitative region-based analysis of (18)F-AV-1451 images yielded region of interest and voxel level profiles that mirrored key features of neuropathological tau progression including profiles consistent with Braak stages 0 through VI. A simple set of decision rules enabled plausible Braak stages corresponding to stereotypical progression patterns to be objectively estimated in 149 (86%) of test subjects. An additional 12 (7%) subjects presented with predefined variant profiles (relative sparing of the hippocampus and/or occipital lobe). The estimated Braak

  13. Trazodone and Omeprazole Interaction causing Frequent Second-Degree Mobitz Type 1 Atrioventricular (AV) Block (Wenckebach Phenomenon) and Syncope: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Akinseye, Oluwaseun A.; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Radparvar, Farshid; Bakshi, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 54 Final Diagnosis: Trazodone and omeprazole interaction causing second-degree Mobitz type 1 AV block and syncope Symptoms: Syncope Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Trazodone and omeprazole withheld Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unexpected drug reaction Background: This case report highlights serious cardiovascular adverse effects with a conventional dose of trazodone as a result of its potential interaction with omeprazole. Case Report: A 54-year-old man who was a former smoker, with dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and anxiety disorder developed lightheadedness and syncope the morning of admission. He was taking trazodone 50 mg daily, omeprazole 20 mg daily, and simvastatin 20 mg at bedtime. He doubled the dose of trazodone 50 mg on the night prior to presentation to calm his anxiety. An electrocardiogram revealed sinus rhythm at 60 beats per minute and second-degree Mobitz type 1 atrioventricular (AV) block with 5:4 AV conduction. Results of basic metabolic panel, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and chest radiograph were normal. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed aortic valve sclerosis. We tested for Lyme disease given his history of hunting in the woods 8 months prior to presentation, but the titer was negative. Trazodone and omeprazole were discontinued. By the 3rd day of medication discontinuation, all symptoms had resolved and the frequency of second-degree AV Mobitz type 1 AV block had decreased to once per hour. Conclusions: Due diligence and meticulous attention to detail needs to be exercised to uncover drug interactions as potential causes of lethal and nonlethal patient symptomatology, as in this case of syncope caused by concomitant use of trazodone and a widely prescribed medication, omeprazole. PMID:26017199

  14. Longitudinal Characterization of [18F]-FDG and [18F]-AV45 Uptake in the Double Transgenic TASTPM Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Ann-Marie; wyffels, Leonie; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Richardson, Jill C.; Schmidt, Mark; Stroobants, Sigrid; Langlois, Xavier; Staelens, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to monitor the timing of amyloid-β deposition in relation to changes in brain function using in vivo imaging with [18F]-AV45 and [18F]-FDG in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. TASTPM transgenic mice and wild-type controls were scanned longitudinally with [18F]-AV45 and [18F]-FDG before (3 months of age) and at multiple time points after the onset of amyloid deposition (6, 9, 12, and 15 months of age). As expected with increasing amyloidosis, TASTPM mice demonstrated progressive age-dependent increases in [18F]-AV45 uptake that were significantly higher than for WT from 9 months onwards and correlated to ex vivo measures of amyloid burden. The metabolism of [18F]-AV45 produces several brain penetrant radiometabolites and normalization to a reference region helps to negate this non-specific binding and improve the sensitivity of [18F]-AV45. The observed trajectory of [18F]-FDG alterations deviated from our proposed hypothesis of gradual decreases with worsening amyloidosis. While [18F]-FDG uptake in TASTPM mice was significantly lower than that of WT at 9 months, reduced [18F]-FDG was not associated with aging in TASTPM mice. Moreover, [18F]-FDG uptake did not correlate to measures of ex vivo amyloid burden. Our findings suggest that while amyloid-β is sufficient to induce hypometabolism, these pathologies are not linked in a dose-dependent manner in TASTPM mice. PMID:27911309

  15. Impacts of dolomitization on the petrophysical properties of the Cenomanian El-Halal Formation in its type section, north Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabawy, Bassem

    2010-05-01

    The Cenomanian marine sequence in north Sinai is mostly represented by El-Halal Formation. It is composed mainly, in its type section Gebel El-Halal, of greyish white hard dolomitic limestone and dolostones with minor clastic intercalations. Petrographically, four microfacies could be assigned, namely; 1) dolomitic mudstone microfacies (dolomitic micrite), 2) micritic dolomudstone (dolomicrite), 3) clayey to sandy dolomudstone (clayey to sandy dolomicrite), and 4) sparitic dolomudstone (dolosparite). From the petrophysical investigation, porosity in the range of 15 to 30 % could be assigned. Different pore shapes could be distinguished, e.g. micro intercrystalline pore spaces, micro to meso vugs, micro pore channels. The present pore spaces are frequently reduced by drusy and/xenotopic dolosparite and micro sparite. The Cenomanian marine sediments of El-Halal Formation have been deposited in restricted marine platform (SMF-23, FZ-8) with a progressive shallowing of the sea level upward. The diagenetic history has been controlled by cementation, dolomitization, aggrading neomorphism, and creation of authigenic illite. Petrophysically, the studied samples could be grouped into three petrophysical facies: 1) dolomitic micrite/dolomicrite facies, 2) clayey to sandy dolomicrite, and 3) dolosparite. The bulk density (av. 2.01, 1.89 and 2.49 for the different microfocies, respectively) is dependent mainly on porosity (av. 27.6, 31.0 and 20.9, respectively), whereas the permeability values (av. 3.36, 1154 and 0.27, respectively) are dependant upon porosity, the pore channel radius (av. 0.79, 1.62 and 0.19, respectively) and could be related to the electric tortuosity (av. 3.66, 1.54 and 7.34, respectively). In a trial to detect the mounce potential, the formation resistivity factors were measured at five consequent saline saturation of 6, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kppm. The mounce potential dishanced the electric resistivity for the different petrophysical facies. The electric

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation studies and in vitro site directed mutagenesis of avian beta-defensin Apl_AvBD2

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Defensins comprise a group of antimicrobial peptides, widely recognized as important elements of the innate immune system in both animals and plants. Cationicity, rather than the secondary structure, is believed to be the major factor defining the antimicrobial activity of defensins. To test this hypothesis and to improve the activity of the newly identified avian β-defensin Apl_AvBD2 by enhancing the cationicity, we performed in silico site directed mutagenesis, keeping the predicted secondary structure intact. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies were done to predict the activity. Mutant proteins were made by in vitro site directed mutagenesis and recombinant protein expression, and tested for antimicrobial activity to confirm the results obtained in MD simulation analysis. Results MD simulation revealed subtle, but critical, structural variations between the wild type Apl_AvBD2 and the more cationic in silico mutants, which were not detected in the initial structural prediction by homology modelling. The C-terminal cationic 'claw' region, important in antimicrobial activity, which was intact in the wild type, showed changes in shape and orientation in all the mutant peptides. Mutant peptides also showed increased solvent accessible surface area and more number of hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules. In functional studies, the Escherichia coli expressed, purified recombinant mutant proteins showed total loss of antimicrobial activity compared to the wild type protein. Conclusion The study revealed that cationicity alone is not the determining factor in the microbicidal activity of antimicrobial peptides. Factors affecting the molecular dynamics such as hydrophobicity, electrostatic interactions and the potential for oligomerization may also play fundamental roles. It points to the usefulness of MD simulation studies in successful engineering of antimicrobial peptides for improved activity and other desirable functions. PMID

  17. El Salvador.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on El Salvador capsulizes specific statistical and descriptive information on geography, demography, government. and economic conditions. The man text describes the people, their history and the nature of the peace process, principal government officials, political conditions, human rights, the state of the economy, foreign relations, and relations with the US. In 1992, the estimated population was about 5 million of which 89% are mestizo (Spanish-Indian), 10% Indian, and 1% Caucasian. 58% live in rural areas. It is largely Roman Catholic. Literacy is about 65% among adults. 6 years of education are compulsory. 40% are engaged in agriculture, 27% in services, and 16% in industry. The gross domestic product was $5.1 billion; per capita income was $1160. El Salvador's history has been marked by frequent revolutions. Almost every present since 1932 has been a military officer. In the more recent past (1969-80), Honduras and El Salvador fought over borders; a peace treaty was signed in 1980, but it was not until 1992 that the land in dispute was awarded by the International Court of Justice to Honduras. During the 1970, efforts by Duarte were made toward democratic reform, but fraud and corruption contributed to the rise of armed guerrilla warfare as a means to bring about change. There were rightist and leftists groups accelerating violence; event he Salvadoran armed forces engaged in lawlessness. The judicial system failed. Nicaragua after 1979 supplied arms and munitions to 5 guerrilla groups. Duarte returned to power and his junta initiated land reform and nationalized banks and marketing of coffee and sugar. The elections in 1982 led to the transfer of power to Alvaro Magana. The new constitution in 1983 appeased some, but land reforms still did not satisfy guerrillas. Duarte was elected again in 1984 and Alfredo Christiani in 1989 in a peaceful transfer of power. In 1991 and 1992 peace accords were signed with the guerrillas. During this 12-year

  18. Ex vivo, microelectrode analysis of conduction through the AV node of wild-type and Nkx2-5 mutant mouse hearts as guided by a Cx40-eGFP transgenic reporter.

    PubMed

    Gazit, Avihu Z; Li, Alex; Choi, Jacob S; Miquerol, Lucile; Jay, Patrick Y

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mutations of the cardiac transcription factor NKX2-5 cause hypoplastic development of the AV node and conduction block. How the anatomy of the mutant AV node relates to its function is unknown. We thus studied conduction through the AV nodal region in ex vivo preparations of wild-type and Nkx2-5(+/-) mouse hearts in which the central conduction system was highlighted by a transgenic Cx40-eGFP reporter. Fluorescence imaging guided electrode placement and pacing of the inferior and superior approaches to the AV node. Nkx2-5(+/-) hearts had a prolonged atrio-His interval compared to the wild type, consistent with previous in vivo observations. The conduction time to the His bundle from the Cx40(-) AV nodal region that is superior to and immediately adjacent to the Cx40(+) lower node is slightly, but not significantly greater in Nkx2-5(+/-) than wild-type hearts. A novel phenotype was also observed. Pacing the Cx40(-) inferior approach to the AV node with increasing stimulus strength led to progressive shortening of the stimulus-to-His conduction interval in wild-type but not Nkx2-5(+/-) hearts. The strength of pacing at the Cx40(-) superior approach had no effect on the conduction interval in either group. The prolonged AV delay in the Nkx2-5(+/-) heart appears to arise before the Cx40(+) lower node. Whether the pacing phenotype explains the mutant's conduction defect is uncertain, but the observation adds to a number of unique properties of the inferior approach to the AV node.

  19. Case report: Manual lymphatic drainage and kinesio taping in the secondary malignant breast cancer-related lymphedema in an arm with arteriovenous (A-V) fistula for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ya-Hui; Li, Shu-Hua; Liao, Su-Fen; Tang, Hao-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Lymphedema is a dreaded complication of breast cancer treatment. The standard care for lymphedema is complex decongestive physiotherapy, which includes manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), short stretch bandaging, exercise, and skin care. The Kinesio Taping could help to improve lymphatic uptake. We reported a patient with unilateral secondary malignant breast cancer-related lymphedema and arteriovenous (A-V) fistula for hemodialysis happened in the same arm, and used kinesio taping, MLD, and exercise to treat this patient because no pressure could be applied to the A-V fistula. The 12-session therapy created an excellent effect. We do not think the kinesio taping could replace short stretch bandaging, but it could be another choice for contraindicating pressure therapy patients, and we should pay attention to wounds induced by kinesio tape.

  20. Application of variable structure system theory to aircraft flight control. [AV-8A and the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.

  1. Vesta's north pole quadrangle Av-1 (Albana): Geologic map and the nature of the south polar basin antipodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, David T.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Scully, Jennifer E.; O'Brien, David P.; Gaskell, Robert; Roatsch, Thomas; Bowling, Timothy J.; Ermakov, Anton; Hiesinger, Harald; Williams, David A.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2014-12-01

    As part of systematic global mapping of Vesta using data returned by the Dawn spacecraft, we have produced a geologic map of the north pole quadrangle, Av-1 Albana. Extensive seasonal shadows were present in the north polar region at the time of the Dawn observations, limiting the ability to map morphological features and employ color or spectral data for determination of composition. The major recognizable units present include ancient cratered highlands and younger crater-related units (undivided ejecta, and mass-wasting material on crater floors). The antipode of Vesta's large southern impact basins, Rheasilvia and Veneneia, lie within or near the Av-1 quadrangle. Therefore it is of particular interest to search for evidence of features of the kind that are found at basin antipodes on other planetary bodies. Albedo markings known as lunar swirls are correlated with basin antipodes and the presence of crustal magnetic anomalies on the Moon, but lighting conditions preclude recognition of such albedo features in images of the antipode of Vesta's Rheasilvia basin. “Hilly and lineated terrain,” found at the antipodes of large basins on the Moon and Mercury, is not present at the Rheasilvia or Veneneia antipodes. We have identified small-scale linear depressions that may be related to increased fracturing in the Rheasilvia and Veneneia antipodal areas, consistent with impact-induced stresses (Buczkowski, D. et al. [2012b]. Analysis of the large scale troughs on Vesta and correlation to a model of giant impact into a differentiated asteroid. Geol. Soc. of America Annual Meeting. Abstract 152-4; Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20123). The general high elevation of much of the north polar region could, in part, be a result of uplift caused by the Rheasilvia basin-forming impact, as predicted by numerical modeling (Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre

  2. Endovascular image-guided treatment of in-vivo model aneurysms with asymmetric vascular stents (AVS): evaluation with time-density curve angiographic analysis and histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohatcu, A.; Ionita, C. N.; Paciorek, A.; Bednarek, D. R.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Rudin, S.

    2008-03-01

    In this study, we compare the results obtained from Time-Density Curve (TDC) analysis of angiographic imaging sequences with histological evaluation for a rabbit aneurysm model treated with standard stents and new asymmetric vascular stents (AVS) placed by image-guided endovascular deployment. AVSs are stents having a low-porosity patch region designed to cover the aneurysm neck and occlude blood flow inside. To evaluate the AVSs, rabbits with elastase-induced aneurysm models (n=20) were divided into three groups: the first (n=10) was treated with an AVS, the second (n=5) with a non-patch standard coronary stent, and third was untreated as a control (n=5). We used TDC analysis to measure how much contrast media entered the aneurysm before and after treatment. TDCs track contrast-media-density changes as a function of time over the region of interest in x-ray DSA cine-sequences. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and the explanted specimens were histologically evaluated. The first group showed an average reduction of contrast flow into the aneurysm of 95% after treatment with an AVS with fully developed thrombus at 28 days follow-up. The rabbits treated with standard stents showed an increase in TDC residency time after treatment and partial-thrombogenesis. The untreated control aneurysms displayed no reduction in flow and were still patent at follow-up. The quantitative TDC analysis findings were confirmed by histological evaluation suggesting that the new AVS has great potential as a definitive treatment for cerebro-vascular aneurysms and that angiographic TDC analysis can provide in-vivo verification.

  3. Comparison of different invasive hemodynamic methods for AV delay optimization in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy: Implications for clinical trial design and clinical practice☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Whinnett, Zachary I.; Francis, Darrel P.; Denis, Arnaud; Willson, Keith; Pascale, Patrizio; van Geldorp, Irene; De Guillebon, Maxime; Ploux, Sylvain; Ellenbogen, Kenneth; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Ritter, Philippe; Bordachar, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background Reproducibility and hemodynamic efficacy of optimization of AV delay (AVD) of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) using invasive LV dp/dtmax are unknown. Method and results 25 patients underwent AV delay (AVD) optimisation twice, using continuous left ventricular (LV) dp/dtmax, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP). We compared 4 protocols for comparing dp/dtmax between AV delays:Immediate absolute: mean of 10 s recording of dp/dtmax acquired immediately after programming the tested AVD,Delayed absolute: mean of 10 s recording acquired 30 s after programming AVD,Single relative: relative difference between reference AVD and the tested AVD,Multiple relative: averaged difference, from multiple alternations between reference and tested AVD. We assessed for dp/dtmax, LVSBP and LVPP, test–retest reproducibility of the optimum. Optimization using immediate absolute dp/dtmax had poor reproducibility (SDD of replicate optima = 41 ms; R2 = 0.45) as did delayed absolute (SDD 39 ms; R2 = 0.50). Multiple relative had better reproducibility: SDD 23 ms, R2 = 0.76, and (p < 0.01 by F test). Compared with AAI pacing, the hemodynamic increment from CRT, with the nominal AV delay was LVSBP 2% and LVdp/dtmax 5%, while CRT with pre-determined optimal AVD gave 6% and 9% respectively. Conclusions Because of inevitable background fluctuations, optimization by absolute dp/dtmax has poor same-day reproducibility, unsuitable for clinical or research purposes. Reproducibility is improved by comparing to a reference AVD and making multiple consecutive measurements. More than 6 measurements would be required for even more precise optimization — and might be advisable for future study designs. With optimal AVD, instead of nominal, the hemodynamic increment of CRT is approximately doubled. PMID:23481908

  4. A comparison of growth and development of three major agricultural insect pests infected with Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h).

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Ji; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Zhu, Jie; Hu, Jue; Zhao, Yi-Pei; Zhou, Gui-Wei; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Ascoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that are pathogenic to lepidopteran hosts, particularly noctuid larvae. Infection of a larva is characterized by retarded growth, reduced feeding and yellowish body color. In this paper, we reported the growth and development of three major agricultural noctuid insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), infected with Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h). Using 10-fold serial dilutions (0 to 7) of HvAV-3h-containing hemolymph to infect S. litura larvae, we found no significant difference in larval mortalities from 0 to 10(3)-fold dilutions; however, significant differences were observed at 10(4)-fold dilution and above. Using a 10-fold dilution of HvAV-3h-containing hemolymph to infect H. armigera, S. exigua and S. litura larvae, we found that the growth and development were significantly affected. All infected larvae could not pupate; the survival times of treated H. armigera, S. litura and S. exigua larvae were significantly longer than untreated control larvae. Body weight showed significant difference between treated and untreated control group from day 1 after inoculation in H. armigera and S. exigua, but day 2 in S. litura. Additionally, food intake also showed significant difference between treated and untreated control group from day 2 after inoculation in H. armigera and S. litura, but day 3 in S. exigua.

  5. The Extended High A(V) Quasar Survey: Searching for Dusty Absorbers toward Mid-infrared-selected Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Heintz, K. E.; Geier, S.; Ledoux, C.; Møller, P.; Noterdaeme, P.; Venemans, B. P.; Vestergaard, M.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a new spectroscopic survey for dusty intervening absorption systems, particularly damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs), toward reddened quasars. The candidate quasars are selected from mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer combined with optical and near-infrared photometry. Out of 1073 candidates, we secure low-resolution spectra for 108 using the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, Spain. Based on the spectra, we are able to classify 100 of the 108 targets as quasars. A large fraction (50%) is observed to have broad absorption lines (BALs). Moreover, we find six quasars with strange breaks in their spectra, which are not consistent with regular dust reddening. Using template fitting, we infer the amount of reddening along each line of sight ranging from A(V) ≈ 0.1 to 1.2 mag (assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve). In four cases, the reddening is consistent with dust exhibiting the 2175 Å feature caused by an intervening absorber, and for two of these, an Mg ii absorption system is observed at the best-fit absorption redshift. In the rest of the cases, the reddening is most likely intrinsic to the quasar. We observe no evidence for dusty DLAs in this survey. However, the large fraction of BAL quasars hampers the detection of absorption systems. Out of the 50 non-BAL quasars, only 28 have sufficiently high redshift to detect Lyα in absorption.

  6. Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of three vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 vaccine for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert J; Kalsi, Gurdyal; Montalvo-Lugo, Victor M; Sharma, Mona; Wu, Yukun; Muse, Derek D; Sheldon, Eric A; Hampel, Frank C; Lemiale, Laurence

    2016-04-19

    AV7909 vaccine being developed for post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax disease may require fewer vaccinations and reduced amount of antigen to achieve an accelerated immune response over BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed). A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, BioThrax vacccine-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of three intramuscular vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 in 168 healthy adults. Subjects were randomized at a 4:3:2:4:2 ratio to 5 groups: (1) AV7909 on Days 0/14; (2) AV7909 on Days 0/28; (3) AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; (4) half dose AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; and (5) BioThrax vaccine on Days 0/14/28. Vaccinations in all groups were well tolerated. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) were 79% for AV7909 subjects and 65% for BioThrax subjects; 92% of AV7909 subjects and 87% of BioThrax subjects having AEs reported Grade 1-2 AEs. No serious AEs were assessed as potentially vaccine-related, and no AEs of potential autoimmune etiology were reported. There was no discernible pattern indicative of a safety concern across groups in the incidence or severity of reactogenicity events. Groups 2-4 achieved success for the primary endpoint, demonstrated by a lower 95% confidence limit of the percentage of subjects with protective toxin neutralizing antibody NF50 values (≥0.56) to be ≥40% at Day 63. Group 1 marginally missed the criterion (lower bound 95% confidence limit of 39.5%). Immune responses were above this threshold for Groups 1, 3 and 4 at Day 28 and all groups at Day 42. Further study of an AV7909 two-dose schedule given 2 weeks apart is warranted in light of the favorable tolerability profile and immunogenicity response relative to three doses of BioThrax vaccine, as well as preliminary data from nonclinical studies indicating similar immune responses correlate with higher survival for AV7909 than BioThrax vaccine.

  7. Enhanced early innate and T cell-mediated responses in subjects immunized with Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Plus CPG 7909 (AV7909).

    PubMed

    Minang, Jacob T; Inglefield, Jon R; Harris, Andrea M; Lathey, Janet L; Alleva, David G; Sweeney, Diane L; Hopkins, Robert J; Lacy, Michael J; Bernton, Edward W

    2014-11-28

    NuThrax™ (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed with CPG 7909 Adjuvant) (AV7909) is in development. Samples obtained in a phase Ib clinical trial were tested to confirm biomarkers of innate immunity and evaluate effects of CPG 7909 (PF-03512676) on adaptive immunity. Subjects received two intramuscular doses of commercial BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA), or two intramuscular doses of one of four formulations of AV7909. IP-10, IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were elevated 24-48 h after administration of AV7909 formulations, returning to baseline by Day 7. AVA (no CPG 7909) resulted in elevated IL-6 and CRP, but not IP-10. Another marker of CpG, transiently decreased absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs), correlated with transiently increased IP-10. Cellular recall responses to anthrax protective antigen (PA) or PA peptides were assessed by IFN-γ ELISpot assay performed on cryopreserved PBMCs obtained from subjects prior to immunization and 7 days following the second immunization (study day 21). One-half of subjects that received AV7909 with low-dose (0.25mg/dose) CPG 7909 possessed positive Day 21 T cell responses to PA. In contrast, positive T cell responses occurred at an 11% average rate (1/9) for AVA-treated subjects. Differences in cellular responses due to dose level of CPG 7909 were not associated with differences in humoral anti-PA IgG responses, which were elevated for recipients of AV7909 compared to recipients of AVA. Serum markers at 24 or 48 h (i.e. % ALC decrease, or increase in IL-6, IP-10, or CRP) correlated with the humoral (antibody) responses 1 month later, but did not correlate with cellular ELISpot responses. In summary, biomarkers of early responses to CPG 7909 were confirmed, and adding a CpG adjuvant to a vaccine administered twice resulted in increased T cell effects relative to vaccine alone. Changes in early biomarkers correlated with subsequent adaptive humoral immunity but not cellular immunity.

  8. Enhanced Early Innate and T Cell-mediated Responses in Subjects Immunized with Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Plus CPG 7909 (AV7909)

    PubMed Central

    Minang, Jacob T.; Inglefield, Jon R.; Harris, Andrea M.; Lathey, Janet L.; Alleva, David G.; Sweeney, Diane L.; Hopkins, Robert J; Lacy, Michael J.; Bernton, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    NuThrax™ (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed with CPG 7909 Adjuvant) (AV7909) is in development. Samples obtained in a Phase Ib clinical trial were tested to confirm biomarkers of innate immunity and evaluate effects of CPG 7909 (PF-03512676) on adaptive immunity. Subjects received two intramuscular doses of commercial BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA), or two intramuscular doses of one of four formulations of AV7909. IP-10, IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were elevated 24 to 48 hours after administration of AV7909 formulations, returning to baseline by Day 7. AVA (no CPG 7909) resulted in elevated IL-6 and CRP, but not IP-10. Another marker of CpG, transiently decreased absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC), correlated with transiently increased IP-10. Cellular recall responses to anthrax Protective Antigen (PA) or PA peptides were assessed by IFN-gamma ELISpot assay performed on cryopreserved PBMCs obtained from subjects prior to immunization and 7 days following the second immunization (study day 21). One-half of subjects that received AV7909 with low-dose (0.25 mg/dose) CPG 7909 possessed positive Day 21 T cell responses to PA. In contrast, positive T cell responses occurred at an 11% average rate (1/9) for AVA-treated subjects. Differences in cellular responses due to dose level of CPG 7909 were not associated with differences in humoral anti-PA IgG responses, which were elevated for recipients of AV7909 compared to recipients of AVA. Serum markers at 24 or 48 hours (i.e. % ALC decrease, or increase in IL-6, IP-10, or CRP) correlated with the humoral (antibody) responses 1 month later, but did not correlate with cellular ELISpot responses. In summary, biomarkers of early responses to CPG 7909 were confirmed, and adding a CpG adjuvant to a vaccine administered twice resulted in increased T cell effects relative to vaccine alone. Changes in early biomarkers correlated with subsequent adaptive humoral immunity but not cellular immunity. PMID:24530403

  9. Mutational epitope analysis of Pru av 1 and Api g 1, the major allergens of cherry (Prunus avium) and celery (Apium graveolens): correlating IgE reactivity with three-dimensional structure.

    PubMed

    Neudecker, Philipp; Lehmann, Katrin; Nerkamp, Jörg; Haase, Tanja; Wangorsch, Andrea; Fötisch, Kay; Hoffmann, Silke; Rösch, Paul; Vieths, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2003-11-15

    Birch pollinosis is often accompanied by adverse reactions to food due to pollen-allergen specific IgE cross-reacting with homologous food allergens. The tertiary structure of Pru av 1, the major cherry (Prunus avium) allergen, for example, is nearly identical with Bet v 1, the major birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen allergen. In order to define cross-reactive IgE epitopes, we generated and analysed mutants of Pru av 1 and Api g 1.0101, the major celery (Apium graveolens) allergen, by immunoblotting, EAST (enzyme allergosorbent test), CD and NMR spectroscopy. The mutation of Glu45 to Trp45 in the P-loop region, a known IgE epitope of Bet v 1, significantly reduced IgE binding to Pru av 1 in a subgroup of cherry-allergic patients. The backbone conformation of Pru av 1 wild-type is conserved in the three-dimensional structure of Pru av 1 Trp45, demonstrating that the side chain of Glu45 is involved in a cross-reactive IgE epitope. Accordingly, for a subgroup of celery-allergic patients, IgE binding to the homologous celery allergen Api g 1.0101 was enhanced by the mutation of Lys44 to Glu. The almost complete loss of IgE reactivity to the Pru av 1 Pro112 mutant is due to disruption of its tertiary structure. Neither the mutation Ala112 nor deletion of the C-terminal residues 155-159 influenced IgE binding to Pru av 1. In conclusion, the structure of the P-loop partially explains the cross-reactivity pattern, and modulation of IgE-binding by site-directed mutagenesis is a promising approach to develop hypo-allergenic variants for patient-tailored specific immunotherapy.

  10. Effects of an Antimutagenic 1,4-Dihydropyridine AV-153 on Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthases and DNA Repair-related Enzymes and Genes in Kidneys of Rats with a Streptozotocin Model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ošiņa, Kristīne; Rostoka, Evita; Isajevs, Sergejs; Sokolovska, Jelizaveta; Sjakste, Tatjana; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2016-11-01

    Development of complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), including diabetic nephropathy, is a complex multi-stage process, dependent on many factors including the modification of nitric oxide (NO) production and an impaired DNA repair. The goal of this work was to study in vivo effects of 1,4-dihydropyridine AV-153, known as antimutagen and DNA binder, on the expression of several genes and proteins involved in NO metabolism and DNA repair in the kidneys of rats with a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of DM. Transcription intensity was monitored by means of real-time RT-PCR and the expression of proteins by immunohistochemistry. Development of DM significantly induced PARP1 protein expression, while AV-153 (0.5 mg/kg) administration decreased it. AV-153 increased the expression of Parp1 gene in the kidneys of both intact and diabetic animals. Expression of H2afx mRNA and γH2AX histone protein, a marker of DNA breakage, was not changed in diabetic animals, but AV-153 up-regulated the expression of the gene without any impact on the protein expression. Development of DM was followed by a significant increase in iNOS enzyme expression, while AV-153 down-regulated the enzyme expression up to normal levels. iNos gene expression was also found to be increased in diabetic animals, but unlike the protein, the expression of mRNA was found to be enhanced by AV-153 administration. Expression of both eNOS protein and eNos gene in the kidneys was down-regulated, and the administration of AV-153 normalized the expression level. The effects of the compound in the kidneys of diabetic animals appear to be beneficial, as a trend for the normalization of expression of NO synthases is observed.

  11. Molecular basis of pollen-related food allergy: identification of a second cross-reactive IgE epitope on Pru av 1, the major cherry (Prunus avium) allergen

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen-associated food allergy is a well-characterized syndrome, which is due to the cross-reactivity of IgE antibodies to homologous allergens in various foods. One crossreacting area on the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and its homologue in cherry (Prunus avium) Pru av 1 has already been identified. This is the so-called ‘P-loop’ region, which encompasses amino acid residues around position 45 and is found on the two virtually identical tertiary protein structures. We tried to determine an additional IgE cross-reacting patch on Pru av 1 and Bet v 1. The putative IgE-binding region on Pru av 1 was localized with a mAb (monoclonal antibody) that was generated against Bet v 1, and cross-reacts with several Bet v 1 homologues in food and inhibits the binding of patients' IgE to Pru av 1. mAb reactivity pattern was analysed and amino acid positions 28 and 108 of Pru av 1 were selected and mutated by site-directed mutagenesis. The Pru av 1 mutants were produced as recombinant proteins and characterized for their folding, mAb- and IgE-binding capacity and allergenic potency with a cellular assay using the humanized rat basophilic leukaemia cell line RBL-25/30. Amino acid position 28 is involved in a second major IgE-binding region on Pru av 1 and probably on Bet v 1. The identification of this second major IgE-binding region is an essential prerequisite to understand the phenomenon of cross-reactivity and its clinical consequences, and to produce hypoallergenic proteins for an improved immunotherapy of type I allergy. PMID:15330760

  12. Molecular basis of pollen-related food allergy: identification of a second cross-reactive IgE epitope on Pru av 1, the major cherry (Prunus avium) allergen.

    PubMed

    Wiche, Regina; Gubesch, Michaela; König, Herbert; Fötisch, Kay; Hoffmann, Andreas; Wangorsch, Andrea; Scheurer, Stephan; Vieths, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen-associated food allergy is a well-characterized syndrome, which is due to the cross-reactivity of IgE antibodies to homologous allergens in various foods. One crossreacting area on the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and its homologue in cherry (Prunus avium) Pru av 1 has already been identified. This is the so-called 'P-loop' region, which encompasses amino acid residues around position 45 and is found on the two virtually identical tertiary protein structures. We tried to determine an additional IgE cross-reacting patch on Pru av 1 and Bet v 1. The putative IgE-binding region on Pru av 1 was localized with a mAb (monoclonal antibody) that was generated against Bet v 1, and cross-reacts with several Bet v 1 homologues in food and inhibits the binding of patients' IgE to Pru av 1. mAb reactivity pattern was analysed and amino acid positions 28 and 108 of Pru av 1 were selected and mutated by site-directed mutagenesis. The Pru av 1 mutants were produced as recombinant proteins and characterized for their folding, mAb- and IgE-binding capacity and allergenic potency with a cellular assay using the humanized rat basophilic leukaemia cell line RBL-25/30. Amino acid position 28 is involved in a second major IgE-binding region on Pru av 1 and probably on Bet v 1. The identification of this second major IgE-binding region is an essential prerequisite to understand the phenomenon of cross-reactivity and its clinical consequences, and to produce hypoallergenic proteins for an improved immunotherapy of type I allergy.

  13. Future-saving audiovisual content for Data Science: Preservation of geoinformatics video heritage with the TIB|AV-Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Peter; Plank, Margret; Ziedorn, Frauke

    2015-04-01

    In data driven research, the access to citation and preservation of the full triad consisting of journal article, research data and -software has started to become good scientific practice. To foster the adoption of this practice the significance of software tools has to be acknowledged, which enable scientists to harness auxiliary audiovisual content in their research work. The advent of ubiquitous computer-based audiovisual recording and corresponding Web 2.0 hosting platforms like Youtube, Slideshare and GitHub has created new ecosystems for contextual information related to scientific software and data, which continues to grow both in size and variety of content. The current Web 2.0 platforms lack capabilities for long term archiving and scientific citation, such as persistent identifiers allowing to reference specific intervals of the overall content. The audiovisual content currently shared by scientists ranges from commented howto-demonstrations on software handling, installation and data-processing, to aggregated visual analytics of the evolution of software projects over time. Such content are crucial additions to the scientific message, as they ensure that software-based data-processing workflows can be assessed, understood and reused in the future. In the context of data driven research, such content needs to be accessible by effective search capabilities, enabling the content to be retrieved and ensuring that the content producers receive credit for their efforts within the scientific community. Improved multimedia archiving and retrieval services for scientific audiovisual content which meet these requirements are currently implemented by the scientific library community. This paper exemplifies the existing challenges, requirements, benefits and the potential of the preservation, accessibility and citability of such audiovisual content for the Open Source communities based on the new audiovisual web service TIB|AV Portal of the German National Library

  14. Angiographic analysis of animal model aneurysms treated with novel polyurethane asymmetric vascular stent (P-AVS): feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, Ciprian N.; Dohatcu, Andreea; Sinelnikov, Andrey; Sherman, Jason; Keleshis, Christos; Paciorek, Ann M.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2009-02-01

    Image-guided endovascular intervention (EIGI), using new flow modifying endovascular devices for intracranial aneurysm treatment is an active area of stroke research. The new polyurethane-asymmetric vascular stent (P-AVS), a vascular stent partially covered with a polyurethane-based patch, is used to cover the aneurysm neck, thus occluding flow into the aneurysm. This study involves angiographic imaging of partially covered aneurysm orifices. This particular situation could occur when the vascular geometry does not allow full aneurysm coverage. Four standard in-vivo rabbit-model aneurysms were investigated; two had stent patches placed over the distal region of the aneurysm orifice while the other two had stent patches placed over the proximal region of the aneurysm orifice. Angiographic analysis was used to evaluate aneurysm blood flow before and immediately after stenting and at four-week follow-up. The treatment results were also evaluated using histology on the aneurysm dome and electron microscopy on the aneurysm neck. Post-stenting angiographic flow analysis revealed aneurysmal flow reduction in all cases with faster flow in the distally-covered case and very slow flow and prolonged pooling for proximal-coverage. At follow-up, proximally-covered aneurysms showed full dome occlusion. The electron microscopy showed a remnant neck in both distally-placed stent cases but complete coverage in the proximally-placed stent cases. Thus, direct flow (impingement jet) removal from the aneurysm dome, as indicated by angiograms in the proximally-covered case, was sufficient to cause full aneurysm healing in four weeks; however, aneurysm healing was not complete for the distally-covered case. These results support further investigations into the treatment of aneurysms by flow-modification using partial aneurysm-orifice coverage.

  15. Redox Mechanisms of AVS022, an Oriental Polyherbal Formula, and Its Component Herbs in Protection against Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pluemsamran, Thanyawan; Tripatara, Pinpat; Phadungrakwittaya, Rattana; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Laohapand, Tawee

    2013-01-01

    Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022) formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV) A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics including gallic acid (GA) in the AVS022 extracts. We demonstrated that pretreatment with the whole formula and individual herbal components except T. triandra protected against increased MMP-1 activity in irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, all herbal extracts and GA, used as the reference compound, were able to reverse cytotoxicity, oxidant production, glutathione (GSH) loss, and inactivation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). F. racemosa was observed to yield the strongest abilities to abolish UVA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and impairment of antioxidant defenses including GSH and catalase. Our observations suggest that upregulation of endogenous antioxidants could be the mechanisms by which AVS022 and its herbal components suppressed UVA-stimulated MMP-1 in HaCaT cells. In addition, pharmacological actions of AVS022 formula may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of its components, in particular F. racemosa, and several phenolics including GA. PMID:24171043

  16. Bioavailability assessment of toxic metals using the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)" in marine sediments collected in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jucelino B; Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Oliva, Sergio T; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the bioavailability of the metals (cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and nickel) in sediment samples collected in seven stations from the São Paulo Estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil. The bioavailability was determined by employing the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)". The elements cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were determined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), while nickel was quantified utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). The accuracy of these methods was confirmed using a certified reference material of estuarine sediment (NIST 1646). The sulfide was quantified using potentiometry with selective electrode and the organic matter determination employing an indirect volumetric method using potassium dichromate and iron(II) sulfate solutions. The bioavailability of the metals was estimated by relationship between the concentration of AVS and the sum of the concentrations of the simultaneously extracted metals (ΣSEM), considering a significant toxicity when (ΣSEM)/(AVS) is higher than 1. The bioavailability values in the seven stations studied varied from 0.93 to 1.31 (June, 2014) and from 0.34 to 0.58 (September, 2014). These results demonstrated a critical condition of toxicity (bioavailability >1) in six of the seven sediment samples collected during the rainy season (June, 2014). In the other period (September, 2014), the bioavailability was always lower than 1 for all sediment samples collected in the seven stations. The individual values of the concentrations of the five metals were compared with the parameters PEL (probable effects level) and TEL (threshold effects level), which are commonly employed for characterization of ecological risk in environmental systems. This comparison revealed that all metals have concentrations lower than the PEL and only zinc and lead in some stations have contents higher than the TEL. The

  17. Absolute quantification of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry fruit by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with the use of a stable isotope-labelled peptide.

    PubMed

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Sasanuma, Motoe; Oike, Hideaki; Kobori, Masuko; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2016-08-01

    Pru av 2, a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein present in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit, is the principal allergen of cherry and one of the chief causes of pollen food syndrome (oral allergy syndrome). In this study, a quantitative assay for this protein was developed with the use of the protein absolute quantification (AQUA) method, which consists of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) employing TGC[CAM]STDASGK[(13)C6,(15)N2], a stable isotope-labelled internal standard (SIIS) peptide. This assay gave a linear relationship (r(2)>0.99) in a concentration range (2.3-600fmol/μL), and the overall coefficient of variation (CV) for multiple tests was 14.6%. Thus, the contents of this allergenic protein in sweet cherry products could be determined using this assay. This assay should be valuable for allergological investigations of Pru av 2 in sweet cherry and detection of protein contamination in foods.

  18. Imperfection works: Survival, transmission and persistence in the system of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h), Microplitis similis and Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shun-Ji; Hopkins, Richard J.; Zhao, Yi-Pei; Zhang, Yun-Xuan; Hu, Jue; Chen, Xu-Yang; Xu, Zhi; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ascoviruses are insect-specific large DNA viruses that mainly infect noctuid larvae, and are transmitted by parasitoids in the fields. Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h) has been recently isolated from Spodoptera exigua, without parasitoid vector identified previously. Here we report that Microplitis similis, a solitary endoparasitoid wasp, could transmit HvAV-3h between S. exigua larvae in the laboratory. When the female parasitoid wasp acquired the virus and served as a vector, the period of virion viability on the ovipositor was 4.1 ± 1.4 days. Infected host larvae were still acceptable for egg laying by parasitoids, and the parasitoids thereafter transmitted virus to healthy hosts. Virus acquisition occurred only from donor hosts between 3 and 9 days post infection. The peak of virus acquisition (80.9 ± 6.3%) was found when M. similis wasps oviposited in larvae that had been inoculated with the virus 7 days previously. When virus infection of the host took place during the life cycle of the parasitoid wasp, it caused 1- to 4-day-old immature parasitoids death in the host, whilst a small proportion of 5- to 6-day-old and the majority of 7-day-old parasitoids larvae survived from the virus-infected hosts. Viral contamination did not reduce the life span or fecundity of female M. similis. PMID:26878829

  19. Bibliography of AV Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presented is the second part of a bibliographic listing of commercially available audiovisual materials for chemistry. Information includes producer (with addresses), catalog number, format (slides, cassettes, filmstrips, films), and price for items in these categories: matter and energy, nuclear chemistry, periodic table, solids and crystals,…

  20. Bibliography of AV Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedstein, Harriet, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Lists commercially available audiovisual materials by subject area. Includes title, producer (addresses given), catalog number, format (film, filmstrip, cassette, slides), and prices. Subject areas include: elements; equilibrium; gases; laboratory techniques and experiments; general chemistry; introductory materials (including mathematics); and…

  1. Recommendations for a standardized avian coronavirus (AvCoV) nomenclature: outcome from discussions within the framework of the European Union COST Action FA1207: "towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for vaccination, diagnosis and surveillance".

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Mariette F

    2016-10-01

    Viruses within the Coronaviridae family show variations within their genome sequences, especially within the major structural protein the Spike (S) glycoprotein gene. Therefore, many different antigenic forms, serotypes or variant strains of avian coronaviruses (AvCoV) exist worldwide. Only a few of them, the so called protectotypes, cross protect against different serotypes. New serotypes arise by recombination or spontaneous mutations. From time to time, antigenic virus variants appear, which differ significantly from known serotypes. The result of this variability is an inconsistent nomenclature and classification of virus strains. Furthermore, there are currently no standard classification methods defined. Within the framework of the COST Action FA1207 "Towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for diagnosis, surveillance and vaccination" (working groups "Molecular virology" and "Epidemiology"), we aimed at defining and developing a unified and internationally standardized nomenclature and classification of AvCoVs. We recommend the use of "CoV Genus/AvCov/host/country/specimen id/year" to refer to AvCoV strains.

  2. Recommendations for a Standardized Avian Coronavirus (AvCoV) Nomenclature: Outcome from Discussions Within the Framework of the European Union COST Action FA1207: "Towards Control of Avian Coronaviruses: Strategies for Vaccination, Diagnosis and Surveillance".

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Viruses within the Coronaviridae family show variations within their genome sequences, especially within the major structural protein, the Spike (S) glycoprotein gene. Therefore, many different antigenic forms, serotypes, or variant strains of avian coronaviruses (AvCoV) exist worldwide. Only a few of them, the so called protectotypes, cross protect against different serotypes. New serotypes arise by recombination or spontaneous mutations. From time to time, antigenic virus variants appear which differ significantly from known serotypes. The result of this variability is an inconsistent nomenclature and classification of virus strains. Furthermore, there are currently no standard classification methods defined. Within the framework of the COST Action FA1207 "Towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for diagnosis, surveillance, and vaccination" (working groups "Molecular virology" and "Epidemiology"), we aimed at defining and developing a unified and internationally standardized nomenclature and classification of AvCoVs. We recommend the use of "CoV Genus/AvCov/host/country/specimen id/year" to refer to AvCoV strains.

  3. Measuring Vertical Profiles of Wind, Temperature and Humidity within the Atmospheric Boundary Layer using the Research UAVs 'M2AV Carolo'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bange, J.; Martin, S.

    2009-09-01

    The measurement of vertical profiles is important to characterise the vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). For instance, the dependence of the potential temperature on altitude defines the thermal stratification. The mechanical shear (i.e. the variation of wind speed and direction) produces turbulence and turbulent fluxes. The top of the ABL is required for scaling approaches (e.g. Deardorff scaling in the convective boundary layer, local scaling in the stable boundary layer). The Meteorological Mini Aerial Vehicles (M²AV) are self-constructed, automatically operating research aircraft of 6 kg in weight (including 1.5 kg scientific payload) and 2 m wingspan. These systems are capable of performing turbulence measurements (wind vector, temperature and humidity) and are used as a new instrument for measuring vertical profiles of the lower troposphere. Compared to a radiosonde, the spatial resolution of the M²AV is significantly higher. Especially the wind measurement is significantly more accurate compared to radiosonde data when using an aircraft that is equipped with a proper flow sensor (mainly a five-hole probe). It is important to maintain flow angles (sideslip and angle of attack) within the calibration range (typically 10 to 20 degree). This limits the vertical speed (the rate of climb and descent) of the research aircraft. In general there are two approaches to measure vertical profiles with research aircraft. Instantaneous profiles (slant flight pattern) are suitable if only little time is available, if the ABL is very in-stationary (or the aircraft is slow), if the dependence of the profile on time is requested (repeated slant flight patterns over one location) or if the dependence of the profile on the location is requested (saw-tooth pattern). For mean profiles (horizontal straight and level flights 'legs' at several altitudes within the ABL) it is necessary to use fast sensors. If the response time is too large, the vertical

  4. Combined SEM/AVS and attenuation of concentration models for the assessment of bioavailability and mobility of metals in sediments of Sepetiba Bay (SE Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; dos Santos, José Osman; Dantas, Elizabeth; Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; Silva Filho, Emmanoel V; Wasserman, Julio Cesar

    2013-03-15

    This study proposes a new methodology to study contamination, bioavailability and mobility of metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) using chemical and geostatistics approaches in marine sediments of Sepetiba Bay (SE Brazil). The chemical model of SEM (simultaneously extracted metals)/AVS (acid volatile sulfides) ratio uses a technique of cold acid extraction of metals to evaluate their bioavailability, and the geostatistical model of attenuation of concentrations estimates the mobility of metals. By coupling the two it was observed that Sepetiba Port, the urban area of Sepetiba and the riverine discharges may constitute potential sources of metals to Sepetiba Bay. The metals are concentrated in the NE area of the bay, where they tend to have their lowest mobility, as shown by the attenuation model, and are not bioavailable, as they tend to associate with sulfide and organic matter originated in the mangrove forests of nearby Guaratiba area.

  5. Influence of Exposure to Intense Sunlight on Subsequent Night Vision. M and S Research Project number X-442 (AV-233-W)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-04-26

    A*tA74k C IL L403-ORWOYj4#Nk. - - LL- _ j INLUNC OF i-.-UR TO INES SUIGT INUN OUBEQOUET ITENSISIONLH M&S RESEARCH PR&ZECT #X-442 (AV-233-W...mORBTION STATEMEN1 A Apptove r pub~lic re61oQ80 Ditrbu_ _U~i~ I/ LEE S/ VEDIC &L FIELD RSEARCH1 LABOPATORY CL1/P "r-JEUNE, N~ORTHi CAROLINA. I 26 Apr* 3045...INFLUICE OF.;XPOSURE TO INTENSE UiL IGIM, j i 8 Research Project (4-442 (AY-233-w) investigationi aund Report by: 0 ELIG CHr1j Responsible Invest itator

  6. Acid Volatile Sulfides (avs) and the Bioavailability of Trace Metals in the Channel of the SÃO Francisco River, Sepetiba Bay - de Janeiro-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, Christiane; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Marinho, Matheus; Quaresma, Tássia; Machado, Wilson

    2014-05-01

    Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro.The San Francisco channel comes from the Guandu River and empties into Sepetiba Bay and is the main contributor of freshwater to the estuarine system. The Guandu River system/channel of San Francisco receives contribution of domestic and industrial effluents, which go largely to Sepetiba Bay. This work aimed to evaluate the .This work aimed to evaluate the ratio SEM/AVS as a way of predicting bioavailability trace metals from industrial sewage, mainly, in the estuarine system of Sepetiba. This model is based on the property of some Divalent metal cations (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), by presenting a low solubility constant, are removed from the soluble fraction by precipitation, forming secondary metal sulfides. Were held four transects, made up of three points each, the coast line to the center of the Bay. The surface sediment was collected with a van Veen sampler type ,packed in glass jars and kept frozen until analysis.The determination of SEM/AVS followed the methodology described by Allen et al. (1991). The variation between sulfide 159.88 ± 0.05 µmol/g on 12 points. The metals that entered the sum of simultaneous extraction were: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn ranging from: 6.47 ± 0.11 µmol/g on sum.The means (± standard deviation) ratio SEM/AVS per transect were: 1.04 ± 1.20 (transect 1); 0.48 ± 0.53 (transect 2); 1.26 ± 1.32 (transect 3) and 0.18 ± 0.14 (transect 4). Only transects 1 and 3 had higher results than 1 , meaning that there are more divalent metal sulfides in the environment. This means that only the sulfides would not be capable of complex and may reflect the potential bioavailability of these in the aquatic environment. There is no statistical

  7. Modeling the influence of the VV delay for CRT on the electrical activation patterns in absence of conduction through the AV node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, D. A.; Sebastián, Rafael; Plank, Gernot; Vigmond, Edward J.; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2008-03-01

    From epidemiological studies, it has been shown that 0.2% of men and 0.1% of women suffer from a degree of atrioventricular (AV) block. In recent years, the palliative treatment for third degree AV block has included Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT). It was found that patients show more clinical improvement in the long term with CRT compared with single chamber devices. Still, an important group of patients does not improve their hemodynamic function as much as could be expected. A better understanding of the basis for optimizing the devices settings (among which the VV delay) will help to increase the number of responders. In this work, a finite element model of the left and right ventricles was generated using an atlas-based approach for their segmentation, which includes fiber orientation. The electrical activity was simulated with the electrophysiological solver CARP, using the Ten Tusscher et al. ionic model for the myocardium, and the DiFrancesco-Noble for Purkinje fibers. The model is representative of a patient without dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy. The simulation results were analyzed for total activation times and latest activated regions at different VV delays and pre-activations (RV pre-activated, LV pre-activated). To optimize the solution, simulations are compared against the His-Purkinje network activation (normal physiological conduction), and interventricular septum activation (as collision point for the two wave fronts). The results were analyzed using Pearson's coefficient of correlation for point to point comparisons between simulation cases. The results of this study contribute to gain insight on the VV delay and how its adjustment might influence response to CRT and how it can be used to optimize the treatment.

  8. Distinct contractile and molecular differences between two goat models of atrial dysfunction: AV block-induced atrial dilatation and atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Greiser, Maura; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Harks, Erik; El-Armouche, Ali; Boknik, Peter; de Haan, Sunniva; Verheyen, Fons; Verheule, Sander; Schmitz, Wilhelm; Ravens, Ursula; Nattel, Stanley; Allessie, Maurits A; Dobrev, Dobromir; Schotten, Ulrich

    2009-03-01

    Atrial dilatation is an independent risk factor for thromboembolism in patients with and without atrial fibrillation (AF). In many patients, atrial dilatation goes along with depressed contractile function of the dilated atria. While some mechanisms causing atrial contractile dysfunction in fibrillating atria have been addressed previously, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of atrial contractile remodeling in dilated atria are unknown. This study characterized in vivo atrial contractile function in a goat model of atrial dilatation and compared it to a goat model of AF. Differences in the underlying mechanisms were elucidated by studying contractile function, electrophysiology and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ load in atrial muscle bundles and by analyzing expression and phosphorylation levels of key Ca2+-handling proteins, myofilaments and the expression and activity of their upstream regulators. In 7 chronically instrumented, awake goats atrial contractile dysfunction was monitored during 3 weeks of progressive atrial dilatation after AV-node ablation (AV block goats (AVB)). In open chest experiments atrial work index (AWI) and refractoriness were measured (10 goats with AVB, 5 goats with ten days of AF induced by repetitive atrial burst pacing (AF), 10 controls). Isometric force of contraction (FC), transmembrane action potentials (APs) and rapid cooling contractures (RCC, a measure of SR Ca2+ load) were studied in right atrial muscle bundles. Total and phosphorylated Ca2+-handling and myofilament protein levels were quantified by Western blot. In AVB goats, atrial size increased by 18% (from 26.6+/-4.4 to 31.6+/-5.5 mm, n=7 p<0.01) while atrial fractional shortening (AFS) decreased (from 18.4+/-1.7 to 12.8+/-4.0% at 400 ms, n=7, p<0.01). In open chest experiments, AWI was reduced in AVB and in AF goats compared to controls (at 400 ms: 8.4+/-0.9, n=7, and 3.2+/-1.8, n=5, vs 18.9+/-5.3 mmxmmHg, n=7, respectively, p<0.05 vs control). FC of isolated right

  9. Increasing the probability of long-range (1 month) SPI index forecasts based on SL-AV model for the Russian territory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkuzova, Dilyara; Khan, Valentina; Donner, Reik

    2016-04-01

    taken from CPC_CAMS archive) was integrated with MSLP atmospheric pressure field (from ERA Interim achieve) to create special type of SPI combined maps. As a basic seasonal forecasting model we took the SL-AV (Semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian vorticity-divergence dynamical core) model (Tolstykh, 2010) which runs in Hydrometcentre of Russia and has ALADIN/LACE parameterization. Skill scores of SPI calculation based on SL-AV hindcasts showed that it is necessary to use statistical methodology which can increase one month SPI index predictability. Calculations showed that for a new scheme the best predictors are pressure fields on the H500 and MSLP levels. This data was taken from SL-AV model hindcasts for all North Eurasian territory. The main idea of cross-correlation analysis between SPI data and pressure was to show interconnections between precipitation and pressure in different areas and detect the informative prognostic predictors (areas) for each SPI. Then using all information which was extracted before the regression analysis was done. This analysis helped to reconstruct forecasting SPI for the territory of Russia in two ways - deterministic and probabilistic. The resulting forecasts skill scores for both types of predictions are acceptable and scheme can be used in operational precipitation forecasts with one month in advance.

  10. CSF Biomarkers and Its Associations with 18F-AV133 Cerebral VMAT2 Binding in Parkinson’s Disease—A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rui; Zhang, Guangjian; Chen, Xueqi; Yang, Aimin; Smith, Gwenn; Wong, Dean F.; Zhou, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as α-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid beta peptide 1–42 (Aβ1–42), phosphorylated tau (181P) (p-tau), and total tau (t-tau), have long been associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this investigation, we reported the assessment of CSF biomarkers and their correlations with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) bindings measured with 18F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (18F-AV133) that is being developed as a biomarker for PD. We test the hypothesis that monoaminergic degeneration was correlated with CSF biomarker levels in untreated PD patients. Methods The available online data from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative study (PPMI) project were collected and analyzed, which include demographic information, clinical evaluations, CSF biomarkers (α-syn, Aβ1–42, p-tau, and t-tau), 18F-AV133 brain PET, and T1 weighted MRIs. Region of interest (ROI) and voxel-wise Pearson correlation between standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) and CSF biomarkers were calculated. Results Our major findings are: 1) Compared with controls, CSF α-syn and tau levels decreased significantly in PD; 2) α-syn was closely correlated with Aβ1–42 and tau in PD, especially in early-onset patients; and 3) hypothesis-driven ROI analysis found a significant negative correlation between CSF Aβ1–42 levels and VMAT2 densities in post cingulate, left caudate, left anterior putamen, and left ventral striatum in PDs. CSF t-tau and p-tau levels were significantly negatively related to VMAT2 SUVRs in substantia nigra and left ventral striatum, respectively. Voxel-wise analysis showed that left caudate, parahippocampal gyrus, insula and temporal lobe were negatively correlated with Aβ1–42. In addition, superior frontal gyrus and transverse temporal gyrus were negatively correlated with CSF p-tau levels. Conclusion These results suggest that monoaminergic

  11. Enhanced multi-protocol analysis via intelligent supervised embedding (EMPrAvISE): detecting prostate cancer on multi-parametric MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Satish; Bloch, B. Nicholas; Chappelow, Jonathan; Patel, Pratik; Rofsky, Neil; Lenkinski, Robert; Genega, Elizabeth; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-03-01

    Currently, there is significant interest in developing methods for quantitative integration of multi-parametric (structural, functional) imaging data with the objective of building automated meta-classifiers to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis. Such techniques are required to address the differences in dimensionalities and scales of individual protocols, while deriving an integrated multi-parametric data representation which best captures all disease-pertinent information available. In this paper, we present a scheme called Enhanced Multi-Protocol Analysis via Intelligent Supervised Embedding (EMPrAvISE); a powerful, generalizable framework applicable to a variety of domains for multi-parametric data representation and fusion. Our scheme utilizes an ensemble of embeddings (via dimensionality reduction, DR); thereby exploiting the variance amongst multiple uncorrelated embeddings in a manner similar to ensemble classifier schemes (e.g. Bagging, Boosting). We apply this framework to the problem of prostate cancer (CaP) detection on 12 3 Tesla pre-operative in vivo multi-parametric (T2-weighted, Dynamic Contrast Enhanced, and Diffusion-weighted) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, in turn comprising a total of 39 2D planar MR images. We first align the different imaging protocols via automated image registration, followed by quantification of image attributes from individual protocols. Multiple embeddings are generated from the resultant high-dimensional feature space which are then combined intelligently to yield a single stable solution. Our scheme is employed in conjunction with graph embedding (for DR) and probabilistic boosting trees (PBTs) to detect CaP on multi-parametric MRI. Finally, a probabilistic pairwise Markov Random Field algorithm is used to apply spatial constraints to the result of the PBT classifier, yielding a per-voxel classification of CaP presence. Per-voxel evaluation of detection results against ground truth for Ca

  12. Mitigation of methane emissions in a pilot-scale biocover system at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark: 2. Methane oxidation.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Cassini, Filippo; De Schoenmaeker, Jan; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Greenhouse gas mitigation at landfills by methane (CH4) oxidation in engineered biocover systems is believed to be a cost effective technology but so far a full quantitative evaluation of the efficiency of the technology in full scale has only been carried out in a few cases. A third generation semi-passive biocover system was constructed at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark. The biocover was fed by landfill gas pumped out of three leachate collection wells. An innovative gas distribution system was used to overcome the often observed uneven gas distribution to the active CH4 oxidation layer resulting in overloaded areas causing CH4 emission hot spot areas in the biocover surface. The whole biocover CH4 oxidation efficiency was determined by measuring the CH4 inlet load and CH4 surface fluxes. In addition, CH4 oxidation was determined for single points in the biocover using two different methods; the carbon mass balance method (based on CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the deeper part of the cover and CH4 and CO2 surface flux measurements) and a new-developed tracer gas mass balance method (based on CH4 and tracer inlet fluxes and CH4 and tracer surface flux measurements). Overall, the CH4 oxidation efficiency of the whole biocover varied between 81 and 100% and showed that the pilot plant biocover system installed at AV Miljø landfill was very efficient in oxidizing the landfill CH4. The average CH4 oxidation rate measured at nine campaigns was approximately 13gm(-2)d(-1). Extrapolating laboratory measured CH4 oxidation rates to the field showed that the biocover system had a much larger CH4 oxidation potential in comparison to the tested CH4 load. The carbon mass balance approach compared reasonably well with the tracer gas mass balance approach when applied for quantification of CH4 oxidation in single points at the biofilter giving CH4 oxidation efficiencies in the range of 84 to a 100%. CH4 oxidation rates where however much higher using the

  13. 'El Capitan's' Scientific Gems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic of images taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rock region dubbed 'El Capitan,' which lies within the larger outcrop near the rover's landing site. 'El Capitan' is being studied in great detail using the scientific instruments on the rover's arm; images from the panoramic camera help scientists choose the locations for this compositional work. The millimeter-scale detail of the lamination covering these rocks can be seen. The face of the rock to the right of the mosaic may be a future target for grinding with the rover's rock abrasion tool.

  14. Chronic manganism: A long-term follow-up study with a new dopamine terminal biomarker of 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ (18F-AV-133) brain PET scan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chu-Yun; Liu, Chi-Hung; Tsao, Eusden; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Chin-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental studies revealed that dopamine neuron dysfunction in chronic manganism may be due to a reduced capacity of dopamine release in the striatum. The findings imposed further difficulty in the differential diagnosis between manganism and IPD. We conducted a long-term clinical follow-up study of 4 manganism patients, applying a new tracer (18)F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ((18)F-AV-133) with positron emission tomography (PET). Twenty age-matched subjects including 4 manganism patients, 8 idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients, and 8 healthy controls were enrolled for comparison. Volumes of interest of the bilateral putamen, caudate nuclei and occipital cortex as the reference region were delineated from individual magnetic resonance images. The clinical features of the manganism patients still progressed, with increased scores on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. The (18)F-AV-133 uptake in the IPD patients decreased at the bilateral striatum, compared with the healthy controls. In the manganism patients, there was no decreased uptake of radioactivity involving the bilateral striatum, except Patient 4, who had a stroke with decreased uptake in the right posterior putamen. The (18)F-AV-133 PET finding reveals that nigrostriatum neurons are not degenerated in chronic manganism and can provide a useful neuroimage biomarker in the differential diagnosis.

  15. El Tovar steam tunnel breaker box in foreground. Note El ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    El Tovar steam tunnel breaker box in foreground. Note El Tovar stone vault in alignment with tunnel. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  16. El Sistema's Open Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about Venezuela's national youth orchestra program called El Sistema whose attributes offer a direct challenge to traditional Western music practices. As U.S. classical music--and all "high arts"--struggle to find relevance to more than the small "arts club" percentage of the U.S. populace, El…

  17. ELS Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The ELS (English Language Services) Teacher Education Program is an experimental multi-media self-instructional course in the techniques of teaching English to speakers of other languages. It is designed as an alternate approach to conventional teacher training methods, providing the means of producing new teachers without requiring a professional…

  18. Transcriptomes analysis of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 cells exposed to tributyltin (TBT): Unravelling the effects from the molecular level to the organism

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Andreia; Rodrigues, Raquel; Pinheiro, Miguel; Mendo, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 cells were exposed to 0, 5 and 50 μM of TBT and the respective transcriptomes were obtained by pyrosequencing. Gene Ontology revealed that exposure to 5 μM TBT results in a higher number of repressed genes in contrast with 50 μM of TBT, where the number of over-expressed genes is greater. At both TBT concentrations, higher variations in gene expression were found in the functional categories associated with enzymatic activities, transport/binding and oxidation-reduction. A number of proteins are affected by TBT, such as the acriflavin resistance protein, several transcription-related proteins, several Hsps, ABC transporters, CorA and ZntB and other outer membrane efflux proteins, all of these involved in cellular metabolic processes, important to maintain overall cell viability. Using the STRING tool, several proteins with unknown function were related with others involved in degradation processes, such as the pyoverdine chromophore biosynthetic protein, that has been described as playing a role in the Sn–C cleavage of organotins. This approach has allowed a better understanding of the molecular effects of exposure of bacterial cells to TBT. Furthermore it contributes to the knowledge of the functional genomic aspects of bacteria exposed to this pollutant. Furthermore, the transcriptomic data gathered, and now publically available, constitute a valuable resource for comparative genome analysis. PMID:26171931

  19. Transcriptomes analysis of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 cells exposed to tributyltin (TBT): Unravelling the effects from the molecular level to the organism.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Andreia; Rodrigues, Raquel; Pinheiro, Miguel; Mendo, Sónia

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 cells were exposed to 0, 5 and 50 μM of TBT and the respective transcriptomes were obtained by pyrosequencing. Gene Ontology revealed that exposure to 5 μM TBT results in a higher number of repressed genes in contrast with 50 μM of TBT, where the number of over-expressed genes is greater. At both TBT concentrations, higher variations in gene expression were found in the functional categories associated with enzymatic activities, transport/binding and oxidation-reduction. A number of proteins are affected by TBT, such as the acriflavin resistance protein, several transcription-related proteins, several Hsps, ABC transporters, CorA and ZntB and other outer membrane efflux proteins, all of these involved in cellular metabolic processes, important to maintain overall cell viability. Using the STRING tool, several proteins with unknown function were related with others involved in degradation processes, such as the pyoverdine chromophore biosynthetic protein, that has been described as playing a role in the Sn-C cleavage of organotins. This approach has allowed a better understanding of the molecular effects of exposure of bacterial cells to TBT. Furthermore it contributes to the knowledge of the functional genomic aspects of bacteria exposed to this pollutant. Furthermore, the transcriptomic data gathered, and now publically available, constitute a valuable resource for comparative genome analysis.

  20. Spotlight: El Salvador.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    As of mid-1998, El Salvador had a population of 5.8 million people residing in a land area of 8000 sq. miles. There were 29 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, as well as 41 infant deaths for every 1000 live births, and a population growing in size at 2.5% annually. The average woman has 3.9 births during her reproductive lifetime and life expectancy is 65 years for men and 72 years for female. With 39% of El Salvador's population under age 15 years, it will continue to grow rapidly even as birth rates decline. The proportion of urban residents in El Salvador is expected to grow beyond the 1994 level of 45%. Population growth has intensified competition for farmland and jobs, with extreme poverty forcing Salvadoran farmers and laborers to make choices which are beneficial in the short term, but which may cause long-term environmental damage. Human and chemical wastes, often untreated and unregulated, pollute 90% of the rivers and almost all topsoil and drinking water in heavily populated areas. 66% of farmland in the mountainous area is eroded, and the resulting pollution and agricultural runoff threaten shellfish and seafood businesses close to the coast. While forests once covered 85% of El Salvador, now only less than 5% is forest, and much of the cleared land is so degraded that there is little hope of restoring endangered plant and animal species. Most of the country's workers are employed in agriculture, but industrial parks are helping the country's economic growth. 74% of Salvadoran men and 70% of women are literate, school enrollment levels are low, and about 4% of the country's gross national product comes from official development assistance. The El Salvador Environment Fund was created in 1994 to support small projects for environmental protection and child development.

  1. Audiovisual heritage preservation in Earth and Space Science Informatics: Videos from Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) conferences in the TIB|AV-Portal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwe, Peter; Marín Arraiza, Paloma; Plank, Margret

    2016-04-01

    continues to grow - and so does the number of topics to be addressed at conferences. Up to now, commercial Web 2.0 platforms like Youtube and Vimeo were used. However, these platforms lack capabilities for long-term archiving and scientific citation, such as persistent identifiers that permit the citation of specific intervals of the overall content. To address these issues, the scientific library community has started to implement improved multimedia archiving and retrieval services for scientific audiovisual content which fulfil these requirements. Using the reference case of the OSGeo conference video recordings, this paper gives an overview over the new and growing collection activities by the German National Library of Science and Technology for audiovisual content in Geoinformatics/ESSI in the TIB|AV Portal for audiovisual content. Following a successful start in 2014 and positive response from the OSGeo Community, the TIB acquisition strategy for OSGeo video material was extended to include German, European, North-American and global conference content. The collection grows steadily by new conference content and also by harvesting of past conference videos from commercial Web 2.0 platforms like Youtube and Vimeo. This positions the TIB|AV-Portal as a reliable and concise long-term resource for innovation mining, education and scholarly research within the ESSI context both within Academia and Industry.

  2. Plasma Apolipoprotein A-V Predicts Long-term Survival in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, En-Qiang; Wang, Meng-Lan; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Shi, Ying; Wu, Do-Bo; Yan, Li-Bo; Du, Ling-Yao; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Tang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a life-threatening condition, and the lipid metabolism disorder is common in the development of this disease. This prospective observational study aimed to define the characteristics of plasma apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) in long-term outcome prediction of HBV-ACLF, and a total of 330 HBV-ACLF patients were included and followed for more than 12 months. In this cohort, the 4-week, 12-week, 24-week and 48-week cumulative mortality of HBV-ACLF was 18.2%(60/330), 50.9%(168/330), 59.7%(197/330) and 63.3%(209/330), respectively. As compared to survivors, the non-survivors had significantly lower concentrations of plasma apoA-V on admission. Plasma apoA-V concentrations were positively correlated with prothrombin time activity (PTA), and negatively correlated with interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and iMELD scores. Though plasma apoA-V, PTA, total bilirubin(TBil) and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) were all independent factors to predict one-year outcomes of HBV-ACLF, plasma apoA-V had the highest prediction accuracy. And its optimal cutoff value for one-year survival prediction was 480.00 ng/mL, which had a positive predictive value of 84.68% and a negative predictive value of 92.23%. In summary, plasma apoA-V decreases significantly in non-survivors of HBV-ACLF, and it may be regarded as a new predictive marker for the prognosis of patients with HBV-ACLF. PMID:28358016

  3. Mitigation of methane emissions in a pilot-scale biocover system at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark: 1. System design and gas distribution.

    PubMed

    Cassini, Filippo; Scheutz, Charlotte; Skov, Bent H; Mou, Zishen; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-01-21

    Greenhouse gas mitigation at landfills by methane oxidation in engineered biocover systems is believed to be a cost effective technology, but so far a full quantitative evaluation of the efficiency of the technology in full scale has only been carried out in a few cases. A third generation semi-passive biocover system was constructed at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark. The biocover system was fed by landfill gas pumped out of three leachate collection wells. An innovative gas distribution system was used to overcome the commonly observed surface emission hot spot areas resulting from an uneven gas distribution to the active methane oxidation layer, leading to areas with methane overloading. Performed screening of methane and carbon dioxide surface concentrations, as well as flux measurement using a flux chamber at the surface of the biocover, showed homogenous distributions indicating an even gas distribution. This was supported by results from a tracer gas test where the compound HFC-134a was added to the gas inlet over an adequately long time period to obtain tracer gas stationarity in the whole biocover system. Studies of the tracer gas movement within the biocover system showed a very even gas distribution in gas probes installed in the gas distribution layer. Also the flux of tracer gas out of the biocover surface, as measured by flux chamber technique, showed a spatially even distribution. Installed probes logging the temperature and moisture content of the methane oxidation layer at different depths showed elevated temperatures in the layer with temperature differences to the ambient temperature in the range of 25-50°C at the deepest measuring point due to the microbial processes occurring in the layer. The moisture measurements showed that infiltrating precipitation was efficiently drained away from the methane oxidation layer.

  4. El proyecto AUGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchegoyen, A.

    Hace ya más de 30 años en Volcano Ranch, EE.UU., un extenso chubasco cósmico (ECC) fue detectado con energía en exceso de 1020 eV. Desde entonces, observatorios ubicados en Haverah Park del Reino Unido, Yakutsk de Rusia, AGASA de Japón y Dugway de EE.UU. también han observado ECC con energías mayores que 1020 eV. Poco se sabe de dichos rayos, y en particular cuál es la naturaleza del primario, de dónde provienen, y cómo son acelerados, pero su naturaleza ultrarelativista excluye la mayoría de las respuestas dejando sólo algunas plausibles de ser investigadas experimentalmente. Grupos de científicos de 20 países están trabajando con el fin de construir dos arreglos de detectores gigantes, uno en cada hemisferio a lo largo de 3000 km2 c/u. Dichas dimensiones son necesarias debido al flujo estimado de 1 rayo cósmico/centuria/km2/sr. La sede del Observatorio del Sur es la Argentina. El proyecto fue nombrado Pierre Auger en conmemoración del célebre físico francés que detectó por primera vez chubascos cósmicos en 1938. El proyecto focaliza su interés en rayos cósmicos con energías mayores que 1020 eV.

  5. The role of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, INa and ICaL in the genesis of dofetilide-induced torsades de pointes in isolated, AV-blocked rabbit hearts

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Attila S; Makra, Péter; Csík, Norbert; Orosz, Szabolcs; Shattock, Michael J; Fülöp, Ferenc; Forster, Tamás; Csanády, Miklós; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Farkas, András

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) may contribute to triggered activity and transmural dispersion of repolarization, which are substrates of torsades de pointes (TdP) type arrhythmias. This study examined the effects of selective inhibition of the NCX by SEA0400 on the occurrence of dofetilide-induced TdP. Experimental approach: Effects of SEA0400 (1 µmol·L−1) on dofetilide-induced TdP was studied in isolated, Langendorff-perfused, atrioventricular (AV)-blocked rabbit hearts. To verify the relevance of the model, lidocaine (30 µmol·L−1) and verapamil (750 nmol·L−1) were also tested against dofetilide-induced TdP. Key results: Acute AV block caused a chaotic idioventricular rhythm and strikingly increased beat-to-beat variability of the RR and QT intervals. SEA0400 exaggerated the dofetilide-induced increase in the heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) and did not reduce the incidence of dofetilide-induced TdP [100% in the SEA0400 + dofetilide group vs. 75% in the dofetilide (100 nmol·L−1) control]. In the second set of experiments, verapamil further increased the dofetilide-induced QTc prolongation and neither verapamil nor lidocaine reduced the dofetilide-induced increase in the beat-to-beat variability of the QT interval. However, lidocaine decreased and verapamil prevented the development of dofetilide-induced TdP as compared with the dofetilide control (TdP incidence: 13%, 0% and 88% respectively). Conclusions and implications: Na+/Ca2+ exchanger does not contribute to dofetilide-induced TdP, whereas Na+ and Ca2+ channel activity is involved in TdP genesis in isolated, AV-blocked rabbit hearts. Neither QTc prolongation nor an increase in the beat-to-beat variability of the QT interval is a sufficient prerequisite of TdP genesis in rabbit hearts. PMID:19222480

  6. Comparison of the SERT-selective [18F]FPBM and VMAT2-selective [18F]AV-133 radiotracers in a rat model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie L.; Oya, Shunichi; Parhi, Ajit K.; Lieberman, Brian P.; Ploessl, Karl; Hou, Catherine; Kung, Hank F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The utility of [18F]FPBM (2-(2′-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4′-(3-[18F]-fluoropropoxy)phenylthio)benzenamine), a selective serotonin transporter (SERT) tracer, and [18F]AV-133 ((+)-2-Hydroxy-3-isobutyl-9-(3-fluoropropoxy)-10-methoxy-1,2,3,4,6,7-hexahydro-11bH-benzo[a]quinolizine), a selective vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) tracer, were tested in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) unilateral lesioned rat model. Methods PET imaging of three 6-OHDA unilateral lesioned male Sprague Dawley rats (rats #1-3) were performed with [18F]FPBM and [18F]AV-133 to examine whether changes in SERT and VMAT2 binding, respectively, could be detected in the brain. The brains of the three rats were then removed and examined by in vitro autoradiography with [18F]FPBM and the dopamine transporter ligand, [125I]IPT, for confirmation. Results PET image analysis showed varying levels of SERT binding reduction (rat #1 = −11%, rat #2 = −4%, rat #3 = −43%; n = 2) and a clear and definitive loss of VMAT2 binding (rat #1 = −87%, rat #2 = −72%, and rat #3 = −91%; n = 1) in the left striatum when compared to the right (non-lesioned side) striatum. The results from PET imaging were corroborated with quantitative in vitro autoradiography. Rats treated with a selective serotonin toxin (PCA, p-chloroamphetamine) showed a significant reduction of uptake in the cortex and hypothalamus regions of the brain. Conclusion The preliminary data suggest that [18F]FPBM and [18F]AV-133 may be useful for the examination of serotonergic and dopaminergic neuron integrity, respectively, in the living brain. PMID:20447560

  7. Registration of EL54 and EL55 sugarbeet germplasms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    EL54 (PI 654357) is a sugarbeet germplasm derived from wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) accession WB879 (PI 540625), released in the interest of broadening the genetic base of sugar beet. The parent accession WB879, collected in 1989 from Port-de-Houet, France. EL54 has shown excellent Aphan...

  8. Los biocombustibles y el futuro

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Cómo podremos utilizar los biocombustibles en el futuro? La ingeniera aeroespacial de la NASA, Diana Centeno Gómez nos explica el futuro de los biocombustibles y cómo un día podrías trabajar con d...

  9. Entrenamiento con el traje espacial

    NASA Video Gallery

    Después de 10 paseos espaciales, el astronauta de la NASA Michael López- Alegría sabe bastante de trajes espaciales. En este video, López Alegría comparte su experiencia acerca del uso y el entrena...

  10. Pharmacological characterization of MP-412 (AV-412), a dual epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Akihiro; Ohya, Junichi; Amano, Yusaku; Kitano, Yasunori; Abe, Daisuke; Nakamura, Hideo

    2007-12-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 are currently recognized as validated target molecules in cancer treatment strategies. MP-412 (AV-412) is a potent dual inhibitor of EGFR and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases, including the mutant EGFR(L858R,T790M), which is clinically resistant to the EGFR-specific kinase inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib. In an enzyme assay, MP-412 inhibited the EGFR variants and ErbB2 in the nanomolar range with over 100-fold selectivity compared with other kinases, apart from abl and flt-1, which were both moderately sensitive to the compound. In cells, MP-412 inhibited autophosphorylation of EGFR and ErbB2 with IC(50) of 43 and 282 nM, respectively. It also inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent cell proliferation with an IC(50) of 100 nM. Moreover, MP-412 abrogated EGFR signaling in the gefitinib-resistant H1975 cell line, which harbors a double mutation of L858R and T790M in EGFR. In animal studies using cancer xenograft models, MP-412 (30 mg/kg) demonstrated complete inhibition of tumor growth of the A431 and BT-474 cell lines, which overexpress EGFR and ErbB2, respectively. MP-412 suppressed autophosphorylation of EGFR and ErbB2 at the dose corresponding to its antitumor efficacy. When various dosing schedules were applied, MP-412 showed significant effects with daily and every-other-day schedules, but not with a once-weekly schedule, suggesting that frequent dosing is preferable for this compound. Furthermore, MP-412 showed a significant antitumor effect on the ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer KPL-4 cell line, which is resistant to gefitinib. These studies indicate that MP-412 has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancers expressing EGFR and ErbB2, especially those resistant to the first generation of small-molecule inhibitors.

  11. The role of ionic sizes in inducing the cubic to tetragonal distortion in AV2O4 and ACr2O4 (A = Zn, Mg and Cd) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Sohan; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2016-11-01

    Cubic to tetragonal distortion in AV2O4 and ACr2O4 (A = Zn, Mg and Cd) compounds have been a contentious issue for last two decades. Different groups have proposed different mechanisms to understand such a distortion in these spinels, which are: (i) spin lattice coupling mechanism known as the spin driven Jahn-Teller (JT) effect, (ii) the strong relativistic spin-orbit coupling, a moderate JT distortion and weak V-V interactions and (iii) the JT effect. Now, in order to know the possible cause for such a distortion, we have avoided these complexities (various interactions among spin, electronic, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom) by carrying out spin unpolarized calculations. The calculated values of bulk moduli for ZnV2O4 (ZnCr2O4), MgV2O4 (MgCr2O4) and CdV2O4 (CdCr2O4) are found to be ˜289 (˜254), ˜244 (˜243) and ˜230 (˜233) GPa, respectively which suggest that CdV2O4 (among vanadates) and CdCr2O4 (among chromates) are more compressible. For vanadates and chromates, the order of calculated values of lattice parameter a are found to CdV2O4 > MgV2O4 > ZnV2O4 and CdCr2O4 > MgCr2O4 > ZnCr2O4, respectively and are consistent with the experimental results. The calculated values of cubic to tetragonal distortion (c/a), with c/a < 1 for ZnV2O4 (ZnCr2O4), MgV2O4 (MgCr2O4) and CdV2O4 (CdCr2O4) are ˜0.996 (˜0.997), ˜0.995 (˜0.994) and ˜0.997 (˜0.998), respectively. These values are in good agreement with the experimental data for ZnV2O4, MgV2O4, ZnCr2O4 and MgCr2O4 compounds. The present study clearly shows the role of ionic sizes in inducing the cubic to tetragonal distortion in these spinels. However, the discrepancies between the calculated and experimental data for CdV2O4 and CdCr2O4 are expected to improve by considering the above mentioned mechanisms. These mechanisms also appear to be responsible for deciding the other physical properties of these compounds.

  12. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Propano

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El propano provee energia a mas de 143.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y 23 millones en todo el mundo. Flotas de todos los Estados Unidos han implementado con exito el uso de vehiculos que funcionan con gas propano, y en la actualidad varios funcionan gracias a este gas, incluyendo autobuses escolares, lanzaderas y autobuses publicos, asi como tambien furgonetas, taxis, vehiculos utilizados por las fuerzas del orden, barredoras de calles y camiones para uso profesional. El propano tambien se utiliza con frecuencia en aplicaciones fuera de la carretera, tales como montacargas, podadoras y equipos de uso profesional y otros equipos agricolas. Las ventajas del propano incluyen la disponibilidad interna, su rendimiento y el hecho de que genera menos emisiones de gases contaminantes que otras alternativas energeticas.

  13. The AV-8B Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    flexibility in 9 operations. In Europe, defense planners began to realize that being forced to operate from a fixed number of easily targeted airfields was...attacks against hostile targets close to friendly forces which require detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and maneuver of these...is either scheduled or on-call. Scheduled close air support is that which will be delivered on specified targets at a specified time. On-cal. close

  14. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  15. The Education of El Toot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadker, Myra

    1970-01-01

    Fanciful story describing how the Grand Inquisitors of education chain the free and independent spirit of El Toot (heir apparent to the throne; i.e., symbol of the next generation) by putting him through a Crash Educational Pogrom. (DE)

  16. 71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. South El Paso St., 911 (commercial), east facade, warehouse to left in background - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  17. English Learners (ELs) and NAEP. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) and NAEP include: (1) 2013 Reading Scores for Grades 4, 8, and 12: ELs vs. Non-ELs; (2) 2013 Mathematics Scores for Grades 4,…

  18. "The El Greco fallacy" fallacy.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2014-04-01

    To what extent does an artist's work represent his or her perceptual world, and to what extent can attributes of his or her work be ascribed to sensory defects? These issues lie at the center of a conjecture more than a century old, which has been termed the El Greco fallacy. The El Greco fallacy posits that the elongation evident in El Greco's art reflects an underlying perceptual elongation of objects caused by astigmatism. The "logical" refutation of this theory argues that any perceptual elongation that El Greco might have experienced as a result of astigmatism would have caused not only his subjects to be elongated but also his canvas. Hence, it should have been unnecessary for him to elongate his paintings to match his perception. This objection is important because it warns us against drawing the erroneous conclusion that an artist's work represents a facsimile of his or her perception. However, an analysis of the effects of astigmatism on the retinal image suggests that this "logical" refutation of the El Greco fallacy promulgates another fallacy--that of astigmatism as a source of a constant perceptual error.

  19. El Camino College Master Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    This document is the educational Master Plan for El Camino Community College District. The purpose of the plan is to develop a research-based document that will be used as a foundation for decisions regarding instructional programs, support services, staffing and facilities. It is intended to serve as the basic foundation for all other plans of…

  20. Thoughts on Seeing "El Sistema"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The FESNOJIV (the Spanish acronym for the State Foundation for the National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras), more commonly known as "El Sistema," teaches 300,000 of Venezuela's poorest children in the nationwide music learning program. Many begin attending the "nucleo" as early as age two or three, and the vast…

  1. El Salvador and Its Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Gertraude Roth

    Since a 1979 coup, El Salvador has been ruled by a civilian-military junta supported by the oligarchy; officially, the junta is committed to social and economic reforms. Civilian guerrillas oppose the government which they believe is not interested in real reform. The United States supplies financial and military aid to the junta and believes the…

  2. El Nino's Family Tree (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    Fluctuations in tropical Pacific rainfall and sea surface temperature (SST) patterns involve different processes on different timescales, but nonetheless have certain features (traits) in common so that all can be viewed as members of the same family. Best-known are the children El Niño and La Niña who, in their performance of the Southern Oscillation, move warm surface waters adiabatically back and forth across the Pacific. They and their nephews and nieces in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean all depend on favorable background conditions, especially a suitable depth for the thermocline whose tilt they oscillate to produce SST changes. The parents El Padre and La Madre are in control of that depth and invoke diabatic processes to change it gradually over the course of decades, at times making it so deep that El Niño becomes permanent. This is the spontaneous, natural branch of the family. Another branch responds to external forcing (externally imposed variations in sunlight) and has as members the cycles of the seasons, of obliquity, and of the precession of the equinoxes. These cousins, aunts and uncles of El Niño are protagonists in the drama of the recurrent Ice Ages.

  3. Actividad Solar Desde EL Espacio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se describen los principales descubrimientos realizados por los arti+iciales con instrumentos dedicados a la observaci6n del Sol, durante los dos ultimos ciclos de su acti vi dad. La observaci6n el espacio ha permitido cubrir todas las zonas del espectro no observables desde tierra1 desde el ultravioleta hasta la radiaci6n gamma. Se hace referencia, en particular, a los resultados producidos por los dos grandes observatorios: el Skylab y el SMM. Este ultimo incluy6 un conjunto de instrumentos especialmente coordinados para observar en detalle las fulguraciones solares. Es un resumen para astr6nomos no especializados en la fisica solar, en el que se muestra que la gran riqueza del material observacional acumulado ha resuelto problemas preexistentes y, al mismo tiempo, ha abierto numerosos interrogantes a los que se buscar respuesta con la instrumentaci6n en desarrollo. Finalmente, se mencionan las caracteristicas de los proyectados para la pr6xima decada. : The main discoveries performed by artificial satellites instrumented for the observation of the Sun, during the last two cycles of its activity, are described. The space observations allowed of almost all the spectral regions which are not observable from the ground, from the ultraviolet to the gamma radiation. In particular, we ref er' to the two large solar space observatories: the Skylab and the SMM. The last one included a set 0+ coordinated instruments to observe in detail the solar flares. This is a summary for astronomers not dedicated to solar physics, where we show that the of observational material have solv# d many of the preexistent problems but, at the ame time, it opened many new questions to which the improved instrumentation will try to answer. , the characteristics of the satellites planned the next decade are mentioned. Key : SUN-ACTIVITY - SUN-CORONA - SUN-X-RAYS

  4. Profiles of English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on profiles of English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Percentage of Total School Population, Grades Pre-K through 12, Represented by ELs, by State,…

  5. 76 FR 76707 - Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...] Brian Hamilton; El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice of Complaint Take notice that... complaint against El Paso Natural Gas and El Paso Western Pipelines (Respondents) alleging that...

  6. El Salvador: A Communist Objective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    National Banking System was in the same hands. POLITICAL . Other factors originating the general unrest were the people’s lack of absolute freedom to...aggression by Communist power, through Cuba and Nicaragua. 18 EL SALVADOR SUMMARY DATA (To 1985) GENERAL Political parties: National Conciliation Party... political , economic and social situation of each country. The security of the Latin American countries has been and is constantly threatened by the

  7. Relevamiento de HI en el Hemisferio Austral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Un nuevo relevamiento de HI de todo el Hemisferio Austral, comprendido entre -90o <= δ <= -25o, está siendo observado con la antena I del IAR. El mismo es realizado con alta sensibilidad (r.m.s.<= 0.07 K) y alta resolución espectral (1 Km/s). Un total de ~50000 posiciones en el cielo serán observadas, espaciadas en una grilla (lxb) de (0.5o x 0.5o). El intervalo de velocidades cubierto en este relevamiento abarca el rango -450 km/s a +450 km/s en el sistema LSR. Esta base de datos será corregida por efectos de ``stray radiation''. Al presente se ha observado ~70% del total del relevamiento. El mismo es complementario de uno similar realizado en el Hemisferio Norte por Hartman y Burton (1996), con cubrimiento espacial, sensibilidad, resoluciones espaciales y en velocidad, similares a los del IAR. El objetivo final de ambos relevamientos es disponer de una base de datos uniforme en todo el cielo.

  8. Charlie Flats and El Capitan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    This mosaic image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows two regions of the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The region on the left, dubbed 'Charlie Flats,' was imaged because it contains an assortment of small grains, pebbles and spherules, as well as both dark and light soil deposits. The region on the right, nicknamed 'El Capitan,' is where Opportunity is parked and is doing work as of Sol 33 of its mission (February 26, 2004).

  9. El Nino winners and losers declared

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1991-03-08

    Last spring human forecasters thought they saw signs of an imminent warming of the tropical Pacific, a classic El Nino, that could wreak havoc with weather around the globe. Researchers running computer models, on the other hand, saw a slight warming but not enough for an El Nino. The modelers were right. The season for El Ninos has ended and nothing happened. Since the models came online about 5 years ago, there have been two contests to predict El Ninos, which occur every 3 to 7 years, and the models have won both. The models are still experimental, but the general feeling is that they're indicating the right trends. The prospect of having reliable El Nino prediction models is good news beyond the small coterie of tropical Pacific specialists. Worldwide weather patterns are closely tied to El Nino cycles.

  10. El Nino-like events during Miocene

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.E.; Nelson, C.O.; Weinheimer, A.L.; Oeth, P.A.; Swanson, R.J.

    1988-03-01

    El Nino-like events have been recorded from the Miocene laminated siliceous facies of the Monterey Formation. These El Nino-like Miocene events are compared to El Nino events recorded from Holocene varved sediments deposited within the anoxic Santa Barbara basin. Strong El Nino events can be recognized from Holocene Santa Barbara basin sediments by increases in radiolarian flux to the sea floor during those events. For the last 100-plus years, frequency of strong El Ninos has been on the order of one extremely strong event about every 100 years, and one easily recognizable event about every 18 years. Frequencies in the laminated (varved) Miocene range from about every 4-5 years to over 20 years. The higher frequencies occur within generally warm intervals and the lower frequencies within generally cold intervals. Perhaps the frequencies of these events may, in fact, be an important indicator in determining whether the intervals were cold or warm. Reconstructions of the paleo-California Current system during El Nino-like periods have been made for the west coast from the Gulf of California to northern California. Strong El Nino-like events occurred 5.5 and 8 Ma, and a strong anti-El Nino-like event occurred at about 6.5 Ma. Evidence from the 5.5 and 8 Ma events combined with other evidence suggests that modern El Ninos, similar to today's, were initiated at 5.5 Ma or earlier.

  11. GroEL-mediated protein folding.

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, W. A.; Horwich, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    I. Architecture of GroEL and GroES and the reaction pathway A. Architecture of the chaperonins B. Reaction pathway of GroEL-GroES-mediated folding II. Polypeptide binding A. A parallel network of chaperones binding polypeptides in vivo B. Polypeptide binding in vitro 1. Role of hydrophobicity in recognition 2. Homologous proteins with differing recognition-differences in primary structure versus effects on folding pathway 3. Conformations recognized by GroEL a. Refolding studies b. Binding of metastable intermediates c. Conformations while stably bound at GroEL 4. Binding constants and rates of association 5. Conformational changes in the substrate protein associated with binding by GroEL a. Observations b. Kinetic versus thermodynamic action of GroEL in mediating unfolding c. Crossing the energy landscape in the presence of GroEL III. ATP binding and hydrolysis-driving the reaction cycle IV. GroEL-GroES-polypeptide ternary complexes-the folding-active cis complex A. Cis and trans ternary complexes B. Symmetric complexes C. The folding-active intermediate of a chaperonin reaction-cis ternary complex D. The role of the cis space in the folding reaction E. Folding governed by a "timer" mechanism F. Release of nonnative polypeptides during the GroEL-GroES reaction G. Release of both native and nonnative forms under physiologic conditions H. A role for ATP binding, as well as hydrolysis, in the folding cycle V. Concluding remarks. PMID:9098884

  12. El Programa Nacional de Estuarios (NEP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Información general sobre el Programa Nacional de Estuarios (PNE, por sus siglas en inglés) establecido en el 1987 para restaurar y proteger los estuarios significativos para Estados Unidos, y sus territorios. La Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU.

  13. 27 CFR 9.61 - El Dorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.61 El Dorado. (a... North Fork of the American River (also the boundary line between El Dorado and Placer Counties) and...

  14. 27 CFR 9.61 - El Dorado.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.61 El Dorado. (a... North Fork of the American River (also the boundary line between El Dorado and Placer Counties) and...

  15. Curiosity --El nuevo robot explorador de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte llamado Curiosity tiene grandes preguntas que responder una vez que llegue a Marte. Infórmese sobre la misión con el analista de trayectoria de la NASA Fern...

  16. Venus volcanism and El Chichon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Reinterpretations of telemetry data returned to earth from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter suggest that the surface of Venus may be characterized by violent immense volcanic activity. L.W. Esposito has made an interactive analysis of Pioneer ultraviolet spectral data and similar data from the earth's atmosphere [Science, 223, 1072-1074, 1984]. Spacecraft analysis of sulfur dioxide in the earth's upper atmosphere, apparently released by El Chich[acu]on, Mexico, in March 1982 (EOS, June 14, 1983, p. 411, and August 16, 1983, p. 506) prompted reanalysis of accumulated Pioneer ultraviolet data. Massive injections of sulfur dioxide into the Venus atmosphere could be the result of volcanic eruptions about the size of the Krakatoa explosive eruption that took place between Java and Summatra in 1883.

  17. El Nino. [influence on climatic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide the background for a coupled model of ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) with emphasis placed on the oceanography (i.e. on El Nino). Observations of the normal annual cycle in the Pacific and of the evolution of a typical El Nino event are reviewed, and a theory for the oceanography of El Nino is proposed. The influence of SST anomalies on the tropical atmosphere is assessed, and results from a numerical model for the coupled system able to generate El Nino events are presented. Implications for the real ENSO cycle are discussed. In both the model and nature, ENSO has the character of a relaxation oscillation of the coupled system, and its cycle is aperiodic. Results on the predictability of dynamical systems show the impossibility of predicting ahead several events.

  18. Women and Science in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Maria Mendez Martınez, Luz; Portillo, Mercy; Elías, José Héctor

    2009-04-01

    Physics is rarely pursued by El Salvadoran students. As in most Latin-American countries, there exists the false idea in El Salvador that some careers should be exclusively for men, such as engineering and hard sciences like physics. Because El Salvador is a natural laboratory for geophysical phenomena, due to the existence of more than 20 volcanoes, prevalent seismic activity, and large production of geothermic energy, geophysics is the most common branch of physics studied in El Salvador. The numbers and gender breakdown of physics and geophysics students at the University of El Salvador in the years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference in 2005 are presented, and the numbers are encouraging.

  19. Congenic strains reveal effects of the epilepsy quantitative trait locus, El2, separate from other El loci.

    PubMed

    Frankel, W N; Johnson, E W; Lutz, C M

    1995-12-01

    Congenic mouse strains made by transferring epilepsy predisposing alleles El1, El2, and El3 from the EL/Suz strain to the ABP/Le recipient were tested for seizure frequency following gentle rhythmic stimulation. Mice homozygous for El2, but not El1 or El3, experienced seizures much more frequently than ABP controls, while respective El1 homozygotes and El2 heterozygotes had only a modest increase over ABP, and El3 homozygotes showed no increase. Association between marker genotypes and seizure frequency in small intra-strain crosses showed that the phenotypic effects of El2 map to the selected interval, and that segregation of El2 accounts for virtually all genetic effects. However, in separating El2 from other EL susceptibility alleles, the seizure frequency phenotype was weaker and less heritable than in crosses between parental strains. These results confirm El2 as an important QTL and show that it has significant phenotypic effects in the absence of other EL-derived alleles, including El1. In addition, the present localization of El2 on Chr 2 suggests several potential candidate genes for El2, including the beta subunit of phospholipase-C. The approach to dissecting complex traits by making congenic strains for individual QTL is discussed.

  20. El Nino Continues to Grow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The latest image from NASA's Jason oceanography satellite, taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending December 2, 2002, shows the Pacific dominated by two significant areas of higher-than-normal sealevel (warmer ocean temperatures). In the central equatorial Pacific, the large area of higher than normal sea surface heights(warmer than normal sea surface temperatures) associated with growing El Nino conditions has recently migrated eastward toward the coast of South America. Meanwhile, the influence of the 20- to 30-year larger than El Nino/La Nina pattern called the Pacific Decadal Oscillation continues to create warm, higher-than-normal sea-surface heights in the north Pacific that are connected in a warm horseshoe pattern with the western and southern Pacific. Sea-surface heights are a measure of how much heat is stored in the ocean below. This heat influences both present weather and future planetary climate events.

    The image shows red areas in the north Pacific and at the equator that are about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal; white areas indicate sea surface heights between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal. These regions contrast with the western tropical Pacific, where lower-than-normal sea levels (blue areas) have developed that are between 5 and 13 centimeters (2 and 5 inches) below normal, while purple areas range from 14 to 18 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) below normal. Along the equator, the red sea surface heights equate to sea surface temperature departures greater than one degree Celsius (two degrees Fahrenheit) and the white sea surface heights are sea surface temperatures 1.5 to 2.5 degrees Celsius(three to five degrees Fahrenheit) above normal.

    The U.S. portion of the Jason mission is managed by JPL for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Research on Earth's oceans using Jason and other space-based capabilities is conducted by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise to better understand and protect our

  1. Global Weather's Problem Child--El Nino.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmusson, Eugene M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature and effects of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation phenomenon. Indicates that new understanding of the phenomenon from current data will provide a global view of climate that has never before been within reach. (JN)

  2. El Nino and the Teacher at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kerry Anne

    1998-01-01

    Details the experiences of a teacher who spent a month on a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship. Reports observations of developing El Nino conditions and presents related classroom activities. (DDR)

  3. Who is El Niño?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, S. George

    It is a curious story, about a phenomenon we first welcomed as a blessing but now view with dismay, if not horror [Philander, 1998]. We named it El Niño for the child Jesus, provided it with relatives—La Niña and ENSO—and are devoting innumerable studies to the description and idealization of this family. These scriptures provide such a broad spectrum of historical, cultural, and scientific perspectives that there is now confusion about the identity of El Niño. Trenberth [1997] summarizes the situation as follows.The atmospheric component tied to El Niño is termed the “Southern Oscillation.” Scientists often call the phenomenon where the atmosphere and ocean collaborate ENSO, short for El Niño-Southern Oscillation. El Niño then corresponds to the warm phase of ENSO. The opposite “La Niña” (“the girl” in Spanish) phase consists of a basinwide cooling of the tropical Pacific and thus the cold phase of ENSO. However, for the public, the term for the whole phenomenon is “El Niño.”

  4. Retention and Suspension of English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on the retention and suspension of English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Percentage of ELs and Non-ELs Enrolled and Retained in Elementary School (Grades…

  5. 76 FR 5120 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... Comcorp of El Paso License Corp. the licensee of station KTSM-TV, channel 9, El Paso, Texas, requesting the substitution of channel 16 for channel 9 at El Paso. DATES: Comments must be filed on or...

  6. 76 FR 19276 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... to a petition for rulemaking filed by Comcorp of El Paso License Corp. (``Comcorp''), the licensee of KTSM-TV, channel 9, El Paso, Texas, requesting the substitution of channel 16 for channel 9 at El...

  7. El Salvador: Conflict and Change: A Secondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Craig, Ed.

    This curriculum emphasizes El Salvador's physical and human geography and involves students in active learning situations using critical and creative thinking skills. The seven lessons include: (1) "Why Study El Salvador?"; (2) "Where in the World Is El Salvador?"; (3) "Picturing El Salvador: Looking Beyond the…

  8. 75 FR 38211 - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., Peru; Av. Tumbes 217, Tumbes, Peru; Av. 27 De Febrero No. 102, Edif Miguel Mejia Urr. El Vergel, Santo... Martin, Lima, Peru; Bogota, Colombia; Leon Velarde 584, Puerto Maldonado, Peru; Jr. Moyobamba 101..., Peru; C.C. San Miguel Shopping Center, TDA. 50-Av. La Mar 2291, San Miguel, Lima, Peru; 8940 NW...

  9. 77 FR 54650 - Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the El Paso International Airport, El...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the El Paso International Airport, El Paso, TX AGENCY...: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public comment on the release of land at the El Paso International... delivered to the FAA at the following: Ms. Monica Lombra[ntilde]a, Director of Aviation, El...

  10. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  11. "El Escalafon y el Doble Turno": An International Perspective on School Director Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Charles L.; Boone, Mike; Nelson, Sarah; De La Colina, Maria; Garcia, Elizabeth; Grimaldo, Leticia; Rico, Grace; Rodriguez, Sonia; Sirios, Cheryl; Womack, Damaris; Garduno, Jose Maria Garcia; Arriaga, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    "El Escalafon" is the process for appointing school directors and "el Doble Turno" is the double shift of morning and afternoon session in Mexican schools. These two concepts open the door to examine more general issues in the appointment of school directors and the structure of the school day. Director appointment and school…

  12. The A/V Club Next Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech & Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Engaging the digital natives isn't as daunting as one thinks. This article describes how three classrooms do it. One of these is in Brevard Public Schools in Viera, Florida. Pete Episcopo, the digital-media artist of the school, wanted to share his love of all things digital and teach essential 21st-century skills so students could be better…

  13. A/V Alternatives for Interesting Homework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Fred

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of audiovisual materials and equipment as part of music education homework. Recommends using audiotapes and videotapes of music accompanied by analytical questions to be completed by students. Predicts that new instructional technology will improve the effectiveness of this approach. (CFR)

  14. Paddington hospital has 'world first' in AV.

    PubMed

    Dobbyne, Colin

    2011-11-01

    Colin Dobbyne, director of OR1, describes OR Networks' recent installation of a sophisticated new video communication and patient entertainment system in the intensive care unit at London's St Mary's Hospital, explaining how the "world first" equipment was designed and manufactured to meet the Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust's specific requirements. The specialist healthcare communications design consultancy also worked with clean air engineers, Howorth Air Technology, to provide a "package" of integrated equipment for a major theatre refurbishment at the hospital, whose past alumni include runner of the first sub-four-minute-mile, Sir Roger Bannister--later to become a distinguished neurologist.

  15. AV Programs for Computer Know-How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Phyllis Levy

    1985-01-01

    Lists 44 audiovisual programs (most released between 1983 and 1984) grouped in seven categories: computers in society, introduction to computers, computer operations, languages and programing, computer graphics, robotics, computer careers. Excerpts from "School Library Journal" reviews, price, and intended grade level are included. Names…

  16. Distributed Trust Management and Rogue AV Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-10

    Software Secured Order 0 WIN PC® Defender 6 Months License SubsaiJtjon indudes ~ version updates, definition updates, standart rustomer support... standart customer support for 1 year. Only today limited ollerwith special discount~ $69.99. Q Lifetime UNUMITED LlceMt, Best Cholet ! WIN PC

  17. Magmatic heat and the El Nino cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, H.R.; Moore, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Large submarine lava flows with apparent volumes exceeding 10 km3 have recently been imaged on the deep ocean floor in various parts of the Pacific by means of GLORIA and SeaMarc side-looking sonar surveys. Such flows may produce thermal anomalies large enough to perturb the cyclic processes of the ocean and could be a factor in the genesis of El Nino phenomena. We find that known volume rates of mid-ocean magma production could generate repetitive thermal anomalies as large as 10% of the average El Nino sea surface anomaly at intervals of about 5 years (the mean interval of El Nino events between 1935 and 1984). Likewise, estimated rates of eruption, cooling of lava on the seafloor, and transfer of heat to the near-surface environment could reasonably produce a thermal anomaly comparable to that associated with El Nino. Larger magmatic events, associated with fluctuations in the total magmatic power and seismicity along the East Pacific Rise, are possible at longer intervals and may explain the extreme size of some El Nino events, such as that of 1982-1983. -Authors

  18. Neuronal mechanism of epileptogenesis in EL mouse.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    The convulsions of the EL mouse (EL) were described by Imaizumi et al. in 1954 and were established as epilepsy by Suzuki in 1976. The EL mouse has been kept as an inbred strain and is considered one of the best animal models originated in Japan. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant, and environmental risk factors for seizure occurrence are hypothesised to contribute to the polygenic background. Paroxysmal activities in the EL brain arise from the parietal cortex (PCX) and are augmented in the hippocampus, demonstrated by electrophysiology and autoradiography using 2-deoxy glucose when clinical symptoms of seizures appeared. The neurons in the EL PCX, where GABA activity is lower than that of DDY PCX demonstrate increased excitability to proprioceptive sensory input. After repetitive seizure-provoking stimuli, seizures are more easily induced, eventually occurring spontaneously. This phenomenon of "abnormal plasticity" is also observed in the EEG, decreasing GABA activity, expression of the immediately early gene, and various biochemical and molecular processes. This phenomenon is similar to the learning or progressive process of certain neurological diseases.

  19. El espectro de K2 Vol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.; Adelman, S. J.

    Se han obtenido espectros de alta dispersión para la estrella K2 Vol con el espectrógrafo REOSC del CASLEO en un rango de longitudes de ondas comprendido entre 3500 y 5050 Å. El espectro muestra evidencias de que la estrella es binaria. Se determinan las abundancias de los componentes químicos presentes en su atmósfera, como así también algunas características de su compañera.

  20. Women in physics in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, T.; de Contreras, D.; Rivera, W.

    2013-03-01

    Current conditions impose serious limitations on admission to careers and specialization for physicists in general and especially for women in physics. This is a critical issue in a country where political instability, a civil war, and postwar conditions have limited the development of science and technology, and where there are just a few masters in science in the whole university and even fewer professionals with a PhD degree. In the past three years, El Salvador has defined clear lines of work that involve female physicists at the University of El Salvador. These lines are seismology, meteorology, climatology, and physics education.

  1. El medio interestelar alrededor de estrellas Of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, N.; Cappa, C.

    Se analiza la distribución del hidrógeno neutro interestelar en la vecindad de algunas estrellas Of con el fin de investigar la presencia de burbujas de H I vinculadas a las estrellas. Se determinan los parámetros físicos de las burbujas de H I encontradas y se comparan con estructuras similares vinculadas a estrellas Wolf-Rayet. El estudio se lleva a cabo en base a datos pertenecientes al relevamiento de Weaver y Willians (1973).

  2. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Gas Natural

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El gas natural abastece cerca de 150.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y aproximadamente 22 millones de vehiculos en todo el mundo. Los vehiculos de gas natural (NGV, por sus siglas en ingles) son una buena opcion para las flotas de vehiculos de alto kilometraje, tales como autobuses, taxis, vehiculos de recoleccion de basura, los cuales son alimentados centralmente u operan dentro de un area limitada o a lo largo de una ruta con estaciones de servicio de gas natural. Las ventajas del gas natural como combustible alternativo incluyen su disponibilidad interna, la red de distribucion establecida, un costo relativamente bajo, y los beneficios de las emisiones.

  3. Determining the early history of El Nino

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, T.J.; Ortlieb, L.; Diaz, A.

    1997-05-09

    This technical comment presents two analyses of Daniel H. Sandweiss article which reiterates arguments advanced a decade ago that climatic and oceanic changes 5000 years before present (B.P.) resulted in the onset of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events along the coast of Peru. Included is a rebuttal by the original author. 32 refs.

  4. El Camino College Academic Program Review Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    This document presents El Camino College's academic program review guidelines as of January 1999. Academic programs are scheduled for full evaluation once every six years and involve a two-year process. By or before the beginning of each fall semester, the Office of Academic Affairs notifies the dean of each division as to which programs are to be…

  5. El Sistema and American Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesniak, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The brainchild of Jose Antonio Abreu, El Sistema, a music education program for aspiring orchestra musicians launched in Venezuela for students of limited means and now spreading to other parts of the world, has become a subject of interest to music teachers and teacher educators in North America. This article examines a bit of the program's…

  6. El Dorado; An old field with potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ramondetta, P.J. )

    1990-03-26

    The author presents a study of the El Dorado field. The study indicates that early wells were prematurely abandoned because of mechanical failure. Redrilling portions of the field is found to have significant potential for the Admire, Viola, Simpson, and Arbuckle pay zones. The ability to predict reserves in this field is assessed.

  7. Educational and Demographic Profile: El Dorado County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for El Dorado County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  8. [The echinoderms (Echinodermata) from El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Enrique Barraza, José; Roberto Hasbún, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    A list of echinoderms from El Salvador (tropical eastern Pacific) is presented. The results were obtained from field surveys (between the years 2000 and 2004), the scarce literature sources, and Internet information. A total of 37 species and six genera are reported. The most abundant echinoderms in rocky shores were: Phataria unifascialis, Echinometra vanbrunti, Holothuria kefersteini, as well as Astropecten armatus in soft bottoms.

  9. Section on Observed Impacts on El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural applications of El Nino forecasts are already underway in some countries and need to be evaluated or re-evaluated. For example, in Peru, El Nino forecasts have been incorporated into national planning for the agricultural sector, and areas planted with rice and cotton (cotton being the more drought-tolerant crop) are adjusted accordingly. How well are this and other such programs working? Such evaluations will contribute to the governmental and intergovernmental institutions, including the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research and the US National Ocean and Atmospheric Agency that are fostering programs to aid the effective use of forecasts. As El Nino climate forecasting grows out of the research mode into operational mode, the research focus shifts to include the design of appropriate modes of utilization. Awareness of and sensitivity to the costs of prediction errors also grow. For example, one major forecasting model failed to predict the very large El Nino event of 1997, when Pacific sea-surface temperatures were the highest on record. Although simple correlations between El Nino events and crop yields may be suggestive, more sophisticated work is needed to understand the subtleties of the interplay among the global climate system, regional climate patterns, and local agricultural systems. Honesty about the limitations of an forecast is essential, especially when human livelihoods are at stake. An end-to-end analysis links tools and expertise from the full sequence of ENSO cause-and-effect processes. Representatives from many disciplines are needed to achieve insights, e.g, oceanographers and atmospheric scientists who predict El Nino events, climatologists who drive global climate models with sea-surface temperature predictions, agronomists who translate regional climate connections in to crop yield forecasts, and economists who analyze market adjustments to the vagaries of climate and determine the value of climate forecasts

  10. 76 FR 19971 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in...

  11. El Salvador’s Crime Prevention Policies - From Mano Dura to El Salvador Seguro

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    1 A. MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTION..........................................................2 B ...12 F . THESIS OVERVIEW .............................................................................15 II. EL SALVADOR’S GANGS AND MANO...Street Gang and the Mara Salvatrucha in Los Angeles ..............................................................................20 b . Criminal

  12. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  13. Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on languages spoken by English learners (ELs) are: (1) Twenty most common EL languages, as reported in states' top five lists: SY 2013-14; (2) States,…

  14. 76 FR 12316 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Forest Service El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Placerville... March 21, 2011 beginning at 6 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the El Dorado Center of...

  15. 77 FR 49776 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory COMMITTEE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Forest Service El Dorado County Resource Advisory COMMITTEE AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Placerville...: The meetings will be held in the Community Room at Folsom Lake College, El Dorado Center, 6699...

  16. 76 FR 53113 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Forest Service El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Placerville... 12, 2011 beginning at 6 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the El Dorado Center of...

  17. 75 FR 53630 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Doc No: 2010-21876] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The El Dorado County Resource... meeting will be held at the El Dorado Center of Folsom Lake College, Community Room, 6699 Campus...

  18. 75 FR 45090 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Forest Service El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Placerville... the meeting includes: Discussions and possible decisions on an El Dorado County RAC mission...

  19. 76 FR 61135 - Environmental Impact Statement: El Paso County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: El Paso County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway... proposed ] improvements to Loop 375 Border Highway West, in El Paso County, Texas, is being rescinded. FOR... Loop 375 C sar Ch vez Highway (Border Highway West Extension) in El Paso, Texas, to include the...

  20. 75 FR 32739 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Forest Service El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Placerville... the on June 21, 2010 at 6 p.m.-9 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the El Dorado Center...

  1. 76 FR 44280 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications...''), licensee of KVIA-TV, channel 7, El Paso, Texas, requesting the substitution of channel 17 for channel 7 at El Paso. KVIA-TV has experienced extensive signal coverage problems on channel 7 following the...

  2. 76 FR 2081 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Forest Service El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Placerville... meeting will be held at the El Dorado Center of Folsom Lake College, Community Room, 6699 Campus...

  3. 75 FR 59680 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Forest Service El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Placerville...: The meeting will be held at the El Dorado Center of Folsom Lake College, Community Room, 6699 ]...

  4. 76 FR 28946 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... NPG of Texas, LP (``NPG''), licensee of station KVIA-TV, El Paso, Texas, requesting the substitution of channel 17 for channel 7 at El Paso. NPG states that the proposed channel substitution will...

  5. 76 FR 24851 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Forest Service El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Placerville... meeting will be held at the El Dorado Center of Folsom Lake College, Community Room, 6699 Campus...

  6. "El Norte," Deracination and Circularity: An Epic Gone Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakel, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Early journalistic reviews (e.g., Gold, Ebert, and Kael) of "El Norte" (1983), Gregory Nava's first major film, identify it as an epic. In "El Norte" the siblings Enrique and Rosa, two Guatemalan Amerindians, leave their native village on a quest to what for them is the mythical land in the North. Although "El Norte"…

  7. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  12. Playing hide and seek with El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    A much-anticipated 'monster' El Niño failed to materialize in 2014, whereas an unforeseen strong El Niño is developing in 2015. El Niño continues to surprise us, despite decades of research into its causes. Natural variations most probably account for recent events, but climate change may also have played a role.

  13. English Learners (ELs) and Charter Schools. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) and charter schools include: (1) Number of Charter Schools, by State, Including DC: SY 2011-12; (2) Number of ELs in Charter…

  14. El Niño in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; Kug, Jong-Seong; Dewitte, Boris; Kwon, Min-Ho; Kirtman, Ben P; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2009-09-24

    El Niño events, characterized by anomalous warming in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, have global climatic teleconnections and are the most dominant feature of cyclic climate variability on subdecadal timescales. Understanding changes in the frequency or characteristics of El Niño events in a changing climate is therefore of broad scientific and socioeconomic interest. Recent studies show that the canonical El Niño has become less frequent and that a different kind of El Niño has become more common during the late twentieth century, in which warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the central Pacific are flanked on the east and west by cooler SSTs. This type of El Niño, termed the central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño; also termed the dateline El Niño, El Niño Modoki or warm pool El Niño), differs from the canonical eastern Pacific El Niño (EP-El Niño) in both the location of maximum SST anomalies and tropical-midlatitude teleconnections. Here we show changes in the ratio of CP-El Niño to EP-El Niño under projected global warming scenarios from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 multi-model data set. Using calculations based on historical El Niño indices, we find that projections of anthropogenic climate change are associated with an increased frequency of the CP-El Niño compared to the EP-El Niño. When restricted to the six climate models with the best representation of the twentieth-century ratio of CP-El Niño to EP-El Niño, the occurrence ratio of CP-El Niño/EP-El Niño is projected to increase as much as five times under global warming. The change is related to a flattening of the thermocline in the equatorial Pacific.

  15. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; Tilling, R.I.; Canul, R.

    1984-01-01

    The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chicho??n, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, Me??xico. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. El Chicho??n is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. El Chicho??n is built over a small dome-like structure superposed on a syncline, and this structure may reflect cumulative deformation related to growth of a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The cone of El Chicho??n consists almost entirely of pyroclastic rocks. The pre-1982 cone is marked by a 1200-m-diameter (explosion?) crater on the southwest flank and a 1600-m-diameter crater apparently of similar origin at the summit, a lava dome partly fills each crater. The timing of cone and dome growth is poorly known. Field evidence indicates that the flank dome is older than the summit dome, and K-Ar ages from samples high on the cone suggest that the flank dome is older than about 276,000 years. At least three pyroclastic eruptions have occurred during the past 1250 radiocarbon years. Nearly all of the pyroclastic and dome rocks are moderately to highly porphyritic andesite, with plagioclase, hornblende and clinopyroxene the most common phenocrysts. Geologists who mapped El Chicho??n in 1980 and 1981 warned that the volcano posed a substantial hazard to the surrounding region. This warning was proven to be prophetic by violent eruptions that occurred in March and April of 1982. These eruptions blasted away nearly all of the summit dome, blanketed the surrounding region with tephra, and sent

  16. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Tilling, Robert I.; Canul, Rene

    1984-03-01

    The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chichón, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, México. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. El Chichón is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The basement rocks are folded into generally northwest-trending anticlines and synclines. El Chichón is built over a small dome-like structure superposed on a syncline, and this structure may reflect cumulative deformation related to growth of a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcano. The cone of El Chichón consists almost entirely of pyroclastic rocks. The pre-1982 cone is marked by a 1200-m-diameter (explosion?) crater on the southwest flank and a 1600-m-diameter crater apparently of similar origin at the summit, a lava dome partly fills each crater. The timing of cone and dome growth is poorly known. Field evidence indicates that the flank dome is older than the summit dome, and K-Ar ages from samples high on the cone suggest that the flank dome is older than about 276,000 years. At least three pyroclastic eruptions have occurred during the past 1250 radiocarbon years. Nearly all of the pyroclastic and dome rocks are moderately to highly porphyritic andesite, with plagioclase, hornblende and clinopyroxene the most common phenocrysts. Geologists who mapped El Chichón in 1980 and 1981 warned that the volcano posed a substantial hazard to the surrounding region. This warning was proven to be prophetic by violent eruptions that occurred in March and April of 1982. These eruptions blasted away nearly all of the summit dome, blanketed the surrounding region with tephra, and sent pyroclastic

  17. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  18. The United States and El Salvador.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    economic continuum. Violent uprisings occurred In the mid-1800s as Indigo markets fell and coffee plantations displaced more and more peasants...consequences for El Salvador. It effectively cut off regional markets for the country’s Purgeoning light Industries and forced the return from Honduras of an...pnd more land and other economic resources to producing for the world markets in the heady days of the Alliance, only to be caugt In the world

  19. Why Choose Peace? The El Salvador Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    military options as purely a means to get the Government of El Salvador (GoES) to negotiate for peace.7 Joaquin Villalobos , a former FMLN commander...1996) 8 Joaquin Villalobos , The Salvadoran insurgency: why choose peace?. http://www.c- r.org/our-work/accord/engaging-groups/salvadorean-insurgency.php...annihilate all its men, nor to capture all its arms, only to cause the collapse of its morale. Joaquin Villalobos Commandante, People’s

  20. Improved El Nino forecasting by cooperativity detection.

    PubMed

    Ludescher, Josef; Gozolchiani, Avi; Bogachev, Mikhail I; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-07-16

    Although anomalous episodic warming of the eastern equatorial Pacific, dubbed El Niño by Peruvian fishermen, has major (and occasionally devastating) impacts around the globe, robust forecasting is still limited to about 6 mo ahead. A significant extension of the prewarning time would be instrumental for avoiding some of the worst damages such as harvest failures in developing countries. Here we introduce a unique avenue toward El Niño prediction based on network methods, inspecting emerging teleconnections. Our approach starts from the evidence that a large-scale cooperative mode--linking the El Niño basin (equatorial Pacific corridor) and the rest of the ocean--builds up in the calendar year before the warming event. On this basis, we can develop an efficient 12-mo forecasting scheme, i.e., achieve some doubling of the early-warning period. Our method is based on high-quality observational data available since 1950 and yields hit rates above 0.5, whereas false-alarm rates are below 0.1.

  1. El sistema ESO 296-IG 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüero, E. L.; Paolantonio, S.

    El objeto ESO 296-IG 11 que se presenta en forma de ``V'' y posee destacadas condensaciones a lo largo de cada una de sus dos ramas, las que son de igual extensión (~ 1'), es estudiado en base a material espectroscópico obtenido en el CASLEO. Así se establecen las principales características espectrales, las condiciones físicas y los mecanismos de excitación dominantes de las zonas más notables de su estructura, como así también la distribución de su extinción interna y la variación del grado de excitación de las mismas. Del análisis de las velocidades radiales se determina que se trata de dos galaxias de tipo disco que se están interpenetrando y que conforman un sistema triple junto con una galaxia de contorno elíptico y tamaño considerablemente menor (0.2') que se encuentra a ~ 1.3' del punto de intersección de las dos primeras, ubicada sobre la dirección que contiene a una de éstas y hacia la que se extienden unas débiles y largas prolongaciones de la otra.

  2. High Flow AV Malformation (A-V Shunt) of Mandible: A Rare Life Threatening Entity

    PubMed Central

    Birmiwal, Krishna Gopal; Kar, Indu Bhusan; Bhuyan, Ruchi; Debta, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Intraosseous Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) in the head and neck region are very rare and potentially life threatening entities due to massive hemorrhage. These are the results of an embryonic abnormality of the vascular system. Depending on the blood flow and clinical presentations they are of different types like slow flow and high flow AVM. Here we present a case of high flow AVM involving mandible with a chief complain of gingival bleeding in a four year old girl child. PMID:28050516

  3. Development of English and French Language and Literacy Skills in EL1 and EL French Immersion Students in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au-Yeung, Karen; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian; D'Angelo, Nadia; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report two studies that compared the development of English and French language and literacy skills in French immersion students identified as native English speakers (EL1s) and English learners (ELs). In study 1, 81 EL1s and 147 ELs were tested in the fall and spring terms of grade 1. The EL1s and ELs had similar outcomes and…

  4. Habitus furibundo en el gueto estadounidense1

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Hart, Laurie; Karandinos, George

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Durante cinco años, un torbellino cotidiano de tiroteos, apuñalamientos y asaltos afectó a la venta de drogas al aire libre en el vecindario puertorriqueño de Filadelfia, donde residíamos y conducíamos nuestro trabajo de campo. La industria de los narcóticos ha venido a llenar el vacío que dejó la desindustrialización, convirtiendo al antiguo distrito fabril de la ciudad en un mercado de narcóticos a cielo abierto que emplea en sus niveles más bajos a jóvenes puertorriqueños y cuyos clientes son principalmente heroinómanos blancos de bajos recursos. La capacidad para movilizar la furia asegura el éxito en la economía de las drogas, garantiza protección en las cárceles y le provee un ingreso mínimo a una población de bajos recursos estigmatizada cuyos miembros frecuentemente reciben diagnósticos médicos de discapacidad cognitiva. Muchos residentes buscan alianzas en redes sociales que los comprometen a participar en intercambios solidarios de violencia auxiliar. Una dinámica de acumulación primitiva corporizada mata, hiere, discapacita o encarcela a la mayoría de estos empleados de bajo nivel y a sus clientes. Los inflados márgenes de ganancia alrededor de esta dinámica dependen de la violencia y la coerción. Un habitus furibundo impulsa a los vendedores callejeros a defender violentamente el micro monopolio de poder de sus jefes en la economía subterránea como si fuese un asunto de diversión. Estos miembros de los niveles más bajos de la industria del narcotráfico se apresuran a fraguar transacciones comerciales en ausencia de un marco legal en un ambiente de escasez que sin embargo se ve inundado por enormes flujos de dinero, drogas adictivas y armas automáticas. Tras las drásticas reformas a los programas de seguridad social, la mano izquierda del Estado, en la forma de los servicios sociales, intenta prolongar los subsidios para individuos vulnerables diagnosticándolos como discapacitados cognitivos permanentes

  5. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  6. El Dorado micellar-polymer demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenwald, G.W.

    1980-02-01

    The micellar fluid injection was completed in the north (Chesney) pattern, and injection of polymer soluttion was initiated. Polymer solution was injected into the south (Hegberg) pattern during the entire reporting period. The third step of the graded polymer injection design is nearing completion. Fluid movement at the observation wells has been monitored closely. Oil mobilization has been indicated by the detection of an oil bank moving past some of the observation wells in both patterns. No significant changes in fluid composition have occurred at the eight production wells during this reporting period. Three flow tests designed to define the optimal salinity for the north pattern polymer drive were made using El Dorado 650-ft Sandstone cores. Results of these tests indicated that a polymer drive with 1.0 wt %. NaCl in El Dorado lake water has the highest oil recovery efficiency. The pressures in the project monitoring wells were measured four times. Two sets of pressure transient tests were conducted to determine the extent of a hydraulic fracture of well MP-213; these tests also involved wells MP-226 and MP-227. An extensive discussion of the west-to-east pressure gradient observed in the field was presented last year. Data indicate the gradient still exists. Computations show that the gradient cannot be caused by the degree of reservoir heterogeneity thought to exist in the El Dorado reservoir. Although the cause of the gradient remains unexplained, its adverse impact on ultimate oil recovery could be significant and should be considered in future performance modeling. An estimate of recovery efficiency was made based on the updated calculations and the data taken for the one-foot interval at well MP-131. These preliminary results showed about 40% displacement efficiency.

  7. Metal/sulfide-silicate intergrowth textures in EL3 meteorites: Origin by impact melting on the EL parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Niekerk, Deon; Keil, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    We document the petrographic setting and textures of Fe,Ni metal, the mineralogy of metallic assemblages, and the modal mineral abundances in the EL3 meteorites Asuka (A-) 881314, A-882067, Allan Hills 85119, Elephant Moraine (EET) 90299/EET 90992, LaPaz Icefield 03930, MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02635, MAC 02837/MAC 02839, MAC 88136, Northwest Africa (NWA) 3132, Pecora Escarpment 91020, Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 93351/QUE 94321, QUE 94594, and higher petrologic type ELs Dar al Gani 1031 (EL4), Sayh al Uhaymir 188 (EL4), MAC 02747 (EL4), QUE 94368 (EL4), and NWA 1222 (EL5). Large metal assemblages (often containing schreibersite and graphite) only occur outside chondrules and are usually intergrown with silicate minerals (euhedral to subhedral enstatite, silica, and feldspar). Sulfides (troilite, daubréelite, and keilite) are also sometimes intergrown with silicates. Numerous authors have shown that metal in enstatite chondrites that are interpreted to have been impact melted contains euhedral crystals of enstatite. We argue that the metal/sulfide-silicate intergrowths in the ELs we studied were also formed during impact melting and that metal in EL3s thus does not retain primitive (i.e., nebular) textures. Likewise, the EL4s are also impact-melt breccias. Modal abundances of metal in the EL3s and EL4s range from approximately 7 to 30 wt%. These abundances overlap or exceed those of EL6s, and this is consistent either with pre-existing heterogeneity in the parent body or with redistribution of metal during impact processes.

  8. [The health system of El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Mónica; Sáenz, María del Rocío; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in El Salvador and the main característics of the Salvadoran health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health, and the participation of health care users in the evaluation of the system. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations including the approval of the Law for the Creation of the National Health System, which intends to expand coverage, reduce health inequalities and improve the coordination of public health institutions.

  9. Enzymatic characterization of a lysin encoded by bacteriophage EL.

    PubMed

    Tafoya, Diana A; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Herrera, Nadia; Molugu, Sudheer K; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Bernal, Ricardo A

    2013-04-01

    The bacteriophage EL is a virus that specifically attacks the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This phage carries a large genome that encodes for its own chaperonin which presumably facilitates the proper folding of phage proteins independently of the host chaperonin system. EL also encodes a lysin enzyme, a critical component of the lytic cycle that is responsible for digesting the peptidoglycan layer of the host cell wall. Previously, this lysin was believed to be a substrate of the chaperonin encoded by phage EL. In order to characterize the activity of the EL lysin, and to determine whether lysin activity is contingent on chaperonin-mediated folding, a series of peptidoglycan hydrolysis activity assays were performed. Results indicate that the EL-encoded lysin has similar enzymatic activity to that of the Gallus gallus lysozyme and that the EL lysin folds into a functional enzyme in the absence of phage chaperonin and should not be considered a substrate.

  10. A theory for El Nino and the Southern Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Zebiak, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean model is presented for El Nino and the Southern Oscillation that reproduces its major features, including its recurrence at irregular intervals. The interannual El Nino-Southern Oscillation cycle is maintained by deterministic interactions in the tropical Pacific region. Ocean dynamics alter sea-surface temperature, changing the atmospheric heating; the resulting changes in surface wind alter the ocean dynamics. Annually varying mean conditions largely determine the spatial pattern and temporal evolution of El Nino events.

  11. The Child's Tantrum: El Nino. The Origin of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picault, Joel; Hackert, Eric; Busalacchi, Antonio; Murtugudde, Ragu; Lagerloef, Gary

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, a child's tantrums caught the world's attention. These tantrums took the form not of crying and foot stamping, but of droughts and floods. Obviously, this was no ordinary child. It was, in fact, The Child, or El Nino, as it was, named in the late 1800s by South American observers, who noted that its timing coincided with the Christmas holiday. El Nino is a reversal in sea surface temperature (SST) distributions that occurs once every few years in the tropical Pacific. When it coincides with a cyclical shift in air pressure, known as the Southern Oscillation, normal weather patterns are drastically altered. The combined phenomenon is known as El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Although ENSO is a regular phenomenon, it was unusually strong in 1997. It produced heavy rainfall and floods in California and bestowed spring-like temperatures on the Midwest during the winter. These drastic changes in normal weather patterns captured the public imagination, from news reports to jokes on late-night talk shows. Naturally, people wanted to. know as much, about El Nino as possible. Fortunately, scientists had at their disposal new satellites and ocean sensors that provided an unprecedented level of information. Consequently, not only was the 1997 ENSO the strongest in recent memory, but it was also the most thoroughly studied. Prominent groups such as the NASA Seasonalto-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) combined numerous aspects of climate modeling into a single, predictive endeavor.

  12. Watching for the Next El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Topex/Poseidon image of sea-surface heights was taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending August 7, 2002. Sea-surface heights are a measure of how much heat is stored in the ocean below to influence future planetary climate events. Since May 2001, there have been a series of warm Kelvin waves--eastward-moving ocean waves that cross the equatorial Pacific in about two months. A sizable one arrived at the South American coast last February, raising the ocean temperature by 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) and triggering the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's forecast for a mild El Nino in 2002. There was another wave in June, followed by the current large pool of warm water in the tropical Pacific that is now moving toward the coast of South America at a speed of 215 kilometers (134 miles) a day and will arrive there in three to four weeks, raising ocean temperatures. Scientists will continue to monitor the Pacific closely for further signs of El Nino formation and intensity.

  13. El Nino Threatens, but Fizzles (for Now)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the first two weeks in June, the surface winds and sea surface temperatures across the Pacific Ocean began to display an all-too-familiar pattern. Normally, the trade winds in the equatorial Pacific blow from east to west and push warm surface waters from the eastern Pacific westward. As is indicated by the arrows displaying wind speed and direction in the above Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat) satellite data, the trade winds stopped and in some cases reversed course across the equatorial Pacific in early June. Consequently, the waters in the eastern Pacific grew warmer than usual. If this trend continued or intensified, another El Nino would have settled in by fall 2002 and rainfall and atmospheric circulation patterns would have begun to change across North and South America. However, in the later half of June conditions returned to normal. Scientists hope that satellite data from QuikScat will help them to study and even forecast future El Nino events. Launched aboard the SeaWinds satellite in 1999, the QuickScat instrument essentially sends out high frequency radio waves to detect the frothiness of ocean water. Since choppy ocean water is created almost solely by the surface winds blowing across the ocean, scientists can obtain an accurate measure of wind speed and direction from these data. Image courtesy NASA JPL Air-Sea Interaction and Climate Team

  14. El Niño rides again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, Elaine

    Another weather-disrupting El Niño may be brewing in the Pacific Ocean, according to ocean measurements taken by NASA instruments on two orbiting satellites. Sea-surface height measurements taken by the radar altimeter on board the joint U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite and wind data collected by the NASA scatterometer on Japan's Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) have been used together for the first time to predict changing weather conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean.El Niño occurs when steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and reverse direction, moving the mass of warm water near Australia eastward to the coast of South America. The displacement of the warm water mass alters the atmospheric jet stream and weather patterns around the world. The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite uses an altimeter to bounce radar signals off the ocean's surface to make precise measurements of the distance between the satellite and sea surface. Researchers then map the barely perceptible hills and valleys of the sea surface by combining these data with measurements pinpointing the satellite's exact location in space.

  15. Numerical simulation of El Chichon volcanic cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Hirono, M.

    1985-01-01

    The stratospheric volcanic cloud from the eruption of El Chichon, Mexico, on April 4, 1982 was observed routinely by a Nd:YAG lidar system from April 18, 1982 at Kyushu University. There were two phenomena detected by lidar observation of the El Chichon volcanic cloud: (1) The main enhanced layer was formed in the summer easterly wind region over Fukuoka (33.5 deg N, 130.4 deg E). The layer had two high gradient top and bottom boundaries. The layer width slowly broadened until September 1982, when the easterly wind changed to the westerly wind. A similar phenomenon was observed after the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in May 1980. (2) The stratospheric integrated backscattering coefficient (IBC) reached a peak value on May 3, 1982. It then gradually decreased until August, but reincreased significantly from September to December 1982. After January 1983, IBC decreased slowly. This remarkable reincrease had not been seen in past increases which had been observed by lidar at Kyushu University. These phenomena are briefly discussed.

  16. Decadal Variation of the Number of El Nino Onsets and El Nino-Related Months and Estimating the Likelihood of El Nino Onset in a Warming World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Examination of the decadal variation of the number of El Nino onsets and El Nino-related months for the interval 1950-2008 clearly shows that the variation is better explained as one expressing normal fluctuation and not one related to global warming. Comparison of the recurrence periods for El Nino onsets against event durations for moderate/strong El Nino events results in a statistically important relationship that allows for the possible prediction of the onset for the next anticipated El Nino event. Because the last known El Nino was a moderate event of short duration (6 months), having onset in August 2006, unless it is a statistical outlier, one expects the next onset of El Nino probably in the latter half of 2009, with peak following in November 2009-January 2010. If true, then initial early extended forecasts of frequencies of tropical cyclones for the 2009 North Atlantic basin hurricane season probably should be revised slightly downward from near average-to-above average numbers to near average-to-below average numbers of tropical cyclones in 2009, especially as compared to averages since 1995, the beginning of the current high-activity interval for tropical cyclone activity.

  17. On the statistics of El Nino occurrences and the relationship of El Nino to volcanic and solar/geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    El Nino is conventionally defined as an anomalous and persistent warming of the waters off the coasts of Ecuador and Peru in the eastern equatorial Pacific, having onset usually in Southern Hemispheric summer/fall. Some of the statistical aspects of El Nino occurrences are examined, especially as they relate to the normal distribution and to possible associations with volcanic, solar, and geomagnetic activity. With regard to the very strong El Nino of 1982 to 1983, it is noted that, although it may very well be related to the 1982 eruptions of El Chichon, the event occurred essentially on time (with respect to the past behavior of elapsed times between successive El Nino events; a moderate-to-stronger El Nino was expected during the interval 1978 to 1982, assuming that El Nino occurrences are normally distributed, having a mean elapsed time between successive onsets of 4 years and a standard deviation of 2 years and a last known occurrence in 1976). Also, although not widely recognized, the whole of 1982 was a record year for geomagnetic activity (based on the aa geomagnetic index, with the aa index registering an all time high in February 1982), perhaps, important for determining a possible trigger for this and other El Nino events. A major feature is an extensive bibliography (325 entries) on El Nino and volcanic-solar-geomagnetic effects on climate. Also, included is a tabular listing of the 94 major volcanic eruptions of 1835 to 1986.

  18. 78 FR 14031 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... El Monte Airport, El Monte, CA. This action, initiated by the biennial review of the El Monte... El Monte Airport. DATES: Comments must be received on or before April 18, 2013. ADDRESSES:...

  19. 76 FR 21827 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; El Dorado, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; El Dorado, KS...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at El Dorado, KS. Decommissioning of the El Dorado non-directional beacon (NDB) at Captain Jack Thomas/El Dorado Airport, El Dorado, KS, has made this...

  20. 76 FR 44256 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; El Dorado, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; El Dorado, KS AGENCY... airspace for El Dorado, KS. Decommissioning of the El Dorado non-directional beacon (NDB) at Captain Jack Thomas/El Dorado Airport, El Dorado, KS, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety...

  1. 76 FR 48833 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 20, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944...) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon, in place, El Paso's El Paso-Douglas Line (Line No. 1004) in...

  2. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - El Nino Rhythm, Dec, 10, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Dec.10, 1997 and sea surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. The volume and area of the warm water pool related to El Nino has increased again after reaching a temporary low around Dec. 1. TOPEX/Poseidon has been tracking the fluctuations of the El Nino warm pool since it began early this year. Oceanographers believe the recent increases and decreases in the size of the warm water pool at the equator are part of the natural rhythm of El Nino and that the warm pool is occasionally pumped up by wind bursts blowing from the western and central Pacific Ocean. Each wind burst has triggered a temporary increase in area and volume of the warm pool. These data collected throughout 1997 have provided scientists with their first detailed view of how El Nino's warm pool behaves because the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures the changing sea surface height with unprecedented precision. In this image, the white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream

  3. What Is El Nino and How Does It Affect Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biachi, Janine; Nutter, Ann; Price, Jon

    This teaching unit provides materials and information about the effects of El Nino on people, the economy, and nature around the world. It is important for students to know the impact El Nino has had on the world. The unit presents information that builds student's interest in other environmental phenomena as well. This unit offers information on…

  4. English Learners (ELs) and Early Learning. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) and Office of Early Learning (OEL) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) and early learning into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report include: (1) State-funded preschool programs with highest percentage of ELs: Fall 2013; (2)…

  5. County Maps of the English Learner (EL) Population. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The maps presented depict the EL population by county--changes in their numbers from SY 2000-01 to SY 2011-12, and the total number and percentage of all students identified as…

  6. Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English learners include: (1) Top 20 EL languages, as reported in states' top five lists: SY 2011-12; (2) States, including DC, with 80 percent or…

  7. Children's Voices from El Salvador: War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the decade-long civil war in El Salvador and discusses its historical and cultural roots. Presents 14 letters, 2 poems, and 3 drawings by fourth-grade students in El Salvador that relate to the impact of war on their lives. Provides suggestions for using these letters in social studies classes. (CFR)

  8. 75 FR 38770 - El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Doc No: 2010-16299] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service El Dorado County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The El Dorado County Resource... meeting will be held on July 19, 2010 at 6 p.m.-9 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the...

  9. English Learner (EL) Students Who Are Black. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. This Fast Facts covers data in the following categories: (1) States, Including D.C., with the Highest Concentration of ELs Who Are Black; (2) States, Including D.C., with the…

  10. Hidrógeno neutro en el Hemisferio Austral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.

    Se muestran los resultados de la distribución del HI en el cielo austral, obtenidos a partir de los datos de un relevamiento en la línea de 21 cm recientemente concluido en el IAR. Se discuten algunos de los principales problemas que pueden confrontarse con las observaciones de HI de nuestra Galaxia.

  11. El Midwest Canto Al Pueblo: "otra vez, c/s"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guernica, Antonio Jose; Saavedra, Pilar

    1977-01-01

    El Midwest Canto Al Pueblo was a successful effort to bring artists, poets, musicians, and cultural workers together in a setting conducive to a free and easy interchange of ideas and directions in order to reaffirm, share, and celebrate the identity of La Raza with el pueblo. The activities during the 10-day festival included poetry readings,…

  12. What's in a Diary? Di-EL First Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nott, Pauline; Brown, P. Margaret; Cowan, Rogert; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    Children with hearing loss and their families are now presenting for early intervention support and guidance at increasingly younger ages. At present there is a paucity of research that informs teachers about early language development in the child with hearing loss. Di-EL First Words (Di-EL) is a diary technique through which parents record their…

  13. A Classroom Activity: Tracking El Niño

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbe, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce an activity for teachers to assist in meeting learning outcomes as defined in the earth and environmental science units of the Australian Curriculum. The focus of the classroom tasks is on a global ocean feature referred to as El Niño. This phenomenon is part of the El Niño Southern Oscillation, which is largely…

  14. Drawing a Line in the Sand: Identifying the Borderzone between Self and Other in EL1 and EL2 Citation Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Theresa Ann

    2009-01-01

    Current concerns about academic plagiarism in student writing assume qualitative and quantitative differences in the writing of students for whom English is a first language (EL1) and English is a second language (EL2), but lack precision in measuring those differences. I examined the citation practices of EL1 and EL2 students in a timed writing…

  15. Trazando el brazo de Vela-Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; Vázquez, R. A.; Baume, G. L.; Seggewiss, W.; Feinstein, A.

    Presentamos resultados preliminares basados en análisis fotométricos UBVI para 9 cúmulos abiertos ubicados en la zona de Vela-Puppis (α =7h58m y 9h54m, δ =- 28o a -59o) sobre un total de 15 cúmulos previstos. Estos cúmulos no han sido observados previamente, excepto en algunos pocos casos que se cuenta con fotometría y espectroscospía de algunas estrellas. Se han determinado membrecias, excesos de color, distancias y edades. En el futuro, la muestra global permitirá definir mas claramente este brazo y será utilizada para estudiar las funciones iniciales de masa individuales e integradas y compararlas con las obtenidas en observaciones intensivas realizadas en otras zonas de la Galaxia.

  16. El Cerrejon: The mine keeps growing

    SciTech Connect

    Zaburunov, S.A.

    1987-07-01

    The El Cerrejon project is expanding smoothly, steadily increasing production to the design level target of 16.5 million short tpy in 1989. It is the largest coal mine in Latin America. An on-site inspection of the mine and facilities earlier this year revealed a ''magnificent hole in the ground'' full of activity. The infra-structure, technical expertise, and support facilities are largely in place. The first shipment of steam coal came out a year ahead of schedule, as well as being under budget. A series of realistic estimates and an aggressive management are credited for this achievement. The production record has been, and will be: 1985 - 3.1 million tons; 1986 - 5.5 million tons; 1987 - 9.4 million tons; 1988 - 13.2 million tons; 1989 - 16.5 million tons; 2008 - 16.5 million tons.

  17. The genetic male legacy from El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Lovo-Gómez, J; Blanco-Verea, A; Lareu, M V; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2007-09-13

    Allele frequencies and haplotype and haplogroup analysis have been performed for 16 Y-chromosome binary markers and 8 Y-chromosome STRs (DYS19, DYS385I and II, DYS389I and II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393). Data was obtained from a general sample of 93 unrelated individuals living in metropolitan areas from El Salvador, and 67 individuals from different historical ethnic groups, Conchagua, San Alejo, Panchimalco, Izalco and finally Nueva Concepción with white people. Levels of admixture among metropolitan and rural areas were evaluated and population substructure measured. A total of 13 haplogroups and 136 different haplotypes were found. The most frequent haplogroup in the general metropolitan population was the European R1b, while in the Indigenous samples considered as a whole the most frequent was the Amerindian haplogroup Q3.

  18. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  19. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - El Nino Moisture in the Atmosphere, January and February, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This series of six images shows the evolution of atmospheric water vapor over the Pacific Ocean during the 1998 El Nino condition. Higher than normal ocean water temperatures increase the rate of evaporation, and the resulting warm moist air rises into the atmosphere, altering global weather patterns. Data obtained by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) during January and February 1998 show a decrease in the extent of high levels of water vapor (red) over the eastern equatorial Pacific and an increase in water vapor (yellow to red) over the northwestern Pacific off the coast of Japan. This area is a breeding ground for winter storms that move eastward toward North America. During this El Nino condition, the southern tropical jet stream has shifted northward, bringing additional moisture from the tropics. When these two sources of moisture converge near California, they produce storms with higher-than-normal rainfall.

  20. Very early warning of next El Niño.

    PubMed

    Ludescher, Josef; Gozolchiani, Avi; Bogachev, Mikhail I; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2014-02-11

    The most important driver of climate variability is the El Niño Southern Oscillation, which can trigger disasters in various parts of the globe. Despite its importance, conventional forecasting is still limited to 6 mo ahead. Recently, we developed an approach based on network analysis, which allows projection of an El Niño event about 1 y ahead. Here we show that our method correctly predicted the absence of El Niño events in 2012 and 2013 and now announce that our approach indicated (in September 2013 already) the return of El Niño in late 2014 with a 3-in-4 likelihood. We also discuss the relevance of the next El Niño to the question of global warming and the present hiatus in the global mean surface temperature.

  1. Primeros resultados sobre el estudio de oscilaciones no radiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    En el Observatorio de La Plata se ha comenzado a elaborar un código de pulsaciones el cual resuelve el problema de las oscilaciones no radiales en el caso adiabático. Dicho código está basado en la técnica de diferencias finitas ampliamente usado en cálculos de estructura y evolución estelar. En este trabajo se presentan los primeros resultados encontrados aplicando el código mencionado al caso de una polítropa de índice n=3. Se presentan los valores de las autofrecuencias y las autofunciones para diferentes modos de pulsación de dicha configuración politrópica. En un futuro próximo, se aplicará este programa al estudio de las pulsaciones no radiales de estrellas enanas blancas.

  2. Estudio de la estructura logica utilizada en la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de los conceptos sobre el comportamiento de gases en el curso introductorio de quimica a nivel universitario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Diaz, Agnes

    El estudio que se presenta es de caracter cualitativo, un estudio multicasos donde se estudia la estructura logica utilizada por cuatro (4) profesores universitarios que ensenan el curso introductorio de quimica, en la planificacion, presentacion y evaluacion del tema sobre el comportamiento de los gases. Se utilizaron varias fuentes de informacion como: cuestionarios de profesores y estudiantes, entrevistas, grabaciones videomagnetofonicas, materiales didacticos y una prueba conceptual, entre otros. La informacion recopilada fue analizada de acuerdo al orden logico del contenido presentado, el estilo de ensenanza del profesor, las tecnicas y estrategias utilizadas para el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, el ambiente fisico en el salon de clase y los instrumentos de evaluacion y avaluo. El estudio demuestra que lo que los profesores piensan y planifican para hacer sus presentaciones no necesariamente es lo que ocurre en el salon de clases. El desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, que constituye una prioridad de los profesores, no se elaboran efectivamente. El uso de las estrategias de resolucion de problemas numericos predomino. La participacion del estudiante en el salon de clases fue limitada y no se logro demostrar el desarrollo de las destrezas de pensamiento deseadas. Aunque los profesores tienen su propio estilo de ensenanza, el orden logico del contenido presentado en clase fue el mismo o siguio muy de cerca el orden establecido por el libro de texto. Los profesores utilizaron preferentemente la tiza y la pizarra para sus presentaciones y la dinamica en el salon de clases fue esencialmente tradicional. Los profesores hicieron su presentacion y los estudiantes copiaron pasivamente la informacion. Las evaluaciones de los estudiantes fueron esencialmente, pruebas escritas de seleccion multiple de acuerdo con el estilo en que se les enseno. El avaluo fue casi inexistente. La prueba conceptual administrada revela un aprendizaje pobre en los conceptos mas

  3. Espectroscopía Espacial en el IR-Lejano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Cernicharo, J.

    Debido a la opacidad atmosférica, el dominio IR--lejano del espectro electromagnético ha sido la última ventana en ser utilizada por la Astrofísica Molecular. El potencial que supone abrir este nuevo rango de frecuencias a través de la espectroscopía molecular ha comenzado a ser explotado con el Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). La sensibilidad de la instrumentación embarcada en dicho satélite no tiene comparación alguna con las escasas misiones espaciales, o a bordo de aviones, realizadas con anterioridad a su lanzamiento. En particular, casi todo el rango operativo de ISO en el IR--lejano no había sido explorado. El espectro IR--lejano de las fuentes más representativas de la galaxia era desconocido y los principales emisores de radiación, las moléculas, estaban por identificar. Las observaciones en el IR--lejano están especialmente indicadas para el estudio del gas caliente en las nubes moleculares del medio interestelar y en el interior de las envolturas circunestelares alrededor de estrellas evolucionadas. Algunas de estas fuentes; Sgr B2 en el Centro Galáctico y las Proto--Nebulosas Planetarias, constituyen uno de los objetos más paradigmáticos en nuestra comprensión de la complejidad química de La Galaxia. En esta contribución se presentan los resultados espectroscópicos más importantes de algunas de estas fuentes astronómicas.

  4. The economic potential of El-Gedida glauconite deposits, El-Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Habaak, Galal; Askalany, Mohamed; Faraghaly, Mohamed; Abdel-Hakeem, Mahmoud

    2016-08-01

    The mining work at El-Gedida iron mine, El-Bahariya Oasis, in the Western Desert of Egypt extracts commercial iron ore deposits without attention paid to the large glauconite deposits overlying these iron ore deposits. For this reason, the present paper aims at evaluating and attracting the attention to these glauconite deposits as alternative potassium fertilizers. The study was achieved by investigating mineralogical, physical and chemical properties of the green deposits. Mineralogical and physical properties involved the determination of glauconite pellets content in different grain size fractions relative to impurities and the analysis of the percentage of clay matrix and grain size distribution. Different pre-treatment strategies and methods including comminution, sieving, magnetic separation, and X-ray diffraction were used for investigating those mineralogical and physical properties. On the other hand, chemical analyses included potassium content, heavy metal concentrations, and pH and salinity measurements. The major elements and trace elements were measured using ICP-OES and the pH was measured using a pH conductometer. Moreover, this study investigated the nature of grain boundaries and the effect of sieving on glauconite beneficiation. Results of this study suggest that El-Gedida glauconite deposits are mineralogically, physically and chemically suitable for exploitation and can be beneficiated for use as an alternative potassium fertilizer.

  5. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - El Nino Moisture in the Atmosphere, February 22, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image shows differences in atmospheric water vapor relative to a normal (average) year in the Earth's upper troposphere about 10 kilometers (6 miles) above the surface. These measurements were made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument aboard NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). This image, obtained on February 22, 1998, shows that high levels of atmospheric water vapor (red) continue to persist above the warm water pool, commonly referred to as El Nino, in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. This image also shows high levels of atmospheric moisture above Southern California. The extent of this high moisture area along the equator has slightly decreased since late January, which corresponds to the shrinking volume of the warm water pool on the ocean's surface. During El Nino, the warmer ocean water off the coast of Peru evaporates at a higher rate, and the resulting warm moist air rises, forming tall cloud towers. In the tropics, the warm water and the resulting tall cloud towers typically produce large amounts of rain. These data show a new formation of high levels of moisture off the coast of Japan in an area that is the typical breeding ground for winter storms. Storms produced off the coast of Japan normally migrate eastward toward the western United States. During this El Nino condition, the southern tropical jet stream has shifted northward, bringing additional moisture from the tropics. When these two sources of moisture converge near California, they produce storms with higher-than-normal rainfall.

  6. 76 FR 77994 - Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Brian Hamilton v. El Paso Natural Gas, El Paso Western Pipelines; Notice Announcing Docket Number Change On December 2, 2011, the Commission issued a notice in docket number...

  7. ``EL2'' revisited: Observation of metastable and stable energy levels of EL2 in semi-insulating GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiraj, D.; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2005-12-01

    By using a combination of detailed experimental studies, we identify the metastable and stable energy levels of EL2 in semi-insulating GaAs. These results are discussed in light of the recently proposed models for EL2 in GaAs.

  8. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - El Nino is Still Lingering in the Pacific May 3, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea-surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on May 3, 1998, and sea-surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. The image shows that sea-surface height along the central and eastern equatorial Pacific has maintained a near normal state since March 1998. However, the western equatorial Pacific, shown here in purple, has not returned to a normal state and is still about 30 centimeters (12 inches) below normal sea level. Remnants of the El Nino warm water pool, shown in red and white, are situated to the north of the equator. Oceanographers indicate these measurements show that the Pacific has not yet fully recovered from this large El Nino event. These sea-surface height measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of how the 1997-98 El Nino's warm water pool behaves because the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures the changing sea-surface height with unprecedented precision. In this image, the white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The green areas indicate normal conditions. The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using satellite imagery, buoy and ship data, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National

  9. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - El Nino Warm Water Pool Decreasing, Jan, 08, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Jan. 8, 1998, and sea surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. The volume of the warm water pool related to the El Nino has decreased by about 40 percent since its maximum in early November, but the area of the warm water pool is still about one and a half times the size of the continental United States. The volume measurements are computed as the sum of all the sea surface height changes as compared to normal ocean conditions. In addition, the maximum water temperature in the eastern tropical Pacific, as measured by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is still higher than normal. Until these high temperatures diminish, the El Nino warm water pool still has great potential to disrupt global weather because the high water temperatures directly influence the atmosphere. Oceanographers believe the recent decrease in the size of the warm water pool is a normal part of El Nino's natural rhythm. TOPEX/Poseidon has been tracking these fluctuations of the El Nino warm pool since it began in early 1997. These sea surface height measurements have provided scientists with their first detailed view of how El Nino's warm pool behaves because the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures the changing sea surface height with unprecedented precision. In this image, the white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds

  10. Fighting Narcotraffic in Latin America: Mexico and El Salvador - A Comparative Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    QUESTION ......................................................................1 B . SIGNIFICANCE OF THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN MEXICO AND EL...15 B . MEXICO .........................................................................................................17 1. The...Relations ..................................................47 B . EL SALVADOR

  11. Movimientos peculiares de galaxias en el Universo cercano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, M. V.

    Se presenta un resumen de los resultados más importantes obtenidos en los últimos años sobre movimientos peculiares en el Universo Cercano. En el escenario de inestabilidad gravitacional, el campo de velocidades peculiares es una herramienta muy útil para estimar las fluctuaciones en la distribución de masa que generan los movimientos observados. Esta aproximación puede, además, ser utilizada para poner restricciones al espectro de potencia de la masa, a la relación entre las distribuciones de galaxias y de materia y al valor del parámetro de densidad cosmológico, Ω, a grandes escalas. Son además presentados una reconstrucción preliminar de los campos de densidad de masa y velocidades peculiares en el universo cercano usando nuevas medidas de distancias obtenidas con la relación Dn - σ, para una muestra de galaxias elípticas y lenticulares. Dos subestructuras prominentes son encontradas en la región del Gran Atractor, que corresponden a los complejos de Centaurus y Pavo--Indus. Estos últimos, junto a los complejos de Perseus--Piscis y Cetus parecen ser importantes estructuras que determinan el flujo global. El patrón obtenido a través de una muestra de galaxias elípticas muestra variaciones con respecto al obtenido por galaxias espirales. Estos nuevos resultados muestran una coherencia menor en el flujo global, cuando son comparados con resultados obtenidos anteriormente.

  12. Percolation framework to describe El Niño conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jun; Fan, Jingfang; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Havlin, Shlomo

    2017-03-01

    Complex networks have been used intensively to investigate the flow and dynamics of many natural systems including the climate system. Here, we develop a percolation based measure, the order parameter, to study and quantify climate networks. We find that abrupt transitions of the order parameter usually occur ˜1 year before El Niño events, suggesting that they can be used as early warning precursors of El Niño. Using this method, we analyze several reanalysis datasets and show the potential for good forecasting of El Niño. The percolation based order parameter exhibits discontinuous features, indicating a possible relation to the first order phase transition mechanism.

  13. Percolation framework to describe El Niño conditions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Fan, Jingfang; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Havlin, Shlomo

    2017-03-01

    Complex networks have been used intensively to investigate the flow and dynamics of many natural systems including the climate system. Here, we develop a percolation based measure, the order parameter, to study and quantify climate networks. We find that abrupt transitions of the order parameter usually occur ∼1 year before El Niño events, suggesting that they can be used as early warning precursors of El Niño. Using this method, we analyze several reanalysis datasets and show the potential for good forecasting of El Niño. The percolation based order parameter exhibits discontinuous features, indicating a possible relation to the first order phase transition mechanism.

  14. El Niño's impact on California precipitation: seasonality, regionality, and El Niño intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, Bor-Ting; Ting, Mingfang; Seager, Richard

    2016-05-01

    California has experienced severe drought in recent years posing great challenges to agricultural production, water resources, and land management. El Niño, as the prime source of seasonal to interannual climate predictability, offers the potential of amelioration of drought in California. Here El Niño’s impacts on California winter precipitation are examined, focusing on variations by season, region, and the strength of El Niño using observational data for the period 1901-2010. The El Niño influence on California precipitation strengthens from early to late winter and is stronger in the south than the north. Eight of ten moderate-to-strong El Niños in the late winter put southern California in the wettest tercile and none of these ten events put northern California in the driest tercile. The early to late winter strengthening of the El Niño impact on precipitation occurs even as El Niño weakens and is associated with a strengthening and eastward extending tropical deep convection anomaly allowed by the late winter warming of the climatological mean sea surface temperature over the tropical eastern Pacific.

  15. El fenotipo de las mucinas en el esófago de Barrett

    PubMed Central

    Torrado, Julio; Piazuelo, María Blanca; Ruiz, Irune; Izarzugaza, María Isabel; Camargo, María Constanza; Delgado, Alberto; Abdirad, Afshin; Correa, Pelayo

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes El esófago de Barrett es una reconocida lesión precursora de adenocarcinoma esofágico. Aunque generalmente asociada al reflujo gastroesofágico, los mecanismos patogénicos de la enfermedad no son bien conocidos. El objetivo del presente estudio es explorar la historia natural e identificar marcadores de progreso del proceso precanceroso. Material y métodos Se utilizaron cortes histológicos de 67 especímenes de esófago correspondientes a 14 pacientes con esófago de Barrett, a los que se siguió entre 1 – 9 años. Se clasificaron las lesiones en: esófago de Barrett sin displasia, indefinido para displasia o con displasia. Se evaluó la expresión de diferentes mucinas en las células caliciformes y en las columnares usando técnicas de histoquímica e inmunohistoquímica. Resultados En todos los casos se comprobó la presencia de metaplasia intestinal incompleta. Las células columnares dentro del epitelio metaplásico contenían mucinas neutras. A mayor severidad de la lesión se encontró significativamente menor expresión de sialomucinas en las células columnares (p de tendencia igual a 0,03). En sujetos con lesiones indefinidas para displasia se observó un mayor contenido de sulfomucinas en las células caliciformes (p=0,034) y de MUC2 en las células columnares (p=0,029) que en sujetos con esófago de Barrett sin displasia. Se observó expresión de la mucina intestinal MUC2 y de la mucina gástrica MUC5AC en todas las muestras. MUC6, una mucina de las glándulas profundas gástricas, se presentó ocasionalmente. Conclusión La evaluación de los perfiles de mucinas en el esófago de Barrett sugiere una transición gradual del fenotipo del epitelio metaplásico a medida que la lesión avanza en el tiempo. PMID:21804831

  16. Did El Nino Weather Give Zika a Boost?

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162611.html Did El Nino Weather Give Zika a Boost? Climate phenomenon could have helped infection- ... might have aided the explosive spread of the Zika virus throughout South America, a new study reports. ...

  17. Super Guppy Swallows T-38s; Heads for El Paso

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA T-38 aircraft were swallowed whole by NASA's Super Guppy recently on Dryden Flight Research Center's back ramp. The Guppy then airlifted the two retired T-38s to El Paso, Texas, where they...

  18. Landsat's Decades-Long Look at El Paso, Texas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Landsat satellites have captured hundreds of images of the regionsurrounding El Paso, Texas since the program started in 1972. On May30, 2013, Landsat 8 began adding to the program’s extensive ...

  19. El Nino - La Nina Implications on Flood Hazard Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    R. French; J. Miller

    2006-03-31

    The effects of El Nino and La Nina periods on the maximum daily winter period depths of precipitation are examined using records from five precipitation gages on the Nevada Test Site. The potential implications of these effects are discussed.

  20. View of ATSF rail yard from top of El Tovar, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of ATSF rail yard from top of El Tovar, view east. Note superindent's house (distant left) and Grand Canyon rail station (center). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  1. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  2. RadNet Air Data From El Paso, TX

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for El Paso, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  3. Holocene eruptive activity of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilling, R. I.; Rubin, M.; Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S.; Duffield, W. A.; Rose, W. I.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and radiometric-age data indicate that El Chichon was frequently and violently active during the Holocene, including eruptive episodes about 600, 1250, and 1700 years ago and several undated, older eruptions. These episodes, involving explosive eruptions of sulfur-rich magma and associated domegrowth processes, were apparently separated by intervals of approximately 350 to 650 years. Some of El Chichon's eruptions may correlate with unusual atmospheric phenomena around A.D. 1300 and possibly A.D. 623.

  4. US Policy in El Salvador: Creating Beauty or the Beast?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Salvador received about one million dollars a day in US assistance from 1981 to 1992.’ American involvement in El Salvador and the results that were...achieved have generated a great deal of controversy. One of the most common themes has been the "failure" of US policy in El Salvador. The signing of...was based on the development of a policy that proved to be flexible, effective, and durable. Additionally, I believe that our role in the

  5. Volcanos and El Nino: Signal separation in northern hemisphere winter

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, I.; Graf, H.F.

    1995-08-01

    The frequent coincidence of volcanic forcing with El Nino events disables the clear assignment of climate anomalies to either volcanic or El Nino forcing. In order to select the signals, a set of four different perpetual January GCM experiments was performed (control, volcano case, El Nino case and combined volcano/El Nino case) and studied with advanced statistical methods for the Northern Hemisphere winter. The results were compared with observations. The signals for the different forcings are discussed for three variables (temperature, zonal wind and geopotential height) and five levels (surface, 850 hPa. 500 hPa, 200 hPa and 50 hPa). The global El Nino signal can be selected more clearly in the troposphere than in the stratosphere. In contrast, the global volcano signal is strongest in the stratospheric temperature field. The amplitude of the perturbation for the volcano case is largest in the Atlantic region. The observed effect of local cooling due to the volcanic reduction of short-wave radiation over large land areas (like Asia) in sub-tropical regions, the observed advective warming over Eurasia and the advective cooling over Greenland are well simulated in the model. The radiative cooling near the surface is important for the volcano signal in the subtropics, but it is weak in high latitudes during winter. A statistically significant tropospheric signal of El Nino forcing occurs in the subtropics and in the mid-latitudes of the North Pacific. The local anomalies in the El Nino forcing region in the tropics, and the warming over North America in middle and high latitudes are simulated as observed. The combined signal is different from a simple linear combination of the separate signals. It leads to a climate perturbation stronger than for forcing with El Nino or stratospheric aerosol alone and to a somewhat modified pattern. 73 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Holocene eruptive activity of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilling, R. I.; Rubin, M.; Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S.; Duffield, W. A.; Rose, W. I.

    1984-05-01

    Geologic and radiometric-age data indicate that El Chichon was frequently and violently active during the Holocene, including eruptive episodes about 600, 1250, and 1700 years ago and several undated, older eruptions. These episodes, involving explosive eruptions of sulfur-rich magma and associated domegrowth processes, were apparently separated by intervals of approximately 350 to 650 years. Some of El Chichon's eruptions may correlate with unusual atmospheric phenomena around A.D. 1300 and possibly A.D. 623.

  7. Observación solar desde el espacio, resultados recientes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. E.

    Presentaremos un resumen de los resultados más recientes sobre la física del sol, obtenidos por medio del análisis de datos de satélites artificiales como el Yohkoh, SOHO y COMPTON/GRO. En particular, nos referiremos a la acción y dinámica de los campos magnéticos en la generación de fenómenos activos y el calentamiento coronal.

  8. Sublingual vaccine with GroEL attenuates atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, M; Kurita-Ochiai, T; Kobayashi, R; Hashizume-Takizawa, T; Yamazaki, K; Yamamoto, M

    2014-04-01

    Autoimmune responses to heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis, whereas immunization with HSP60 may induce atheroprotective responses. We assessed the capacity of an atheroprotective vaccine that targeted a recombinant HSP60 from Porphyromonas gingivalis (rGroEL) to induce a protective mucosal immune response. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient spontaneously hyperlipidemic (Apoe(shl)) mice received sublingual delivery of rGroEL prior to P. gingivalis 381 injection. The animals were euthanized 16 weeks later. Sublingual immunization with rGroEL induced significant rGroEL-specific serum IgG responses. Antigen-specific cells isolated from spleen produced significantly high levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ after antigen re-stimulation in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the frequencies of both IL-10(+) and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) Foxp3(+) cells increased significantly in submandibular glands (SMG). Furthermore, sublingual immunization with rGroEL significantly reduced atherosclerosis lesion formation in the aortic sinus and decreased serum CRP, MCP-1, and ox-LDL levels. These findings suggest that sublingual immunization with rGroEL is associated with the increase of IFNγ(+) or IL-10(+) Foxp3(+) cells in SMG and a systemic humoral response, which could be an effective strategy for the prevention of naturally occurring or P. gingivalis-accelerated atherosclerosis.

  9. An applied sequence stratigraphic approach in reservoirs characterization, Eastern Venezuela: El Carito-El Furrial Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Sifontes de, R.; Hernandez, E. )

    1993-02-01

    Integration of biostratigraphic, sedimentologic and petrophysic data from cores and well logs in reservoirs in El Carito-El Furrial Fields, Northern Monagas, Eastern Venezuelan Basin, allows to differentiate two sedimentary sequences ranging between the Upper Cretaceous and the Oligocene. The Maastrichtian-Paleocene sequence is divided into two sedimentary units (C and 1) both representing a south to north progradation from shallow marine to fluvial environments, within a large regressive cycle. The Middle Eocene to Middle-Late Oligocene sequence includes sedimentary units II and III. Unit II represents a large transgressive cycle of mostly inner neritic deposits with a condensed section at the base which changes laterally from glauconitic to lutitic facies to the south. Unit III grades transitionally from the inner neritic deposits of unit II to shallow marine deposits, and changes to inner neritic deposits again to the top. Unit III is interpreted as a large regressive -transgressive cycle. In all these sedimentary units, lithofacies association, paleoenvironments variation and definition of large cycles helped to define the parasequence stacking sets. The petrographic analysis points out that sandstones in unit C are basically subarcosic, while in units I, I and III are quartzitic. Additionally, sandstones in units C and II are very cemented by quartz and carbonates respectively, showing chemical compaction, in contrast to units I and III where quartz dissolution is a porosity enhancing process. This indicates that sandstones in these units have the best porosity and permeability values, resulting in the best producing intervals in the study area.

  10. ASTER View of Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Red Sea golf resort in Sharm El Sheik, Egypt, where President Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, stands out against the desert landscape in this image acquired on August 25, 2000.

    This image of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula shows an area about 30 by 40 kilometers (19 by 25 miles) in the visible and near infrared wavelength region. Vegetation appears in red. The blue areas in the water at the top and bottom of the image are coral reefs. The airport is visible just to the north of the golf resort.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology

  11. Ocean wave dynamics and El Nino

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, E.K.; Huang, B.; Shukla, J.

    1995-10-01

    The response of an ocean general circulation model to specified wind stress is used to understand the role of ocean wave propagation in the evolution of El Nino events in sea surface temperatures (SST) in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. In a control experiment the ocean model reproduces observed equatorial Pacific interannual variability in response to forcing by the observed wind stress. The ocean model is then forced with the same wind stress but with the time evolution of the wind stress forcing reversed. An analysis of the anomalies from the annual cycle in these two experiments delineates the parts of the response that are in equilibrium with and out of equilibrium with the wind stress forcing. The experiment demonstrates that the heat content is not in equilibrium with the wind stress forcing either on or near the equator. Very close to the equator the slope of the thermocline is in equilibrium with the wind stress, but the mean heat content is far from equilibrium. Slightly off of the equator in the western Pacific westward propagating heat content anomalies appear to originate in regions of strong wind stress forcing and then propagate to the western boundary. These westward propagating anomalies also depart significantly from equilibrium with the wind stress forcing. Additional experiments allow these westward propagating anomalies to be identified as freely propagating Rossby waves. The Rossby waves are shown to determine the equatorial heat content response to the wind stress forcing when they arrive at the western boundary and to be responsible for the nonequilibrium behavior of the equatorial mean heat content. A simplified coupled model is derived by fitting the results and estimating parameter values from the numerical experiments. 45 refs., 16 figs.

  12. Extraction of El-Lajjun oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Anabtawi, M.Z.; Uysal, B.Z.

    1995-10-01

    Extraction of the bitumen fraction of El-Lajjun oil shale was carried out using 17 different solvents, pure and combined. Out of all the solvents used, toluene and chlorform were found to be the most efficient for extraction of the bitumen to perform the major part of the experiments. This selectivity was based on the quality and quantity of the yield and on the quantity of solvent recovered. Extraction was carried out using a Soxhlet extractor. For complete recovery of solvent the extract phase was subjected to two stages of distillation, simple distillation followed by fractional distillation, where different cuts of oil were obtained. It was found that an optimum shale size of 1.0 mm offered better solvent recovery. One hour was the optimum time needed for complete extraction. The yield of oil was determined from the material balance gained from fractional distillation after testing for the existence of any traces of solvent trapped in the different cuts by using a gas chromotography technique. When chloroform was used, it was found that the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.037 g/g of shale, which corresponds to 98% of the actual bitumen trapped in the oil shale (by assuming the bitumen represents 15% of the organic matter) and 84.1% of solvent recovered. When toluene was used, it was found that the average amount of oil extracted was 0.0293 g/g/ of shale, which corresponds to 78% of the actual bitumen trapped in the oil shale (by assuming bitumen represents 15% of the organic matter) and 89.9% of solvent for extraction with toluene.

  13. Gang truce for violence prevention, El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, EC; Amaya, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the effects on homicide rates of the gang truce that was brokered in El Salvador in 2012. Methods Mathematical models based on municipal-level census, crime and gang-intelligence data were used to estimate the effect of the truce on homicide rates. One model estimated the overall effect after accounting for the linear trend and seasonality in the homicide rate. In a moderated-effect model, we investigated the relationship between the truce effect and the numbers of MS13 (Mara Salvatrucha 13) and Eighteenth-Street gang members imprisoned per 100 000 population. We then ran each of these two models with additional control variables. We compared values before the truce – 1 January 2010 to 29 February 2012 – with those after the truce – 1 March 2012 to 31 December 2013. Findings The overall-effect models with and without additional control variables indicated a homicide rate after the truce that was significantly lower than the value before the truce, giving rate ratios of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.49–0.63) and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.54–0.69), respectively. For any given municipality, the effectiveness of the truce appeared to increase as the number of MS13 gang members imprisoned per 100 000 population increased. We did not observe the same significant relationship for imprisoned Eighteenth-Street gang members. Conclusion In the 22 months following the establishment of a national gang truce, the homicide rate was about 40% lower than in the preceding 26 months. The truce’s impact appeared particularly strong in municipalities with relatively high numbers of imprisoned MS13 gang members per 100 000 population. PMID:27708471

  14. 78 FR 28132 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class D airspace at El Monte Airport, El Monte, CA. This action, initiated by the FAA's biennial review of the El...

  15. El Camino's 1st Year as a Fundamental High School: A Descriptive Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housden, Terry; Fiedler, Patricia

    El Camino's first year as a fundamental high school is described. Students wanting to attend El Camino had to apply and agree to the new fundamental emphasis and school rules. As a result, the composition of El Camino's student body changed to one representing all ability levels. Other major changes at El Camino were: (1) academic emphasis was…

  16. El papel de la NASA en la comprensión del cambio

    NASA Video Gallery

    El clima de la Tierra está cambiando debido a la actividad humana. Conoce el papel que juega la NASA para ayudar a comprender el clima y el cambio climático junto con Gilberto Colón, asistente espe...

  17. 76 FR 66708 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... October 7, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904... Department, El Paso Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904, by telephone at... Craig V. Richardson, Vice President & General Counsel, El Paso Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box...

  18. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  19. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - El Nino in Retreat, Pacific in Transition, June 14, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea-surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on June 14, 1998, and sea-surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. This image shows that the tropical Pacific has been switching from warm to cold during the last few months. The purple area in the center of the image is a pulse of cold water moving across the equator which the satellite measures as a region of lower than normal sea level. Scientists indicate that it appears that the central equatorial Pacific ocean will stay colder than normal for some time to come because sea level is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal, creating a deficit in the heat supply to the surface waters. It is not certain yet, if this current cooling trend (shown in purple) will eventually evolve into a long-lasting La Nina situation. Remnants of the El Nino warm water pool, shown here in red and white, are still lingering north of the equator in the center of this image. The effects of El Nino can remain in the climate system for a long time and could still impact weather conditions around the world. The satellite's sea-surface height measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of the 1997-98 El Nino because the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures the changing sea-surface height with unprecedented precision. In this image, the white areas show the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The green areas indicate normal conditions. The purple areas are 14 to 18 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) below normal and the blue areas are 5 to 13 centimeters (2 to 5 inches) below normal. The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a

  20. Petrography, diagenesis and geotechnical properties of the El-Rufuf Formation (Thebes Group), El-Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashed, M. A.; Sediek, K. N.

    1997-10-01

    The El-Rufuf Formation (Thebes Group) outcrops widely in Egypt. It is quarried as an ornamental building stone and used as slabs in walls and floors. It is also important in foundation construction. The geotechnical behaviour of these rocks is commonly related to stratigraphical position, controlled by their petrography and textural and diagenetic features. The El-Rufuf Formation of Naqb Assiut, El-Kharga Oasis, consists of 63 m of micritic and neomorphosed limestones which are marly at the base. Microfacies analysis of these limestones indicates an inner to middle shelf open marine environment. The most common diagenetic features are neomorphism, silicification, dissolution and stylolites. There are clear relationships between the measured compressive strength of rocks and the facies and diagenetic features. Neomorphic sparry limestone has the lowest compressive strength, while cherty biomicritic limestone shows the highest values. Micritic and biomicritic limestones show intermediate values. Some anisotropism of compressive strength values is recorded in the stylolitic limestones and in the foliated marly part of the formation. The present study reveals that the El-Rufuf limestones, according to Deere's (1968) classification, are low to medium strength rocks with low modulus ratios (DL-CL), while the marly parts of the formation are low strength rocks with low modulus ratios (EL). The rocks of the marly part of the El-Rufuf Formation are unstable with regard to water and therefore have a zero softness coefficient.

  1. Remote Sensing the Patterns of Vector-borne Disease in El Nino and non-El Nino Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. L.; Chang, J.; Lobitz, B.; Beck, L.; DAntoni, Hector (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between El Nino and non-El Nino and the patterns of vector-borne disease can be viewed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. At one extreme are long term predictions of changing precipitation and temperature patterns at continental and global scales. At the opposite extreme are the local or site specific ecological changes associated with the long term events. In order to understand and address the human health consequences of El Nino events, especially the patterns of vector-borne diseases, it is necessary to combine both scales of observation. At a local or regional scale the patterns of vector-borne diseases are determined by temperature, precipitation, and habitat availability. These factors, as well as disease incidence can be altered by El Nino events. Remote sensing data such as that acquired by the NOAA AVHRR and Landsat TM sensors can be used to characterize and monitor changing ecological conditions and therefore predict vector-borne disease patterns. The authors present the results of preliminary work on the analysis of historical AVHRR and TM data acquired during El Nino and nonfatal Nino years to characterize ecological conditions in Peru on a monthly basis. This information will then be combined with disease data to determine the relationship between changes in ecological conditions and disease incidence. Our goal is to produce a sequence of remotely sensed images which can be used to show the ecological and disease patterns associated with long term El Nino events and predictions.

  2. Impact of a permanent El Niño (El Padre) and Indian Ocean Dipole in warm Pliocene climates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shukla, Sonali P.; Chandler, Mark A.; Jonas, Jeff; Sohl, Linda E.; Mankoff, Ken; Dowsett, Harry J.

    2009-01-01

     Pliocene sea surface temperature data, as well as terrestrial precipitation and temperature proxies, indicate warmer than modern conditions in the eastern equatorial Pacific and imply permanent El Niño–like conditions with impacts similar to those of the 1997/1998 El Niño event. Here we use a general circulation model to examine the global-scale effects that result from imposing warm tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in both modern and Pliocene simulations. Observed SSTs from the 1997/1998 El Niño event were used for the anomalies and incorporate Pacific warming as well as a prominent Indian Ocean Dipole event. Both the permanent El Niño (also called El Padre) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) conditions are necessary to reproduce temperature and precipitation patterns consistent with the global distribution of Pliocene proxy data. These patterns may result from the poleward propagation of planetary waves from the strong convection centers associated with the El Niño and IOD.

  3. Impacts of El Niño and El Niño Modoki on the precipitation in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba Machado, Samir; Palomino Lemus, Reiner; Raquel Gámiz Fortis, Sonia; Castro Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban Parra, María

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the tropical Pacific SST on precipitation in Colombia is examined using 341 stations covering the period 1979-2009. Through a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) the two main coupled variability modes show SST patterns clearly associated with El Niño (EN) and El Niño Modoki (ENM), respectively, presenting great coupling strength with the corresponding seasonal precipitation modes in Colombia. The results reveal that, mainly in winter and summer, EN and ENM events are associated with a significant rainfall decrease over northern, central, and western Colombia. The opposite effect occurs in some localities during spring, summer, and autumn. The southwestern region of Colombia exhibits an opposite behaviour connected to EN and ENM events during years when both events do not coexist, showing that the seasonal precipitation response is not linear. The Partial Regression Analysis used to quantify separately the influence of the two types of ENSO on seasonal precipitation shows the importance of both types in the reconstruction process. The results obtained in this study establish the base for modeling and forecasting the seasonal precipitation in Colombia using the tropical Pacific SST associated with El Niño and El Niño Modoki. Keywords: Seasonal precipitation, Tropical Pacific SST, El Niño, El Niño Modoki, Singular Value Decomposition, Colombia. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work has been financed by the projects P11-RNM-7941 (Junta de Andalucía-Spain) and CGL2013-48539-R (MINECO-Spain, FEDER).

  4. The Foreign Policy of Venezuela Toward El Salvador: 1979-1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Memorias y Cuentas de otros ministerios y entidades involucradas en el suministro de ayuda a El Salvador, tales como el Kinisterlo de Energia y Minas...que estuviese ligada a cualquier ideologia politica. El Ministro de Energia y Minas, Calderbn. Berti, afirm6 que no existia, de parte de Venezuela, Wia...stamos a largo plazo. La duraci6n del Programa f ue de un aKo, renovable anualmente, previo acuerdo mutuo. En el primer afto de vigencia del acuerdo, los

  5. Evaluation of EL836 explosive stimulation of Devonian gas shale

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, T G

    1980-07-01

    This report presents an evaluation of EL836, an explosive developed at E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company Laboratories, in stimulating gas shale. EL836 is a water gel type explosive with a high aluminum content. The computational evaluation of EL836 involved four one-dimensional cyclindrical geometry calculations to assess the influence of two equation-of-state descriptios of EL836, the effect or rock yielding and the effect of internal crack pressurization. Results of a computational evaluation of the EL836 explosive in stimulating Devonian gas shale suggest the following: Extensive plastic yielding will occur in a region immediate to the borehole. Extensive tensile fracture will occur in a region that begins at the outer boundary of plastic deformation and terminates at more than 100 borehole radii. Without a mechanism of ;near-wellbore fracture, such as crushing or pre-cracking during drilling or intentional borehole grooving, the plastic flow that occurs adjacent to the wellbore causes stress redistributions which prohibit early-time (less than a millisecond) tensile fracture immediate to the wellbore and thus prohibits gas penetration from the wellbore into the crack system. The barrier that the near-wellbore plastic zone presents to gas flow from the wellbore is reduced in radial dimension as time increases. Natural fractures in the wellbore wall or cataclysmic deformation and fracture adjacent to the wellbore, as a result of the explosive detonation, will likely assist in breaking down the barrier to gas flow. Very significatn enhancement is achieved in the EL836 stimulation treatment when gases penetrate the stress-wave induced radial cracks. Only minor differences were observed in the EL836 stimulation effects when comparison is made between two different explosive equations-of-state. 33 figures, 2 tables.

  6. GroEL/ES inhibitors as potential antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Abdeen, Sanofar; Salim, Nilshad; Mammadova, Najiba; Summers, Corey M; Frankson, Rochelle; Ambrose, Andrew J; Anderson, Gregory G; Schultz, Peter G; Horwich, Arthur L; Chapman, Eli; Johnson, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported results from a high-throughput screening effort that identified 235 inhibitors of the Escherichia coli GroEL/ES chaperonin system [Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2014, 24, 786]. As the GroEL/ES chaperonin system is essential for growth under all conditions, we reasoned that targeting GroEL/ES with small molecule inhibitors could be a viable antibacterial strategy. Extending from our initial screen, we report here the antibacterial activities of 22 GroEL/ES inhibitors against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. GroEL/ES inhibitors were more effective at blocking the proliferation of Gram-positive bacteria, in particular S. aureus, where lead compounds exhibited antibiotic effects from the low-μM to mid-nM range. While several compounds inhibited the human HSP60/10 refolding cycle, some were able to selectively target the bacterial GroEL/ES system. Despite inhibiting HSP60/10, many compounds exhibited low to no cytotoxicity against human liver and kidney cell lines. Two lead candidates emerged from the panel, compounds 8 and 18, that exhibit >50-fold selectivity for inhibiting S. aureus growth compared to liver or kidney cell cytotoxicity. Compounds 8 and 18 inhibited drug-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains with potencies comparable to vancomycin, daptomycin, and streptomycin, and are promising candidates to explore for validating the GroEL/ES chaperonin system as a viable antibiotic target.

  7. The Formation of EL CVn-type Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuefei; Maxted, P. F. L.; Li, Jiao; Han, Zhanwen

    2017-01-01

    EL CVn-type binaries are eclipsing binaries that contain an A- or F-type dwarf star and a very low mass (˜0.2M⊙) helium white dwarf precursor (proto-He WD). A number of such objects have been discovered in the WASP and Kepler photometric surveys. Here we have studied the formation of EL CVn-type binaries and give the properties and the space density of this population of stars in the Galaxy. We show that EL CVn binaries cannot be produced by common envelope evolution as previously believed because this process leads to merging of the components when giants have such low-mass cores. Stable mass transfer in low-mass binaries, from more than 65,000 runs of Population I binary evolution, may well reproduce the properties of EL CVn stars such as the evolutionary phase, mass ratios and the WD mass-period (MWD - P) relation. The study shows that the most common donor mass range for producing the observed EL CVn-type stars is 1.15 - 1.20M⊙ and that the lifetime of such objects increases dramatically with decreasing proto-He WD mass. This leads to an intrinsic peak mass around the minimum mass of proto-He WDs of ˜0.16M⊙. The most probable proto-He WD mass is 0.17 - 0.21M⊙ after selection effects included. We estimated the number of EL CVn stars with P ≤ 2.2 d to be 2 - 5 × 106 in the Galaxy, indicating a local density of 4 - 10 × 10-6pc-3. We conclude that many more EL CVn-type binaries remain to be discovered and that these binaries will be predominantly low-mass systems in old stellar populations.

  8. Cholera toxin production by the El Tor variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 compared to prototype El Tor and classical biotypes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh-Banerjee, J; Senoh, M; Takahashi, T; Hamabata, T; Barman, S; Koley, H; Mukhopadhyay, A K; Ramamurthy, T; Chatterjee, S; Asakura, M; Yamasaki, S; Nair, G B; Takeda, Y

    2010-11-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains produced much more cholera toxin than did prototype El Tor strains. The amount of cholera toxin produced by El Tor variant strains both in vitro and in vivo was more or less equivalent to that produced by classical strains.

  9. El Niño physics and El Niño predictability.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Allan J

    2014-01-01

    Much of the year-to-year climate variability on the Earth is associated with El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This variability is generated primarily by a coupled ocean-atmosphere instability near the eastern edge of the western equatorial Pacific warm pool. Here, I discuss the physics of this variability, including its phase locking to the seasonal cycle. ENSO growth typically occurs from April/May to November, and by July the perturbation is usually strong enough that it persists to the beginning of the following year, when ENSO events usually end. Consequently, predicting ENSO is easy from July to February but is more challenging across the April/May transition to the next event. I discuss precursors of this transition and recent results from dynamical and statistical models used for ENSO forecasting.

  10. Social disparities in children's respiratory health in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W; Chavez-Payan, Paola; Jimenez, Anthony M; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie; Gaines, Marie; Kim, Young-an

    2014-03-11

    The objectives of this study were to assess prevalence of children's respiratory health conditions and to measure and describe social disparities in children's respiratory problems and access to health resources for asthma/wheezing management. Data were collected through a cross-sectional, observational mail survey of all primary caretakers of 4th and 5th grade children in El Paso Independent School District (El Paso, TX, USA). 6295 primary caretakers received surveys at their home address and 1904 surveys were completed and returned for a 30% response rate. El Paso children have high rates of asthma (17%) and allergies (51%). In terms of social disparities, children that are male, not poor, obese, Hispanic, born in El Paso, have a US-born caretaker, and have a caretaker who has lower levels Spanish proficiency have increased odds of respiratory problems. Among children with asthma and wheezing, disparities exist in access to care; those that are poor, with a Spanish-speaking caretaker, or with a foreign-born caretaker had increased odds of seeking care in urgent care center, emergency rooms and hospitals. Results have scholarly and practical implications for broader trends in terms of increasing prevalence of respiratory health problems across multiple scales (from El Paso to the US context to worldwide) and health disparities experienced within the rapidly growing US Hispanic population.

  11. Farming and fishing in the wake of El Nino

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbetts, J.

    1996-09-01

    How does the periodic warming of the waters of the central Pacific relate to global climate change and food production? In Queensland, Australia, savvy farmers keep a sharp eye on signs of El Nino, which usually brings drought that withers the state`s winter wheat crop. Returning every four years on average and usually lasting approximately a year, El Nino is an unusual warming in the central Pacific that builds storms and disrupts wind patterns, turning weather upside down in far-removed regions. But El Nino took scientists by surprise when it persisted from 1991 to 1995. This was the first time that El Nino had lasted for more than three years since monitoring began in the 1870s. And true to form, El Nino of 1991-1995 brought extreme drought to Queensland, in north-eastern Australia, drying out farmland and costing the state economy approximately $1 billion (Australian) a year. The drought, for example, dropped rainfall levels to all-time lows in Toowoomba, one of the state`s prime cereal-growing regions.

  12. The Definition of El Niño.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.

    1997-12-01

    A review is given of the meaning of the term El Niño and how it has changed in time, so there is no universal single definition. This needs to be recognized for scientific uses, and precision can only be achieved if the particular definition is identified in each use to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding. For quantitative purposes, possible definitions are explored that match the El Niños identified historically after 1950, and it is suggested that an El Niño can be said to occur if 5-month running means of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Niño 3.4 region (5°N-5°S, 120°-170°W) exceed 0.4°C for 6 months or more. With this definition, El Niños occur 31% of the time and La Niñas (with an equivalent definition) occur 23% of the time. The histogram of Niño 3.4 SST anomalies reveals a bimodal character. An advantage of such a definition is that it allows the beginning, end, duration, and magnitude of each event to be quantified. Most El Niños begin in the northern spring or perhaps summer and peak from November to January in sea surface temperatures.

  13. La teoria economica y el enfoque Box-Jenkins en la modelizacion de la demanda de productos energeticos: el fuel-oil y la energia electrica en Espana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Pardo, Maria Jimena

    Esta tesis trata de integrar la teoria economica el enfoque box-jenkins del analisis de series temporales y un conjunto de datos de la economia espanola en un intento de elaborar modelos empiricos de demanda de productos energeticos con especial atencion a la deteccion y medicion de los efectos precio. Se analizan para ello las demandas de tres productos: la energia electrica el fuel - oil utilizado en las centrales termicas para la generacion de electricidad y el fuel - oil no termico. El periodo muestral es el comprendido entre enero de 1970 y diciembre de 1977.

  14. An improved procedure for El Nino forecasting: Implications for predictability

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.; Zebiak, S.E.; Cane, M.A.

    1995-09-22

    A coupled ocean-atmosphere data assimilation procedure yields improved forecasts of El Nino for the 1980s compared with previous forecasting procedures. As in earlier forecasts with the same model, no oceanic data were used, and only wind information was assimilated. The improvement is attributed to the explicit consideration of air-sea interaction in the initialization. These results suggest that El Nino is more predictable than previously estimated, but that predictability may vary on decadal or longer time scales. This procedure also eliminates the well-known spring barrier to El Nino prediction, which implies that it may not be intrinsic to the real climate system. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Dunlop receives European Geophysical Society's Néel Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauxe, Lisa

    David J. Dunlop of the Physics Department and Erindale College at the University of Toronto has been awarded the 1999 Louis Néel Medal of the European Geophysical Society (EGS) for “authoritative contributions to rock magnetism, setting the standards for future decades.” The medal will be presented to Dunlop in April in a special ceremony at the Nederlands Congresbebouw in The Hague, The Netherlands, during the 24th General Assembly of the EGS.The Néel Medal is awarded by the Solid Earth Geophysics section of EGS in recognition of the scientific achievements of Louis Néel, who shared the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics for his fundamental discoveries in magnetism.The medal is awarded “for outstanding achievements in the fertilization of the Earth Sciences by the transfer and application of fundamental theory and/or experimental techniques of solid state physics, defined in its broadest sense.”

  16. [Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from El Salvador, Central America].

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia; Barraza, José E; Rivera, Ana M; Hasbún, Carlos R

    2007-03-01

    Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Of these, L. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865); Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867); A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988) and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832). The known geographic distribution of 1. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described.

  17. Marine nekton off Oregon and the 1997 98 El Nino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearcy, W. G.

    2002-09-01

    Several species of migratory, warm-water, oceanic fishes invaded Oregon waters during the summer of 1997. Also, the jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas), common in the eastern tropical Pacific, was reported for the first time in 1997 and was caught in large numbers. The occurrence of these oceanic nekton was associated with inshore advection of anomalously warm water. During 1998, after arrival of the main El Niño signal, some warm-water coastal fishes appeared off Oregon. However, unlike observations off California, fewer species of warm-water coastal fishes were noted during the 1997-98 El Niño than during the 1982-83 El Niño.

  18. Effect of El-Nino on Southwest Monsoon 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K. U., Vidhulakshmi; Mrudula, G.

    2016-05-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) of 2015 showed a deficit of 14% in the seasonal rainfall. Many researchers connected this deficit to the El-Nino which developed in late May. In this study an analysis of major ENSO events and its influence on ISMR during the period 1975 till present have been carried out. The behavior of ISMR during the previous El-Nino/La-Nina years has been compared with that of 2015. Preliminary analysis shows the effects of El-Nino on ISMR of 2015 started mainly from July. This is attributed to Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) by many scientists. Analysis of spatial and temporal correlations of SST of various Nino regions with the ISMR and of MJO will also be presented in detail.

  19. El Dorado micellar-polymer project - a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhorn, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Demonstration Project is a cooperative venture between Cities Service Co. and the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary objective of the project is to determine the economic feasibility of improved oil recovery using 2 micellar-polymer processes and to determine the associated benefits and problems of each process. The El Dorado Demonstration Project is designed to allow a side-by-side comparison of 2 distinct micellar-polymer processes in the same field so that the reservoir conditions for the 2 floods are as similar as possible. This report updates the status of the operation of the El Dorado Project from Jan. 1979 through Dec. 1980.

  20. Immunization using GroEL decreases Clostridium difficile intestinal colonization.

    PubMed

    Péchiné, Séverine; Hennequin, Claire; Boursier, Céline; Hoys, Sandra; Collignon, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a pathogen which is responsible for diarrhea and colitis, particularly after treatment with antibiotics. Clinical signs are mainly due to two toxins, TcdA and TcdB. However, the first step of pathogenesis is the colonization process. We evaluated C. difficile surface proteins as vaccine antigens in the hamster model to prevent intestinal colonization. This vaccination induced a partial protection of hamsters against death after a C. difficile challenge. A proteomic analysis of animal sera allowed us to identify proteins which could be responsible for the protection observed. Among these proteins, we identified the GroEL heat shock protein. To confirm the role of the specific GroEL antibodies in the delayed C. difficile colonization of hamsters, we performed an immunization assay in a mouse model. After intranasal immunization with the recombinant protein GroEL, we observed a lower C. difficile intestinal colonization in the immunized group as compared to the control group.

  1. El contexto de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos del estudio EPESE hispano

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Camacho, María E.; Eschbach, Karl; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN En este artículo se discute el papel de la familia y el vecindario en la salud de los ancianos méjico-americanos del estudio EPESE (Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly) hispano. La paradoja epidemiológica consiste en que, a pesar de estar en desventaja socioeconómica, los ancianos hispanos tienen mortalidad relativamente menor que los ancianos de raza blanca. Esto es especialmente cierto cuando el anciano vive en los vecindarios donde hay un porcentaje alto de méjico-americanos. La familia también juega un papel importante en estos ancianos al disminuir el riesgo de institucionalización o de morbilidad. Asimismo, el estrés originado en problemas económicos o al depender económicamente de la familia, habiendo inmigrado en edades tardías, puede sobrepasar la capacidad de amortiguamiento del estrés y afectar la salud del anciano méjico-americano. PMID:25190897

  2. Generation of the Ambiguity Function for Ultra Wideband Radar Waveforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Venezuela 9. Direction de Armamento y Electronica (DAE) Comandancia General de la Armada Av. Vollmer San Bernardino Caracas, 101 1 Venezuela 10. CC Efrain Leon Guerra 2 USMILGP Venezuela NAVSEC APO Miami 34037-0008 73 ...CA 93943-5002 5. Professor Darwish Abdel Aziz Mohamed, Air Defense College El Tabia, Alexandria Egypt 6. Escuela Superior de Guerra Naval AV. Cuyuni

  3. 31 CFR Appendix A to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Tumbes, Peru; Av. 27 De Febrero No. 102, Edif Miguel Mejia Urr. El Vergel, Santo Domingo, Dominican...; Bogota, Colombia; Leon Velarde 584, Puerto Maldonado, Peru; Jr. Moyobamba 101, Tarapoto, Peru; Jr...., Mexico City D.F. 065000, Mexico; Av. Enrique Llosa 395-A, Magdalena, Lima, Peru; C.C. San Miguel...

  4. Equatorial Pacific Thermostad response to El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Birnbaum, Abigail N.

    2016-11-01

    El Niños are characterized by a shift of warm surface water from the western to eastern equatorial Pacific due to weakening of easterly trade winds. This shift is associated with the pycnocline (or thermocline), the large vertical density gradient beneath the surface mixed layer, shoaling in the west and deepening in the east, inducing a redistribution of ocean heat with global impacts. Here the response of the Equatorial Pacific Thermostad, a layer of low vertical stratification below the pycnocline to, El Niño is investigated using a monthly Argo float climatology and Argo float deep velocity data. A mean, seasonal cycle, trend, and time-lagged linear response to the Niño3.4 index are fit by least squares to temperature and salinity at each grid point as well as to deep float velocities (omitting the trend). The results of these fits are used to characterize the response of physical properties in the Thermostad, including layer thickness and velocity, to El Niño by comparing the mean properties following neutral conditions (Niño3.4 = 0°C) versus those following a moderate El Niño (Niño3.4 = 1°C). Following an El Niño, a strengthening of the westward-flowing Equatorial Intermediate Current of about 2.7 × 106 m3 s-1 shifts about 97 × 1012 m3 of Thermostad water from the east to the west, allowing conservation of volume within the Thermostad as the pycnocline above deepens in the east and shoals in the west. This transport and volume change imply a 14 month time scale, consistent with El Niño.

  5. Playing Hide and Seek with El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The year 2014 started out with a bang when a series of westerly wind bursts occurred west of the date line between January and April. These wind bursts generated a series of powerful downwelling Kelvin waves that led to anomalous warming in the equatorial cold tongue of the eastern Pacific, apparently signaling the onset of an El Niño. The Kelvin waves observed in February through April 2014 were as large as those seen at the onset of the 1997-98 El Niño, the strongest on record, leading to speculation that a major event was underway. Moreover, there was broad consensus among forecast models for development of an El Niño during the second half of 2014. Thus, the scientific community and the popular press were abuzz with the prospect of climate fireworks reminiscent of 1997-98. However, the atmosphere did not immediately respond to the initial oceanic warming and the positive ocean-atmosphere feedbacks that characterize El Niño evolution did not materialize. By the end of 2014, only weak warm sea surface temperature anomalies were evident in the tropical Pacific, and those anomalies were predicted to dissipate in boreal spring of 2015. Instead of fading though, El Niño came roaring back with renewed vigor in 2015. This presentation will describe the surprising evolution of conditions in the tropical Pacific during 2014-15, how forecasts and conventional wisdom failed to anticipate what occurred, and what the implications are for future research on El Niño.

  6. Employment of the El Salvador Armed Forces for Internal Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    Factores que inciden en el consumo de drogas licitas e ilícitas” http://www.uees.edu.sv/crea2/1_factores.htm, (accessed November 15 2010). 10 La...Primerísima “Suma preocupación por consumo de droga ” June 29, 2008, http://www.radiolaprimerisima.com/noticias/32517, (accessed November 15 2010). 11 La...confirma n- investigacion -a-alto-jefe-policial-salvadoreno&catid=92:ultimas-noticias&Itemid=117, accessed January, 08 2011). 23 El Diario de Hoy

  7. The sub-volcanic system of El Hierro, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, I.; Becerril, L.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2012-04-01

    The main volcanotectonic structures of El Hierro are three rift zones, trending northeast, west, and south. Most of the eruptions in El Hierro within these zones are basaltic fissure eruptions fed by subvertical dykes. The dykes appear as close to collinear or slightly offset segments, their surface expressions being clusters of cinder cones and eruptive vents. Three large landslides, referred to as El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas, have eroded the areas between rift axes and provide exposures that make it possible to provide a three-dimensional view of the uppermost part of the sub-volcanic system. Here we report the results of a structural study of the sub-volcanic system as obtained through the analysis of dykes and eruptive vents. The data obtained from surface outcrops have been combined with data from subsurface water galleries. More than 600 eruptive vents and 625 dykes have been studied in detail to characterise the subvolcanic system of the island. Using cinder-cone and other eruptive-vent alignments it has been possible to infer 115 eruptive fissures with lengths that range from 40 m to 2200 m. NE-SW trending volcanic fissures and dykes are common on the entire island and predominate in the northeast rift zone. The main strike of the dykes and fissures in the south and west rift zones are approximately NNW-SSE and E-W, respectively. However, in the west rift zone, eruptive fissures display a fan distribution with directions that range from N43°E to N124°E. Volcanic fissures within the El Golfo landslide valley trend parallel to the head scarp, except those that are close to the head of the valley, many of which are perpendicular to the scarp. Dykes show a radial distribution in the head scarp of the El Golfo landslide. Three feeder-dykes directly connected with their lava flows have been identified in El Hierro. Feeder dykes are difficult to observe in the field but provide important information when their lengths and thicknesses can be measured

  8. Evaluation of the El Dorado micellar-polymer demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhorn, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    The El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Demonstration Project has been a cooperative venture between Cities Service Co. and the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective of the project was to determine if it was technically and economically feasible to produce commercial volumes of oil using a micellar-polymer process in the El Dorado field. The project was designed to allow a side-by-side comparison of 2 distinctly different micellar-polymer processes in the same field in order that the associated benefits and problems of each could be determined. These are described and evaluated.

  9. Evaluation of the El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    VanHorn, L.E.

    1983-06-01

    The El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Demonstration Project has been a cooperative venture between Cities Service Company and the United States Department of Energy. The objective of the project was to determine if it was technically and economically feasible to produce commercial volumes of oil using a micellar-polymer process in the El Dorado field. The project was designed to allow a side-by-side comparison of two distinctly different micellar-polymer processes in the same field in order that the associated benefits and problems of each could be determined.

  10. El Nino: Historical and paleoclimatic aspects of the southern oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, H.F.; Markgraf, V.

    1992-01-01

    This book, including 22 papers by well-known authorities, presents a balanced picture of the possible types of information that can be bound about the past occurrence of El Nino. Topics presented include the following: oxygen-isotope analyses of ice cores in the Andes; tree-ring growth; trace mineral concentrations in annual layers of coral reefs; Nile River flood records back 13 centuries. The book is accessible to outsiders whose interests require a knowledge of El Nino and its historical manifestations.

  11. Astronomía Gamma desde El Leoncito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

    La astronomía gamma, en el extremo de energías detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnología avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica es la utilizada para la detección, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiación gamma de muy altas energías (E ≈ TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la técnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofísica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de núcleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperación con el grupo de Radiación Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, está constituído por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partículas producidas por rayos cósmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmósfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascención recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galáctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energías inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energía desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situación no óptima para este tipo de técnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los datos obtenidos observando la región del Centro Galáctico, luego de dos años de observaciones, así como una descripción de la técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

  12. The removal of Cremophor EL from paclitaxel for quantitative analysis by HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Perdue, James D; Seaton, Pamela J; Tyrell, John A; DeVido, Daniel R

    2006-04-11

    A novel method for analysis of hydrophobic drug molecules in matrices that contain Cremophor EL (CrEL) is presented. The method utilized a precipitation technique involving mercuric chloride in a reaction with CrEL to form an insoluble complex in an ethanol matrix. The hydrophobic drug molecule was then analyzed by HPLC-UV without interference from CrEL. Nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy indicated that the mechanism of precipitation involves the reaction of mercuric chloride with the ether bond of CrEL. Analysis by HPLC with UV detection of paclitaxel and related substances was used to verify that the reaction is specific toward CrEL.

  13. Radiolarian indicators of El Nino and anti-El Nino events in Holocene sediments of Santa Barbara basin

    SciTech Connect

    Weinheimer, A.L.

    1986-04-01

    Radiolarian distributions and physical oceanographic data from the Santa Barbara basin indicate the following. Strong anti-El Nino periods can be characterized by (1) intermediate radiolarian density, (2) high percentage of transition-central radiolarian fauna, and (3) low percentage and number of warm-water radiolarian fauna. This distribution pattern is attributed to strong wind-driven upwelling and reduced northward transport by the California Countercurrent during anti-El Nino periods. Strong El Nino periods are typically (1) high in radiolarian density, and (2) low in percentage but high in number of warm-water fauna. This distribution is attributed to reduced wind-driven upwelling, enhanced northward countercurrent transport, and geostrophic doming of the cold-water masses in the shear zone between the California Current and California Countercurrent.

  14. Microwave Limb Sounder/El Nino Watch - 1997 Research Data Reveal Clues about El Nino's Influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image displays wind measurements taken by the satellite-borne NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) during the last 10 days of May 1997, showing the relationship between the ocean and the atmosphere at the onset of the 1997-98 El Nino condition. The data have helped scientists confirm that the event began as an unusual weakening of the trade winds that preceded an increase in sea surface temperatures. The arrows represent wind speed and direction while the colors indicate sea surface temperature. The sea surface temperatures were measured by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, a joint mission of NASA and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The trade winds normally blow from east to west, but the small arrows in the center of the image show the winds have changed direction and are blowing in the opposite direction. The areas shown in red are above normal sea surface temperatures -- along the equator, off the west coast of the U.S., and along the west coast of Mexico. This image also shows an unusual low pressure system with cyclonic (counterclockwise) circulation near the western North American coast. NSCAT also observed that winds associated with this circulation pattern branched off from the equator, bypassed Hawaii, and brought heat and moisture from the tropical ocean towards San Francisco, in what is often called the 'pineapple express.'

  15. Can El Nino Amplify the Solar Forcing of Climate?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1999-01-01

    ENSO (El Nino and the Southern Oscillation) is considered as a stochastic driver that excites the atmospheric anomaly states, such as Pacific North American pattern. This can make the 11 year solar activity forcing feasible to climate through stochastic resonance -- a phenomenon that amplifies a weak input to a nonlinear bistable system by the assistance of noise.

  16. Optimizing irrigation strategies as influenced by El Nino southern oscillation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) can cause a systematic El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) coupling with the atmosphere to produce predictable weather patterns in much of North America. Adapting irrigation strategies for drought tolerant crops like cotton [Gossypium hirsu...

  17. El Cinco de Mayo. The Fifth of May.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizcano, Jeannette; Garza, Laura Leticia

    "El Cinco de Mayo", a commemoration of when Mexican troops defeated French invaders, is the topic of this unit developed for the Bilingual/Multicultural Education Program of the Crystal City Independent School District (Crystal City, Texas). As unit objectives, the students are to demonstrate their comprehension of the significance of…

  18. English Learners (ELs) Who Are Black. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    According to the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" (ESEA) section 9101(25), an EL (or "limited English proficient" child, per the ESEA) is "an individual (A) who is aged 3 through 21; (B) who is enrolled or preparing to enroll in an elementary school or secondary school; (C)(i) who was not born in the United States…

  19. English Learners (ELs) and College and Career Readiness. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. This document presents highlights relating to English learners and college and career readiness covering school-year (SY) 2011-2012. The topics for this report include: (1)…

  20. Education and the Production of Diasporic Citizens in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrness, Andrea; Sepúlveda, Enrique, III

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Dyrness and Sepúlveda argue that in El Salvador, young people are participants in a diasporic social imaginary that connects them with Salvadorans and other Latinos in the United States--before they have ever left the country. The authors explore how this transnational relationship manifests in two school communities in San…

  1. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH FINDINGS OF THE EL PASO CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El-Paso-Ciudad Juarez area is one of the largest metropolitan areas on the U.S.-Mexico border. Sources of air pollutants inlcude the more than 18 million vehicles, which annually cross between the two cities, heavily traveled roads and interstate freeways, and local indust...

  2. Teaching Adolescent ELs to Write Academic-Style Persuasive Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The wide adoption of the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in the U.S. has increased expectations for all teachers to prepare all learners to read and write in academic ways. More knowledge is needed about instructional approaches that may lead adolescent English learners (ELs) to meet this goal. Developing academic literacy practices…

  3. The possible link between net surface heating and el nino.

    PubMed

    Weare, B C

    1983-09-02

    Three diagnostic analyses are described which strongly suggest the importance of local net surface heating in the life history of the large-scale, air-sea phenomenon centered in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, commonly called El Niño. These analyses rely upon monthly marine weather summaries for the period 1957 to 1976. In the first, correlations and coherence spectra were calculated which show a strong link between the net surface heat flux and sea-surface temperature variations over the eastern equatorial Pacific. The second analysis, also based upon the use of coherence spectra, indicates a sea temperature precursor in the eastern ocean near 25 degrees S which precedes sea temperature changes near the El Niño focus near 5 degrees S. Since the link between the two regions would require ocean advective velocities that appear to be unreasonably large, this analysis also suggests the importance of atmospheric forcing through the surface heat flux. In the third analysis a proxy variable is described that seems to be a reasonable indicator of the overall effect of ocean dynamics on the temperature of the El Niño core region. A composite analysis of the four El Niño events of 1957, 1965, 1972, and 1976 suggests that local surface heating is important during the early part of an event, whereas dynamical factors dominate later.

  4. El Nino--An Example of Ocean/Atmosphere Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, James J.

    1978-01-01

    El Nino is a complex periodic oceanographic event that occurs off the west coast of South America, adversely affecting climate not only in the local area but in other regions of the world. There is evidence that the equatorial regions hold the key to predicting this economically destructive phenomenon. (Author/BB)

  5. News from El Dorado: Newspapers and the California Gold Rush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurutz, Gary F.

    When James Wilson Marshall discovered gold at Sutter's Mill (California) in 1848, he not only touched off the greatest gold rush the world had ever seen, but also ignited one of the great writing frenzies in American history. Guidebooks, diaries, and letters all told of a new El Dorado where unimaginable riches could be found simply by picking…

  6. Scarcity and Survival in El Salvador. Grades Six to Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, designed for use with students in grades 6-12, has two purposes: (1) to inform teachers and students about social and economic conditions in rural El Salvador; and (2) to teach students how to analyze the indicators of such social and economic conditions. The six included lessons incorporate reading, graphing, and critical thinking…

  7. El Niño and human health.

    PubMed Central

    Kovats, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the best known example of quasi-periodic natural climate variability on the interannual time scale. It comprises changes in sea temperature in the Pacific Ocean (El Niño) and changes in atmospheric pressure across the Pacific Basin (the Southern Oscillation), together with resultant effects on world weather. El Niño events occur at intervals of 2-7 years. In certain countries around the Pacific and beyond, El Niño is associated with extreme weather conditions that can cause floods and drought. Globally it is linked to an increased impact of natural disasters. There is evidence that ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases in specific geographical areas where weather patterns are linked with the ENSO cycle and disease control is limited. This is particularly true for malaria, but associations are also suggested in respect of epidemics of other mosquito-borne and rodent-borne diseases that can be triggered by extreme weather conditions. Seasonal climate forecasts, predicting the likelihood of weather patterns several months in advance, can be used to provide early indicators of epidemic risk, particularly for malaria. Interdisciplinary research and cooperation are required in order to reduce vulnerability to climate variability and weather extremes. PMID:11019461

  8. Bilingual Immersion: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the El Paso Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Russell; And Others

    A study assessed and compared the effectiveness of two distinct approaches of bilingual education used within a single school district in El Paso (Texas). The program designs, one a traditional transitional bilingual and the other a bilingual immersion, were implemented under similar conditions of resources, school year length, class size, and…

  9. El Camino College Basic Skills for Quality Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    This is the final report of a cooperative basic skills and literacy project of El Camino College (California) and two companies, BP Chemicals/Hitco Inc. and a division of the Hughes Aircraft Company. An extension of an earlier workplace program with BP chemicals, the program provided basic mathematics, reading, and English-as-a-Second-Language…

  10. Strategies for Implementation: The El Camino TQM Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauerman, Sam; Peachy, Burt

    In spring 1989, a group of 33 administrators, supervisors, faculty, and staff from El Camino College (ECC) in Torrance, California, attended 10 days of training in Total Quality Management (TQM) tools and techniques. The subsequent implementation of TQM at ECC included the following six phases: (1) establishing a Campus Commitment to Excellence…

  11. A Cost-of-Quality Model at El Camino College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Timothy D.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the cost-of-quality model used at El Camino College (California), which formally measures the costs associated with process improvement activities. A case study illustrates use of the model in evaluating a new process for reimbursing faculty and staff attending conferences. (DB)

  12. Strategic Thinking: A Proposal to Reduce Violence in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Development Program (UNDP), “Informe Sobre Desarrollo Humano Para América Central 2009-2010: Abrir Espacios a la Seguridad Ciudadana y el Desarrollo ... Humano ,” October 2009, cited by Clare Ribando Seelke in “Gangs in Central America” Congressional Research Service (CRS for Congress) October 2009, http

  13. The Story of Carora: The Origins of El Sistema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Venezuela's youth symphony program, the Fundación Musical Simón Bolívar, commonly referred to as "El Sistema," combines musical achievement with learning important life skills through orchestral practice and performance. Although the history most commonly reported outside Venezuela is of the program's director, José Antonio Abreu,…

  14. Subscriber Response System; El Segundo Interim Test Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callais, Richard T.

    A new cable television system, called the Subscriber Response System (SRS), is being tested prior to a trial installation in El Segundo, California. The components include two bidirectional cables, a computer for processing subscribers' requests, and subscriber terminals to be located in homes or offices. The home terminal includes a three-digit…

  15. Checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Caleb D; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Álvarez Calderón, Francisco S; Henríquez, Wendy Yamileth; Recinos, H Michelle; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Barraza, Enrique; Herrera, Néstor

    2013-01-23

    The inland fish fauna of El Salvador and its distribution was originally described in 1925 by Samuel Hildebrand. That work has been the main source of information for freshwater fishes of El Salvador up to today. Based on the combination of an intensive literature review, electronic database searches, re-identification of museum specimens, and fieldwork, we hereby provide an updated checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador. This checklist provides distributional data at the Salvadoran hydrographical and political (by department) levels. The checklist is systematically arranged at the ordinal and familial level and then alphabetically therein. The freshwater fish fauna of El Salvador includes 101 species divided into 64 genera, 29 families, and 14 orders. According to their supposed tolerance to salinity, 73% of these species are peripheral, 23% secondary, and only 4% are primary freshwater fishes. One species is endemic to the country, Amatitlania coatepeque. The low number of primary freshwater fishes and endemics is comparable to the Central American Pacific slope in particular, as well as northern Central America in general.

  16. Cómo calcular el índice UV

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Información sobre cómo calcular el Índice ultravioleta (UV) a través de un modelo numérico que relaciona la intensidad de la radiación solar ultra violeta (UV) en la superficie terrestre con la concentración pronosticada de ozono estratosférico.

  17. Community and Contemporary Chicano Art: Four El Paso Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Lori; Medrano, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    Presents an instructional resource for middle and high school students that focuses on artworks by the El Paso (Texas) artists Luis Jimenez, Carlos Callejo, Gaspar Enriquez, and Gloria Osuna Perez. Explains that the artwork represents the artists' personal relationship to community. Provides background information and an activity for each artwork.…

  18. 346. Caltrans, Photographer July 8, 1935 "PIER El"; VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    346. Caltrans, Photographer July 8, 1935 "PIER E-l"; VIEW OF PIER E-I, DECK TRUSS, AND CANTILEVER TRUSS ANCHOR ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 5-1583 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. Practices That Promote English Reading for English Learners (Els)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Rebecca S.; Harris, Bryn; McClain, Maryellen Brunson

    2014-01-01

    Schools are becoming increasingly diversified; however, training and professional development related to working with English language learners (ELs), especially in the area of English reading, is limited. In this article, we identify three "Big Ideas" of effective and collaborative practices that promote English reading achievement for…

  20. Using Cognates to Scaffold Context Clue Strategies for Latino ELs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelongo, Jose A.; Hernandez, Anita C.; Herter, Roberta J.; Cuello, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Latino English learners (ELs) come to elementary classrooms with many English-Spanish cognates in their listening, speaking, reading, and writing vocabularies. Cognates are words that are orthographically, semantically, and syntactically similar in two languages because of a shared etymology. Some cognates are identical in both English and…

  1. Dynamics of allosteric transitions in GroEL

    PubMed Central

    Hyeon, Changbong; Lorimer, George H.; Thirumalai, D.

    2006-01-01

    The chaperonin GroEL-GroES, a machine that helps proteins to fold, cycles through a number of allosteric states, the T state, with high affinity for substrate proteins, the ATP-bound R state, and the R″ (GroEL–ADP–GroES) complex. Here, we use a self-organized polymer model for the GroEL allosteric states and a general structure-based technique to simulate the dynamics of allosteric transitions in two subunits of GroEL and the heptamer. The T → R transition, in which the apical domains undergo counterclockwise motion, is mediated by a multiple salt-bridge switch mechanism, in which a series of salt-bridges break and form. The initial event in the R → R″ transition, during which GroEL rotates clockwise, involves a spectacular outside-in movement of helices K and L that results in K80-D359 salt-bridge formation. In both the transitions there is considerable heterogeneity in the transition pathways. The transition state ensembles (TSEs) connecting the T, R, and R″ states are broad with the TSE for the T → R transition being more plastic than the R → R″ TSE. PMID:17135353

  2. An Evaluation of Fish ELS Data: Is it Predictive? | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As with higher vertebrate animal alternatives, balance between reducing the use of animals in testing without impairing or increasing uncertainty in risk assessment is needed. Testing demands for long-term (chronic) fish toxicity represents the third largest pool of needs following 2-generation mammalian developmental toxicity test (OECD TG 416) for REACh. This talk will present the results of a review of freshwater fish ELS endpoints, and related questions in regard to what is known about the ELS for prediction of ecological hazards. As with higher vertebrate animal alternatives, balance between reducing the use of animals in testing without impairing or increasing uncertainty in risk assessment is needed. Testing demands for long-term (chronic) fish toxicity represents the third largest pool of needs following 2-generation mammalian developmental toxicity test (OECD TG 416) for REACh. This talk will present the results of a review of freshwater fish ELS endpoints, and related questions in regard to what is known about the ELS for prediction of ecological hazards.

  3. Sedimentation Survey of Lago El Guineo, Puerto Rico, October 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2003-01-01

    Lago El Guineo has lost about 17.5 percent of its original storage capacity in 70 years because of sediment accumulation. The water volume has been reduced from 2.29 million cubic meters in 1931, to 2.03 million cubic meters in 1986, and to 1.89 million cubic meters in 2001. The average annual storage-capacity loss (equal to the sedimentation rate) of Lago El Guineo was 4,727 cubic meters for the period of 1931 to July 1986 (or 0.21 percent per year), increasing to 5,714 cubic meters for the period of 1931 to October 2001 (or 0.25 percent per year). Discrepancies that could lead to substantial errors in volume calculations in a small reservoir like Lago El Guineo, were found when transferring the field-collected data into the geographic information system data base 1:20,000 U.S. Geological Survey Jayuya, Puerto Rico quadrangle. After verification and validation of field data, the Lago El Guineo shoreline was rectified using digital aerial photographs and differential global positioning data.

  4. Implementing Total Quality Management at El Camino College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Frank S.

    The California Community Colleges are in the midst of a reform process initiated by Assembly Bill 1725. A major goal of the bill is to fund colleges' staff development efforts. In an effort to transform the campus organizational culture from one of predominant competitiveness to collaboration, El Camino College (ECC) in Torrance, California,…

  5. Building on the Linguistic and Cultural Strengths of EL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Kay; Sandefur, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses an exemplary EL program grounded in research-based literacy strategies. World War II and the Holocaust served as the backdrop for a program that stressed vocabulary and concept development, and then connected that understanding to reading and writing. The "five streams" used to address literacy competencies included reading…

  6. A Strategic View of Insurgencies: Insights from El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Perspectivas ," ECA Estudios Centroamericanos, No. 449, March 1986, pp. 169-204. 9. Interviews with General Jose Guillermo Garcia, former Salvadoran minister of...34 Atlantic Monthly, January 1989, pp. 18-25. 48. Villalobos, "El Salvador Perspectiva ." 49. Interviews with Garcia, Lopez Nuila, Magaiia, and Vides. So

  7. The Chicanos of El Paso: A Case of Changing Colonization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Oscar J.

    Using historical statistics and key indicators, data were synthesized to identify longitudinal trends and patterns in the social, economic, and political status of El Paso's Chicanos. Data related to group achievement were analyzed. A framework adapted to local conditions based on the internal colonialism model was used for the periodization of El…

  8. 13. VIEW OF RAILROAD EXHIBIT AT EL PORTAL. SHAY LOCOMOTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF RAILROAD EXHIBIT AT EL PORTAL. SHAY LOCOMOTIVE IS FROM THE HETCH HETCHY RAILROAD. CABOOSE IS FROM THE YOSEMITE VALLEY RAILROAD. FOREST ROAD IN FOREGROUND IS THE ALIGNMENT OF THE YOSEMITE VALLEY RAILROAD. LOOKING W. GIS: N-37 40 27.0 / W-119 47 10.5 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  9. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  10. El Dinero [Money]: A Culture Unit for Foreign Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enwall, Beverly

    This curriculum guide offers materials designed to acquaint students with aspects of Hispanic culture and language. Situations, pattern practices, visual aids, dialogues, games, literary passages, and authentic media advertisements, all closely revolving around the concept of "El Dinero" (Money), are employed to this end. Suggestions for…

  11. El Centro College Strategic Plan, 2000-2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Centro Coll., Dallas, TX.

    This is the 2000-2005 strategic plan at El Centro College (Texas). It discusses the college's mission, vision, and core values, and provides information on goals and success indicators. Goals include: (1) preparing students for careers and for transfer to four-year institutions; (2) providing quality continuing/workforce education to enrich…

  12. Perceptions of an EL Learner on Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkaya, Odilea Rocha; Drower, Iris S.

    2012-01-01

    This single case study addresses an action research design (Wolcott, 1994) that utilizes observations, interviews, and documents to access what teaching and learning techniques have improved the acquisition of vocabulary of a single intermediate English language (EL) learner from Turkey. Findings are reported and discussed in terms of the…

  13. Seasonal Influenza Epidemics and El Niños.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, Olusegun Steven Ayodele

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza epidemics occur annually during the winter in the northern and southern hemispheres, but timing of peaks and severity vary seasonally. Low humidity, which enhances survival and transmission of influenza virus, is the major risk factor. Both El Niño and La Niña phases of El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO), which determine inter-annual variation of precipitation, are putative risk factors. This study was done to determine if seasonality, timing of peak, and severity of influenza epidemics are coupled to phases of ENSO. Monthly time series of positive specimens for influenza viruses and of multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index from January 2000 to August 2015 were analyzed. Seasonality, wavelet spectra, and cross-wavelet spectra analyses were performed. Of 31 countries in the dataset, 21 were in the northern hemisphere and 10 in the southern hemisphere. The highest number of influenza cases occurred in January in the northern hemisphere, but in July in the southern hemisphere, p < 0.0001. Seasonal influenza epidemic was coupled to El Niño, while low occurrence was coupled to La Niña. The moderate La Niña of 2010-2011 was followed by weak seasonal influenza epidemic. The influenza pandemic of 2009-2010 followed the moderate El Niño of 2009-2010, which had three peaks. Spectrograms showed time-varying periodicities of 6-48 months for ENSO, 6-24 months for influenza in the northern hemisphere, and 6-12 months for influenza in the southern hemisphere. Cross spectrograms showed time-varying periodicities at 6-36 months for ENSO and influenza in both hemispheres, p < 0.0001. Phase plots showed that influenza time series lagged ENSO in both hemispheres. Severity of seasonal influenza increases during El Niño, but decreases during La Niña. Coupling of seasonality, timing, and severity of influenza epidemics to the strength and waveform of ENSO indicate that forecast models of El Niño should be integrated into

  14. Seasonal Influenza Epidemics and El Niños

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Olusegun Steven Ayodele

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza epidemics occur annually during the winter in the northern and southern hemispheres, but timing of peaks and severity vary seasonally. Low humidity, which enhances survival and transmission of influenza virus, is the major risk factor. Both El Niño and La Niña phases of El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO), which determine inter-annual variation of precipitation, are putative risk factors. This study was done to determine if seasonality, timing of peak, and severity of influenza epidemics are coupled to phases of ENSO. Monthly time series of positive specimens for influenza viruses and of multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index from January 2000 to August 2015 were analyzed. Seasonality, wavelet spectra, and cross-wavelet spectra analyses were performed. Of 31 countries in the dataset, 21 were in the northern hemisphere and 10 in the southern hemisphere. The highest number of influenza cases occurred in January in the northern hemisphere, but in July in the southern hemisphere, p < 0.0001. Seasonal influenza epidemic was coupled to El Niño, while low occurrence was coupled to La Niña. The moderate La Niña of 2010–2011 was followed by weak seasonal influenza epidemic. The influenza pandemic of 2009–2010 followed the moderate El Niño of 2009–2010, which had three peaks. Spectrograms showed time-varying periodicities of 6–48 months for ENSO, 6–24 months for influenza in the northern hemisphere, and 6–12 months for influenza in the southern hemisphere. Cross spectrograms showed time-varying periodicities at 6–36 months for ENSO and influenza in both hemispheres, p < 0.0001. Phase plots showed that influenza time series lagged ENSO in both hemispheres. Severity of seasonal influenza increases during El Niño, but decreases during La Niña. Coupling of seasonality, timing, and severity of influenza epidemics to the strength and waveform of ENSO indicate that forecast models of El Niño should be integrated

  15. Estructura orbital en el Problema Restringido Rectilíneo Isósceles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.

    Para definir problemas en Mecánica Celeste se utilizan diferentes parámetros. El conocimiento de la dinámica del problema para valores particulares de estos parámetros nos permite entender el comportamiento en casos más generales. El Problema Restringido Rectilíneo Isósceles puede ser considerado como el caso límite del Problema de Sitnikov cuando la excentricidad tiende a uno o como el Problema Isósceles cuando la masa central tiende a cero. Se ha compactificado el espacio de fases y analizado la dinámica en el límite. Esto ha permitido separar el espacio de fases en diferentes regiones dependiendo de las clases de órbitas.

  16. El estrés y fumar | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas personas fuman cuando se sienten estresadas. Una parte importante de dejar de fumar es encontrar maneras de manejar el estrés. Reciba recomendaciones sobre formas de disminuir el estrés en su vida.

  17. Mejoras en el apuntado del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. L.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Con el objeto de optimizar el funcionamiento del telescopio de 2,15 mts. de CASLEO, se están eliminando los motores de calar, de guía y mecánica asociada. Para ésto, se están diseñando dos electrónicas que gobernarán, solamente, el motor de slew y el de tracking. Con el control del motor de slew se realizarán las funciones de slew y calar, controlando desde una PC la placa que maneja las rampas de velocidad. De este modo, el movimiento será programado y por lo tanto, más suave y preciso. Con el control del motor de tracking, a través de un generador de frecuencias programable desde una PC, se proveerá los movimientos necesarios para el tracking y guía.

  18. 77 FR 20617 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... 23, 2012, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904... Nevada Avenue, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80904, by telephone at (719) 667-7514 or...

  19. 76 FR 41235 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... 28, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944... Interstate Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, CO 80944, telephone no. (719) 667-7514, facsimile...

  20. 75 FR 62515 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... notice that on September 28, 2010, El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs..., Director, Regulatory Affairs, El Paso Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado...

  1. 77 FR 14776 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Amendment to Presidential Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... notice that on February 20, 2012, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... Nevada Avenue, P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, or call at 719-667-7514, or email...

  2. 76 FR 18756 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Take notice that on March 22, 2011, El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), Post Office Box 1087... application should be directed to Susan C. Stires, Post Box Office 1087, Colorado Springs, CO 80944,...

  3. El Paso Formation - a Lower Ordovician platform carbonate deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Clemons, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    The eastward-transgressive Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation conformably overlies Bliss Sandstone in southern New Mexico. Locally, lower El Paso was deposited on low hills of plutonic and volcanic rocks. The region subsided gradually throughout Canadian time, receiving the El Paso carbonate rock blanket up to 460 m thick. Lithologic and chronologic correlative rocks were deposited over most of the southwestern US as the first Paleozoic carbonate platform sequence. The El Paso Formation contains four members, listed here in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose, McKelligon, and Padre. Gradually decreasing sand content upward through the Hitt Canyon indicates deepening water and/or greater distance to shore. Girvanella(.) oncolites are locally abundant. Stromatolite mounds near the top of the Hitt Canyon, combined with an influx of sand, ooids, and rounded bioclasts in the Jose Member, recorded a shoaling phase. The overlying McKelligon Member contains little or no sand, and sponge-Calathium mounds are prominent at some locales. Stromatolite mounds are interbedded with sponge-Calathium mounds in a few sections. Lower Padre Member beds are typically silty to sandy and locally contain thinly-laminated zones. The Padre contains more restricted fauna that includes traces of ostracods. Pervasive bioturbation of El Paso beds and fauna consisting of echinoderms, sponges, gastropods, trilobites, Nuia, Calathium, cephalopods, and algae plus minor brachiopods and Pulchrilamina indicate predominating shallow-subtidal environments. Low-energy platform environments, in which a large volume of micritic muds accumulated, were disturbed thousands of times by storms producing abundant thin, poorly washed biosparite, intrasparite, and intrasparrudite lenses.

  4. El Sistema de Referencia Celeste convencional de la IAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.

    La Unión Astronómica Internacional (IAU) recomendó la adopción de un nuevo sistema de referencia celeste baricéntrico cuyo plano fundamental y origen de ascensiones rectas estén próximos, respectivamente, al ecuador y equinoccio dinámicos J2000.0. El nuevo sistema de referencia estará materializado por las posiciones J2000.0 de radiofuentes extragalácticas determinadas con la técnica de interferometría de larga línea de base (VLBI). El Working Group on Reference Frames de la IAU (WGRF) decidió adoptar (Grasse, 1995) al sistema de referencia celeste extragaláctico del Servicio Internacional de la Rotación Terrestre (IERS) como futuro sistema de referencia celeste convencional bajo el nombre International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) y encomendó su mantenimiento futuro al IERS. El marco de referencia que materializará al ICRS contiene posiciones precisas J2000.0 de más de 600 radiofuentes extragalácticas. Las coordenadas fueron ajustadas en una única solución VLBI en la cual se incluyeron todas las observaciones realizadas hasta octubre de 1995 con la técnica de adquisición de datos VLBI Mark III. Para minimizar los errores sistemáticos que pueden afectar la calidad del marco de referencia se introdujeron mejoras sustanciales en la modelización y en la selección de datos. Un subconjunto de objetos del marco de referencia se utilizó para referir las posiciones estelares determinadas con el satélite astrométrico Hipparcos al ICRS.

  5. 78 FR 44943 - EcoEléctrica, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission EcoEl ctrica, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 3, 2013, EcoEl ctrica, L.P. (EcoEl ctrica), Road 337, Km. 3.7, Bo. Tallaboa Poniente, Pe uelas, PR 00624, filed... directed to Jaime L. Sanabria, EcoEl ctrica, L.P., Road 337, Km. 3.7, Bo. Tallaboa Poniente, Pe uelas,...

  6. Effect of polluted water on soil and plant contamination by heavy metals in El-Mahla El-Kobra, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasem Mahmoud, Esawy; Ghoneim, Adel Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The discharge of untreated waste water in Zefta drain and drain no. 5 is becoming a problem for many farmers in the El-Mahla El-Kobra area, Egypt. The discharged water contains high levels of contaminants considered hazardous to the ecosystem. Some plants, soil, water, and sediment samples were collected from the El-Mahla El-Kobra area to evaluate the contamination by heavy metals. The results showed that the heavy metals, pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the water of Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded permissible limits for irrigation. In rice and maize shoots grown in soils irrigated by contaminated water from Zefta drain and drain no. 5, the bioaccumulation factors for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mn were higher than 1.0. The heavy metals content of irrigated soils from Zefta drain and drain no. 5 exceeded the upper limit of background heavy metals. In this study, the mean contaminant factor values of the drain no. 5 sediments revealed that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Ni > 6, indicating very high contamination. The bioaccumulation coefficient values of Cynodon dactylon, Phragmites australis, and Typha domingensis aquatic plants growing in Zefta drain are high. These species can be considered as hyperaccumulators for the decontamination of contaminated water.

  7. Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken by English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on Asian/Pacific Islander languages spoken by English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Top 10 Most Common Asian/Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs:…

  8. Profiles of Native American and/or Alaska Native English Learners (ELs). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on profiles of Native American and/or Alaska Native English Learners (ELs) include: (1) Largest Percentage of ELs Who Were Native American and/or…

  9. Use of Increasingly Complex Text to Advance ELs' Knowledge and Academic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Lisa M.; Leighton, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored joining use of increasing-complex text with sound instructional practices on English Learners' (ELs) academic language and conceptual knowledge. Findings showed one-week postintervention, ELs achieved significant academic vocabulary gains such that there were no differences between ELs and general education (GE)…

  10. 78 FR 38197 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; El Monte, CA AGENCY... a final rule published in the Federal Register of May 14, 2013, that amends Class D airspace at El Monte Airport, El Monte, CA. In that rule, the legal description references the airport...

  11. 78 FR 15683 - Approval of Subzone Status, Expeditors International of Washington, Inc.; El Paso, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status, Expeditors International of Washington, Inc.; El... application submitted by the City of El Paso, grantee of FTZ 68, requesting subzone status subject to the existing activation limit of FTZ 68, on behalf of Expeditors International of Washington, Inc., in El...

  12. 75 FR 50752 - El Dorado Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Dorado Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...-000. c. Date filed: April 19, 2010. d. Applicant: El Dorado Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... Project would be located on the Pleasant Oak main pipeline at the Tank 7 storage tank in El Dorado...

  13. English Learners (ELs) Who Are Asian or Pacific Islander. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) who are Asian or Pacific Islander include: (1) Top 10 Asian and Pacific Islander Languages Spoken Among ELs: SY 2013-14; (2)…

  14. A Postwar Perversion of "Testimonio" in Horacio Castellanos Moya's "El asco"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Salvadoran writer Horacio Castellanos Moya offers a provocative example of postwar cynicism in his 1997 novel "El asco: Thomas Bernhard en San Salvador." By telling the story of Edgardo Vega, an emigrant who returns to El Salvador in the mid-1990s after living in Canada for eighteen years, "El asco" represents the mass exodus…

  15. 7 CFR 1427.1205 - ELS Cotton Domestic User/Exporter Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false ELS Cotton Domestic User/Exporter Agreement. 1427... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1205 ELS Cotton Domestic...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.1205 - ELS Cotton Domestic User/Exporter Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false ELS Cotton Domestic User/Exporter Agreement. 1427... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1205 ELS Cotton Domestic...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.1205 - ELS Cotton Domestic User/Exporter Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false ELS Cotton Domestic User/Exporter Agreement. 1427... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1205 ELS Cotton Domestic...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.1205 - ELS Cotton Domestic User/Exporter Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ELS Cotton Domestic User/Exporter Agreement. 1427... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1205 ELS Cotton Domestic...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.1205 - ELS Cotton Domestic User/Exporter Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false ELS Cotton Domestic User/Exporter Agreement. 1427... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1205 ELS Cotton Domestic...

  20. 77 FR 1710 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... conditions in El Salvador resulting from a series of earthquakes in 2001, and El Salvador remains unable... of earthquakes that occurred in 2001. See 66 FR 14214 and section 244(a)(b)(1)(B) of the Immigration..., disruption of living conditions in El Salvador resulting from the series of earthquakes that struck...