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Sample records for avatud ppe mudelitest

  1. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Equipment for Infection Control Questions About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print Q1. How do manufacturers ensure personal protective equipment (PPE) is safe and effective? A1. To help ...

  2. A Test Methodology for Assessing Demining Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    helmets, those from PPE 4 and PPE 5, performed better than those from the other PPE for dummies in the kneeling position because the larger mass...performed better than those from the other PPEs for dummies in the kneeling position because the larger mass decreases the acceleration of the head...Figure 29: Helmet and Visor Characteristics Figure 30 presents the results for dummies in the prone position. Only PPE 5 reduced the HIC for the

  3. New PPE Policy Will Help Prevent Injuries | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley Shoemaker, Guest Writer In January 2013, a revised policy on personal protective equipment (PPE) was approved for all government and contractor employees at NCI at Frederick. This new policy was driven by a high number of eye injuries at NCI at Frederick (56 between 2007 and 2012) that were directly related to inadequate PPE. The Occupational Safety and Health Act states that each employer is responsible for identifying hazards in the workplace and determining what kind of PPE is necessary.

  4. Variation of the expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ppe44 gene among clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Rindi, Laura; Peroni, Irene; Lari, Nicoletta; Bonanni, Daniela; Tortoli, Enrico; Garzelli, Carlo

    2007-11-01

    PPE44 is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE proteins, a polymorphic family of 69 glycine-rich proteins that predictively represent a source of antigenic variation. The genetic diversity of gene ppe44 among clinical isolates has been studied. No genomic polymorphism of ppe44 was found by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay using three restriction enzymes. Nucleotide sequencing of gene ppe44 of a number of isolates, selected to represent the major phylogenetic lineages of M. tuberculosis, showed no nucleotide substitution, with the exception of isolates of the Beijing genotype. These findings indicate that gene ppe44 is basically conserved among M. tuberculosis strains. The expression of gene ppe44 was then determined at the transcriptional level by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay. Extremely high quantitative variations in ppe44 expression were found among the isolates; ppe44 expression of the Beijing strains was significantly higher than the non-Beijing strains. To test whether differential expression of gene ppe44 has the potential to provide a dynamic antigen display, antibodies to PPE44 were titered in the sera of M. tuberculosis-infected subjects. Variation of antibody response to PPE44 was found with regard to both antibody titers and the proportion of responding subjects. These results indicate that the differential expression of genes ppe could influence the host's immune responsiveness, thus having implications in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis.

  5. Selecting PPE for the Workplace (Personal Protective Equipment for the Eyes and Face)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional References Site Map Credits Selecting Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for the Workplace Impact Heat Chemicals Dust Optical Radiation OSHA Requirements Home | Selecting Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for the Workplace | OSHA Requirements Site Map | ...

  6. PPE Surface Proteins Are Required for Heme Utilization by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Avishek; Speer, Alexander; Lin, Kan; Ehrt, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iron is essential for replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but iron is efficiently sequestered in the human host during infection. Heme constitutes the largest iron reservoir in the human body and is utilized by many bacterial pathogens as an iron source. While heme acquisition is well studied in other bacterial pathogens, little is known in M. tuberculosis. To identify proteins involved in heme utilization by M. tuberculosis, a transposon mutant library was screened for resistance to the toxic heme analog gallium(III)-porphyrin (Ga-PIX). Inactivation of the ppe36, ppe62, and rv0265c genes resulted in resistance to Ga-PIX. Growth experiments using isogenic M. tuberculosis deletion mutants showed that PPE36 is essential for heme utilization by M. tuberculosis, while the functions of PPE62 and Rv0265c are partially redundant. None of the genes restored growth of the heterologous M. tuberculosis mutants, indicating that the proteins encoded by the genes have separate functions. PPE36, PPE62, and Rv0265c bind heme as shown by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and are associated with membranes. Both PPE36 and PPE62 proteins are cell surface accessible, while the Rv0265c protein is probably located in the periplasm. PPE36 and PPE62 are, to our knowledge, the first proline-proline-glutamate (PPE) proteins of M. tuberculosis that bind small molecules and are involved in nutrient acquisition. The absence of a virulence defect of the ppe36 deletion mutant indicates that the different iron acquisition pathways of M. tuberculosis may substitute for each other during growth and persistence in mice. The emerging model of heme utilization by M. tuberculosis as derived from this study is substantially different from those of other bacteria. PMID:28119467

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE32 promotes cytokines production and host cell apoptosis through caspase cascade accompanying with enhanced ER stress response

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jie; Abdalla, Abualgasim Elgaili; Xie, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, remains a grave global public health burden which claims the lives around two to three million annually. PE and PPE proteins, featured by the Pro-Glu (PE) or Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) motifs at the conserved N-terminal domain, are abundant in the MTB genome. PPE32 can increase intracellular survival of mycobacteria through abnormally increase in cytokines production. PPE32 might subvert the macrophage immune response and thwart its bactericidal effect. THP-1 macrophages treated with PPE32 or infected with Mycobacterium smegmatis (MS) expression PPE32 showed increase of cytokines production and multiple hallmarks of apoptosis. We found that PPE32 significantly increases the expression of IL-12p40 and IL-32 through ERK1/2 signaling pathway. In addition, the cell viability of macrophage was inhibited after PPE32 stimulation. We noted that PPE32 induces cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9, while inhibition of caspase activity significantly abrogates the PPE32-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, PPE32 treatment promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress related gene expression, suggesting ER stress might be responsible for PPE32-induced cell apoptosis. PMID:27634911

  8. PPE38 Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inhibits Macrophage MHC Class I Expression and Dampens CD8+ T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lu; Tong, Jingfeng; Wang, Hui; Tao, Chengwu; Wang, Qinglan; Niu, Chen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Gao, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Suppression of CD8+ T cell activation is a critical mechanism used by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to escape protective host immune responses. PPE38 belongs to the unique PPE family of MTB and in our previous study, PPE38 protein was speculated to participate in manipulating macrophage MHC class I pathway. To test this hypothesis, the function of mycobacterial PPE38 protein was assessed here using macrophage and mouse infection models. Decreased amount of MHC class I was observed on the surface of macrophages infected with PPE38-expressing mycobacteria. The transcript of genes encoding MHC class I was also inhibited by PPE38. After infection of C57BL/6 mice with Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing PPE38 (Msmeg-PPE38), decreased number of CD8+ T cells was found in spleen, liver, and lungs through immunohistochemical analysis, comparing to the control strain harboring empty vector (Msmeg-V). Consistently, flow cytometry assay showed that fewer effector/memory CD8+ T cells (CD44highCD62Llow) were activated in spleen from Msmeg-PPE38 infected mice. Moreover, Msmeg-PPE38 confers a growth advantage over Msmeg-V in C57BL/6 mice, indicating an effect of PPE38 to favor mycobacterial persistence in vivo. Overall, this study shows a unique biological function of PPE38 protein to facilitate mycobacteria to escape host immunity, and provides hints for TB vaccine development. PMID:28348981

  9. Phylogeny to function: PE/PPE protein evolution and impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, S; van Wyk, N; Warren, R M; Sampson, S L

    2015-06-01

    The pe/ppe genes represent one of the most intriguing aspects of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. These genes are especially abundant in pathogenic mycobacteria, with more than 160 members in M. tuberculosis. Despite being discovered over 15 years ago, their function remains unclear, although various lines of evidence implicate selected family members in mycobacterial virulence. In this review, we use PE/PPE phylogeny as a framework within which we examine the diversity and putative functions of these proteins. We report on the evolution and diversity of the respective gene families, as well as the implications thereof for function and host immune recognition. We summarize recent findings on pe/ppe gene regulation, also placing this in the context of PE/PPE phylogeny. We collate data from several large proteomics datasets, providing an overview of PE/PPE localization, and discuss the implications this may have for host responses. Assessment of the current knowledge of PE/PPE diversity suggests that these proteins are not variable antigens as has been so widely speculated; however, they do clearly play important roles in virulence. Viewing the growing body of pe/ppe literature through the lens of phylogeny reveals trends in features and function that may be associated with the evolution of mycobacterial pathogenicity.

  10. Presence of PPE proteins in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates and their immunogenicity in cattle.

    PubMed

    Newton, Victoria; McKenna, Shawn L; De Buck, Jeroen

    2009-03-30

    Johne's disease or paratuberculosis in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Although the stages of infection have been well described, very few virulence factors of MAP have been studied in detail. We aimed to study the localization and immunogenicity of members of the polymorphic PPE protein family which is unique to Mycobacteria and has been linked to virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The presence of PPE proteins in the cell wall was investigated by enzymatic digest of surface exposed proteins of live MAP bacteria and analysis by LC-MS/MS. Polyclonal antisera were generated against a recombinant fragment of one PPE protein and a synthetic peptide of the other to confirm their surface exposure. Sera from naturally infected cows were investigated for the presence of specific antibodies against the recombinant PPE protein. Two PPE proteins, Map3420c and Map1506, were detected by mass spectrometry and confirmed to be surface exposed on live MAP cells by immunohistochemistry. The sera from naturally infected animals contained specific antibodies against recombinantly expressed Map3420c as demonstrated by western blotting. These findings show the in vitro expression of two PPE proteins. Additionally the surface exposure and immunogenicity of PPE proteins of MAP was demonstrated.

  11. Prorenin processing enzyme (PPE) produced by Baculovirus-infected Sf-9 insect cells: PPE is the cysteine protease encoded in the acMNPV gene.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Takeshi; Awa, Hirono; Kikuchi, Ken-Ichi; Nirasawa, Satoru; Takahashi, Saori

    2010-01-01

    In infection cultures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) insect cells with a recombinant baculovirus, vhpR, carrying human preprorenin cDNA in the polyhedrin locus of Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV), the expressed inactive recombinant human (rh)-prorenin is reported to be proteolytically processed to yield active rh-renin in the very late phase of culture (Takahashi et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 71, 2610-2613 (2007)). To identify the enzyme that catalyzes the processing of rh-prorenin, referred to as prorenin processing enzyme (PPE), we purified potential PPE from virus-infected Sf-9 culture supernatant by the use of an internally quenched fluorescent (IQF) substrate for PPE. The 32-kDa protein band agreed well with PPE activity on the final Mono Q FPLC. By N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, the protein was revealed to be a cysteine protease encoded by the AcMNPV gene. Enzyme activity was inhibited by cysteine protease inhibitors but not by other protease inhibitors. When the purified rh-prorenin was incubated with the 32-kDa protein, renin activity appeared concomitant with the disappearance of rh-prorenin. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the activated product was identical to that of the rh-renin that had accumulated in the infection cultures. These results indicate that the 32-kDa cysteine protease derived from the AcMNPV gene is the enzyme PPE of virus-infected Sf-9 cells.

  12. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE68-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes for tuberculosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhi-Liang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Sina; Chen, Xin-Yu; Liu, Hui-Fang; Chen, Bo-Kun; Li, De-Zhou; Huang, Xi; Wen, Jin-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    PPE68 is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific protein which is absent from the vaccine strains of BCG. A panel of 14 PPE68-derived peptides predicted to bind to HLA-A*0201 was synthesized. The HLA-A*0201 restriction of these peptides was determined in T2 cell line and HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. The specificity of peptides was assessed in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients using IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, and immunodominant peptides were further used to evaluate their diagnostic potential in HLA-A*0201-positive pulmonary TB patients. 13 out of 14 peptides were identified as high-affinity binders. Of these peptides, 12 peptides induced significant IFN-γ-secreting T cell response in transgenic mice and 9 peptides were efficiently recognized by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 10 HLA-A*0201-positive TB patients. Four immunodominant HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes (PPE68126-134, PPE68133-141, PPE68140-148, and PPE68148-156) were recognized by the most of 80 HLA-A*0201-positive TB patients (81, 86, 74, and 84 %, respectively). These epitopes may be used for a potential diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection.

  13. The PPE2 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis translocates to host nucleus and inhibits nitric oxide production

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Khalid Hussain; Srivastava, Shruti; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, is one of the most successful pathogens of humans. It has evolved several adaptive skills and evasion mechanisms to hijack the immunologically educated host to suit its intracellular lifestyle. Here, we show that one of the unique PPE family member proteins of M. tuberculosis, PPE2, can limit nitric oxide (NO) production by inhibiting inos gene transcription. PPE2 protein has a leucine zipper DNA-binding motif and a functional nuclear localization signal. PPE2 was translocated into the macrophage nucleus via the classical importin α/β pathway where it interacted with a GATA-binding site overlapping with the TATA box of inos promoter and inhibited NO production. PPE2 prolonged intracellular survival of a surrogate bacterium M. smegmatis in vitro as well as in vivo. This information are likely to improve our knowledge of host-pathogen interactions during M. tuberculosis infection which is crucial for designing effective anti-TB therapeutics. PMID:28071726

  14. Naphthoquinone derivative PPE8 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in p53 null H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Lien, Jin-Cherng; Huang, Chien-Chun; Lu, Te-Jung; Tseng, Chih-Hsiang; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lee, Hong-Zin; Bao, Bo-Ying; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lu, Te-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a key role in synthesizing secretory proteins and sensing signal function in eukaryotic cells. Responding to calcium disturbance, oxidation state change, or pharmacological agents, ER transmembrane protein, inositol-regulating enzyme 1 (IRE1), senses the stress and triggers downstream signals. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) dissociates from IRE1 to assist protein folding and guard against cell death. In prolonged ER stress, IRE1 recruits and activates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) as well as downstream JNK for cell death. Naphthoquinones are widespread natural phenolic compounds. Vitamin K3, a derivative of naphthoquinone, inhibits variant tumor cell growth via oxygen uptake and oxygen stress. We synthesized a novel naphthoquinone derivative PPE8 and evaluated capacity to induce ER stress in p53 null H1299 and p53 wild-type A549 cells. In H1299 cells, PPE8 induced ER enlargement, GRP78 expression, and transient IER1 activation. Activated IRE1 recruited ASK1 for downstream JNK phosphorylation. IRE1 knockdown by siRNA attenuated PPE8-induced JNK phosphorylation and cytotoxicity. Prolonged JNK phosphorylation may be involved in PPE8-induced cytotoxicity. Such results did not arise in A549 cells, but p53 knockdown by siRNA restored PPE8-induced GRP78 expression and JNK phosphorylation. We offer a novel compound to induce ER stress and cytotoxicity in p53-deficient cancer cells, presenting an opportunity for treatment.

  15. Treatment of Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia (PPE) with Topical Sildenafil: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Kellen L.; Rushing, Christel; Honeycutt, Wanda; Latta, Kenneth; Howard, Leigh; Arrowood, Christy A.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hurwitz, Herbert I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Palmar-plantar erythrodysethesia (PPE) is a common chemotherapy and anti-VEGF multi-kinase inhibitor class-related toxicity that often results in debilitating skin changes and often limits the use of active anti-cancer regimens. Mechanistic and anecdotal clinical evidence suggested that topical application of sildenafil cream may help reduce the severity of PPE. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of topical sildenafil cream for the treatment of PPE. Methods Eligible subjects were required to have grade 1–3 PPE associated with either capecitabine or sunitinib. Subjects were randomized to receive 1% topical sildenafil cream to the left extremities or right extremities and placebo cream on the opposite extremity. 0.5 mL of cream was applied to each affected hand/foot two times per day. The primary endpoint was improvement in PPE grading at any point on study. Clinical assessments were evaluated by NCI-CTC 4.0 grading and patient self-reported pain. Results Ten subjects were enrolled; 9 were evaluable for safety and efficacy. Five of nine subjects reported some improvement in foot pain and 3 of 8 subjects for hand pain improvement. One of these subjects noted specific improvement in tactile function. No treatment-related toxicities were observed. Conclusions In this limited, single center study, topical cream containing 1% sildenafil is feasible to administer, is well-tolerated, and may mitigate PPE-related symptoms due to anti-cancer therapeutic agents. Further validation is necessary. PMID:25341548

  16. Comparative analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pe and ppe genes reveals high sequence variation and an apparent absence of selective constraints.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Christopher R E; Cloete, Ruben; Müller, Borna; Schürch, Anita C; van Helden, Paul D; Gagneux, Sebastien; Warren, Robin M; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genomes contain 2 large gene families termed pe and ppe. The function of pe/ppe proteins remains enigmatic but studies suggest that they are secreted or cell surface associated and are involved in bacterial virulence. Previous studies have also shown that some pe/ppe genes are polymorphic, a finding that suggests involvement in antigenic variation. Using comparative sequence analysis of 18 publicly available MTBC whole genome sequences, we have performed alignments of 33 pe (excluding pe_pgrs) and 66 ppe genes in order to detect the frequency and nature of genetic variation. This work has been supplemented by whole gene sequencing of 14 pe/ppe (including 5 pe_pgrs) genes in a cohort of 40 diverse and well defined clinical isolates covering all the main lineages of the M. tuberculosis phylogenetic tree. We show that nsSNP's in pe (excluding pgrs) and ppe genes are 3.0 and 3.3 times higher than in non-pe/ppe genes respectively and that numerous other mutation types are also present at a high frequency. It has previously been shown that non-pe/ppe M. tuberculosis genes display a remarkably low level of purifying selection. Here, we also show that compared to these genes those of the pe/ppe families show a further reduction of selection pressure that suggests neutral evolution. This is inconsistent with the positive selection pressure of "classical" antigenic variation. Finally, by analyzing such a large number of genes we were able to detect large differences in mutation type and frequency between both individual genes and gene sub-families. The high variation rates and absence of selective constraints provides valuable insights into potential pe/ppe function. Since pe/ppe proteins are highly antigenic and have been studied as potential vaccine components these results should also prove informative for aspects of M. tuberculosis vaccine design.

  17. Structure of a PE-PPE-EspG complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals molecular specificity of ESX protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Ekiert, Damian C; Cox, Jeffery S

    2014-10-14

    Nearly 10% of the coding capacity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is devoted to two highly expanded and enigmatic protein families called PE and PPE, some of which are important virulence/immunogenicity factors and are secreted during infection via a unique alternative secretory system termed "type VII." How PE-PPE proteins function during infection and how they are translocated to the bacterial surface through the five distinct type VII secretion systems [ESAT-6 secretion system (ESX)] of M. tuberculosis is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of a PE-PPE heterodimer bound to ESX secretion-associated protein G (EspG), which adopts a novel fold. This PE-PPE-EspG complex, along with structures of two additional EspGs, suggests that EspG acts as an adaptor that recognizes specific PE-PPE protein complexes via extensive interactions with PPE domains, and delivers them to ESX machinery for secretion. Surprisingly, secretion of most PE-PPE proteins in M. tuberculosis is likely mediated by EspG from the ESX-5 system, underscoring the importance of ESX-5 in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Moreover, our results indicate that PE-PPE domains function as cis-acting targeting sequences that are read out by EspGs, revealing the molecular specificity for secretion through distinct ESX pathways.

  18. Structure of a PE-PPE-EspG complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals molecular specificity of ESX protein secretion

    DOE PAGES

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2014-10-01

    Nearly 10% of the coding capacity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is devoted to two highly expanded and enigmatic protein families called PE and PPE, some of which are important virulence/immunogenicity factors and are secreted during infection via a unique alternative secretory system termed "type VII." How PE-PPE proteins function during infection and how they are translocated to the bacterial surface through the five distinct type VII secretion systems [ESAT-6 secretion system (ESX)] of M. tuberculosis is poorly understood. Here in this paper, we report the crystal structure of a PE-PPE heterodimer bound to ESX secretion-associated protein G (EspG), whichmore » adopts a novel fold. This PE-PPE-EspG complex, along with structures of two additional EspGs, suggests that EspG acts as an adaptor that recognizes specific PE-PPE protein complexes via extensive interactions with PPE domains, and delivers them to ESX machinery for secretion. Surprisingly, secretion of most PE-PPE proteins in M. tuberculosis is likely mediated by EspG from the ESX-5 system, underscoring the importance of ESX-5 in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Furthermore, our results indicate that PE-PPE domains function as cis-acting targeting sequences that are read out by EspGs, revealing the molecular specificity for secretion through distinct ESX pathways.« less

  19. Physical Performance Decrements in Military Personnel Wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    medio -lateral (ML) directions as a function of fatigue and PPE (all p’sɘ.05). Postural sway in both the AP and ML directions increased after fatigue...data demonstrated significant changes in mean COP motion in both the anterior-posterior (AP) and medio -lateral (ML) directions as a function of

  20. Prediction of Certain Well-Characterized Domains of Known Functions within the PE and PPE Proteins of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Kumar, Ashwin B. R.; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    The PE and PPE protein family are unique to mycobacteria. Though the complete genome sequences for over 500 M. tuberculosis strains and mycobacterial species are available, few PE and PPE proteins have been structurally and functionally characterized. We have therefore used bioinformatics tools to characterize the structure and function of these proteins. We selected representative members of the PE and PPE protein family by phylogeny analysis and using structure-based sequence annotation identified ten well-characterized protein domains of known function. Some of these domains were observed to be common to all mycobacterial species and some were species specific. PMID:26891364

  1. STS-42 Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE) closeup taken onboard OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE), an International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) experiment, is documented in a closeup taken onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Phase partitioning is a very effective technique used by biochemists and cell biologists to obtain fairly pure cells. Cells are separated and collected in a mixture of two immiscible liquids (fluids that tend not to mix) by their surface characteristics. In the PPE, investigators feel they will be able to separate closely related cells because cell density and convection flows are not factors in the phase partitioning process in space. They also hope to study other factors that influence the process. Phase partitioning is used to separate biological materials such as bone marrow cells for cancer treatment.

  2. Thermophysical analysis of II-VI semiconductors by PPE calorimetry and lock-in thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Streza, M.; Dadarlat, D.; Strzałkowski, K.

    2013-11-13

    An accurate determination of thermophysical properties such as thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity and thermal conductivity is extremely important for characterization and quality assurance of semiconductors. Thermal diffusivity and effusivity of some binary semiconductors have been investigated. Two experimental techniques were used: a contact technique (PPE calorimetry) and a non contact technique (lock-in thermography). When working with PPE, in the back (BPPE) configuration and in the thermally thick regim of the pyroelectric sensor, we can get the thermal diffusivity of the sample by performing a scanning of the excitation frequency of radiation. Thermal effusivity is obtained in front configuration (sensor directly irradiated and sample in back position) by performing a thickness scan of a coupling fluid. By using the lock-in thermography technique, the thermal diffusivity of the sample is obtained from the phase image. The results obtained by the two techniques are in good agreement. Nevertheless, for the determination of thermal diffusivity, lock-in thermography is preferred.

  3. The Short-term Protective Effects of 'Non-PPE' Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers.

    PubMed

    Roff, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin 'splash-resistant single-use' (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These 'non-personal protective equipment (PPE)' gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of 'non-PPE' gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments.One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as 'non-PPE' gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject 'challenge' in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38-87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25-41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5-8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the absorbent cotton gloves it

  4. Evaluating a moving target: Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in hospital settings

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project. Demonstration projects, in this context, push the envelope about what is known about effectiveness in novel settings, and turnover of staff and patient populations can present challenges to gathering optimal data. By using P-PE, we built capacity in the environment while expanding possibilities for data collection. Suggestions are made based on our experience. PMID:24860251

  5. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs.

  6. The ESX-5 System of Pathogenic Mycobacteria Is Involved In Capsule Integrity and Virulence through Its Substrate PPE10

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Louis S.; van der Woude, Aniek D.; Bestebroer, Jovanka; van Stempvoort, Gunny; Musters, René J. P.; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Picavet, Daisy I.; van de Weerd, Robert; Maletta, Massimiliano; Kuijl, Coenraad P.; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Bitter, Wilbert

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria produce a capsule layer, which consists of glycan-like polysaccharides and a number of specific proteins. In this study, we show that, in slow-growing mycobacteria, the type VII secretion system ESX-5 plays a major role in the integrity and stability of the capsule. We have identified PPE10 as the ESX-5 substrate responsible for this effect. Mutants in esx-5 and ppe10 both have impaired capsule integrity as well as reduced surface hydrophobicity. Electron microscopy, immunoblot and flow cytometry analyses demonstrated reduced amounts of surface localized proteins and glycolipids, and morphological differences in the capsular layer. Since capsular proteins secreted by the ESX-1 system are important virulence factors, we tested the effect of the mutations that cause capsular defects on virulence mechanisms. Both esx-5 and ppe10 mutants of Mycobacterium marinum were shown to be impaired in ESX-1-dependent hemolysis. In agreement with this, the ppe10 and esx5 mutants showed reduced recruitment of ubiquitin in early macrophage infection and intermediate attenuation in zebrafish embryos. These results provide a pivotal role for the ESX-5 secretion system and its substrate PPE10, in the capsular integrity of pathogenic mycobacteria. These findings open up new roads for research on the mycobacterial capsule and its role in virulence and immune modulation. PMID:27280885

  7. Strong immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESX-5 type VII secretion: encoded PE-PPE proteins predicts vaccine potential.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Sun, Lin; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Simeone, Roxane; Degaiffier, Nathalie; Fiette, Laurence; Esin, Semih; Brosch, Roland; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Majlessi, Laleh

    2012-04-19

    The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes five type VII secretion systems, ESX-1 to ESX-5, most of which are associated with genes encoding PE/PPE proteins, named after their N-terminal Pro-Glu (PE) or Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) motifs. Here, we describe the strong T cell immunogenicity of the ESX-5-encoded PE/PPE proteins, which share a large panel of cross-reactive CD4(+) epitopes with substantial numbers of their ESX-5-nonassociated PE/PPE homologs. The immunogenicity of these numerous PE/PPE proteins is dependent on their export by a functional EccD(5), the predicted transmembrane channel of the ESX-5 secretion apparatus. The Mtb Δppe25-pe19 mutant deleted for all ESX-5-associated pe and ppe genes, although highly attenuated in immunocompetent mice, remains able to induce immunity against the ESX-5-associated PE/PPE virulence factors, via cross-reactivity with their numerous homologs, and against the ESX-1 virulence factors ESAT-6/CFP-10. The Δppe25-pe19 strain is strongly protective against Mtb infection in mice and represents a potential antituberculosis vaccine candidate.

  8. Identifying and characterising PPE7 (Rv0354c) high activity binding peptides and their role in inhibiting cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Diana P; Ocampo, Marisol; Varela, Yahson; Curtidor, Hernando; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2017-02-15

    This study was aimed at characterising the PPE7 protein from the PE/PPE protein family. The presence and transcription of the rv0354c gene in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was determined and the subcellular localisation of the PPE7 protein on mycobacterial membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscope. Two peptides were identified as having high binding activity (HABPs) and were tested in vitro regarding the invasion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. HABP 39224 inhibited invasion in A549 epithelial cells and U937 macrophages by more than 50%, whilst HABP 39225 inhibited invasion by 40% in U937 cells. HABP 39224, located in the protein's C-terminal region, has a completely conserved amino acid sequence in M. tuberculosis complex species and could be selected as a base peptide when designing a subunit-based, anti-tuberculosis vaccine.

  9. Structure of a PE-PPE-EspG complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals molecular specificity of ESX protein secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2014-10-01

    Nearly 10% of the coding capacity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is devoted to two highly expanded and enigmatic protein families called PE and PPE, some of which are important virulence/immunogenicity factors and are secreted during infection via a unique alternative secretory system termed "type VII." How PE-PPE proteins function during infection and how they are translocated to the bacterial surface through the five distinct type VII secretion systems [ESAT-6 secretion system (ESX)] of M. tuberculosis is poorly understood. Here in this paper, we report the crystal structure of a PE-PPE heterodimer bound to ESX secretion-associated protein G (EspG), which adopts a novel fold. This PE-PPE-EspG complex, along with structures of two additional EspGs, suggests that EspG acts as an adaptor that recognizes specific PE-PPE protein complexes via extensive interactions with PPE domains, and delivers them to ESX machinery for secretion. Surprisingly, secretion of most PE-PPE proteins in M. tuberculosis is likely mediated by EspG from the ESX-5 system, underscoring the importance of ESX-5 in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Furthermore, our results indicate that PE-PPE domains function as cis-acting targeting sequences that are read out by EspGs, revealing the molecular specificity for secretion through distinct ESX pathways.

  10. Evaluating a Moving Target: Lessons Learned from Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in Hospital Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation (P-PE) strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project.…

  11. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens.

  12. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I.; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  13. Polymorphisms in the PE35 and PPE68 antigens in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains may affect strain virulence and reflect ongoing immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Wei, Jianhao; Liu, Haican; Li, Guilian; Guo, Qian; Qiu, Yan; Zhao, Lili; Li, Machao; Zhao, Xiuqin; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the Pro‑Glu/Pro‑Pro‑Glu (PE/PPE) genes in strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibit high sequence variation and may be involved in antigenic variation and immune evasion. Region of Difference 1 (RD1), encoding genes from Rv3871 to Rv3879, was observed to be lost during the original derivation of Bacillus Calmette‑Guérin between 1908 and 1921. It has been previously demonstrated that two PE/PPE proteins, PE35 (Rv3872) and PPE68 (Rv3873), are encoded by RD1 and exhibit immunodominance. To explore the genetic diversity of PE35 and PPE68, and to evaluate the impact of sequence variation on the immune recognition of these proteins, 161 clinical M. tuberculosis strains were selected from China and comparative sequence analysis of PE35 and PPE68 was performed. The results indicated that polymorphisms in PE35 and PPE68 may lead to alterations in the function of these proteins, which may potentially affect strain virulence. In addition, the human T‑cell epitopes of PE35 and PPE68 were highly variable, suggesting that the two antigens may be involved in diversifying selection to evade host immunity. The prevalence of strains with PE35 mutations in the non‑Beijing family was significantly greater compared with the Beijing family, indicating that Beijing strains may be more conservative than non‑Beijing strains in this gene.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Co-operonic PE32/PPE65 Proteins Alter Host Immune Responses by Hampering Th1 Response

    PubMed Central

    Khubaib, Mohd; Sheikh, Javaid A.; Pandey, Saurabh; Srikanth, Battu; Bhuwan, Manish; Khan, Nooruddin; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z.

    2016-01-01

    PE/PPE genes, present in cluster with ESAT-6 like genes, are suspected to have a role in antigenic variation and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Their roles in immune evasion and immune modulation of host are also well documented. We present evidence that PE32/PPE65 present within the RD8 region are co-operonic, co-transcribed, and co-translated, and play role in modulating host immune responses. Experiments with macrophage cell lines revealed that this protein complex suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 whereas also inducing high expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Immunization of mice with these recombinant proteins dampens an effective Th1 response as evident from reduced frequency of IFN-γ and IL-2 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. IgG sub-typing from serum of immunized mice revealed high levels of IgG1 when compared with IgG2a and IgG2b. Further IgG1/IgG2a ratio clearly demonstrated that the protein complex manipulates the host immune response favorable to the pathogen. Our results demonstrate that the co-transcribed and co-translated PE32 and PPE65 antigens are involved specifically in modulating anti-mycobacterial host immune response by hampering Th1 response. PMID:27242739

  15. Immunoregulatory functions and expression patterns of PE/PPE family members: Roles in pathogenicity and impact on anti-tuberculosis vaccine and drug design.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asma; Das, Arghya; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2015-06-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome was sequenced more than 15 years ago. It revealed a lot of interesting information, one of which was that 10% of the total coding capacity of the M. tuberculosis genome is dedicated to the PE/PPE family. There is a gradual expansion of these proteins from nonpathogenic to pathogenic mycobacteria, and there is increasing evidence that PE/PPE proteins play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss PE/PPE proteins, their close functional association with the ESX clusters, their immunomodulatory functions, and their important roles in mycobacterial virulence. In addition, we have attempted to review and compile information available in the literature detailing the expression patterns of PE/PPE family members in different mycobacterial species and also during infection. Our attempt has been to provide a succinct overview of this interesting family.

  16. Effects of Anthropometrics and Body Size Changes on the Development of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Sizing Systems in the US Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    ANTHROPOMETRICS AND BODY SIZE CHANGES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) SIZING SYSTEMS IN THE US ARMY by Hyeg Joo Choi* Todd...EFFECTS OF ANTHROPOMETRICS AND BODY SIZE CHANGES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) SIZING SYSTEMS IN THE US ARMY 5a. CONTRACT...of sizing systems. The impact of these changes are (as theoretically demonstrated here) that legacy size charts, based on the ANSUR 1988 data, would

  17. Disruption of the ESX-5 system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes loss of PPE protein secretion, reduction of cell wall integrity and strong attenuation.

    PubMed

    Bottai, Daria; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Majlessi, Laleh; Frigui, Wafa; Simeone, Roxane; Sayes, Fadel; Bitter, Wilbert; Brennan, Michael J; Leclerc, Claude; Batoni, Giovanna; Campa, Mario; Brosch, Roland; Esin, Semih

    2012-03-01

    The chromosome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes five type VII secretion systems (ESX-1-ESX-5). While the role of the ESX-1 and ESX-3 systems in M. tuberculosis has been elucidated, predictions for the function of the ESX-5 system came from data obtained in Mycobacterium marinum, where it transports PPE and PE_PGRS proteins and modulates innate immune responses. To define the role of the ESX-5 system in M. tuberculosis, in this study, we have constructed five M. tuberculosis H37Rv ESX-5 knockout/deletion mutants, inactivating eccA(5), eccD(5), rv1794 and esxM genes or the ppe25-pe19 region. Whereas the Mtbrv1794ko displayed no obvious phenotype, the other four mutants showed defects in secretion of the ESX-5-encoded EsxN and PPE41, a representative member of the large PPE protein family. Strikingly, the MtbeccD(5) ko mutant also showed enhanced sensitivity to detergents and hydrophilic antibiotics. When the virulence of the five mutants was evaluated, the MtbeccD(5) ko and MtbΔppe25-pe19 mutants were found attenuated both in macrophages and in the severe combined immune-deficient mouse infection model. Altogether these findings indicate an essential role of ESX-5 for transport of PPE proteins, cell wall integrity and full virulence of M. tuberculosis, thereby opening interesting new perspectives for the study of this human pathogen.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE25/PPE41 protein complex induces activation and maturation of dendritic cells and drives Th2-biased immune responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Bao, Yige; Chen, Xuerong; Burton, Jeremy; Gong, Xueli; Gu, Dongqing; Mi, Youjun; Bao, Lang

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades innate host immune responses by parasitizing macrophages and causes significant morbidity and mortality around the world. A mycobacterial antigen that can activate dendritic cells (DCs) and elicit effective host innate immune responses will be vital to the development of an effective TB vaccine. The M. tuberculosis genes PE25/PPE41 encode proteins which have been associated with evasion of the host immune response. We constructed a PE25/PPE41 complex gene via splicing by overlapping extension and expressed it successfully in E. coli. We investigated whether this protein complex could interact with DCs to induce effective host immune responses. The PE25/PPE41 protein complex induced maturation of isolated mouse DCs in vitro, increasing expression of cell surface markers (CD80, CD86 and MHC-II), thereby promoting Th2 polarization via secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. In addition, PE25/PPE41 protein complex-activated DCs induced proliferation of mouse CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and a strong humoral response in immunized mice. The sera of five TB patients were also highly reactive to this antigen. These findings suggest that interaction of the PE25/PPE41 protein complex with DCs may be of great immunological significance.

  19. Evolution and expansion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE and PPE multigene families and their association with the duplication of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions

    PubMed Central

    Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Sampson, Samantha L; Lee, Hyeyoung; Kim, Yeun; van Helden, Paul D; Warren, Robin M

    2006-01-01

    Background The PE and PPE multigene families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis comprise about 10% of the coding potential of the genome. The function of the proteins encoded by these large gene families remains unknown, although they have been proposed to be involved in antigenic variation and disease pathogenesis. Interestingly, some members of the PE and PPE families are associated with the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions, which are regions of immunopathogenic importance, and encode a system dedicated to the secretion of members of the potent T-cell antigen ESAT-6 family. This study investigates the duplication characteristics of the PE and PPE gene families and their association with the ESAT-6 gene clusters, using a combination of phylogenetic analyses, DNA hybridization, and comparative genomics, in order to gain insight into their evolutionary history and distribution in the genus Mycobacterium. Results The results showed that the expansion of the PE and PPE gene families is linked to the duplications of the ESAT-6 gene clusters, and that members situated in and associated with the clusters represent the most ancestral copies of the two gene families. Furthermore, the emergence of the repeat protein PGRS and MPTR subfamilies is a recent evolutionary event, occurring at defined branching points in the evolution of the genus Mycobacterium. These gene subfamilies are thus present in multiple copies only in the members of the M. tuberculosis complex and close relatives. The study provides a complete analysis of all the PE and PPE genes found in the sequenced genomes of members of the genus Mycobacterium such as M. smegmatis, M. avium paratuberculosis, M. leprae, M. ulcerans, and M. tuberculosis. Conclusion This work provides insight into the evolutionary history for the PE and PPE gene families of the mycobacteria, linking the expansion of these families to the duplications of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions, and showing that they are composed of subgroups

  20. Selection of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube with Narrow Diameter Distribution by Using a PPE PPV Copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Kelly A; Chen, Yusheng; Malkovskiy, Andrey; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; Sokolov, Alexei P; More, Karren Leslie; Pang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Electronic and mechanic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are uniquely dependent on the tube's chiralities and diameters. Isolation of different type SWNTs remains one of the fundamental and challenging issues in nanotube science. Herein, we demonstrate that SWNTs can be effectively enriched to a narrow diameter range by sequential treatment of the HiPco sample with nitric acid and a {pi}-conjugated copolymer poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE)-co-poly(phenylenevinylene) (PPV). On the basis of Raman, fluorescence, and microscopic evidence, the nitric acid is found to selectively remove the SWNTs of small diameter. The polymer not only effectively dispersed carbon nanotubes but also exhibited a good selectivity toward a few SWNTs. The reported approach thus offers a new methodology to isolate SWNTs, which has the potential to operate in a relatively large scale.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE68 and Rv2626c genes contribute to the host cell necrosis and bacterial escape from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Danelishvili, Lia; Everman, Jamie; Bermudez, Luiz E

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are the main line of innate immune response against M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, these cells serve as the major intracellular niche for Mtb enhancing its survival, replication and, later on, cell-to-cell spread. Mtb-associated cytotoxicity of macrophages has been well documented, but limited information exists about mechanisms by which the pathogen induces cell necrosis. To identify virulence factors involved in the induction of necrosis, we screened 5,000 transposon mutants of Mtb for clones that failed to promote the host cell necrosis in a similar manner as the wild-type bacterium. Five Mtb mutants were identified as potential candidates inducing significantly lower levels of THP-1 cell damage in contrast to the H37Rv wild-type infection. Reduced levels of the cell damage by necrosis deficient mutants (NDMs) were also associated with delayed damage of mitochondrial membrane permeability when compared with the wild-type infection over time. Two knockout mutants of the Rv3873 gene, encoding a cell wall PPE68 protein of RD1 region, were identified out of 5 NDMs. Further investigation lead to the observation that PPE68 protein interacts and exports several unknown or known surface/secreted proteins, among them Rv2626c is associated with the host cell necrosis. When the Rv2626c gene is deleted from the genome of Mtb, the bacterium displays significantly less necrosis in THP-1 cells and, conversely, the overexpression of Rv2626c promotes the host cell necrosis at early time points of infections in contrast to the wild-type strain.

  2. Recombinant BCG prime and PPE protein boost provides potent protection against acute Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Enzhuo; Gu, Jin; Wang, Feifei; Wang, Honghai; Shen, Hongbo; Chen, Zheng W

    2016-04-01

    Since BCG, the only vaccine widely used against tuberculosis (TB) in the world, provides varied protective efficacy and may not be effective for inducing long-term cellular immunity, it is in an urgent need to develop more effective vaccines and more potent immune strategies against TB. Prime-boost is proven to be a good strategy by inducing long-term protection. In this study, we tested the protective effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) challenge of prime-boost strategy by recombinant BCG (rBCG) expressing PPE protein Rv3425 fused with Ag85B and Rv3425. Results showed that the prime-boost strategy could significantly increase the protective efficiency against Mtb infection, characterized by reduction of bacterial load in lung and spleen, attenuation of tuberculosis lesions in lung tissues. Importantly, we found that Rv3425 boost, superior to Ag85B boost, provided better protection against Mtb infection. Further research proved that rBCG prime-Rv3425 boost could obviously increase the expansion of lymphocytes, significantly induce IL-2 production by lymphocytes upon PPD stimulation, and inhibit IL-6 production at an early stage. It implied that rBCG prime-Rv3425 boost opted to induce Th1 immune response and provided a long-term protection against TB. These results implicated that rBCG prime-Rv3425 boost is a potent and promising strategy to prevent acute Mtb infection.

  3. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, RBN; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence. PMID:26902658

  4. High Sequence Variability of the ppE18 Gene of Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains Potentially Impacts Effectivity of Vaccine Candidate M72/AS01E.

    PubMed

    Homolka, Susanne; Ubben, Tanja; Niemann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The development of an effective vaccine is urgently needed to fight tuberculosis (TB) which is still the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide. One of the promising vaccine candidates M72/AS01E consists of two proteins subunits PepA and PPE18 coded by Rv0125 and Rv1196. However, preliminary data indicate a high level of sequence variability among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains that might have an impact on the vaccine efficacy. To further investigate this finding, we determined ppE18 sequence variability in a well-characterized reference collection of 71 MTBC strains from 23 phylogenetic lineages representing the global MTBC diversity. In total, 100 sequence variations consisting of 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three insertions and one deletion were detected resulting in 141 variable positions distributed over the entire gene. The majority of SNPs detected were non-synonymous (n = 68 vs. n = 28 synonymous). Strains from animal adapted lineages, e.g., M. bovis, showed a significant higher diversity than the human pathogens such as M. tuberculosis Haarlem. SNP patterns specific for different lineages as well as for deeper branches in the phylogeny could be identified. The results of our study demonstrate a high variability of the ppE18 gene even in the N-terminal domains that is normally highly conserved in ppe genes. As the N-terminal region interacts with TLR2 receptor inducing a protective anti-inflammatory immune response, genetic heterogeneity has a potential impact on the vaccine efficiency, however, this has to be investigated in future studies.

  5. A brachytic dwarfism trait (dw) in peach trees is caused by a nonsense mutation within the gibberellic acid receptor PpeGID1c.

    PubMed

    Hollender, Courtney A; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors controlling tree size and shape. Here, we studied the genetic basis for a recessive brachytic dwarfism trait (dw) in peach (Prunus persica) that has little or no effect on fruit development. A sequencing-based mapping strategy positioned dw on the distal end of chromosome 6. Further sequence analysis and fine mapping identified a candidate gene for dw as a non-functional allele of the gibberellic acid receptor GID1c. Expression of the two GID1-like genes found in peach, PpeGID1c and PpeGID1b, was analyzed. GID1c was predominantly expressed in actively growing vegetative tissues, whereas GID1b was more highly expressed in reproductive tissues. Silencing of GID1c in plum via transgenic expression of a hairpin construct led to a dwarf phenotype similar to that of dw/dw peaches. In general, the degree of GID1c silencing corresponded to the degree of dwarfing. The results suggest that PpeGID1c serves a primary role in vegetative growth and elongation, whereas GID1b probably functions to regulate gibberellic acid perception in reproductive organs. Modification of GID1c expression could provide a rational approach to control tree size without impairing fruit development.

  6. Conserved Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) protein domains target LipY lipases of pathogenic mycobacteria to the cell surface via the ESX-5 pathway.

    PubMed

    Daleke, Maria H; Cascioferro, Alessandro; de Punder, Karin; Ummels, Roy; Abdallah, Abdallah M; van der Wel, Nicole; Peters, Peter J; Luirink, Joen; Manganelli, Riccardo; Bitter, Wilbert

    2011-05-27

    The type VII secretion system ESX-5 is a major pathway for export of PE and PPE proteins in pathogenic mycobacteria. These mycobacteria-specific protein families are characterized by conserved N-terminal domains of 100 and 180 amino acids, which contain the proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) motifs after which they are named. Here we investigated secretion of the triacylglycerol lipase LipY, which in fast-growing mycobacteria contains a signal sequence, but in slow-growing species appears to have replaced the signal peptide with a PE or PPE domain. Selected LipY homologues were expressed in wild-type Mycobacterium marinum and its corresponding ESX-5 mutant, and localization of the proteins was investigated by immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Our study shows that Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE-LipY (LipY(tub)) and M. marinum PPE-LipY (LipY(mar)) are both secreted to the bacterial surface in an ESX-5-dependent fashion. After transport, the PE/PPE domains are removed by proteolytic cleavage. In contrast, Mycobacterium gilvum LipY, which has a signal sequence, is not transported to the cell surface. Furthermore, we show that LipY(tub) and LipY(mar) require their respective PE and PPE domains for ESX-5-dependent secretion. The role of the PE domain in ESX-5 secretion was confirmed in a whole cell lipase assay, in which wild-type bacteria expressing full-length LipY(tub), but not LipY(tub) lacking its PE domain, were shown to hydrolyze extracellular lipids. In conclusion, both PE and PPE domains contain a signal required for secretion of LipY by the ESX-5 system, and these domains are proteolytically removed upon translocation.

  7. The Potential of N-Rich Plasma-Polymerized Ethylene (PPE:N) Films for Regulating the Phenotype of the Nucleus Pulposus

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Fackson; Petit, Alain; Tian Wang, Hong; Epure, Laura M; Girard-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc; Ouellet, Jean A; Wertheimer, Michael R; Antoniou, John

    2008-01-01

    We recently developed a nitrogen-rich plasma-polymerized biomaterial, designated “PPE:N” (N-doped plasma-polymerized ethylene) that is capable of suppressing cellular hypertrophy while promoting type I collagen and aggrecan expression in mesenchymal stem cells from osteoarthritis patients. We then hypothesized that these surfaces would form an ideal substrate on which the nucleus pulposus (NP) phenotype would be maintained. Recent evidence using microarrays showed that in young rats, the relative mRNA levels of glypican-3 (GPC3) and pleiotrophin binding factor (PTN) were significantly higher in nucleus pulposus (NP) compared to annulus fibrosus (AF) and articular cartilage. Furthermore, vimentin (VIM) mRNA levels were higher in NP versus articular cartilage. In contrast, the levels of expression of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and matrix gla protein precursor (MGP) were lower in NP compared to articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to compare the expression profiles of these genes in NP cells from fetal bovine lumbar discs when cultured on either commercial polystyrene (PS) tissue culture dishes or on PPE:N with time. We found that the expression of these genes varies with the concentration of N ([N]). More specifically, the expression of several genes of NP was sensitive to [N], with a decrease of GPC3, VIM, PTN, and MGP in function of decreasing [N]. The expression of aggrecan, collagen type I, and collagen type II was also studied: no significant differences were observed in the cells on different surfaces with different culture time. The results support the concept that PPE:N may be a suitable scaffold for the culture of NP cells. Further studies are however necessary to better understand their effects on cellular phenotypes. PMID:19478889

  8. Application of the TraPPE force field to predicting isothermal pressure-volume curves at high pressures and high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Eggimann, B L; Siepmann, J I; Fried, L E

    2006-05-19

    Knowledge of the thermophysical properties of materials at extreme pressure and temperature conditions is essential for improving our understanding of many planetary and detonation processes. Significant gaps in what is known about the behavior of materials at high density and high temperature exist, largely due to the limitations and dangers of performing experiments at the necessary extreme conditions. Modeling these systems through the use of equations of state and particle-based simulation methods significantly extends the range of pressures and temperatures that can be safely studied. The reliability of such calculations depends on the accuracy of the models used. Here we present an assessment of the united-atom version of the TraPPE (Transferable Potentials for Phase Equilibria) force field and single-site exp-6 representations for methane, methanol, oxygen, and ammonia at extreme conditions. As shown by Monte Carlo simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, the TraPPE models, despite being parameterized to the vapor-liquid coexistence curve (i.e. relatively mild conditions), perform remarkably well in the high pressure/high temperature regime. The single-site exp-6 models can fit experimental data in the high pressure/temperature regime very well, but the parameters are less transferable to ambient conditions.

  9. Residue determination of glufosinate in plant origin foods using modified Quick Polar Pesticides (QuPPe) method and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Yongtao; Song, Le; Zhao, Pengyue; Li, Yanjie; Zou, Nan; Qin, Yuhong; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2016-04-15

    A sensitive and specific method for the determination of glufosinate in plant origin foods was developed. The method involves extraction using modified QuPPe method, clean-up by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) and detection with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was validated on twelve matrices spiked at 10 or 20, 100 and 500 μg/kg. The recovery ranged from 80% to 108% with intra-day RSDs (n=5) of 0.6-9.8% and inter-day RSDs (n=15) of 3.0-9.4%. Good linearities (R(2)⩾0.9991) were obtained for all matrices. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the selected matrices ranged from 0.3 to 3.3 μg kg(-1) and from 1 to 10 μg kg(-1), respectively. The method was demonstrated to be reliable and sensitive for the routine monitoring of glufosinate in plant origin foods.

  10. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR expression studies on Burkholderia tropica strain Ppe8, a sugarcane-associated diazotrophic bacterium grown with different carbon sources or sugarcane juice.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Paula Renata Alves; Vidal, Marcia Soares; de Paula Soares, Cleiton; Polese, Valéria; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luís; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-11-01

    Among the members of the genus Burkholderia, Burkholderia tropica has the ability to fix nitrogen and promote sugarcane plant growth as well as act as a biological control agent. There is little information about how this bacterium metabolizes carbohydrates as well as those carbon sources found in the sugarcane juice that accumulates in stems during plant growth. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) can be used to evaluate changes in gene expression during bacterial growth on different carbon sources. Here we tested the expression of six reference genes, lpxC, gyrB, recA, rpoA, rpoB, and rpoD, when cells were grown with glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol, aconitic acid, and sugarcane juice as carbon sources. The lpxC, gyrB, and recA were selected as the most stable reference genes based on geNorm and NormFinder software analyses. Validation of these three reference genes during strain Ppe8 growth on the same carbon sources showed that genes involved in glycogen biosynthesis (glgA, glgB, glgC) and trehalose biosynthesis (treY and treZ) were highly expressed when Ppe8 was grown in aconitic acid relative to other carbon sources, while otsA expression (trehalose biosynthesis) was reduced with all carbon sources. In addition, the expression level of the ORF_6066 (gluconolactonase) gene was reduced on sugarcane juice. The results confirmed the stability of the three selected reference genes (lpxC, gyrB, and recA) during the RT-qPCR and also their robustness by evaluating the relative expression of genes involved in glycogen and trehalose biosynthesis when strain Ppe8 was grown on different carbon sources and sugarcane juice.

  11. Prediction of the bubble point pressure for the binary mixture of ethanol and 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane from Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations using the TraPPE force field

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, N; Rafferty, J L; Maiti, A; Siepmann, I

    2007-02-28

    Configurational-bias Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs ensemble using the TraPPE force field were carried out to predict the pressure-composition diagrams for the binary mixture of ethanol and 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane at 283.17 and 343.13 K. A new approach is introduced that allows to scale predictions at one temperature based on the differences in Gibbs free energies of transfer between experiment and simulation obtained at another temperature. A detailed analysis of the molecular structure and hydrogen bonding for this fluid mixture is provided.

  12. Establishing the skill of precipitation reconstructions through PPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Werner, Johannes P.; Wagner, Sebastian; Luterbacher, Jürg; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the skill of several climate field reconstruction techniques (CFR) to reconstruct past precipitation over continental Europe and the Mediterranean at seasonal time scales over the last two millennia from proxy records. A number of pseudoproxy experiments are performed within the virtual reality of a regional paleoclimate simulation at 45 km resolution to analyse different aspects of reconstruction skill. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), two versions of an Analog Method (AM) and Bayesian hierarchical modeling (BHM) are applied to reconstruct precipitation from a synthetic network of pseudoproxies that are contaminated with various types of noise. The skill of the derived reconstructions is assessed through comparison with precipitation simulated by the regional climate model. Unlike BHM, CCA systematically underestimates the variance. The AM can be adjusted to overcome this shortcoming, presenting an intermediate behaviour between the two aforementioned techniques. However, a trade-off between reconstruction-target correlations and reconstructed variance is the drawback of all CFR techniques. CCA (BHM) presents the largest (lowest) skill in preserving the temporal evolution, whereas the AM can be tuned to reproduce better correlation at the expense of losing variance. While BHM has been shown to perform well for temperatures, it relies heavily on prescribed spatial correlation lengths. While this assumption is valid for temperature, it is hardly warranted for precipitation. In general, none of the methods outperforms the other. All experiments agree that a dense and regularly distributed proxy network is required to reconstruct precipitation accurately, reflecting its high spatial and temporal variability. This is especially true in summer, when a specifically short de-correlation distance from the proxy location is caused by localised summertime convective precipitation events.

  13. Biological Aerosol Test Method and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Decon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    technologies for disinfecting filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) by aerosolizing, sampling, and analyzing viability of A/H5N1 virus on FFRs...personal respiratory protective devices. A component of that effort was to conduct a study of technologies for disinfecting filtering facepiece...flat-fold/three-panel, surgical , N95 respirator that is designed to resist splash and splatter of bodily fluids and infectious materials. These masks

  14. Sugar-Coated PPE's, Novel Nanomaterial's and Sensing Modules for Disease and Bioterrorism Related Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Bunz, Uwe

    2003-11-21

    The detection and sensing of biological warfare agents (ricin, anthrax toxin), of disease agents (cholera, botulinum, and tetnus toxins, influenza virus, etc.) and of biologically active species important for national security and disease control.

  15. Soldier Camouflage for Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF): Pattern-in-Picture (PIP) Technique for Expedient Human-in-the-Loop Camouflage Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Desert Scorpion Ranger Green MultiBrush Woodland Digital Desert Combat Uniform (DCU) BDU UCP AOR-2 DCU Digital Khaki Universal AOR...as follows:  MultiCam® uniform with matching PPE, Ranger Green PPE, Coyote PPE, and Khaki PPE;  Universal AOR uniform with matching PPE and...were as follows:  DCU Digital uniform with matching PPE, Khaki PPE, and Coyote PPE;  AOR-1 uniform with matching PPE and Khaki PPE;  Desert

  16. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... officer should observe: (1) Sources of motion; for example, machinery or processes where any movement of... to keep the hard hat on an employee's head. (Chin straps should break at a reasonably low force...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Selection guidelines for foot protection. (a) Safety shoes and boots must meet ANSI Z41-1991 and provide impact and compression protection to the foot. Where necessary, safety shoes can be obtained which... provided, and in some other special situations, electrical conductive or insulating safety shoes would...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Selection guidelines for foot protection. (a) Safety shoes and boots must meet ANSI Z41-1991 and provide impact and compression protection to the foot. Where necessary, safety shoes can be obtained which... provided, and in some other special situations, electrical conductive or insulating safety shoes would...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Selection guidelines for foot protection. (a) Safety shoes and boots must meet ANSI Z41-1991 and provide impact and compression protection to the foot. Where necessary, safety shoes can be obtained which... provided, and in some other special situations, electrical conductive or insulating safety shoes would...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Selection guidelines for foot protection. (a) Safety shoes and boots must meet ANSI Z41-1991 and provide impact and compression protection to the foot. Where necessary, safety shoes can be obtained which... provided, and in some other special situations, electrical conductive or insulating safety shoes would...

  1. Towards a conceptual framework of OSH risk management in smart working environments based on smart PPE, ambient intelligence and the Internet of Things technologies.

    PubMed

    Podgórski, Daniel; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Anna; Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Okrasa, Małgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Recent developments in domains of ambient intelligence (AmI), Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems (CPS), ubiquitous/pervasive computing, etc., have led to numerous attempts to apply ICT solutions in the occupational safety and health (OSH) area. A literature review reveals a wide range of examples of smart materials, smart personal protective equipment and other AmI applications that have been developed to improve workers' safety and health. Because the use of these solutions modifies work methods, increases complexity of production processes and introduces high dynamism into thus created smart working environments (SWE), a new conceptual framework for dynamic OSH management in SWE is called for. A proposed framework is based on a new paradigm of OSH risk management consisting of real-time risk assessment and the capacity to monitor the risk level of each worker individually. A rationale for context-based reasoning in SWE and a respective model of the SWE-dedicated CPS are also proposed.

  2. Porphyrin-beta-oligo-ethynylenephenylene-[60]fullerene triads: synthesis and electrochemical and photophysical characterization of the new porphyrin-oligo-PPE-[60]fullerene systems.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Angelo; Tagliatesta, Pietro; Guldi, Dirk M; Wielopolski, Mateusz; Nuccetelli, Marzia

    2009-03-05

    The synthesis and electrochemical and photophysical studies of new electron donor-acceptor arrays, bearing porphyrins covalently linked to fullerene, are described. In the reported investigation, phenyleneethynylene subunits were chosen as a linking bridge to guarantee a high conjugation degree between the donor (i.e., porphyrin), the molecular bridge (i.e., oligo-phenyleneethynylenes), and the acceptor (i.e., fullerene). To enhance the electronic interactions through the extended pi-system, the molecular bridge has been directly linked to the beta-pyrrole position of the porphyrin ring, generating a new example of donor-bridge-acceptor systems where, for the first time, the meso-phenyl ring of the macrocycle is not used to hold the "bridge" between porphyrin and fullerene moieties. This modification allows altering the chemical and physical properties of the tetrapyrrole ring. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies together with transient absorption measurements reveal that in nonpolar media (i.e., toluene) transduction of singlet excited-state energy governs the excited-state deactivation, whereas in polar media (i.e., tetrahydrofuran) charge transfer prevails generating a long-lived radical ion pair state. The lifetimes hereof range from 300 to 700 ns. The study also sheds light onto the wirelike behavior of the oligo-phenyleneethynylene bridges, for which a damping factor (beta) of 0.11 +/- 0.05 A(-1) has been determined in the current study.

  3. Immunogenicity and reactivity of novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis PPE MAP1152 and conserved MAP1156 proteins with sera from experimentally and naturally infected animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s Disease (JD) in ruminants. Development of genetic tools and completion of the MAP genome sequencing project expanded opportunities for antigen discovery. In this study, we determined the seroreactivity of two proteins encoded for at th...

  4. Physical Properties, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films Containing Carvacrol and Pomegranate Peel Extract.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Lv, Hua; Yang, Bingjie; Chen, Xiaoe; Sun, Haiyan

    2015-06-15

    Chitosan-based active films were developed by incorporation of carvacrol (10 g/L), pomegranate peel extract (PPE, 10 g/L) and carvacrol + PPE (10 g/L of each) and their physical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were investigated. Incorporation of carvacrol and carvacrol + PPE into the films significantly decreased the water vapor permeability, tensile strength and percentage of elongation at break. Incorporation of carvacrol, PPE and carvacrol + PPE into the films decreased the transparency, but significantly increased the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. All the films, with the exception of PPE-incorporated film, exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus of the film incorporated with carvacrol + PPE was moderately higher than that incorporated with carvacrol or PPE alone, suggesting a synergistic action between carvacrol and PPE.

  5. The preparticipation physical examination: an update.

    PubMed

    Seto, Craig K

    2011-07-01

    The evolution of the preparticipation physical examination (PPE) in the United States continues to advance. In May 2010, the fourth edition of the Preparticipation Physical Examination Evaluation (PPE-4) monograph was published. The monograph is a product reflecting the collaborative efforts of 6 author societies. This article provides a brief historical review of the PPE and then highlights the recent changes and updates contained in the PPE-4 monograph, including cardiovascular screening in athletes. New recommendations to include the PPE in all well-child care visits and the need to develop a nationwide standard for the PPE are discussed.

  6. Attitude towards personal protective equipment in the French nuclear fuel industry.

    PubMed

    Guseva Canu, Irina; Faust, Ségolène; Canioni, Pierre; Collomb, Philippe; Samson, Eric; Laurier, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional study examines the compliance of workers from the European Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Consortium (EURODIF) with personal protection equipment (PPE) in view of the various hazards in the nuclear fuel industry. The PPE inventory was drawn up by an industrial hygienist in charge of the PPE at EURODIF. Two hundred and twenty seven (10%) randomly selected, active and retired, EURODIF workers filled in a questionnaire on their attitudes towards PPE. Exposure data from the EURODIF job exposure matrix were used to examine whether PPE usage varies according to exposure level. The study suggests a PPE usage profile that varies depending on the hazards present and PPE available. Anti-uranium PPE and gloves were among the best rated, while anti-spray goggles were the least used. We found that, for most hazards known to cause cancer or irreversible health damage, PPE usage varied according to exposure (homogeneity test, p<0.05; trend test, p<0.05). The continuous use of PPE among workers should be encouraged through improvements to the PPE management system. A precise model of individual exposure can only be designed if the use and efficiency of PPE are taken into consideration.

  7. [Personal protective equipments: considerations on the requirements and characteristics of selection and use].

    PubMed

    Galbiati, C

    2010-01-01

    The choice of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) required two steps: the first related to the security features and the second related to ergonomics assessments and acceptance by the user. For the first aspect the legislation and technical regulations set clear requirements PPE, but choose a PPE's supplier means, of course, also make an assessment on the cost for PPE and service providers related. We will consider the technical, structural and ergonomic for PPE, to understand how to move towards the right solution. An important reference is the Ministerial Decree 2 maggio 2001: Criteria for identification and use of personal protective equipment (PPE), which describes the criteria for selection of proper protective equipment only for certain types of PPE for other the references is the European legislation or some guidelines.

  8. Chest Compression With Personal Protective Equipment During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Lu, Kai-Zhi; Yi, Bin; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Following a chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear incident, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure is essential for patients who suffer cardiac arrest. But CPR when wearing personal protection equipment (PPE) before decontamination becomes a challenge for healthcare workers (HCW). Although previous studies have assessed the impact of PPE on airway management, there is little research available regarding the quality of chest compression (CC) when wearing PPE. A present randomized cross-over simulation study was designed to evaluate the effect of PPE on CC performance using mannequins. The study was set in one university medical center in the China. Forty anesthesia residents participated in this randomized cross-over study. Each participant performed 2 min of CC on a manikin with and without PPE, respectively. Participants were randomized into 2 groups that either performed CC with PPE first, followed by a trial without PPE after a 180-min rest, or vice versa. CPR recording technology was used to objectively quantify the quality of CC. Additionally, participants’ physiological parameters and subjective fatigue score values were recorded. With the use of PPE, a significant decrease of the percentage of effective compressions (41.3 ± 17.1% with PPE vs 67.5 ± 15.6% without PPE, P < 0.001) and the percentage of adequate compressions (67.7 ± 18.9% with PPE vs 80.7 ± 15.5% without PPE, P < 0.001) were observed. Furthermore, the increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and subjective fatigue score values were more obvious with the use of PPE (all P < 0.01). We found significant deterioration of CC performance in HCW with the use of a level-C PPE, which may be a disadvantage for enhancing survival of cardiac arrest. PMID:27057878

  9. Localization of a filarial phosphate permease that is up-regulated in response to depletion of essential Wolbachia endobacteria.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth M

    2014-03-01

    Wolbachia of filarial nematodes are essential, obligate endobacteria. When depleted by doxycycline worm embryogenesis, larval development and worm survival are inhibited. The molecular basis governing the endosymbiosis between Wolbachia and their filarial host is still being deciphered. In rodent filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis, a nematode encoded phosphate permease gene (Ls-ppe-1) was up-regulated at the mRNA level in response to Wolbachia depletion and this gene promises to have an important role in Wolbachia-nematode endosymbiosis. To further characterize this gene, the regulation of phosphate permease during Wolbachia depletion was studied at the protein level in L. sigmodontis and in the human filaria Onchocerca volvulus. And the localization of phosphate permease (PPE) and Wolbachia in L. sigmodontis and O. volvulus was investigated in untreated and antibiotic treated worms. Depletion of Wolbachia by tetracycline (Tet) resulted in up-regulation of Ls-ppe-1 in L. sigmodontis. On day 36 of Tet treatment, compared to controls (Con), >98% of Wolbachia were depleted with a 3-fold increase in mRNA levels of Ls-ppe-1. Anti-Ls-PPE serum used in Western blots showed up-regulation of Ls-PPE at the protein level in Tet worms on day 15 and 36 of treatment. Immunohistology revealed the localization of Wolbachia and Ls-PPE in the embryos, microfilariae and hypodermis of L. sigmodontis female worms and up-regulation of Ls-PPE in response to Wolbachia depletion. Expression of O. volvulus phosphate permease (Ov-PPE) studied using anti-Ov-PPE serum, showed up-regulation of Ov-PPE at the protein level in doxycycline treated Wolbachia depleted O. volvulus worms and immunohistology revealed localization of Ov-PPE and Wolbachia and up-regulation of Ov-PPE in the hypodermis and embryos of doxycycline treated worms. Ls-PPE and Ov-PPE are upregulated upon Wolbachia depletion in same tissues and regions where Wolbachia are located in untreated worms, reinforcing a link

  10. Counter-IED Initiative PPE Horizon 0, Phase 1, Protection Versus Performance Preliminary Trade-off Analysis, Behavioural Task Analysis (Initiative d’epi pour la Lutte aux IED - Horizon 0 Phase 1 - Analyse de Compromis Preliminaire de la Protection par Rapport au Rendement Analyse Comportementale des Taches)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    RESULTS .............................................................................92 TABLE 17: RATINGS OF THE THERMAL COMFORT ON A 7 POINT SCALE...98. In addition to the body mapping of thermal discomfort, participants also rated thermal comfort acceptability for hot spots, ventilation and...overall comfort. Additionally each participant completed a thermal comfort Humansystems® Counter IED Page 91 questionnaire that examined ventilation

  11. Counter-IED PPE Horizon 0, Phase 1 Human Factors Trial: Performance Evaluation of Soft Armour Personal Protective Equipment (Essai Ergonomique du Projet Horizon 0 d’EPI a l’Epreuve des IED, Phase 1: Evaluation du Rendement d’un Equipement de Protection Individual en Materiel Souple)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-31

    Horizon 0 avaient pour objet de scruter les effets de différentes options de blindage souple sur la mobilité des militaires, en tenant compte de leur...l’ajustement, l’amplitude de mouvement, la liberté de mouvement et la compatibilité ont été mis en œuvre et suivis d’évaluations dynamiques de la mobilité et...différentes options de protection sur la mobilité du soldat. Ces essais ont porté sur l’exécution des tâches par les soldats ainsi que sur leur degré

  12. Preparticipation Physical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    LaBotz, Michele; Bernhardt, David

    2015-04-01

    Preparticipation physical evaluations are often a challenge for physicians. A recent study examined the PPE in clinical practice among pediatricians and family physicians in the state of Washington. Unfortunately, many physicians in this study perceived significant barriers to effective performance of the PPE. These barriers included uncertainty about how to perform the PPE, the relative importance of each PPE component, and the lack of a standardized approach and time for appropriate performance of the PPE. Although these concerns are shared by physicians beyond the borders of Washington, those who are aware of the information contained in the PPE monograph are able to use current best practices to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of this examination and report greater comfort and satisfaction with these evaluations.

  13. [The real-world effectiveness of personal protective equipment and additional risks for workers' health].

    PubMed

    Denisov, É I; Morozova, T V; Adeninskaia, E E; Kur'erov, N N

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) of hearing, respiratory organs and hands is considered. It is shown that real effect of PPE is twice lower than declared by supplier; this presumes some derating system. The aspects of discomfort and additional risks are analyzed. The hygienic and physiologic evaluation of PPE is required along with elaboration of an official document (OSH standard or sanitary regulation) on selection, personal fit, organization of use and individual training of workers and their motivation.

  14. Do medical students receive training in correct use of personal protective equipment?

    PubMed Central

    John, Amrita; Tomas, Myreen E.; Hari, Aditya; Wilson, Brigid M.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Healthcare personnel often use incorrect technique for donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that medical students receive insufficient training on correct methods for donning and doffing PPE. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of medical students on clinical rotations at two teaching hospitals to determine the type of training they received in PPE technique. The students performed simulations of contaminated PPE removal with fluorescent lotion on gloves and were assessed for correct PPE technique and skin and/or clothing contamination. To obtain additional information on PPE training during medical education, residents, fellows, and attending physicians completed written questionnaires on PPE training received during medical school and on knowledge of PPE protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: Of 27 medical students surveyed, only 11 (41%) reported receiving PPE training, and none had received training requiring demonstration of proficiency. During simulations, 25 of 27 (92.5%) students had one or more lapses in technique and 12 (44%) contaminated their skin with fluorescent lotion. For 100 residents, fellows and attending physicians representing 67 different medical schools, only 53% reported receiving training in use of PPE and only 39% selected correct donning and doffing sequence. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a need for development of effective strategies to train medical students in correct use of PPE. Abbreviations: PPE: Personal protective equipment; MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; SARS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; MERS: Middle East respiratory syndrome; WHO: World Health Organization; CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; OSCE: Objective structured clinical examination PMID:28178912

  15. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  16. Wearing gloves in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Infection control - wearing gloves; Patient safety - wearing gloves; Personal protective equipment - wearing gloves; PPE - wearing gloves; Nosocomial infection - wearing gloves; Hospital acquired infection - wearing gloves

  17. The influence of poly(phenyleneethynylene) side chain structure on single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jie; Liu, Qian; Wang, Shujing; Lv, Xin; Huang, Yi; Ma, Yanfeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Yin, Shougen

    2008-07-01

    A novel poly(phenyleneethynylene)/single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) donor-acceptor nanohybrid system was constructed based on the bulk heterojunction concept, and their photovoltaic (PV) properties were studied. Comparing with that of the pristine polymer poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE) device, the PV performance of the SWNTs/PPE hybrid is dramatically improved. The origin of open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of the pristine polymer PPE device and SWNTs/PPE device was explained by metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode model and pinning mechanism, respectively. Furthermore, incorporation of sensitizing groups to the side chain of PPE has great effect on the photovoltaic cell performance based on these hybrid materials and both the short-circuit current density (I(sc)) and power conversion efficiency are significantly enhanced. It is proposed that the main reason for the increase of short circuit current is due to efficient transfer of holes by sensitizer to PPE backbone and the transfer of electrons to the SWNTs. The power conversion efficiency is enhanced by approximately 1 order magnitude to 0.031% for the device based on the PPE3 with anthracene sensitizer group on the side chain compared with that (4.2 x 10(-3)% for SWNTs/PPE1 and 6.2 x 10(-3)% for SWNTs/PPE2) of the device without anthracene sensitizer on the side chain.

  18. Photopyroelectric technique for the measurement of thermal and optical properties of pigments in liquid solution.

    PubMed

    Balderas-López, J A

    2011-07-01

    The analytical solution for the one-dimensional heat diffusion problem for a two-layer system, in the Beer-Lambert model for light absorption, is shown to be useful for the implementation of a novel photopyroelectric (PPE) methodology, for the measurement of thermal and optical properties for pigments in liquid solution. The PPE signal, as a function of the sample's thickness, is used for this goal. Exponential decay for the PPE amplitude, followed by a constant PPE phase, for solutions at low dye concentration and an exponential decay for the PPE amplitude but a linear PPE phase behavior for the higher concentrated ones are shown and are, respectively, used for the measurement of the optical absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity for liquid samples. These PPE phase behaviors also provide a criterion to decide on the corresponding limit for optical and thermal properties measurement. This PPE methodology was tested by measuring the optical absorption coefficient (at 658 nm) and thermal diffusivity for solution of methylene blue and copper sulfate in distilled water at various concentrations. Independent measurements of optical properties, using a commercial spectrometer, were done to compare with the corresponding ones obtained with this PPE methodology, finding very good agreement to each other.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide in the starfish Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Kiyomoto, Masato; Katayama, Hidekazu; Mita, Masatoshi

    2017-03-01

    A relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) from starfish Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin for final gamete maturation. An antiserum against P. pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP) was produced by immunizing rabbits with a PpeRGP sulfanyl-polyethylene glycol derivative conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as the antigen. The antiserum was used for the development of a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of RGP. In binding experiments using radioiodinated PpeRGP and antiserum against PpeRGP, a displacement curve was obtained using radioinert PpeRGP. The sensitivity of the RIA, defined as the amount of PpeRGP that significantly decreased the counts by 2 SD from the 100% bound point, averaged 0.040±0.002pmol PpeRGP per 100μl assay buffer (0.40±0.02nM) in 10 assays. Intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 6.1% and 2.7%, respectively. Serial dilution of whole homogenates from the radial nerve cords and circumoral nerve-rings of P. pectinifera produced displacement curves parallel to the PpeRGP standard. Thus, the amounts of PpeRGP were determined as 1.54±0.09pmol/mg wet weight of radial nerves and 0.87±0.04pmol/mg wet weight of nerve-rings, respectively. On contrary, pyloric stomach, pyloric caeca, tube-feet, ovaries, testes, and ovarian follicle cells did not react in the RIA system. Furthermore, the A- and B-chains of PpeRGP, Asterias amurensis RGP, bovine insulin, and human relaxin did not show cross-reactivity in the RIA. These results strongly suggest that the RIA system is a highly specific and sensitive with respect to PpeRGP.

  20. Alpha amylase is a major allergenic component in occupational asthma patients caused by porcine pancreatic extract.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Sim; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Suh, You-Jin; Lee, Soo-Jin; Lee, Soo-Keol; Kim, Sun-Sin; Nahm, Dong-Ho

    2002-09-01

    Porcine pancreatic extracts (PPE) are composed of alpha-amylase and lipase, which are common components of digestive enzymes. They have been known to cause occupational asthma in exposed workers in pharmaceutical and baking industries, as well as in a laboratory technician, but there has been no report of PPE-induced occupational asthma in medical personnel and their IgE binding components to each component. Four asthmatic subjects showing positive results on PPE-bronchoprovocation testing were enrolled. All of them were nurses working in a university hospital. Their job included grinding and mixing PPE powder for admitted patients. Serum-specific IgE antibodies to PPE, alpha-amylase, and lipase were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To confirm specificity of IgE binding and cross-allergenicity among the three extracts, ELISA inhibition tests were performed. In order to characterize allergenic components within these three extracts, SDS-PAGE and IgE immunoblot analysis were done. Specific IgE antibodies to PPE, alpha-amylase, and lipase were detectable by ELISA in all study subjects. An alpha-amylase ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by amylase and PPE, and minimal inhibition by lipase. However, a lipase ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by alpha-amylase and PPE with a lesser degree of inhibition by lipase. Furthermore, IgE immunoblot analysis showed one IgE binding component (55 kDa) within PPE, six components (55 kDa, 43 kDa, 41 kDa, 32 kDa, 31 kDa, 29 kDa) within alpha-amylase and two components (31 kDa, 29 kDa) within lipase extracts. Thesefindings suggest that inhalation of PPE powder can induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed nurses. Alpha-amylase is a major allergenic component within PPE.

  1. Oxidative stress and nitrosative stress are involved in different stages of proteolytic pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Lanzetti, Manuella; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; Barroso, Marina Valente; Martins, Vanessa; Victoni, Tatiana; Lagente, Vincent; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; e Silva, Patrícia Machado Rodrigues; Resende, Angela Castro; Porto, Luis Cristóvão; Benjamim, Cláudia Farias; Valença, Samuel Santos

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to pancreatic porcine elastase (PPE) instillation (0.05 or 0.5 U per mouse, i.t.) to induce pulmonary emphysema. Lungs were collected on days 7, 14, and 21 after PPE instillation. The control group was sham injected. Also, mice treated with 1% aminoguanidine (AMG) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) knockout mice received 0.5 U PPE (i.t.), and lungs were analyzed 21 days after. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage, biochemical analyses of oxidative stress, and lung stereology and morphometry assays. Emphysema was observed histologically at 21 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment; tissues from these mice exhibited increased alveolar linear intercept and air-space volume density in comparison with the control group. TNF-α was elevated at 7 and 14 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment, concomitant with a reduction in the IL-10 levels at the same time points. Myeloperoxidase was elevated in all groups treated with 0.5 U PPE. Oxidative stress was observed during early stages of emphysema, with increased nitrite levels and malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity at 7 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment. Glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in all groups treated with 0.5 U PPE. The emphysema was attenuated when iNOS was inhibited using 1% AMG and in iNOS knockout mice. Furthermore, proteolytic stimulation by PPE enhanced the expression of nitrotyrosine and iNOS, whereas the PPE+AMG group showed low expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine. PPE stimulus also induced endothelial (e) NOS expression, whereas AMG reduced eNOS. Our results suggest that the oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways are triggered by nitric oxide production via iNOS expression in pulmonary emphysema.

  2. Polyphenol-Rich Propolis Extracts Strengthen Intestinal Barrier Function by Activating AMPK and ERK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Xiaolu; Chen, Yifan; Song, Zehe; Jiang, Xiasen; Hu, Fuliang; Conlon, Michael A; Topping, David L

    2016-05-07

    Propolis has abundant polyphenolic constituents and is used widely as a health/functional food. Here, we investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich propolis extracts (PPE) on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, as well as in rats. In Caco-2 cells, PPE increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased lucifer yellow flux. PPE-treated cells showed increased expression of the tight junction (TJ) loci occludin and zona occludens (ZO)-1. Confocal microscopy showed organized expressions in proteins related to TJ assembly, i.e., occludin and ZO-1, in response to PPE. Furthermore, PPE led to the activation of AMPK, ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of PPE on barrier function were abolished in cells in which AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling were inhibited. Moreover, rats fed a diet supplemented with PPE (0.3% in the diet) exhibited increased colonic epithelium ZO-1 expression. Overall, these data suggest that PPE strengthens intestinal barrier function by activating AMPK and ERK signaling and provide novel insights into the potential application of propolis for human gut health.

  3. 29 CFR 1917.5 - Compliance duties owed to each employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS General Provisions § 1917.5 Compliance duties owed to each... personal protective equipment (PPE), including respirators and other types of PPE, because of hazards to... hazards and related matters, such as standards requiring that employees receive training or that...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.5 - Compliance duties owed to each employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS General Provisions § 1917.5 Compliance duties owed to each... personal protective equipment (PPE), including respirators and other types of PPE, because of hazards to... hazards and related matters, such as standards requiring that employees receive training or that...

  5. Polyphenol-Rich Propolis Extracts Strengthen Intestinal Barrier Function by Activating AMPK and ERK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Xiaolu; Chen, Yifan; Song, Zehe; Jiang, Xiasen; Hu, Fuliang; Conlon, Michael A.; Topping, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Propolis has abundant polyphenolic constituents and is used widely as a health/functional food. Here, we investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich propolis extracts (PPE) on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, as well as in rats. In Caco-2 cells, PPE increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased lucifer yellow flux. PPE-treated cells showed increased expression of the tight junction (TJ) loci occludin and zona occludens (ZO)-1. Confocal microscopy showed organized expressions in proteins related to TJ assembly, i.e., occludin and ZO-1, in response to PPE. Furthermore, PPE led to the activation of AMPK, ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of PPE on barrier function were abolished in cells in which AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling were inhibited. Moreover, rats fed a diet supplemented with PPE (0.3% in the diet) exhibited increased colonic epithelium ZO-1 expression. Overall, these data suggest that PPE strengthens intestinal barrier function by activating AMPK and ERK signaling and provide novel insights into the potential application of propolis for human gut health. PMID:27164138

  6. Photopyroelectric Technique for Hemoglobin Assessment in Human Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Gómez y Gómez, Y. M.; Bautista-Ramírez, M. E.

    2015-06-01

    A new photopyroelectric (PPE) methodology, for optical characterization of general liquids, was used for the assessment of hemoglobin in human blood. The optical absorption coefficient of a hemoglobin reference was measured with this PPE methodology and its corresponding absorptivity, at 532 nm, was obtained. This last reference was used for hemoglobin quantification of blood from a healthy man.

  7. Antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of black pomegranate peel extract on melanoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Dana, N.; Javanmard, Sh. Haghjooy; Rafiee, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study possible effects of black pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the B16F10 melanoma cells proliferation and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) angiogenesis were investigated. PPE was added into the cell lines (B16F10 and HUVECs) media with different concentrations (10–450 μg/ml). After 48 h, the cell survival was measured by 3-(Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Angiogenesis was investigated by matrigel assay (PPE (200, 300, 400 μg/ml)); HUVECs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression was detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay. VEGF concentration in culture medium of HUVECs was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPE had positive anti proliferative effect on melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not on HUVECs. The matrigel assay results indicated that PPE significantly inhibited length, size and junction of the tube like structures (P<0.05). VEGF mRNA expression and concentration levels in culture medium of PPE treated HUVECs reduced significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05). Simultaneous inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation and angiogenesis proposed that, PPE can be a good candidate against melanoma development. Based on the results, PPE could effectively suppress angiogenesis potentially through a VEGF dependent mechanism. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26487888

  8. Human Factors Evaluation of the Hidalgo Equivital EQ-02 Physiological Status Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-11

    Equivital™ EQ-02 physiological status monitoring ( PSM ) system. The usability and acceptability of this system has been tested previously and generally...under CBRNE- PPE provided utility and was comfortable to wear. Thermal strain; CBRNE; PPE; physiological status monitoring; PSM ; human factors; chem...real-time physiological monitoring. The Hidalgo, Ltd. (Cambridge, UK) Equivital™ EQ-02 physiological status monitoring ( PSM ) system is a typical

  9. Tetomilast attenuates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema through inhibition of oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Baila, Bulin; Ohno, Yasushi; Nagamoto, Hisashi; Kotosai, Kounori; Yabuuchi, Youichi; Funaguchi, Norihiko; Ito, Fumitaka; Endo, Junki; Mori, Hidenori; Takemura, Genzou; Fujiwara, Takako; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    Tetomilast was originally identified as a potent inhibitor of superoxide production in human neutrophils, and is of interest because it may relieve oxidative stress related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was to determine whether tetomilast effectively protects against the development of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema in rabbits. Rabbits were divided into three groups (sham n=19, PPE n=19, PPE/Tetomilast n=18). The rabbits were once daily orally administered vehicle solution or tetomilast 5 d/week for 4 weeks before the PPE instillation. We compared pulmonary function, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative stress, and the incidences of apoptosis among the three groups. Tetomilast suppressed PPE-induced increases in the incidence of apoptosis and the production of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in lung tissues. PPE-instilled rabbits treated with tetomilast showed significantly less mean linear intercept and significantly better pulmonary function than rabbits administered PPE alone. Tetomilast may inhibit the development of emphysema by attenuating pulmonary inflammation and apoptosis caused by PPE-induced oxidative stress.

  10. The Nigerian Institute of Architects' Professional Practice Examination: Conceptions, Misconceptions and the Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobadoye, Sunday A.; Afolami, Adewale J.; Olabode, Ogunmakinde; Aribisala, Emmanuel E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the link between the Nigeria Institute of Architects and the Architects Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON) with respect to the Professional Practice Examinations (PPE). It sought to establish why so many graduates are yet to write the PPE and to identify the perceptions about the examination and the professional…

  11. The Effect of Perceptually Oriented Physical Education on Perceptual Motor Ability and Academic Ability of Kindergarten and First Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert G.

    The effects of a perceptually oriented physical education program (PPE) on perceptual-motor ability and academic ability were studied using kindergarten and first-grade children. The four groups of kindergarten children varied the number of periods of PPE per week which then met--0, 1, 2, and 3 times per week. The four groups of first-grade…

  12. Risk by use of hearing protectors--expert programme supports SMEs in appropriate selection and use.

    PubMed

    Liedtke, M

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive protection by use of PPE against the hazards at work requires more than proper selection based on the protection level needed: The PPE user directive (Council Directive 89/656/EEC, Official Journal of the European Communities L 393, 30/12/1989 p.0018 - 0028) requires an assessment of personal protective equipment itself, which has to consider the risks which may be introduced by use of PPE or use of combinations of PPE. As an example risks which may be introduced by use of hearing protectors are described. Assistance in the assessment required by PPE user directive (Council Directive 89/656/EEC, Official Journal of the European Communities L 393, 30/12/1989 p. 0018 - 0028) and in selection and use of hearing protectors with regard to this assessment is presented.

  13. Center for Macromolecular Crystallography, University of Alabama in Birmingham

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navia, Manuel A.

    1991-01-01

    Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) crystals grown under microgravity conditions on mission STS-26 of the Space Shuttle Discovery were shown to diffract to considerably higher resolution than the best PPE crystals grown by us on the ground. We have now independently refined both the microgravity and ground-based data. Preliminary results of these refinements are summarized. These results show nearly a doubling of experimental diffraction data for this structure, exceeding 1.3 A resolution. Improved phase information derived from the refined structure of PPE based on this microgravity data has allowed us to interpret previously-uninterpretable electron density obtained from ground-based crystals of a complex of PPE with a chemically-reactive inhibitor. Intermediate stages in the enzyme-inhibitor reaction mechanism in the crystal can now be directly observed. Further refinement of PPE structures is in progress.

  14. Evaluation of activated carbon respirator filter effectiveness by concentration mapping of dimethyl methylphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Billingsley, Brit G; Logue, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been used extensively in personal protective equipment (PPE) to adsorb toxic substances for the purpose of protecting the user from exposure. The ability to evaluate localized carbon utilization in multiple PPE designs would help engineers develop more effective PPE. Therefore, a method to map dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a common PPE testing agent, concentrations throughout AC filters was developed and tested on DMMP-exposed filters, some purposefully occluded to simulate defective filters. DMMP concentrations were highest at the point of entry and dispersed outward in a radial pattern from that site, decreasing with distance from the point of exposure. Occluded filters were detected by observing DMMP adsorption inconsistent with unblocked filters and showed high concentrations of DMMP localized in unblocked areas of the filter. The DMMP mapping technique detailed in this study provides a tool for testing AC utilization inside DMMP-exposed PPE.

  15. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of pine pollen extract in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ae-Jung; Choi, Eun-Mi

    2009-01-01

    To determine the medicinal properties of pine pollen, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of pine pollen extract (PPE) were investigated. PPE displayed a strong free radical scavenger activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and hydrogen peroxide. It was observed also that the antioxidant activity, measured by the ferric thiocyanate method, increased with the addition of PPE to the linoleic acid emulsion system. PPE was also found to inhibit significantly the amount of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls formed from liver homogenate. Like the antioxidant activity, the reducing power of PPE was excellent. Thereafter, the study investigated the effects of PPE in modulating the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the effect of PPE on interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) production and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation in the human synovial sarcoma cell line, SW982. PPE was found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 in LPS-activated macrophages. Treatment with PPE at 10 microg/mL significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited IL-1beta-induced MMPs (MMP-1 and -3) production in SW982 cells. IL-1beta-induced JNK activation was inhibited by PPE (10 microg/mL), whereas p38 and ERK1/2 were not affected. These findings suggest that pine pollen is a potential antioxidant and beneficial for inflammatory conditions through down-regulation of JNK and MMPs.

  16. Models of public-private engagement for health services delivery and financing in Southern Africa: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Whyle, Eleanor Beth; Olivier, Jill

    2016-12-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the private sector-including international donors, non-governmental organizations, for-profit providers and traditional healers-plays a significant role in health financing and delivery. The use of the private sector in furthering public health goals is increasingly common. By working with the private sector through public -: private engagement (PPE), states can harness private sector resources to further public health goals. PPE initiatives can take a variety of forms and understanding of these models is limited. This paper presents the results of a Campbell systematic literature review conducted to establish the types and the prevalence of PPE projects for health service delivery and financing in Southern Africa. PPE initiatives identified through the review were categorized according to a PPE typology. The review reveals that the full range of PPE models, eight distinct models, are utilized in the Southern African context. The distribution of the available evidence-including significant gaps in the literature-is discussed, and key considerations for researchers, implementers, and current and potential PPE partners are presented. It was found that the literature is disproportionately representative of PPE initiatives located in South Africa, and of those that involve for-profit partners and international donors. A significant gap in the literature identified through the study is the scarcity of information regarding the relationship between international donors and national governments. This information is key to strengthening these partnerships, improving partnership outcomes and capacitating recipient countries. The need for research that disaggregates PPE models and investigates PPE functioning in context is demonstrated.

  17. Active principle of swine prostate extract: I. Isolation of active principle activating prostatic acid phosphatase and its effect on testosterone uptake of the prostate in castrated rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Y; Mori, H; Inami, K; Koda, A

    1991-07-01

    There have been several reports concerning the therapeutic effect of an extract from animal prostates on benign prostatic hypertrophy. Previously, we reported that the swine prostate extract (PE) had the activity to enhance human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAPase) activity in vitro, and to increase the muscular tonicity of the urinary bladder by directly acting upon vesical muscles, suggesting that PE have an activity to elevate the intravesical voiding pressure in vivo. In the present study, it was attempted to isolate such an active principle of PE as activates human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAPase). The finally purified PE (PPE) was assessed as to some physico-chemical and pharmacological properties. 1) PPE was found to be a peptide with a molecular weight of about 8,800, composed largely of neutral amino acids (approximately 70%) and few of aromatic amino acids. 2) PPE activated PAPase in a dose-dependent fashion, resulting in an increase of the enzyme activity approximately twice in a dose of 2 X 10(-5) g/ml of PPE. Furthermore, PPE recovered PAPase activity dose-dependently from the 50% inhibition by 2 X 10(-3) M L-tartaric acid. 3) In castrated rats, the 3H-testosterone uptake of the prostate was significantly suppressed by the oral administration of PPE. PPE might be one of active principles of PE for the therapeutic effect on prostatic hypertrophy.

  18. The influence of students' gender on equity in Peer Physical Examination: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Vnuk, Anna K; Wearn, Andy; Rees, Charlotte E

    2016-07-19

    Peer Physical Examination (PPE) is an educational tool used globally for learning early clinical skills and anatomy. In quantitative research, there are differences in students' preferences and actual participation in PPE by gender. This novel study qualitatively explores the effect that gender has on medical students' experiences of learning physical examination through PPE. We employ an interpretative approach to uncover the PPE experiences of students from a European, graduate-entry medical school. Volunteers participated in either individual or group interviews. The data were transcribed, de-identified and analysed using thematic analysis. There was evidence of gender inequity in PPE, with students describing significant imbalances in participation. Male students adopted roles that generated significant personal discomfort and led to fewer experiences as examiners. Assumptions were made by tutors and students about gender roles: male students' ready acceptance of exposure to be examined and female students' need to be protected from particular examinations. In contrast with the first assumption, male students did feel coerced or obliged to be examined. Students described their experiences of taking action to break down the gender barrier. Importantly, students reported that tutors played a role in perpetuating inequities. These findings, whilst relating to one university, have implications for all settings where PPE is used. Educators should be vigilant about gender issues and the effect that they may have on students' participation in PPE to ensure that students are not disadvantaged in their learning.

  19. Australian medical students have fewer opportunities to do physical examination of peers of the opposite gender

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peer physical examination (PPE), by which junior medical students learn physical examination skills before practicing on patients, is a widely implemented and accepted part of medical curricula. However, the ethical implications of PPE have been debated, since issues including student gender impact on its acceptability. Research has previously demonstrated the phenomenon of ‘attitude-behavior inconsistency’ showing that students’ predictions about their participation in PPE differ from what they actually do in practice. This study asks whether gender and student self-ratings of outlook affect engagement in PPE. Methods This study gathered data from students who had completed PPE with the objective of determining what factors have the greatest impact on the actual practice of PPE by students. Data were used to derive the number of opportunities students had to examine a peer, for various body parts. Respondent gender and self-ratings of outlook were recorded. Results Responses from 130 students were analysed: 74 female (57%) and 56 male (43%). Students have fewer opportunities to examine peers of the opposite gender; this is statistically significant for all body parts when male students examine female peers. Conclusion Gender is the factor of overriding importance on whether these peer interactions actually occur, such that students have fewer opportunities to examine peers of the opposite gender, particularly male students examining female peers. Student outlook has little impact. We speculate that the more acceptable PPE is to participants, paradoxically, the more complicated these interactions become, possibly with implications for future practice. PMID:27894184

  20. Effects of Dietary Persimmon Peel and its Ethanol Extract on the Production Performance and Liver Lipids in the Late Stage of Egg Production in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Oh, S. T.; Zheng, L.; Shin, Y. K.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary effects of persimmon peel (PP) and PP ethanol extract (PPE) on egg production, egg quality, and liver lipids in the late stage of egg production in laying hens. One hundred and twenty 50-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 120) were fed different diets. Four replicate groups of 6 hens each were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. The 5 dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON, basal diet; ii) PP 0.15, CON+0.15% PP (0.035% tannin); iii) PP 0.5, CON +0.5% PP (0.117% tannin); iv) PPE 0.075, CON+0.075% PPE (0.03% tannin); and v) PPE 0.25, CON+0.25% PPE (0.11% tannin). The total tannin concentration of PPE was higher (p<0.05) than that of PP. Egg production in the PP 0.5 group was higher than in the other groups. Egg production and mass of hens in the PPE 0.25 group showed a greater decrease than that in the other groups (p<0.05). Eggshell color in the PP 0.15, PP 0.5, and PPE 0.075 groups was lighter than that of the control group (p<0.05). The Haugh unit for the groups that were fed PP and PPE were significantly higher than that in the other groups after 7 d of storage (p<0.05). Therefore, PP seems an effective feed additive for improving the production performance and egg quality in late stage laying hens. PMID:25049785

  1. Topical formulations containing Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus extract: In vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo efficacy against UV-B-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Campanini, Marcela Z; Custódio, Dayana L; Ivan, Ana L M; Martins, Sarah M; Paranzini, Maria J R; Martinez, Renata M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Arakawa, Nilton S; de J Faria, Terezinha; Baracat, Marcela M; Casagrande, Rúbia; Georgetti, Sandra R

    2014-02-01

    Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus is a Brazilian native plant that presents high concentrations of flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds. Herein, we evaluated: (1) the chemical properties of P. pseudocaryophyllus ethanolic extract (PPE), (2) the in vitro antioxidant activity (AA) of PPE and of two different topical formulations (F1 and F2) containing PPE, (3) physico-chemical and functional stability, (4) in vitro release of PPE, and (5) in vivo capacity of formulations to prevent UV-B irradiation-induced skin damage. Results show that the polyphenol and flavonoid contents in PPE were 199.33 and 28.32 mg/g, respectively, and HPLC results show the presence of eugenol, tannic acid, and rutin. Evaluation of the in vitro AA of PPE demonstrated a dose-dependent effect and an IC50 of 4.75 μg/mL in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3.0 μg/mL in 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. The ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay) was 0.046 μmol/L trolox equivalent/μg/mL of extract. Among the AA, only the capacity to scavenge DPPH radical of PPE was maintained in F1 and F2. In addition, both formulations satisfactorily released the extract. The evaluation of the functional stability of F1 and F2 did not demonstrate loss of activity by storage at room temperature and at 4°C/6 months. In irradiated mice, treatment with F1 and F2 added with PPE significantly increased the capacity to scavenge ABTS radical and the FRAP of skin compared to vehicle-treated mice. In conclusion, the present results suggest that formulations containing PPE may be a topical source of antioxidant compounds to decrease oxidative damages of the skin.

  2. Effects of Porcine Placenta Extract Ingestion on Ultraviolet B-induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential benefits of an oral supplement containing porcine placenta extract (PPE) on skin parameters related to cutaneous physiology and aging. PPEs were administered orally to hairless mice for 12 wk. The effects of oral PPE administration on skin water-holding capacity and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) were similar to those of oral collagen (HYCPU2) administered as a positive control. Magnified photographs and replica images showed a reduction in UVB-induced wrinkle formation after collagen and PPE treatments. PPE treatments ameliorated the thicker skin surface that results from UVB exposure, based on a histological examination of skin tissue. The groups that were orally administered PPE (0.05%, OL; 0.1%, OH group) showed significantly reduced Matrix Metaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression levels compared with the UVB control (Con), by 33.5% and 35.2%, respectively. The mRNA expression of another collagen-degrading protein, MMP-9, was also significantly lower in the groups that received oral administration of PPE (especially in the OH group) than in the control group. Additionally, oral administration of PPE significantly upregulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and -2 mRNA expression levels compared with expression levels in the control group (p<0.05). This indicates that orally administered PPE activated the expression of Timp-1 and -2, inhibitors of MMP, which is responsible for collagen degradation in skin. Taken together, we propose that long-term oral administration of PPE might have a beneficial effect with respect to skin photo-aging. PMID:26761856

  3. Personal Protective Equipment Use and Hazardous Drug Spills among Ambulatory Oncology Nurses: Results from a Mailed Survey

    PubMed Central

    He, Bei Y.; Mendelsohn-Victor, Kari; McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Friese, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To examine patterns and organizational correlates of personal protective equipment (PPE) use and hazardous drug spills. Design Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting Ambulatory practices in California, Georgia, and Michigan. Sample 252 Oncology Nursing Society members who administer hazardous drugs. Methods Bivariate and multivariable regression analyses. Main Research Variables Outcomes were PPE use and hazardous drug spills. Covariates included nursing workloads, nurses’ practice environments, and barriers to PPE use. Findings 26% reported a recent drug spill. 90% wore only one pair of chemotherapy-tested gloves. Increased PPE use was significantly associated with nurse participation in practice affairs (β = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.41), non-private ownership (β= 0.37, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.64), increased nursing workloads (β = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.04), and fewer barriers to PPE use (β = 0.65, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.93). Spills were significantly associated with less favorable manager leadership and support (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.98), and higher workloads (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06). Conclusions Drug spills occur often in ambulatory settings. PPE use remains low and barriers to use persist. Higher workloads are associated with both lower PPE use and more spills. Implications Managers should monitor and correct aberrant workloads and assure PPE is available and staff are trained. Knowledge Translation 1) Workloads are an important factor to consider in reducing hazardous drug exposures. 2) Nurses report substantial barriers to exposure prevention, including absence of equipment and lack of training. 3) Educational interventions are needed to improve use of PPE and reduction in hazardous drug exposures PMID:28067030

  4. Efficiency of personal protective equipment used in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Meirelles, Luiz Antônio; Veiga, Marcelo Motta; de Castro Moura Duarte, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Despite the practical importance of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), both in production and in consumption, it is observed a main problem regarding the quality of many PPE�s used in Brazil. This study found a gap between the state of the art and the state of prevailing practices in the design of PPE�s, which main consequences affect the health of workers who use PPE in agriculture activities. The results of this study identified legal constraints of this occurrence, involving the validation of PPE designed for isolate agents, without the analysis of relevant activities and without prototypes experiments in more frequent use situation.

  5. Continuous and sensitive acid phosphatase assay based on a conjugated polyelectrolyte.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yonghua; Tan, Ying; Liu, Renxuan; Zhao, Rui; Tan, Chunyan; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-08-01

    We report a novel continuous and sensitive fluorescence turn-on assay for ACPs, which consists of a cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte (PPE4+) and a commonly used phosphatase substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). The kinetics of the ACP catalyzed hydrolysis of the substrate pNPP was monitored by the fluorescence change of PPE4+ and corresponding kinetic parameters were derived to be consistent with the literature reports. The applications of PPE4+/pNPP-based ACP assay in high-throughput screening of ACP inhibitors and detection of prostatic acid phosphotase (PAP) in vitro were demonstrated.

  6. Personal Protective Equipment for Filovirus Epidemics: A Call for Better Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Armand G.; Caluwaerts, An; Draper, Mike; Feldmann, Heinz; Frey, Clifford P.; Funk, Renée H.; Kobinger, Gary; Le Duc, James W.; Spiropoulou, Christina; Williams, Warren Jon

    2015-01-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) is an important part of worker protection during filovirus outbreaks. The need to protect against a highly virulent fluid-borne pathogen in the tropical environment imposes a heat stress on the wearer that is itself a safety risk. No evidence supports the choice of PPE employed in recent outbreaks, and standard testing procedures employed by the protective garment industry do not well simulate filovirus exposure. Further research is needed to determine the appropriate PPE for filoviruses and the heat stress that it imposes. PMID:25821225

  7. The European Conformity Assessment Procedures and the Quality Assurance Instruments for Personal Protective Equipment in the Internal Market.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Conformity assessment procedures prescribed by European legislation are presented and their concrete implementation is illustrated by the example of personal protective equipment (PPE). The different categories of PPE defined by Council Directive 89/686/EEC are explained with reference to the applicable conformity assessment elements. Quality assurance of production is presented as the central element of the conformity assessment procedure for complex PPE. Special emphasis is put on the necessity of having a regular exchange of views and information among notified bodies in Europe. Ways in which third countries can eventually carry out conformity assessment on the basis of a contract with the European Community Commission are explained.

  8. Improvements in powered air purifying respirator protection in an ABSL-3E facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of and experimentation with zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) requires risk mitigation strategies including laboratory engineering controls and safety equipment, personal protective equipment (PPE), and proper practices and techniques. Incidences of potent...

  9. Health Care Wide Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Electrical Ergonomics Fire Hazards Glutaraldehyde Hazardous Chemicals Infection Seasonal Flu MDRO - Multidrug-Resistant Organisms MRSA - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Latex Allergy Legionnaires' Disease Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/ ...

  10. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... AMSSM-ACSM Research Award Humanitarian Heart-to-Heart International Medical Corps Hope Shines AMSSM Service Project ... Cardiovascular PPE Screening in Athletes: Current Evidence, Knowledge Gaps, Recommendations & Future Directions AMSSM Sports ...

  11. Elastase kinetics and structural features of colorimetric and fluorescent peptides on cellulose nanocrystals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) are serine proteases with destructive proteolytic activity. Because of this activity, there is considerable interest in elastase sensors. Herein we report the synthesis, characterization, and kinetic profiles of tri- and tetrapept...

  12. Moderate Thermal Strain in Healthcare Workers Wearing Personal Protective Equipment During Treatment and Care Activities in the Context of the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Grélot, Laurent; Koulibaly, Fassou; Maugey, Nancy; Janvier, Frédéric; Foissaud, Vincent; Aletti, Marc; Savini, Hélène; Cotte, Jean; Dampierre, Henry; Granier, Hervé; Carmoi, Thierry; Sagui, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    The extent of thermal strain while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) during care activities for Ebola virus disease patients has not yet been characterized. From January to March 2015, 25 French healthcare workers (HCWs) in Conakry, Guinea, volunteered to be monitored while wearing PPE using an ingestible thermal sensor. The mean (standard deviation) working ambient temperature and relative humidity were 29.6 °C (2.0 °C) and 65.4% (10.3%), respectively; the mean time wearing PPE was 65.7 (13.5) minutes; and the mean core body temperature increased by 0.46 °C (0.20 °C). Four HCWs reached or exceeded a mean core body temperature of ≥ 38.5 °C. HCWs wearing PPE for approximately 1 hour exhibited moderate but safe thermal strain.

  13. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    PubMed

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy.

  14. Norovirus in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evaluating Environmental Cleaning Appendices to the Conceptual Program Model for Environmental Evaluation Basic Infection Control and Prevention Plan for Outpatient Oncology Settings Appendices Outpatient Care Guide Tools for Protecting Healthcare Personnel PPE Training ...

  15. Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evaluating Environmental Cleaning Appendices to the Conceptual Program Model for Environmental Evaluation Basic Infection Control and Prevention Plan for Outpatient Oncology Settings Appendices Outpatient Care Guide Tools for Protecting Healthcare Personnel PPE Training ...

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Surgical Site Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evaluating Environmental Cleaning Appendices to the Conceptual Program Model for Environmental Evaluation Basic Infection Control and Prevention Plan for Outpatient Oncology Settings Appendices Outpatient Care Guide Tools for Protecting Healthcare Personnel PPE Training ...

  17. Pre-Participation Physical Examinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... sweat, but still able to carry on a conversation) five days per week, or 20 minutes of ... on practitioner availability, clinical expertise and individual state laws. The PPE is best done in a medical ...

  18. Parkia pendula lectin as histochemistry marker for meningothelial tumour.

    PubMed

    Beltrão, E I C; Medeiros, P L; Rodrigues, O G; Figueredo-Silva, J; Valença, M M; Coelho, L C B B; Carvalho, L B

    2003-01-01

    Lectins have been intensively used in histochemical techniques for cell surface characterization. These proteins are involved in several biological processes and their use as histochemical markers have been evaluated since they can indicate differences in cell surfaces. Parkia pendula lectin (PpeL) was evaluated as histochemical marker for meningothelial meningioma biopsies. Tissue slices were incubated with PpeL conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (PpeL-HRP) and Concanavalin A-HRP (ConA-HPR) and the binding visualized with diaminobenzidine and hydrogen peroxide. The lectin-tissue binding was inhibited with D-glucose. PpeL showed to be a useful tool for the characterization of meningothelial tumour and clinico-pathological diagnosis.

  19. MDRO - Multidrug-Resistant Organisms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers ... PRSP - Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR) TB is covered in HealthCare Wide Hazards ...

  20. Intensive Care Unit

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.69 . Employers must: Ensure employees wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), (e.g., gloves, gowns, face ... stress, the effects of stress on health, and personal skills to reduce stress-for example, time management ...

  1. Project Planning Resulted in Outstanding Building Deficiencies and Decreased Functionality of the Main Fire Station at Naval Station Great Lakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-14

    emergency medical technicians5 to the main fire station. The scope of the project also included replacing the roofing, insulation, doors, fire sprinklers ...emergency lighting, and fire alarms. In addition, the scope included repairing water and wastewater piping and mechanical systems to meet...rooms, alert systems , and dorm rooms. PPE Storage Was Inadequate The storage area for PPE in the fire station did not comply with the

  2. Medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination: findings from an international cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rees, Charlotte E; Wearn, Andy M; Vnuk, Anna K; Sato, Toshio J

    2009-03-01

    Although studies have begun to shed light on medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination (PPE), they have been conducted at single sites, and have generally not examined changes in medical students' attitudes over time. Employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, the current study examines medical students' attitudes towards PPE at schools from different geographical and cultural regions and assess changes in their attitudes over their first year of medical study. Students at six schools (Peninsula, UK; Durham, UK; Auckland, New Zealand; Flinders, Australia; Sapporo, Japan and Li Ka Shing, Hong Kong) completed the Examining Fellow Students (EFS) questionnaire near the start of their academic year (T1), and students at four schools (Peninsula, Durham, Auckland and Flinders) completed the EFS for a second time, around the end of their academic year (T2). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a high level of acceptance for PPE of non-intimate body regions amongst medical students from all schools (greater than 83%, hips, at T1 and 94.5%, hips and upper body, at T2). At T1 and T2, students' willingness to engage in PPE was associated with their gender, ethnicity, religiosity and school. Typically, students least comfortable with PPE at T1 and T2 were female, non-white, religious and studying at Auckland. Although students' attitudes towards PPE were reasonably stable over their first year of study, and after exposure to PPE, we did find some statistically significant differences in attitudes between T1 and T2. Interestingly, attitude changes were consistently predicted by gender, even when controlling for school. While male students' attitudes towards PPE were relatively stable over time, females' attitudes were changeable. In this paper, we discuss our findings in light of existing research and theory, and discuss their implications for educational practice and further research.

  3. U.S. Transportation Command’s Reporting of Property, Plant, and Equipment Assets on the FY 2000 DoD Agency-Wide Financial Statements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Accounting Service HQ Headquarters IPMS Integrated Processing Management System MSC Military Sealift Command MTMC Military Traffic Management Command PP&E...Management Command ( MTMC ) 372.9 Military Sealift Command (MSC) 29.4 Defense Courier Service (DCS) 3.0 Total $ 1,413.7 Table 1. Net Amounts...trial balances using PP&E data from various sources. The source of the PP&E amounts for the MTMC and MSC were property subsidiary ledgers that was part

  4. Integrated Personal Protective Equipment Standards Support Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Second, because they are on patrol between calls, police officers don’t have the same amount of time for training that fire fighters do. Third...better trained for operating in PPE, they have more time for specialized training , and it is more cost effective to get them high quality PPE rather than...floor 10 ft. inside door, CB agents. while keeping weapon trained on person. 2-way communication between officer and suspect. 11 Stand up and repair any

  5. Using Observational Assessment to Help Identify Factors Associated with Parent Participation Engagement in Community-Based Child Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Stadnick, Nicole A.; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Martinez, Jonathan I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Parent engagement in child mental health (MH) services has received growing attention due to its significance in intervention outcomes and evidence-based care. In particular, parent participation engagement (PPE) reflects active and responsive contributions in and between sessions. Yet, limited research has examined factors associated with PPE, particularly within community-based MH services where PPE is low and highly diverse families are often served. Objective This study examined child, parent, and therapist factors associated with PPE in a sample of racially/ethnically diverse parent–child dyads receiving publicly-funded, community-based MH services. Methods This prospective study included 18 parent–child dyads receiving community-based MH services from 17 therapists in five outpatient clinics for child disruptive behaviors. PPE was measured using in-session observational assessment of therapy recordings. Child factors that were examined included age, first time child MH service use, and intensity of child behavior problems. Parent factors included ethnicity, education, depression symptoms, and parent motivation to participate in therapy. Therapist factors included therapist training in parent-mediation interventions, attitudes towards organizational functioning, and attitudes towards parent participation strategies. Results Results from linear regression analyses indicated that first time child MH service use, intensity of child behavior problems, parent ethnicity and motivation to participate in therapy, as well as therapists’ training and attitudes about their practice were each significantly associated with PPE. Conclusions Results highlight specific child, parent, and therapist characteristics that may impact observed PPE in child MH therapy. These findings underscore the importance of considering the influence of family and provider factors on PPE in community-based child MH services. PMID:27587943

  6. Give your sports physicals a performance boost.

    PubMed

    Womack, Jason

    2010-08-01

    Cover the 12 components of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) recommended by the American Heart Association to screen young athletes for potentially life-threatening cardiovascular disease. Perform a genitourinary exam as part of the PPE for young men; assess young women for the criteria associated with the female athlete triad. Perform auscultation while the patient is squatting and while doing the Valsalva maneuver to determine whether any murmurs you detected on examination are associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  7. Airway Management in Disaster Response: A Manikin Study Comparing Direct and Video Laryngoscopy for Endotracheal Intubation by Prehospital Providers in Level C Personal Protective Equipment.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Sami; Machan, Jason T; Alaska, Yasser; Suner, Selim

    2017-03-20

    Introduction Airway management is one of many challenges that medical providers face in disaster response operations. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE), in particular, was found to be associated with higher failure rates and a prolonged time to achieve airway control. Hypothesis/Problem The objective of this study was to determine whether video laryngoscopy could facilitate the performance of endotracheal intubation by disaster responders wearing Level C PPE.

  8. Selected Musculoskeletal and Performance Characteristics of Members of a Women's Professional Football Team: Application of a Pre-participation Examination

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Beth; Velarde, Lynnuel; Pariser, David P.; Boyce, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although it is common practice to administer pre-participation examinations (PPE) of athletes prior to training, there are no clearly established formats. Elements integral to the PPE fall within the scope of physical therapist practice, and are often categorized as a form of primary prevention for musculoskeletal disorders as defined in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe the design and implementation of a PPE for a women's professional (gridiron) football team. The results and findings from this PPE provide one of the first musculoskeletal profiles and information about selected physical characteristics from members of a female professional football team. Methods Players from the Kentucky Karma women's football team, a member of the National Women's Football League (NWFA), volunteered to participate in a PPE. Of twenty-five eligible team members, thirteen consented to participate. The PPE consisted of a health history questionnaire, a musculoskeletal screening, and a series of physical performance and agility tests. Results The players' average (± SD) age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage were 29.6 (± 5.6) yrs., 1.66 (± .05) m, 66.8 (± 12.6) kg, 24.1 (± 3.7), and 27.4 (± 6.6) %, respectively. Commonly reported injuries were similar to those reported in men's collegiate football. Conclusion This is one of the first papers to report on a model PPE for a women's professional football team. Future research is needed to establish a standard PPE, recognize common injuries, and develop prevention strategies unique to women's professional football. PMID:21509153

  9. Laboratory-Scale Study in Determining the Decontamination Standards for Personnel Protective Equipment Used by Homeland Defense Personnel: Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Technologies for Decontamination of Personnel Protective Equipment-Relevant Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    rubber) were intentionally contaminated with either 10E7 spores of avirulent ASterne Bacillus anthracis or 50 pg ricin protein toxin. Two disinfection...SUBJECT TERMS ASteme Bacillus anthracis Tyvek Butyl rubber Stainless steel Polycarbonate Clorox Peridox PPE CT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...restoration and re-use. In this report, decontamination of PPE surfaces contaminated with two common BW agents, Bacillus anthracis spores and ricin

  10. Effect of vacuum packaging and pomegranate peel extract on quality aspects of ground goat meat and nuggets.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Thorat, Pramod; Manjunatha, M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of vacuum packaging and pomegranate peel extract on ground goat meat and cooked nuggets during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C) was evaluated. Three different treatments evaluated were: I). Aerobic packaging (AP); II) Vacuum packaging (VP) and III). Vacuum packaging along with 1 % pomegranate peel extract (VP + PPE). Results of quality evaluation showed that VP and VP + PPE maintained a more stable colour than AP. In all treatments, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in hardness and gumminess of nuggets was observed during the storage. But, VP nuggets showed minimum changes in texture parameters. TBARS values were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in VP and VP + PPE than AP. In ground meat, VP reduced the TBARS by 27 % and PPE reduced the TBARS by 41 %. In nuggets, TBARS was decreased by 17 % and 40 % in VP and VP + PPE respectively. Total plate counts were significantly higher (>log 7) in AP than VP meat and nuggets. Thus VP and PPE have a synergistic antioxidant effect and VP extended the refrigerated shelf life of goat meat and nuggets.

  11. Heat strain imposed by personal protective ensembles: quantitative analysis using a thermoregulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Gonzalez, Julio A.; Santee, William R.; Blanchard, Laurie A.; Hoyt, Reed W.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of personal protective equipment (PPE) and specific PPE layers, defined as thermal/evaporative resistances and the mass, on heat strain during physical activity. A stepwise thermal manikin testing and modeling approach was used to analyze a PPE ensemble with four layers: uniform, ballistic protection, chemical protective clothing, and mask and gloves. The PPE was tested on a thermal manikin, starting with the uniform, then adding an additional layer in each step. Wearing PPE increases the metabolic rates (dot{M}) , thus dot{M} were adjusted according to the mass of each of four configurations. A human thermoregulatory model was used to predict endurance time for each configuration at fixed dot{M} and at its mass adjusted dot{M} . Reductions in endurance time due to resistances, and due to mass, were separately determined using predicted results. Fractional contributions of PPE's thermal/evaporative resistances by layer show that the ballistic protection and the chemical protective clothing layers contribute about 20 %, respectively. Wearing the ballistic protection over the uniform reduced endurance time from 146 to 75 min, with 31 min of the decrement due to the additional resistances of the ballistic protection, and 40 min due to increased dot{M} associated with the additional mass. Effects of mass on heat strain are of a similar magnitude relative to effects of increased resistances. Reducing resistances and mass can both significantly alleviate heat strain.

  12. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Injection of Genetically Engineered Human Bone Marrow Stem Cells Expressing the Human Proenkephalin Gene in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuke; Li, Haifeng; Zhang, Dengwen; Sun, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to investigate the use of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) genetically engineered with the human proenkephalin (hPPE) gene to treat bone cancer pain (BCP) in a rat model. Methods. Primary cultured hBMSCs were passaged and modified with hPPE, and the cell suspensions (6 × 106) were then intrathecally injected into a rat model of BCP. Paw mechanical withdrawal threshold (PMWT) was measured before and after BCP. The effects of hPPE gene transfer on hBMSC bioactivity were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Results. No changes were observed in the surface phenotypes and differentiation of hBMSCs after gene transfer. The hPPE-hBMSC group showed improved PMWT values on the ipsilateral side of rats with BCP from day 12 postoperatively, and the analgesic effect was reversed by naloxone. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6 were ameliorated, and leucine-enkephalin (L-EK) secretion was augmented, in the hPPE-engineered hBMSC group. Conclusion. The intrathecal administration of BMSCs modified with the hPPE gene can effectively relieve pain caused by bone cancer in rats and might be a potentially therapeutic tool for cancer-related pain in humans. PMID:28286408

  13. Subjective perceptions and ergonomics evaluation of a liquid cooled garment worn under protective ensemble during an intermittent treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor; Williams, W Jon; Roberge, Raymond J

    2011-07-01

    While a personal protective equipment (PPE) ensemble effectively provides workers with protection from occupational hazards, working in a vapour-resistant ensemble increases the risk of heat illness/injuries and physiological burdens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body cooling via a liquid-cooled garment (LCG) underneath a PPE ensemble on perceived thermal strain, physiological responses and ergonomics during an intermittent treadmill exercise in warm environmental conditions. The results of the present study indicated that the concomitant wearing of LCG underneath the PPE ensemble significantly reduced subjective perception of heat and alleviated overall increase in body temperature and heart rate while no impact of wearing LCG on ergonomic features was found. The extension of the present findings to practical applications in occupational settings requires further research on a LCG system design and performance evaluations while the LCG is incorporated within the PPE ensemble. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Implementation of a LCG underneath PPE for body cooling was investigated, focusing on its impact on individuals' perceived thermal strain, physiological responses and ergonomics. The findings of the present study indicated that body cooling via a wearable LCG underneath PPE significantly alleviated both perceived thermal and physiological strain in uncompensable heat stress condition.

  14. The role of carbon-carbon phenyl migration in the pyrolysis mechanism of beta-O-4 lignin model compounds: phenethyl phenyl ether and alpha-hydroxy phenethyl phenyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Beste, Ariana; Buchanan III, A C

    2012-01-01

    We investigate phenyl shift and subsequent beta-scission reactions for PhCHXCHOPh [X = H, OH], which are part of the pyrolysis mechanism of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) and alpha-hydroxy PPE. PPE and its derivatives are model compounds for the most common linkage in lignin, the beta-O-4 linkage. We use density functional theory to locate transition states and equilibrium structures, and kinetic Monte Carlo in combination with transition state theory for kinetic simulations. Oxygen-carbon and carbon-carbon phenyl shift reactions proceed through cyclic intermediates with similar barriers. But, while subsequent beta-scission of the oxygen-carbon shift products proceeds with virtually no barrier, the activation energy for beta-scission of the carbon-carbon shift products exceeds 15 kcal/mol. We found that about 15 % of beta-radical conversion can be attributed to carbon-carbon shift for PPE and alpha-hydroxy PPE at 618 K. Whereas the oxygen-carbon shift reaction has been established as an integral part of the pyrolysis mechanism of PPE and its derivatives, participation of the carbon-carbon shift reaction has not been shown previously.

  15. Quality of care and investment in property, plant, and equipment in hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, S W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explores the relationship between quality of care and investment in property, plant, and equipment (PPE) in hospitals. DATA SOURCES. Hospitals' investment in PPE was derived from audited financial statements for the fiscal years 1984-1989. Peer Review Organization (PRO) Generic Quality Screen (GQS) reviews and confirmed failures between April 1989 and September 1990 were obtained from the Massachusetts PRO. STUDY DESIGN. Weighted least squares regression models used PRO GQS confirmed failure rates as the dependent variable, and investment in PPE as the key explanatory variable. DATA EXTRACTION. Investment in PPE was standardized, summed by the hospital over the six years, and divided by the hospital's average number of beds in that period. The number of PRO reviewed cases with one or more GQS confirmed failures was divided by the total number of cases reviewed to create confirmed failure rates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Investment in PPE in Massachusetts hospitals is correlated with GQS confirmed failure rates. CONCLUSIONS. A financial variable, investment in PPE, predicts certain dimensions of quality of care in hospitals. PMID:8113054

  16. Renoprotective effect of Egyptian cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) against acute renal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Physalis peruviana L. extract (PPE) on acute renal injury in rats. Adult male rats (n = 36) were divided into six groups that were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (33 days). The first group was normal group, the second and the third groups were administered orally with 100 and 150 mg PPE/kg body weight (BW) respectively, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg BW cisplatin once on the 28th day to induced ARI, and the fifth and sixth groups were treated like the second and the third groups and were injected with cisplatin on the 28th day. Many bioactive compounds were found in PPE. PPE did not cause any changes in the second and third groups compared to normal control group. Administration of PPE prior to cisplatin injection caused significant reduction in relative kidney weight, serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen, and significant increments in body weight, feed intake, total protein, albumin, and total globulin compared to cisplatin group. Pretreatment with PPE improved kidney histology and diminished the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and enhanced other antioxidant enzymes in kidney homogenate compared to cisplatin group.

  17. Ameliorative Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract against Dietary-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shaaibi, Siham N. K.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Subhi, Lyutha; Tageldin, Mohamed H.; Al-Balushi, Nada M.; Rahman, Mohammad S.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by fat accumulation and is associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract (PPE) against oxidative stress in the liver of rats with NAFLD. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD), 20% corn oil, or palm oil for 8 weeks in the presence or absence of PPE. The control group was fed a basal diet. The progression of NAFLD was evaluated histologically and by measuring liver enzymes (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase), serum lipids (triglycerides and total cholesterol), and oxidative stress markers. The HFD feeding increased the body weight and caused NAFLD, liver steatosis, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, and elevated liver enzymes. Administration of PPE ameliorated the hepatic morphology, reduced body weight, improved liver enzymes, and inhibited lipogenesis. Furthermore, PPE enhanced the cellular redox status in the liver tissue of rats with NAFLD. Our findings suggest that PPE could improve HFD-induced NAFLD via abolishment of hepatic oxidative damage and hyperlipidemia. PPE might be considered as a potential lead material in the treatment of NAFLD and obesity through the modulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:27069901

  18. Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin N.; Schindler, David W.; Hodson, Peter V.; Short, Jeffrey W.; Radmanovich, Roseanna; Nielsen, Charlene C.

    2010-01-01

    We show that the oil sands industry releases the 13 elements considered priority pollutants (PPE) under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Water Act, via air and water, to the Athabasca River and its watershed. In the 2008 snowpack, all PPE except selenium were greater near oil sands developments than at more remote sites. Bitumen upgraders and local oil sands development were sources of airborne emissions. Concentrations of mercury, nickel, and thallium in winter and all 13 PPE in summer were greater in tributaries with watersheds more disturbed by development than in less disturbed watersheds. In the Athabasca River during summer, concentrations of all PPE were greater near developed areas than upstream of development. At sites downstream of development and within the Athabasca Delta, concentrations of all PPE except beryllium and selenium remained greater than upstream of development. Concentrations of some PPE at one location in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan were also greater than concentration in the Athabasca River upstream of development. Canada's or Alberta's guidelines for the protection of aquatic life were exceeded for seven PPE—cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc—in melted snow and/or water collected near or downstream of development. PMID:20805486

  19. Personal safety issues related to the use of pesticides in agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman.

    PubMed

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The level of uptake and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by farm workers in Oman is low; the conditions under which pesticides are stored are frequently below acceptable international standards. Research was undertaken to explore the drivers working against safe storage of agrochemicals and effective personal protection usage by pesticide application personnel. Results from a survey of over 200 respondents, representing workers in, and owners of, farms either within or outside a local farmer's association (FA), suggest that FA membership raises standards of behaviour both in terms of safe pesticide storage and use of PPE. Age of respondents had no apparent effect on the likelihood of PPE (gloves and masks) use. PPE use was, however, highest among respondents with more advanced educational backgrounds. Positive responses for glove and mask use, when applying pesticides, were higher for owners and workers in FA farms compared to non-FA farms. Lowest reported use of PPE was among workers in non-FA farms. Analysis of responses appears to indicate that behaviour patterns of workers in FA farms mirror that of the farm owners. This was not the case in non-FA farms. The results suggest that conformity to social norms, in this case acceptable work-environment behaviour, is a powerful driver behind raised usage levels of PPE in farms in Oman.

  20. Atypical Pleural Fluid Profiles in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion: Sequential Changes Compared with Parapneumonic and Malignant Pleural Effusions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Ho; Lee, So Yeon; Lee, Yong Dae; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Cha, Seung Ick; Park, Jae Yong; Lee, Jaehee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is commonly characterized by lymphocytic predominance and high adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels, it may present with neutrophilic predominance or low ADA levels, which are more commonly found in parapneumonic effusion (PPE) or malignant pleural effusion (MPE), respectively. A few studies have observed that the atypical pleural fluid profiles of these cases of TPE may resolve at follow-up thoracentesis. However, these observations were incompletely analyzed and lacked comparison with proper control groups. Thus, limited data are available comparing the sequential pleural fluid changes between TPE and PPE or MPE with similar pleural fluid profiles. Methods TPE, PPE, and MPE patients who underwent sequential thoracentesis were retrospectively reviewed. The sequential changes in the pleural fluid profiles were compared between neutrophilic TPE and PPE, and lymphocytic TPE and MPE with low ADA levels. Results Twenty-three TPE patients (16 with neutrophilic exudates, seven with lymphocytic exudates), 72 cases of PPE with neutrophilic exudates, and 18 cases of MPE with lymphocytic exudates were included in the analysis. A sequential shift to lymphocytic exudates occurred significantly more often in TPE than in PPE cases. The initial and follow-up ADA levels in TPE cases with a lymphocytic shift were significantly higher than those in PPE cases with a lymphocytic shift. The ADA levels in the TPE cases with initial lymphocytic exudates and low ADA levels significantly increased at follow-up thoracentesis. For the TPE and MPE cases with initial lymphocytic exudates and ADA levels <40 U/L, the frequency of effusion with ADA levels ≥40 U/L at the second thoracentesis was significantly higher in the TPE cases. Conclusion Follow-up thoracentesis may provide useful information for clinical decision-making in suspected atypical TPE cases with neutrophilic exudates or low ADA levels.

  1. Pulmonary edema following generalized tonic clonic seizures is directly associated with seizure duration

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jeffrey D.; Hardin, Kimberly A.; Parikh, Palak; Li, Chin-Shang; Seyal, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postictal pulmonary edema (PPE) is almost invariably present in human and animal cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) coming to autopsy. PPE may be a contributing factor in SUDEP. The incidence of postictal PPE is unknown. We retrospectively investigated PPE following generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) in the epilepsy monitoring unit. Methods Chest X-Rays (CXR) following each GTCS were obtained in 24 consecutive patients. Relationship of CXR abnormality to seizure duration, ictal/postictal oxygen desaturation (SpO2), apnea and presence of postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) was investigated using logistic regression. Results Eleven of 24 patients had CXR abnormalities following a GTCS. In these 11 patients, 22 CXR were obtained and abnormalities were present in 15 CXR. Abnormalities included PPE in 7 patients, of which 2 also had focal infiltrates. In 4 patients focal infiltrates were present without PPE. There was no significant difference in mean time to CXR (225 min) following GTCS in the abnormal CXR group versus the normal group of patients (196 min). Mean preceding seizure duration was longer (p=0.002) in GTCS with abnormal CXR (259.7 sec) versus GTCS with normal CXR (101.2 sec). Odds-ratio for CXR abnormality was 20.46 (p=0.006) with seizure duration greater than 100 sec versus less than 100 sec. On multivariable analysis, only the seizure duration was a significant predictor of CXR abnormality (p=0.015). Conclusions Radiographic abnormalities are not uncommon following GTCS. The presence of CXR abnormality is significantly associated with the duration of the preceding GTCS. Severe, untreated PPE may be relevant to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. PMID:25844030

  2. Protective measures and H5N1-seroprevalence among personnel tasked with bird collection during an outbreak of avian influenza A/H5N1 in wild birds, Ruegen, Germany, 2006

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In Germany, the first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 occurred among wild birds on the island of Ruegen between February and April 2006. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of recommended protective measures and to measure H5N1-seroprevalence among personnel tasked with bird collection. Methods Inclusion criteria of our study were participation in collecting wild birds on Ruegen between February and March 2006. Study participants were asked to complete a questionnaire, and to provide blood samples. For evaluation of the use of protective measures, we developed a personal protective equipment (PPE)-score ranging between 0 and 9, where 9 corresponds to a consistent and complete use of PPE. Sera were tested by plaque neutralization (PN) and microneutralization (MN) assays. Reactive sera were reanalysed in the World Health Organization-Collaborating Centre (WHO-CC) using MN assay. Results Of the eligible personnel, consisting of firemen, government workers and veterinarians, 61% (97/154) participated in the study. Of those, 13% reported having always worn all PPE-devices during bird collection (PPE-score: 9). Adherence differed between firemen (mean PPE-score: 6.6) and government workers (mean PPE-score: 4.5; p = 0.006). The proportion of personnel always adherent to wearing PPE was lowest for masks (19%). Of the participants, 18% had received seasonal influenza vaccination prior to the outbreak. There were no reports of influenza-like illness. Five sera initially H5-reactive by PN assay were negative by WHO-CC confirmatory testing. Conclusion Gaps and variability in adherence demonstrate the risk of exposure to avian influenza under conditions of wild bird collection, and justify serological testing and regular training of task personnel. PMID:19835632

  3. Enhancement of Human Hair Growth Using Ecklonia cava Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyoseung; Cho, A-Ri; Kim, Dong Young; Munkhbayer, Semchin; Choi, Soon-Jin; Jang, Sunhyae; Kim, Seong Ho; Shin, Hyeon-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecklonia cava is a brown alga that contains various compounds, including carotenoids, fucoidans, and phlorotannins. E. cava polyphenols (ECPs) are known to increase fibroblast survival. The human dermal papilla cell (hDPC) has the properties of mesenchymal-origin fibroblasts. Objective This study aims to investigate the effect of ECPs on human hair growth promotion in vitro and ex vivo. Methods MTT assays were conducted to examine the effect of ECPs on hDPC proliferation. Hair growth was measured using ex-vivo hair follicle cultures. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate the mRNA expression of various growth factors in ECP-treated hDPCs. Results Treatment with 10 µg/ml purified polyphenols from E. cava (PPE) enhanced the proliferation of hDPCs 30.3% more than in the negative control (p<0.001). Furthermore, 0.1 µg/ml PPE extended the human hair shaft 30.8% longer than the negative control over 9 days (p<0.05). Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA expression increased 3.2-fold in hDPCs following treatment with 6 µg/ml PPE (p<0.05). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression was also increased 2.0-fold by 3 µg/ml PPE (p<0.05). Treatment with 10 µg/ml PPE reduced oxidative stress in hDPCs (p<0.05). Conclusion These results suggest that PPE could enhance human hair growth. This can be explained by hDPC proliferation coupled with increases in growth factors such as IGF-1 and VEGF. Reducing oxidative stress is also thought to help increase hDPCs. These favorable results suggest that PPE is a promising therapeutic candidate for hair loss. PMID:26848214

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract after Chronic Infusion with Amyloid-β Peptide in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; Telles, Milena; Mourelle, Danilo; Bachiega, Patricia; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic and degenerative condition that had no treatment until recently. The current therapeutic strategies reduce progression of the disease but are expensive and commonly cause side effects that are uncomfortable for treated patients. Functional foods to prevent and/or treat many conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, represent a promising field of study currently gaining attention. To this end, here we demonstrate the effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract (PPE) regarding spatial memory, biomarkers of neuroplasticity, oxidative stress and inflammation in a mouse model of neurodegeneration. Male C57Bl/6 mice were chronically infused for 35 days with amyloid-β peptide 1–42 (Aβ) or vehicle (control) using mini-osmotic pumps. Another group, also infused with Aβ, was treated with PPE (p.o.– βA+PPE, 800 mg/kg/day). Spatial memory was evaluated in the Barnes maze. Animals treated with PPE and in the control group exhibited a reduction in failure to find the escape box, a finding that was not observed in the Aβ group. The consumption of PPE reduced amyloid plaque density, increased the expression of neurotrophin BDNF and reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. A reduction in lipid peroxidation and in the concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was also observed in the PPE group. No hepatic lesions were observed in animals treated with PPE. In conclusion, administration of pomegranate peel extract has neuroprotective effects involving multiple mechanisms to prevent establishment and progression of the neurodegenerative process induced by infusion with amyloid-β peptide in mice. PMID:27829013

  5. Premature Progesterone Elevation Does Not Affect Pregnancy Outcome in High-Responder Patients Undergoing Short-Interval Coasting in IVF Cycles.

    PubMed

    Acet, Mustafa; Aktün, Lebriz Hale; Başaranoğlu, Serdar; Yorgunlar, Betül; Acet, Tuba; Deregözü, Aysegul

    2015-11-30

    BACKGROUND We aimed to present the relationship between premature progesterone elevation (PPE) and clinical outcomes in high-responder patients who had a coasting period of <4 days in length due to their high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and who were treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-agonist) protocol in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study was conducted at the University Hospital Assisted Reproductive Technology Center. The outcomes of 101 patients undergoing IVF- intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles who showed a high response to COH (estradiol >4000 pg/ml and/or >20 follicles each ≥10 mm in diameter and at least 20% ≥15 mm) and who were coasted for <4 days were evaluated. Number of oocytes, 2 pronuclei (PN) embryos, implantation rate, and live birth rate were measured. RESULTS The incidence of PPE was 32.6%. Compared with those without PPE, patients with PPE had a higher number of oocytes retrieved. Total mature and fertilized oocytes and the mean number of embryos transferred were not significantly different between groups. Live birth rates (41.9% vs. 38.7%) and implantation rates (26.5% vs. 23%) were also not significantly divergent in the PPE and non-PPE groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS P concentrations ≥1.3 ng/ml on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration, designated in this study as PPE, does not appear to be related to adverse effects in terms of clinical outcomes in high-responder patients undergoing coasting <4 days due to their high risk of developing OHSS treated with a long-acting GnRH-a protocol in IVF-embryo transfer cycles.

  6. Curcumin attenuates elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masaru; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Ito, Yoko; Nagai, Katsura; Odajima, Nao; Moriyama, Chinatsu; Nasuhara, Yasuyuki; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2009-04-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment obtained from turmeric (Curcumina longa), is a dietary polyphenol that has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The effect of curcumin against the development of pulmonary emphysema in animal models is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether curcumin is able to attenuate the development of pulmonary emphysema in mice. Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with intratracheal porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) or exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) (60 min/day for 10 consecutive days or 5 days/wk for 12 wk) to induce pulmonary inflammation and emphysema. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) or vehicle was administrated daily by oral gavage 1 h and 24 h before intratracheal PPE treatment and daily thereafter throughout a 21-day period in PPE-exposed mice and 1 h before each CS exposure in CS-exposed mice. As a result, curcumin treatment significantly inhibited PPE-induced increase of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 6 h and on day 1 after PPE administration, with an increase in antioxidant gene expression at 6 h and significantly attenuated PPE-induced air space enlargement on day 21. It was also found that curcumin treatment significantly inhibited CS-induced increase of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after 10 consecutive days of CS exposure and significantly attenuated CS-induced air space enlargement after 12 wk of CS exposure. In conclusion, oral curcumin administration attenuated PPE- and CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema in mice.

  7. Polyphosphoester nanoparticles as biodegradable platform for delivery of multiple drugs and siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Elzeny, Hadeel; Zhang, Fuwu; Ali, Esraa N; Fathi, Heba A; Zhang, Shiyi; Li, Richen; El-Mokhtar, Mohamed A; Hamad, Mostafa A; Wooley, Karen L; Elsabahy, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Delivery of multiple therapeutics and/or diagnostic agents to diseased tissues is challenging and necessitates the development of multifunctional platforms. Among the various strategies for design of multifunctional nanocarriers, biodegradable polyphosphoester (PPE) polymers have been recently synthesized via a rapid and simple synthetic strategy. In addition, the chemical structure of the polymer could be tuned to form nanoparticles with varying surface chemistries and charges, which have shown exceptional safety and biocompatibility as compared to several commercial agents. The purpose of this study was to exploit a mixture of PPE nanoparticles of cationic and neutral surface charges for multiple delivery of anticancer drugs (ie, sorafenib and paclitaxel) and nucleic acids (ie, siRNA). Cationic PPE polymers could efficiently complex siRNA, and the stability of the nanoparticles could be maintained in physiological solutions and upon freeze-drying and were able to deliver siRNA in vivo when injected intravenously in mice. Commercially available cationic polyethylenimine polymer had LD50 of ca. 61.7 mg/kg in mice, whereas no animal died after injection of the cationic PPE polymer at a dose of >130 mg/kg. Neutral PPE nanoparticles were able to encapsulate two hydrophobic drugs, namely, sorafenib and paclitaxel, which are commonly used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Mixing the neutral and cationic PPE nanoparticles did not result in any precipitation, and the size characteristics of both types of nanoparticles were maintained. Hence, PPE polymers might have potential for the delivery of multiple drugs and diagnostic agents to diseased tissues via simple synthesis of the individual polymers and assembly into nanoparticles that can host several drugs while being mixed in the same administration set, which is of importance for industrial and clinical development. PMID:28260861

  8. Species-specificity of equine and porcine Lawsonia intracellularis isolates in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Francesca; Vannucci, Fabio A; Allen, Andrew L; Pusterla, Nicola; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Ball, Katherine R; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M; Hamilton, Don L; Gebhart, Connie J

    2013-10-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis infection causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in many mammalian species, with porcine and equine proliferative enteropathy (PPE and EPE) known worldwide. Hamsters are a well-published animal model for PPE infection studies in pigs. There is no laboratory animal model for EPE infection studies and it is not known whether there is species-specificity for equine or porcine isolates of L. intracellularis in animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether it is possible to generate typical EPE lesions in hamsters after inoculation with an equine strain of L. intracellularis (EPE strain) and whether it is comparatively possible to generate PPE lesions in rabbits after inoculation with a porcine strain of L. intracellularis (PPE strain). In 2 separate trials, 4-week-old and 3-week-old weanling golden Syrian hamsters were challenged with EPE strains and compared to uninfected (both trials) and PPE-infected controls (Trial 2 only). Concurrently, 6 female New Zealand white juvenile rabbits were infected with PPE strain and observed concomitantly to 8 similar rabbits infected with EPE strain for a different experiment. Hamsters and rabbits were observed for 21 to 24 days post-infection (DPI), depending on the experiment. Neither infected species developed clinical signs. The presence of disease was assessed with diagnostic techniques classically used for pigs and horses: immune-peroxidase monolayer assay on sera; quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of molecular DNA in feces; and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on intestinal tissues. Our results showed that EPE-challenged hamsters do not develop infection when compared with PPE controls (IHC, P = 0.009; qPCR, P = 0.0003). Conversely, PPE-challenged rabbits do not develop typical intestinal lesions in comparison to EPE-challenged rabbits, with serological response at 14 DPI being significantly lower (P = 0.0023). In conclusion

  9. Species-specificity of equine and porcine Lawsonia intracellularis isolates in laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Francesca; Vannucci, Fabio A.; Allen, Andrew L.; Pusterla, Nicola; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J.; Ball, Katherine R.; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M.; Hamilton, Don L.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2013-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis infection causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in many mammalian species, with porcine and equine proliferative enteropathy (PPE and EPE) known worldwide. Hamsters are a well-published animal model for PPE infection studies in pigs. There is no laboratory animal model for EPE infection studies and it is not known whether there is species-specificity for equine or porcine isolates of L. intracellularis in animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether it is possible to generate typical EPE lesions in hamsters after inoculation with an equine strain of L. intracellularis (EPE strain) and whether it is comparatively possible to generate PPE lesions in rabbits after inoculation with a porcine strain of L. intracellularis (PPE strain). In 2 separate trials, 4-week-old and 3-week-old weanling golden Syrian hamsters were challenged with EPE strains and compared to uninfected (both trials) and PPE-infected controls (Trial 2 only). Concurrently, 6 female New Zealand white juvenile rabbits were infected with PPE strain and observed concomitantly to 8 similar rabbits infected with EPE strain for a different experiment. Hamsters and rabbits were observed for 21 to 24 days post-infection (DPI), depending on the experiment. Neither infected species developed clinical signs. The presence of disease was assessed with diagnostic techniques classically used for pigs and horses: immune-peroxidase monolayer assay on sera; quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of molecular DNA in feces; and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on intestinal tissues. Our results showed that EPE-challenged hamsters do not develop infection when compared with PPE controls (IHC, P = 0.009; qPCR, P = 0.0003). Conversely, PPE-challenged rabbits do not develop typical intestinal lesions in comparison to EPE-challenged rabbits, with serological response at 14 DPI being significantly lower (P = 0.0023). In conclusion

  10. User Perceptions of ¡Protéjase!: An Intervention Designed to Increase Protective Equipment Use Among Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Ishino, Francisco A; Smyth, Joshua M; Murphy, Dennis J; Miranda, Patricia Y; Davis, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers’ exposures to pesticides are reduced when they wear personal protective equipment (PPE), and mobile health (mHealth) platforms can potentially deliver information to farmworkers to help promote PPE use. However, little is known about the feasibility of using mHealth platforms to promote farmworkers’ use of PPE. Objective The objective of the study was to describe the development and feasibility-testing of Protect Yourself! (¡Protéjase!), an intervention designed to increase PPE use. As the vast majority of farmworkers in the United States are from Mexico, we examined the intervention in a primarily Mexican-origin farmworker population. Methods ¡Protéjase was developed in several steps. First, we performed ethnographic observations to understand what prevents PPE use. Next, we developed program components that met the challenges uncovered in the ethnographic observations, seeking direct feedback from farmworkers on each component. Feasibility was assessed using surveys and focus groups. Material was provided in Spanish or English at the preference of the participant. Finally, we pilot tested each component of the intervention, including: (1) PPE that was provided to each worker for their personal use during the intervention trial, and (2) delivery of an application-based tool that promoted the use of PPE through daily individualized messaging. Results 55 farmworkers enrolled in the study, but only 41 of 55 (75%) completed the entire pilot intervention trial. Results focus on the evaluation of the intervention, and include only those who completed the entire trial. Among farmworkers who completed the entire intervention trial, all but two farmworkers were born in Mexico and were Spanish speaking. Still, all study participants self-identified as Mexican or Mexican-American. When asked what changes were needed in the intervention’s messaging or delivery to increase user satisfaction, 22 out of 41 participants (54%) felt that no changes

  11. PREPARTICIPATION SCREENING – THE SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Turner A.; Boucher, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The sports physical therapist (SPT) is uniquely qualified to participate in the provision of preparticipation physical examinations (PPE). The PPE is recommended prior to athletic participation and required by many jurisdictions. There is little research to support the process and components; however, a number of professional organizations have recommendations that direct the PPE process. Description of Topic and Related Evidence: This clinical commentary highlights the role of the sports physical therapist and current evidence related to the preparticipation physical examination process. Data sources were limited to include professional positions and peer reviewed publications from 1988 through January 2013. Relation to Clinical Practice: Preparticipation physicals should be useful, comprehensive, and cost effective for the athlete and the health care team. Additional research is indicated in many of the areas of the PPE. The SPT is a valuable member of the health care team and can be a primary facilitator of the PPE in concert with the physician, athletic trainer, athletic organization administrators, and others. Well‐designed and inclusive PPEs can be provided to meet the major objectives of identification of athletes at risk. Controversy continues over the extent of the cardiac screening component as well as other sport or athlete specific components. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23593556

  12. Costs and process of in-patient tuberculosis management at a central academic hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marais, F.; Mehtar, S.; Baltussen, R. M. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Setting: South Africa reports more cases of tuberculosis (TB) than any other country, but an up-to-date, precise estimate of the costs associated with diagnosing, treating and preventing TB at the in-patient level is not available. Objective: To determine the costs associated with TB management among in-patients and to study the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) at a central academic hospital in Cape Town. Design: Retrospective and partly prospective cost analysis of TB cases diagnosed between May 2008 and October 2009. Results: The average daily in-patient costs were US$238; the average length of stay was 9.7 days. Mean laboratory and medication costs per stay were respectively US$26.82 and US$8.68. PPE use per day cost US$0.99. The average total TB management costs were US$2373 per patient. PPE was not always properly used. Discussion: The costs of in-patient TB management are high compared to community-based treatment; the main reason for the high costs is the high number of in-patient days. An efficiency assessment is needed to reduce costs. Cost reduction per TB case prevented was approximately US$2373 per case. PPE use accounted for the lowest costs. Training is needed to improve PPE use. PMID:26392953

  13. Evaluation of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) exposures and illness among physicians in training

    PubMed Central

    de Perio, Marie A.; Brueck, Scott E.; Mueller, Charles A.; Milne, Caroline K.; Rubin, Michael A.; Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Mayer, Jeanmarie

    2015-01-01

    Background A cluster of influenza-like illness (ILI) among physicians in training during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic (pH1N1) led to a health hazard evaluation. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine exposures, infection control practices, ILI prevalence, and transmission among physicians in training at 4 affiliated hospitals during the pandemic. We administered an electronic survey and met with physicians in training and hospital personnel. Results Of the 88 responding physicians, 85% reported exposure to pH1N1. Exposures occurred at work from patients or coworkers and outside of work from coworkers, household members, or the community. Thirteen cases of ILI were reported in May-June 2009; 10 respondents reported working while ill (duration, 1-4 days). Between 13% and 88% of respondents knew which personal protective equipment (PPE) was recommended when caring for influenza patients at the 4 hospitals. The most common reasons for not using PPE were not knowing that a patient had pH1N1 or ILI and not having PPE readily available. Conclusions Physicians in training have gaps in their knowledge of and adherence to recommended PPE and compliance with work restrictions. Our findings underscore the importance of installing isolation precaution signage, making PPE readily available near patients with influenza, and facilitating work restrictions for ill health care personnel. PMID:22622511

  14. Chlorin e6-Encapsulated Polyphosphoester Based Nanocarriers with Viscous Flow Core for Effective Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fei; Li, Hong-Jun; Wang, Jun-Xia; Tao, Wei; Zhu, Yan-Hua; Yu, Yue; Yang, Xian-Zhu

    2015-08-26

    Lack of effective treatment results in the low survival for patients with pancreatic cancer, and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with photosensitizers has emerged as an effective therapeutic option for treatment of various tumors by light-generated cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce cell apoptosis or necrosis. However, the poor solubility, rapid blood clearance, and weak internalization of the photosensitizer seriously inhibit its anticancer efficacy. To overcome these obstacles, a polyphosphoester-based nanocarrier (NP-PPE) is employed as the carrier of the hydrophobic photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (Ce6), for photodynamic therapy. The Ce6-encapsulated nanocarrier (NP-PPE/Ce6) significantly promoted the cellular internalization of Ce6, enhanced the generation of ROS in the tumor cells after irradiation. Therefore, the cellular phototoxicity of NP-PPE/Ce6 against BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells was markedly enhanced than that of free Ce6 in vitro. Furthermore, NP-PPE/Ce6 improved accumulation of Ce6 in tumor tissue and treatment with NP-PPE/Ce6 significantly enhanced antitumor efficacy in human BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer xenografts. These results suggest that using a polyphosphoester-based nanocarrier as the delivery system for a photosensitizer has great potential for PDT of pancreatic cancer.

  15. Bioinformatics prediction of miRNAs in the Prunus persica genome with validation of their precise sequences by miR-RACE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Bai, Youhuang; Han, Jian; Chen, Ming; Kayesh, Emrul; Jiang, Weibing; Fang, Jinggui

    2013-01-01

    We predicted 262 potential MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belonging to 70 miRNA families from the peach (Prunus persica) genome and two specific 5' and 3' miRNA rapid amplification of cDNA ends (miR-RACE) PCR reactions and sequence-directed cloning were employed to accurately validate 61 unique P. persica miRNAs (Ppe-miRNAs) sequences belonging to 61 families comprising 97 Ppe-miRNAs. Validation of the termini nucleotides in particular can define the real sequences of the Ppe-miRNAs on peach genome. Comparison between predicted and validated Ppe-miRNAs through alignment revealed that 43 unique orthologous sequences were identical, while the remaining 18 exhibited some divergences at their termini nucleotides. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was further employed to analyze the expression of all the 61 miRNAs and 10 putative targets of 8 randomly selected Ppe-miRNAs in peach leaves, flowers and fruits at different stages of development, where both the miRNAs and the putative target genes showed tissue-specific expression.

  16. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films for microelectromechanical energy harvester with interdigitated and parallel plate electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Balma, Davide; Muralt, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films on insulator- buffered silicon substrates with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) have the potential to harvest more energy than parallel plate electrode (PPE) structures because the former exploit the longitudinal piezoelectric effect, which is about twice as high as the transverse piezoelectric effect used by PPE structures. In this work, both options are compared with respect to dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties, leakage currents, and figure of merit (FOM) for energy harvesting. The test samples were silicon beams with {100} PZT thin films in the case of the PPE geometry, and random PZT thin films for the IDE geometry. Both films were obtained by an identical sol-gel route. Almost the same dielectric constants were derived when the conformal mapping method was applied for the IDE capacitor to correct for the IDE geometry. The dielectric loss was smaller in the IDE case. The ferroelectric loops showed a higher saturation polarization, a higher coercive field, and less back-switching for the IDE case. The leakage current density of the IDE structure was measured to be about 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of the PPE structure. The best FOM of the IDE structures was 20% superior to that of the PPE structures while also having a voltage response that was ten times higher (12.9 mV/μ strain).

  17. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms (Bromeliaceae) fruit extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the family Bromeliaceae are characterized by the production of proteases in unusual amounts, especially in fruits. Bromelain, an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus L., and a few other proteases have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, but bromelain is still mainly being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to the treatment with glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. In this study, the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract from Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms fruits (PPE(Pm)) is presented, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases. The effect of PPE(Pm) was assessed in carrageenan-induced and serotonin-induced rat paw edema, as well as in the cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of PPE(Pm) and bromelain produced significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses in the acute inflammatory models assayed, supporting the hypothesis that proteolytic activity could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. On the contrary, comparable anti-inflammatory effects of PPE(Pm) and bromelain in the chronic inflammatory assay required a much lower proteolytic activity content of PPE(Pm), which could be due to a differential affinity for the protein target involved in this process.

  18. Simulation of the GeoMIP G1 and G2 experiments with a perturbed parameter ensemble of HadCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Lunt, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The geoengineering model intercomparison project is an attempt to assess the uncertainties in the effectiveness and climate impacts of solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering using a multi-model ensemble (MME) of Global Circulation Models (GCM). Another approach for assessing GCM uncertainty is to use a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE) generated from a single GCM. Although the PPE approach is limited in that all the members of the ensemble have many similarities it is still a useful way to explore uncertainty in GCM results. We simulate the G1 and G2 using a 27 member PPE of a fully-coupled CMIP3-era GCM, HadCM3, without using flux adjustments. The PPE we use is described in an article that has been submitted to the geoscientific model development journal. An analysis of the mean and spread of the PPE is made and comparisons are made with the geoMIP MME results. This comparison will support the geoMIP effort to identify the robust, and the uncertain, aspects of the simulated climate response to SRM geoengineering. This work will be complementary to the main GeoMIP MME approach and will test the utility of using PPEs of earlier generation GCMs alongside latest generation models.

  19. Conjugated polymer with carboxylate groups-Hg2 + system as a turn-on fluorescence probe for label-free detection of cysteine-containing compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Hongyu; Guan, Mingming; Liu, Jilin; Shan, Hongyan; Fei, Qiang; Huan, Yanfu; Feng, Guodong

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a turn on fluorescent sensor, based on Hg2 + coordination conjugated polymer, was developed to detect cysteine-containing compounds. The fluorescence of conjugated polymer (poly(2,5-bis (sodium 4-oxybutyrate) -1,4 - phenylethynylene-alt-1,4-phenyleneethynylene; PPE-OBS) would be quenched by Hg2 + because of the coordination-induced aggregation and electron transfers of PPE-OBS toward Hg2 +. When there were some cysteine-containing compounds in PPE-OBS-Hg2 + system, the fluorescence of PPE-OBS would be recovered. It indicated that the PPE-OBS-Hg2 + system could be used to detect cysteine-containing compounds. Under the optimized conditions, the experiment results showed that there were particularly linear range, high sensitivity and selectivity over other amino acids. The limit of detection (LOD) of cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH) were 0.725 μmol L- 1, 0.982 μmol L- 1 and 1.21 μmol L- 1 by using this sensor. In addition, Cys standard recovery in several green tea drink and honey samples was also demonstrated. The recovery of Cys was range from 96.3 to 105.0% and RSD was less than 3.25%. The satisfactory results demonstrated that the proposed method could be as a potential fluorescent method for determining cysteine-containing compounds in real samples.

  20. Accelerating Monte Carlo power studies through parametric power estimation.

    PubMed

    Ueckert, Sebastian; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the power for a non-linear mixed-effects model-based analysis is challenging due to the lack of a closed form analytic expression. Often, computationally intensive Monte Carlo studies need to be employed to evaluate the power of a planned experiment. This is especially time consuming if full power versus sample size curves are to be obtained. A novel parametric power estimation (PPE) algorithm utilizing the theoretical distribution of the alternative hypothesis is presented in this work. The PPE algorithm estimates the unknown non-centrality parameter in the theoretical distribution from a limited number of Monte Carlo simulation and estimations. The estimated parameter linearly scales with study size allowing a quick generation of the full power versus study size curve. A comparison of the PPE with the classical, purely Monte Carlo-based power estimation (MCPE) algorithm for five diverse pharmacometric models showed an excellent agreement between both algorithms, with a low bias of less than 1.2 % and higher precision for the PPE. The power extrapolated from a specific study size was in a very good agreement with power curves obtained with the MCPE algorithm. PPE represents a promising approach to accelerate the power calculation for non-linear mixed effect models.

  1. Conversion of neural plate explants to pre-placodal ectoderm-like tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shigetani, Yasuyo; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Tachibana, Toshiaki; Okabe, Masataka

    2016-09-02

    Neural crest and cranial sensory placodes arise from ectodermal epithelium lying between the neural plate and non-neural ectoderm (neural border). BMP signaling is important for both an induction of the neural border and a subsequent induction of the neural crest within the neural border. In contrast, FGF signaling is important for the neural border induction and the following induction of the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE), which later gives rise to the cranial sensory placodes. While previous studies have demonstrated that the neural plate explants could be converted to the neural crest cells by adding BMP4 in a culture medium, there is no report showing a similar conversion of the neural plate to the PPE. We therefore examined the effect of FGF2 along with BMP4 on the rostral neural plate explants and found that the explants became the simple squamous epithelia, which were characterized by the desmosomes/tonofilaments in membranes of adjacent cells. Such epithelia expressed sets of neural border markers and the PPE genes, suggesting that the neural plate explants were converted to a PPE-like tissue. This method will be useful for further studying mechanisms of PPE induction and subsequent specifications of the cranial placodes.

  2. Planar Cell Polarity Effector Fritz Interacts with Dishevelled and Has Multiple Functions in Regulating PCP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Naturale, Victor F; Adler, Paul N

    2017-03-03

    The Planar cell Polarity Effector (PPE) genes inturned, fuzzy and fritz are downstream components in the frizzled/starry night signaling pathway, and their function is instructed by upstream Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) core genes such as frizzled and disheveled PPE proteins accumulate asymmetrically in wing cells and function in a protein complex mediated by direct interactions between In and Frtz and In and Fy. How the PCP proteins instruct the accumulation of PPE protein is unknown. We found a likely direct interaction between Dishevelled and Fritz and Dishevelled and Fuzzy that could play a role in this. We previously found that mild over expression of frtz rescued a weak in allele. To determine if this was due to extra Frtz stabilizing mutant In or due to Frtz being able to bypass the need for In we generate a precise deletion of the inturned gene (in(PD) ). We found that mild overexpression of Fritz partially rescued in(PD) , indicating that fritz has In independent activity in PCP. Previous studies of PPE proteins used fixed tissues, and did not provide any insights into the dynamic properties of PPE proteins. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology to edit the fritz gene to add a green fluorescent protein tag. fritz(m)(NeonGreen) provides complete rescue activity and works well for in vivo imaging. Our data showed that Fritz is very dynamic in epidermal cells and preferentially distributed to discrete membrane subdomains ("puncta"). Surprisingly, we found it in stripes in developing bristles.

  3. [Parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema in adults:current practice].

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M; Light, R W

    2009-11-01

    About 20% of hospitalized patients with bacterial pneumonia have an accompanying pleural effusion. Parapneumonic effusions (PPE) are associated with a considerable morbidity and mortality. The main decision in managing a patient with a PPE is whether to insert a chest tube (complicated PPE). Imaging (i.e., chest radiograph, ultrasound and computed tomography) and pleural fluid analysis (i.e., pH, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, bacterial cults) provide essential information for patient management. Therefore, all PPEs should be aspirated for diagnostic purposes. This may require image-guidance if the effusion is small or heavily loculated. According to the current guidelines, any PPE that fulfills at least one of the following criteria should be drained: size > or = 1/2 of the hemithorax, loculations, pleural fluid pH < 7.20 (or alternatively pleural fluid glucose < 60 mg/dl), positive pleural fluid Gram stain or culture, or purulent appearance. The key components of the treatment of complicated PPE and empyema are the use of appropriate antibiotics, provision of nutritional support, and drainage of the pleural space by one of the following methods: therapeutic thoracentesis, tube thoracostomy, intrapleural fibrinolytics, thoracoscopy with breakdown of adhesions or thoracotomy with decortication. The routine use of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy remains controversial. (c) 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of tyrosinase- and polyphenol esterase-catalyzed end products using selected phenolic substrates.

    PubMed

    Madani, W; Kermasha, S; Versari, A

    1999-06-01

    The oxidative end products that result from the biocatalysis of tyrosinase (PPO) and/or a polyphenol esterase (PPE) extract have been investigated simultaneously in model systems containing selected phenolic compounds as substrates. The spectrophotometric scanning of brown color, formed in the presence of both PPO and PPE, showed a decrease in the absorbance compared to that obtained with PPO only. Graphical analyses of the iterative spectra of oxidized phenolic end products by PPO confirmed the presence of, at least, three kinetically related absorbing species. HPLC analyses of the end products, obtained by the biocatalysis of PPE or PPO activity, indicated the presence of two main groups of compounds: colored ones of lambda(max) at 294-324 nm and colorless products of lambda(max) at 264-290 nm. PPE produced both compounds when selected substrates were used as substrates, whereas PPO produced only one type of oxidation product. However, when both enzymes were incubated together, the nature of the end products was similar to that obtained with PPE only.

  5. Temperature-dependent polarization characteristics in Al0.25Ga0.75N/AlN/GaN heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yong; Chen, Xinjuan; Ji, Cheng; Yang, Xuelin; Xu, Fujun; Yang, Zhijian; Kang, Xiangning; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Guoyi; Yu, Tongjun

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics of polarizations, including spontaneous polarization (PSP) and piezoelectric polarization (PPE) in Al0.25Ga0.75N/AlN/GaN were obtained by temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction measurements of AlN and GaN layers, and the sheet carrier density (ns) in 20-nm-thick barrier Al0.25Ga0.75N/AlN/GaN heterostructure was studied by Hall measurement at different temperatures from 300 K to 600 K. It is found that the PSP/e (˜1 × 1013 cm-2, e is the electron charge) is larger than PPE/e (˜7 × 1012 cm-2). Excluding the influence of background carrier density, the change of PSP/e with temperature is similar to that of ns, while the tendency of PPE/e is opposite. The contributions to ns change by PSP and PPE are ˜-7.3 × 1011 cm-2 and ˜1.9 × 1011 cm-2, respectively. Therefore, the total variation of PSP and PPE is ˜-5.4 × 1011 cm-2, which is close to the value ˜-5.5 × 1011 cm-2 obtained by Hall data. All these results demonstrate that the PSP is dominant in temperature-dependent properties of two-dimensional electron gas. Moreover, the reduction of PSP with increasing temperature might aggravate current collapse in high electron mobility transistors devices.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10). PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). PPE at 10–100 μg mL−1 attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL−1). PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter. PMID:27247608

  7. Mechanics, nonlinearity, and failure strength of lung tissue in a mouse model of emphysema: possible role of collagen remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Satoru; Ingenito, Edward P; Brewer, Kelly K; Black, Lauren D; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Lutchen, Kenneth R; Suki, Béla

    2005-02-01

    Enlargement of the respiratory air spaces is associated with the breakdown and reorganization of the connective tissue fiber network during the development of pulmonary emphysema. In this study, a mouse (C57BL/6) model of emphysema was developed by direct instillation of 1.2 IU of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and compared with control mice treated with saline. The PPE treatment caused 95% alveolar enlargement (P = 0.001) associated with a 29% lower elastance along the quasi-static pressure-volume curves (P < 0.001). Respiratory mechanics were measured at several positive end-expiratory pressures in the closed-chest condition. The dynamic tissue elastance was 19% lower (P < 0.001), hysteresivity was 9% higher (P < 0.05), and harmonic distortion, a measure of collagen-related dynamic nonlinearity, was 33% higher in the PPE-treated group (P < 0.001). Whole lung hydroxyproline content, which represents the total collagen content, was 48% higher (P < 0.01), and alpha-elastin content was 13% lower (P = 0.16) in the PPE-treated group. There was no significant difference in airway resistance (P = 0.7). The failure stress at which isolated parenchymal tissues break during stretching was 40% lower in the PPE-treated mice (P = 0.002). These findings suggest that, after elastolytic injury, abnormal collagen remodeling may play a significant role in all aspects of lung functional changes and mechanical forces, leading to progressive emphysema.

  8. Enhancement of blood-tumor barrier permeability by Sar-[D-Phe8]des-Arg9BK, a metabolically resistant bradykinin B1 agonist, in a rat C6 glioma model

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Ronie Cleverson; Lobão-Soares, Bruno; Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Walz, Roger; Alvarez-Silva, Márcio; Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves; Nicolau, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    Background While it is well known that bradykinin B2 agonists increase plasma protein extravasation (PPE) in brain tumors, the bradykinin B1 agonists tested thus far are unable to produce this effect. Here we examine the effect of the selective B1 agonist bradykinin (BK) Sar-[D-Phe8]des-Arg9BK (SAR), a compound resistant to enzymatic degradation with prolonged activity on PPE in the blood circulation in the C6 rat glioma model. Results SAR administration significantly enhanced PPE in C6 rat brain glioma compared to saline or BK (p < 0.01). Pre-administration of the bradykinin B1 antagonist [Leu8]-des-Arg (100 nmol/Kg) blocked the SAR-induced PPE in the tumor area. Conclusions Our data suggest that the B1 receptor modulates PPE in the blood tumor barrier of C6 glioma. A possible role for the use of SAR in the chemotherapy of gliomas deserves further study. PMID:15458573

  9. Adhesion and integration of tissue engineered cartilage to porous polyethylene for composite ear reconstruction.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Niamh A; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ranka, Mitun P; Zaleski, Katherine L; Yaremchuk, Michael J; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Randolph, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of tissue engineered cartilage to adhere to and integrate with porous polyethylene (PPE) in vivo and to evaluate the biomechanical integrity of the bond formed at the interface. Porcine auricular, articular, and costal chondrocytes were suspended in fibrin gel polymer and placed between discs of PPE to form tri-layer constructs. Controls consisted of fibroblasts suspended in gel or gel alone between the discs. Constructs were implanted into nude mice for 6, 12, and 18 weeks. Upon harvest, specimens were evaluated for neocartilage formation and integration into the PPE, using histological, dimensional (mass, thickness, diameter), and biomechanical (adhesion strength, interfacial stiffness, failure energy and failure strain) analyses. Neotissue was formed in all experimental constructs, consisting mostly of neocartilage integrating with discs of PPE. Control samples contained only fibrous tissue. Biomechanical analyses demonstrated that adhesion strength, interfacial stiffness, and failure energy were all significantly higher in the chondrocyte-seeded samples than in fibroblast-seeded controls, with the exception of costal constructs at 12 weeks, which were not significantly greater than controls. In general, failure strains did not vary between groups. In conclusion, porous polyethylene supported the growth of neocartilage that formed mechanically functional bonds with the PPE.

  10. Study of optical properties of electropolymerized melanin films by photopyroelectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, José Eduardo; Giacomantonio, Clare; White, Andrew G; Meredith, Paul

    2006-02-01

    Photopyroelectric (PPE) spectroscopy, in the 350-1,075 nm wavelength range, was used to study the optical properties of electropolymerized melanin films on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The PPE intensity signal as a function of the wavelength lambda, V (n)(lambda) and its phase F (n)(lambda) were independently measured. Using the PPE signal intensity and the thermal and optical properties of the pyroelectric detector, we were able to calculate the optical absorption coefficient beta of melanin in the solid-state. We believe this to be the first such measurement of its kind on this material. Additionally, we found an optical gap in these melanin films at 1.70 eV.

  11. Thermal characterization of starch-water system by photopyroelectric technique and adiabatic scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Orea, A.; Bentefour, E. H.; Jamée, P.; Chirtoc, M.; Glorieux, C.; Pitsi, G.; Thoen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important carbohydrate sources in human nutrition. For the thermal analysis of starch, techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry have been extensively used. As an alternative, we have applied a photopyroelectric (PPE) configuration and adiabatic scanning calorimetry (ASC) to study the thermal properties of starch-water systems. For this study we used nixtamalized corn flour and potato starch with different quantities of distilled water, in order to obtain samples with different moisture content. By using PPE and ASC methods we have measured, for each technique separately, the heat capacity by unit volume (ρcp) at room temperature for a corn flour sample at 90% moisture. The obtained values agree within experimental uncertainty. By using these techniques we also studied the thermal behavior of potato starch, at 80% moisture, in the temperature range where phase transitions occur. In this case the PPE signal phase could be used as a sensitive and versatile monitor for phase transitions.

  12. Risk Stratification for Athletes and Adventurers in High-Altitude Environments: Recommendations for Preparticipation Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aaron D; McIntosh, Scott E; Nyberg, Andy; Powell, Amy P; Schoene, Robert B; Hackett, Peter

    2015-12-01

    High-altitude athletes and adventurers face a number of environmental and medical risks. Clinicians often advise participants or guiding agencies before or during these experiences. Preparticipation evaluation (PPE) has the potential to reduce risk of high-altitude illnesses in athletes and adventurers. Specific conditions susceptible to high-altitude exacerbation also important to evaluate include cardiovascular and lung diseases. Recommendations by which to counsel individuals before participation in altitude sports and adventures are few and of limited focus. We reviewed the literature, collected expert opinion, and augmented principles of a traditional sport PPE to accommodate the high-altitude wilderness athlete/adventurer. We present our findings with specific recommendations on risk stratification during a PPE for the high-altitude athlete/adventurer.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE_PGRS18 enhances the intracellular survival of M. smegmatis via altering host macrophage cytokine profiling and attenuating the cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenmin; Deng, Wanyan; Zeng, Jie; Ren, Sai; Ali, Md Kaisar; Gu, Yinzhong; Li, Yangyuling; Xie, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE/PPE family proteins, named after the presence of conserved PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) domains at N-terminal, are prevalent in M. tuberculosis genome. The function of most PE/PPE family proteins remains elusive. To characterize the function of PE_PGRS18, the encoding gene was heterologously expressed in M. smegmatis, a nonpathogenic mycobacterium. The recombinant PE_PGRS18 is cell wall associated. M. smegmatis PE_PGRS18 recombinant showed differential response to stresses and altered the production of host cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p40 and IL-10, as well as enhanced survival within macrophages largely via attenuating the apoptosis of macrophages. In summary, the study firstly unveiled the role of PE_PGRS18 in physiology and pathogenesis of mycobacterium.

  14. Using PIV to determine relative pressures in a stenotic phantom under steady flow based on the pressure-poisson equation.

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Iman; Shakeri, Mostafa; Sharp, M; Amini, Amir A

    2010-01-01

    Pressure gradient across a Gaussian-shaped 87% area stenosis phantom was estimated by solving the pressure Poisson equation (PPE) for a steady flow mimicking the blood flow through the human iliac artery. The velocity field needed to solve the pressure equation was obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). A steady flow rate of 46.9 ml/s was used, which corresponds to a Reynolds number of 188 and 595 at the inlet and stenosis throat, respectively (in the range of mean Reynolds number encountered in-vivo). In addition, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the same flow was performed. Pressure drops across the stenosis predicted by PPE/PIV and CFD were compared with those measured by a pressure catheter transducer. RMS errors relative to the measurements were 17% and 10% for PPE/PIV and CFD, respectively.

  15. Simultaneous Photoacoustic and Photopyroelectric Detection of Trace Gas Emissions from Some Plant Parts and Their Related Essential Oils in a Combined Detection Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Al-Jamal, A. J.; Eideh, H.

    The aim of this work was to establish the feasibility of the combined photoacoustic (PA) and photopyroelectric (PPE) detection of the vapours emitted from essential oils and their corresponding uncrushed leaves or flowers. Gas traces of jasmine (Jessamine (Jasminum)), mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and Damask rose (Rosa damascena Miller) and their essential oils were tested using a combined cell fitted with both a photopyroelectric film (PVDF) and a microphone in conjunction with a pulsed wideband infrared source (PWBS) source. Infrared PA and PPE absorbances were obtained simultaneously at room temperatures with excellent reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratios. Significant similarities found between the PA and PPE spectra of the trace gas emissions of plant parts, i.e., flowers or leaves and their related essential oils show the good correlation of their emissions and that both effects are initiated by the same absorbing molecules.

  16. Persuasion to use personal protective equipment in constructing subway stations: application of social marketing.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Mahmoud; Pariani, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Soleymani-nejad, Marzieh

    2016-04-01

    To study the effects of an intervention based on social marketing to persuade workers to use personal protective equipment (PPE) in constructing subway stations in Isfahan, Iran. This was a quasi-experimental study. Two stations were selected as intervention and control groups. Intervention was designed based on results of a formative research. A free package containing a safety helmet with a tailored message affixed to it, mask and gloves and an educational pamphlet was delivered to the intervention group. After 6 weeks, behaviours in the intervention and control stations were measured using an observational checklist. After the intervention, the percentage of workers who used PPE at the intervention station increased significantly. OR for helmet and mask usage was 7.009 and 2.235, respectively, in the intervention group. Social marketing can be used to persuade workers to use PPE in the workplace.

  17. Influence of age and foaling on plasma protein electrophoresis and serum amyloid A and their possible role as markers of equine neonatal septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia; Villani, Marta; Manfrin, Margherita; Panzani, Sara; Veronesi, Maria Cristina

    2008-06-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate plasma protein electrophoresis (PPE) and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations at 1, 3 and 7 days of age in foals born by oxytocin-induced (group A, n =17) or spontaneous (group B, n =12) parturition. The putative diagnostic role of PPE and SAA in four septicaemic foals was also examined. At birth, beta-gamma-globulins were higher in group B, and then increased in both groups, probably due to colostrum intake. At day 3, no significant differences between the groups were detectable. In both groups, SAA values increased from day 0 to day 3, then decreased at day 7. Septicaemic foals had decreased concentrations of many electrophoretic fractions (probably reflecting decreased colostrum intake and circulating bacterial proteases) and an increased SAA concentration. It was concluded that both PPE and SAA concentrations vary with age and type of foaling and may be useful in the early diagnosis of neonatal septicaemia.

  18. Nonequilibrium Band Mapping of Unoccupied Bulk States below the Vacuum Level by Two-Photon Photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.D.; Hao, Z.; Dadap, J.I.; Knox, K.R.; Yilmaz, M.B.; Zaki, N.; Osgood, R.M.

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate angle-resolved, tunable, two-photon photoemission (2PPE) to map a bulk unoccupied band, viz. the Cu sp band 0 to 1 eV below the vacuum level, in the vicinity of the L point. This short-lived bulk band is seen due to the strong optical pump rate, and the observed transition energies and their dispersion with photon energy {h_bar}{omega}, are in excellent agreement with tight-binding band-structure calculations. The variation of the final-state energy with {h_bar}{omega} has a measured slope of -1.64 in contrast to values of 1 or 2 observed for 2PPE from two-dimensional states. This unique variation illustrates the significant role of the perpendicular momentum {h_bar}k{perpendicular} in 2PPE.

  19. Nonequilibrium Band Mapping of Unoccupied Bulk States below the Vacuum Level by Two-Photon Photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Hao Zhaofeng; Dadap, J. I.; Knox, K. R.; Zaki, N.; Osgood, R. M.; Yilmaz, M. B.; Johnson, P. D.

    2010-07-02

    We demonstrate angle-resolved, tunable, two-photon photoemission (2PPE) to map a bulk unoccupied band, viz. the Cu sp band 0 to 1 eV below the vacuum level, in the vicinity of the L point. This short-lived bulk band is seen due to the strong optical pump rate, and the observed transition energies and their dispersion with photon energy ({h_bar}/2{pi}){omega}, are in excellent agreement with tight-binding band-structure calculations. The variation of the final-state energy with ({h_bar}/2{pi}){omega} has a measured slope of {approx}1.64 in contrast to values of 1 or 2 observed for 2PPE from two-dimensional states. This unique variation illustrates the significant role of the perpendicular momentum ({h_bar}/2{pi})k{sub perpendicular} in 2PPE.

  20. The treatment of mice with Lactobacillus casei induces protection against Babesia microti infection.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Garfias, C R; Gómez, M B; Aguilar, B R; Ixta, O; Martínez, F; Mosqueda, J

    2005-12-01

    In this study, we report that administration of Lactobacillus casei confers protection to mice against the intracellular protozoan Babesia microti. Mice treated with L. casei orally or intraperitoneally were inoculated 7 days later with an infectious dose of B. microti. Mice treated with lactobacilli showed significant reduction in the percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE) compared to untreated mice. When mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with L. casei 3 or 0 days before challenge with B. microti, the PPE was significantly lower compared to untreated mice and there were no differences between treated mice and mice immune to B. microti infection. When mice treated with live or dead L. casei were compared to mice inoculated with Freund Complete Adjuvant before a B. microti infection, a significant reduction of PPE was observed. These results show the protective effect of L. casei administered to mice against a B. microti infection and suggest that it might act by stimulating the innate immune system.

  1. Elastase induced lung epithelial cell apoptosis and emphysema through placenta growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Hou, H-H; Cheng, S-L; Liu, H-T; Yang, F-Z; Wang, H-C; Yu, C-J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, however, the pathogenic factors and mechanisms are not fully understood. Pulmonary emphysema is one of the major components of COPD and is thought to result from oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, protease–antiprotease imbalance and lung epithelial (LE) cell apoptosis. In our previous studies, COPD patients were noted to have higher levels of placenta growth factor (PlGF) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid than controls. In addition, transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF developed pulmonary emphysema and exposure to PlGF in LE cells induced apoptosis. Furthermore, intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) on to PlGF wild type mice induced emphysema, but not in PlGF knockout mice. Therefore, we hypothesized that PPE generates pulmonary emphysema through the upregulation of PlGF expression in LE cells. The elevation of PlGF then leads to LE cell apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated whether PPE induces PlGF expression, whether PlGF induces apoptosis and whether the downstream mechanisms of PlGF are related to LE cell apoptosis. We found that PPE increased PlGF secretion and expression both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, PlGF-induced LE cell apoptosis and PPE-induced emphysema in the mice were mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathways. Given these findings, we suggest that the increase in PlGF and PlGF-induced JNK and p38 MAPK pathways contribute to PPE-induced LE cell apoptosis and emphysema. Regulatory control of PlGF and agents against its downstream signals may be potential therapeutic targets for COPD. PMID:24008737

  2. Postpartum reproductive activities and gestation length in Martina Franca jennies, an endangered Italian donkey breed.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Umberto; Bernabò, Nicola; Verni, Fabiana; Valbonetti, Luca; Muttini, Aurelio; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2013-07-15

    The donkey reproductive physiology is still partially known despite the increasing risk of extinction involving several breeds. The present study was designed to describe the postpartum (PP) reproductive performance of an Italian endangered breed: the Martina Franca donkey. To this aim, 52 jennies were monitored to define the foal-heat (FH) and the first and second PP estrus episodes (1st PPe and 2nd PPe). The data indicate that jennies spontaneously recovered reproduction in approximately 10 days after delivery. Then heats occur with a regular interval of approximately 23 days. Estrus length was 1 week in FH and the 2nd PPe and significantly shorter in the 1st PPe. Estrus-ovulation, and delivery-ovulation interval and follicle growth were similar in all animals tested. Pregnancy rate (PR) was lower when natural mating occurred during the FH and 2nd PPe (approximately 60%) than during the 1st PPe (approximately 70%; P < 0.01). In addition, the higher PR (>80%; P < 0.01) was recorded in jennies when the FH occurred after the first week PP and it dropped (<50%) in early FH animals. The PR was also affected by the season and by age: it significantly declined during the autumn-winter season and in subjects older than the sixth year of age. For the first time, the reproductive performance of PP donkeys were defined on a large number of Martina Franca jennies thus offering useful information to improve farm management with an immediate benefit to increase livestock production. This aspect of management improvement might be particularly important if applied to an endangered breed such as Martina Franca donkeys.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm, and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized “neural border zone” forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and non-neural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with co-factor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally-derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently subdivides into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, somatic sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

  4. Antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts of Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn.

    PubMed

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Mirshekari, Mehrzad

    2016-10-01

    Antioxidant activity of Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn aerial part hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) and polyphenolic extract (PPE) as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were studied. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were respectively estimated as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents. The in vitro antioxidant activity of two extracts of P. pastinacifolium were evaluated by radical scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), chelating activity on ferrous ions, or ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract was measured by FRAP assay. Total phenolic contents of PPE and HAE were 117.1 ± 6.2 and 44.3 ± 1.7 mg/g, respectively. Total flavonoid content of PPE (43.4 ± 2.1 mg/g) was found to be higher than that of HAE (8.0 ± 1.5 mg/g). In DPPH radical scavenging assay, HAE and PPE showed fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 469.4 ± 9.3 μg/mL and 128.2 ± 5.5 μg/mL, respectively. Iron chelating activity assays indicated IC50 values of 657.5 ± 13.2 μg/mL and 735.4 ± 16.1 μg/mL for HAE and PPE as opposed to ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) being 16.5 ± 0.8 μg/mL. PPE exhibited greater FRAP value (154.0 ± 1.8 μM) as compared with that of HAE being 69.3 ± 1.4 μM. In animal study, HAE showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in FRAP level when compared with that of control group. Our results showed that P. pastinacifolium possess antioxidant properties which most likely are exerted through free radical scavenging, chelating activity, and reducing power.

  5. The protective effects of green tea polyphenols: lipid profile, inflammation, and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet and dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bornhoeft, Julie; Castaneda, Debra; Nemoseck, Tricia; Wang, Piwen; Henning, Susanne M; Hong, Mee Young

    2012-08-01

    Acute and chronic inflammation and dyslipidemia play a critical role in the development of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Green tea polyphenols possess potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties that contribute to the beneficial effects on heart health. The present study was carried out to determine if administration of a green tea extract (Polyphenon(®) E [PPE]; Mitsui Norin Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) at 0.2% in the diet reduces cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia, inflammation, adiposity, and oxidative stress, in rats fed an atherogenic (high fat, cholesterol, and sugar) diet with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water. DSS treatment increased serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, C-reactive proteins (CRP), and markers of liver toxicity and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol significantly. Adding PPE to the atherogenic diet (PPE-diet) was associated with lower total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P<.001) and increased HDL-cholesterol (P=.001). In addition, the PPE-diet was associated with decreased serum CRP concentration (P=.023) and increased total antioxidant capacity (P=.016) and catalase (P=.001) and glutathione peroxidase (P=.050) activities. The PPE-diet significantly lowered epididymal fat pad weight (P=.009). Feeding the PPE-diet also ameliorated some of the DSS-induced lipid, inflammatory, and oxidative symptoms. In summary, green tea supplementation decreased several cardiovascular risk factors, including body composition, dyslipidemia, inflammatory status, and antioxidant capacity, in rats fed an atherogenic diet. This study supports green tea as an effective dietary component for sustaining cardiovascular health.

  6. The effects of Gamijinhae-tang on elastase/lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in an animal model of acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gamijinhae-tang (GJHT) has long been used in Korea to treat respiratory diseases. The therapeutic effect of GJHT is likely associated with its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its effects are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of GJHT in a porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and lipopolysaccharide(LPS) induced animal model of acute lung injury (ALI). Methods In this study, mice were intranasally exposed to PPE and LPS for 4 weeks to induce chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-like lung inflammation. Two hours prior to PPE and LPS administration, the treatment group was administered GJHT extracts via an oral injection. The numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were counted, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were also measured. For histologic analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stains were evaluated. Results After inducing ALI by treating mice with PPE and LPS for 4 weeks, the numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and total cells were significantly lower in the GJHT group than in the ALI group. In addition, the IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in the GJHT group. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuation effect of GJHT on PPE- and LPS-induced lung inflammation. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that GJHT has significantly reduces PPE- and LPS-induced lung inflammation. The remarkable protective effects of GJHT suggest its therapeutic potential in COPD treatment. PMID:23866260

  7. Justification for Selecting Level A vs. Level B Personal Protective Equipment to Remediate a Room Containing Concentrated Acids, Bases and Radiological Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J. M.; Thompson, A. L.; Walter, J. F.; Deecke, T. A.

    2002-02-25

    Selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is based on providing an adequate level of employee protection relative to the task-specific conditions and hazards. PPE is categorized into four ensembles, based on the degree of protection afforded; e.g., Levels A (most restrictive), B, C, and D (least restrictive). What is often overlooked in preparing an ensemble is that the PPE itself can create significant worker hazards; i.e., the greater the level of PPE, the greater the associated risks. Furthermore, there is confusion as to whether a more ''conservative approach'' should always be taken since Level B provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but less skin protection. This paper summarizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations addressing Level A versus Level B, and provides justification for selecting Level B over Level A without under-protecting the employee during a particular remediation scenario. The scenario consisted of an entry team performing (1) an initial entry into a room containing concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid), bases, and radiological constituents; (2) sampling and characterizing container contents; and (3) retrieving characterized containers. The invasive nature of the hydrofluoric acid sampling and characterization scenario created a high potential for splash, immersion, and exposure to hazardous vapors, requiring additional skin protection. The hazards associated with this scenario and the chemical nature of hydrofluoric acid provided qualitative evidence to justify Level A. Once the hydrofluoric acid was removed from the room, PPE performance was evaluated against the remaining chemical inventory. If chemical breakthrough from direct contact was not expected to occur and instrument readings confirmed the absence of any hazardous vapors, additional skin protection afforded by wearing a vapor-tight, totally-encapsulated suit was not required. Therefore, PPE performance and

  8. Polarized photoluminescence from poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene) via a block copolymer nanotemplate.

    PubMed

    Breen, Craig A; Deng, Tao; Breiner, Thomas; Thomas, Edwin L; Swager, Timothy M

    2003-08-20

    A new approach based on a conjugated polymer/block copolymer guest/host system for the generation of polarized photoluminescence is reported. Synthetic modification of a poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene) (PPE) conjugated polymer is used for domain-specific incorporation into a cylindrical morphology block copolymer host matrix. Subsequent ordering of the host nanostructure via roll cast processing templates uniaxial alignment of the guest PPE. The ordered films are optically anisotropic displaying both polarized absorption with a dichroic ratio of 3.0 at 440 nm and polarized emission with a polarization ratio of 7.3 at 472 nm.

  9. Social factors in occupational health: a history of hard hats.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Beth; Levenstein, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) is the least desirable way to ensure workplace safety, and it is difficult to use consistently. Hard hats are different; they have cachet and are often worn even when they are not required. We investigated the history of this personal protective equipment to see if there were any lessons that could be applied to other forms of PPE. We learned that what makes hard hats special are social factors that are specific to a certain time and place. The importance of social factors illuminates the requirement that cultural and social norms of workers be included in any kind of worker safety and health training.

  10. Three-dimensional accurate detection of lung emphysema in rats using ultra-short and zero echo time MRI.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Andrea; Tibiletti, Marta; Kjørstad, Åsmund; Birk, Gerald; Schad, Lothar R; Stierstorfer, Birgit; Rasche, Volker; Stiller, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    Emphysema is a life-threatening pathology that causes irreversible destruction of alveolar walls. In vivo imaging techniques play a fundamental role in the early non-invasive pre-clinical and clinical detection and longitudinal follow-up of this pathology. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using high resolution radial three-dimensional (3D) zero echo time (ZTE) and 3D ultra-short echo time (UTE) MRI to accurately detect lung pathomorphological changes in a rodent model of emphysema.Porcine pancreas elastase (PPE) was intratracheally administered to the rats to produce the emphysematous changes. 3D ZTE MRI, low and high definition 3D UTE MRI and micro-computed tomography images were acquired 4 weeks after the PPE challenge. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured in PPE-treated and control rats. T2* values were computed from low definition 3D UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements were made after euthanizing the animals. Both ZTE and UTE MR images showed a significant decrease in the SNR measured in PPE-treated lungs compared with controls, due to the pathomorphological changes taking place in the challenged lungs. A significant decrease in T2* values in PPE-challenged animals compared with controls was measured using UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements showed a significant increase in the mean linear intercept in PPE-treated lungs. UTE yielded significantly higher SNR compared with ZTE (14% and 30% higher in PPE-treated and non-PPE-treated lungs, respectively).This study showed that optimized 3D radial UTE and ZTE MRI can provide lung images of excellent quality, with high isotropic spatial resolution (400 µm) and SNR in parenchymal tissue (>25) and negligible motion artifacts in freely breathing animals. These techniques were shown to be useful non-invasive instruments to accurately and reliably detect the pathomorphological alterations taking place in emphysematous lungs, without incurring the risks of cumulative radiation

  11. Environmental effects of poly(phenylene ether) blends after long-term exposure to potable hot water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Steven

    In recent years, engineering thermoplastic resins have been contemplated for use in a variety pressurized fluid handling components such as potable water delivery pipes, fitting and valves. In this research, rigid blends of glassy poly(phenylene ether) (PPE) polymer are studied to assess their suitability in long-term, potable, hot water environments. Three distinct PPE-based model compounds were prepared for this research: (i) a 50/50 blend of PPE and high impact polystyrene (HIPS); (ii) a 50/50 blend of PPE and HIPS with the inclusion of an anti-oxidant package and; (iii) a blend consisting of capped PPE, crystal polystyrene and styrene-ethyelene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) rubber. A fourth engineering thermoplastic, namely bisphenol-A polysulfone (PSU), was incorporated into the study as a benchmark material due to its proven reliability in hot water applications. Aging experiments were carried out for 8,000 hours in an 80°C water bath and an 80°C convection oven to characterize physical property retention and degradation mechanisms in each material. During water bath immersion, excessive, non-Fickian water diffusion occurred in both PPE/HIPS blends which led to water clustering and disc shaped microcavities on the order of 50 to 100 mum in diameter. These voids in the bulk caused appreciable losses in tensile elongation and fatigue resistance. The capped PPE/PS/SEBS blend, however, managed water uptake more effectively and its chemistry deterred water clustering. With further improvements to the formulation, such as larger rubber domains or an alternative impact modifier, the capped PPE blend may be able to offer physical property retention equal to that of PSU. With the exception of slight craze formation at sharp specimen edges during hot water immersion, the PSU material proved to be an exceptional material candidate throughout the entire experimentation. Surprisingly long-term hot water exposure did not cause gross chemical degradation in any of the materials

  12. Solar cells from thin films prepared by periodic pulse electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, G. C.; Vanderveen, R. J.

    1996-02-01

    Periodic pulse electrodeposition (PPE) of CdS and CdTe polycrystalline films is reported. These films adhered more strongly to FTO than to ITO and better to either substrate than films prepared by DC methods. Solar cells of the type glass/conducting transparent oxide/nCdS/pCdTe/Au had superior properties when PPE CdS films were used. A CdCl 2 treatment of the CdS layer was an essential fabrication step for stable, efficient, larger area cells.

  13. Pesticides and Health in Vegetable Production in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Macharia, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of pesticide-related cost of illness (COI) and acute symptoms, using a balanced panel of 363 farmers interviewed from seven major vegetable producing districts of Kenya. Finding shows that the incidences of pesticide-related health impairments have increased. Variation in number of symptoms and symptom severity significantly explained COI. The personal protective equipment (PPE), education level, record keeping, and geographical location considerably determined health impairments. Encouraging the proper use of PPE and record keeping of pesticide use could greatly reduce poisoning cases and COI. PMID:26783515

  14. Optimal Control of Piezoceramic Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Helmholtz free energy density ψ as a function of the polarization P : 3 [ ]     < ≥ −≤ −− − + = 1 1 1 112 1 2 12 1 2 12 1 , , , )( )( )( )( 1 2 PP PP...PP PPPE PPE PPE P TP P T T T ψ . (1) In Eq. (1), TP , 1P and 1E are related to physical properties, which can be extracted from an electric field vs...polarization diagram. TP denotes the remnant polarization, 1P the onset of the switching process, and 1E is the reciprocal of the slope of the (E, P

  15. Evolutionary genomics place the origin of Wolbachia in nematodes, not arthropods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wolbachia, the most widely studied endosymbiont in arthropods, is a target for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases (malaria and dengue virus), and antibiotic elimination of infectious filarial nematodes. We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a new strain (wPpe) in the plant-parasitic nem...

  16. Light-emitting liquid-crystal displays constructed from AIE luminogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongyu; Qin, Anjun; Tang, Ben Zhong; Leung, Chris Wai Tung

    2014-10-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are widely used for diverse purposes in many aspects in daily life from handle personal devices to professional applications and large-panel LCD televisions. Since LCD is a passive emission display device, it usually shows narrow viewing angle and reduced brightness. Nowadays, LCDs with light-emitting properties is suggested as a less energy consuming displays. To date, fluorescent materials with dichroic properties and strong fluorescence emission are required. However, many molecular emitters, which are highly efficient in solution, will suffer from heavy aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect in the aggregate state, which has greatly limited their applications. In order to overcome these weaknesses, we have designed and synthesized a novel luminescent liquid crystalline compound consisting of a tetraphenylethene (TPE) core, TPE-PPE, as a luminogen with mesogenic moieties. As a result, the TPE-PPE exhibits both the aggregate-induced emission (AIE) and thermotropic liquid crystalline characteristics. By dissolving 1 weight% (wt%) of TPE-PPE into the nematic LC host PA0182, a linearly polarized emission was obtained on the unidirectional orientated LC cell. The photoluminescence polarization ratio of the LC cell has reached to 4.16 between the directions perpendicular and parallel to the rubbing direction. Utilizing the emissive anisotropic TPE-PPE, we have fabricated the photoluminescent liquid crystal display (PL-LCD). This approach has simplified the device design, lowered the energy consumption and increased brightness of the LCD.

  17. 29 CFR 1915.87 - Medical services and first aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., additional types of first aid equipment and supplies, and additional quantities and types of supplies and... reasonably anticipated that employees will be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials..., § 1910.1030(d)(3). This standard lists appropriate PPE for this type of exposure, such as gloves,...

  18. The Effects of Three Nebulized Osmotic Agents in the Dry Larynx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Elstad, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation examined the effects of nebulized hypertonic saline, isotonic saline (IS), and sterile (hypotonic) water on phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) following a surface laryngeal dehydration challenge. Method: In a double-blind, randomized experimental trial, 60 vocally healthy women…

  19. Evidence for Adverse Phonatory Change Following an Inhaled Combination Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Voice problems are reported as a frequent side effect of inhaled combination (IC) treatments. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate whether IC treatments are detrimental to phonation. We hypothesized that IC treatment would significantly increase phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and perceived phonatory effort (PPE),…

  20. Low-Volatility Agent Permeation (LVAP) Verification and Validation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Permeation Personal protective equipment (PPE) Low-volatility agent permeation (LVAP) Extraction efficiency Test development 16. SECURITY...Center (ECBC; Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD), West Desert Test Center (WDTC; Dugway Proving Ground, UT), Battelle Memorial Institute (Columbus, OH), Joint...Contact Weight Requirements .................................................................................... 32 3.7 Uptake and Extraction

  1. Suitability of Potential Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    X LIST OF ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS...UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 RDC | R. Young et al. | Public February 2012 x LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Lab test data...NPFG Non-Pyrotechnic Flash Bang PFD Personal flotation device PPE Personal protective equipment R&D Research & development RDC Research & Development

  2. Using Observational Assessment to Help Identify Factors Associated with Parent Participation Engagement in Community-Based Child Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadnick, Nicole A.; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Martinez, Jonathan I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parent engagement in child mental health (MH) services has received growing attention due to its significance in intervention outcomes and evidence-based care. In particular, parent participation engagement (PPE) reflects active and responsive contributions in and between sessions. Yet, limited research has examined factors associated…

  3. Naval Science & Technology: Enabling the Future Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    0 F F ICE 0 F Background: Hearing loss and tinnitus (ringing in the ears) are the two largest VA benefits. Compromised hearing for active duty...and reduce noise  Develop effective PPE for operational environments  Understand the etiology of NIHL and tinnitus ; develop pharmaceutical

  4. Predicting Student Achievement with the Education Production-Function and Per-Pupil Expenditure: Synthesizing Regression Models from 1968-1994

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Therese D.; Williams, Ryan T.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Wu-Bohanon, Meng-Jia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research to investigate the heterogeneity of per-pupil expenditure (PPE) slope estimates in predicting student achievement. The research question guiding this project is: how does the measured relationship between per-pupil expenditure vary across studies that use different models? In concert with SREE's 2012 conference mission…

  5. Injuries to Occupants of U.S. Army High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles in Rollover Accidents, 1989-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-02

    the ASMIS data base (field values are indicated in parentheses): Type of Protective Equipment ( seatbelt ), Protective Equipment Available (yes), and...abstracted from the ASMIS administrative data base of accident reports filed with the USACR / SC. These accident reports did not capture physical ...personal protective equipment (PPE) identified and cataloged in the HMMWV investigation, including restraint systems, seatbelts , and turret gunner

  6. Computational prediction of alpha/beta selectivities in the pyrolysis of oxygen-substituted phenethyl phenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Beste, Ariana; Buchanan, A C; Harrison, Robert J

    2008-06-05

    Phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE; PhCH 2CH 2OPh) is the simplest model for the most common beta-O-4 linkage in lignin. Previously, we developed a computational scheme to calculate the alpha/beta product selectivity in the pyrolysis of PPE by systematically exploiting error cancellation in the computation of relative rate constants. The alpha/beta selectivity is defined as the selectivity between the competitive hydrogen abstraction reaction paths on the alpha- and beta-carbons of PPE. We use density functional theory and employ transition state theory where we include diagonal anharmonic correction in the vibrational partition functions for low frequency modes for which a semiclassical expression is used. In this work we investigate the effect of oxygen substituents (hydroxy, methoxy) in the para position on the phenethyl ring of PPE on the alpha/beta selectivities. The total alpha/beta selectivity increases when substituents are introduced and is larger for the methoxy than the hydroxy substituent. The strongest effect of the substituents is observed for the alpha-pathway of the hydrogen abstraction by the phenoxyl chain carrying radical for which the rate increases. For the beta pathway and the abstraction by the R-benzyl radical (R = OH,OCH 3) the rate decreases with the introduction of the substituents. These findings are compared with results from recent experimental studies.

  7. Crystallization of porcine pancreatic elastase and a preliminary neutron diffraction experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Tamada, Taro; Imai, Keisuke; Kurihara, Kazuo; Ohhara, Takashi; Tada, Toshiji; Kuroki, Ryota

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the structural characteristics of a covalent inhibitor bound to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), including H atoms and hydration by water, a crystal of porcine pancreatic elastase with its inhibitor was grown to a size of 1.6 mm{sup 3} for neutron diffraction study. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination owing to the similar atomic scattering properties of deuterium and carbon. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) resembles the attractive drug target leukocyte elastase, which has been implicated in a number of inflammatory disorders. In order to investigate the structural characteristics of a covalent inhibitor bound to PPE, including H atoms and the hydration by water, a single crystal of PPE for neutron diffraction study was grown in D{sub 2}O containing 0.2 M sodium sulfate (pD 5.0) using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal was grown to a size of 1.6 mm{sup 3} by repeated macroseeding. Neutron diffraction data were collected at room temperature using a BIX-3 diffractometer at the JRR-3 research reactor of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The data set was integrated and scaled to 2.3 Å resolution in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.2, b = 57.8, c = 75.6 Å.

  8. A Review of Isolation Gowns in Healthcare: Fabric and Gown Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, F. Selcen

    2016-01-01

    The threat of emerging infectious diseases including Ebola hemorrhagic fever, pandemic influenza, avian influenza, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and SARS has highlighted the need for effective personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect healthcare workers (HCWs), patients, and visitors. PPE is a critical component in the hierarchy of controls used to protect HCWs from infectious hazards. HCW PPE may include gowns, respirators, face masks, gloves, eye protection, face shields, and head and shoe coverings. Important research has been conducted in certain areas, such as respirators and protective masks, but studies in other areas, particularly gowns, are scarce. Gowns are identified as the second-most-used piece of PPE, following gloves, in the healthcare setting. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Guideline for Isolation Precautions, isolation gowns should be worn to protect HCWs’ arms and exposed body areas during procedures and patient-care activities when anticipating contact with clothing, blood, bodily fluids, secretions and excretions. Isolation gowns currently available on the marketplace offer varying resistance to blood and other bodily fluids depending on the type of the material, its impermeability, and wear and tear. While some studies show no benefit of the routine use of isolation gowns, others demonstrate that its use is associated with a reduced infection rate. This paper reviews isolation gowns in healthcare settings, including the fabrics used, gown design and interfaces, as well as critical parameters that affect microorganism and liquid transmission through fabrics. PMID:26989351

  9. 78 FR 39345 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... current assets including cash, accounts receivable, material, supplies, prepayment and other current assets (``Current Assets''), and (ii) $74.2 million of property and plant and equipment (``PP&E'').\\5\\ Applicant states that many of the assets categorized as Current Assets will remain with ACS Wireless...

  10. Incorporating the e-HIM[R] Virtual Lab into the Health Information Administration Professional Practice Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barefield, Amanda C.; Condon, Jim; McCuen, Charlotte; Sayles, Nanette B.

    2010-01-01

    This article will highlight the experiences of two baccalaureate Health Information Administration (HIA) programs in the adoption of the American Health Information Management Association's (AHIMA) e-HIM Virtual Laboratory (Virtual Lab) into the Professional Practice Experience (PPE). Information is provided describing the implementation of the…

  11. Assessment of a Marksmanship Simulator as a Tool for Clothing and Individual Equipment Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-23

    release; distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Reprint of a paper presented at Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFE...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 COSTS CONSISTENCY PRODUCT EVALUATION PERFORMANCE( HUMAN ) SAVINGS...TARGETS CONFIGURATIONS HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING WEAPONS TRAINING DEVICES PPE(PERSONAL

  12. Personal Protective Equipment - Protecting Healthcare Providers in an Ebola Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current Ebola epidemic that has devastated West Africa has infected and killed more healthcare providers than any other outbreak in the history of this virus. An improved understanding of pathogen transmission and the institution of strategies to protect infection healthcare providers are needed in infectious disease outbreak. This review connects what is known about Ebola virus transmission with personal protective equipment designed to arrest nosocomial transmission. Methods Articles pertaining to filovirus transmission and personal protective equipment in filovirus outbreaks were reviewed and are presented. Additionally, studies evaluating PPE as well as donning and doffing strategies are also presented. Findings Personal Protective equipment is one step in a comprehensive infection prevention and control strategy that is required to protect healthcare providers. Given that the Ebola virus is primarily transmitted through direct contact of mucous membranes and cuts in the skin with infected patients and/or their bodily fluids, it is necessary to cover these potential portals of infection with PPE as part of a structured and instructed donning and doffing procedure. Implications Current recommendations about PPE and the donning and doffing processes are based on anecdotal experience. However the use of non-human viruses can help provide evidence based guidelines on both PPE and processes. PMID:26452427

  13. Demonstration/Validation of the TC-25 Donovan Blast Chamber, Porton Down, UK, Final Demonstration Test Report, April-September 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    allows operation with gloved hands, pointers, and ungloved hands. The heart of the control system was the programmable logic controller (PLC) processor...Safety and Health Administration PETN Pentaerythritol tetranitrate PLC Programmable logic controller PPE Personal protective equipment PS Chloropicrin psig

  14. Kinetic and structural analysis of fluorescent peptides on cotton cellulose nanocrystals as elastase sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) are serine proteases that have been associated with destructive proteolytic activity when their levels are elevated in chronic diseases. Thus there is considerable interest in the development of elastase sensors. Nanocyrsta...

  15. Medical Students' Attitudes towards Peer Physical Examination: Findings from an International Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Charlotte E.; Wearn, Andy M.; Vnuk, Anna K.; Sato, Toshio J.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies have begun to shed light on medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination (PPE), they have been conducted at single sites, and have generally not examined changes in medical students' attitudes over time. Employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, the current study examines medical students' attitudes…

  16. TCAP Scores and per Pupil Expenditures: Statewide Changes before and after Tennessee's First to the Top Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Martha Ely

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the changes in Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) scores and the changes in Per Pupil Expenditures (PPE) after the enactment of "First to the Top Act of 2010" and the receipt of $501,000,000 in federal Race to the Top (RTTT) grant monies. Half of that…

  17. A guide to the selection of personal protective equipment for use in responding to a release of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.

    1997-10-01

    Recognition by the US Army that a potential threat to the public from continued storage was potentially as great a threat as from transportation and the final demilitarization of chemical agents gave rise to the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). CSEPP is a civilian community emergency preparedness program complementing the Department of Defense`s initiative to destroy domestic stockpiles of aged chemical warface munitions. An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with any HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern the selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and detection equipment used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel. FEMA requested that ORNL create training materials for CSEPP participants. These training materials were to provide information on a variety of topics and answer questions that a typical CSEPP participant might ask, including the following: how did the Army select the CSEPP recommended ensemble (i.e., protective clothing, respiratory equipment, and detection equipment); how does the CSEPP participant know this ensemble is the right PPE for chemical warfare agents and will actually protect him; what are the concept of operations and work rules? Does one need to know what the CSEPP concept of operations and work rules include? This report describes the training document ORNL created.

  18. Comparison between in toto peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) supplementation and its polyphenolic extract on rat liver xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Canistro, Donatella; Vivarelli, Fabio; Cirillo, Silvia; Costa, Guglielmo; Andreotti, Carlo; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-11-01

    Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated. Rats were daily supplemented with LFT at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. or with the corresponding amount of PPE (2.5 and 5 mL/kg b.w., respectively) for either 7 or 14 days. While PPE treatment resulted in a widespread phase-I inactivation, a complex modulation pattern with drastic decreases (7α-testosterone hydroxylase, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD)), coupled with marked up-regulations of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) after LFT administration, was seen. A notable down-regulation (over 50%) following LFT or PPE treatment for the phase-II enzymes was also recorded. The observed remarkable changes in XMEs, if reproduced in humans, might have public health implications. These data suggest caution in promoting peach fruit (mono-diet) consumption or its polyphenolic extract in the field of chemoprevention.

  19. A Physical Education Program for Preschoolers of All Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Julienne K.; Randall, Lynn M.

    2002-01-01

    Preschool physical education (PPE) that integrates developmentally appropriate activities can benefit children of all abilities. The paper presents a multi-task activity, Trails in the Jungle, that has been used successfully by children of varying abilities. Trails in the Jungle incorporates different types of movement as well as imagination and…

  20. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered...

  1. Surface decontamination and quality enhancement in meat steaks using plant extracts as natural biopreservatives.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Moussa, Shaaban H; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M

    2012-08-01

    Nine plant extracts were evaluated as biopreservatives to decontaminate and maintain the quality of meat steaks. Most of the extracts exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant strains from Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. The pomegranate peel extract (PPE), cinnamon bark extract (CBE), and lemon grass leaves extract (LGE) were the most effective as bactericides, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 250, 350, and 550 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective treatments, for decontaminating meat steak surfaces, were the application of combined PPE, CBE, and LGE at their MIC values and the treatment with double MIC from PPE; these treatments resulted in complete bacterial inhibitions during the first 2 days of storage period for 7 days. The sensory evaluation of treated steaks revealed that these two treatments had the highest panelist overall scores. The highest scores, for individual attributes, were observed in the treated steaks with double MIC from PPE. Application of plant extracts could be impressively recommended for comprehensive meat decontamination and quality attributes enhancement.

  2. Membrane perturbation activity of cationic phenylene ethynylene oligomers and polymers: selectivity against model bacterial and mammalian membranes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Tang, Yanli; Zhou, Zhijun; Ji, Eunkyung; Lopez, Gabriel P; Chi, Eva Y; Schanze, Kirk S; Whitten, David G

    2010-08-03

    Poly(phenylene ethyneylene) (PPE)-based cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) and cationic phenylene ethynylene oligomers (OPEs) exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and their main target is believed to be the cell membrane. To understand better how these antimicrobial molecules interact with membranes, a series of PPE-based CPEs and OPEs with different side chains were studied. Large unilamellar vesicles with lipid compositions mimicking those of mammalian or bacterial membranes were used as model membranes. Among the CPEs and OPEs tested, the anionic CPE, PPE-SO(3)(2-) and the smallest cationic OPE-1 are inactive against all vesicles. Other cationic CPEs and OPEs show significant membrane perturbation ability against bacterial membrane mimics but are inactive against a mammalian cell membrane mimic with the exception of PPE-DABCO and two end-only-functionalized OPEs, which also disrupted a mammalian cell membrane mimic. The results suggest that the phospholipid composition of vesicles dominates the interaction of CPE and OPE with lipid membranes.

  3. Cost and Performance Report: Innovative Welding Technologies Using Silicon Additives to Control Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-30

    AES inductively coupled plasma -atomic emission spectroscopy IDST insulated double shroud torch Ipm inches per minute KIGAM Korean Institute of...exposure limit PERC Particle Engineering Research Center PPE personal protective equipment PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene (teflon) PVC polyvinyl...Analysis of total metals (Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Mn) was carried out with inductively coupled plasma -atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES

  4. Syntheses and studies of acetylenic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Yiwei, Ding

    1994-03-03

    Based on new diiodo aryl compounds a series of novel soluble polymers, poly(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenyleneethynylene)s (PPE polymers) were synthesized using palladium-catalysis. The molecular weights (MW) range from 8,000 to 40,000. Properties such as absorption, fluorescence, and conductivity were studied. A PPE polymer with butoxy side chain exhibits a weak electrical conductivity (σ = 10-3 S/cm) after doping with AsF5. Absorption spectra in THF solution at room temperature (RT) show a maximum at 440 nm. However, absorption spectra of PPE polymers in the film state at (RT) show a maximum at 480 nm. PPE polymer-based light emitting diode (LED) devices have been prepared; greenish light from these LED devices can be observed. Poly(ethynylene-p-arylene-ethynylene-silylene)s were synthesized through the same palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs are between 6,000 and 82,000. Absorption and fluorescence were studied. Some of these polymers exhibit thermotropic liquid crystalline properties. In addition, nonlinear optical properties were briefly examined. Poly(silylene-ethynylene) homopolymers as well as alternating copolymers were synthesized through a novel palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs range from 56 x 103 to 5.3 x 103. Thermal stability of these was also investigated; char yields range from 56 to 83%. One of these polymers exhibits thermotropic liquid crystalline properties.

  5. 29 CFR 1915.158 - Lifesaving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.158 Lifesaving equipment. (a) Personal flotation devices. (1) PFDs (life preservers, life... Equipment Specifications. (2) Prior to each use, personal floatation devices shall be inspected for dry rot... floatation devices shall not be used. (b) Ring life buoys and ladders. (1) When work is being performed on...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.158 - Lifesaving equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.158 Lifesaving equipment. (a) Personal flotation devices. (1) PFDs (life preservers, life... Equipment Specifications. (2) Prior to each use, personal floatation devices shall be inspected for dry rot... floatation devices shall not be used. (b) Ring life buoys and ladders. (1) When work is being performed on...

  7. A process of informed consent for student learning through peer physical examination in pelvic floor physiotherapy practice.

    PubMed

    Delany, Clare; Frawley, Helena

    2012-03-01

    Peer physical examination (PPE) is a method of teaching and learning clinical skills in which students use fellow students as surrogate patients or models. PPE is recognised as useful as an experiential learning method to increase skill development for physiotherapy clinical practice. However students may feel pressured to participate despite discomfort and embarrassment when practising physical examination and treatment skills with their peers. Obtaining students' informed consent to participate in PPE is an important process to address these disadvantages of PPE. This paper proposes a three stage process for obtaining informed consent from postgraduate physiotherapy students learning pelvic floor examination and treatment skills. The process is designed to encourage educators to articulate the ethical issues that are relevant in this area of teaching; to provide information to students to enable them to understand what is involved and to choose to participate, and to offer alternatives to participation through a formalised process of informed consent. These steps mirror students' future obligations and actions when communicating with their patients.

  8. Factors Surgical Team Members Perceive Influence Choices of Wearing or Not Wearing Personal Protective Equipment during Operative/Invasive Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuming, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to certain bloodborne pathogens can prematurely end a person's life. Healthcare workers (HCWs), especially those who are members of surgical teams, are at increased risk of exposure to these pathogens. The proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during operative/invasive procedures reduces that risk. Despite this, some HCWs fail…

  9. Nebulized Isotonic Saline versus Water following a Laryngeal Desiccation Challenge in Classically Trained Sopranos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Muntz, Faye; Houtz, Daniel R.; Sauder, Cara; Elstad, Mark; Wright-Costa, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of nebulized isotonic saline (IS) versus sterile water (SW) on self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) and phonation threshold pressure (PTP) following a surface laryngeal dehydration challenge in classically trained sopranos. Method: In a double-blind, within-subject crossover design, 34 sopranos breathed dry air…

  10. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing... section, to use PPE (exception: training in the use of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems training is covered in §§ 1915.159 and 1915.160). Each employee shall be trained to understand...

  11. 78 FR 16539 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Personal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... equipment (PPE) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system whenever workers are... shields, protective barriers, life-saving equipment, personal fall arrest systems, and positioning device systems that meet the applicable provisions of the subpart. This ICR covers hazard assessment...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing... section, to use PPE (exception: training in the use of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems training is covered in §§ 1915.159 and 1915.160). Each employee shall be trained to understand...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing... section, to use PPE (exception: training in the use of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems training is covered in §§ 1915.159 and 1915.160). Each employee shall be trained to understand...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing... section, to use PPE (exception: training in the use of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems training is covered in §§ 1915.159 and 1915.160). Each employee shall be trained to understand...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing... section, to use PPE (exception: training in the use of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems training is covered in §§ 1915.159 and 1915.160). Each employee shall be trained to understand...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156...

  3. 75 FR 78705 - Issuance of Exposure Drafts on Implementation Guidance on the Accounting for the Disposal of G-PP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... G-PP&E and Implementation Guidance for Estimating the Historical Cost of G-PP&E AGENCY: Federal... Historical Cost of G- PP&E. The Exposure Drafts are available on the FASAB home page http://www.fasab.gov... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING...

  4. Effectiveness of shoe covers for bioexclusion within an animal facility.

    PubMed

    Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Nicolaus, Mackenzie L; Petty, Joann M; Harrison, Dianne M; Bergdall, Valerie K

    2012-03-01

    The personal protective equipment (PPE) required for entry into rodent barrier rooms often includes a hair bonnet, face mask, disposable gown, gloves, and shoe covers. Traditionally, shoe covers have been considered essential PPE for maintaining a 'clean' animal room. The introduction of microisolation caging and ventilated rack housing prompted us to reevaluate the contribution of shoe covers to bioexclusion. Contamination powder that fluoresces under black light was to track particle dispersal on the floor and personnel. The test mouse room contained a ventilated microisolation rack and biosafety cabinet. Powder was applied directly inside or outside the animal room doorway. PPE with or without shoe covers was donned outside of the animal room doorway and discarded on exiting. Participants either were scanned on entry into the room for the presence of florescence or asked to complete a simulated standard animal room activity while wearing full PPE. Animal rooms were scanned for florescence after exit of participants. All participants donning shoe covers fluoresced in multiple areas, primarily on gloves and gowns. Shoe covers had no effect on the spread of powder in normal traffic patterns, with no powder detected within caging. Powder also was used to determine the distance substances could be carried on the floor from building entry points. Results indicate that shoe covers do not improve (and actually may compromise) bioexclusion. Donning of shoe covers offers a potential for contamination of personnel from contact with shoe bottoms.

  5. Computational study of bond dissociation enthalpies for lignin model compounds. Substituent effects in phenethyl phenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Beste, Ariana; Buchanan, A C

    2009-04-03

    Lignin is an abundant natural resource that is a potential source of valuable chemicals. Improved understanding of the pyrolysis of lignin occurs through the study of model compounds for which phenethyl phenyl ether (PhCH(2)CH(2)OPh, PPE) is the simplest example representing the dominant beta-O-4 ether linkage. The initial step in the thermal decomposition of PPE is the homolytic cleavage of the oxygen-carbon bond. The rate of this key step will depend on the bond dissociation enthalpy, which in turn will depend on the nature and location of relevant substituents. We used modern density functional methods to calculate the oxygen-carbon bond dissociation enthalpies for PPE and several oxygen-substituted derivatives. Since carbon-carbon bond cleavage in PPE could be a competitive initial reaction under high-temperature pyrolysis conditions, we also calculated substituent effects on these bond dissociation enthalpies. We found that the oxygen-carbon bond dissociation enthalpy is substantially lowered by oxygen substituents situated at the phenyl ring adjacent to the ether oxygen. On the other hand, the carbon-carbon bond dissociation enthalpy shows little variation with different substitution patterns on either phenyl ring.

  6. Primary Physical Education: A Complex Learning Journey for Children and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jess, Mike; Keay, Jeanne; Carse, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Primary physical education (PPE) is increasingly being recognised for the role it can potentially play in setting a foundation for lifelong engagement in physical activity. However, the majority of the literature continues to focus on the negative features of the subject within the primary context. Whilst acknowledging the existence of these…

  7. Comprehensive analysis of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice: effects of ambient existing particulate matters.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Koike, Eiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2010-11-01

    Pulmonary exposure of rodents to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) induces lesions that morphologically resemble human panacinar emphysema. However, there has been little work on the comprehensive analysis of this model. The present study was designed to extensively examine the biological effects of PPE on inflammation, cell damage, emphysematous change, and cholinergic reactivity in the lungs of mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the disease model. Intratracheal administration of PPE induced (1) proinflammatory response in the lungs that was characterized by significant infiltration of leukocytes such as macrophages, eosinophils, and lymphocytes and an increased level of interleukin-1β in lung homogenates, (2) lung cell damage, indicated by higher levels of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in lung homogenates, (3) emphysema-related morphological changes including airspace enlargement and progressive destruction of alveolar wall structures, and (4) airway responsiveness to methacholine in the context of the compliance value of the respiratory system in a dose-dependent manner showing an overall trend. A single intratracheal administration of DEP did not significantly facilitate the hallmark of the disease. This is the first study to extensively analyze PPE-induced lung emphysema in mice with evaluation of the effects of DEP. Furthermore, this bioassay may be applied to future investigations that evaluate new therapeutic agents or risk factors for pulmonary emphysema.

  8. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 08/28/1989

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... 'For .;Ie ..... 101 eontro' LOllS. 50lI s ..... 1 d oat be UI" .1 .... 1 • r.Scu. trett ... t. ... 'For Europe •• ,pp'e ••• fly eootrol. us, 2-3 'bs/.ere LOllS... .ow or • ...k .fa ...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  14. Validation of HVOF Thermal Spray Coatings as a Replacement for Hard Chrome Plating on Hydraulic/Pneumatic Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Health Administration PEL permissible exposure limit PEWG Propulsion Environmental Working Group PPE personal protective equipment PRCA pitch...Rudder Booster Actuator • B-1 Horizontal Stabilizer • B-1 Pitch/Roll SCAS • A-10 Aileron 33 • F-15 Pitch/Roll Channel Assembly ( PRCA ) • T-38

  15. 29 CFR 1915.159 - Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS). 1915.159 Section 1915... Protective Equipment (PPE) § 1915.159 Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS). The criteria of this section apply... acceptable as part of a personal fall arrest system. (a) Criteria for connectors and anchorages....

  16. Decontamination of Explosives-Contaminated Range Scrap Using A Transportable Hot Gas Decontamination (HGD) System: Cost & Performance Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    500-gallon propane tank. Operator Workstation Trailer. A trailer 10 feet by 44 feet with office space was rented monthly for $165.00 plus ...promise to mitigate or relieve the health hazards and the need for PPE for handling the insulation. Some examples include: • Superwool , manufactured

  17. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part IV--Property, Plant, & Equipment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This fourth article in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course is dedicated to the topic of property, plant, and equipment (PP&E), including both the accounting treatment and its related conceptual connections. The paper also addresses the measurement dilemmas, scandalous accounting…

  18. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.155 Head protection. (a) Use. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.155 Head protection. (a) Use. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.155 Head protection. (a) Use. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.155 Head protection. (a) Use. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.155 Head protection. (a) Use. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered...

  7. Striatal preproenkephalin gene expression is upregulated in acute but not chronic parkinsonian monkeys: implications for the contribution of the indirect striatopallidal circuit to parkinsonian symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J S; Decamp, E; Wade, T

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the extent of striatal dopamine (DA) denervation and coincident expression of preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA in monkeys made parkinsonian by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration. Some animals (n = 4) became moderately parkinsonian after receiving large doses of MPTP over short periods of time and were symptomatic for only a short period of time (1-3 months; acute parkinsonian group). Other animals became moderately parkinsonian after receiving either escalating doses of MPTP over long periods (4-6 months; n = 5) or a high dose of MPTP over a short period (<1 month; n = 1) and remained symptomatic for an extended period (>8 months; chronic parkinsonian group). Despite similar symptomatology and similar degrees of striatal DA denervation at the time of their deaths, only acute parkinsonian animals had significantly increased PPE expression in sensorimotor striatal regions. PPE expression in chronic parkinsonian animals was either not changed or significantly decreased in most striatal regions. These findings suggest that the duration and not the extent of striatal DA denervation is a critical factor in modulating changes in striatal PPE expression. Furthermore, these results question the role of increased activity in the enkephalin-containing indirect striatopallidal pathway in the expression of parkinsonian symptoms.

  8. 22 CFR 211.5 - Obligations of cooperating sponsor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Make warehouse inspections, physical inventories, and end-use checks of food or funds, and (3) Review... obtained from AID/W-FHA/PPE, Washington, DC 20523. (k) Use of funds. (1) Nongovernmental cooperating... regarding conflicts of interest; carry out procurement transactions in a manner to provide open and...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  12. Elastase modifies bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Trajano, Larissa Alexsandra Silva Neto; Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Lanzetti, Manuella; Mendonça, Morena Scopel Amorim; Guilherme, Rafael Freitas; Figueiredo, Rodrigo Tinoco; Benjamim, Cláudia Farias; Valenca, Samuel Santos; Costa, Andréa Monte Alto; Porto, Luís Cristóvão

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is characterized by excessive accumulation of collagen in the lungs. Emphysema is characterized by loss of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and alveolar enlargement. We studied the co-participation of elastase-induced mild emphysema in bleomycin-induced PF in mice by analyzing oxidative stress, inflammation and lung histology. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control; bleomycin (0.1U/mouse); elastase (using porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)+bleomycin (3U/mouse 14 days before 0.1U/mouse of bleomycin; PPE+B); elastase (3U/mouse). Mice were humanely sacrificed 7, 14 and 21 days after treatment with bleomycin or vehicle. PF was observed 14 days and 21 days after bleomycin treatment but was observed after 14 days only in the PPE+B group. In the PPE+B group at 21 days, we observed many alveoli and alveolar septa with few PF areas. We also observed marked and progressive increases of collagens 7, 14 and 21 days after bleomycin treatment whereas, in the PPE+B group, collagen deposition was observed only at 14 days. There was a reduction in activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (p<0.05), catalase (p<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.01) parallel with an increase in nitrite (p<0.01) 21 days after bleomycin treatment compared with the control group. These endpoints were also reduced (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and increased (p<0.01) in the PPE+B group at 21 days compared with the control group. Interleukin (IL)-1β expression was upregulated (p<0.01) whereas IL-6 was downregulated (p<0.05) in the PPE+B group at 21 days compared with the control group. PF and emphysema did not coexist in our model of lung disease and despite increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers after combined stimulus (elastase and bleomycin) overall histology was improved to that of the nearest control group.

  13. Basin-scale distribution patterns of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes along an Atlantic Meridional Transect.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Amy R; Jardillier, Ludwig E; Tiganescu, Ana; Pearman, John; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, David J

    2011-04-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) of a size < 3 µm play a crucial role in oceanic primary production. However, little is known of the structure of the PPE community over large spatial scales. Here, we investigated the distribution of various PPE classes along an Atlantic Meridional Transect sampled in boreal autumn 2004 that encompasses a range of ocean provinces (gyres, upwelling, temperate regions), using dot blot hybridization technology targeting plastid 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Two algal classes, Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae, dominated the PPE community throughout the Atlantic Ocean, over a range of water masses presenting different trophic profiles. However, these classes showed strongly complementary distributions with Chrysophyceae dominating northern temperate waters, the southern gyre and equatorial regions, while prymnesiophytes dominated the northern gyre. Phylogenetic analyses using both plastid and nuclear rRNA genes revealed a high diversity among members of both classes, including sequences contained in lineages with no close cultured counterpart. Other PPE classes were less prevalent along the transect, with members of the Cryptophyceae, Pelagophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae essentially restricted to specific regions. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed strong relationships between the distribution patterns of some of these latter PPE classes and temperature, light intensity and nutrient concentrations. Cryptophyceae, for example, were mostly found in the upwelling region and associated with higher nutrient concentrations. However, the key classes of Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae were not strongly influenced by the variables measured. Although there appeared to be a positive relationship between Chrysophyceae distribution and light intensity, the complementary distributions of these classes could not be explained by the variables recorded and this requires further explanation.

  14. Participation of TNF-alpha and IL-1 in the pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, T N; Santos, C C; Souza-Filho, M V; Cunha, F Q; Ribeiro, R A

    1995-10-01

    The involvement of cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1 has been investigated in a mouse model of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Male Swiss mice (25-30 g) received CYP in a single i.p. dose of 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg and were sacrificed 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h later. Cystitis was evaluated by determining the changes in bladder wet weight (BW) and plasma protein extravasation (PPE, measured by the Evans blue leakage technique). CYP treatment induced a marked increase in BW and in PPE, which was significant within 6 h and reached maximal values within 12 h (BW, 118%, P < 0.05; N = 11; and PPE, 824%, P < 0.05; N = 11), continuing to be significant until 48 h. Pretreatment of animals with whole anti-TNF-alpha serum (25 or 50 microliters diluted in 500 microliters 0.9% saline, i.p., 30 min earlier) caused a significant reduction in the CYP-induced BW increase in 6-h and 12-h cystitis (82% and 91%, respectively, P < 0.05; N = 6) and in the CYP-induced PPE increase (60% and 52%, respectively, P < 0.05; N = 6). In addition, the administration of whole anti-IL- 1 beta serum at the same dose promoted a significant blockage of the CYP-induced increase in BW (47%, P < 0.05; N = 6) and PPE increase (41%, P < 0.05; N = 6) only in 12-h cystitis. The control serum did not modify the effect of CYP. Histopathologic analysis of the bladders from anti-TNF-alpha- and anti-IL-1 beta-pretreated groups revealed a significant reduction of the following parameters compared to the control groups: mucosal erosion, hemorrhage, edema, leukocyte migration, fibrin deposition and ulcerations. These results suggests that TNF-alpha and IL-1 are crucial mediators involved in inflammatory events occurring in CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

  15. Effect of a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on experimental emphysema and asthma combined with emphysema.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Genyo; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Koga, Hikari; Fuchimoto, Yasuko; Waseda, Koichi; Kurimoto, Etsuko; Taniguchi, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Mikio; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kanehiro, Arihiko

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of overlapping bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has increased in recent years. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) play an important role in asthma, and the type 1 CysLT receptor (CysLT1R) is expressed by many inflammatory cells. We evaluated the effect of montelukast, a CysLT1R antagonist, on mouse models of asthma, porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema, and asthma combined with emphysema. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) on Days 0 and 14 and subsequently challenged with OVA on Days 28, 29, and 30. Pulmonary emphysema was induced by intratracheal instillation of PPE on Day 25. Mice were treated subcutaneously with montelukast or vehicle from Day 25 to Day 31. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), static compliance; the number of inflammatory cells, the levels of cytokines, chemokines, LTs, and perforin in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the quantitative morphometry of lung sections were analyzed on Day 32. Treatment with montelukast significantly attenuated the AHR and eosinophilic airway inflammation in OVA-sensitized and OVA-challenged mice. Administration of montelukast significantly reduced the AHR, static compliance, and neutrophilic airway inflammation, while attenuating emphysematous lung changes, in PPE-treated mice. In PPE-treated mice subjected to allergen sensitization and challenges, montelukast significantly suppressed the AHR, static compliance, and eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation in addition to the development of experimentally induced emphysema in the lungs. Our data suggest that CysLT1R antagonists may be effective in ameliorating the consequences of PPE-induced lung damage and the changes that follow allergen sensitization and challenges.

  16. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disorders Among Iranian Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shahin; Moradi Shahpar, Farhad; Norouzi, Gholamreza; Ghazalian, Farshad; Poursaid Esfehani, Mehrshad; Abedi Yekta, Amir Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletes’ health is an important issue and for promoting it, pre-participation examination (PPE) is widely performed by responsible bodies around the world. Objectives This study was to determine prevalence of cardiovascular disorders among athletes participating in the Asian games and answering the question whether the electrocardiogram (ECG) is a necessary part of pre-participation examination (PPE) for prevention of sudden cardiac death. Materials and Methods All athletes participated at Asian games came to sports medicine federation for a PPE including a comprehensive questionnaire, physical examination and ECG. In this retrospective study all profiles of 338 athletes have been studied as well as their electrocardiograms. Multiple logistic regressions as well as Firth’s bias reduction were used with R statistical software and SPSS. For predicting the changes in ECG, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve has done. Results Among 388 athletes, 80 (20.6%) were female and 308 (79.4%) male with mean age of 23.2 + 8 years. Nine athletes (2.3%) were smokers, 28 of them (7.2%) experienced chest pain and discomfort, 45 of them (13.3%) had palpitations and 28 (7.2%) had history of anemia. Study of their electrocardiograms showed that long Q-T interval was not seen for anyone, but evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy was seen in 12 (3.1%), inverted T wave in 6 (1.5%), and right bundle branch block in 45 (13.3%). Conclusions PPE provides very important information of athletes’ health. This study has shown that there was not any significant relation between current examination and electrocardiogram changes but regarding the ECG changes we recommend it as a routine part of PPE. PMID:27625762

  17. Polar Desolvation and Position 226 of Pancreatic and Neutrophil Elastases Are Crucial to their Affinity for the Kunitz-Type Inhibitors ShPI-1 and ShPI-1/K13L

    PubMed Central

    Hernández González, Jorge Enrique; García-Fernández, Rossana; Valiente, Pedro Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The Kunitz-type protease inhibitor ShPI-1 inhibits human neutrophil elastase (HNE, Ki = 2.35·10−8 M) but does not interact with the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE); whereas its P1 site variant, ShPI-1/K13L, inhibits both HNE and PPE (Ki = 1.3·10−9 M, and Ki = 1.2·10−8 M, respectively). By employing a combination of molecular modeling tools, e.g., structural alignment, molecular dynamics simulations and Molecular Mechanics Generalized-Born/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area free energy calculations, we showed that D226 of HNE plays a critical role in the interaction of this enzyme with ShPI-1 through the formation of a strong salt bridge and hydrogen bonds with K13 at the inhibitor’s P1 site, which compensate the unfavorable polar-desolvation penalty of the latter residue. Conversely, T226 of PPE is unable to establish strong interactions with K13, thereby precluding the insertion of K13 side-chain into the S1 subsite of this enzyme. An alternative conformation of K13 site-chain placed at the entrance of the S1 subsite of PPE, similar to that observed in the crystal structure of ShPI-1 in complex with chymotrypsin (PDB: 3T62), is also unfavorable due to the lack of stabilizing pair-wise interactions. In addition, our results suggest that the higher affinity of ShPI-1/K13L for both elastases mainly arises from the lower polar-desolvation penalty of L13 compared to that of K13, and not from stronger pair-wise interactions of the former residue with those of each enzyme. These results provide insights into the PPE and HNE inhibition and may contribute to the design of more potent and/or specific inhibitors toward one of these proteases. PMID:26372354

  18. Planar Cell Polarity Effector Fritz Interacts with Dishevelled and Has Multiple Functions in Regulating PCP

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Naturale, Victor F.; Adler, Paul N.

    2017-01-01

    The Planar cell Polarity Effector (PPE) genes inturned, fuzzy, and fritz are downstream components in the frizzled/starry night signaling pathway, and their function is instructed by upstream Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) core genes such as frizzled and dishevelled. PPE proteins accumulate asymmetrically in wing cells and function in a protein complex mediated by direct interactions between In and Frtz and In and Fy. How the PCP proteins instruct the accumulation of PPE protein is unknown. We found a likely direct interaction between Dishevelled and Fritz and Dishevelled and Fuzzy that could play a role in this. We previously found that mild overexpression of frtz rescued a weak in allele. To determine if this was due to extra Frtz stabilizing mutant In or due to Frtz being able to bypass the need for In we generate a precise deletion of the inturned gene (inPD). We found that mild overexpression of Fritz partially rescued inPD, indicating that fritz has In independent activity in PCP. Previous studies of PPE proteins used fixed tissues, and did not provide any insights into the dynamic properties of PPE proteins. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology to edit the fritz gene to add a green fluorescent protein tag. fritzmNeonGreen provides complete rescue activity and works well for in vivo imaging. Our data showed that Fritz is very dynamic in epidermal cells and preferentially distributed to discrete membrane subdomains (“puncta”). Surprisingly, we found it in stripes in developing bristles. PMID:28258110

  19. Efficacy of topical formulations containing Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Campanini, Marcela Z; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Ivan, Ana L M; Ferreira, Vitor S; Vilela, Fernanda M P; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Martinez, Renata M; Zarpelon, Ana C; Fonseca, Maria J V; Faria, Terezinha J; Baracat, Marcela M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Georgetti, Sandra R; Casagrande, Rúbia

    2013-10-05

    Plants rich in antioxidant substances may be a promising strategy for preventing UV-induced oxidative and inflammatory damage of the skin. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus is native to Brazil and presents flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds in high concentration. Thus, the present study evaluated the possible effects of topical formulations containing P. pseudocaryophyllus ethanolic extract (PPE) at inhibiting UV-B irradiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. PPE was administered on the dorsal skin of hairless mice using two formulations: F1 (non-ionic emulsion with high lipid content) and F2 (anionic emulsion with low lipid content) before and after UV-B irradiation. The following parameters were evaluated in skin samples: edema, myeloperoxidase activity, cytokines levels, matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) secretion/activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation levels, and mRNA expression for glutathione reductase and gp91phox. The UV-B irradiation increased all parameters, except for IL-10 levels and glutathione reductase mRNA expression, which were not altered, and GSH levels, which were reduced by exposure to UV-B light. Treatments with F1 and F2 containing PPE inhibited UV-B-induced edema formation (89% and 86%), myeloperoxidase activity (85% and 81%), IL-1β production (62% and 82%), MMP-9 activity (71% and 74%), GSH depletion (73% and 85%), superoxide anion (83% and 66%) and TBARS (100% and 100%) levels, increased glutathione reductase (2.54 and 2.55-fold) and reduced gp91phox (67% and 100%) mRNA expression, respectively. F2 containing PPE also increased IL-10 levels. Therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of topical formulations containing PPE in inhibiting UV-B irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of the skin.

  20. Predictors of adherence to safe handling practices for antineoplastic drugs: A survey of hospital nurses.

    PubMed

    Silver, Sharon R; Steege, Andrea L; Boiano, James M

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing awareness of the hazards of exposure to antineoplastic drugs (ADs), surveys continue to find incomplete adherence to recommended safe handling guidelines. A 2011 survey of healthcare workers presents an opportunity to examine factors associated with adherence among 1094 hospital nurses who administered ADs. Data for these hypothesis-generating analyses were taken from an anonymous, web-based survey of healthcare workers. Regression modeling was used to examine associations between a number of predictors (engineering controls, work practices, nurse perceptions, and nurse and hospital characteristics) and three outcomes reported by nurses: use of personal protective equipment (PPE); activities performed with gloves previously worn to administer ADs; and spills of ADs. Adherence to safe handling guidelines was not universal, and AD spills were reported by 9.5% of nurses during the week prior to the survey. Familiarity with safe handling guidelines and training in safe handling were associated with more reported PPE use. Nurse-perceived availability of PPE was associated with more reported PPE use and lower odds of reported spills. Use of closed system drug-transfer devices and luer-lock fittings also decreased the odds of self-reported AD spills, while more frequent AD administration increased the risk. AD administration frequency was also associated with performing more activities with gloves previously worn to administer ADs, and nurse perception of having adequate time for taking safety precautions with fewer such activities. The results suggest that training and familiarity with guidelines for safe handling of ADs, adequate time to adhere to guidelines, and availability of PPE and certain engineering controls are key to ensuring adherence to safe handling practices. Further assessment of training components and engineering controls would be useful for tailoring interventions targeting these areas.

  1. Mechanical forces regulate elastase activity and binding site availability in lung elastin.

    PubMed

    Jesudason, Rajiv; Sato, Susumu; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Araujo, Ascanio D; Majumdar, Arnab; Allen, Philip G; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2010-11-03

    Many fundamental cellular and extracellular processes in the body are mediated by enzymes. At the single molecule level, enzyme activity is influenced by mechanical forces. However, the effects of mechanical forces on the kinetics of enzymatic reactions in complex tissues with intact extracellular matrix (ECM) have not been identified. Here we report that physiologically relevant macroscopic mechanical forces modify enzyme activity at the molecular level in the ECM of the lung parenchyma. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), which binds to and digests elastin, was fluorescently conjugated (f-PPE) and fluorescent recovery after photobleach was used to evaluate the binding kinetics of f-PPE in the alveolar walls of normal mouse lungs. Fluorescent recovery after photobleach indicated that the dissociation rate constant (k(off)) for f-PPE was significantly larger in stretched than in relaxed alveolar walls with a linear relation between k(off) and macroscopic strain. Using a network model of the parenchyma, a linear relation was also found between k(off) and microscopic strain on elastin fibers. Further, the binding pattern of f-PPE suggested that binding sites on elastin unfold with strain. The increased overall reaction rate also resulted in stronger structural breakdown at the level of alveolar walls, as well as accelerated decay of stiffness and decreased failure stress of the ECM at the macroscopic scale. These results suggest an important role for the coupling between mechanical forces and enzyme activity in ECM breakdown and remodeling in development, and during diseases such as pulmonary emphysema or vascular aneurysm. Our findings may also have broader implications because in vivo, enzyme activity in nearly all cellular and extracellular processes takes place in the presence of mechanical forces.

  2. Electronic states of the C6H6/Cu{111} system: Energetics, femtosecond dynamics, and adsorption morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velic, D.; Hotzel, A.; Wolf, M.; Ertl, G.

    1998-11-01

    Two-photon-photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopy is employed to characterize electronic states of a bilayer C6H6/Cu{111} system at 85 K. The unoccupied benzene π* e2u state is observed with a binding energy of 4.6 eV above the Fermi level. This result agrees with inverse-photoemission (IPE) data and provides a case where the determination of the binding energy is identical for 2PPE and IPE. The π* e2u state is assigned in the 2PPE scheme as a final state which is the first observed final state in 2PPE of adsorbate-surface systems. The dependence of the electron dynamics on the morphology of an incomplete adsorption layer is also investigated. Two (n=1)-like image potential states A and B are observed which presumably originate from two different C6H6 adsorption geometries in the bilayer regime. The two image states A and B are characterized by electron effective masses of 1.1 and 1.9 me, binding energies of 3.30 and 3.45 eV above the Fermi level, and lifetimes of 40 and 20 fs, respectively. The dielectric continuum model and the Kronig-Penney model are employed to simulate the origin of (n=1)-like image states. The work function decreases from 4.9 eV at clean Cu{111} to 4.0 eV at bilayer coverage. The change of the work function and the observation of two image states suggest the redefining of the ratio of the numbers of benzene molecules in the first and the second layers of the bilayer regime to approximately 1:1 instead of 1:2, as previously reported. 2PPE is shown to be sensitive to the changes of morphologies, local work functions, and adsorbate-surface potentials during the layer formation.

  3. Disease Risk Perception and Safety Practices: A Survey of Australian Flying Fox Rehabilitators

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Cecilia A.; Baker, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions with flying foxes pose disease transmission risks to volunteer rehabilitators (carers) who treat injured, ill, and orphaned bats. In particular, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) can be transmitted directly from flying foxes to humans in Australia. Personal protective equipment (PPE) and rabies vaccination can be used to protect against lyssavirus infection. During May and June 2014, active Australian flying fox carers participated in an online survey (SOAR: Survey Of Australian flying fox Rehabilitators) designed to gather demographic data, assess perceptions of disease risk, and explore safety practices. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed thematically. A logistic regression was performed to assess whether rehabilitators’ gender, use of PPE, threat perception, and years of experience predicted variation in their odds of being bitten or scratched. Eligible responses were received from 122 rehabilitators located predominantly on the eastern coast of Australia. Eighty-four percent of respondents were female. Years of experience ranged from <1 to 30 years (median 5 years). Respondents were highly educated. All rehabilitators were vaccinated against rabies and 94% received a rabies titre check at least every two years. Sixty-three percent of carers did not perceive viruses in flying foxes as a potential threat to their health, yet 74% of carers reported using PPE when handling flying foxes. Eighty-three percent of rehabilitators had received a flying fox bite or scratch at some point during their career. Carers provide an important community service by rescuing and rehabilitating flying foxes. While rehabilitators in this study have many excellent safety practices, including a 100% vaccination rate against rabies, there is room for improvement in PPE use. We recommend 1) the establishment of an Australia-wide set of guidelines for safety when caring for bats and 2) that the responsible government agencies in Australia support carers who

  4. Photosynthetic picoeukaryote community structure in the South East Pacific Ocean encompassing the most oligotrophic waters on Earth.

    PubMed

    Lepère, Cécile; Vaulot, Daniel; Scanlan, David J

    2009-12-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs), comprising organisms < 3 mum in size, are important primary producers in marine food webs and include representatives from all known algal lineages. Little is known, however, regarding the composition and distribution of PPE communities, particularly at large spatial scales, or in relation to the underlying biotic and abiotic factors that influence this structure. Here, we analysed PPE community structure along a transect in the South East Pacific Ocean (BIOSOPE cruise) that encompassed a large trophic gradient, including hyper-oligotrophic waters in the South Pacific Gyre (SPG), considered to be some of the 'clearest' natural waters on Earth. Using dot blot hybridizations with 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes, we established that the PPE community was dominated by members of the classes Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae throughout the transect. Moreover, clone library construction followed by phylogenetic analysis of sequenced clones revealed several novel 16S rRNA gene lineages, including new clades of prymnesiophytes (designated Prym 16S-III) and prasinophytes (Pras 16S-VIII). Pras 16S-VIII was found at all five stations at which clone libraries were constructed, representing a range of trophic conditions, including the South Pacific Gyre, suggesting members of this clade have a broad distribution in this part of the South East Pacific at least. In contrast, Prym 16S-III sequences were largely restricted to oligotrophic stations of the SPG. Subsequent multivariate statistical analyses showed that, within the measured factors, chemical and biological factors seem to influence PPE community structure more than physical parameters. However, more than 50% of the variation in distribution of PPE classes remained unexplained.

  5. Characterizing adoption of precautionary risk management guidance for nanomaterials, an emerging occupational hazard.

    PubMed

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Dahm, Matthew M; Schulte, Paul A; Hodson, Laura; Geraci, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to engineered nanomaterials (substances with at least one dimension of 1-100 nm) has been of increased interest, with the recent growth in production and use of nanomaterials worldwide. Various organizations have recommended methods to minimize exposure to engineered nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate available data to examine the extent to which studied U.S. companies (which represent a small fraction of all companies using certain forms of engineered nanomaterials) follow the guidelines for reducing occupational exposures to engineered nanomaterials that have been issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and other organizations. Survey data, field reports, and field notes for all NIOSH nanomaterial exposure assessments conducted between 2006 and 2011 were collected and reviewed to: (1) determine the level of adoption of precautionary guidance on engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE), and (2) evaluate the reliability of companies' self-reported use of engineering controls and PPE. Use of PPE was observed among 89% [95% confidence interval (CI): 76%-96%] of 46 visited companies, and use of containment-based engineering controls for at least some processes was observed among 83% (95% CI: 76%-96%). In on-site evaluations, more than 90% of the 16 engineered carbonaceous nanomaterial companies that responded to an industrywide survey were observed to be using engineering controls and PPE as reported or more stringently than reported. Since PPE use was slightly more prevalent than engineering controls, better communication may be necessary to reinforce the importance of the hierarchy of controls. These findings may also be useful in conducting exposure assessment and epidemiologic research among U.S. workers handling nanomaterials.

  6. Antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts of Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn.

    PubMed Central

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Mirshekari, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn aerial part hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) and polyphenolic extract (PPE) as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were studied. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were respectively estimated as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents. The in vitro antioxidant activity of two extracts of P. pastinacifolium were evaluated by radical scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), chelating activity on ferrous ions, or ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract was measured by FRAP assay. Total phenolic contents of PPE and HAE were 117.1 ± 6.2 and 44.3 ± 1.7 mg/g, respectively. Total flavonoid content of PPE (43.4 ± 2.1 mg/g) was found to be higher than that of HAE (8.0 ± 1.5 mg/g). In DPPH radical scavenging assay, HAE and PPE showed fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 469.4 ± 9.3 μg/mL and 128.2 ± 5.5 μg/mL, respectively. Iron chelating activity assays indicated IC50 values of 657.5 ± 13.2 μg/mL and 735.4 ± 16.1 μg/mL for HAE and PPE as opposed to ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) being 16.5 ± 0.8 μg/mL. PPE exhibited greater FRAP value (154.0 ± 1.8 μM) as compared with that of HAE being 69.3 ± 1.4 μM. In animal study, HAE showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in FRAP level when compared with that of control group. Our results showed that P. pastinacifolium possess antioxidant properties which most likely are exerted through free radical scavenging, chelating activity, and reducing power. PMID:27920823

  7. Hazard Assessment of Personal Protective Clothing for Hydrogen Peroxide Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Ben; McClure, Mark B.; Johnson, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Selection of personal protective equipment (PPE) for hydrogen peroxide service is an important part of the hazard assessment process. But because drip testing of chemical protective clothing for hydrogen peroxide service has not been reported for about 40 years, it is of great interest to test new protective clothing materials with new, high-concentration hydrogen peroxide following similar procedures. The suitability of PPE for hydrogen peroxide service is in part determined by observations made when hydrogen peroxide is dripped onto swatches of protective clothing material. Protective clothing material was tested as received, in soiled condition, and in grossly soiled condition. Materials were soiled by pretreating the material with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution then drying to promote a reaction. Materials were grossly soiled with solid KMnO4 to greatly promote reaction. Observations of results including visual changes to the hydrogen peroxide and materials, times to ignition, and self-extinguishing characteristics of the materials are reported.

  8. The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-09-23

    Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE), which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system. We collected the data under a 400-kV power line. The test person stood on isolated aluminum paper, and the current between the ground and the aluminum paper was measured. When the test subject wore the arc flash PPE, the current to the ground was only 9.5% of the current measured when wearing normal clothes, which represents a clear decrease in exposure.

  9. The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Korpinen, Leena; Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE), which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system. We collected the data under a 400-kV power line. The test person stood on isolated aluminum paper, and the current between the ground and the aluminum paper was measured. When the test subject wore the arc flash PPE, the current to the ground was only 9.5% of the current measured when wearing normal clothes, which represents a clear decrease in exposure. PMID:27669278

  10. When does a conceptual framework become a theory? Reflections from an accidental theorist.

    PubMed

    Cousins, J Bradley

    2013-06-01

    In this short paper I reflect on the application of a program logic modeling approach to visualizing evaluation theory as it relates to practical participatory evaluation (PPE). The work of Hansen, Alkin and associates presented in this volume is well-thought out, carefully done, rigorous, and important. I found that their application of the approach resonated well with my understanding of PPE with a few notable exceptions. Specifically, the essence of the partnership aspect of the approach was underemphasized as was stakeholders' role in augmenting the credibility of evaluation findings and PPEs contribution to conceptual use. I then reminisce about the development and evolution of the participatory evaluation framework that we have been working with for so many years. I raise the point that we think of it as a theoretical framework to bound inquiry, not as an evaluation theory per se, which raises an interesting question: when does a theoretical framework become a theory?

  11. Explaining the Cyclic Voltammetry of a Poly(1,4-phenylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) Copolymer upon Oxidation by using Spectroscopic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Enengl, Christina; Enengl, Sandra; Bouguerra, Nassima; Havlicek, Marek; Neugebauer, Helmut; Egbe, Daniel A M

    2017-01-04

    Poly(1,4-phenylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (PPE-PPV) copolymers have attracted quite a lot of attention in the last few years for electronic device applications owing to their enhanced fluorescence. In this work, we focus on one particular PPE-PPV copolymer with dissymmetrically substituted 1,4-phenylene-ethynylene and symmetrically substituted 1,4-phenylene-vinylene building units. Six successively performed cyclic voltammograms are presented, measured during the oxidation reactions. As the oxidation onset of the electrochemical reaction shifts to lower potentials in each cycle, this behavior is elucidated by using spectroscopic techniques ranging from UV/Vis/near-IR to mid-IR including spin-resonance techniques. Hence, these findings help to explain some of the copolymer's most advantageous properties in terms of possible oxidation products.

  12. Setting, Structure, and Timing of the Preparticipation Examination: The Wilderness Adventure Consultation.

    PubMed

    Green, Gary A

    2015-12-01

    Patients pursue wilderness experiences throughout the entire life cycle, and while outdoor pursuits are relatively safe, injuries do occur. Many of these adverse events can be anticipated, identified, and prevented through a wilderness preparticipation examination (PPE). To accomplish this, it is incumbent on the physician to assess the extrinsic and intrinsic factors faced by the patient and attempt to correct them to ensure an enjoyable experience in the outdoors. This article outlines the goals of the PPE along with identification of various risk factors that can influence a trip. Most injuries and rescues occur from underestimating the risks from extrinsic, environmental factors, and/or overestimating one's intrinsic skills. By matching the patient's fitness and skill level to the environment, the physician can help reduce the risk of serious injury.

  13. Setting, Structure, and Timing of the Preparticipation Examination: The Wilderness Adventure Consultation.

    PubMed

    Green, Gary A

    2015-09-01

    Patients pursue wilderness experiences throughout the entire life cycle, and while outdoor pursuits are relatively safe, injuries do occur. Many of these adverse events can be anticipated, identified, and prevented through a wilderness preparticipation examination (PPE). To accomplish this, it is incumbent on the physician to assess the extrinsic and intrinsic factors faced by the patient and attempt to correct them to ensure an enjoyable experience in the outdoors. This article outlines the goals of the PPE along with identification of various risk factors that can influence a trip. Most injuries and rescues occur from underestimating the risks from extrinsic, environmental factors, and/or overestimating one's intrinsic skills. By matching the patient's fitness and skill level to the environment, the physician can help reduce the risk of serious injury.

  14. Image potential states at chevron-shaped graphene nanoribbons /Au(111) interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, Christopher; Haase, Anton; Tegeder, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Image potential states (IPSs) have been observed for various adsorbed carbon structures, such as graphene or carbon nanotubes. Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are intriguing nanostructures with a significant band gap which promise applications in nanotechnology. In the present paper we employ two-photon photoemission (2PPE) to investigate the unoccupied electronic structure and particularly the IPS of chevron-shaped GNR which are synthesized in a thermally activated on-surface synthesis on Au(111). Angle- and time-resolved 2PPE are utilized to gain further insights into the properties of the IPS. Compared to the pristine surface, reduced effective masses between 0.6 and 0.8 electron masses are observed and the lifetimes of the IPS are below the experimental detection limit, which is in the femtosecond regime. Independent of the concentration of N dopant atoms introduced in the GNR we observe a constant binding energy with respect to the vacuum level of the system.

  15. Data Sharing Report for the Quantification of Removable Activity in Various Surveillance and Maintenance Facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect

    King, David A.

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. Specifically, DOE OR-EM requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting potential removable radiological contamination that may be transferrable to future personal protective equipment (PPE) and contamination control materials—collectively referred to as PPE throughout the remainder of this report—used in certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Project facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Routine surveys in Bldgs. 3001, 3005, 3010, 3028, 3029, 3038, 3042, 3517, 4507, and 7500 continuously generate PPE. The waste is comprised of Tyvek coveralls, gloves, booties, Herculite, and other materials used to prevent worker exposure or the spread of contamination during routine maintenance and monitoring activities. This report describes the effort to collect and quantify removable activity that may be used by the ORNL S&M Project team to develop radiation instrumentation “screening criteria.” Material potentially containing removable activity was collected on smears, including both masselin large-area wipes (LAWs) and standard paper smears, and analyzed for site-related constituents (SRCs) in an analytical laboratory. The screening criteria, if approved, may be used to expedite waste disposition of relatively clean PPE. The ultimate objectives of this effort were to: 1) determine whether screening criteria can be developed for these facilities, and 2) provide process knowledge information for future site planners. The screening criteria, if calculated, must be formally approved by Federal Facility Agreement parties prior to use for

  16. Nitrogen-rich plasma-polymerized coatings on PET and PTFE surfaces improve endothelial cell attachment and resistance to shear flow.

    PubMed

    Gigout, Anne; Ruiz, Juan-Carlos; Wertheimer, Michael R; Jolicoeur, Mario; Lerouge, Sophie

    2011-08-11

    Low seeding efficiency and poor cell retention under flow-induced shear stress limit the effectiveness of in vitro endothelialization strategies for small-diameter vascular grafts. Primary-amine-rich plasma-polymerized coatings (PPE:N) deposited using low- and atmospheric-pressure plasma discharges on PET and PTFE are evaluated for their ability to improve endothelial cells' kinetics and strength of attachment. PPE:N coatings increase cell adhesion and adhesion rate, spreading, focal adhesion, and resistance to flow-induced shear compared with bare and gelatin-coated PET and PTFE. In particular, about 90% of the cells remain on coated surfaces after 1 h exposure to shear. These coatings, therefore, appear as a promising versatile approach to improve cell seeding strategies for vascular grafts.

  17. Heuristic value of eclecticism in theory development: the case of Piagetian-Vygotskian dialogue about proportional reasoning.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Jorge Tarcísio Da Rocha; Hazin, Izabel

    2012-03-01

    ppe's proposition of four layers in theoretical building are used here in the exploration of a specific case of eclectic combination, the use of Piagetian and Vygotskian general approaches to the analysis of proportional reasoning as a cognitive mathematical ability. It is proposed here that the eclectic consideration of these contributions depends on the consideration of their specificity, in the sense that they highlight different aspects of the phenomenon under scrutiny, and also on the consideration of the coherence between this eclectic convergence and premises in terms of schools of thought under which each contribution is framed. We conclude proposing in accordance to S. Køppe's proposal that eclecticism can be valuable and heuristic in theory development, but this contribution will depend largely on the effort in establishing careful relations between the four layers of theory-building.

  18. Protein matrices for improved wound healing: elastase inhibition by a synthetic peptide model.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andreia; Pêgo, Ana Paula; Henriques, Lara; Lamghari, Meriem; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2010-09-13

    The unique properties of silk fibroin were combined with keratin to develop new wound-dressing materials. Silk fibroin/keratin (SF/K) films were prepared to reduce high levels of elastase found on chronic wounds. This improved biological function was achieved by the incorporation of a small peptide synthesized based on the reactive-site loop of the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI) protein. In vitro degradation and release were evaluated using porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) solution as a model of wound exudate. It was found that biological degradation and release rate are highly dependent on film composition. Furthermore, the level of PPE activity can be tuned by changing the film composition, thus showing an innovative way of controlling the elastase-antielastase imbalance found on chronic wounds.

  19. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks.

  20. German criteria for selection of hearing protectors in the interest of good signal audibility.

    PubMed

    Liedtke, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The German transport and personal protective equipment (PPE) technical committees of the German Social Accident Insurance have laid down criteria, which have since become established, for hearing protectors to be used in railway systems and road traffic in Germany: only hearing protectors which do not significantly impair the audibility of auditory warning signals may be used. In addition, the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (BGIA) has proposed a simple criterion for the selection of hearing protectors for workplaces outside railway systems and road traffic which perform well with regard to signal audibility (general), speech intelligibility, and perception of informative operating sound (AIP). This criterion is based upon the research carried out in the field of signal audibility in railway systems and road traffic and upon an additional study. It has been established by the German PPE technical committee and is presented here.

  1. Photoreduction of metal nanostructures on periodically proton exchanged MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Balobaid, Laila; Craig Carville, N.; Collins, Liam; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia

    2013-10-28

    Local reactivity on periodically proton exchanged lithium niobate (PPE:LN) surfaces is a promising route for the fabrication of regularly spaced nanostructures. Here, using MgO-doped PPE:LN templates, we investigate the influence of the doping on the nanostructure formation as a function of the proton exchange (PE) depth. The deposition is found to occur preferentially along the boundary between MgO-doped LN and the PE region when the PE depth is at least 1.73 μm, however, for shallower depths, deposition occurs across the entire PE region. The results are found to be consistent with an increased photoconductivity of the MgO-doped LN.

  2. Skin exposure: Assessing the hazard in the workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummins, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    An outline of the Occupational Safety and Health Agency's concerns of skin exposure to hazardous chemicals is presented, followed by the corresponding slide narrations. Specifically, dermatitis and skin absorption as compared to lung absorption are addressed. Lung versus skin exposure is examined for glycol ethers and acrylamide. Examples of skin exposure include PBC's in transformers, toluene and xylene from autobody work, polynuclear aromatics (PNA's) among Coke oven workers, toluene diisocyanate (TDI), and occupational chemical exposures in an academic medical center. Permeation through gloves in the semiconductor industry is addressed as evidence for the need to assess the effectiveness of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment). This leads to the revisions of the PPE standard and the Safety and Health Program standard.

  3. Biomolecular simulations with the transferable potentials for phase equilibria: extension to phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Navendu; Kamath, Ganesh; Potoff, Jeffrey J

    2013-08-29

    The Transferable Potentials for Phase Equilibria (TraPPE) is extended to zwitterionic and charged lipids including phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). The performance of the force field is validated through isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NPT) molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated lipid bilayers performed with the aforementioned head groups combined with saturated and unsaturated alkyl tails containing 12-18 carbon atoms. The effects of water model and sodium ion parameters on the performance of the lipid force field are determined. The predictions of the TraPPE force field for the area per lipid, bilayer thickness, and volume per lipid are within 1-5% of experimental values. Key structural properties of the bilayer, such as order parameter splitting in the sn-2 chain and X-ray form factors, are found to be in close agreement with experimental data.

  4. Quantification of total pigments in citrus essential oils by thermal wave resonant cavity photopyroelectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Gerardo A; Antonio-Pérez, Aurora; Díaz-Reyes, J

    2015-05-01

    A general theory of thermal wave resonant cavity photopyroelectric spectroscopy (TWRC-PPE) was recently proposed by Balderas-López (2012) for the thermo-optical characterisation of substances in a condensed phase. This theory is used to quantify the total carotenoids and chlorophylls in several folded and un-folded citrus essential oils to demonstrate the viability of using this technique as an alternative analytical method for the quantification of total pigments in citrus oils. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) reveals significant differences (p < 0.05) among the means of optical absorption coefficient data for the folding degree and fruit type in citrus oils. The experimental results show that TWRC-PPE spectroscopy can be used to quantify concentrations up to five times higher of total carotenoids and chlorophylls in citrus oils than UV-Vis spectroscopy without sample preparation or dilution. The optical limits of this technique and possible interference are also described.

  5. Rashba splitting in an image potential state investigated by circular dichroism two-photon photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, T.; Takagi, N.; Kawai, Maki; Ishida, H.; Arafune, R.

    2016-09-01

    We have explored the band splitting and spin texture of the image potential state (IPS) on Au(001) derived from the Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction (SOI) by using angle-resolved bichromatic two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopy in combination with circular dichroism (CD). The Rashba parameter for the first (n =1 ) IPS is determined to be 48-20+8meV Å , which is consistent with the spin-polarized band structure calculated from the embedded Green's function technique for semi-infinite crystals. The present results demonstrate that bichromatic CD-2PPE spectroscopy is powerful for mapping the spin-polarized unoccupied band structures originating from SOIs in various classes of condensed matter.

  6. Ovalbumin-induced neurogenic inflammation in the bladder of sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Giuliani, Sandro; Scotland, Ramona; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    1998-01-01

    We have developed and characterized a model of immediate hypersensitivity/inflammation of the urinary bladder in vivo induced by local application of ovalbumin (OA) in OA- sensitive female rats. Two parameters of the inflammatory response were assessed following OA challenge: plasma protein extravasation (PPE) and changes in smooth muscle reactivity. The former was estimated by measurement of Evans blue extravasation at 0.5, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h time point following in vivo challenge. Changes in reactivity were determined by measurement of isotonic tension responses of urinary bladder strips following OA challenge in vitro.Acute in vivo intravesical OA challenge (10 mg in 0.3 ml saline) in actively sensitized female Wistar rats caused a time-dependent PPE in the urinary bladder which was biphasic with peak responses at 2–4 and 24 h.The PPE response to acute OA challenge, above base-line, at 2 h was abolished by systemic capsaicin pretreatment (50 mg kg−1, s.c., 4 days before use) (P<0.05) whilst the response at 24 h was unaffected. The 2 h time point was then used for further studies.Degranulation of mast cells, achieved by pretreatment with compound 48/80 (5 mg kg−1, s.c. for 3 consecutive days), completely abolished the PPE response to OA challenge at the 2 h time point.The tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, SR 140333 (0.1 μmol kg−1, i.v.), abolished the 2 h PPE response whilst the tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist MEN 11420 (0.1 μmol kg−1, i.v.) appeared to reduce the response by approximately 50% but this did not reach significance. The bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, Hoe 140 (0.1 μmol kg−1, i.v.), similarly to SR 140333, blocked the 2 h PPE response to OA, whereas the selective B1 receptor antagonist B 9858 (0.1 μmol kg−1, i.v.) had no significant effect. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) achieved by pretreatment with the COX inhibitor dexketoprofen (5.3 μmol kg−1, i.v.) also blocked the

  7. Dynamics of polydots: Soft luminescent polymeric nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Maskey, Sabina; Osti, Naresh C.; Grest, Gary S.; Perahia, Dvora

    2016-03-04

    The conformation and dynamics of luminescent polymers collapsed into nanoparticles or polydots were studied using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, providing a first insight into their internal dynamics. Controlling the conformation and dynamics of confined polymers is essential for realization of the full potential of polydots in nanomedicine and biotechnology. Specifically, the shape and internal dynamics of polydots that consist of highly rigid dialkyl p-phenylene ethynylene (PPE) are probed as a function of temperature. At room temperature, the polydots are spherical without any correlations between the aromatic rings on the PPE backbone. With increasing temperature, they expand and become slightly aspherical; however, the polymers remain confined. The coherent dynamic structure factor reveals that the internal motion of the polymer backbone is arrested, and the side chains dominate the internal dynamics of the polydots. Lastly, these new soft nanoparticles retain their overall shape and dynamics over an extended temperature range, and their conformation is tunable via their degree of expansion.

  8. Results of Field and Laboratory Investigations Conducted for Remediation of Interim Response Actions, Other Contamination Sources. Volume 2. Appendixes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    of the alluvial groundwater. A.6.2 Previous Investigations Previous studies done in the Motor Pool Area include: a May 1984 RCRA audit done by the...19 HASTE STi. PFE 4/24/39 N I 6064 4/5/89 HASTE STIG. PE 4/24/189 N 6065 4/5/89 HASTE STAG. PPE 5/23/19 N 6069 4/14/89 HASTE STR. ??E 4/24/89 H 6070 4...13009 4117/69 HASTE STR6. PPE 5/1/89 K S13010 4/17/69 HVAST[ STAG. PIE 5/1/89 H 13011 4/17/10 HASTE STRG. PFE 0/4/89 Y 5/8 INCH HOSE 13012 4/17/19 HASTE

  9. Hidden crossover phenomena in strongly Pauli-limited multiband superconductors: Application to CeCu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Yasumasa; Machida, Kazushige; Ichioka, Masanori

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on heavy fermion materials CeCu2Si2 and UBe13, we develop a framework to capture generic properties of multiband superconductors with strong Pauli paramagnetic effect (PPE). In contrast to the single band case, the upper critical field Hc 2 can remain a second-order transition even for strong PPE cases. The expected first-order transition is hidden inside Hc 2 and becomes a crossover due to the interplay of multibandness. The present theory based on full self-consistent solutions of the microscopic Eilenberger theory explains several mysterious anomalies associated with the crossover and the "empty" vortex core state which is observed by recent STM experiment on CeCu2Si2 .

  10. Searching for Concurrent Design Patterns in Video Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Micah J.; Fedorova, Alexandra; Dickie, Ryan; Tagliasacchi, Andrea; Couture-Beil, Alex; Mustard, Craig; Mottishaw, Shane; Brown, Aron; Huang, Zhi Feng; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Ghazali, Nasser; Brownsword, Andrew

    The transition to multicore architectures has dramatically underscored the necessity for parallelism in software. In particular, while new gaming consoles are by and large multicore, most existing video game engines are essentially sequential and thus cannot easily take advantage of this hardware. In this paper we describe techniques derived from our experience parallelizing an open-source video game Cube 2. We analyze the structure and unique requirements of this complex application domain, drawing conclusions about parallelization tools and techniques applicable therein. Our experience and analysis convinced us that while existing tools and techniques can be used to solve parts of this problem, none of them constitutes a comprehensive solution. As a result we were inspired to design a new parallel programming environment (PPE) targeted specifically at video game engines and other complex soft real-time systems. The initial implementation of this PPE, Cascade, and its performance analysis are also presented.

  11. Taiwanese farm workers' pesticide knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and clothing practices.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chen-Yu; Black, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Taiwanese fruit farm workers' knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and clothing practices regarding pesticide activities. Seventy-seven fruit farm workers from four districts of Tainan City, Taiwan completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that farmer workers had a good overall level of knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and most had experienced symptoms of pesticide poisoning. Farm workers' attitudes toward pesticide use and handling indicated that they saw pesticides useful in controlling pests. Farm workers indicated the limited availability of comfortable clothing designed for a hot and humid climate while still providing sufficient protection was the main reason for not wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emphasis on safety precautions is needed when using pesticides, and the importance of PPC and PPE is essential for the health of farm workers.

  12. Ethical, Legal, and Administrative Considerations for Preparticipation Evaluation for Wilderness Sports and Adventures.

    PubMed

    Young, Craig C; Campbell, Aaron D; Lemery, Jay; Young, David S

    2015-12-01

    Preparticipation evaluations (PPEs) are common in team, organized, or traditional sports but not common in wilderness sports or adventures. Regarding ethical, legal, and administrative considerations, the same principles can be used as in traditional sports. Clinicians should be trained to perform such a PPE to avoid missing essential components and to maximize the quality of the PPE. In general, participants' privacy should be observed; office-based settings may be best for professional and billing purposes, and adequate documentation of a complete evaluation, including clearance issues, should be essential components. Additional environmental and personal health issues relative to the wilderness activity should be documented, and referral for further screening should be made as deemed necessary, if unable to be performed by the primary clinician. Travel medicine principles should be incorporated, and recommendations for travel or adventure insurance should be made.

  13. Ethical, Legal, and Administrative Considerations for Preparticipation Evaluation for Wilderness Sports and Adventures.

    PubMed

    Young, Craig C; Campbell, Aaron D; Lemery, Jay; Young, David S

    2015-09-01

    Preparticipation evaluations (PPEs) are common in team, organized, or traditional sports but not common in wilderness sports or adventures. Regarding ethical, legal, and administrative considerations, the same principles can be used as in traditional sports. Clinicians should be trained to perform such a PPE to avoid missing essential components and to maximize the quality of the PPE. In general, participants' privacy should be observed; office-based settings may be best for professional and billing purposes, and adequate documentation of a complete evaluation, including clearance issues, should be essential components. Additional environmental and personal health issues relative to the wilderness activity should be documented, and referral for further screening should be made as deemed necessary, if unable to be performed by the primary clinician. Travel medicine principles should be incorporated, and recommendations for travel or adventure insurance should be made.

  14. An Examination of Current Navy Medical Professionals Management Oriented Service Short Courses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-17

    methods of both strategic & business planning 1.67 9. Understanding methods for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of various programs 1.67 10...planning process: using models & methods of both strateoic & business planning 9. Understanding methods for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of...TABLE 26 IIFHCE PP&E 8. Managing a planning process: using models & methods of both strategic & business planning 9. Understanding methods for

  15. Polyphosphoester-based cationic nanoparticles serendipitously release integral biologically-active components to serve as novel degradable inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuefei; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhang, Fuwu; Loftis, Alexander; Pavía-Sanders, Adriana; Zou, Jiong; Fan, Jingwei; Taylor, John-Stephen A; Wooley, Karen L

    2013-10-18

    A degradable polyphosphoester (PPE)-based cationic nanoparticle (cSCK), which is integrated constructed as a novel degradable drug device, demonstrates surprisingly efficient inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcription, and eventually inhibits nitric oxide (NO) over-production, without loading of any specific therapeutic drugs. This system may serve as a promising anti-inflammatory agent toward the treatment of acute lung injury.

  16. Navy Reporting of Financing Payments for Shipbuilding on the Financial Statements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    financing payments are intangible assets and Federal accounting standards require the payments to be recorded as Advances. The Deputy’s comments were...advances and prepayments and to classify them as intangible assets . As previously noted, shipbuilding construction contract financing payments should...be presented as PP&E CIP. Presenting these payments as advances and prepayments or intangible assets is not in accordance with SFFAS No. 6. Unless

  17. Personal Protective Equipment Use and Handwashing Among Animal Farmers: A Multi-site Assessment.

    PubMed

    Odo, Nnaemeka U; Raynor, Peter C; Beaudoin, Amanda; Somrongthong, Ratana; Scheftel, Joni M; Donahue, James G; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare and contrast the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and the practice of handwashing among participants of four studies assessing poultry and swine farms in the midwestern United States and in Thailand. This largely descriptive exercise was designed to assess and compare the frequency of these protective practices among the study populations. There were a total of 1113 surveys analyzed across the four studies. The respondents included workers in direct contact with animals as well as flock owners and veterinarians tending to farms. Handwashing was the most common practice observed among all participants with 42% "always" and 35% "sometimes" washing their hands after contact with the animals. This practice was least common among Minnesota swine workers. Even Thai poultry farmers, who demonstrated the lowest overall PPE use, reported a higher frequency of handwashing. Mask use during animal farming activities ("always" or "sometimes") was least commonly practiced, ranging from 1% in Thailand to 26% among backyard poultry farmers in Minnesota. Minnesota poultry and swine farmers had similar frequencies of mask (26%) and glove use (51% and 49%). All other comparisons differed significantly across the four sites (p-values <0.05). The use of PPE in animal farming differed by study location and is likely related to prevalent norms in the respective regions. Overall, the use of PPE did not appear to be influenced by the particular animal (poultry or swine) being farmed. These findings may prove useful to regulating bodies and farm owners in formulating policy or planning strategies for improving personal hygiene practices in animal farming and preparing for influenza and other potential zoonotic disease outbreaks.

  18. Interim Base-Level Guide for Exposure to Jet Fuel and Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Equipment Personnel who may come into contact with JP-8 should wear appropriate PPE (e.g., butyl and nitrile rubber gloves, neoprene rubber headwear...applied to emerging fuels and their blends with JP-8. Contract efforts are currently underway to evaluate the toxicity of emerging fuels, and the U.S...fuels and their blends with JP-8. Contract efforts are currently underway to evaluate the toxicity of emerging fuels, and the U.S. Air Force School of

  19. Protein binding properties of surface-modified porous polyethylene membranes.

    PubMed

    Greene, George; Radhakrishna, Harish; Tannenbaum, Rina

    2005-10-01

    In this study, we quantified the adsorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein onto several polyelectrolyte-modified sintered porous polyethylene (PPE) membranes. The polymer surfaces had both cationic and anionic charges obtained via the adsorption of polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyacrylic acid (PAA), respectively, onto plasma-activated PPE. The amount of IgG adsorption was determined by measuring the gamma radiation emitted by [125I]-IgG radio labeled protein. By studying the impact of pH and ionic strength on IgG adsorption, we attempted to characterize the role and nature of the electrostatic interactions involved in the adsorption process to better understand how these interactions were influenced by the charge and structure of immobilized polyelectrolyte complexes at modified membrane surfaces. We were able to show that surface modification of PPE membranes with adsorbed PEI monolayers and PEI-PAA bilayers can greatly improve the IgG binding ability of the membrane under optimized conditions. We also showed that the observed improvement in the IgG binding is derived from electrostatic interactions between IgG and the polyelectrolyte surface. In addition, we found that the greatest IgG adsorption occurred when the IgG and the surface possessed predominantly opposite charges, rather than when the surface possessed the greatest electrostatic charge. Finally, we have found that the molecular weight of the terminating polyelectrolyte has a noticeable effect upon the electrostatic interactions between IgG and the PEI-PAA bilayer-modified PPE surfaces.

  20. Ab initio study of the kinetics of hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin

    SciTech Connect

    Beste, Ariana; Britt, Phillip F; Buchanan III, A C; Harrison, Robert J; Hathorn, Bryan C

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen abstraction reactions play a key role in many thermal and catalytic processes involved in the production of fuels and chemicals. In this paper, the reaction barriers and rate constants for the hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin by the benzyl radical are calculated by ab initio methods. These reactions are representatives of similar reactions occurring in the thermolysis of lignin model compounds containing the phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) structural moiety. Thermolysis of PPE occurs by a free radical chain mechanism in which the product selectivity arises from competitive hydrogen abstraction at the benzylic and nonbenzylic methylen sites by chain carrying benzyl and phenoxyl radicals. The title reactions serve to calibrate the theoretical methods to be used in the study of PPE through comparison of the rate constants and the reaction enthalpies with reliable experimental values. In this study, we used two different hybrid density functionals (BHandHLYP, B3LYP) and second-order perturbation theory to obtain equilibrium and transition state geometries. Multiple transition states were found for both reactions. BHandHLYP underestimates and second-order perturbation theory overestimates the reaction barriers; B3LYP energy barriers agree well with experiment. Absolute and relative rate constants were calculated using transition state theory. We found that the relative rate constant using the B3LYP functional agrees within a factor of 2.0 with experiment at the experimental temperature of 333 K, indicating that the B3LYP functional will be successful in predicting relative rate constants for hydrogen abstraction reactions participating in the pyrolysis of PPE.

  1. New Safety Policy Reduces Injuries by One-Fourth | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Terri Bray, Dave Heimbrook, Craig Reynolds, and Robert Wiltrout, Guest Writers Whether in a research laboratory or an operations environment, past performance is frequently reviewed to plan for future improvements. Such was the case last year when management recognized the need to change the policy on the minimum set of personal protective equipment (PPE) to be worn in the laboratories to reduce both the number and consequence of injuries at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR).

  2. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis1

    PubMed Central

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-01-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity. PMID:26729798

  3. Metastable phase of lead phthalocyanine films on graphite: Correlation between geometrical and electronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, N.; Yamada, T.; Meissner, M.; Forker, R.; Fritz, T.; Munakata, T.

    2017-01-01

    The geometrical and electronic structures of a metastable phase of lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) films on graphite have been studied by combined use of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopy. In submonolayer (sub-ML) PbPc films on graphite, islands in a metastable phase are formed just after deposition, as we reported previously by use of photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) [I. Yamamoto, N. Matsuura, M. Mikamori, R. Yamamoto, T. Yamada, K. Miyakubo, N. Ueno, and T. Munakata, Surf. Sci. 602, 2232 (2008), 10.1016/j.susc.2008.04.037]. On single crystalline graphite substrates, the metastable islands produce clearly discernible LEED spots. By comparing the unit cell with that of annealed 1 ML films, molecules in the metastable islands are standing upright with a molecular density 1.8 times higher than that in the well-ordered 1 ML films. The LEED spots for the sub-ML films disappear after annealing. The islands in the metastable phase are surrounded by areas of a two-dimensional (2D) gaslike phase composed of flat-lying molecules. The metastable islands melt into the 2D gas phase, consistent with the PEEM results. In 2PPE spectroscopy, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) derived level of the metastable phase is clearly distinguishable from that of flat-lying molecules. By tracking the thermal annealing process of the films by 2PPE spectroscopy, we clarify the decay of the LUMO derived peak intensity, the work function shift, and the energy shifts of molecular states associated with the transition from the metastable phase to the 2D gas phase. With this, we demonstrate the complementary capabilities of LEED and 2PPE spectroscopy to probe phase transitions of organic films in a nondestructive manner.

  4. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis.

    PubMed

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Anna V; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-03-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity.

  5. Arc mRNA induction in striatal efferent neurons associated with response learning.

    PubMed

    Daberkow, D P; Riedy, M D; Kesner, R P; Keefe, K A

    2007-07-01

    The dorsal striatum is involved in motor-response learning, but the extent to which distinct populations of striatal efferent neurons are differentially involved in such learning is unknown. Activity-regulated, cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein is an effector immediate-early gene implicated in synaptic plasticity. We examined arc mRNA expression in striatopallidal vs. striatonigral efferent neurons in dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum of rats engaged in reversal learning on a T-maze motor-response task. Male Sprague-Dawley rats learned to turn right or left for 3 days. Half of the rats then underwent reversal training. The remaining rats were yoked to rats undergoing reversal training, such that they ran the same number of trials but ran them as continued-acquisition trials. Brains were removed and processed using double-label fluorescent in situ hybridization for arc and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA. In the reversal, but not the continued-acquisition, group there was a significant relation between the overall arc mRNA signal in dorsomedial striatum and the number of trials run, with rats reaching criterion in fewer trials having higher levels of arc mRNA expression. A similar relation was seen between the numbers of PPE(+) and PPE(-) neurons in dorsomedial striatum with cytoplasmic arc mRNA expression. Interestingly, in behaviourally activated animals significantly more PPE(-) neurons had cytoplasmic arc mRNA expression. These data suggest that Arc in both striatonigral and striatopallidal efferent neurons is involved in striatal synaptic plasticity mediating motor-response learning in the T-maze and that there is differential processing of arc mRNA in distinct subpopulations of striatal efferent neurons.

  6. Ugh! Sports physicals!

    PubMed

    McKeag, D B

    1996-08-01

    For the most part, physicians who take care of athletes tend to view the preparticipation physical exam (PPE) as a necessary but time-consuming and somewhat bothersome evil. It is not fun. It usually occurs at the hottest, most uncomfortable time of the year, and is often sandwiched between regular work responsibilities and family plans. ("I'd love to see you pitch tonight, Ian, but I've got to do sports physicals for 3 hours after work.").

  7. Woodbridge Research Facility Asbestos Survey, Woodbridge, Virginia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    poisonous snakes, disease-bearing ticks, and mosquitos may be encountered. To protect against these hazards, on site personnel will be required to wear long...site workers from coming in contact with asbestos. It is imperative that PPE be appropriate to protect against the potential hazards for each work...a respirator spectacle kit whenever the individual wears a full-face respirator if corrective lenses are required. "• Shall not alter or modify

  8. Characterization of the KOI-94 system with transit timing variation analysis: Implication for the planet-planet eclipse

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Kento; Taruya, Atsushi; Suto, Yasushi; Hirano, Teruyuki; Nagasawa, Makiko

    2013-12-01

    The KOI-94 system is a closely packed, multi-transiting planetary system discovered by the Kepler space telescope. It is known as the first system that exhibited a rare event called a 'planet-planet eclipse (PPE)', in which two planets partially overlap with each other in their double-transit phase. In this paper, we constrain the parameters of the KOI-94 system with an analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs). Such constraints are independent of the radial velocity (RV) analysis recently performed by Weiss and coworkers, and valuable in examining the reliability of the parameter estimate using TTVs. We numerically fit the observed TTVs of KOI-94c, KOI-94d, and KOI-94e for their masses, eccentricities, and longitudes of periastrons, and obtain the best-fit parameters including m{sub c}=9.4{sub −2.1}{sup +2.4} M{sub ⊕}, m{sub d}=52.1{sub −7.1}{sup +6.9} M{sub ⊕}, m{sub e}=13.0{sub −2.1}{sup +2.5} M{sub ⊕}, and e ≲ 0.1 for all the three planets. While these values are mostly in agreement with the RV result, the mass of KOI-94d estimated from the TTV is significantly smaller than the RV value m {sub d} = 106 ± 11 M {sub ⊕}. In addition, we find that the TTV of the outermost planet KOI-94e is not well reproduced in the current modeling. We also present analytic modeling of the PPE and derive a simple formula to reconstruct the mutual inclination of the two planets from the observed height, central time, and duration of the brightening caused by the PPE. Based on this model, the implication of the results of TTV analysis for the time of the next PPE is discussed.

  9. The proteins encoded by the Drosophila Planar Polarity Effector genes inturned, fuzzy and fritz interact physically and can re-pattern the accumulation of “upstream” Planar Cell Polarity proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Yan, Jie; Lee, Haeryun; Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    The frizzled/starry night pathway regulates planar cell polarity in a wide variety of tissues in many types of animals. It was discovered and has been most intensively studied in the Drosophila wing where it controls the formation of the array of distally pointing hairs that cover the wing. The pathway does this by restricting the activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal edge of wing cells. This results in hairs initiating at the distal edge and growing in the distal direction. All of the proteins encoded by genes in the pathway accumulate asymmetrically in wing cells. The pathway is a hierarchy with the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) genes (aka the core genes) functioning as a group upstream of the Planar Polarity Effector (PPE) genes which in turn function as a group upstream of multiple wing hairs. Upstream proteins, such as Frizzled accumulate on either the distal and/or proximal edges of wing cells. Downstream PPE proteins accumulate on the proximal edge under the instruction of the upstream proteins. A variety of types of data support this hierarchy, however, we have found that when over expressed the PPE proteins can alter both the subcellular location and level of accumulation of the upstream proteins. Thus, the epistatic relationship is context dependent. We further show that the PPE proteins interact physically and can modulate the accumulation of each other in wing cells. We also find that over expression of Frtz results in a marked delay in hair initiation suggesting that it has a separate role/activity in regulating the cytoskeleton that is not shared by other members of the group. PMID:25072625

  10. The proteins encoded by the Drosophila Planar Polarity Effector genes inturned, fuzzy and fritz interact physically and can re-pattern the accumulation of "upstream" Planar Cell Polarity proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yan, Jie; Lee, Haeryun; Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N

    2014-10-01

    The frizzled/starry night pathway regulates planar cell polarity in a wide variety of tissues in many types of animals. It was discovered and has been most intensively studied in the Drosophila wing where it controls the formation of the array of distally pointing hairs that cover the wing. The pathway does this by restricting the activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal edge of wing cells. This results in hairs initiating at the distal edge and growing in the distal direction. All of the proteins encoded by genes in the pathway accumulate asymmetrically in wing cells. The pathway is a hierarchy with the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) genes (aka the core genes) functioning as a group upstream of the Planar Polarity Effector (PPE) genes which in turn function as a group upstream of multiple wing hairs. Upstream proteins, such as Frizzled accumulate on either the distal and/or proximal edges of wing cells. Downstream PPE proteins accumulate on the proximal edge under the instruction of the upstream proteins. A variety of types of data support this hierarchy, however, we have found that when over expressed the PPE proteins can alter both the subcellular location and level of accumulation of the upstream proteins. Thus, the epistatic relationship is context dependent. We further show that the PPE proteins interact physically and can modulate the accumulation of each other in wing cells. We also find that over expression of Frtz results in a marked delay in hair initiation suggesting that it has a separate role/activity in regulating the cytoskeleton that is not shared by other members of the group.

  11. Environmental Assessment: Demolish 934 of Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    would not impact aircraft safety or airspace compatibility. Safety and Occupational Health – Participants in the demolition must wear appropriate...demolition must wear appropriate personnel protective equipment (PPE). Environmental Management – The proposed action would not impact ERP Sites. BMPs...Municipal Landfill, which is located within 8 miles of the proposed site. The flat, asphalt roof in Building 934 is assumed to be non- friable, non

  12. Environmental Assessment - Demolish 934 of Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    would not impact aircraft safety or airspace compatibility. Safety and Occupational Health – Participants in the demolition must wear appropriate...demolition must wear appropriate personnel protective equipment (PPE). Environmental Management – The proposed action would not impact ERP Sites. BMPs...Municipal Landfill, which is located within 8 miles of the proposed site. The flat, asphalt roof in Building 934 is assumed to be non- friable, non

  13. Perchlorate Removal, Destruction and Field Monitoring Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    ionization constant PLC programmable logic controller PM Program Manager ppb parts per billion PPE Personal Protective Equipment psig pounds per...TPM Technical Program Manager VOC volatile organic carbon WBA weak base anion vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The success of this...regenerable resin systems (Calgon Carbon Corporation’s ISEP system) and less than 50% of the least expensive single-use resin systems. 3 2.0

  14. The Enigma of Progressively Partial Endoreplication: New Insights Provided by Flow Cytometry and Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hřibová, Eva; Holušová, Kateřina; Trávníček, Pavel; Petrovská, Beáta; Ponert, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Kubátová, Barbora; Jersáková, Jana; Čurn, Vladislav; Suda, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In many plant species, somatic cell differentiation is accompanied by endoreduplication, a process during which cells undergo one or more rounds of DNA replication cycles in the absence of mitosis, resulting in nuclei with multiples of 2C DNA amounts (4C, 8C, 16C, etc.). In some orchids, a disproportionate increase in nuclear DNA contents has been observed, where successive endoreduplication cycles result in DNA amounts 2C + P, 2C + 3P, 2C + 7P, etc., where P is the DNA content of the replicated part of the 2C nuclear genome. This unique phenomenon was termed “progressively partial endoreplication” (PPE). We investigated processes behind the PPE in Ludisia discolor using flow cytometry (FCM) and Illumina sequencing. In particular, we wanted to determine whether chromatin elimination or incomplete genome duplication was involved, and to identify types of DNA sequences that were affected. Cell cycle analysis of root tip cell nuclei pulse-labeled with EdU revealed two cell cycles, one ending above the population of nuclei with 2C + P content, and the other with a typical “horseshoe” pattern of S-phase nuclei ranging from 2C to 4C DNA contents. The process leading to nuclei with 2C + P amounts therefore involves incomplete genome replication. Subsequent Illumina sequencing of flow-sorted 2C and 2C + P nuclei showed that all types of repetitive DNA sequences were affected during PPE; a complete elimination of any specific type of repetitive DNA was not observed. We hypothesize that PPE is part of a highly controlled transition mechanism from proliferation phase to differentiation phase of plant tissue development. PMID:27324917

  15. Antifungal Properties of Cationic Phenylene Ethynylenes and Their Impact on β-Glucan Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Harry C.; Sylejmani, Rina; Graus, Matthew S.; Donabedian, Patrick L.; Whitten, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are the cause of many bloodstream infections through contamination of indwelling medical devices. These infections account for a 40% mortality rate, posing a significant risk to immunocompromised patients. Traditional treatments against Candida infections include amphotericin B and various azole treatments. Unfortunately, these treatments are associated with high toxicity, and resistant strains have become more prevalent. As a new frontier, light-activated phenylene ethynylenes have shown promising biocidal activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we monitored the viability of Candida species after treatment with a cationic conjugated polymer [poly(p-phenylene ethynylene); PPE] or oligomer [“end-only” oligo(p-phenylene ethynylene); EO-OPE] by flow cytometry in order to explore the antifungal properties of these compounds. The oligomer was found to disrupt Candida albicans yeast membrane integrity independent of light activation, while PPE is able to do so only in the presence of light, allowing for some control as to the manner in which cytotoxic effects are induced. The contrast in killing efficacy between the two compounds is likely related to their size difference and their intrinsic abilities to penetrate the fungal cell wall. Unlike EO-OPE-DABCO (where DABCO is quaternized diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane), PPE-DABCO displayed a strong propensity to associate with soluble β-glucan, which is expected to inhibit its ability to access and perturb the inner cell membrane of Candida yeast. Furthermore, treatment with PPE-DABCO unmasked Candida albicans β-glucan and increased phagocytosis by Dectin-1-expressing HEK-293 cells. In summary, cationic phenylene ethynylenes show promising biocidal activity against pathogenic Candida yeast cells while also exhibiting immunostimulatory effects. PMID:27161628

  16. Annexin V decreases PS-mediated macrophage efferocytosis and deteriorates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, S; Minematsu, N; Chubachi, S; Nakamura, H; Miyazaki, M; Tsuduki, K; Takahashi, S; Miyasho, T; Iwabuchi, T; Takamiya, R; Tateno, H; Mouded, M; Shapiro, S D; Asano, K; Betsuyaku, T

    2012-11-15

    Efferocytosis is believed to be a key regulator for lung inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study we pharmacologically inhibited efferocytosis with annexin V and attempted to determine its impact on the progression of pulmonary emphysema in mouse. We first demonstrated in vitro and in vivo efferocytosis experiments using annexin V, an inhibitor for phosphatidylserine-mediated efferocytosis. We then inhibited efferocytosis in porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-treated mice. PPE-treated mice were instilled annexin V intranasally starting from day 8 until day 20. Mean linear intercept (Lm) was measured, and cell apoptosis was assessed in lung specimen obtained on day 21. Cell profile, apoptosis, and mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and growth factors were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells on day 15. Annexin V attenuated macrophage efferocytosis both in vitro and in vivo. PPE-treated mice had a significant higher Lm, and annexin V further increased that by 32%. More number of macrophages was found in BAL fluid in this group. Interestingly, cell apoptosis was not increased by annexin V treatment both in lung specimens and BAL fluid, but macrophages from mice treated with both PPE and annexin V expressed higher MMP-2 mRNA levels and had a trend for higher MMP-12 mRNA expression. mRNA expression of keratinocyte growth factor tended to be downregulated. We showed that inhibited efferocytosis with annexin V worsened elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, which was, at least partly, attributed to a lack of phenotypic change in macrophages toward anti-inflammatory one.

  17. Key factors governing uncertainty in the response to sunshade geoengineering from a comparison of the GeoMIP ensemble and a perturbed parameter ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Boucher, Olivier; Kravitz, Ben; Alterskjær, Kari; Cole, Jason N. S.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.; Moore, John C.; Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Robock, Alan; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, Simone; Watanabe, Shingo; Yang, Shuting; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Climate model studies of the consequences of solar geoengineering are central to evaluating whether such approaches may help to reduce the harmful impacts of global warming. In this study we compare the sunshade solar geoengineering response of a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE) of the Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3) with a multimodel ensemble (MME) by analyzing the G1 experiment from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The PPE only perturbed a small number of parameters and shares a common structure with the unperturbed HadCM3 model, and so the additional weight the PPE adds to the robustness of the common climate response features in the MME is minor. However, analysis of the PPE indicates some of the factors that drive the spread within the MME. We isolate the role of global mean temperature biases for both ensembles and find that these biases have little effect on the ensemble spread in the hydrological response but do reduce the spread in surface air temperature response, particularly at high latitudes. We investigate the role of the preindustrial climatology and find that biases here are likely a key source of ensemble spread at the zonal and grid cell level. The role of vegetation, and its response to elevated CO2 concentrations through the CO2 physiological effect and changes in plant productivity, is also investigated and proves to have a substantial effect on the terrestrial hydrological response to solar geoengineering and to be a major source of variation within the GeoMIP ensemble.

  18. Enhancing Functionality and Autonomy in Man-Portable Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Logic Expert navigation (FLEXnav) Proprioceptive Position Estimation (PPE) system developed at the University of Michigan, which employs three-axis...an extensive set of autonomous behaviors, including stair - climbing, visual servoing, GPS waypoint navigation, and retro-traverse. Each behavior...34Experimental Results from UM’s Proprioceptive Position Estimation System Installed on CMU’s ATRV," Technical Report, University of Michigan, Department of

  19. Characterization of the KOI-94 System with Transit Timing Variation Analysis: Implication for the Planet-Planet Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kento; Hirano, Teruyuki; Taruya, Atsushi; Nagasawa, Makiko; Suto, Yasushi

    2013-12-01

    The KOI-94 system is a closely packed, multi-transiting planetary system discovered by the Kepler space telescope. It is known as the first system that exhibited a rare event called a "planet-planet eclipse (PPE)," in which two planets partially overlap with each other in their double-transit phase. In this paper, we constrain the parameters of the KOI-94 system with an analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs). Such constraints are independent of the radial velocity (RV) analysis recently performed by Weiss and coworkers, and valuable in examining the reliability of the parameter estimate using TTVs. We numerically fit the observed TTVs of KOI-94c, KOI-94d, and KOI-94e for their masses, eccentricities, and longitudes of periastrons, and obtain the best-fit parameters including m_c = 9.4_{-2.1}^{+2.4}\\, M_{\\oplus }, m_d = 52.1_{-7.1}^{+6.9}\\, M_{\\oplus }, m_e = 13.0_{-2.1}^{+2.5}\\, M_{\\oplus }, and e <~ 0.1 for all the three planets. While these values are mostly in agreement with the RV result, the mass of KOI-94d estimated from the TTV is significantly smaller than the RV value m d = 106 ± 11 M ⊕. In addition, we find that the TTV of the outermost planet KOI-94e is not well reproduced in the current modeling. We also present analytic modeling of the PPE and derive a simple formula to reconstruct the mutual inclination of the two planets from the observed height, central time, and duration of the brightening caused by the PPE. Based on this model, the implication of the results of TTV analysis for the time of the next PPE is discussed.

  20. Alkali Halide FLIR Lens Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    testing. Also, an identification number is written on the edge. Then the sealant is cured at 70 to 800C for 15 minutes. Only the coated area is...3/PE/PPE failed beginning at isolated points, which presumably were due to imperfections in the coating. Thus, it was inferred that this coating...in isolated spots because of defects in the coating layers. To optimize the coating process, improvement of coating procedures leading toward defect

  1. Scale dependence of structure-function relationship in the emphysematous mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Susumu; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Suki, Béla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how the initial distribution of elastase in mouse lungs determines the time course of tissue destruction and how structural heterogeneity at different spatial scales influences lung function. We evaluated lung function and alveolar structure in normal and emphysematous C57BL/6 mice at 2 and 21 days following orotracheal treatment with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Initial distribution of elastase 1 h after treatment was assessed using red fluorescently labeled PPE (f-PPE) by laser scanning confocal microscopy. From measured input impedance of the respiratory system, the global lung compliance, and the variability of regional compliance were obtained. Lungs were fixed and equivalent airspace diameters were measured in four lobes of the right lung and three regions of the left lung. At day 2 and day 21, the mean airspace diameter of each region was significantly enlarged which was accompanied by an increased inter-regional heterogeneity. The deposition of f-PPE on day 0 was much more heterogeneous than the inter-regional diameters at both day 2 and day 21 and, at day 21, this reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). Microscale heterogeneity characterized by the overall variability of airspace diameters correlated significantly better with compliance than macroscale or inter-regional heterogeneity. Furthermore, while the spatial distribution of the inflammatory response does not seem to follow that of the elastase deposition, it correlates with the strongest regional determinant of lung function. These results may help interpret lung function decline in terms of structural deterioration in human patients with emphysema. PMID:26029115

  2. Scale dependence of structure-function relationship in the emphysematous mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Sato, Susumu; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Suki, Béla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how the initial distribution of elastase in mouse lungs determines the time course of tissue destruction and how structural heterogeneity at different spatial scales influences lung function. We evaluated lung function and alveolar structure in normal and emphysematous C57BL/6 mice at 2 and 21 days following orotracheal treatment with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Initial distribution of elastase 1 h after treatment was assessed using red fluorescently labeled PPE (f-PPE) by laser scanning confocal microscopy. From measured input impedance of the respiratory system, the global lung compliance, and the variability of regional compliance were obtained. Lungs were fixed and equivalent airspace diameters were measured in four lobes of the right lung and three regions of the left lung. At day 2 and day 21, the mean airspace diameter of each region was significantly enlarged which was accompanied by an increased inter-regional heterogeneity. The deposition of f-PPE on day 0 was much more heterogeneous than the inter-regional diameters at both day 2 and day 21 and, at day 21, this reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). Microscale heterogeneity characterized by the overall variability of airspace diameters correlated significantly better with compliance than macroscale or inter-regional heterogeneity. Furthermore, while the spatial distribution of the inflammatory response does not seem to follow that of the elastase deposition, it correlates with the strongest regional determinant of lung function. These results may help interpret lung function decline in terms of structural deterioration in human patients with emphysema.

  3. Recommendations and Proposed Strategic Plan: Water Sector Decontamination Priorities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    OW Office of Water OWM Office of Wastewater Management PHG Public Health Goal PPE Personal Protective Equipment QSAR Quantitative Structure and...Such simulation could rely on Quantitative Structure and Activity Relationships (commonly known by the acronym QSAR ). EPA has developed some QSARs ...of contaminant (i.e., biological versus chemical) − Contaminant exposure duration (e.g., 1-year, 5-year) − Known contaminant toxicology data

  4. Detection of capecitabine (Xeloda®) on the skin surface after oral administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mao-Dong; Fuss, Harald; Lademann, Jürgen; Florek, Stefan; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina C.; Jung, Sora

    2016-04-01

    Palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), or hand-foot syndrome, is a cutaneous toxicity under various chemotherapeutics contributing to the most frequent side effects in patients treated with capecitabine (Xeloda®). The pathomechanism of PPE has been unclear. Here, the topical detection of capecitabine in the skin after oral application was shown in 10 patients receiving 2500 mg/m2/day capecitabine. Sweat samples were taken prior to and one week after oral administration of capecitabine. Using high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometry, the changes in concentrations of fluorine, which is an ingredient of capecitabine, were quantified and statistically analyzed. Here, we show an increase in fluorine concentrations from 40±10 ppb (2±0.5 pM) before capecitabine administration to 27.7±11.8 ppm (14.6±6.5 nM) after application, p<0.001. The results show the secretion of capecitabine on the skin surface after oral administration, indicating a local toxic effect as a possible pathomechanism of PPE.

  5. Reflective-emissive liquid-crystal displays constructed from AIE luminogens (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ben Zhong; Zhao, Dongyu; Qin, Anjun

    2015-10-01

    The chiral nematic liquid crystal (N*-LC) has plenty of prospective applications in LC display (LCD) owing to the selective reflection and circular dichroism. The molecules in the N*-LC are aligned forming a helically twisted structure and the specific wavelength of incident light is reflected by the periodically varying refractive index in the N*-LC plane without the aid of a polarizer or color filter. However, N*-LC do not emit light which restricts its application in the dark environment. Moreover, the view angle of N*-LC display device was severe limited due to the strong viewing angle dependence of the structure color of the one dimensional photonic crystal of a N*-LC. In order to overcome these weaknesses, we have synthesized a luminescent liquid crystalline compound consisting of a tetraphenylethene (TPE) core, TPE-PPE, as a luminogen with mesogenic moieties. TPE-PPE exhibits both the aggregate-induced emission (AIE) and thermotropic liquid crystalline characteristics. By dissolving a little amount of TPE-PPE into N*-LC host, a circular polarized emission was obtained on the unidirectional orientated LC cell. Utilizing the circular polarized luminescence property of the LC mixture, we fabricated a photoluminescent liquid crystal display (PL-LCD) device which can work under both dark and sunlit conditions. This approach has simplified the device design, lowered the energy consumption and increased brightness and application of the LCD.

  6. Thermolysis of surface-immobilized phenethyl phenyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Hitsman, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    Our research has focused on modeling the constraints on free-radical reactions that might be imposed in coal as a consequence of its cross-linked macromolecular structure by covalently bonding diphenylalkanes to an inert silica surface. A surface-immobilized phenethyl phenyl ether ({approx}PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}POh, or {approx}PPE-3) has been prepared as a model for ether linkages in lignin by the condensation of p-HOPhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh with the surface hydroxyls of a high purity fumed silica. Thermolysis of {approx}PPE-3 at saturation surface coverage at 375{degree}C produces {approx}PhCH = CH{sub 2} and PhOH as the major products which are consistent with the proposed free-radical chain mechanism for the decomposition of fluid-phase phenethyl phenyl ether. However, significant quantities of {approx}PhCH{sub 3} and PhCHO (ca. 18% of the products) are produced indicating the emergence of a new reaction pathway on the surface. The mechanism for the decomposition of {approx}PPE-3 will be discussed in light of this new information. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  7. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; PARK, Joonhee; PARK, Huiju; COCA, Aitor; KIM, Jung-Hyun; TAYLOR, Nigel A.S.; SON, Su-Young; TOCHIHARA, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying ‘a location monitoring system’ as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred ‘an automatic body cooling system’ while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally ‘an automatic body cooling system’ and ‘a wireless communication system’. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: ‘a location monitoring system’, ‘an automatic body cooling system’, ‘a wireless communication system’, and ‘a vision support system’. The least preferred elements were ‘an automatic body warming system’ and ‘a voice recording system’. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE. PMID:26027710

  8. A Calculus-Level Introductory Physics Course with an Astronomy Theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Physics from Planet Earth (PPE) is a one-semester, calculus-based introductory course in classical mechanics intended for first year students of physics, chemistry, astronomy and engineering. Most of the core topics in mechanics are included, but many of the examples and applications are drawn from astronomy, space science, and astrophysics. The laws of physics are assigned the task of exploring the heavens - the same task addressed by Newton over 300 years ago at the birth of classical mechanics. How do we know the distance to the Moon, Sun, or other galaxies? How do we know the masses of the Earth, Sun, and other planets and stars, and why do we believe in "missing” mass? As a physics course, PPE concentrates on how we know rather than what we know. Examples and applications include those of historical importance (the Earth-Moon distance, the Earth-Sun distance, Ptolemaic vs. Copernican models, weighing the Earth) as well as those of contemporary interest (Hubble's Law, rocket propulsion, spacecraft gravity boosts, the Roche limit, search for extrasolar planets, orbital mechanics, pulsars, galactic rotation curves). The course has been taught successfully at Colgate for over a decade, using materials that have been developed and refined during the past 15 years. Developers of PPE are eager to enrich the course by identifying other topics in contemporary astronomy that can be adapted for the first year physics audience.

  9. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonyl PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.

  10. Counseling for the Wilderness Athlete and Adventurer During a Preparticipation Evaluation for Preparation, Safety, and Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Young, Justin Mark J; Campbell, Aaron D; Raastad, Kate K

    2015-12-01

    Wilderness sports and adventures continue to increase in popularity. Counseling is an essential element of the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for athletes in traditional sports. This approach can be applied to and augmented for the wilderness athlete and adventurer. The authors reviewed the literature on counseling during PPEs and gathered expert opinion from medical professionals who perform such PPEs for wilderness sports enthusiasts. The objective was to present findings of this review and make recommendations on the counseling component of a wilderness sports/adventure PPE. The counseling component of a PPE for wilderness sports/adventures should take place after a basic medical evaluation, and include a discussion on sport or activity-specific injury prevention, personal health, travel recommendations, and emergency event planning. Counseling should be individualized and thorough, and involve shared decision making. This should take place early enough to allow ample time for the athlete or adventurer to further prepare as needed based on the recommendations. Resources may be recommended for individuals desiring more information on selected topics.

  11. Counseling for the Wilderness Athlete and Adventurer During a Preparticipation Evaluation for Preparation, Safety, and Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Young, Justin Mark J; Campbell, Aaron D; Raastad, Kate K

    2015-09-01

    Wilderness sports and adventures continue to increase in popularity. Counseling is an essential element of the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for athletes in traditional sports. This approach can be applied to and augmented for the wilderness athlete and adventurer. The authors reviewed the literature on counseling during PPEs and gathered expert opinion from medical professionals who perform such PPEs for wilderness sports enthusiasts. The objective was to present findings of this review and make recommendations on the counseling component of a wilderness sports/adventure PPE. The counseling component of a PPE for wilderness sports/adventures should take place after a basic medical evaluation, and include a discussion on sport or activity-specific injury prevention, personal health, travel recommendations, and emergency event planning. Counseling should be individualized and thorough, and involve shared decision making. This should take place early enough to allow ample time for the athlete or adventurer to further prepare as needed based on the recommendations. Resources may be recommended for individuals desiring more information on selected topics.

  12. Effect of plasma etching on destructive adsorption properties of polypropylene fibers containing magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lange, Laura E; Obendorf, S Kay

    2012-02-01

    Dermal absorption of pesticides poses a danger for agricultural workers. Use of personal protection equipment (PPE) is required to provide protection; some of the current PPE involves impermeable barriers. In these barrier materials, the same mechanism that prevents the penetration of toxic chemicals also blocks the passage of water vapor and air from flowing through the material, making the garments uncomfortable. Fibers that degrade organophosphate pesticides, such as methyl parathion, were developed by incorporating metal oxides. These modified fibers can be incorporated into conventional fabric structures that allow water vapor to pass through, thereby maintaining comfort. Fibers with self-decontamination functionality were developed by incorporating magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles into a polypropylene (PP) melt-extruded fiber. These fibers were then treated with plasma etching to expose increased surface area of the MgO nanoparticles. Three steps were involved in this research project: (1) determining the reactivity of MgO and methyl parathion, (2) making melt-spun MgO/PP fibers, and (3) testing the reactivity of MgO/PP composite fibers and methyl parathion. It was confirmed that MgO stoichiometrically degrades methyl parathion by way of destructive adsorption. The etching of the PP fibers containing MgO nanoparticles increased the chemical accessibility of MgO reactive sites, therefore making them more effective in degrading methyl parathion. These fibers can enhance the protection provided by PPE to agricultural and horticultural workers and military personnel.

  13. Design for end-user acceptance: requirements for work clothing for fishermen in Mediterranean and northern fishing grounds.

    PubMed

    Storholmen, Tore Christian Bjorsvik; Naesgaard, Ole Petter; Faerevik, Hilde; Reitan, Jarl; Holmen, Ingunn Marie; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2012-01-01

    Fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations, and as many as 24,000 fishermen around the world suffer fatal injuries or drowning at sea every year. Although fishermen in the European fishing fleet work in harsh and dangerous environments, many fishermen do not use personal protective clothing and buoyancy aids due to reduced work comfort and poor functionality. This emphasizes the importance of designing work clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE) with functionality that matches the fishermen's needs. The aim of this study was to identify the requirements for work clothing in terms of comfort, protection, and safety for fishermen operating in northern fishing grounds and in the Mediterranean. Furthermore, we investigated whether fishermen in the Mediterranean prioritize work-clothing requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. Interviews and observations of fishermen provided us with the requirements for work clothing for fishermen. A questionnaire was then distributed to a selection of European fishermen. The study showed that fishermen operating in the Mediterranean prioritized their requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. There was good agreement on requirements regarding work comfort. Safety requirements, such as integrated buoyancy, were ranked as less important by the Mediterranean fishermen compared to fishermen in northern fishing grounds. The results of this study provide a basis for the development of work clothing and PPE for fishermen. Work clothing and PPE that fulfil the requirements are likely to obtain end-user acceptance and thus improve safety for fishermen at sea.

  14. Preparticipation Evaluation for Climbing Sports.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aaron D; Davis, Christopher; Paterson, Ryan; Cushing, Tracy A; Ng, Pearlly; Peterson, Charles S; Sedgwick, Peter E; McIntosh, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Climbing is a popular wilderness sport among a wide variety of professional athletes and amateur enthusiasts, and many styles are performed across many environments. Potential risks confront climbers, including personal health or exacerbation of a chronic condition, in addition to climbing-specific risks or injuries. Although it is not common to perform a preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for climbing, a climber or a guide agency may request such an evaluation before participation. Formats from traditional sports PPEs can be drawn upon, but often do not directly apply. The purpose of this article was to incorporate findings from expert opinion from professional societies in wilderness medicine and in sports medicine, with findings from the literature of both climbing epidemiology and traditional sports PPEs, into a general PPE that would be sufficient for the broad sport of climbing. The emphasis is on low altitude climbing, and an overview of different climbing styles is included. Knowledge of climbing morbidity and mortality, and a standardized approach to the PPE that involves adequate history taking and counseling have the potential for achieving risk reduction and will facilitate further study on the evaluation of the efficacy of PPEs.

  15. Regional fractional ventilation mapping in spontaneously breathing mice using hyperpolarized ¹²⁹Xe MRI.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hirohiko; Matsumoto, Hironobu; Miyakoshi, Erika; Okumura, Shintaro; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Kimura, Atsuomi

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of ventilation imaging with hyperpolarized (HP) (129) Xe MRI has been investigated for quantitative and regional assessment of ventilation in spontaneously breathing mice. The multiple breath ventilation imaging technique was modified to the protocol of spontaneous inhalation of HP (129) Xe delivered continuously from a (129) Xe polarizer. A series of (129) Xe ventilation images was obtained by varying the number of breaths before the (129) Xe lung imaging. The fractional ventilation, r, was successfully evaluated for spontaneously breathing mice. An attempt was made to detect ventilation dysfunction in the emphysematous mouse lung induced by intratracheal administration of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). As a result, the distribution of fractional ventilation could be visualized by the r map. Significant dysfunction of ventilation was quantitatively identified in the PPE-treated group. The whole-lung r value of 0.34 ± 0.01 for control mice (N = 4) was significantly reduced, to 0.25 ± 0.07, in PPE-treated mice (N = 4) (p = 0.038). This study is the first application of multiple breath ventilation imaging to spontaneously breathing mice, and shows that this methodology is sensitive to differences in the pulmonary ventilation. This methodology is expected to improve simplicity as well as noninvasiveness when assessing regional ventilation in small rodents.

  16. Identification of a substrate domain that determines system specificity in mycobacterial type VII secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Trang H.; Ummels, Roy; Bitter, Wilbert; Houben, Edith N. G.

    2017-01-01

    Type VII secretion (T7S) systems are specialized machineries used by mycobacterial pathogens to transport important virulence factors across their highly hydrophobic cell envelope. There are up to five mycobacterial T7S systems, named ESX-1 to ESX-5, at least three of which specifically secrete a different subset of substrates. The T7S substrates or substrate complexes are defined by the general secretion motif YxxxD/E. However this motif does not determine system specificity. Here, we show that the substrate domain recognized by the EspG chaperone is the determinant factor for this specificity. We first show that the introduction of point mutations into the EspG1-binding domain of the ESX-1 substrate pair PE35/PPE68_1 affects their secretion. Subsequently, we demonstrate that replacing this domain by the EspG5-binding domain of the ESX-5 substrate PPE18 resulted in EspG5 dependence and exclusive rerouting to the ESX-5 system. This rerouting of PE35/PPE68_1 to the ESX-5 system had a negative effect on the secretion of endogenous ESX-5 substrates. PMID:28205541

  17. Genomic evidence for plant-parasitic nematodes as the earliest Wolbachia hosts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amanda M. V.; Wasala, Sulochana K.; Howe, Dana K.; Peetz, Amy B.; Zasada, Inga A.; Denver, Dee R.

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia, one of the most widespread endosymbionts, is a target for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases (malaria and dengue virus), and antibiotic elimination of infectious filarial nematodes. We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a new Wolbachia strain (wPpe) in the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Phylogenomic analyses placed wPpe as the earliest diverging Wolbachia, suggesting two evolutionary invasions into nematodes. The next branches comprised strains in sap-feeding insects, suggesting Wolbachia may have first evolved as a nutritional mutualist. Genome size, protein content, %GC, and repetitive DNA allied wPpe with mutualistic Wolbachia, whereas gene repertoire analyses placed it between parasite (A, B) and mutualist (C, D, F) groups. Conservation of iron metabolism genes across Wolbachia suggests iron homeostasis as a potential factor in its success. This study enhances our understanding of this globally pandemic endosymbiont, highlighting genetic patterns associated with host changes. Combined with future work on this strain, these genomic data could help provide potential new targets for plant-parasitic nematode control. PMID:27734894

  18. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Park, Huiju; Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Taylor, Nigel A S; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying 'a location monitoring system' as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred 'an automatic body cooling system' while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally 'an automatic body cooling system' and 'a wireless communication system'. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: 'a location monitoring system', 'an automatic body cooling system', 'a wireless communication system', and 'a vision support system'. The least preferred elements were 'an automatic body warming system' and 'a voice recording system'. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE.

  19. Preparticipation Evaluation for Climbing Sports.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aaron D; Davis, Christopher; Paterson, Ryan; Cushing, Tracy A; Ng, Pearlly; Peterson, Charles S; Sedgwick, Peter E; McIntosh, Scott E

    2015-09-01

    Climbing is a popular wilderness sport among a wide variety of professional athletes and amateur enthusiasts, and many styles are performed across many environments. Potential risks confront climbers, including personal health or exacerbation of a chronic condition, in addition to climbing-specific risks or injuries. Although it is not common to perform a preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for climbing, a climber or a guide agency may request such an evaluation before participation. Formats from traditional sports PPEs can be drawn upon, but often do not directly apply. The purpose of this article was to incorporate findings from expert opinion from professional societies in wilderness medicine and in sports medicine, with findings from the literature of both climbing epidemiology and traditional sports PPEs, into a general PPE that would be sufficient for the broad sport of climbing. The emphasis is on low altitude climbing, and an overview of different climbing styles is included. Knowledge of climbing morbidity and mortality, and a standardized approach to the PPE that involves adequate history taking and counseling have the potential for achieving risk reduction and will facilitate further study on the evaluation of the efficacy of PPEs.

  20. Isolation gowns in health care settings: Laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc Balci, F. Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Although they play an important role in infection prevention and control, textile materials and personal protective equipment (PPE) used in health care settings are known to be one of the sources of cross-infection. Gowns are recommended to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in certain settings; however, laboratory and field studies have produced mixed results of their efficacy. PPE used in health care is regulated as either class I (low risk) or class II (intermediate risk) devices in the United States. Many organizations have published guidelines for the use of PPE, including isolation gowns, in health care settings. In addition, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation published a guidance document on the selection of gowns and a classification standard on liquid barrier performance for both surgical and isolation gowns. However, there is currently no existing standard specific to isolation gowns that considers not only the barrier resistance but also a wide array of end user desired attributes. As a result, infection preventionists and purchasing agents face several difficulties in the selection process, and end users have limited or no information on the levels of protection provided by isolation gowns. Lack of knowledge about the performance of protective clothing used in health care became more apparent during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. This article reviews laboratory studies, regulations, guidelines and standards pertaining to isolation gowns, characterization problems, and other potential barriers of isolation gown selection and use. PMID:26391468

  1. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; ...

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  2. Effect of polymer chain length on membrane perturbation activity of cationic phenylene ethynylene oligomers and polymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Jones, Emmalee M; Tang, Yanli; Ji, Eunkyung; Lopez, Gabriel P; Chi, Eva Y; Schanze, Kirk S; Whitten, David G

    2011-09-06

    The interactions of poly(phenylene ethynylene)- (PPE-) based cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) and oligo(phenylene ethynylene)s (OPEs) with different model lipid membrane systems were investigated to gain insight into the relationship between molecular structure and membrane perturbation ability. The CPE and OPE compounds exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, and cell walls and membranes are believed to be their main targets. To better understand how the size, in terms of the number of repeat units, of the CPEs and OPEs affects their membrane disruption activities, a series of PPE-based CPEs and OPEs were synthesized and studied. A number of photophysical techniques were used to investigate the interactions of CPEs and OPEs with model membranes, including unilamellar vesicles and lipid monolayers at the air/water interface. CPE- or OPE-induced dye leakage from vesicles reveals that the CPEs and OPEs selectively perturb model bacterial membranes and that their membrane perturbation abilities are highly dependent on molecular size. Consistent with dye-leakage assay results, the CPEs and OPEs also exhibit chain-length-dependent ability to insert into 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol) (DPPG) monolayers. Our results suggest that, for PPE-based CPE and OPE antimicrobials, chain length can be tuned to optimize their membrane perturbation ability.

  3. Extreme regimes of femtosecond photoemission from a copper cathode in a dc electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasmans, P. L. E. M.; van Vugt, D. C.; van Lieshout, J. P.; Brussaard, G. J. H.; Luiten, O. J.

    2016-10-01

    The femtosecond photoemission yield from a copper cathode and the emittance of the created electron beams has been studied in a 12 MeV /m , 100 keV dc electron gun over a wide range of laser fluence, from the linear photoemission regime until the onset of image charge limitations and cathode damaging. The measured photoemission curves can be described well with available theory which includes the Schottky effect, second-order photoemission, and image charge limitation. The second-order photoemission can be explained by thermally assisted one-photon photoemission (1PPE) and by above-threshold two-photon photoemission (2PPE). Measurements with a fresh cathode suggest that the 2PPE process is dominant. The beam emittance has been measured for the entire range of initial surface charge densities as well. The emittance measurements of space-charge dominated beams can be described well by an envelope equation with generalized perveance. The dc gun produces 0.1 pC bunches with 25 nm rms normalized emittance, corresponding to a normalized brightness usually associated with rf photoguns. In this experimental study the limits of femtosecond photoemission from a copper cathode have been explored and analyzed in great detail, resulting in improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  4. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Peucedanum Pastinacifolium Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Sajjadi, S. Ebrahim; Moknatjou, Reza

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus, significantly contributing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn. is commonly used as an antihyperlipidemic vegetable in Iranian folk medicine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, we examined a hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Peucedanum pastinacifolium to determine its lipid-lowering activity in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. Normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were separated into four groups. The groups were fed with 0, 125, 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight of Peucedanum Pastinacifolium hydroalcoholic Extract (PPE) in aqueous solution for 30 days. RESULTS: The results show that there were significant (P < 0.05) increases in total serum cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with PPE over a period of a month returned these levels close to control levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PPE has hypolipidemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:20613940

  5. Oxidation in HiOx-packaged pork Longissimus muscle predisposes myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins to N-nitrosamine formation in nitrite-curing solution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Meng, Peipei; Xiong, Youling L; Ma, Lizhen; Wang, Changlu; Zhu, Yingchun

    2013-11-01

    The effect of meat protein in situ oxidation on the formation of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) was investigated. Fresh minced pork was untreated (Con) or treated with 700mg/kg α-tocopherol (Toc) or 300mg/kg tea polyphenols (PPE), packaged in a HiOx atmosphere (78.8% O2, 18.8% CO2, 2.4% N2), then stored at 2±1°C for up to 10days. Crude myofibrillar (MP) or sarcoplasmic (SP) protein (20mg/mL) extracted from stored meat was reacted with 43μM sodium nitrite at 80°C for 1h. Lipid oxidation was totally inhibited in PPE pork but increased in Con and Toc samples after 10days. There was significant protein oxidation (losses of sulfhydryls, formation of protein carbonyls) in both MP and SP in all samples during storage. However, the Con group suffered more extensive protein oxidation than Toc and PPE and produced more NDEA (P<0.05), indicating that protein oxidation promoted nitrosation.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB): Pressure and temperature effects for the solid phase and vapor-liquid phase equilibria.

    PubMed

    Rai, Neeraj; Bhatt, Divesh; Siepmann, J Ilja; Fried, Laurence E

    2008-11-21

    The transferable potentials for phase equilibria (TraPPE) force field was extended to nitro and amino substituents for aromatic rings via parametrization to the vapor-liquid coexistence curves of nitrobenzene and aniline, respectively. These groups were then transferred to model 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Without any further parametrization to solid state data, the TraPPE force field is able to predict TATB's unit cell lengths and angles at 295 K with mean unsigned percentage errors of 0.3% and 1.8% and the specific density within 0.5%. These predictions are comparable in accuracy to the GRBF model [Gee et al., J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7059 (2004)] that was parametrized directly to TATB's solid state properties. Both force fields are able to reproduce the pressure dependence of TATB's unit cell volume, but they underestimate its thermal expansion. Due to its energetic nature and unusually large cohesive energy, TATB is not chemically stable at temperature in its liquid range. Gibbs ensemble simulations allow one to determine TATB's vapor-liquid coexistence curve at elevated temperatures and the predicted critical temperature and density for the TraPPE and GRBF model are 937+/-8 and 1034+/-8 K, and 0.52+/-0.02 and 0.50+/-0.02 gcm(3), respectively.

  7. Optimally accurate thermal-wave cavity photopyroelectric measurements of pressure-dependent thermophysical properties of air: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Chi-Hang; Matvienko, Anna; Mandelis, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    An experimental technique for the measurement of thermal properties of air at low pressures using a photopyroelectric (PPE) thermal-wave cavity (TWC) was developed. In addition, two theoretical approaches, a conventional one-dimensional thermal-wave model and a three-dimensional theory based on the Hankel integral, were applied to interpret the thermal-wave field in the thermal-wave cavity. The importance of radiation heat transfer mechanisms in a TWC was also investigated. Radiation components were added to the purely conductive model by linearizing the radiation heat transfer component at the cavity boundary. The experimental results indicate that the three-dimensional model is necessary to describe the PPE signal, especially at low frequencies where thermal diffusion length is large and sideways propagation of the thermal-wave field becomes significant. Radiation is found to be the dominant contributor of the PPE signal at high frequencies and large cavity lengths, where heat conduction across the TWC length is relatively weak. The three-dimensional theory and the Downhill Simplex algorithm were used to fit the experimental data and extract the thermal diffusivity of air and the heat transfer coefficient in a wide range of pressures from 760 to 2.6 Torr. It was shown that judicious adjustments of cavity length and computational best fits to frequency-scanned data using three-dimensional photopyroelectric theory lead to optimally accurate value measurements of thermal diffusivity and heat transfer coefficient at various pressures.

  8. Potential implication of new torque teno mini viruses in parapneumonic empyema in children

    PubMed Central

    Galmès, Johanna; Li, Yongjun; Rajoharison, Alain; Ren, Lili; Dollet, Sandra; Richard, Nathalie; Vernet, Guy; Javouhey, Etienne; Wang, Jianwei; Telles, Jean-Noël; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia

    2013-01-01

    An unexplained increase in the incidence of parapneumonic empyema (PPE) in pneumonia cases has been reported in recent years. The present study investigated the genetic and biological specifications of new isolates of torque teno mini virus (TTMV) detected in pleural effusion samples from children hospitalised for severe pneumonia with PPE. A pathogen discovery protocol was applied in undiagnosed pleural effusion samples and led to the identification of three new isolates of TTMV (TTMV-LY). Isolated TTMV-LY genomes were transfected into A549 and human embryonic kidney 293T cells and viral replication was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and full-length genome amplification. A549 cells were further infected with released TTMV-LY virions and the induced-innate immune response was measured by multiplex immunoassays. Genetic analyses of the three TTMV-LY genomes revealed a classic genomic organisation but a weak identity (<64%) with known sequences. We demonstrated the in vitro replication of TTMV-LY in alveolar epithelial cells and the effective release of infectious viral particles. We also showed a selective production of inflammatory mediators in response to TTMV infection. This study reports the description of replicative TTMV-LY isolated from parapneumonic effusions of children hospitalised with PPE, suggesting a potential role of the virus in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. PMID:23060626

  9. The effect of pomegranate mouthrinse on Streptococcus mutans count and salivary pH: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Dilshad; Dilshad, Bahija; Farhan, Mohammed; Ali, Arshiya; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Herbal mouthwashes have been considered to be a more advantageous option to their chemical counterparts, for a long-time. The use of pomegranate fruit dates from ancient times and reports of its therapeutic abilities have echoed throughout the ages. To evaluate the effect on the salivary pH and the Streptococcus mutans count in healthy subjects before and after pomegranate mouthrinse. Fifty healthy patients were randomly divided into two groups of 25 subjects each. Group A was treated with 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse; while Group B was treated with pomegranate peel extract (PPE) mouthrinse and the saliva samples were collected at three different intervals: Prerinse, after 10 min, and 60 min. The salivary pH was measured using a digital pH meter and the S. mutans count was determined by the commercial system Dentocult SM. The statistical analyses used in this study are Mann–Whitney U-test and t-test. PPE mouthrinse had an inhibitory effect on S. mutans count in adults. There was also an increase in the salivary pH after 10 min of the mouthrinse. PPE mouthrinse may be considered as a potential anticariogenic mouthrinse. PMID:26955605

  10. Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Carbon Dioxide Diffusivity in n-Hexane, n-Decane, n-Hexadecane, Cyclohexane, and Squalane.

    PubMed

    Moultos, Othonas A; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Trusler, J P Martin; Economou, Ioannis G

    2016-12-22

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to obtain the diffusion coefficients of CO2 in n-hexane, n-decane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane, and squalane at temperatures up to 423.15 K and pressures up to 65 MPa. Three popular models were used for the representation of hydrocarbons: the united atom TraPPE (TraPPE-UA), the all-atom OPLS, and an optimized version of OPLS, namely, L-OPLS. All models qualitatively reproduce the pressure dependence of the diffusion coefficient of CO2 in hydrocarbons measured recently, and L-OPLS was found to be the most accurate. Specifically for n-alkanes, L-OPLS also reproduced the measured viscosities and densities much more accurately than the original OPLS and TraPPE-UA models, indicating that the optimization of the torsional potential is crucial for the accurate description of transport properties of long chain molecules. The three force fields predict different microscopic properties such as the mean square radius of gyration for the n-alkane molecules and pair correlation functions for the CO2-n-alkane interactions. CO2 diffusion coefficients in all hydrocarbons studied are shown to deviate significantly from the Stokes-Einstein behavior.

  11. Determining cardiac velocity fields and intraventricular pressure distribution from a sequence of Ultrafast CT cardiac images

    SciTech Connect

    Song, S.M.; Napel, S. ); Leahy, R.M. . Signal and Image Processing Inst.); Brundage, B.H. . Div. of Cardiology); Boyd, D.P.

    1994-06-01

    A method of computing the velocity field and pressure distribution from a sequence of Ultrafast CT (UFCT) cardiac images is demonstrated. UFCT multi-slice cine imaging gives a series of tomographic slices covering the volume of the heart at a rate of 17 frames per second. The complete volume data set can be modeled using equations of continuum theory and through regularization, velocity vectors of both blood and tissue can be determined at each voxel in the volume. The authors present a technique to determine the pressure distribution throughout the volume of the left ventricle using the computed velocity field. A numerical algorithm is developed by discretizing the pressure Poisson equation (PPE), which is based on the Navier-Stokes equation. The algorithm is evaluated using a mathematical phantom of known velocity and pressure -- Couette flow. It is shown that the algorithm based on the PPE can reconstruct the pressure distribution using only the velocity data. Furthermore, the PPE is shown to be robust in the presence of noise. The velocity field and pressure distribution derived from a UFCT study of a patient are also presented.

  12. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  13. Dual roles of a conserved pair, Arg23 and Ser20, in recognition of multiple substrates in {alpha}-aminoadipate aminotransferase from Thermus thermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchi, Takuya; Tomita, Takeo; Miyagawa, Tomoharu; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2009-10-09

    To clarify the mechanism for substrate recognition of {alpha}-aminoadipate aminotransferase (AAA-AT) from Thermus thermophilus, the crystal structure of AAA-AT complexed with N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-glutamate (PPE) was determined at 1.67 A resolution. The crystal structure revealed that PPE is recognized by amino acid residues the same as those seen in N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-{alpha}-aminoadipate (PPA) recognition; however, to bind the {gamma}-carboxyl group of Glu at a fixed position, the C{alpha} atom of the Glu moiety moves 0.80 A toward the {gamma}-carboxyl group in the PPE complex. Markedly decreased activity for Asp can be explained by the shortness of the aspartyl side chain to be recognized by Arg23 and further dislocation of the C{alpha} atom of bound Asp. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Arg23 has dual functions for reaction, (i) recognition of {gamma} ({delta})-carboxyl group of Glu (AAA) and (ii) rearrangement of {alpha}2 helix by changing the interacting partners to place the hydrophobic substrate at the suitable position.

  14. Characterization of KOI-94 System with Photometric Light Curves and Transit Timing Variation Analysis: Implication for the Planet-Planet Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kento; Hirano, Teruyuki; Taruya, Atsushi; Nagasawa, Makiko; Suto, Yasushi

    2013-07-01

    We report the analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) in Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) 94 system using direct numerical integrations. We analyzed the photometric light curve of KOI-94 obtained by the Kepler spacecraft to extract the transit times of KOI-94c, KOI-94d, and KOI-94e, and found that they are significantly deviated from the exact periodicity due to the mutual gravitational interaction among the planets, as pointed out by Weiss and coworkers. We fit these variations with numerical simulations and obtained the constraints on the masses, eccentricities, and longitudes of periastrons of the three planets, independently of the radial velocity measurements. Our analysis shows that the TTV favors the solution with small (< 0.1) eccentricities for all the three planets and with a rather small mass of KOI-94d (md = 52 '} 7M⊕), in contrast to the radial velocity result, md = 106 '} 11M⊕. We also present analytic modeling of a 'gplanet-planet eclipse (PPE),'h a rare mutual event in which two planets partially overlap with each other on the stellar disk in their double transit phase. We modeled the brightening caused by the PPE analytically, and derived the formula to reconstruct the sky-plane mutual inclination of the two eclipsing planets from the observed height, central time, and duration of the brightening. Based on this model, the implication of the results of TTV analysis for the time of the next PPE is also discussed.

  15. Type B accident investigation board report of the July 2, 1997 curium intake by shredder operator at Building 513 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    On July 2, 1997 at approximately 6:00 A.M., two operators (Workers 1 and 2), wearing approved personal protective equipment (PPE), began a shredding operation of HEPA filters for volume reduction in Building 513 (B-513) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The waste requisitions indicated they were shredding filters containing {le} 1 {micro}Ci of americium-241 (Am-241). A third operator (Worker 3) provided support to the shredder operators in the shredding area (hot area) from a room that was adjacent to the shredding area (cold area). At Approximately 8:00 A.M., a fourth operator (Worker 4) relieved Worker 2 in the shredding operation. Sometime between 8:30 A.M. and 9:00 A.M., Worker 3 left the cold area to make a phone call and set off a hand and foot counter in Building 514. Upon discovering the contamination, the shredding operation was stopped and surveys were conducted in the shredder area. Surveys conducted on the workers found significant levels of contamination on their PPE and the exterior of their respirator cartridges. An exit survey of Worker 1 was conducted at approximately 10:05 A.M., and found contamination on his PPE, as well as on the exterior and interior of his respirator. Contamination was also found on his face, chest, back of neck, hair, knees, and mustache. A nose blow indicated significant contamination, which was later determined to be curium-244.

  16. [Personal protective equipment: directions for the application of Legislative Decree 81/08 in surveillance].

    PubMed

    Messineo, A; Sanna, S; Imperatore, A; Villarini, S; Leone, M

    2010-01-01

    The laws on workplace safety and in particular the DLgs. 81/08, contemplate an organisation which firstly promotes collective protection measures and elimination of any type of risk. The use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is therefore always secondary to the correct implementation of all possible technical and organisational procedures. DLgs 81/08 establishes that PPE must be in accordance with DLgs 475/92, with DM 02.05.01 and UNI rules. Regulation 453/2010 (REACH), requires the contents of the safety data of dangerous substances. Given this complexity, the evaluation of the correct adoption and use of PPE is particularly challenging. In order to assist controlling activities, a document has been written containing the main guidelines. A first draft of the document was approved by the Committee of Directors of the SPRESAL of the "Regione Lazio" in 2008. The evolution of regulations and the need to make further improvements have made it necessary to draw up a new version to improve supervision in the workplace.

  17. Evaluation of direct analysis in real time for the determination of highly polar pesticides in lettuce and celery using modified Quick Polar Pesticides Extraction method.

    PubMed

    Lara, Francisco J; Chan, Danny; Dickinson, Michael; Lloyd, Antony S; Adams, Stuart J

    2017-05-05

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) was evaluated for the determination of a number of highly polar pesticides using the Quick Polar Pesticides Extraction (QuPPe) method. DART was hyphenated to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to get the required selectivity that allows the determination of these compounds in complex samples such as lettuce and celery. Experimental parameters such as desorption temperature, scanning speed, and distances between the DART ion source and MS inlet were optimized. Two different mass analyzers (Orbitrap and QTOF) and two accessories for sample introduction (Dip-it(®) tips and QuickStrip™ sample cards) were evaluated. An extra clean-up step using primary-secondary amine (PSA) was included in the QuPPe method to improve sensitivity. The main limitation found was in-source fragmentation, nevertheless QuPPe-DART-HRMS proved to be a fast and reliable tool with quantitative capabilities for at least seven compounds: amitrole, cyromazine, propamocarb, melamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine and 1,2,4-triazole. The limits of detection ranged from 20 to 60μg/kg. Recoveries for fortified samples ranged from 71 to 115%, with relative standard deviations <18%.

  18. Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Ewan; Carey, Renee; Keegel, Tessa; El-Zaemay, Sonia; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest. Methods This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure. Conclusions Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods. PMID:24106643

  19. Serious Injury and Fatality Investigations Involving Pneumatic Nail Guns, 1985-2012

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Brian D.; Albers, James T.; Hudock, Stephen D.; Krieg, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper examines serious and fatal pneumatic nail gun (PNG) injury investigations for workplace, tool design, and human factors relevant to causation and resulting OS&H authorities’ responses in terms of citations and penalties. Methods The U.S. OSHA database of Fatality and Catastrophe Investigation Summaries (F&CIS) were reviewed (1985 - 2012) to identify n=258 PNG accidents. Results 79.8% of investigations, and 100% of fatalities, occurred in the Construction industry. Between 53-71% of injuries appear preventable had a safer sequential trigger tool been used. Citations and monetary penalties were related to injury severity, body part injured, disabling of safety devices, and insufficient personal protective equipment (PPE). Conclusions Differences may exist between Construction and other industries in investigators interpretations of PNG injury causation and resulting citations/penalties. Violations of PPE standards were penalized most severely, yet the preventive effect of PPE would likely have been less than that of a safer sequential trigger. PMID:26725335

  20. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preparticipation Physical Examinations and Disqualifying Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Kevin M.; Bolin, Delmas J.; Carek, Peter J.; Konin, Jeff G.; Neal, Timothy L.; Violette, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Objective To present athletic trainers with recommendations for the content and administration of the preparticipation physical examination (PPE) as well as considerations for determining safe participation in sports and identifying disqualifying conditions. Background Preparticipation physical examinations have been used routinely for nearly 40 years. However, considerable debate exists as to their efficacy due to the lack of standardization in the process and the lack of conformity in the information that is gathered. With the continuing rise in sports participation at all levels and the growing number of reported cases of sudden death in organized athletics, the sports medicine community should consider adopting a standardized process for conducting the PPE to protect all parties. Recommendations Recommendations are provided to equip the sports medicine community with the tools necessary to conduct the PPE as effectively and efficiently as possible using available scientific evidence and best practices. In addition, the recommendations will help clinicians identify those conditions that may threaten the health and safety of participants in organized sports, may require further evaluation and intervention, or may result in potential disqualification. PMID:24499039

  1. Electrocardiography and the preparticipation physical examination: is it time for routine screening?

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Diane K; Howard, Thomas M

    2006-04-01

    The preparticipation physical examination (PPE) is a screening tool endorsed by numerous organizations and used to evaluate young athletes prior to competition for both medical and musculoskeletal conditions that may predispose them to injury. The cardiac portion of the examination, as recommended by the American Heart Association, is detailed specifically to detect signs or symptoms consistent with certain congenital heart conditions that may increase a young athlete's risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Much controversy has erupted over the years as to whether this examination has the diagnostic sensitivity to detect these conditions and prevent SCD, and whether additional modalities, such as the 12-lead electrocardiograph (ECG), should be incorporated. Given the rarity of SCD events, the large population of young athletes that would qualify yearly for the examination, and the limitations that an ECG would present, it would not be efficient to add the ECG to the standard PPE on the symptomatic athlete. More efforts should be spent in standardizing the PPE on a national level to further improve its efficiency.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Investigation of the Substrate Binding Mechanism in Carboxylesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qi; Luan, Zheng-Jiao; Cheng, Xiaolin; Xu, Jian-He

    2015-02-25

    A recombinant carboxylesterase, cloned from Pseudomonas putida and designated as rPPE, is capable of catalyzing the bioresolution of racemic 2-acetoxy-2-(2 -chlorophenyl)acetate (rac-AcO-CPA) with excellent (S)-enantioselectivity. Semi-rational design of the enzyme showed that the W187H variant could increase the activity by ~100-fold compared to the wild type (WT) enzyme. In this study, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both apo-rPPE and rPPE in complex with (S)-AcO-CPA to gain insights into the origin of the increased catalysis in the W187H mutant. Moreover, our results show differential binding of (S)-AcO-CPA in the WT and W187H enzymes, especially the interactions of the substrate with the two active site residues Ser159 and His286. The replacement of Trp187 by His leads to considerable structural rearrangement in the active site of W187H. Unlike in the WT rPPE, the cap domain in the W187 mutant shows an open conformation in the simulations of both apo and substrate-bound enzymes. This open conformation exposes the catalytic triad to the solvent through a water accessible channel, which may facilitate the entry of the substrate and/or the exit of the product. Binding free energy calculations confirmed that the substrate binds more strongly in W187H than in WT. Based on these computational results, furthermore, we predicted that the mutations W187Y and D287G might also be able to increase the substrate binding, thus improve the enzyme s catalytic efficiency. Experimental binding and kinetic assays on W187Y and D287G show improved catalytic efficiency over WT, but not W187H. Contrary to our prediction, W187Y shows slightly decreased substrate binding coupled with a 100 fold increase in turn-over rate, while in D287G the substrate binding is 8 times stronger but with a slightly reduced turn-over rate. Finally, our work provides important molecular-level insights into the binding of the (S)-AcO-CPA substrate to carboxylesterase r

  3. Molecular Dynamics Investigation of the Substrate Binding Mechanism in Carboxylesterase

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Qi; Luan, Zheng-Jiao; Cheng, Xiaolin; ...

    2015-02-25

    A recombinant carboxylesterase, cloned from Pseudomonas putida and designated as rPPE, is capable of catalyzing the bioresolution of racemic 2-acetoxy-2-(2 -chlorophenyl)acetate (rac-AcO-CPA) with excellent (S)-enantioselectivity. Semi-rational design of the enzyme showed that the W187H variant could increase the activity by ~100-fold compared to the wild type (WT) enzyme. In this study, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both apo-rPPE and rPPE in complex with (S)-AcO-CPA to gain insights into the origin of the increased catalysis in the W187H mutant. Moreover, our results show differential binding of (S)-AcO-CPA in the WT and W187H enzymes, especially the interactions of themore » substrate with the two active site residues Ser159 and His286. The replacement of Trp187 by His leads to considerable structural rearrangement in the active site of W187H. Unlike in the WT rPPE, the cap domain in the W187 mutant shows an open conformation in the simulations of both apo and substrate-bound enzymes. This open conformation exposes the catalytic triad to the solvent through a water accessible channel, which may facilitate the entry of the substrate and/or the exit of the product. Binding free energy calculations confirmed that the substrate binds more strongly in W187H than in WT. Based on these computational results, furthermore, we predicted that the mutations W187Y and D287G might also be able to increase the substrate binding, thus improve the enzyme s catalytic efficiency. Experimental binding and kinetic assays on W187Y and D287G show improved catalytic efficiency over WT, but not W187H. Contrary to our prediction, W187Y shows slightly decreased substrate binding coupled with a 100 fold increase in turn-over rate, while in D287G the substrate binding is 8 times stronger but with a slightly reduced turn-over rate. Finally, our work provides important molecular-level insights into the binding of the (S)-AcO-CPA substrate to carboxylesterase r

  4. Conjugated polymer networks: Synthesis and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokil, Akshay

    The experimental research program that forms the basis of this thesis has been directed towards the design, synthesis, processing and physical characterization of well-defined conjugated polymer networks. It attempts to provide answers to the questions how such materials can be synthesized and processed and how the introduction of cross-links can be exploited for the creation of polymeric materials with optimized optic and electronic characteristics. Interestingly, this family of materials has received little attention in the past, at least as far as systematic studies of well-defined systems are concerned. This situation may be a direct consequence of the challenge to introduce conjugated cross-links into conjugated polymers and retain adequate processibility. We have shown that organometallic polymer networks based on linear conjugated polymers are readily accessible through ligand-exchange reactions. This approach was exemplified by exploiting the ethynyl moieties comprised in poly( p-phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) derivatives as ligand sites, which allow for complexation with selected metals and cross-linking via the resulting PPE-Metal complexes. Focusing on the dinuclear complex [Pt-(mu-Cl)Cl-PPE] 2 and PPE-Pt0 as crosslinks, we have conducted an in-depth investigation on how the nature of the metal cross-links influences the materials characteristics, in particular the charge transport properties. We first investigated the charge carrier mobility of poly[2,5-dioctyloxy-1,4-diethynyl-phenylene- alt-2,5-bis(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene] (EHO-OPPE), as a classic representative of poly(p-phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) derivatives, which represent an important class of conjugated polymers. In what appears to be the first study ever conducted on the mobility of any PPE, we found that EHO-OPPE displays ambipolar charge transport characteristics with very high electron (1.9·10-3 cm2V-1 s-1) and hole (1.6·10-3 cm 2V-1s-1) mobilities. Most importantly, the introduction

  5. Gender and occupational health and safety requirements among Saskatchewan farm adolescents.

    PubMed

    Crouchman, E; Ding, K; Hagel, L; Dosman, J; Pickett, W

    2011-10-01

    Children on farms perform hazardous work that exposes them to risks for injury. Hazards include operation of heavy machinery, working with limited supervision, working at heights, and performing work prohibited by law in other industries. Incidence rates and patterns of injury are known to differ between boys and girls on farms. Farm adherence to occupational health and safety practices, and whether such practices vary by gender, has received limited study in this occupational setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between gender and work practices, and required occupational health and safety practices, within a sample of adolescent children age 12 to 18 years living on Saskatchewan farms. A cross-sectional study was performed. Measures were obtained by self-report. We compared requirements for boys and girls on the following: (1) use of personal protective equipment (PPE), (2) conduct of specific hazardous jobs, (3) training and supervision for equipment work, and (4) training and supervision for large animal work. A total of 434 children were identified, and 297 (68%) met the eligibility criteria. Of these, 170 were boys (57%) with a mean age of 14.5 years (SD 1.9). Occupational health and safety requirements varied by gender; girls were less likely to be required to use PPE (adjusted OR 2.39; 95% CI: 1.16, 4.94). There was no evidence of an association between gender and the conduct of hazardous work. Gender patterns in required training and supervision for work suggested disadvantages for girls, but were not significant. Adolescent girls and boys both performed hazardous jobs on the farm. Girls were as likely to conduct hazardous jobs but not to be required to use PPE. This gender disparity may indicate a need for a public health approach that recognizes gender as a determinant of work assignment and of health and safety practices on farms.

  6. Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions for the Pliocene (Plio-QUMP): Initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, J.O.; Collins, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.; Hunter, S.J.; Lunt, D.J.; Pickering, S.J.; Pound, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP; ~. 3.3 to 3.0. Ma BP) provides an excellent opportunity to test the ability of climate models to reproduce warm climate states, thereby assessing our confidence in model predictions. To do this it is necessary to relate the uncertainty in model simulations of mPWP climate to uncertainties in projections of future climate change. The uncertainties introduced by the model can be estimated through the use of a Perturbed Physics Ensemble (PPE). Developing on the UK Met Office Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) Project, this paper presents the results from an initial investigation using the end members of a PPE in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model (HadCM3) running with appropriate mPWP boundary conditions. Prior work has shown that the unperturbed version of HadCM3 may underestimate mPWP sea surface temperatures at higher latitudes. Initial results indicate that neither the low sensitivity nor the high sensitivity simulations produce unequivocally improved mPWP climatology relative to the standard. Whilst the high sensitivity simulation was able to reconcile up to 6 ??C of the data/model mismatch in sea surface temperatures in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (relative to the standard simulation), it did not produce a better prediction of global vegetation than the standard simulation. Overall the low sensitivity simulation was degraded compared to the standard and high sensitivity simulations in all aspects of the data/model comparison. The results have shown that a PPE has the potential to explore weaknesses in mPWP modelling simulations which have been identified by geological proxies, but that a 'best fit' simulation will more likely come from a full ensemble in which simulations that contain the strengths of the two end member simulations shown here are combined. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Nitric oxide synthases and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, A B; Malave, A; Cubeddu, L X

    2001-03-01

    The role of inducible (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) synthases and of tachykinin NK1 receptors on the pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis was investigated, in rats. CYP-induced cystitis was characterized by large increases in bladder-protein plasma extravasation (PPE), increases in the urinary excretion of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and histological evidences of urothelial damage, edema, extensive white blood cell infiltrates and vascular congestion of the bladder. The specific iNOS inhibitor, S-methylthiourea (MITU), produced marked inhibition (>90%) of CYP-induced increases in PPE associated with amelioration of tissue inflammatory changes. Treatment with 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg), a selective nNOS inhibitor, did not significantly reduce CYP-induced increases in PPE and failed to produce histological improvement. In addition, treatment with MITU, but not with 7-NI, inhibited the increases in the urinary excretion of NO metabolites induced by CYP treatment. WIN 51,708 (17-beta-hydroxy-17-alpha-ethynyl-androstano[3,2-b]pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole; WIN), a selective NK1-receptor antagonist, reduced the increases in EPP and ameliorated the inflammatory changes in the bladder induced by CYP. However, the maximal degree of protection achieved with WIN was significantly less than that produced by MITU. Combined treatment with the iNOS inhibitor and the NK1 antagonist produced no greater effect than that produced by the iNOS inhibitor alone. Our results suggest that NO plays a fundamental role in the production of the cystitis associated with CYP treatment. The iNOS, and not nNOS, seems responsible for the inflammatory changes. Part of the increases in NO may due to activation of NK1 receptors by neuropeptides such as substance P possibly released from primary afferent fibers.

  8. Insulin modulates inflammatory and repair responses to elastase-induced emphysema in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Di Petta, Antonio; Greco, Karin V; Castro, Eveline O; Lopes, Fernanda D T Q S; Martins, Milton A; Capelozzi, Vera L; Moreira, Luiz F P; Sannomiya, Paulina

    2011-12-01

    As pulmonary emphysema and diabetes mellitus are common diseases, concomitance of both is correspondingly expected to occur frequently. To examine whether insulin influences the development of inflammation in the alveolar septa, diabetic male Wistar rats (alloxan, 42 mg/kg, i.v., n = 37) and matching controls (n = 31) were used. Ten days after alloxan injection, diabetic and control rats were instilled with physiologic saline solution containing porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE, 0.25 IU/0.2 ml, right lung) or saline only (left lung). The following analyses were performed: (i) number of leucocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of the animals, 6 h after PPE/saline instillation (early time point); and (ii) mean alveolar diameter (μm) and quantification of elastic and collagen fibres (%) 50 days after PPE/saline instillation (late time point). Relative to controls, alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed a 42% reduction in the number of neutrophils in BAL fluid, a 20% increase in the mean alveolar diameter and a 33% decrease in elastic fibre density in the alveolar septa. Treatment of diabetic rats with 4 IU neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, 2 h before elastase instillation, restored the number of neutrophils in the BAL fluid. The mean alveolar diameter and elastic fibre content in alveolar septa matched the values observed in control rats if diabetic rats were treated with 4 IU NPH insulin 2 h before instillation followed by 2 IU/day for the next 50 days. Density of collagen fibres did not differ between the various groups. Thus, the data presented suggest that insulin modulates the inflammatory and repair responses in elastase-induced emphysema, and assures normal repair and tissue remodelling.

  9. Chemical depth profiling of photovoltaic backsheets after accelerated laboratory weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Krommenhoek, Peter J.; Watson, Stephanie S.; Gu, Xiaohong

    2014-10-01

    Polymeric multilayer backsheets provide protection for the backside of photovoltaic (PV) module from the damage of moisture and ultraviolet (UV). Due to the nature of multilayer films, certain material property characterization of a backsheet could only be studied by examining its cross-section parallel to the thickness direction of the film. In this study, commercial PPE (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/PET/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)) backsheet films were aged on the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) with UV irradiance at 170 W/m2 (300 nm to 400 nm) under accelerated weathering conditions of 85°C and two relative humidity (R.H.) levels of 5% (low) and 60% (high). Cryo-microtomy was used to obtain cross-sectional PPE samples with a flat surface parallel to the thickness direction, and chemical depth profiling of multilayers was conducted by Raman microscopic mapping. Atomic force microscopy with peak force tapping mode was used complementarily for cross-sectional imaging. The results revealed that the PPE backsheet films were comprised of five main layers, including pigmented-PET, core PET, inner EVA, pigmented-EVA and outer EVA, along with their interfacial regions and two adhesive layers. UV and moisture degradation on the outer pigmented PET layer was clearly observed; while the damage on the core PET layer was less significance, indicating that the outer pigmented PET layer effectively reduced the damage from UV. In high R.H. exposure, both adhesive layers were severely deteriorated. It was found that the EVA layers were susceptible to moisture at elevated temperature, especially for the pigmented-EVA. Based on the results of accelerated weathering, this depth profiling study brings new understanding to the mechanisms of failure observed in polymeric multilayer backsheets during field exposure.

  10. Investigation of the snow-monsoon relationship in a warming atmosphere using Hadley Centre climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Dash, S. K.; Bhaskaran, B.; Pattnayak, K. C.

    2016-12-01

    Several studies based on observed data and models show that there is an inverse relationship between the strength of the Indian summer monsoon and the extent/depth of Eurasian snow in the preceding season. Perturbed Physics Ensemble (PPE) simulations of Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3) have been used in this study to re-examine the snow-monsoon relationship in the longer time scale. The PPE monthly precipitation values during June, July, August and September (JJAS) have been compared with the corresponding values of Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia (UEA), UK for the period 1961-1990. The PPEs which simulated the Indian summer monsoon reasonably well have been used for examining snow-monsoon relationship. Atmospheric fields such as wind, geopotential height, velocity potential and stream function from the PPE simulations have been examined in detail. Results show that because of the west Eurasian snow depth anomalies, the mid-latitude circulation undergoes significant changes, which in turn lead to weak/strong monsoon circulation during deficient/excess Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) respectively. The first Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF1) of winter snow depth for the period 1961-1990 over the whole of Eurasia explains 13% variability. Thus the significant correlation patterns are consistent with the most dominant EOF of snow depth, in which the first mode describes a dipole type structure as observed. The study confirms that snow depth in the western part of Eurasia (20°E-65°E and 45°N-65°N) has negative correlation with the ISMR.

  11. Depth profiling of mechanical degradation of PV backsheets after UV exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaohong; Krommenhoek, Peter J.; Lin, Chiao-Chi; Yu, Li-Chieh; Nguyen, Tinh; Watson, Stephanie S.

    2015-09-01

    Polymeric multilayer backsheets protect the photovoltaic modules from damage of moisture and ultraviolet (UV) while providing electrical insulation. Due to the multilayer structures, the properties of the inner layers of the backsheets, including their interfaces, during weathering are not well known. In this study, a commercial type of PPE (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/PET/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)) backsheet films was selected as a model system for a depth profiling study of mechanical properties of a backsheet film during UV exposure. The NIST SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) was used for the accelerated laboratory exposure of the materials with UV at 85°C and two relative humidities (RH) of 5 % (dry) and 60 % (humid). Cryomicrotomy was used to obtain cross-sectional PPE samples. Mechanical depth profiling of the cross-sections of aged and unaged samples was conducted by nanoindentation, and a peak-force based quantitative nanomechanical atomic force microscopy (QNM-AFM) mapping techniquewas used to investigate the microstructure and adhesion properties of the adhesive tie layers. The nanoindentation results show the stiffening of the elastic modulus in the PET outer and pigmented EVA layers. From QNM-AFM, the microstructures and adhesion properties of the adhesive layers between PET outer and core layers and between PET core and EVA inner layers are revealed and found to degrade significantly after aging under humidity environment. The results from mechanical depth profiling of the PPE backsheet are further related to the previous chemical depth profiling of the same material, providing new insights into the effects of accelerated UV and humidity on the degradation of multilayer backsheet.

  12. Cracking and delamination behaviors of photovoltaic backsheet after accelerated laboratory weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Lyu, Yadong; Hunston, Donald L.; Kim, Jae Hyun; Wan, Kai-Tak; Stanley, Deborah L.; Gu, Xiaohong

    2015-09-01

    The channel crack and delamination phenomena that occurred during tensile tests were utilized to study surface cracking and delamination properties of a multilayered backsheet. A model sample of commercial PPE (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/PET/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)) backsheet was studied. Fragmentation testing was performed after accelerated aging with and without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in two relative humidity (RH) levels (5 % RH and 60 % RH) at elevated temperature (85 °C) conditions for 11 days and 22 days. Results suggest that the embrittled surface layer resulting from the UV photo-degradation is responsible for surface cracking when the strain applied on the sample is far below the yielding strain (2.2 %) of the PPE sample. There was no surface cracking observed on the un-aged sample and samples aged without UV irradiation. According to the fragmentation testing results, the calculated fracture toughness (KIC) values of the embrittled surface layer are as low as 0.027 MPa·m1/2 to 0.104 MPa·m1/2, depending on the humidity levels and aging times. Surface analysis using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared and atomic force microscopy shows the degradation mechanism of the embrittled surface layer is a combination of the photodegradation within a certain degradation depth and the moisture erosion effect depending on the moisture levels. Specifically, UV irradiation provides a chemical degradation effect while moisture plays a synergistic effect on surface erosion, which influences surface roughness after aging. Finally, there was no delamination observed during tensile testing in this study, suggesting the surface cracking problem is more significant than the delamination for the PPE backsheet material and conditions tested here.

  13. Adolescent exposure to chronic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol blocks opiate dependence in maternally deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Morel, Lydie J; Giros, Bruno; Daugé, Valérie

    2009-10-01

    Maternal deprivation in rats specifically leads to a vulnerability to opiate dependence. However, the impact of cannabis exposure during adolescence on this opiate vulnerability has not been investigated. Chronic dronabinol (natural delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) exposure during postnatal days 35-49 was made in maternal deprived (D) or non-deprived (animal facility rearing, AFR) rats. The effects of dronabinol exposure were studied after 2 weeks of washout on the rewarding effects of morphine measured in the place preference and oral self-administration tests. The preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA levels and the relative density and functionality of CB1, and mu-opioid receptors were quantified in the striatum and the mesencephalon. Chronic dronabinol exposure in AFR rats induced an increase in sensitivity to morphine conditioning in the place preference paradigm together with a decrease of PPE mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens and the caudate-putamen nucleus, without any modification for preference to oral morphine consumption. In contrast, dronabinol treatment on D-rats normalized PPE decrease in the striatum, morphine consumption, and suppressed sensitivity to morphine conditioning. CB1 and mu-opioid receptor density and functionality were not changed in the striatum and mesencephalon of all groups of rats. These results indicate THC potency to act as a homeostatic modifier that would worsen the reward effects of morphine on naive animals, but ameliorate the deficits in maternally D-rats. These findings point to the self-medication use of cannabis in subgroups of individuals subjected to adverse postnatal environment.

  14. Factors associated with severe occupational injuries at mining company in Zimbabwe, 2010: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chimamise, Chipo; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Chadambuka, Addmore; Shambira, Gerald; Chimusoro, Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Injury rate among mining workers in Zimbabwe was 789/1000 workers in 2008. The proportion of severe occupational injuries increased from 18% in 2008 to 37% in 2009. We investigated factors associated with severe injuries at the mine. Methods An unmatched 1:1 case-control study was carried out at the mine, a case was any worker who suffered severe occupational injury at the mine and was treated at the mine or district hospital from January 2008 to April 2010, a control was any worker who did not suffer occupational injury during same period. We randomly selected 156 cases and 156 controls and used interviewer administered questionnaires to collect data from participants. Results Majority of cases, 155(99.4%) and of controls 142(91%) were male, 127(81.4%) of cases and 48(30.8%) of controls worked underground. Majority (73.1%) of severe occupational injuries occurred during night shift. Underground temperatures reached 500C. Factors independently associated with getting severe occupational injuries included working underground (AOR = 10.55; CI 5.97-18.65), having targets per shift (AOR = 12.60; CI 3.46-45.84), inadequate PPE (AOR= 3.65 CI 1.34-9.89) and working more than 8 hours per shift (AOR = 8.65 CI 2.99-25.02). Conclusion Having targets exerts pressure to perform on workers. Prolonged working periods decrease workers’ attention and concentration resulting in increased risk to severe injuries as workers become exhausted, lose focus and alertness. Underground work environment had environmental hazards so managers to install adequate ventilation and provide adequate PPE. Management agreed to standardize shifts to eight hours and workers in some departments have been supplied with adequate PPE. PMID:23504270

  15. Transferable potentials for phase equilibria-coarse-grain description for linear alkanes.

    PubMed

    Maerzke, Katie A; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2011-04-07

    Coarse-grain potentials allow one to extend molecular simulations to length and time scales beyond those accesssible to atomistic representations of the interacting system. Since the coarse-grain potentials remove a large number of interaction sites and, hence, a large number of degrees of freedom, it is generally assumed that coarse-grain potentials are not transferable to different systems or state points (temperature and pressure). Here we apply lessons learned from the parametrization of transferable atomistic potentials to develop a systematic procedure for the parametrization of transferable coarse-grain potentials. In particular, we apply an iterative Boltzmann optimization for the determination of the bonded interactions for coarse-grain beads belonging to the same molecule and separated by one or two coarse-grain bonds and parametrize the nonbonded interactions by fitting to the vapor-liquid coexistence curves computed for selected molecules represented by the TraPPE-UA (transferable potentials for phase equilibria-united atom) force field. This approach is tested here for linear alkanes where parameters for C(3)H(7) end segments and for C(3)H(6) middle segments of the TraPPE-CG (transferable potentials for phase equilibria-coarse grain) force field are determined and it is shown that these parameters yield quite accurate vapor-liquid equilibria for neat n-hexane to n-triacontane and for the binary mixture of n-hexane and n-hexatriacontane. In addition, the position of the first peak in various radial distribution functions and the coordination number for the first solvation shell are well reproduced by the TraPPE-CG force field, but the first peaks are too high and narrow.

  16. Physical Exam Risk Factors for Lower Extremity Injury in High School Athletes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Onate, James A.; Everhart, Joshua S.; Clifton, Daniel R.; Best, Thomas M.; Borchers, James R.; Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A stated goal of the preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) is to reduce musculoskeletal injury, yet the musculoskeletal portion of the PPE is reportedly of questionable use in assessing lower extremity injury risk in high school-aged athletes. The objectives of this study are: (1) identify clinical assessment tools demonstrated to effectively determine lower extremity injury risk in a prospective setting, and (2) critically assess the methodological quality of prospective lower extremity risk assessment studies that use these tools. Data Sources A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, UptoDate, Google Scholar, Cochrane Reviews, and SportDiscus. Inclusion criteria were prospective injury risk assessment studies involving athletes primarily ages 13 to 19 that used screening methods that did not require highly specialized equipment. Methodological quality was evaluated with a modified physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale. Main Results Nine studies were included. The mean modified PEDro score was 6.0/10 (SD, 1.5). Multidirectional balance (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; CI, 1.5–6.1; P < 0.05) and physical maturation status (P < 0.05) were predictive of overall injury risk, knee hyperextension was predictive of anterior cruciate ligament injury (OR, 5.0; CI, 1.2–18.4; P < 0.05), hip external: internal rotator strength ratio of patellofemoral pain syndrome (P = 0.02), and foot posture index of ankle sprain (r = −0.339, P = 0.008). Conclusions Minimal prospective evidence supports or refutes the use of the functional musculoskeletal exam portion of the current PPE to assess lower extremity injury risk in high school athletes. Limited evidence does support inclusion of multidirectional balance assessment and physical maturation status in a musculoskeletal exam as both are generalizable risk factors for lower extremity injury. PMID:26978166

  17. Pinatubo Emulation in Multiple Models (POEMs): co-ordinated experiments in the ISA-MIP model intercomparison activity component of the SPARC Stratospheric Sulphur and it's Role in Climate initiative (SSiRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lindsay; Mann, Graham; Carslaw, Ken; Toohey, Matthew; Aquila, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The World Climate Research Program's SPARC initiative has a new international activity "Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate" (SSiRC) to better understand changes in stratospheric aerosol and precursor gaseous sulphur species. One component of SSiRC involves an intercomparison "ISA-MIP" of composition-climate models that simulate the stratospheric aerosol layer interactively. Within PoEMS each modelling group will run a "perturbed physics ensemble" (PPE) of interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA) simulations of the Pinatubo eruption, varying several uncertain parameters associated with the eruption's SO2 emissions and model processes. A powerful new technique to quantify and attribute sources of uncertainty in complex global models is described by Lee et al. (2011, ACP). The analysis uses Gaussian emulation to derive a probability density function (pdf) of predicted quantities, essentially interpolating the PPE results in multi-dimensional parameter space. Once trained on the ensemble, a Monte Carlo simulation with the fast Gaussian emulator enabling a full variance-based sensitivity analysis. The approach has already been used effectively by Carslaw et al., (2013, Nature) to quantify the uncertainty in the cloud albedo effect forcing from a 3D global aerosol-microphysics model allowing to compare the sensitivy of different predicted quantities to uncertainties in natural and anthropogenic emissions types, and structural parameters in the models. Within ISA-MIP, each group will carry out a PPE of runs, with the subsequent analysis with the emulator assessing the uncertainty in the volcanic forcings predicted by each model. In this poster presentation we will give an outline of the "PoEMS" analysis, describing the uncertain parameters to be varied and the relevance to further understanding differences identified in previous international stratospheric aerosol assessments.

  18. Metabolomics screening identifies reduced L-carnitine to be associated with progressive emphysema.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Thomas M; Bartel, Jörg; Ballweg, Korbinian; Günter, Stefanie; Prehn, Cornelia; Krumsiek, Jan; Meiners, Silke; Theis, Fabian J; Adamski, Jerzy; Eickelberg, Oliver; Yildirim, Ali Önder

    2016-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic bronchitis, small airway remodelling and emphysema. Emphysema is the destruction of alveolar structures, leading to enlarged airspaces and reduced surface area impairing the ability for gaseous exchange. To further understand the pathological mechanisms underlying progressive emphysema, we used MS-based approaches to quantify the lung, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum metabolome during emphysema progression in the established murine porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model on days 28, 56 and 161, compared with PBS controls. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed greater changes in the metabolome of lung followed by BALF rather than serum during emphysema progression. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that emphysema progression is associated with a reduction in lung-specific L-carnitine, a metabolite critical for transporting long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for their subsequent β-oxidation. In vitro, stimulation of the alveolar epithelial type II (ATII)-like LA4 cell line with L-carnitine diminished apoptosis induced by both PPE and H2O2. Moreover, PPE-treated mice demonstrated impaired lung function compared with PBS-treated controls (lung compliance; 0.067±0.008 ml/cmH20 compared with 0.035±0.005 ml/cmH20, P<0.0001), which improved following supplementation with L-carnitine (0.051±0.006, P<0.01) and was associated with a reduction in apoptosis. In summary, our results provide a new insight into the role of L-carnitine and, importantly, suggest therapeutic avenues for COPD.

  19. Using Computer Vision and Depth Sensing to Measure Healthcare Worker-Patient Contacts and Personal Protective Equipment Adherence Within Hospital Rooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junyang; Cremer, James F; Zarei, Kasra; Segre, Alberto M; Polgreen, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  We determined the feasibility of using computer vision and depth sensing to detect healthcare worker (HCW)-patient contacts to estimate both hand hygiene (HH) opportunities and personal protective equipment (PPE) adherence. Methods.  We used multiple Microsoft Kinects to track the 3-dimensional movement of HCWs and their hands within hospital rooms. We applied computer vision techniques to recognize and determine the position of fiducial markers attached to the patient's bed to determine the location of the HCW's hands with respect to the bed. To measure our system's ability to detect HCW-patient contacts, we counted each time a HCW's hands entered a virtual rectangular box aligned with a patient bed. To measure PPE adherence, we identified the hands, torso, and face of each HCW on room entry, determined the color of each body area, and compared it with the color of gloves, gowns, and face masks. We independently examined a ground truth video recording and compared it with our system's results. Results.  Overall, for touch detection, the sensitivity was 99.7%, with a positive predictive value of 98.7%. For gowned entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.15%. For masked entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.75%; for gloved entrances, the sensitivity was 86.21% and specificity was 98.28%. Conclusions.  Using computer vision and depth sensing, we can estimate potential HH opportunities at the bedside and also estimate adherence to PPE. Our fine-grained estimates of how and how often HCWs interact directly with patients can inform a wide range of patient-safety research.

  20. [A case of brainstem infarction presenting with paralytic pontine exotropia and non-paralytic pontine exotropia].

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, K; Takizawa, T

    1991-11-01

    We reported a patient with brainstem infarction who presented paralytic pontine exotropia (PPE) in acute phase and non-paralytic pontine exotropia (NPPE) during the recovery phase. On March 10, 1991, a 60-year-old man was brought to our hospital with chief complaints of double vision and right hemiparesis. The ocular position of the left eye on forward gaze was fixed at the midline, while the right eye was abducted, and skew deviation was observed. On leftward gaze, neither eye could pass the midline, and on rightward gaze the right eye was abducted and monocular nystagmus was noted in the abducted right eye, which indicated paralytic pontine exotropia. T2-weighted MRI showed high signal intensity lesions in the left paramedian portion of the mid-pontine tegmentum beneath the fourth ventricle, and in the midline of the pontine base extending to the left side. The next day, similar disturbance of ocular movement was seen on rightward gaze, but the limitation of leftward gaze had improved and NPPE was noted to have developed. On the third day, there was no abduction of the right eye on forward gaze, but left MLF syndrome was still present. Seven days later, the disturbances of ocular movement disappeared. The lesion was considered to be due to partial impairment of the left paramedian pontine reticular formation in addition to the MLF. PPE caused by ischemia due to the perforating arteries of the brainstem, different from that due to basilar artery occlusion may recover after progression through NPPE and MLF syndromes. Hence, one-and-a-half syndrome, PPE, NPPE, and MLF syndromes are considered to be analogous to one another.

  1. Putrescine: Essential factor for in vitro proliferation of Babesia bovis.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Martínez, C; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Figueroa Millán, J V; Acosta Viana, K Y; Gutiérrez Ruiz, E J; Álvarez Martínez, J A

    2017-04-01

    This study reports the effect of putrescine addition, either alone or in combination with insulin, transferrin and selenite (ITS), to serum-free Advanced DMEM/F12 (A-DMEM/F12) medium, on the in vitro culture of Babesia bovis and using a perfusion bioreactor to improve efficiency of the process. A B. bovis strain previously adapted to proliferate in serum-free medium (Bbovis-SF) was evaluated using eight increasing concentrations of putrescine. The percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE) obtained from cultures supplemented with 0.101 mg/L was 6.23% compared with 2.3% for control cultures with M199 with Earle's salts (M199) and 40% serum. The combination of putrescine (0.101 mg/L) and a mixture of ITS (2000, 1100, and 1.34 mg/L, respectively) (Pu-ITS), in A-DMEM/F12 culture medium without serum yielded a maximum PPE of 17.26% compared to 2.58% in the control medium. This new formulation of culture medium, together with the use of a hollow-fiber perfusion bioreactor system (HFPBS), caused a substantial increase in the proliferation of B. bovis, yielding a maximum cumulative PPE of 118.8% after five days, compared to 58.6% in cultures treated with control medium M199 and 40% serum. We concluded that the addition of the ITS mixture and putrescine to the culture medium stimulated the proliferation of B. bovis in vitro. This new medium formulation, used in a HFPBS culture system, can be an effective, automated-prone system that can induce massive proliferation of B. bovis for use as a source of parasite antigens and immunogens.

  2. Investigation of Biodiesel Through Photopyroelectric and Dielectric-Constant Measurements as a Function of Temperature: Freezing/Melting Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanelato, E. B.; Machado, F. A. L.; Rangel, A. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; Vargas, H.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    Biodiesel is a promising option for alternative fuels since it derives from natural and renewable materials; it is biodegradable and less polluting than fossil fuels. A gradual replacement of diesel by biodiesel has been adopted by many countries, making necessary the investigation of the physical properties of biodiesel and of its mixture in diesel. Photothermal techniques, specifically the photopyroelectric technique (PPE), have proved to be suitable in the characterization of biodiesel and of its precursor oils, as well as of the biodiesel/diesel mixtures. In this paper, we investigate thermal and electrical properties of animal fat-based biodiesel as a function of temperature, aiming to characterize the freezing/melting interval and the changes in the physical properties from the solid to the liquid phase. The samples were prepared using the transesterification method, by the ethylic route. Optical transmittance experiments were carried out in order to confirm the phase transition interval. Solid and liquid phases present distinct thermal diffusivities and conductivities, as well as dielectric constants. The PPE signal amplitude is governed by the changes in the thermal diffusivity/conductivity. As a consequence, the amplitude of the signal becomes like a step function, which is smoothed and sometimes delayed by the nucleation processes during cooling. A similar behavior is found in the dielectric constant data, which is higher in the liquid phase since the molecules have a higher degree of freedom. Both methods (PPE/dielectric constant) proved to be useful in the characterization of the freezing/melting interval, as well as to establish the distinction in the physical properties of solid and liquid phases. The methodology allowed a discussion of the cloud point and the pour point of the samples in the temperature variation interval.

  3. Evaluation of Masticatory Stimulation Effect on the Maxillary Transversal Growth in Ectodermal Dysplasia Children

    PubMed Central

    Nahass, Mona G; Mourad, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Aims Severe oligodontia is one of the most important symptoms in children with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED). The growth of the maxilla is a key consideration in restoring their mouth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transversal maxillary sutural growth, after passive masticatory stimulation, in HED children. We also thought to assess the efficiency and functional outcome of the proposed propriocep-tive passive expansion (PPE) prosthetic device. Materials and methods We studied 13 children (age 6-11 years) suffering from HED with severe oligodontia. Their maxilla was restored by a PPE device formed from two parts and joined by a passive slide system. Distance between the two parts was noted at the anterior and posterior regions at each control visit over an average of 23 months. We also conducted and filled a satisfaction questionnaire over the same period. We tested the hypothesis that the posterior expansion is greater than the anterior expansion (one-tailed Student’s t-test with p-value <0.05). Best-fit linear and quadratic models were used to explore the relationship between age, duration of observation, and the rate of growth. Results The average opening of the device was 2.27 mm in the anterior region and 2.96 mm in the posterior region. The questionnaire response was positive for all children. There are no significant linear or quadratic relationships between the data at the 5% significance level. The posterior expansion is greater than the anterior expansion at the 5% significance level (p-value 0.000394). Limitations Further studies are mandatory to assess the reliability of our particular intervention and treatment modalities for these cases. Conclusion The PPE device, we propose, assures function and esthetics in the long- term. It enhances stimulation by a passive way that leads to physiological growth of the palatal suture. Clinical significance Using this PPE device to restore the maxilla in children with HED promotes

  4. Expansion of Serotype Coverage in the Universal Pediatric Vaccination Calendar: Short-Term Effects on Age- and Serotype-Dependent Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Clinical Presentations in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Contreras, Jesus; Casado-Flores, Juan; Negreira, Sagrario; García-de-Miguel, Maria-Jesus; Hernández-Sampelayo, Teresa; Otheo, Enrique; Méndez, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In Madrid, Spain, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the pediatric universal vaccination calendar in June 2010. A prospective clinical surveillance that included all children hospitalized with culture- and/or PCR-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was performed in all Madrid hospitals. The incidence rates (IRs) (defined as the number of cases/100,000 inhabitants aged <15 years) in the PCV7 (May 2007 to April 2010) versus PCV13 (May 2011 to April 2012) periods were compared. There were 499 cases in the PCV7 period and 79 cases in the PCV13 period. Globally, the IR significantly decreased from 17.09 (PCV7 period) to 7.70 (PCV13 period), with significant decreases (PCV7 versus PCV13 periods) in all age groups for bacteremic pneumonia (5.51 versus 1.56), parapneumonic pneumococcal empyema (PPE) (5.72 versus 3.12), and meningitis (2.16 versus 0.97). In the PCV13 period, significant reductions (the IR in the PCV7 period versus the IR in the PCV13 period) were found in IPDs caused by PCV13 serotypes (13.49 versus 4.38), and specifically by serotypes 1 (globally [4.79 versus 2.53], for bacteremic pneumonia [2.23 versus 0.97], and for PPE [2.26 versus 1.17]), serotype 5 (globally [1.88 versus 0.00], for bacteremic pneumonia [0.89 versus 0.00], and for PPE [0.55 versus 0.00]), and serotype 19A (globally [3.77 versus 0.49], for bacteremic pneumonia [0.72 versus 0.00], for PPE [0.89 versus 0.00], and for meningitis [0.62 versus 0.00]). IPDs caused by non-PCV13 serotypes did not increase (IR, 3.60 in the PCV7 period versus 3.31 in the PCV13 period), regardless of age or presentation. No IPDs caused by the PCV13 serotypes were found in children who received 3 doses of PCV13. The number of hospitalization days and sanitary costs were significantly lower in the PCV13 period. The switch from PCV7 to PCV13 in the universal pediatric vaccination calendar provided sanitary and economical benefits without a replacement by non-PCV13

  5. Gunite and associated tanks remediation project recycling and waste minimization effort

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Saunders, A.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated clean up of legacy waste resulting from the Manhattan Project. The gunite and associated tanks project has taken an active pollution prevention role by successfully recycling eight tons of scrap metal, reusing contaminated soil in the Area of Contamination, using existing water (supernate) to aid in sludge transfer, and by minimizing and reusing personal protective equipment (PPE) and on-site equipment as much as possible. Total cost savings for Fiscal Year 1997 activities from these efforts are estimated at $4.2 million dollars.

  6. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  7. Arc and flash burn hazards at various levels of an electrical system

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, S.; Jones, R.A.; McClung, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the effect on humans of arcing and flashing from high energy electrical equipment. It reviews the results of a survey of several large petrochemical facilities in the US about personal protective equipment (PPE) and other equipment currently used for protection from arcing and flashing. This paper also presents the results of calculations done for typical industrial and large commercial electrical distribution systems and supports the use of personal and other protective equipment for work performed on or near high energy electrical equipment.

  8. Internal Controls Over the Completeness of the Air Force Military Equipment Baseline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-06

    identified as excess. It shall be recorded in an appropriate asset account at its expected net realizable value . Any difference in the book value of the PP...E and its expected net realizable value shall be recognized as a gain or a loss in the period of adjustment. DoD 7000.14-R also provides that...obsolete in advance of expectations, or is identified as excess. It shall be recorded in an appropriate asset account at its expected net realizable value . Any

  9. Applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in Mining Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairul Nizam Mahmad, Mohd; Z, Mohd Remy Rozainy M. A.; Baharun, Norlia

    2016-06-01

    RFID technology has recently become a dream of many companies or organizations because of its strategic potential in transforming mining operations. Now is the perfect time, for RFID technology arise as the next revolution in mining industries. This paper will review regarding the application of RFID in mining industries and access knowledge regarding RFID technology and overseen the opportunity of this technology to become an importance element in mining industries. The application of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) in mining industries includes to control of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), control of personnel to access mining sites and RFID solutions for tracking explosives.

  10. Upper body cooling during exercise-heat stress wearing the improved toxicological agent protective system for HAZMAT operations.

    PubMed

    Cadarette, Bruce S; Levine, Leslie; Staab, Janet E; Kolka, Margaret A; Correa, Matthew M; Whipple, Matthew; Sawka, Michael N

    2003-01-01

    This study compared endurance in a U.S. Army developmental Occupational Safety and Health Administration Level B personal protective equipment (PPE) system against the toxicological agent protective (TAP) suit, the Army's former standard PPE for Level A and Level B toxic environments. The developmental system consisted of two variations: the improved toxicological agent protective (ITAP) suit with self-contained breathing apparatus (ITAP-SCBA), weight 32 kg, and the ITAP with blower (ITAP-B), weight 21 kg. Both ITAP suits included the personal ice cooling system (PICS). TAP (weight 9.5 kg) had no cooling. It was hypothesized that PICS would effectively cool both ITAP configurations, and endurance in TAP would be limited by heat strain. Eight subjects (six men, two women) attempted three 2-hour treadmill walks (0.89 m/sec, 0% grade, rest/exercise cycles of 10/20 min) at 38 degrees C, 30% relative humidity. Metabolic rate for TAP (222+/-35 W) was significantly less than either ITAP-SCBA (278+/-27 W) or ITAP-B (262+/-24 W) (p<0.05). Endurance time was longer in ITAP-SCBA (85+/-20 min) and ITAP-B (87+/-25 min) than in TAP (46+/-10 min) (p<0.05). Heat storage was greater in TAP (77+/-15 W.m(-2)) than in ITAP-SCBA (51+/-16 W.m(-2)) (p<0.05), which was not different from ITAP-B (59+/-14 W.m(-2)). Sweating rate was greater in TAP (23.5+/-11.7 g/min(1)) than in either ITAP-SCBA (11.1+/-2.9 g/min) or ITAP-B (12.8+/-3.5 g/min) (p<0.05). Endurance in ITAP was nearly twice as long as in PPE with no cooling, even though the PICS, SCBA tanks, and new uniform itself all served to increase metabolic cost over that in TAP. PICS could also be used with civilian Levels A and B PPE increasing work time and worker safety.

  11. Measurement of effective piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films for energy harvesting application with interdigitated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Muralt, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) systems with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films play an increasingly important role for two reasons: first, such a configuration generates higher voltages than parallel plate capacitor-type electrode (PPE) structures, and second, the application of an electric field leads to a compressive stress component in addition to the overall stress state, unlike a PPE structure, which results in tensile stress component. Because ceramics tend to crack at relatively moderate tensile stresses, this means that IDEs have a lower risk of cracking than PPEs. For these reasons, IDE systems are ideal for energy harvesting of vibration energy, and for actuators. Systematic investigations of PZT films with IDE systems have not yet been undertaken. In this work, we present results on the evaluation of the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients with IDE systems. Additionally, we also propose a simple and measurable figure of merit (FOM) to analyze and evaluate the relevant piezoelectric parameter for harvesting efficiency without the need to fabricate the energy harvesting device. Idealized effective coefficients e(IDE) and h(IDE) are derived, showing its composite nature with about one-third contribution of the transverse effect, and about two-thirds contribution of the longitudinal effect in the case of a PZT film deposited on a (100)-oriented silicon wafer with the in-plane electric field along one of the <011> Si directions. Randomly oriented 1-μm-thick PZT 53/47 film deposited by a sol-gel technique, was evaluated and yielded an effective coefficient e(IDE) of 15 C·m(-2). Our FOM is the product between effective e and h coefficient representing twice the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric film per unit strain deformation (both for IDE and PPE systems). Assuming homogeneous fields between the fingers, and neglecting the contribution from below the electrode fingers, the FOM for IDE structures with larger electrode gap is derived

  12. Determination of Structure and Reaction Kinetics of Epoxy/Amine Systems Using Magnetic Resonance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-07

    resins. 0- CH2 -CH -CH 2 7&7( 0. 0* TEMPENE Glycidyl TANOL NH 2 HNCH 3 N (CH 3)2 **- 7( 7 7( 7 7N7 0’ 0* 0* TAMIN METAMIN DIMETAMIN GP41 -0053-7...min) GP41 -005-2 9 Figure 12. Time dependence of normalized spin-probe concentration. P/Pe, In TGDDM end-labeled with METAMIN (reaction temperature...200 300 400 500 600 700 t (min) GP41 .OO5).19 Figure 16. Time dependence of mormaized spin-probe concentration, P/P., In reaction of TGDDM with

  13. Maintenance Operations Degradation of Airfield Pavement Markings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    0630 Bobcat Toolcat . SE:CnON I · TRMIIIG CBmRCATIOH (Sa..ECT oeE STATEIIENT OM.Yl 0 I CER1"FY niE AeovE TRAINEE HAS BEEH FUU Y 1RAIIED ON lME va«::.E...container into tank on back of Toolcat Bobcat . PPE includes nitrile gloves, safety glasses, and ABUs with sleeves rolled down. 2. Spray all...provided from the Bobcat Manufacturer. To maintain the intended usage and life span of the bristles, never “Bulldoze” or “Mop” with the broom. When

  14. Expansion of serotype coverage in the universal pediatric vaccination calendar: short-term effects on age- and serotype-dependent incidence of invasive pneumococcal clinical presentations in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Picazo, Juan; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesus; Casado-Flores, Juan; Negreira, Sagrario; García-de-Miguel, Maria-Jesus; Hernández-Sampelayo, Teresa; Otheo, Enrique; Méndez, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    In Madrid, Spain, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the pediatric universal vaccination calendar in June 2010. A prospective clinical surveillance that included all children hospitalized with culture- and/or PCR-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was performed in all Madrid hospitals. The incidence rates (IRs) (defined as the number of cases/100,000 inhabitants aged <15 years) in the PCV7 (May 2007 to April 2010) versus PCV13 (May 2011 to April 2012) periods were compared. There were 499 cases in the PCV7 period and 79 cases in the PCV13 period. Globally, the IR significantly decreased from 17.09 (PCV7 period) to 7.70 (PCV13 period), with significant decreases (PCV7 versus PCV13 periods) in all age groups for bacteremic pneumonia (5.51 versus 1.56), parapneumonic pneumococcal empyema (PPE) (5.72 versus 3.12), and meningitis (2.16 versus 0.97). In the PCV13 period, significant reductions (the IR in the PCV7 period versus the IR in the PCV13 period) were found in IPDs caused by PCV13 serotypes (13.49 versus 4.38), and specifically by serotypes 1 (globally [4.79 versus 2.53], for bacteremic pneumonia [2.23 versus 0.97], and for PPE [2.26 versus 1.17]), serotype 5 (globally [1.88 versus 0.00], for bacteremic pneumonia [0.89 versus 0.00], and for PPE [0.55 versus 0.00]), and serotype 19A (globally [3.77 versus 0.49], for bacteremic pneumonia [0.72 versus 0.00], for PPE [0.89 versus 0.00], and for meningitis [0.62 versus 0.00]). IPDs caused by non-PCV13 serotypes did not increase (IR, 3.60 in the PCV7 period versus 3.31 in the PCV13 period), regardless of age or presentation. No IPDs caused by the PCV13 serotypes were found in children who received 3 doses of PCV13. The number of hospitalization days and sanitary costs were significantly lower in the PCV13 period. The switch from PCV7 to PCV13 in the universal pediatric vaccination calendar provided sanitary and economical benefits without a replacement by non-PCV13

  15. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  16. Economic Analysis of Hazardous Waste Minimization Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    OF REPORT OF THIS PP,,E OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassilied Unclassified SAR NSN 7540 01-280 5500 SuxVl form t (Rev 2- R ]I Pe•nbed or ANSi Srd 2r39...Consulting Associates, Inc.. 15 June 1987). Chapter 7. T . Page, R . Harris, and J. Bruser, Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water: A Cost-Benefit Analysis...Pretreatment of Hazardous Waste, EPA/600/D-87/047 (EPA, January 1987), pp 58-70. Page, T ., R . Harris, and J. Bruser. Removal of Carcinogens from Drinking Water

  17. Comparison of united-atom potentials for the simulation of vapor-liquid equilibria and interfacial properties of long-chain n-alkanes up to n-C100.

    PubMed

    Müller, Erich A; Mejía, Andrés

    2011-11-10

    Canonical ensemble molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are reported which compute both the vapor-liquid equilibrium properties (vapor pressure and liquid and vapor densities) and the interfacial properties (density profiles, interfacial tensions, entropy and enthalpy of surface formation) of four long-chained n-alkanes: n-decane (n-C(10)), n-eicosane (n-C(20)), n-hexacontane (n-C(60)), and n-decacontane (n-C(100)). Three of the most commonly employed united-atom (UA) force fields for alkanes (SKS: Smit, B.; Karaborni, S.; Siepmann, J. I. J. Chem. Phys. 1995,102, 2126-2140; J. Chem. Phys. 1998,109, 352; NERD: Nath, S. K.; Escobedo, F. A.; de Pablo, J. J. J. Chem. Phys. 1998, 108, 9905-9911; and TraPPE: Martin M. G.; Siepmann, J. I. J. Phys. Chem. B1998, 102, 2569-2577.) are critically appraised. The computed results have been compared to the available experimental data and those fitted using the square gradient theory (SGT). In the latter approach, the Lennard-Jones chain equation of state (EoS), appropriately parametrized for long hydrocarbons, is used to model the homogeneous bulk phase Helmholtz energy. The MD results for phase equilibria of n-decane and n-eicosane exhibit sensible agreement both to the experimental data and EoS correlation for all potentials tested, with the TraPPE potential showing the lowest deviations. However, as the molecular chain increases to n-hexacontane and n-decacontane, the reliability of the UA potentials decreases, showing notorious subpredictions of both saturated liquid density and vapor pressure. Based on the recommended data and EoS results for the heaviest hydrocarbons, it is possible to attest, that in this extreme, the TraPPE potential shows the lowest liquid density deviations. The low absolute values of the vapor pressure preclude the discrimination among the three UA potentials studied. On the other hand, interfacial properties are very sensitive to the type of UA potential thus allowing a differentiation of the

  18. Discovery of dual positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the metabotropic glutamate 2 receptor and CysLT1 antagonists for treating migraine headache.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Maria-Jesus; Benesh, Dana R; Knobelsdorf, James A; Khilevich, Albert; Cortez, Guillermo S; Mokube, Fese; Aicher, Thomas D; Groendyke, Todd M; Marmsater, Fredrik P; Tang, Tony P; Johnson, Kirk W; Clemens-Smith, Amy; Muhlhauser, Mark A; Swanson, Steven; Catlow, John; Emkey, Renee; Johnson, Michael P; Schkeryantz, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-15

    Pyridylmethylsulfonamide series were the first reported example of positive allosteric modulators (PAM) of the mGlu2 receptor. The hydroxyacetophenone scaffold is a second series of mGlu2 PAMs we have identified. This series of molecules are potent mGlu2 potentiators and possess significant CysLT1 (cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1) antagonist activity, showing in vivo efficacy in a dural plasma protein extravasation (PPE) model of migraine. In this paper, we describe the dual SAR, pharmacokinetics and preclinical in vivo efficacy data for a tetrazole containing hydroxyacetophenone scaffold.

  19. NFPA 70E: Performing the electrical flash hazard analysis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, W Jon

    2005-08-01

    Arc flash hazards pose a serious risk to employee safety; proper safe work practices must be utilized. Electrical equipment > or = 50 volts must be deenergized and locked out/tagged out prior to servicing and maintenance unless doing so would increase hazards or is infeasible. Remember, convenience is not an acceptable reason for keeping equipment energized during servicing and maintenance. If electrical equipment must remain energized during Servicing and maintenance, NFPA 70E should be consulted to determine flash hazard boundaries as well as required PPE. Finally, circuit breakers and electrical disconnects must be marked to warn qualified employees of potential arc flash hazards.

  20. Dielectric and electrical hazard shoes.

    PubMed

    Hoagland, Hugh

    2011-04-01

    With OSHA early documents falling on the side of EH shoes for electrical work, companies would do well to consider them for all electrical workers and other workers exposed to electrical hazards or damp locations. These shoes rarely add more than $5 to the cost of the shoe and have been known to save lives. They should be considered for low-voltage (<750V) and low-risk tasks. High-risk tasks, environments, and medium and high voltages require more and more stable protection. ASTM F1117 shoes provide this type of protection and are the preferred step potential PPE option in both OSHA 1910.269 and NFPA 70E.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Potential Fuel System Icing Inhibitors in Aviation Jet Fuel Using the US Navy Aircraft Fuel System Icing Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-29

    candidate. Empirical formula: CgH14°4. o HC II 21’O~CH3 HC-CH3 HL....Oy CH32 I o 5 NAVAIRWARCENACDIVTRENTON-LR-PPE-97-3 (20) 2-Methyl-l,3- Propanediol ...friendly FSII candidate. Empirical formula: C4H1002. H2C-OH --/ HC- CH3 / H2C-OH (21) A mixture ofthree components (8% 2-Methy1-1,3- Propanediol ; 48% 3...Navy/U.S. Air ForceFSn development project; an environmentally friendly FSII candidate. 2-Methyl-l,3- Propanediol 3-Hydroxy-2-MethylPropyl Acetate + o

  2. Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows (3rd), University of California, Davis, California, 9-11 September 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Evolution in time of the corbuean c oef - AOiit at Y/ ifr disfrta stafronsth 1- 0 wall.eSwat I 26 -PTW’U!,I_ _ VV-_/(U, >< 8.46V SESSION 9 - GEOPHYSICAL...scnandwthnhe aiu turblen miing aye isunstblein he sme ort of the maximum velocity which is equal to of way as a laminar mixing layer. If the axisy...Fig 2 ppe: T cotous aeadof paaboa0o Fig. 4 Same as Fig. 2 except A13. Contour interval inteval .004 Lovr: sme ecept04.) 19.8 .00 . .006 .4 2 ~ The

  3. Microwave-assisted cyclizations promoted by polyphosphoric acid esters: a general method for 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Jimena E; Mollo, María C; Orelli, Liliana R

    2016-01-01

    The first general procedure for the synthesis of 5 to 7-membered 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes is presented, by microwave-assisted ring closure of ω-arylaminonitriles promoted by polyphosphoric acid (PPA) esters. 1-Aryl-2-iminopyrrolidines were easily prepared from the acyclic precursors employing a chloroformic solution of ethyl polyphosphate (PPE). The use of trimethylsilyl polyphosphate (PPSE) in solvent-free conditions allowed for the synthesis of 1-aryl-2-iminopiperidines and hitherto unreported 1-aryl-2-iminoazepanes. The cyclization reaction involves good to high yields and short reaction times, and represents a novel application of PPA esters in heterocyclic synthesis.

  4. Microwave-assisted cyclizations promoted by polyphosphoric acid esters: a general method for 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Jimena E; Mollo, María C

    2016-01-01

    Summary The first general procedure for the synthesis of 5 to 7-membered 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes is presented, by microwave-assisted ring closure of ω-arylaminonitriles promoted by polyphosphoric acid (PPA) esters. 1-Aryl-2-iminopyrrolidines were easily prepared from the acyclic precursors employing a chloroformic solution of ethyl polyphosphate (PPE). The use of trimethylsilyl polyphosphate (PPSE) in solvent-free conditions allowed for the synthesis of 1-aryl-2-iminopiperidines and hitherto unreported 1-aryl-2-iminoazepanes. The cyclization reaction involves good to high yields and short reaction times, and represents a novel application of PPA esters in heterocyclic synthesis. PMID:27829907

  5. Knowledge Representation Of CT Scans Of The Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, Laurens V.; Burke, M. W.; Rada, Roy

    1984-06-01

    We have been investigating diagnostic knowledge models which assist in the automatic classification of medical images by combining information extracted from each image with knowledge specific to that class of images. In a more general sense we are trying to integrate verbal and pictorial descriptions of disease via representations of knowledge, study automatic hypothesis generation as related to clinical medicine, evolve new mathematical image measures while integrating them into the total diagnostic process, and investigate ways to augment the knowledge of the physician. Specifically, we have constructed an artificial intelligence knowledge model using the technique of a production system blending pictorial and verbal knowledge about the respective CT scan and patient history. It is an attempt to tie together different sources of knowledge representation, picture feature extraction and hypothesis generation. Our knowledge reasoning and representation system (KRRS) works with data at the conscious reasoning level of the practicing physician while at the visual perceptional level we are building another production system, the picture parameter extractor (PPE). This paper describes KRRS and its relationship to PPE.

  6. Thermoregulatory responses to layered personal protective clothing: practical implications for oil spill clean-up and remediation.

    PubMed

    Sirikul, Bovorn; Bishop, Phillip A; Nevett, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Many jobs in toxic environments and in less than ideal surroundings, such as oil spill remediation, require the use of 2 layers of personal protective equipment (PPE) to maximize worker safety. This study was designed to assess physiological and subjective responses while working in a single-layer (SL) or double-layer (DL) ensemble during a continuous work protocol in a hot environment of 31 °C WBGT. Eleven men in a repeated-measures design performed 2 counterbalanced work-bouts at a time-weighted work rate of 300 kcal/h. All tests were terminated when a rectal temperature (Tre) of 38.7 °C was attained. Total work time was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter in DL (60.5 ± 3.9 versus 66.4 ± 4.6 min in SL), and final microenvironmental temperature (MEt) (35.6 ± 0.9 °C vs 37.1 ± 0.3 °C) and humidity (MEh) (90.0 ± 4.0% vs 95.4 ± 1.1%) were higher in DL. There were no differences for Tre, mean skin temperature, or sweat rate over time. These data have practical implications in that although the physiological strain on workers in DL was not substantially greater than in SL, worker safety, and productivity can be reduced while working in layered PPE.

  7. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaozhong; Buregyeya, Esther; Musoke, David; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Whalen, Christopher; Bazeyo, William; Williams, Phillip; Ssempebwa, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Results. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Among these, 39.5% experienced biological hazards while 31.5% experienced nonbiological hazards. Predictors for experiencing hazards included not wearing the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE), working overtime, job related pressures, and working in multiple health facilities. Control measures to mitigate hazards were availing separate areas and containers to store medical waste and provision of safety tools and equipment. Conclusion. Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. Associated factors include not wearing all necessary protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related pressures, and working in multiple facilities. Interventions should be instituted to mitigate the hazards. Specifically PPE supply gaps, job related pressures, and complacence in adhering to mitigation measures should be addressed. PMID:25802531

  8. Electronic excitation and relaxation dynamics of the LUMO-derived level in rubrene thin films on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueba, Takahiro; Yamada, Takashi; Munakata, Toshiaki

    2016-12-01

    Time resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy has been performed for rubrene films on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. When a second layer is formed on the first monolayer (ML), 2PPE intensity from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO)-derived level shows a clear resonance at a pump photon energy of 4.1 eV. In contrast, the resonance is very weak for sub-ML films. Substrate-molecule interaction blurs the intramolecular resonant transition for sub-ML films. The lifetime of electrons in the LUMO-derived level increases exponentially with increasing film thickness, for thickness up to 3 ML. The lifetime increase becomes more moderate for further increase in the film thickness. This change in the slope of the increase in lifetime suggests a transition in the relaxation mechanism, from electron tunneling to intramolecular relaxation medicated by the substrate. When ultraviolet photons of 4.45 eV are used to pump electrons to the LUMO-derived level, the decay profiles for films thicker than 1 ML deviate from a simple exponential decay. Such deviation is not significantly observed for sub-ML films. When visible photons of 2.97 eV are used for pumping, the decay profiles are well reproduced by a simple exponential decay, irrespective of the film thickness. The deviation from simple exponential decay is attributed to the relaxation of holes produced at deep occupied levels to the highest occupied molecular orbital-derived level.

  9. Skin toxicity in a patient with ovarian cancer treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kubicka-Wołkowska, Joanna; Kędzierska, Magdalena; Lisik-Habib, Maja; Potemski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is a form of doxorubicin enclosed in pegylated liposomes. In contrast to conventional doxorubicin, PLD is characterized by a lower incidence of cardiotoxicity and myelosuppression. However, it induces specific mucocutaneous side effects, particularly palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE). Other dermal manifestations, such as intertrigo-like dermatitis, diffuse follicular rash, melanotic macules, maculopapular rash or recall phenomenon are less common. Mechanisms that lead to skin toxicity remain unclear, however, certain reports indicate that drug excretion in sweat, host-vs.-altered-host reactions and local mechanical microtrauma play an important role in the development of cutaneous disorders. Effective preventive and curative management has not yet been established. The current study reports a case of a 55-year-old patient with advanced ovarian cancer who developed an uncommon diffuse maculopapular rash and severe PPE during treatment with PLD. Complete regression of the skin disorder was observed after 4 weeks. At present, palliative chemotherapy provides the opportunity to prolong life and alleviate disease symptoms, nonetheless it produces a number of adverse effects. Dermal complications may affect patient quality of life and cause therapy interruption. In the light of widespread use of PLD, skin toxicity associated with this drug creates a major problem. PMID:28105242

  10. A Unique Mutation in a MYB Gene Cosegregates with the Nectarine Phenotype in Peach

    PubMed Central

    Dondini, Luca; Pacheco, Igor; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Gazza, Laura; Scalabrin, Simone; Strozzi, Francesco; Tartarini, Stefano; Bassi, Daniele; Verde, Ignazio; Rossini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Nectarines play a key role in peach industry; the fuzzless skin has implications for consumer acceptance. The peach/nectarine (G/g) trait was described as monogenic and previously mapped on chromosome 5. Here, the position of the G locus was delimited within a 1.1 cM interval (635 kb) based on linkage analysis of an F2 progeny from the cross ‘Contender’ (C, peach) x ‘Ambra’ (A, nectarine). Careful inspection of the genes annotated in the corresponding genomic sequence (Peach v1.0), coupled with variant discovery, led to the identification of MYB gene PpeMYB25 as a candidate for trichome formation on fruit skin. Analysis of genomic re-sequencing data from five peach/nectarine accessions pointed to the insertion of a LTR retroelement in exon 3 of the PpeMYB25 gene as the cause of the recessive glabrous phenotype. A functional marker (indelG) developed on the LTR insertion cosegregated with the trait in the CxA F2 progeny and was validated on a broad panel of genotypes, including all known putative donors of the nectarine trait. This marker was shown to efficiently discriminate between peach and nectarine plants, indicating that a unique mutational event gave rise to the nectarine trait and providing a useful diagnostic tool for early seedling selection in peach breeding programs. PMID:24595269

  11. Database for Safety-Oriented Tracking of Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Jacob; Carr, Sandra; Plumlee, Debrah; Slater, Andy; Samson, Thomas M.; Holowaty, Toby L.; Skeete, Darren; Haenz, Mary Alice; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa

    2010-01-01

    SafetyChem is a computer program that maintains a relational database for tracking chemicals and associated hazards at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by use of a Web-based graphical user interface. The SafetyChem database is accessible to authorized users via a JSC intranet. All new chemicals pass through a safety office, where information on hazards, required personal protective equipment (PPE), fire-protection warnings, and target organ effects (TOEs) is extracted from material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and recorded in the database. The database facilitates real-time management of inventory with attention to such issues as stability, shelf life, reduction of waste through transfer of unused chemicals to laboratories that need them, quantification of chemical wastes, and identification of chemicals for which disposal is required. Upon searching the database for a chemical, the user receives information on physical properties of the chemical, hazard warnings, required PPE, a link to the MSDS, and references to the applicable International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 standard work instructions and the applicable job hazard analysis. Also, to reduce the labor hours needed to comply with reporting requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the data can be directly exported into the JSC hazardous- materials database.

  12. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  13. Photopyroelectric Calorimetry of Magnetic Nanofluids: Effect of Type of Surfactant and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadarlat, D.; Longuemart, S.; Turcu, R.; Streza, M.; Vekas, L.; Hadj Sahraoui, A.

    2014-11-01

    Five types of magnetic nanofluids, based on nanoparticles with water as the carrier liquid, were investigated by using the two photopyroelectric (PPE) detection configurations (back (BPPE) and front (FPPE)), together with the thermal-wave resonator cavity (TWRC) technique as the scanning procedure. The difference between the nanofluids was the type of surfactant: double layers of lauric (LA-LA), oleic (OA-OA), and miristic (MA-MA) acids and also double layers of lauric-miristic (LA-MA) and palmitic-oleic (PA-OA) fatty acids were used. In both detection configurations, the information was contained in the phase of the PPE signal. The thermal diffusivity of nanofluids was obtained in the BPPE configuration, from the scan of the phase of the signal as a function of the liquid's thickness. Using the same scanning procedure in the FPPE configuration, the thermal effusivity was directly measured. The influence of a 0.12 kG magnetic field on the thermal effusivity and thermal diffusivity was also investigated. Because of different surfactants, the thermal effusivity of the investigated nanofluids ranges from to , and the thermal diffusivity, from to . The magnetic field has practically no influence on the thermal effusivity, and produces a maximum increase of the thermal diffusivity (LA-LA surfactant) of about 4 %.

  14. Environmental and Risk Factors of Leptospirosis: A Spatial Analysis in Semarang City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Fajriyah, Silviana; Udiyono, Ari; Saraswati, Lintang Dian

    2017-02-01

    Leptospirosis is zoonotic potentially epidemic with clinical manifestations from mild to severe and can cause death. The incidence of leptospirosis in Indonesia tends to increase by the year. The case fatality rate in Semarang was greater than the national’s (9.38%). The purpose of this study was to describe the environmental risk factors of leptospirosis in Semarang spatially. The study design was descriptive observational with cross sectional approach. The population and samples in this study were confirmed leptospirosis in Semarang from January 2014 until May 2015, 88 respondents in 61 villages of 15 sub-districts in Semarang. The variables were environmental conditions, the presence of rats, wastewater disposal, waste disposal facilities, the presence of pets, the presence of rivers, flood’s profile, tidal inundation profile, vegetation, contact with rats, and Protected Personal Equipment/PPE utilization. Based on the spatial analysis, variables that found in the big half area of Semarang are environmental conditions, the presence of rats, wastewater disposal, waste disposal facilities, contact with rats, and PPE utilization. The presence of pets at risk, the presence of rivers, flood’s profile, inundation profile, and vegetation were found only in small half of Semarang area. People are expected to maintain their personal and environmental hygiene to prevent the transmission.

  15. Conjugated Polyelectrolytes with Imidazolium Solubilizing Groups. Properties and Application to Photodynamic Inactivation of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Anand; Pappas, Harry C; Hill, Eric H; Huang, Yun; Whitten, David G; Schanze, Kirk S

    2015-12-30

    This article reports an investigation of the photophysical properties and the light- and dark-biocidal activity of two poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE)-based conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) bearing cationic imidazolium solubilizing groups. The two polymers feature the same PPE-type backbone, but they differ in the frequency of imidazoliums on the chains: PIM-4 features two imidazolium units on every phenylene repeat, whereas PIM-2 contains two imidazolium units on every other phenylene unit. Both polymers are very soluble in water and polar organic solvents, but their propensity to aggregate in water differs with the density of the imidazolium units. The polymers are highly fluorescent, and they exhibit the amplified quenching effect when exposed to a low concentration of anionic electron-acceptor anthraquinone disulfonate. The CPEs are also quenched by a relatively low concentration of pyrophosphate by an aggregation-induced quenching mechanism. The biocidal activity of the cationic imidazolium CPEs was studied against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the dark and under blue-light illumination. Both polymers are effective biocides, exhibiting greater than 3 log kill with 30-60 min of light exposure at concentrations of ≤10 μg mL(-1).

  16. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

  17. Surface Charges and Shell Crosslinks Each Play Significant Roles in Mediating Degradation, Biofouling, Cytotoxicity and Immunotoxicity for Polyphosphoester-based Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhang, Fuwu; Deng, Zhou J.; Lim, Young H.; Wang, Hai; Parsamian, Perouza; Hammond, Paula T.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-11-01

    The construction of nanostructures from biodegradable precursors and shell/core crosslinking have been pursued as strategies to solve the problems of toxicity and limited stability, respectively. Polyphosphoester (PPE)-based micelles and crosslinked nanoparticles with non-ionic, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic surface characteristics for potential packaging and delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, were constructed using a quick and efficient synthetic strategy, and importantly, demonstrated remarkable differences in terms of cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and biofouling properties, as a function of their surface characteristics and also with dependence on crosslinking throughout the shell layers. For instance, crosslinking of zwitterionic micelles significantly reduced the immunotoxicity, as evidenced from the absence of secretions of any of the 23 measured cytokines from RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages treated with the nanoparticles. The micelles and their crosslinked analogs demonstrated lower cytotoxicity than several commercially-available vehicles, and their degradation products were not cytotoxic to cells at the range of the tested concentrations. PPE-nanoparticles are expected to have broad implications in clinical nanomedicine as alternative vehicles to those involved in several of the currently available medications.

  18. Oxygen Substituent Effects in the Pyrolysis of Phenethyl Phenyl Ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, Phillip F; Kidder, Michelle; Buchanan III, A C

    2007-01-01

    The dominant structural linkage in the abundant renewable energy resource, lignin, is the arylglycerol-{beta}-aryl ether commonly referred to as the {beta}-O-4 linkage. The simplest representation of this linkage, unadorned by substituents, is phenethyl phenyl ether (PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh; PPE). Our prior detailed kinetic studies of the pyrolysis of PPE at 330-425 C showed that a free-radical chain mechanism is involved that cycles through radicals formed at both the {alpha}- and {beta}-carbons. The previously unrecognized competing path involving rearrangement of the {beta}-carbon radical by an O,C-phenyl shift accounts for ca. 25% of the products. In this paper, we explore the effect of aromatic hydroxy and methoxy substituents on both the rate and product selectivity for the pyrolysis of these more complex lignin model compounds. The pyrolysis reactions are conducted in biphenyl solvent at 345 C and low conversions to minimize secondary reactions. The pyrolysis rates were found to vary substantially as a function of the substitution pattern. The rearrangement path involving the {beta}-carbon radical and O,C-phenyl shift was found to remain important in all the molecules investigated, and the selectivity for this path also showed a dependence on the substitution pattern.

  19. Ab initio study for the hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin.

    SciTech Connect

    Beste, Ariana; Harrison, Robert J; Britt, Phillip F; Buchanan III, A C

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen abstraction reactions play a key role in many thermal and catalytic processes involved in the production of fuels and chemicals. In this paper, the hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin by the benzyl radical are investigated by ab initio methods. These reactions are representatives of similar reactions occurring in the thermolysis of lignin model compounds containing the phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) structural moiety. The title reactions serve to calibrate the theoretical methods to be used in the study of PPE pyrolysis through comparison of the reaction barriers with reliable experimental values. We used two different hybrid density functionals (BHandHLYP, B3LYP) and second-order perturbation theory to obtain equilibrium and transition state geometries. We recomputed selected energy barriers at the B3LYP geometries with the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method. Multiple transition states were found for both reactions. BHandHLYP underestimates and second-order perturbation theory overestimates the reaction barriers; B3LYP energy barriers agree well with experiment and the corresponding CCSD energy barriers. The flat potential energy surface around the saddle points causes numerical inaccuracies. We observe the break down of the harmonic approximation in the calculation of low frequencies.

  20. Direct observation of photocarrier electron dynamics in C60 films on graphite by time-resolved two-photon photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuta, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Ohta, Tsutomu; Nakaya, Masato; Eguchi, Toyoaki; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2016-10-01

    Time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy is employed to probe the electronic states of a C60 fullerene film formed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), acting as a model two-dimensional (2D) material for multi-layered graphene. Owing to the in-plane sp2-hybridized nature of the HOPG, the TR-2PPE spectra reveal the energetics and dynamics of photocarriers in the C60 film: after hot excitons are nascently formed in C60 via intramolecular excitation by a pump photon, they dissociate into photocarriers of free electrons and the corresponding holes, and the electrons are subsequently detected by a probe photon as photoelectrons. The decay rate of photocarriers from the C60 film into the HOPG is evaluated to be 1.31 × 1012 s‑1, suggesting a weak van der Waals interaction at the interface, where the photocarriers tentatively occupy the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of C60. The photocarrier electron dynamics following the hot exciton dissociation in the organic thin films has not been realized for any metallic substrates exhibiting strong interactions with the overlayer. Furthermore, the thickness dependence of the electron lifetime in the LUMO reveals that the electron hopping rate in C60 layers is 3.3 ± 1.2 × 1013 s‑1.

  1. The Effects of Metabolic Work Rate and Ambient Environment on Physiological Tolerance Times While Wearing Explosive and Chemical Personal Protective Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Joseph T.; Stewart, Kelly L.; Stewart, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the physiological tolerance times when wearing explosive and chemical (>35 kg) personal protective equipment (PPE) in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Twelve healthy males undertook nine trials which involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4, and 5.5 km·h−1 in the following environmental conditions, 21, 30, and 37°C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). Participants exercised for 60 min or until volitional fatigue, core temperature reached 39°C, or heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum. Tolerance time, core temperature, skin temperature, mean body temperature, heart rate, and body mass loss were measured. Exercise time was reduced in the higher WBGT environments (WBGT37 < WBGT30 < WBGT21; P < 0.05) and work intensities (5.5 < 4 < 2.5 km·h−1; P < 0.001). The majority of trials (85/108; 78.7%) were terminated due to participant's heart rate exceeding 90% of their maximum. A total of eight trials (7.4%) lasted the full duration. Only nine (8.3%) trials were terminated due to volitional fatigue and six (5.6%) due to core temperatures in excess of 39°C. These results demonstrate that physiological tolerance times are influenced by the external environment and workload and that cardiovascular strain is the limiting factor to work tolerance when wearing this heavy multilayered PPE. PMID:25866818

  2. Predicting hydration Gibbs energies of alkyl-aromatics using molecular simulation: a comparison of current force fields and the development of a new parameter set for accurate solvation data.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Nuno M; Jorge, Miguel; Queimada, António J; Gomes, José R B; Economou, Ioannis G; Macedo, Eugénia A

    2011-10-14

    The Gibbs energy of hydration is an important quantity to understand the molecular behavior in aqueous systems at constant temperature and pressure. In this work we review the performance of some popular force fields, namely TraPPE, OPLS-AA and Gromos, in reproducing the experimental Gibbs energies of hydration of several alkyl-aromatic compounds--benzene, mono-, di- and tri-substituted alkylbenzenes--using molecular simulation techniques. In the second part of the paper, we report a new model that is able to improve such hydration energy predictions, based on Lennard Jones parameters from the recent TraPPE-EH force field and atomic partial charges obtained from natural population analysis of density functional theory calculations. We apply a scaling factor determined by fitting the experimental hydration energy of only two solutes, and then present a simple rule to generate atomic partial charges for different substituted alkyl-aromatics. This rule has the added advantages of eliminating the unnecessary assumption of fixed charge on every substituted carbon atom and providing a simple guideline for extrapolating the charge assignment to any multi-substituted alkyl-aromatic molecule. The point charges derived here yield excellent predictions of experimental Gibbs energies of hydration, with an overall absolute average deviation of less than 0.6 kJ mol(-1). This new parameter set can also give good predictive performance for other thermodynamic properties and liquid structural information.

  3. Heat stress management program improving worker health and operational effectiveness: a case study.

    PubMed

    Huss, Rosalyn G; Skelton, Scott B; Alvis, Kimberly L; Shane, Leigh A

    2013-03-01

    Heat stress monitoring is a vital component of an effective health and safety program when employees work in exceptionally warm environments. Workers at hazardous waste sites often wear personal protective equipment (PPE), which increases the body heat stress load. No specific Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations address heat stress; however, OSHA does provide several guidance documents to assist employers in addressing this serious workplace health hazard. This article describes a heat stress and surveillance plan implemented at a hazardous waste site as part of the overall health and safety program. The PPE requirement for work at this site, coupled with extreme environmental temperatures, made heat stress a significant concern. Occupational health nurses and industrial hygienists developed a monitoring program for heat stress designed to prevent the occurrence of significant heat-related illness in site workers. The program included worker education on the signs of heat-related illness and continuous physiologic monitoring to detect early signs of heat-related health problems. Biological monitoring data were collected before workers entered the exclusion zone and on exiting the zone following decontamination. Sixty-six site workers were monitored throughout site remediation. More than 1,700 biological monitoring data points were recorded. Outcomes included improved worker health and safety, and increased operational effectiveness.

  4. Persimmon peel extract attenuates PDGF-BB-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell migration and invasion through inhibition of c-Src activity.

    PubMed

    Son, Joe Eun; Hwang, Mun Kyung; Lee, Eunjung; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong-Eun; Jung, Sung Keun; Kim, Jong Rhan; Ahn, Gwang-Hwan; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2013-12-15

    The unregulated migration and invasion of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) into the intima is a crucial step in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, the oriental persimmon extract (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Fuyu) has been investigated for its anti-atherogenic properties, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the inhibitory effects of persimmon peel and flesh extract on the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB-induced MMP-1 expression using Western blot, and abnormal migration and invasion of HASMCs using a modified Boyden chamber assay and a wound healing assay. We also evaluated the inhibitory effects of persimmon peel extract on aortic vessel thickening using a rat aortic sprouting assay. Persimmon peel (PPE), but not flesh extract (PFE), inhibited PDGF-BB-induced MMP-1 expression, cell migration and invasion in HASMCs, while suppressing the rat aortic sprouting. Western blot and in vitro kinase assay data demonstrated that PPE inhibited Src kinase activity and subsequently attenuated PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt signalling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that persimmon peel might possess a potential anti-atherogenic effect through attenuation of ASMCs migration and invasion and aortic sprouting by direct inhibition of the c-Src kinase activity.

  5. Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonça; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence. PMID:24031211

  6. Direct observation of photocarrier electron dynamics in C60 films on graphite by time-resolved two-photon photoemission

    PubMed Central

    Shibuta, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Ohta, Tsutomu; Nakaya, Masato; Eguchi, Toyoaki; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy is employed to probe the electronic states of a C60 fullerene film formed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), acting as a model two-dimensional (2D) material for multi-layered graphene. Owing to the in-plane sp2-hybridized nature of the HOPG, the TR-2PPE spectra reveal the energetics and dynamics of photocarriers in the C60 film: after hot excitons are nascently formed in C60 via intramolecular excitation by a pump photon, they dissociate into photocarriers of free electrons and the corresponding holes, and the electrons are subsequently detected by a probe photon as photoelectrons. The decay rate of photocarriers from the C60 film into the HOPG is evaluated to be 1.31 × 1012 s−1, suggesting a weak van der Waals interaction at the interface, where the photocarriers tentatively occupy the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of C60. The photocarrier electron dynamics following the hot exciton dissociation in the organic thin films has not been realized for any metallic substrates exhibiting strong interactions with the overlayer. Furthermore, the thickness dependence of the electron lifetime in the LUMO reveals that the electron hopping rate in C60 layers is 3.3 ± 1.2 × 1013 s−1. PMID:27775005

  7. Identification of potential hazards associated with new residential construction.

    PubMed

    Methner, M M

    2000-02-01

    There were several advantages and limitations of this observational study. The most important advantage of this study was the opportunity to observe residential construction workers performing their jobs. By observing work practices, valuable information was gathered about specific trades and their potential exposure to various chemical and physical agents. This information will be useful in guiding subsequent exposure assessments. Probably the greatest limitation of this study was the lack of participation by homebuilders. Ideally, observations of construction processes would have been more objective if the study included the participation of more than one homebuilder. Aside from one worker who was observed to wear safety glasses, leather gloves, and a dust mask, virtually no personal protective equipment (PPE) was observed onsite. Often small contractors do not have the financial resources necessary to procure the appropriate PPE and issue these items to the workers. Based on hazard prevalence, professional judgement, and the degree of hazardous product use, potential exposures that warrant quantitative sampling efforts during Phase 2 of this study are: bulldozer/backhoe operators--noise, vibration, diesel exhaust; concrete workers--naphtha, mineral spirits, Portland cement; asphalt workers--petroleum hydrocarbons, asphalt, mineral spirits; plumbers--methylethyl ketone, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, cyclohexanone; drywall finishers--total and respirable dust, hexane, acetone; painters--ethylene glycol, VOCs; masons--dust (during the preparation of mortar); floor preparation technicians--total and respirable dust; and ceramic tile installers--toluene, naphtha, silica (from grout powder).

  8. Predicting hydrophobic solvation by molecular simulation: 1. Testing united-atom alkane models.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Miguel; Garrido, Nuno M; Simões, Carlos J V; Silva, Cândida G; Brito, Rui M M

    2017-03-05

    We present a systematic test of the performance of three popular united-atom force fields-OPLS-UA, GROMOS and TraPPE-at predicting hydrophobic solvation, more precisely at describing the solvation of alkanes in alkanes. Gibbs free energies of solvation were calculated for 52 solute/solvent pairs from Molecular Dynamics simulations and thermodynamic integration making use of the IBERCIVIS volunteer computing platform. Our results show that all force fields yield good predictions when both solute and solvent are small linear or branched alkanes (up to pentane). However, as the size of the alkanes increases, all models tend to increasingly deviate from experimental data in a systematic fashion. Furthermore, our results confirm that specific interaction parameters for cyclic alkanes in the united-atom representation are required to account for the additional excluded volume within the ring. Overall, the TraPPE model performs best for all alkanes, but systematically underpredicts the magnitude of solvation free energies by about 6% (RMSD of 1.2 kJ/mol). Conversely, both GROMOS and OPLS-UA systematically overpredict solvation free energies (by ∼13% and 15%, respectively). The systematic trends suggest that all models can be improved by a slight adjustment of their Lennard-Jones parameters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium-99

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, P. M.; Watson, D. D.; Hylko, J. M.

    2002-02-25

    This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge, experience, expertise, and field observations. The information and experience gained from each previous stage and rehearsals contributed to modifying subsequent entries, further emphasizing the importance of developing hold points and incorporating lessons learned. The hold points and lessons learned, such as performing detailed personal protective equipment (PPE) inspections during sizing and repackaging operations, and using foam-type piping insulation to prevent workers from cutting or puncturing their PPE on sharp edge s or small shards generated during sizing operations, minimized direct contact with the Tc-99. To prevent the spread of contamination, the decommissioning activities were performed inside a containment enclosure connected to negative air machines. After performing over 235 individual entries totaling over 285 project hours, only one first aid was recorded during this five-stage project.

  10. Passive and Active Protective Clothing against High-Power Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigs, C.; Hustedt, M.; Kaierle, S.; Wenzel, D.; Markstein, S.; Hutter, A.

    The main objective of the work described in this paper was the development of passive and active protective clothing for the protection of the human skin against accidental laser irradiation and of active protective curtains. Here, the passive systems consist of functional multi-layer textiles, providing a high level of passive laser resistance. In addition, the active functional multi-layer textiles incorporate sensors that detect laser exposure and are, by means of a safety control, able to deactivate the laser beam automatically.Due to the lack of regulations for testing and qualifying textiles to be used as laser PPE, test methods were defined and validated. Additionally, corresponding testing set-ups were developed.Finally, the gap with respect to standardization was bridged by the definition of a test procedure and the requirements with respect to laser PPE.The developments were demonstrated by a set of tailored functional passive and active laser-protective clothing prototypes (gloves, jackets, aprons, trousers) and active curtains as well as by a prototype testing rig, providing the possibility to perform the specified low-power and high-power textile test procedure.

  11. Development of novel synthetic muscle tissues for sports impact surrogates.

    PubMed

    Payne, Thomas; Mitchell, Séan; Bibb, Richard; Waters, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Impact injuries are commonplace in sport and often lead to performance detriment and debilitation. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is prescribed as a mandatory requirement in most sports where these impacts are likely to occur, though the methods of governance and evaluation criteria often do not accurately represent sports specific injury scenarios. One of the key shortcomings of such safety test standards is the human surrogate to which the PPE is affixed; this typically embodies unrepresentative geometries, masses, stiffness and levels of constraint when compared to humans. A key aspect of any human surrogate element is the simulant material used. Most previous sports specific surrogates tend to use off-the-shelf silicone blends to represent all the soft tissue structures within the human limb segment or organ; this approach potentially neglects important human response phenomena caused by the different tissue structures. This study presents an investigation into the use of bespoke additive cure Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) silicone blends to match the reported mechanical properties of human relaxed and contracted skeletal muscle tissues. The silicone simulants have been tested in uniaxial compression through a range of strain rates and fit with a range of constitutive hyperelastic models (Mooney Rivlin, Ogden and Neo Hookean) and a viscoelastic Prony series.

  12. Modulation of the Activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LipY by Its PE Domain.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Christopher K; Broadwell, Lindsey J; Hayne, Cassandra K; Neher, Saskia B

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis harbors over 160 genes encoding PE/PPE proteins, several of which have roles in the pathogen's virulence. A number of PE/PPE proteins are secreted via Type VII secretion systems known as the ESX secretion systems. One PE protein, LipY, has a triglyceride lipase domain in addition to its PE domain. LipY can regulate intracellular triglyceride levels and is also exported to the cell wall by one of the ESX family members, ESX-5. Upon export, LipY's PE domain is removed by proteolytic cleavage. Studies using cells and crude extracts suggest that LipY's PE domain not only directs its secretion by ESX-5, but also functions to inhibit its enzymatic activity. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the role of LipY's PE domain in the regulation of its enzymatic activity. First, we established an improved purification method for several LipY variants using detergent micelles. We then used enzymatic assays to confirm that the PE domain down-regulates LipY activity. The PE domain must be attached to LipY in order to effectively inhibit it. Finally, we determined that full length LipY and the mature lipase lacking the PE domain (LipYΔPE) have similar melting temperatures. Based on our improved purification strategy and activity-based approach, we concluded that LipY's PE domain down-regulates its enzymatic activity but does not impact the thermal stability of the enzyme.

  13. In vitro culture of Babesia bovis in a bovine serum-free culture medium supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenite.

    PubMed

    Rojas Martínez, C; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Figueroa Millán, J V; Acosta Viana, K Y; Gutiérrez Ruiz, E J; Álvarez Martínez, J A

    2016-11-01

    Bovine serum is an important factor for the optimal growth of Babesia bovis in vitro. This protozoan can be cultured in M-199 with Earle's salts medium (M-199) supplemented with 40% bovine serum (BS). In the present study, four media were assessed along with the control medium M-199. The effect on the proliferation of B. bovis in vitro was tested when these media were combined with insulin (Ins), transferrin (Trans) and selenite (Sel) in the absence of bovine serum. Treatment with Advanced DMEM/F12 medium (A-DMEM/F12) achieved the highest percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE), reaching a maximum value of 9.59%. A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with a mixture of Ins (2000 mg/L), Trans (1100 mg/L), and Sel (1.34 mg/L) allowed for the adaptation and proliferation of B. bovis without bovine serum, showed a constant increase in PPE, and reached a maximum value of 9.7% during seven cycles of in vitro culture. It was concluded that continuous proliferation of B. bovis in vitro could be achieved using A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with Ins-Trans-Sel, without bovine serum. After adaptation for proliferation in serum-free medium, the B. bovis strain of parasites could have future use in the study of this economically important protozoan species that affects cattle.

  14. Effect of Porcine Placenta Extract from Subcritical Water Extraction on Photodamage in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bok Kyung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Hong, Yang Hee; Jung, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluated the photoprotective effects of porcine placenta extract (PPE) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to evaluate its functional activities as a skin food ingredient. PPE prepared by subcritical water extraction was termed SPE, and subsequently digested by enzymes to prepare E-SPE. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels (192.0%) induced by UVB were decreased by SPE and E-SPE. SPE had more effective ROS scavenging activity than E-SPE treatment. UVB treatment increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and this elevated expression was decreased by E-SPE treatment. High-dose treatment with E-SPE (50 and 100 µg/mL) reduced TIMP-1 expression levels of UVB-C (control) to 33.5 and 34.6%, respectively. In contrast, at low SPE doses (1 and 10 µg/mL), the treatment slightly decreased TIMP-1 expression levels to 73.3% and 71.3% of UVB-C, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the protective effect of SPE and E-SPE against UVB damage in keratinocytes via ROS scavenging, down-regulating MMP-2 expression and up-regulating TIMP-1 expression. This highlights the potential for SPE as an ingredient in the preparation of functional food against photoaging. PMID:26761824

  15. Dilepton production in proton-proton and quasifree proton-neutron reactions at 1.25 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Shyam, R.; Mosel, U.

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the pp{yields}ppe{sup +}e{sup -} and quasifree pn{yields}pne{sup +}e{sup -} reactions within an effective Lagrangian model at a laboratory kinetic energy of 1.25 GeV for which experimental data have recently been reported by the HADES Collaboration. The model uses a meson-exchange approximation to describe the initial nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering. Contributions to the reaction amplitudes are included from the NN bremsstrahlung as well as from the excitation, propagation, and radiative decay of the {Delta}(1230) isobar state. It is found that the HADES data on the e{sup +}e{sup -} invariant mass distribution in the pp{yields}ppe{sup +}e{sup -} reaction are excellently reproduced by our model where the {Delta} isobar term dominates the spectrum. In the case of the quasifree pn{yields}pne{sup +}e{sup -} reaction, a strong sensitivity to the pion electromagnetic form factor is observed which helps to bring the calculated cross sections closer to the data in the higher dilepton mass region.

  16. Thoracic response to high-rate blunt impacts using an advanced testing platform.

    PubMed

    Wickwire, Alexis C; Merkle, Andrew C; Carneal, Catherine M; Pauson, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    ehind Armor Blunt Trauma (BABT) is a persistent concern for both the military and civil law enforcement. Although personal protective equipment (PPE), including soft and hard body armor, mitigates penetrating injuries from ballistic threats, the impact generates a backface deformation which creates a high-rate blunt impact to the body and potential internal injury (i.e., BABT). A critical need exists to understand the mechanics of the human response and subsequently evaluate the efficacy of current and proposed PPE in mitigating BABT injury risk. Current human surrogate test platforms lack anatomical fidelity or instrumentation for capturing the dynamic transfer of energy during the event. Therefore, we have developed and tested a Human Surrogate Torso Model (HSTM) composed of biosimulants representing soft tissues and skeleton of the human torso. A matrix of pressure transducers were embedded in the soft tissue and a custom displacement sensor was mounted to the skeletal structure to measure sternum displacement. A series of non-penetrating, high energy ballistic tests were performed with the HSTM. Results indicate that both sternum displacement and internal localized pressure are sensitive to impact energy and location. These data provide a spatial and temporal comparison to the current standard (static clay measurements) and a method for evaluating the applicability of thoracic injury metrics, including the Viscous Criterion, for BABT. The HSTM provides an advanced, biomechanically relevant test platform for determining the thoracic response to dynamic loading events due to non-penetrating ballistic impacts.

  17. Permeation Resistance of Personal Protective Equipment Materials to Monomethyhydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, J. M.; Williams, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Permeation resistance was determined by measuring the breakthrough time and time-averaged vapor transmission rate of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) through two types of personal protective equipment (PPE). The two types of PPE evaluated were the totally encapsulating ILC Dover Chemturion Model 1212 chemical protective suit with accessories, and the FabOhio polyvinyl chloride (PVC) splash garment. Two exposure scenarios were simulated: (1) a saturated vapor exposure for 2 hours (h), and (2) a brief MMH 'splash' followed by a 2-h saturated vapor exposure. Time-averaged MMH concentrations inside the totally-encapsulating suit were calculated by summation of the area-weighted contributions made by each suit component. Results show that the totally encapsulating suit provides adequate protection at the new 10 ppb Threshold Limit Value Time-Weighted Average (TLV-TWA). The permeation resistance of the PVC splash garment to MMH was poorer than any of the totally encapsulating suit materials tested. Breakthrough occurred soon after initial vapor or 'splash' exposure.

  18. Bioinformatics Identification of Drug Resistance-Associated Gene Pairs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ze-Jia; Yang, Qing-Yong; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhu, Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Ye

    2016-08-27

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Due to the extensive use of anti-tuberculosis drugs and the development of mutations, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is recognized as one of the most dangerous threats to global tuberculosis control. Some single mutations have been identified to be significantly linked with drug resistance. However, the prior research did not take gene-gene interactions into account, and the emergence of transmissible drug resistance is connected with multiple genetic mutations. In this study we use the bioinformatics software GBOOST (The Hong Kong University, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China) to calculate the interactions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) pairs and identify gene pairs associated with drug resistance. A large part of the non-synonymous mutations in the drug target genes that were included in the screened gene pairs were confirmed by previous reports, which lent sound solid credits to the effectiveness of our method. Notably, most of the identified gene pairs containing drug targets also comprise Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) family proteins, suggesting that PPE family proteins play important roles in the drug resistance of Mtb. Therefore, this study provides deeper insights into the mechanisms underlying anti-tuberculosis drug resistance, and the present method is useful for exploring the drug resistance mechanisms for other microorganisms.

  19. Interaction of anionic phenylene ethynylene polymers with lipids: from membrane embedding to liposome fusion.

    PubMed

    Karam, Pierre; Hariri, Amani A; Calver, Christina F; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Schanze, Kirk S; Cosa, Gonzalo

    2014-09-09

    Here we report spectroscopic studies on the interaction of negatively charged, amphiphilic polyphenylene ethynylene (PPE) polymers with liposomes prepared either from negative, positive or zwitterionic lipids. Emission spectra of PPEs of 7 and 49 average repeat units bearing carboxylate terminated side chains showed that the polymer embeds within positively charged lipids where it exists as free chains. No interaction was observed between PPEs and negatively charged lipids. Here the polymer remained aggregated giving rise to broad emission spectra characteristic of the aggregate species. In zwitterionic lipids, we observed that the majority of the polymer remained aggregated yet a small fraction readily embedded within the membrane. Titration experiments revealed that saturation of zwitterionic lipids with polymer typically occurred at a polymer repeat unit to lipid mole ratio close to 0.05. No further membrane embedding was observed above that point. For liposomes prepared from positively charged lipids, saturation was observed at a PPE repeat unit to lipid mole ratio of ∼0.1 and liposome precipitation was observed above this point. FRET studies showed that precipitation was preceded by lipid mixing and liposome fusion induced by the PPEs. This behavior was prominent for the longer polymer and negligible for the shorter polymer at a repeat unit to lipid mole ratio of 0.05. We postulate that fusion is the consequence of membrane destabilization whereby the longer polymer gives rise to more extensive membrane deformation than the shorter polymer.

  20. Solvent effects on optical excitations of poly para phenylene ethynylene studied by QM/MM simulations based on many-body Green's functions theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, B.; Karttunen, M.; Baumeier, B.

    2016-10-01

    Electronic excitations in dilute solutions of poly para phenylene ethynylene (poly-PPE) are studied using a QM/MM approach combining many-body Green's functions theory within the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation with polarizable force field models. Oligomers up to a length of 7.5 nm (10 repeat units) functionalized with nonyl side chains are solvated in toluene and water, respectively. After equilibration using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD), the system is partitioned into a quantum region (backbone) embedded into a classical (side chains and solvent) environment. Optical absorption properties are calculated solving the coupled QM/MM system self-consistently and special attention is paid to the effects of solvents. The model allows to differentiate the influence of oligomer conformation induced by the solvation from electronic effects related to local electric fields and polarization. It is found that the electronic environment contributions are negligible compared to the conformational dynamics of the conjugated PPE. An analysis of the electron-hole wave function reveals a sensitivity of energy and localization characteristics of the excited states to bends in the global conformation of the oligomer rather than to the relative of phenyl rings along the backbone.

  1. Eye dose to staff involved in interventional and procedural fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, D.; Hadaya, D.; Tse, J.

    2016-03-01

    In 2011 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) lowered the occupational eye dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv/yr [1]. While international jurisdictions are in a process of adopting these substantial changes, medical physicists at the clinical level have been advising medical colleagues on specific situations based on dose measurements. Commissioned and calibrated TLDs mounted in commercially available holders designed to simulate the measurement of Hp(3), were applied to staff involved in x-ray procedures for a one month period. During this period clinical procedure data was concurrently collected and subject to audit. The use or not of eye personal protective equipment (PPE) was noted for all staff. Audits were conducted in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory, the interventional angiography rooms and the procedural room where endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures are performed. Significant levels of occupational dose were recorded in the cardiac and interventional procedures, with maximum reading exceeding the new limit for some interventional radiologists. No significant eye doses were measured for staff performing ERCP procedures. One outcome of the studies was increased use of eye PPE for operators of interventional equipment with increased availability also to nursing staff, when standing in close proximity to the patient during procedures.

  2. Chromium Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors in Printing Workers in Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the chromium exposure levels in printing workers. The study evaluated the airborne, serum, and urinary chromium levels and determines any correlation between level of chromium in specimen and airborne chromium levels. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 75 exposed and 75 matched nonexposed subjects. Air breathing zone was measured by furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum and urine samples were collected to determine chromium levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The printing workers' urinary chromium levels (6.86 ± 1.93 μg/g creatinine) and serum chromium levels (1.24 ± 1.13 μg/L) were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). Work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE), and personal hygiene were significantly associated with urinary chromium level and serum chromium levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). This study found a correlation between airborne chromium levels and urinary chromium levels (r = 0.247, p = 0.032). A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of urinary and serum chromium levels were shown in this study. Conclusion. Improvements in working conditions, occupational health training, and PPE use are recommended to reduce chromium exposure. PMID:26448746

  3. Electrocortical Analysis of Patients with Intercostobrachial Pain Treated with TENS after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Silva, Julio Guilherme; Santana, Camila Gonçalves; Inocêncio, Kelly Rosane; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Sergio; Bergmann, Anke

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] Among the physical therapeutic procedures to decrease pain, there is transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (TENS). There is no consensus about its efficacy for oncological patients, especially for post-mastectomy pain and eletrocortical changes in somatosensory areas. The aim of this study was to analyze acute electrocortical changes after TENS treatment of patients with intercostobrachial post mastectomy pain. [Subjects] Eighteen patients were divided into acupuncture (A) and burst (B) group. [Methods] In this pre and post-intervention study each group was measured for EEG analysis in absulte power in alpha band (8-14 Hz). Outcomes variables were the alpha waveband in the sensorymotor cortex and pain pre-and-post TENS intervention. Data were analyzed using ANOVA to compare times (rest, 10 and 15 min), group and electrodes. Pain was analyzed using percentual pain evaluation (PPE) in both groups. [Results] Outcomes indicate main effects of time and electrodes because of slow (8-10 Hz) and fast alpha (10-12 Hz) wavebands decreased. PPE reduced 88.4% in A and 66.3% in G. [Conclusion] TENS promoted electrical modification in the parietal region and a decrease in pain. Future studies should investigate other wave must be proposed for other bands and use different methods of EEG analysis to elucidate the actual mechanisms behind the efficacy of TENS treatment.

  4. The Perception of Physician Empathy by Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Witt, Maxie; Dlugosch, Gabriele E.; Gülberg, Veit; Siebeck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims This study focused on the difference between perceived and desired physician empathy (pPE and dPE) in the eye of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It was investigated if a discrepancy (ΔPE) correlates with trust and satisfaction of patients. At the same time the aim was to gain detailed information about the subjective burden of disease and the resources of IBD patients, in order to better understand them. Methods A modified version of the German Version of the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) measure was completed as a paper-and-pencil questionnaire by IBD patients attending our facility (n = 32) and as an online survey by IBD patients at other locations throughout Germany (n = 89). Patients were in average 36.3±12 years old. Results The mean (SD) rating of pPE was 3.93 (0.96) on a scale of 1 to 5 (“poor” to “excellent”); however, the mean (SD) dPE was 4.38 (0.48) on the same scale. ΔPE correlated with perceived empathy and with patients’ satisfaction with treatment and trust in their health care providers. Patients reported quite a high subjective burden (mean [SD]: 2.93 [.63]) and named family, friends, and support groups as resources. Conclusions Rather than assessing patient satisfaction with treatment and trust in their physician only with perceived PE, we suggest ΔPE as a useful additional parameter. PMID:27875561

  5. Components of the plasminogen activation system promote engraftment of porous polyethylene biomaterial via common and distinct effects.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Christoph A; Hessenauer, Maximilian E T; Pflieger, Kerstin; Rehberg, Markus; Kanse, Sandip M; Zahler, Stefan; Krombach, Fritz; Berghaus, Alexander; Strieth, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid fibrovascularization is a prerequisite for successful biomaterial engraftment. In addition to their well-known roles in fibrinolysis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or their inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have recently been implicated as individual mediators in non-fibrinolytic processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Since these events are critical for fibrovascularization of biomaterial, we hypothesized that the components of the plasminogen activation system contribute to biomaterial engraftment. Employing in vivo and ex vivo microscopy techniques, vessel and collagen network formation within porous polyethylene (PPE) implants engrafted into dorsal skinfold chambers were found to be significantly impaired in uPA-, tPA-, or PAI-1-deficient mice. Consequently, the force required for mechanical disintegration of the implants out of the host tissue was significantly lower in the mutant mice than in wild-type controls. Conversely, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, non-catalytic uPA, or PAI-1, but not with non-catalytic tPA, accelerated implant vascularization in wild-type mice. Thus, uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 contribute to the fibrovascularization of PPE implants through common and distinct effects. As clinical perspective, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, or PAI-1 might provide a novel strategy for accelerating the vascularization of this biomaterial.

  6. On the importance of the distance measures used to train and test knowledge-based potentials for proteins.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Martin; Koehl, Patrice; Røgen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-based potentials are energy functions derived from the analysis of databases of protein structures and sequences. They can be divided into two classes. Potentials from the first class are based on a direct conversion of the distributions of some geometric properties observed in native protein structures into energy values, while potentials from the second class are trained to mimic quantitatively the geometric differences between incorrectly folded models and native structures. In this paper, we focus on the relationship between energy and geometry when training the second class of knowledge-based potentials. We assume that the difference in energy between a decoy structure and the corresponding native structure is linearly related to the distance between the two structures. We trained two distance-based knowledge-based potentials accordingly, one based on all inter-residue distances (PPD), while the other had the set of all distances filtered to reflect consistency in an ensemble of decoys (PPE). We tested four types of metric to characterize the distance between the decoy and the native structure, two based on extrinsic geometry (RMSD and GTD-TS*), and two based on intrinsic geometry (Q* and MT). The corresponding eight potentials were tested on a large collection of decoy sets. We found that it is usually better to train a potential using an intrinsic distance measure. We also found that PPE outperforms PPD, emphasizing the benefits of capturing consistent information in an ensemble. The relevance of these results for the design of knowledge-based potentials is discussed.

  7. Transferable potentials for phase equilibria. 9. Explicit hydrogen description of benzene and five-membered and six-membered heterocyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rai, Neeraj; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2007-09-13

    The explicit hydrogen version of the transferable potentials for phase equilibria (TraPPE-EH) force field is extended to benzene, pyridine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, pyridazine, thiophene, furan, pyrrole, thiazole, oxazole, isoxazole, imidazole, and pyrazole. While the Lennard-Jones parameters for carbon, hydrogen (two types), nitrogen (two types), oxygen, and sulfur are transferable for all 13 compounds, the partial charges are specific for each compound. The benzene dimer energies for sandwich, T-shape, and parallel-displaced configurations obtained for the TraPPE-EH force field compare favorably with high-level electronic structure calculations. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compute the single-component vapor-liquid equilibria for benzene, pyridine, three diazenes, and eight five-membered heterocycles. The agreement with experimental data is excellent with the liquid densities and vapor pressures reproduced within 1 and 5%, respectively. The critical temperatures and normal boiling points are predicted with mean deviations of 0.8 and 1.6%, respectively.

  8. Transferable potentials for phase equilibria-united atom description of five- and six-membered cyclic alkanes and ethers.

    PubMed

    Keasler, Samuel J; Charan, Sophia M; Wick, Collin D; Economou, Ioannis G; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2012-09-13

    While the transferable potentials for phase equilibria-united atom (TraPPE-UA) force field has generally been successful at providing parameters that are highly transferable between different molecules, the polarity and polarizability of a given functional group can be significantly perturbed in small cyclic structures, which limits the transferability of parameters obtained for linear molecules. This has motivated us to develop a version of the TraPPE-UA force field specifically for five- and six-membered cyclic alkanes and ethers. The Lennard-Jones parameters for the methylene group obtained from cyclic alkanes are transferred to the ethers for each ring size, and those for the oxygen atom are common to all compounds for a given ring size. However, the partial charges are molecule specific and parametrized using liquid-phase dielectric constants. This model yields accurate saturated liquid densities and vapor pressures, critical temperatures and densities, normal boiling points, heat capacities, and isothermal compressibilities for the following molecules: cyclopentane, tetrahydrofuran, 1,3-dioxolane, cyclohexane, oxane, 1,4-dioxane, 1,3-dioxane, and 1,3,5-trioxane. The azeotropic behavior and separation factor for the binary mixtures of 1,3-dioxolane/cyclohexane and ethanol/1,4-dioxane are qualitively reproduced.

  9. Electrocortical Analysis of Patients with Intercostobrachial Pain Treated with TENS after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Julio Guilherme; Santana, Camila Gonçalves; Inocêncio, Kelly Rosane; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Sergio; Bergmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Among the physical therapeutic procedures to decrease pain, there is transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (TENS). There is no consensus about its efficacy for oncological patients, especially for post-mastectomy pain and eletrocortical changes in somatosensory areas. The aim of this study was to analyze acute electrocortical changes after TENS treatment of patients with intercostobrachial post mastectomy pain. [Subjects] Eighteen patients were divided into acupuncture (A) and burst (B) group. [Methods] In this pre and post-intervention study each group was measured for EEG analysis in absulte power in alpha band (8–14 Hz). Outcomes variables were the alpha waveband in the sensorymotor cortex and pain pre-and-post TENS intervention. Data were analyzed using ANOVA to compare times (rest, 10 and 15 min), group and electrodes. Pain was analyzed using percentual pain evaluation (PPE) in both groups. [Results] Outcomes indicate main effects of time and electrodes because of slow (8–10 Hz) and fast alpha (10–12 Hz) wavebands decreased. PPE reduced 88.4% in A and 66.3% in G. [Conclusion] TENS promoted electrical modification in the parietal region and a decrease in pain. Future studies should investigate other wave must be proposed for other bands and use different methods of EEG analysis to elucidate the actual mechanisms behind the efficacy of TENS treatment. PMID:24707082

  10. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    PubMed

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  11. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of H2O diffusivity in liquid and supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moultos, Othonas A.; Orozco, Gustavo A.; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2015-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were employed for the calculation of diffusion coefficients of pure CO2 and of H2O in CO2 over a wide range of temperatures (298.15 K < T < 523.15 K) and pressures (5.0 MPa < P < 100.0 MPa), that are of interest to CO2 capture-and-sequestration processes. Various combinations of existing fixed-point-charge force-fields for H2O (TIP4P/2005 and Exponential-6) and CO2 (elementary physical model 2 [EPM2], transferable potentials for phase equilibria [TraPPE], and Exponential-6) were tested. All force-field combinations qualitatively reproduce the trends of the experimental data for infinitely diluted H2O in CO2; however, TIP4P/2005-EPM2, TIP4P/2005-TraPPE and Exponential-6-Exponential-6 were found to be the most consistent. Additionally, for H2O compositions ranging from infinite dilution to ?, the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient is shown to have a weak non-linear composition dependence.

  12. Artificial Optical Radiation photobiological hazards in arc welding.

    PubMed

    Gourzoulidis, G A; Achtipis, A; Topalis, F V; Kazasidis, M E; Pantelis, D; Markoulis, A; Kappas, C; Bourousis, C A

    2016-08-01

    Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is associated with crucial social, economic, cultural and technical issues. A highly specialized OHS sector deals with the photobiological hazards from artificial optical radiation (AOR), which is divided into visible light, UV and IR emitted during various activities and which is legally covered by European Directive 2006/25/EC. Among the enormous amount of sources emitting AOR, the most important non-coherent ones to consider for health effects to the whole optical range, are arcs created during metal welding. This survey presents the effort to assess the complicated exposure limits of the Directive in the controlled environment of a welding laboratory. Sensors covering the UV and blue light range were set to measure typical welding procedures reproduced in the laboratory. Initial results, apart from apparently justifying the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) due to even subsecond overexposures measured, also set the basis to evaluate PPE's properties and support an integrated risk assessment of the complex welding environment. These results can also improve workers' and employer's information and training about radiation hazards, which is a crucial OHS demand.

  13. Occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-11-28

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

  14. Full-Color Emission and Temperature Dependence of the Luminescence in Poly-P -Phenylene Ethynylene-ZnS:Mn2+ Composite Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Joly, Alan G.; Malm, Jan-Olle; Bovin, Jan-Olov; Wang, Shaopeng

    2003-07-10

    Synthesis of a nanocomposite material composed of anionic poly (phenylene ethynylene) (aPPE) polymer particles and ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticles is described and its luminescence properties investigated. aPPE particles have two emissions, one in the blue (460 nm), which are assigned to the 0-0 transition and an excimer, respectively. ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticle have an emission at 596 nm which is due to the 4T1-6A1 transition of Mn2+ and an emission at 706 nm which is ascribed to a defect-related luminescence. The blue, green, yellow, and red emissions make the composite a potential material for full-color displays. More interesting, the relative intensities of the different emissions may be varied by changing the excitation energy. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra as well as observations on luminescence lifetimes indicate that there is negligible energy transfer from the polymer particles to the ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticle. Temperature studies reveal that the ZnS:Mn2+ particles in the nanocomposite have a significantly reduced thermal quenching energy relative to bare ZnS: > n2+ nanoparticles. In addition, between room temperature and 90 C, the luminescence of the ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticles at 596 nm increases in intensity with increasing temperature. This surprising phenomenon is attributed to thermoluminescence and thermal curing of the particle surface upon heating.

  15. Dynamics of polydots: Soft luminescent polymeric nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Maskey, Sabina; Osti, Naresh C.; Grest, Gary S.; ...

    2016-03-04

    The conformation and dynamics of luminescent polymers collapsed into nanoparticles or polydots were studied using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, providing a first insight into their internal dynamics. Controlling the conformation and dynamics of confined polymers is essential for realization of the full potential of polydots in nanomedicine and biotechnology. Specifically, the shape and internal dynamics of polydots that consist of highly rigid dialkyl p-phenylene ethynylene (PPE) are probed as a function of temperature. At room temperature, the polydots are spherical without any correlations between the aromatic rings on the PPE backbone. With increasing temperature, they expand and becomemore » slightly aspherical; however, the polymers remain confined. The coherent dynamic structure factor reveals that the internal motion of the polymer backbone is arrested, and the side chains dominate the internal dynamics of the polydots. Lastly, these new soft nanoparticles retain their overall shape and dynamics over an extended temperature range, and their conformation is tunable via their degree of expansion.« less

  16. Phagotrophy by the picoeukaryotic green alga Micromonas: implications for Arctic Oceans.

    PubMed

    McKie-Krisberg, Zaid M; Sanders, Robert W

    2014-10-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE) are recognized as major primary producers and contributors to phytoplankton biomass in oceanic and coastal environments. Molecular surveys indicate a large phylogenetic diversity in the picoeukaryotes, with members of the Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyseae tending to be more common in open ocean waters and Prasinophyceae dominating coastal and Arctic waters. In addition to their role as primary producers, PPE have been identified in several studies as mixotrophic and major predators of prokaryotes. Mixotrophy, the combination of photosynthesis and phagotrophy in a single organism, is well established for most photosynthetic lineages. However, green algae, including prasinophytes, were widely considered as a purely photosynthetic group. The prasinophyte Micromonas is perhaps the most common picoeukaryote in coastal and Arctic waters and is one of the relatively few cultured representatives of the picoeukaryotes available for physiological investigations. In this study, we demonstrate phagotrophy by a strain of Micromonas (CCMP2099) isolated from Arctic waters and show that environmental factors (light and nutrient concentration) affect ingestion rates in this mixotroph. In addition, we show size-selective feeding with a preference for smaller particles, and determine P vs I (photosynthesis vs irradiance) responses in different nutrient conditions. If other strains have mixotrophic abilities similar to Micromonas CCMP2099, the widespread distribution and frequently high abundances of Micromonas suggest that these green algae may have significant impact on prokaryote populations in several oceanic regimes.

  17. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  18. GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration of measured acceleration field to obtain the 3D pressure distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A PIV based method to reconstruct the volumetric pressure field by direct integration of the 3D material acceleration directions has been developed. Extending the 2D virtual-boundary omni-directional method (Omni2D, Liu & Katz, 2013), the new 3D parallel-line omni-directional method (Omni3D) integrates the material acceleration along parallel lines aligned in multiple directions. Their angles are set by a spherical virtual grid. The integration is parallelized on a Tesla K40c GPU, which reduced the computing time from three hours to one minute for a single realization. To validate its performance, this method is utilized to calculate the 3D pressure fields in isotropic turbulence and channel flow using the JHU DNS Databases (http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu). Both integration of the DNS acceleration as well as acceleration from synthetic 3D particles are tested. Results are compared to other method, e.g. solution to the Pressure Poisson Equation (e.g. PPE, Ghaemi et al., 2012) with Bernoulli based Dirichlet boundary conditions, and the Omni2D method. The error in Omni3D prediction is uniformly low, and its sensitivity to acceleration errors is local. It agrees with the PPE/Bernoulli prediction away from the Dirichlet boundary. The Omni3D method is also applied to experimental data obtained using tomographic PIV, and results are correlated with deformation of a compliant wall. ONR.

  19. Valence and conduction band structure of the quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor Sn S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racke, David A.; Neupane, Mahesh R.; Monti, Oliver L. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the momentum-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of both the valence and the conduction band region in the quasi-two-dimensional van der Waals-layered indirect band gap semiconductor Sn S2 . Using a combination of angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission (AR-2PPE) spectroscopy, we characterize the band structure of bulk Sn S2 . Comparison with density functional theory calculations shows excellent quantitative agreement in the valence band region and reveals several localized bands that likely originate from defects such as sulfur vacancies. Evidence for a moderate density of defects is also observed by AR-2PPE in the conduction band region, leading to localized bands not present in the computational results. The energetic structure and dispersion of the conduction bands is captured well by the computational treatment, with some quantitative discrepancies remaining. Our results provide a broader understanding of the electronic structure of Sn S2 in particular and van der Waals-layered semiconductors in general.

  20. Protective immunity induced by immunization with a live, cultured Anaplasma marginale strain

    PubMed Central

    Hammac, G. Kenitra; Ku, Pei-Shin; Galletti, Maria F.; Noh, Susan M.; Scoles, Glen A.; Palmer, Guy H.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant economic losses resulting from infection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogen of cattle, available vaccines provide, at best, only partial protection against clinical disease. The green-fluorescent protein expressing mutant of the A. marginale St. Maries strain is a live, marked vaccine candidate (AmStM-GFP1). To test whether AmStM-GFP is safe and provides clinical protection, a group of calves was vaccinated, and clinical parameters, including percent parasitized erythrocytes (PPE), packed cell volume (PCV) and days required to reach peak bacteremia, were measured following inoculation and following tick challenge with wild type St Maries strain (AmStM). These clinical parameters were compared to those obtained during infection with the A. marginale subsp. centrale vaccine strain (A. centrale) or wild type AmStM. AmStM-GFP resulted in similar clinical parameters to A. centrale, but had a lower maximum PPE, smaller drop in PCV and took longer to reach peak bacteremia than wild type AmStM. AmStM-GFP provided clinical protection, yielding a stable PCV and low bacteremia following challenge, whereas A. centrale only afforded partial clinical protection. PMID:23664994

  1. Computational Mechanistic Studies of Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Model Dimers for Lignin Depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Sturgeon, M. R.; Chmely, S. C.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a heterogeneous alkyl-aromatic polymer that constitutes up to 30% of plant cell walls, and is used for water transport, structure, and defense. The highly irregular and heterogeneous structure of lignin presents a major obstacle in the development of strategies for its deconstruction and upgrading. Here we present mechanistic studies of the acid-catalyzed cleavage of lignin aryl-ether linkages, combining both experimental studies and quantum chemical calculations. Quantum mechanical calculations provide a detailed interpretation of reaction mechanisms including possible intermediates and transition states. Solvent effects on the hydrolysis reactions were incorporated through the use of a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and with cluster models including explicit water molecules in the first solvation shell. Reaction pathways were computed for four lignin model dimers including 2-phenoxy-phenylethanol (PPE), 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-ethanol (HPPE), 2-phenoxy-phenyl-1,3-propanediol (PPPD), and 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-1,3-propanediol (HPPPD). Lignin model dimers with a para-hydroxyphenyl ether (HPPE and HPPPD) show substantial differences in reactivity relative to the phenyl ether compound (PPE and PPPD) which have been clarified theoretically and experimentally. The significance of these results for acid deconstruction of lignin in plant cell walls will be discussed.

  2. Components of the Plasminogen Activation System Promote Engraftment of Porous Polyethylene Biomaterial via Common and Distinct Effects

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Christoph A.; Hessenauer, Maximilian E. T.; Pflieger, Kerstin; Rehberg, Markus; Kanse, Sandip M.; Zahler, Stefan; Krombach, Fritz; Berghaus, Alexander; Strieth, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid fibrovascularization is a prerequisite for successful biomaterial engraftment. In addition to their well-known roles in fibrinolysis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or their inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have recently been implicated as individual mediators in non-fibrinolytic processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Since these events are critical for fibrovascularization of biomaterial, we hypothesized that the components of the plasminogen activation system contribute to biomaterial engraftment. Employing in vivo and ex vivo microscopy techniques, vessel and collagen network formation within porous polyethylene (PPE) implants engrafted into dorsal skinfold chambers were found to be significantly impaired in uPA-, tPA-, or PAI-1-deficient mice. Consequently, the force required for mechanical disintegration of the implants out of the host tissue was significantly lower in the mutant mice than in wild-type controls. Conversely, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, non-catalytic uPA, or PAI-1, but not with non-catalytic tPA, accelerated implant vascularization in wild-type mice. Thus, uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 contribute to the fibrovascularization of PPE implants through common and distinct effects. As clinical perspective, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, or PAI-1 might provide a novel strategy for accelerating the vascularization of this biomaterial. PMID:25658820

  3. Treatment of complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion and pleural parapneumonic empyema

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Pedro Rodríguez; Gilart, Jorge Freixinet; Pérez, José María Hernández; Serhal, Mohamed Hussein; Artalejo, Antonio López

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background We performed this observational prospective study to evaluate the results of the application of a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion (CPPE) and pleural parapneumonic empyema (PPE). Material/Methods From 2001 to 2007, 210 patients with CPPE and PPE were confirmed through thoracocentesis and treated with pleural drainage tubes (PD), fibrinolytic treatment or surgical intervention (videothoracoscopy and posterolateral thoracotomy). Patients were divided into 3 groups: I (PD); II (PD and fibrinolytic treatment); IIIa (surgery after PD and fibrinolysis), and IIIb (direct surgery). The statistical study was done by variance analysis (ANOVA), χ 2 and Fisher exact test. Results The presence of alcohol or drug consumption, smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were strongly associated with a great necessity for surgical treatment. The IIIa group was associated with increased drainage time, length of stay and complications. No mortality was observed. The selective use of PD and intrapleural fibrinolysis makes surgery unnecessary in more than 75% of cases. Conclusions The selective use of PD and fibrinolysis avoids surgery in more than 75% of cases. However, patients who require surgery have more complications, longer hospital stay, and more days on PD and they are more likely to require admittance to the Intensive Care Unit. PMID:22739734

  4. Kinetic and structural analysis of fluorescent peptides on cotton cellulose nanocrystals as elastase sensors.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Prevost, Nicolette T; French, Alfred D; Concha, Monica; Condon, Brian D

    2015-02-13

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) are serine proteases with destructive proteolytic activity. Because of this activity, there is considerable interest in elastase sensors. Herein we report the synthesis, characterization, and kinetic profiles of tri- and tetrapeptide substrates of elastase as glycine-esterified fluorescent analogs of cotton cellulose nanocrystals (CCN). The degree of substitution of peptide incorporated in CCN was 3-4 peptides per 100 anhydroglucose units. Glycine and peptide-cellulose-nanocrystals revealed crystallinity indices of 79 and 76%, respectively, and a crystallite size of 58.5 Å. A crystallite model of the peptide-cellulose conjugate is shown. The tripeptide conjugate of CCN demonstrated five-fold greater efficiency in HNE than the tripeptide in solution judged by its kcat/Km of 33,515. The sensor limits of detection at 2mg of the tri- and tetrapeptide CCN conjugates over a 10 min reaction time course were 0.03 U/mL PPE and 0.05 U/mL HNE, respectively.

  5. Determination of Mercury Exposure among Dental Health Workers in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri; Phethuayluk, Piriyaluk; Maneelok, Supandee; Thepaksorn, Phayong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the mercury exposure levels in dental health workers that work in dental clinics. The study evaluated the airborne and urinary mercury levels, the type of work done in the clinic, and the effect of mercury exposure on health of dental health workers. Material and Methods. A case-control study was conducted with 124 exposed and 124 matched nonexposed subjects. Personal and area samplings were conducted to quantify mercury concentrations by solid sorbent tube. Urine samples were collected to determine mercury levels by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometer mercury analyzer. Results and Discussion. 17.6% (n = 32/182) of the air samples were higher than the occupational exposure limit (OEL). A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of urinary mercury levels included dietary consumption (fish or seafood), duration of work (yrs), work position, personal protection equipment used (PPE), and personal hygiene behaviors. Significant correlations were observed between mercury levels in urine and mercury in storage areas (r = 0.499, P < 0.05) and between mercury levels in urine and airborne mercury in personal samplings (r = 0.878, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Improvements in working conditions, occupational health training, and PPE use are recommended to reduce mercury exposure. PMID:25349606

  6. Fast determination of four polar contaminants in soy nutraceutical products by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Domingos Alves, Renata; Romero-González, Roberto; López-Ruiz, Rosalía; Jiménez-Medina, M L; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2016-11-01

    An analytical method based on a modified QuPPe (quick polar pesticide) extraction procedure coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was evaluated for the determination of four polar compounds (chlorate, fosetyl-Al, maleic hydrazide, and perchlorate) in nutraceutical products obtained from soy. Experimental conditions including extraction such as solvent, acidification, time, and clean-up sorbents were varied. Acidified acetonitrile (1 % formic acid, v/v) was used as extraction solvent instead of methanol (conventional QuPPe), which provides a doughy mixture which cannot be injected into the LC. Clean-up or derivatization steps were avoided. For analysis, several stationary phases were evaluated and Hypercarb (porous graphitic carbon) provided the best results. The optimized method was validated and recoveries ranged between 46 and 119 %, and correction factors can be used for quantification purposes bearing in mind that inter-day precision was equal to or lower than 17 %. Limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 4 to 100 μg kg(-1). Soy-based nutraceutical products were analyzed and chlorate was detected in five samples at concentrations between 63 and 1642 μg kg(-1). Graphical Abstract Analysis of polar compounds in soy-based nutraceutical products.

  7. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among Chinese underground coal miners.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Wang, Lie; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Although underground coal miners are quite susceptible to depressive symptoms due to a highly risky and stressful working environment, few studies have focused on this issue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2500 underground coal miners (1,936 effective respondents). Depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance (ERI), overcommitment (OC), perceived physical environment (PPE), work-family conflict (WFC), and some demographic and working characteristics were measured anonymously. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 62.8%, and the mean level was 20.00 (9.99). Hierarchical linear regression showed that marital status, education, monthly income, and weekly working time were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. A high level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with high ERI, PPE, WFC, and OC. Accordingly, most Chinese underground coal miners probably have depressive symptoms that are mainly predicted by some occupational psychosocial factors. Efforts should be made to develop strategies to reduce ERI and OC, improve physical working environment, and care for workers' family well-being, thereby mitigating the risk of depression among Chinese underground coal miners.

  8. The chromatography of poly(phenylene ether) on a porous graphitic carbon sorbent.

    PubMed

    Moyses, Stephan; Ginzburg, Anton

    2016-10-14

    A Porous Graphitic Carbon (PGC) column was evaluated for the analysis of poly(phenylene ether) (PPE). This column appears particularly well-suited for the separation of this polymer. Conditions for the elution of PPE either in adsorption mode with chloroform or size exclusion with 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) as eluent were established. Elution of homologous species is obtained in chloroform that follows Martin's rule. A separation based on a gradient consisting of a sequence of non-solvent (acetonitrile), solvent/adsorli (chloroform) provided the highest peak capacity. In TCB, it is possible to obtain rapid size-based separation: with a flow rate of 0.7ml/min, the run time is less than two minutes for a series of polystyrene standards. The PGC column performs remarkably well in this mode and may be a viable solution when a short analysis time is critical such as in a combinatorial laboratory or in a two-dimensional chromatograph. In addition to its value as a sorbent for polymer separation, this column also deserves the attention of the materials engineer. Indeed, the PGC sorbent can be used as a model to probe the interaction between polymers and graphitic fillers such as carbon nanotubes or graphite nanosheets.

  9. A Green's Function Approach to PIV Pressure Estimates with an Application to Micro Energy Harvesters in Turbulent and Vortical Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goushcha, Oleg

    In the present work we demonstrate the feasibility to harness energy from fluid flows by using piezoelectric generators. These ac-coupled devices convert fluid kinetic energy, which otherwise would be wasted, into electrical energy. The available power density in a flowing fluid is proportional to the cube of its velocity and if it is properly harvested can be used for continuously powering very small electronic devices or can be rectified and stored for intermittent use. A key quantity in these applications which affects the performance is the forcing which the fluid exerts on the harvesters. An analytical solution is presented for the Pressure Poisson Equation (PPE) that uses Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) field data to find the pressure in a flow domain and to calculate the pressure and therefore the force exerted by the fluid on the solid surface. The solution provides a favorable method of calculating pressure field from PIV data as it eliminates the need to compute higher order derivatives of velocity on the domain that are present in viscous terms as well as eliminates the need to integrate Navier-Stokes equations to find the pressure along the boundaries of interest. The solution is validated against a theoretical solution for a pressure distribution inside a tornado-like vortex; pressure solutions obtained by derivative momentum transform method for a vortex flow and some experimental results for the pressure distribution inside a turbulent boundary layer. Several experiments were carried out in which pressure was calculated using PPE: i) a discrete vortex passing over a simple cantilever beam harvester ii) a simple cantilever harvester placed in the boundary layer iii) a self-excited harvester placed in the free stream flow. In a discrete vortex experiment, the self-propelled vortex is passed over the cantilever beam. The pressure distribution and the net force of the beam are calculated by solving PPE as the vortex passes over the beam. In a boundary

  10. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  11. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldemichael, Kifle; Massa, Desalegn; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit) in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model. Results Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7–58%) knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4). Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25–0.67), methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07–2.16) was found to be independent predictor of the farmers’ attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9%) and inhalation (90.4%) as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain. Conclusions The study exposed the existence of high probability of

  12. Determinants of Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibition Among Agricultural Pesticide Handlers in Washington State: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Krenz, Jennifer E.; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Smith, Theresa R.; Cunningham, Rad N.; Fenske, Richard A.; Simpson, Christopher D.; Keifer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides are used widely in agriculture to manage insect pests of economic importance. Agricultural workers are more likely to suffer exposure because of the widespread use of OP/CBs in agriculture, and pesticide-related illnesses among handlers may be more severe when compared to other farm workers. The goal of this study was to identify occupational and personal characteristics associated with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition in participants recruited from the Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program from 2006 to 2011. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study among agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State during the OP/CB spray season (March–July) over a 6-year period (2006–2011). Linear mixed effects regression models were used to evaluate BuChE inhibition in relation to self-reported occupational and personal characteristics. Results: Relative to pre-season baseline levels, the mean decrease in BuChE activity during the OP/CB spray season over all years of the study period was 3.77% (P < 0.001). Greater BuChE inhibition was observed among handlers who reported using multiple OP/CBs (β = −2.70, P = 0.045), mixed or loaded OP/CBs (β = −3.97, P = 0.002), did not store personal protective equipment (PPE) in a locker at work (β = −3.4, P = 0.014), or did not wear chemical-resistant boots (β = −16.6, P < 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions: The Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program has provided a valuable opportunity to evaluate potential sources of OP/CB exposure among agricultural pesticide handlers. Several previously reported associations were confirmed in the current analysis, which included a larger number of pesticide handlers enrolled over a longer time period. The use of multiple OP/CBs and mixing/loading activities were significant risk factors, and the use of chemical-resistant boots and lockers for PPE storage were protective factors

  13. On interfacial properties of tetrahydrofuran: Atomistic and coarse-grained models from molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J M; Algaba, J; Míguez, J M; Mendiboure, B; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A I; Piñeiro, M M; Blas, F J

    2016-04-14

    We have determined the interfacial properties of tetrahydrofuran (THF) from direct simulation of the vapor-liquid interface. The molecules are modeled using six different molecular models, three of them based on the united-atom approach and the other three based on a coarse-grained (CG) approach. In the first case, THF is modeled using the transferable parameters potential functions approach proposed by Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen [J. Chem. Phys. 77, 5073 (1982)] and a new parametrization of the TraPPE force fields for cyclic alkanes and ethers [S. J. Keasler et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 11234 (2012)]. In both cases, dispersive and coulombic intermolecular interactions are explicitly taken into account. In the second case, THF is modeled as a single sphere, a diatomic molecule, and a ring formed from three Mie monomers according to the SAFT-γ Mie top-down approach [V. Papaioannou et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 054107 (2014)]. Simulations were performed in the molecular dynamics canonical ensemble and the vapor-liquid surface tension is evaluated from the normal and tangential components of the pressure tensor along the simulation box. In addition to the surface tension, we have also obtained density profiles, coexistence densities, critical temperature, density, and pressure, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying special attention to the comparison between the estimations obtained from different models and literature experimental data. The simulation results obtained from the three CG models as described by the SAFT-γ Mie approach are able to predict accurately the vapor-liquid phase envelope of THF, in excellent agreement with estimations obtained from TraPPE model and experimental data in the whole range of coexistence. However, Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen model presents significant deviations from experimental results. We also compare the predictions for surface tension as obtained from simulation results for all the models with

  14. 1-Octanol/Water Partition Coefficients of n-Alkanes from Molecular Simulations of Absolute Solvation Free Energies.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Nuno M; Queimada, António J; Jorge, Miguel; Macedo, Eugénia A; Economou, Ioannis G

    2009-09-08

    The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient is an important thermodynamic variable usually employed to understand and quantify the partitioning of solutes between aqueous and organic phases. It finds widespread use in many empirical correlations to evaluate the environmental fate of pollutants as well as in the design of pharmaceuticals. The experimental evaluation of 1-octanol/water partition coefficients is an expensive and time-consuming procedure, and thus, theoretical estimation methods are needed, particularly when a physical sample of the solute may not yet be available, such as in pharmaceutical screening. 1-Octanol/water partition coefficients can be obtained from Gibbs free energies of solvation of the solute in both the aqueous and the octanol phases. The accurate evaluation of free energy differences remains today a challenging problem in computational chemistry. In order to study the absolute solvation Gibbs free energies in 1-octanol, a solvent that can mimic many properties of important biological systems, free energy calculations for n-alkanes in the range C1-C8 were performed using molecular simulation techniques, following the thermodynamic integration approach. In the first part of this paper, we test different force fields by evaluating their performance in reproducing pure 1-octanol properties. It is concluded that all-atom force fields can provide good accuracy but at the cost of a higher computational time compared to that of the united-atom force fields. Recent versions of united-atom force fields, such as Gromos and TraPPE, provide satisfactory results and are, thus, useful alternatives to the more expensive all-atom models. In the second part of the paper, the Gibbs free energy of solvation in 1-octanol is calculated for several n-alkanes using three force fields to describe the solutes, namely Gromos, TraPPE, and OPLS-AA. Generally, the results obtained are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data and are of similar

  15. Nutritional Status of Children Hospitalized for Parapneumonic Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Huysentruyt, Koen; Alliet, Philippe; Raes, Marc; Willekens, Julie; De Schutter, Iris; De Wachter, Elke; Malfroot, Anne; Devreker, Thierry; Goyens, Philippe; Vandenplas, Yvan; De Schepper, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Among children hospitalized for pneumonia, those with parapneumonic effusion (PPE) are at particular risk for nutritional deterioration. This study aimed to 1) investigate the evolution of the nutritional status during hospitalization and at outpatient follow-up; 2) determine clinical risk factors for weight loss during hospitalization; 3) describe the nutritional interventions for these children. Methods Retrospective chart review (January ‘07 - September ‘12) of 56 children with pneumonia, complicated by PPE in two Belgian hospitals for data on body weight and height at admission (t0) and discharge (t1), and two weeks (t2) and one month (t3) after discharge. Length of hospitalization (LoS), length of stay in paediatric intensive care (LoSPICU) and maximal in-hospital weight loss (tmax) were calculated and nutritional interventions were recorded. Results The median (range) age was 3.5 (1.0–14.8) years. Weight or height was lacking in five (8.9%) children at t0 and in 28 (50%) at t1; 21.4% was weighed only once during hospitalization. At tmax, respectively 17/44 and 5/44 children lost ≥5% and ≥10% of their weight. Median (range) LoS and LoSPICU were 18.0 (10–41) and 4.0 (0–23) days. One-fourth received a nutritional intervention. Weight for height at admission (WFH(t0)) significantly predicted maximal weight loss (β (95% CI) = −0.34 (−2.0–−0.1); p = 0.03). At t2 and t3, 13/32 and 5/22 of the children with available follow-up data did not reach WFH(t0), whilst in 4/35 and 5/26 body weight remained ≥5% under the weight(t0). Conclusions One-third of children with pneumonia complicated by PPE and monitored for weight and height, lost ≥5% of their body weight during hospitalization. One-fourth did not reach initial WFH one month after discharge. Those with a higher WFH at admission were at higher risk of weight loss. More attention for monitoring of weight loss and the nutritional policy during and after

  16. Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE`s Office of Science and Technology sponsors Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDPs) in which developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE`s projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased cost of operation. As buildings are demolished as part of the DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project`s (FEMP`s) D and D Plan, many of the activities are performed in hot weather and usually require use of various types and layers of personal protective equipment (PPE). While PPE is designed to protect the worker from contamination, it also significantly compromises the body`s ability to cool itself, leading to potentially serious heat stress situations. This report describes a comparative demonstration between the methodology currently used for heat stress management (i.e., limited stay times and cool-down rooms) and an alternative personal ice cooling suit technology. The baseline methodology for heat stress management is limited stay times when working in hot conditions. The FEMP`s Safety Performance Requirements outline the procedures and stay times to be followed and consider the temperature of the working environment, work load, and the type and amount of PPE required for the job. While these common criteria for determining stay times, other sites may have different requirements. This demonstration investigates the feasibility of using the personal ice cooling suite as a tool for managing heat stress in workers at the FEMP. This report provides a comparative analysis of

  17. [Outcomes of Infection Control Team Inspections at the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Okihata, Rie; Tsuruoka, Hiromi; Yamada, Yuichi; Adachi, Toshiko; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    In the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, an infection control team (ICT) has been formed to inspect each diagnosis department of clinics and wards in order to identify problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In this study, we analyzed the inspection reports and highlighted the following serious problems: 1) inadequate hygienic hand-washing for out- and in-patient treatment, 2) incomplete wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) by dental health care workers, 3) necessity of environmental improvement in the clinics, and 4) cross-infection risk induced by. the continuous use of treatment devices without appropriate disinfection. The ICT provided feedback to the inspected departments, suggesting solutions to problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In order to enhance infection control in our hospital, dental healthcare practitioners must make further efforts on nosocomial infection control and prevention, and act according to their position by continuously educating students and enlightening hospital staff about the importance of infection control.

  18. Recent Climatic Change in the World's Drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulme, Mike

    Precipitation and temperature trends in nine dryland regions are analysed for the period 1900 to 1994. No widespread desiccation in dryland climates is found, the African Sahel being the only region to demonstrate a significant drying trend. All dryland regions have warmed, however, with the majority of the warming probably being unrelated to regional dryland effects. This warming may have contributed to a worsening of the P/PE ratio in many of these dryland regions. Three African dryland regions are alone in showing a significant negative correlation between precipitation and temperature, contrasting with the relationship for global land areas of warmer years/decades being also wetter years/decades. The relative lack of warming in the Sahel is noted and increased atmospheric dust resulting from the increased desiccation of the region is suggested as a possible explanation.

  19. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - DEWALT RECIPROCATING SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-01, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-31

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The DeWalt reciprocating saw was assessed on August 13, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The DeWalt reciprocating saw is a hand-held industrial tool used for cutting numerous materials, including wood and various types of metals depending upon the chosen blade. Its design allows for cutting close to floors, corners, and other difficult areas. An adjustable shoe sets the cut at three separate depths. During the demonstration for the dismantling of the fiberglass-reinforced plywood crate, the saw was used for extended continuous cutting, over a period of approximately two hours. The dismantling operation involved vertical and horizontal cuts, saw blade changes, and material handling. During this process, operators experienced vibration to the hand and arm in addition to a temperature rise on the handgrip. The blade of the saw is partially exposed during handling and fully exposed during blade changes. Administrative controls, such as duty time of the operators and the machine, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, should be considered when using the saw in this application. Personal noise sampling indicated that both workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 88.3 and 90.6 dBA. Normally, a worker would be placed in a hearing conservation program if his TWA was greater than

  20. Some metal complexes of three new potentially heptadentate (N4O3) tripodal Schiff base ligands; synthesis, characterizatin and X-ray crystal structure of a novel eight coordinate Gd(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbedaghi, Reza; Moradi, Somaeyh; Salehzadeh, Sadegh; Blackman, Allan G.

    2016-03-01

    The symmetrical and asymmetrical potentially heptadentate (N4O3) tripodal Schiff base ligands (H3L1-H3L3) were synthesized from the condensation reaction of three tripodal tetraamine ligands tpt (trpn), tris (3-aminopropyl) amine; ppe (abap), (2-aminoethyl)bis(3-aminopropyl)amine, and tren, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, with 5-methoxysalicylaldehyde. Then, the reaction of Ln(III) (Ln = Gd, La and Sm), Al(III), and Fe(III) metal ions with the above ligands was investigated. The resulting compounds were characterized by IR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis in all cases and NMR spectroscopy in the case of the Schiff base ligands. The X-ray crystal structure of the Gd complex of H3L3 ligand showed that in addition to all donor atoms of the ligand one molecule of H2O is also coordinated to the metal ion and a neutral eight-coordinate complex is formed.