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Sample records for avatud ppe mudelitest

  1. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... evaluation or testing against specific viruses, such as Ebola or flu. If performance data has met FDA ... about the Flu What You Should Know about Ebola Q3. Should caregivers use PPE to help protect ...

  2. New PPE Policy Will Help Prevent Injuries | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley Shoemaker, Guest Writer In January 2013, a revised policy on personal protective equipment (PPE) was approved for all government and contractor employees at NCI at Frederick. This new policy was driven by a high number of eye injuries at NCI at Frederick (56 between 2007 and 2012) that were directly related to inadequate PPE. The Occupational Safety and Health Act states that each employer is responsible for identifying hazards in the workplace and determining what kind of PPE is necessary.

  3. Structure-Properties of PPE Alloy by Reactive Blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Motonobu; Koyama, Yoshio; Inoue, Takashi

    Poly(phenylene ether) (PPE) is a high temperature polymer (Tg=210°C). Neat PPE is hardly melt-processed below its thermal decomposition temperature. It is believed that the melt-processability is only achieved by blending with polystyrene as a polymeric plasticizer. The polymeric plasticizer sacrifices the heat resistance; the Tg decreases almost linearly with polystyrene content. We found that PPE can react with poly(ethylene-co-glycidylmethacrylate) (EGMA) by melt mixing. Reactive blending of PPE with EGMA yielded an excellent engineering plastic with nice melt-processability, even when a small amount of EGMA (e.g., 5 wt%) was incorporated. The injection molded parts showed high impact strength, high temperature resistance, high tensile strength, and low dielectric loss. It can be classified as a super-engineering plastics. The computer simulation based on a particle-slip model revealed why the melt-processability is attained by the incorporation of polyolefin in pure PPE matrix.

  4. Photothermoelectric (PTE) Versus Photopyroelectric (PPE) Detection of Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadarlat, D.; Guilmeau, E.; Hadj Sahraoui, A.; Tudoran, C.; Surducan, V.; Bourgès, C.; Lemoine, P.

    2016-05-01

    The photopyroelectric (PPE) technique is one of the photothermal (PT) methods mostly used for phase transitions investigations. In this paper, we want to compare the PPE results with those obtained using another, recently developed PT method [the photothermoelectric (PTE) calorimetry] for the same purpose of detecting phase transitions. The well-known ferro-paraelectric phase transition of TGS, taking place at a convenient temperature (about 49 {}^{circ }hbox {C}), has been selected for demonstration. A comparison of the two PPE and PTE methods, both in the back detection configuration (in the special case of optically opaque sample and thermally thick regime for both sensors and sample) shows that they are equally suitable for phase transitions detection. Performing a proper calibration, the amplitude and phase of the signals can be used in order to obtain the critical behaviour of all sample's static and dynamic thermal parameters.

  5. Variation of the expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ppe44 gene among clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Rindi, Laura; Peroni, Irene; Lari, Nicoletta; Bonanni, Daniela; Tortoli, Enrico; Garzelli, Carlo

    2007-11-01

    PPE44 is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE proteins, a polymorphic family of 69 glycine-rich proteins that predictively represent a source of antigenic variation. The genetic diversity of gene ppe44 among clinical isolates has been studied. No genomic polymorphism of ppe44 was found by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay using three restriction enzymes. Nucleotide sequencing of gene ppe44 of a number of isolates, selected to represent the major phylogenetic lineages of M. tuberculosis, showed no nucleotide substitution, with the exception of isolates of the Beijing genotype. These findings indicate that gene ppe44 is basically conserved among M. tuberculosis strains. The expression of gene ppe44 was then determined at the transcriptional level by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay. Extremely high quantitative variations in ppe44 expression were found among the isolates; ppe44 expression of the Beijing strains was significantly higher than the non-Beijing strains. To test whether differential expression of gene ppe44 has the potential to provide a dynamic antigen display, antibodies to PPE44 were titered in the sera of M. tuberculosis-infected subjects. Variation of antibody response to PPE44 was found with regard to both antibody titers and the proportion of responding subjects. These results indicate that the differential expression of genes ppe could influence the host's immune responsiveness, thus having implications in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID:17727653

  6. Phylogeny to function: PE/PPE protein evolution and impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, S; van Wyk, N; Warren, R M; Sampson, S L

    2015-06-01

    The pe/ppe genes represent one of the most intriguing aspects of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. These genes are especially abundant in pathogenic mycobacteria, with more than 160 members in M. tuberculosis. Despite being discovered over 15 years ago, their function remains unclear, although various lines of evidence implicate selected family members in mycobacterial virulence. In this review, we use PE/PPE phylogeny as a framework within which we examine the diversity and putative functions of these proteins. We report on the evolution and diversity of the respective gene families, as well as the implications thereof for function and host immune recognition. We summarize recent findings on pe/ppe gene regulation, also placing this in the context of PE/PPE phylogeny. We collate data from several large proteomics datasets, providing an overview of PE/PPE localization, and discuss the implications this may have for host responses. Assessment of the current knowledge of PE/PPE diversity suggests that these proteins are not variable antigens as has been so widely speculated; however, they do clearly play important roles in virulence. Viewing the growing body of pe/ppe literature through the lens of phylogeny reveals trends in features and function that may be associated with the evolution of mycobacterial pathogenicity.

  7. Morphology-dependent optical properties of substituted poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene) (PPE) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X. M.; Wu, C. C.; Wohlgenannt, M.; Huang, W. Y.; Kwei, T. K.; Okamoto, Y.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2003-10-01

    Two different batches of substituted poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene) [PPEs] were synthesized, where the substituents: di-2-butyl(a) and di-2-ethylhexyl(d), were placed on the 2 and 5 positions of the backbone phenyl rings. The photoinduced absorption (PA) spectrum of PPE(a) shows a polaron band at about 850 cm -1, whereas PPE(d) does not show polaron bands at all. At T=10 K the PA spectrum of PPE(a) in the visible spectral range has two main bands around 1.25 and 1.9 eV, respectively, and a broad shoulder at 2.1 eV. Using the photoinduced absorption detected magnetic resonance (PADMR) spectroscopy, we found that in PPE(a) the 1.9 eV PA band is associated with spin {1}/{2}, thus it is due to long-lived photogenerated polarons, whereas both the 1.25 eV PA band and 2.1 eV band do not have any spin {1}/{2}, resonance. In PPE(d) there is a very sharp peak at 1.45 eV, which is due to triplets excitons, and a broad band around 2.0 eV similar to PPE(a), which is due to aggregates.

  8. Genomic Comparison of PE and PPE Genes in the Mycobacterium avium Complex▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Nick; Alexander, David C.; Turenne, Christine Y.; Behr, Marcel A.; De Buck, Jeroen M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) comprises genomically similar but phenotypically divergent bacteria that inhabit diverse environments and that cause disease in different hosts. In this study, a whole-genome approach was used to examine the polymorphic PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) gene families, implicated in immunostimulation and virulence. The four major groups of MAC organisms were examined, including the newly sequenced type strains of M. intracellulare and M. avium subsp. avium, plus M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis, for the purpose of finding genetic differences that could be exploited to design diagnostic tests specific to these groups and that could help explain their divergence in pathogenesis and host specificity. Unique and missing PPE genes were found in all MAC members except M. avium subsp. avium. Only M. intracellulare had a unique PE gene. Apart from this, most PE and PPE sequences were conserved, with average nucleotide sequence identities of 99.1 and 98.1%, respectively, among the M. avium subspecies, but only 82.9 and 79.7% identities with the PE and PPE sequences of M. intracellulare, respectively. A detailed analysis of the amino acid sequences was performed between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Most differences were detected in the PPE proteins, with amino acid substitutions and frame shifts leading to unique amino acid sequences. In conclusion, several unique PPE proteins were identified in MAC organisms next to numerous polymorphisms in both the PE and PPE gene families. These substantial differences could help explain the divergence in phenotypes within the MAC and could lead to diagnostic tests with better discriminatory abilities. PMID:19144814

  9. Conserved Immune Recognition Hierarchy of Mycobacterial PE/PPE Proteins during Infection in Natural Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Vordermeier, H. Martin; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Gideon, Hannah P.; Young, Douglas B.; Sampson, Samantha L.

    2012-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains two large gene families encoding proteins of unknown function, characterized by conserved N-terminal proline and glutamate (PE and PPE) motifs. The presence of a large number of PE/PPE proteins with repetitive domains and evidence of strain variation has given rise to the suggestion that these proteins may play a role in immune evasion via antigenic variation, while emerging data suggests that some family members may play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we examined cellular immune responses to a panel of 36 PE/PPE proteins during human and bovine infection. We observed a distinct hierarchy of immune recognition, reflected both in the repertoire of PE/PPE peptide recognition in individual cows and humans and in the magnitude of IFN-γ responses elicited by stimulation of sensitized host cells. The pattern of immunodominance was strikingly similar between cattle that had been experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis and humans naturally infected with clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. The same pattern was maintained as disease progressed throughout a four-month course of infection in cattle, and between humans with latent as well as active tuberculosis. Detailed analysis of PE/PPE responses at the peptide level suggests that antigenic cross-reactivity amongst related family members is a major determinant in the observed differences in immune hierarchy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a subset of PE/PPE proteins are major targets of the cellular immune response to tuberculosis, and are recognized at multiple stages of infection and in different disease states. Thus this work identifies a number of novel antigens that could find application in vaccine development, and provides new insights into PE/PPE biology. PMID:22870206

  10. Treatment of Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia (PPE) with Topical Sildenafil: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Kellen L.; Rushing, Christel; Honeycutt, Wanda; Latta, Kenneth; Howard, Leigh; Arrowood, Christy A.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hurwitz, Herbert I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Palmar-plantar erythrodysethesia (PPE) is a common chemotherapy and anti-VEGF multi-kinase inhibitor class-related toxicity that often results in debilitating skin changes and often limits the use of active anti-cancer regimens. Mechanistic and anecdotal clinical evidence suggested that topical application of sildenafil cream may help reduce the severity of PPE. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of topical sildenafil cream for the treatment of PPE. Methods Eligible subjects were required to have grade 1–3 PPE associated with either capecitabine or sunitinib. Subjects were randomized to receive 1% topical sildenafil cream to the left extremities or right extremities and placebo cream on the opposite extremity. 0.5 mL of cream was applied to each affected hand/foot two times per day. The primary endpoint was improvement in PPE grading at any point on study. Clinical assessments were evaluated by NCI-CTC 4.0 grading and patient self-reported pain. Results Ten subjects were enrolled; 9 were evaluable for safety and efficacy. Five of nine subjects reported some improvement in foot pain and 3 of 8 subjects for hand pain improvement. One of these subjects noted specific improvement in tactile function. No treatment-related toxicities were observed. Conclusions In this limited, single center study, topical cream containing 1% sildenafil is feasible to administer, is well-tolerated, and may mitigate PPE-related symptoms due to anti-cancer therapeutic agents. Further validation is necessary. PMID:25341548

  11. Comparative Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pe and ppe Genes Reveals High Sequence Variation and an Apparent Absence of Selective Constraints

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Christopher R. E.; Cloete, Ruben; Müller, Borna; Schürch, Anita C.; van Helden, Paul D.; Gagneux, Sebastien; Warren, Robin M.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genomes contain 2 large gene families termed pe and ppe. The function of pe/ppe proteins remains enigmatic but studies suggest that they are secreted or cell surface associated and are involved in bacterial virulence. Previous studies have also shown that some pe/ppe genes are polymorphic, a finding that suggests involvement in antigenic variation. Using comparative sequence analysis of 18 publicly available MTBC whole genome sequences, we have performed alignments of 33 pe (excluding pe_pgrs) and 66 ppe genes in order to detect the frequency and nature of genetic variation. This work has been supplemented by whole gene sequencing of 14 pe/ppe (including 5 pe_pgrs) genes in a cohort of 40 diverse and well defined clinical isolates covering all the main lineages of the M. tuberculosis phylogenetic tree. We show that nsSNP's in pe (excluding pgrs) and ppe genes are 3.0 and 3.3 times higher than in non-pe/ppe genes respectively and that numerous other mutation types are also present at a high frequency. It has previously been shown that non-pe/ppe M. tuberculosis genes display a remarkably low level of purifying selection. Here, we also show that compared to these genes those of the pe/ppe families show a further reduction of selection pressure that suggests neutral evolution. This is inconsistent with the positive selection pressure of “classical” antigenic variation. Finally, by analyzing such a large number of genes we were able to detect large differences in mutation type and frequency between both individual genes and gene sub-families. The high variation rates and absence of selective constraints provides valuable insights into potential pe/ppe function. Since pe/ppe proteins are highly antigenic and have been studied as potential vaccine components these results should also prove informative for aspects of M. tuberculosis vaccine design. PMID:22496726

  12. PPE Antigen Rv2430c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces a Strong B-Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Rakesh Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita; Chakhaiyar, Prachee; Sharma, Naresh; Murthy, K. J. R.; Katoch, V. M.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2003-01-01

    The variation in sequence and length in the C-terminal region among members of the unique PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a likely source of antigenic variation, giving rise to the speculation that these protein families could be immunologically important. Based on in silico analysis, we selected a hypothetical open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein belonging to the PPE family and having epitopes with predictably higher antigenic indexes. Reverse transcriptase PCR using total RNA extracted from in vitro-cultured M. tuberculosis H37Rv generated an mRNA product corresponding to this gene, indicating the expression of this ORF (Rv2430c) at the mRNA level. Recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was used to screen the sera of M. tuberculosis-infected patients, as well as those of clinically healthy controls (n = 10), by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The panel of patient sera comprised sera from fresh infection cases (category 1; n = 32), patients with relapsed tuberculosis (category 2; n = 30), and extrapulmonary cases (category 3; n = 30). Category 2 and 3 sera had strong antibody responses to the PPE antigen, equal to or higher than those to other well-known antigens, such as Hsp10 or purified protein derivative (PPD). However, a higher percentage of patients belonging to category 1, as opposed to clinically healthy controls, showed stronger antibody response against the PPE protein when probed with anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM) (71 versus 37.5%) or anti-IgG (62.5 versus 28.12%). Our results reveal that this PPE ORF induces a strong B-cell response compared to that generated by M. tuberculosis Hsp10 or PPD, pointing to the immunodominant nature of the protein. PMID:14573653

  13. The Co-Operonic PE25/PPE41 Protein Complex of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Elicits Increased Humoral and Cell Mediated Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Tundup, Smanla; Pathak, Niteen; Ramanadham, M.; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita; Murthy, K. J. R.; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many of the PE/PPE proteins are either surface localized or secreted outside and are thought to be a source of antigenic variation in the host. The exact role of these proteins are still elusive. We previously reported that the PPE41 protein induces high B cell response in TB patients. The PE/PPE genes are not randomly distributed in the genome but are organized as operons and the operon containing PE25 and PPE41 genes co-transcribe and their products interact with each other. Methodology/Principal Finding We now describe the antigenic properties of the PE25, PPE41 and PE25/PPE41 protein complex coded by a single operon. The PPE41 and PE25/PPE41 protein complex induces significant (p<0.0001) B cell response in sera derived from TB patients and in mouse model as compared to the PE25 protein. Further, mice immunized with the PE25/PPE41 complex and PPE41 proteins showed significant (p<0.00001) proliferation of splenocyte as compared to the mice immunized with the PE25 protein and saline. Flow cytometric analysis showed 15–22% enhancement of CD8+ and CD4+ T cell populations when immunized with the PPE41 or PE25/PPE41 complex as compared to a marginal increase (8–10%) in the mice immunized with the PE25 protein. The PPE41 and PE25/PPE41 complex can also induce higher levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 cytokines. Conclusion While this study documents the differential immunological response to the complex of PE and PPE vis-à-vis the individual proteins, it also highlights their potential as a candidate vaccine against tuberculosis. PMID:18974870

  14. Prediction of Certain Well-Characterized Domains of Known Functions within the PE and PPE Proteins of Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Kumar, Ashwin B R; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    The PE and PPE protein family are unique to mycobacteria. Though the complete genome sequences for over 500 M. tuberculosis strains and mycobacterial species are available, few PE and PPE proteins have been structurally and functionally characterized. We have therefore used bioinformatics tools to characterize the structure and function of these proteins. We selected representative members of the PE and PPE protein family by phylogeny analysis and using structure-based sequence annotation identified ten well-characterized protein domains of known function. Some of these domains were observed to be common to all mycobacterial species and some were species specific.

  15. Prediction of Certain Well-Characterized Domains of Known Functions within the PE and PPE Proteins of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Kumar, Ashwin B. R.; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    The PE and PPE protein family are unique to mycobacteria. Though the complete genome sequences for over 500 M. tuberculosis strains and mycobacterial species are available, few PE and PPE proteins have been structurally and functionally characterized. We have therefore used bioinformatics tools to characterize the structure and function of these proteins. We selected representative members of the PE and PPE protein family by phylogeny analysis and using structure-based sequence annotation identified ten well-characterized protein domains of known function. Some of these domains were observed to be common to all mycobacterial species and some were species specific. PMID:26891364

  16. STS-42 Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE) closeup taken onboard OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE), an International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) experiment, is documented in a closeup taken onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Phase partitioning is a very effective technique used by biochemists and cell biologists to obtain fairly pure cells. Cells are separated and collected in a mixture of two immiscible liquids (fluids that tend not to mix) by their surface characteristics. In the PPE, investigators feel they will be able to separate closely related cells because cell density and convection flows are not factors in the phase partitioning process in space. They also hope to study other factors that influence the process. Phase partitioning is used to separate biological materials such as bone marrow cells for cancer treatment.

  17. Thermophysical analysis of II-VI semiconductors by PPE calorimetry and lock-in thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Streza, M.; Dadarlat, D.; Strzałkowski, K.

    2013-11-13

    An accurate determination of thermophysical properties such as thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity and thermal conductivity is extremely important for characterization and quality assurance of semiconductors. Thermal diffusivity and effusivity of some binary semiconductors have been investigated. Two experimental techniques were used: a contact technique (PPE calorimetry) and a non contact technique (lock-in thermography). When working with PPE, in the back (BPPE) configuration and in the thermally thick regim of the pyroelectric sensor, we can get the thermal diffusivity of the sample by performing a scanning of the excitation frequency of radiation. Thermal effusivity is obtained in front configuration (sensor directly irradiated and sample in back position) by performing a thickness scan of a coupling fluid. By using the lock-in thermography technique, the thermal diffusivity of the sample is obtained from the phase image. The results obtained by the two techniques are in good agreement. Nevertheless, for the determination of thermal diffusivity, lock-in thermography is preferred.

  18. Transduction of Functionally Contrasting Signals by Two Mycobacterial PPE Proteins Downstream of TLR2 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Udgata, Atul; Qureshi, Rahila; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-09-01

    As pathogen-associated molecular pattern sensors, the TLRs can detect diverse ligands to elicit either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses, but the mechanism that dictates such contrasting immune responses is not well understood. In this work, we demonstrate that proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE)17 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces TLR1/2 heterodimerization to elicit proinflammatory-type response, whereas PPE18-induced homodimerization of TLR2 triggers anti-inflammatory type responses. Ligation of TLR1/2 caused an increased recruitment of IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)1, MyD88, and protein kinase C (PKC)ε to the downstream TLR-signaling complex that translocated PKCε into the nucleus in an IRAK1-dependent manner. PKCε-mediated phosphorylation allowed the nuclear IRAK3 to be exported to the cytoplasm, leading to increased activation of ERK1/2, stabilization of MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), and induction of TNF-α with concomitant downregulation of p38MAPK. Silencing of TLR1 inhibited PPE17-triggered cytoplasmic export of IRAK3 as well as TNF-α induction, suggesting an important role of TLR1/2 heterodimer in regulating proinflammatory responses via the IRAK3-signaling pathway. In contrast, PPE18-mediated homodimerization of TLR2 caused poorer cytoplasmic export of nuclear IRAK3 and MKP-1 stabilization, resulting in increased p38MAPK activation. Our study hints to a novel mechanism that implicates PKCε-IRAK3-MKP-1 signaling in the regulation of MAPK activity and inflammatory cascades downstream of TLR2 in tuberculosis. PMID:27481848

  19. Mycobacterial PE/PPE Proteins at the Host-Pathogen Interface

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Samantha L.

    2011-01-01

    The mycobacterial PE/PPE proteins have attracted much interest since their formal identification just over a decade ago. It has been widely speculated that these proteins may play a role in evasion of host immune responses, possibly via antigenic variation. Although a cohesive understanding of their function(s) has yet to be established, emerging data increasingly supports a role for the PE/PPE proteins at multiple levels of the infectious process. This paper will delineate salient features of the families revealed by comparative genomics, bioinformatic analyses and genome-wide screening approaches and will summarise existing knowledge of subcellular localization, secretion pathways, and protein structure. These characteristics will be considered in light of findings on innate and adaptive host responses to PE/PPE proteins, and we will review the increasing body of data on B and T cell recognition of these proteins. Finally, we will consider how current knowledge and future explorations may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of these intriguing proteins and their involvement in host pathogen interactions. Ultimately this information could underpin future intervention strategies, for example, in the area of new and improved diagnostic tools and vaccine candidates. PMID:21318182

  20. The Short-term Protective Effects of 'Non-PPE' Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers.

    PubMed

    Roff, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin 'splash-resistant single-use' (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These 'non-personal protective equipment (PPE)' gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of 'non-PPE' gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments.One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as 'non-PPE' gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject 'challenge' in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38-87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25-41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5-8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the absorbent cotton gloves it

  1. Evaluating a moving target: Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in hospital settings

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project. Demonstration projects, in this context, push the envelope about what is known about effectiveness in novel settings, and turnover of staff and patient populations can present challenges to gathering optimal data. By using P-PE, we built capacity in the environment while expanding possibilities for data collection. Suggestions are made based on our experience. PMID:24860251

  2. The ESX-5 System of Pathogenic Mycobacteria Is Involved In Capsule Integrity and Virulence through Its Substrate PPE10

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Louis S.; van der Woude, Aniek D.; Bestebroer, Jovanka; van Stempvoort, Gunny; Musters, René J. P.; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Picavet, Daisy I.; van de Weerd, Robert; Maletta, Massimiliano; Kuijl, Coenraad P.; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Bitter, Wilbert

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria produce a capsule layer, which consists of glycan-like polysaccharides and a number of specific proteins. In this study, we show that, in slow-growing mycobacteria, the type VII secretion system ESX-5 plays a major role in the integrity and stability of the capsule. We have identified PPE10 as the ESX-5 substrate responsible for this effect. Mutants in esx-5 and ppe10 both have impaired capsule integrity as well as reduced surface hydrophobicity. Electron microscopy, immunoblot and flow cytometry analyses demonstrated reduced amounts of surface localized proteins and glycolipids, and morphological differences in the capsular layer. Since capsular proteins secreted by the ESX-1 system are important virulence factors, we tested the effect of the mutations that cause capsular defects on virulence mechanisms. Both esx-5 and ppe10 mutants of Mycobacterium marinum were shown to be impaired in ESX-1-dependent hemolysis. In agreement with this, the ppe10 and esx5 mutants showed reduced recruitment of ubiquitin in early macrophage infection and intermediate attenuation in zebrafish embryos. These results provide a pivotal role for the ESX-5 secretion system and its substrate PPE10, in the capsular integrity of pathogenic mycobacteria. These findings open up new roads for research on the mycobacterial capsule and its role in virulence and immune modulation. PMID:27280885

  3. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs.

  4. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs. PMID:24076303

  5. Identifying Cognate Binding Pairs among a Large Set of Paralogs: The Case of PE/PPE Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Pellegrini, Matteo; Eisenberg, David

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of how to detect cognate pairs of proteins that bind when each belongs to a large family of paralogs. To illustrate the problem, we have undertaken a genomewide analysis of interactions of members of the PE and PPE protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our computational method uses structural information, operon organization, and protein coevolution to infer the interaction of PE and PPE proteins. Some 289 PE/PPE complexes were predicted out of a possible 5,590 PE/PPE pairs genomewide. Thirty-five of these predicted complexes were also found to have correlated mRNA expression, providing additional evidence for these interactions. We show that our method is applicable to other protein families, by analyzing interactions of the Esx family of proteins. Our resulting set of predictions is a starting point for genomewide experimental interaction screens of the PE and PPE families, and our method may be generally useful for detecting interactions of proteins within families having many paralogs. PMID:18787688

  6. Frequent Homologous Recombination Events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE/PPE Multigene Families: Potential Role in Antigenic Variability▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Karboul, Anis; Mazza, Alberto; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Ho, John L.; Brousseau, Roland; Mardassi, Helmi

    2008-01-01

    The PE and PPE (PE/PPE) multigene families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are particularly GC-rich and share extensive homologous repetitive sequences. We hypothesized that they may undergo homologous recombination events, a mechanism rarely described in the natural evolution of mycobacteria. To test our hypothesis, we developed a specific oligonucleotide-based microarray targeting nearly all of the PE/PPE genes, aimed at detecting signals for homologous recombination. Such a microarray has never before been reported due to the multiplicity and highly repetitive and homologous nature of these sequences. Application of the microarray to a collection of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (n = 33) representing prevalent spoligotype strain families in Tunisia allowed successful detection of six deleted genomic regions involving a total of two PE and seven PPE genes. Some of these deleted genes are known to be immunodominant or involved in virulence. The four precisely determined deletions were flanked by 400- to 500-bp stretches of nearly identical sequences lying mainly at the conserved N-terminal region of the PE/PPE genes. These highly homologous sequences thus serve as substrates to mediate both intergenic and intragenic homologous recombination events, indicating an important function in generating strain variation. Importantly, all recombination events yielded a new in-frame fusion chimeric gene. Hence, homologous recombination within and between PE/PPE genes likely increased their antigenic variability, which may have profound implications in pathogenicity and/or host adaptation. The finding of high prevalence (∼45% and ∼58%) for at least two of the genomic deletions suggests that they likely confer advantageous biological attributes. PMID:18820012

  7. Evaluating a Moving Target: Lessons Learned from Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in Hospital Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation (P-PE) strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project.…

  8. Three-body Effects for the p(pe^-, ν_e)d Reaction in Nuclear Astrophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    1996-05-01

    We have investigated three-body effect for p(pe^-, ν_e)d reaction in nuclear astrophysics. Solutions of three-body equation for the initial pep state show that two-proton dynamics does not depend on the electron degrees of freedom and hence the conventional adiabatic approximation is valid for energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) > 10-3 where E_ep and E_pp are the relative kinetic energies between e and p, and between p and p, respectively. For the energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) ≈ 10-3, an exact solution of the three-body equation is required. For the energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) < 10-3, it is shown that a Gamow-factor cancellation (GFC) can occur between two protons. Our estimate of the GFC effect indicates that the previous conventional estimate of the pep solar neutrino flux may be an underestimate at least by a factor of two. Implications of our results for the solar neutrino problem are described. At lower temperatures, the GFC effect becomes more significant, and p(pe^-, ν_e)d may dominate over p(p,e^+ ν_e)d. The enhancement of the reaction rate for p(pe^-, νe )d at lower temperatures due to the GFC effect may offer possible explanations for some of long-standing anomalies in astrophysical and geophysical problems.

  9. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I.; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  10. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens.

  11. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  12. Polymorphisms in the PE35 and PPE68 antigens in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains may affect strain virulence and reflect ongoing immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Wei, Jianhao; Liu, Haican; Li, Guilian; Guo, Qian; Qiu, Yan; Zhao, Lili; Li, Machao; Zhao, Xiuqin; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the Pro‑Glu/Pro‑Pro‑Glu (PE/PPE) genes in strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibit high sequence variation and may be involved in antigenic variation and immune evasion. Region of Difference 1 (RD1), encoding genes from Rv3871 to Rv3879, was observed to be lost during the original derivation of Bacillus Calmette‑Guérin between 1908 and 1921. It has been previously demonstrated that two PE/PPE proteins, PE35 (Rv3872) and PPE68 (Rv3873), are encoded by RD1 and exhibit immunodominance. To explore the genetic diversity of PE35 and PPE68, and to evaluate the impact of sequence variation on the immune recognition of these proteins, 161 clinical M. tuberculosis strains were selected from China and comparative sequence analysis of PE35 and PPE68 was performed. The results indicated that polymorphisms in PE35 and PPE68 may lead to alterations in the function of these proteins, which may potentially affect strain virulence. In addition, the human T‑cell epitopes of PE35 and PPE68 were highly variable, suggesting that the two antigens may be involved in diversifying selection to evade host immunity. The prevalence of strains with PE35 mutations in the non‑Beijing family was significantly greater compared with the Beijing family, indicating that Beijing strains may be more conservative than non‑Beijing strains in this gene.

  13. Association of Strong Immune Responses to PPE Protein Rv1168c with Active Tuberculosis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nooruddin; Alam, Kaiser; Nair, Shiny; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Murthy, Kolluri J. R.; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2008-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection is critical for the treatment, prevention, and control of TB. Conventional diagnostic tests based on purified protein derivative (PPD) do not achieve the required diagnostic sensitivity. Therefore, in this study, we have evaluated the immunogenic properties of Rv1168c, a member of the PPE family, in comparison with PPD, which is routinely used in the tuberculin test, and Hsp60 and ESAT-6, well-known immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In a conventional enzyme immunoassay, the recombinant Rv1168c protein displayed stronger immunoreactivity against the sera obtained from patients with clinically active TB than did PPD, Hsp60, or ESAT-6 and could distinguish TB patients from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated controls. Interestingly, Rv1168c antigen permits diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary TB as well as extrapulmonary TB cases, which are often difficult to diagnose by conventional tests. The immunodominant nature of Rv1168c makes it a promising candidate to use in serodiagnosis of TB. In addition, our studies also show that Rv1168c is a potent T-cell antigen which elicits a strong gamma interferon response in sensitized peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from TB patients. PMID:18400969

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE protein Rv0256c induces strong B cell response in tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Philip Raj; Latha, Gaddam Suman; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important diseases of humans and major public health problem worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis of TB is necessary for the treatment, prevention, and control of TB. Therefore, it is important to identify suitable antigens that can differentiate active tuberculosis patients from BCG-vaccinated individuals. In the present study, we have used Rv0256c (PPE2) protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to screen the sera of infected patients belonging to different clinical TB presentations, and BCG-vaccinated clinically healthy individuals by enzyme immunoassay. Our results demonstrated that Rv0256c displayed stronger and specific immunoreactivity against the sera obtained from clinically active tuberculosis patients compared to PPD and ESAT-6 and could differentiate the TB-patients from the BCG-vaccinated controls. Importantly, Rv0256c was also found to detect even the extrapulmonary and smear-negative pulmonary cases which often are tedious and difficult to detect using conventional diagnostic methods. This study suggests that Rv0256c can be used as a potential marker for the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis patients. PMID:23827809

  15. Immunoregulatory functions and expression patterns of PE/PPE family members: Roles in pathogenicity and impact on anti-tuberculosis vaccine and drug design.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asma; Das, Arghya; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2015-06-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome was sequenced more than 15 years ago. It revealed a lot of interesting information, one of which was that 10% of the total coding capacity of the M. tuberculosis genome is dedicated to the PE/PPE family. There is a gradual expansion of these proteins from nonpathogenic to pathogenic mycobacteria, and there is increasing evidence that PE/PPE proteins play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss PE/PPE proteins, their close functional association with the ESX clusters, their immunomodulatory functions, and their important roles in mycobacterial virulence. In addition, we have attempted to review and compile information available in the literature detailing the expression patterns of PE/PPE family members in different mycobacterial species and also during infection. Our attempt has been to provide a succinct overview of this interesting family.

  16. The PE-PPE Domain in Mycobacterium Reveals a Serine α/β Hydrolase Fold and Function: An In-Silico Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2011-01-01

    The PE and PPE proteins first reported in the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv are now identified in all mycobacterial species. The PE-PPE domain (Pfam ID: PF08237) is a 225 amino acid residue conserved region located towards the C-terminus of some PE and PPE proteins and hypothetical proteins. Our in-silico sequence analysis revealed that this domain is present in all Mycobacteria, some Rhodococcus and Nocardia farcinica genomes. This domain comprises a pentapeptide sequence motif GxSxG/S at the N-terminus and conserved amino acid residues Ser, Asp and His that constitute a catalytic triad characteristic of lipase, esterase and cutinase activity. The fold prediction and comparative modeling of the 3-D structure of the PE-PPE domain revealed a “serine α/β hydrolase” structure with a central β-sheet flanked by α-helices on either side. The structure comprises a lid insertion with a closed structure conformation and has a solvent inaccessible active site. The oxyanion hole that stabilizes the negative charge on the tetrahedral intermediate has been identified. Our findings add to the growing list of serine hydrolases in mycobacterium, which are essential for the maintenance of their impermeable cell wall and virulence. These results provide the directions for the design of experiments to establish the function of PE and PPE proteins. PMID:21347309

  17. The Transcriptional Regulator Rv0485 Modulates the Expression of a pe and ppe Gene Pair and Is Required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Rachael M.; Goonesekera, Sunali D.; Bloom, Barry R.; Sampson, Samantha L.

    2009-01-01

    The pe and ppe genes are unique to mycobacteria and are widely speculated to play a role in tuberculosis pathogenesis. However, little is known about how expression of these genes is controlled. Elucidating the regulatory control of genes found exclusively in mycobacteria, such as the pe and ppe gene families, may be key to understanding the success of this pathogen. In this study, we used a transposon mutagenesis approach to elucidate pe and ppe regulation. This resulted in the identification of Rv0485, a previously uncharacterized transcriptional regulator. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that disruption of Rv0485 reduced the expression of the pe13 and ppe18 gene pair (Rv1195 and Rv1196), defined the Rv0485 regulon, and emphasized the lack of global regulation of pe and ppe genes. The in vivo phenotype of the Rv0485 transposon mutant strain (Rv0485::Tn) was investigated in the mouse model, where it was demonstrated that the mutation has minimal effect on bacterial organ burden. Despite this, disruption of Rv0485 allowed mice to survive for significantly longer, with substantially reduced lung pathology in comparison with mice infected with wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection of immune-deficient SCID mice with the Rv0485::Tn strain also resulted in extended survival times, suggesting that Rv0485 plays a role in modulation of innate immune responses. This is further supported by the finding that disruption of Rv0485 resulted in reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by infected murine macrophages. In summary, we have demonstrated that disruption of a previously uncharacterized transcriptional regulator, Rv0485, results in reduced expression of pe13 and ppe18 and attenuation of M. tuberculosis virulence. PMID:19651861

  18. PPE26 induces TLR2-dependent activation of macrophages and drives Th1-type T-cell immunity by triggering the cross-talk of multiple pathways involved in the host response

    PubMed Central

    Su, Haibo; Kong, Cong; Zhu, Lin; Huang, Qi; Luo, Liulin; Wang, Honghai; Xu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiological functions and the underlying molecular basis of PE /PPE proteins of M. tuberculosis remain largely unknown. In this study, we focused on the link between PPE26 and host response. We demonstrated that PPE26 can induce extensive inflammatory responses in macrophages through triggering the cross-talk of multiple pathways involved in the host response, as revealed by iTRAQ-based subcellular quantitative proteomics. We observed that PPE26 is able to specifically bind to TLR2 leading to the subsequent activation of MAPKs and NF-κB signaling. PPE26 functionally stimulates macrophage activation by augmenting pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12 p40) and the expression of cell surface markers (CD80, CD86, MHC class I and II). We observed that PPE26-treated macrophages effectively polarizes naïve CD4+ T cells to up-regulate CXCR3 expression, and to secrete IFN-γ and IL-2, indicating PPE26 contributes to the Th1 polarization during the immune response. Importantly, rBCG::PPE26 induces stronger antigen-specific TNF-α and IFN-γ activity, and higher levels of the Th1 cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ comparable to BCG. Moreover, PPE26 effectively induces the reciprocal expansion of effector/memory CD4+/CD8+ CD44highCD62Llow T cells in the spleens of mice immunized with this strain. These results suggest that PPE26 may be a TLR2 agonist that stimulates innate immunity and adaptive immunity, indicating that PPE26 is a potential antigen for the rational design of an efficient vaccine against M. tuberculosis. PMID:26439698

  19. Selection of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube with Narrow Diameter Distribution by Using a PPE PPV Copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Kelly A; Chen, Yusheng; Malkovskiy, Andrey; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; Sokolov, Alexei P; More, Karren Leslie; Pang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Electronic and mechanic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are uniquely dependent on the tube's chiralities and diameters. Isolation of different type SWNTs remains one of the fundamental and challenging issues in nanotube science. Herein, we demonstrate that SWNTs can be effectively enriched to a narrow diameter range by sequential treatment of the HiPco sample with nitric acid and a {pi}-conjugated copolymer poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE)-co-poly(phenylenevinylene) (PPV). On the basis of Raman, fluorescence, and microscopic evidence, the nitric acid is found to selectively remove the SWNTs of small diameter. The polymer not only effectively dispersed carbon nanotubes but also exhibited a good selectivity toward a few SWNTs. The reported approach thus offers a new methodology to isolate SWNTs, which has the potential to operate in a relatively large scale.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE68 and Rv2626c genes contribute to the host cell necrosis and bacterial escape from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Danelishvili, Lia; Everman, Jamie; Bermudez, Luiz E

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are the main line of innate immune response against M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, these cells serve as the major intracellular niche for Mtb enhancing its survival, replication and, later on, cell-to-cell spread. Mtb-associated cytotoxicity of macrophages has been well documented, but limited information exists about mechanisms by which the pathogen induces cell necrosis. To identify virulence factors involved in the induction of necrosis, we screened 5,000 transposon mutants of Mtb for clones that failed to promote the host cell necrosis in a similar manner as the wild-type bacterium. Five Mtb mutants were identified as potential candidates inducing significantly lower levels of THP-1 cell damage in contrast to the H37Rv wild-type infection. Reduced levels of the cell damage by necrosis deficient mutants (NDMs) were also associated with delayed damage of mitochondrial membrane permeability when compared with the wild-type infection over time. Two knockout mutants of the Rv3873 gene, encoding a cell wall PPE68 protein of RD1 region, were identified out of 5 NDMs. Further investigation lead to the observation that PPE68 protein interacts and exports several unknown or known surface/secreted proteins, among them Rv2626c is associated with the host cell necrosis. When the Rv2626c gene is deleted from the genome of Mtb, the bacterium displays significantly less necrosis in THP-1 cells and, conversely, the overexpression of Rv2626c promotes the host cell necrosis at early time points of infections in contrast to the wild-type strain.

  1. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, RBN; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence. PMID:26902658

  2. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, R B N; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-02-23

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence.

  3. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, R B N; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence. PMID:26902658

  4. High Sequence Variability of the ppE18 Gene of Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains Potentially Impacts Effectivity of Vaccine Candidate M72/AS01E.

    PubMed

    Homolka, Susanne; Ubben, Tanja; Niemann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The development of an effective vaccine is urgently needed to fight tuberculosis (TB) which is still the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide. One of the promising vaccine candidates M72/AS01E consists of two proteins subunits PepA and PPE18 coded by Rv0125 and Rv1196. However, preliminary data indicate a high level of sequence variability among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains that might have an impact on the vaccine efficacy. To further investigate this finding, we determined ppE18 sequence variability in a well-characterized reference collection of 71 MTBC strains from 23 phylogenetic lineages representing the global MTBC diversity. In total, 100 sequence variations consisting of 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three insertions and one deletion were detected resulting in 141 variable positions distributed over the entire gene. The majority of SNPs detected were non-synonymous (n = 68 vs. n = 28 synonymous). Strains from animal adapted lineages, e.g., M. bovis, showed a significant higher diversity than the human pathogens such as M. tuberculosis Haarlem. SNP patterns specific for different lineages as well as for deeper branches in the phylogeny could be identified. The results of our study demonstrate a high variability of the ppE18 gene even in the N-terminal domains that is normally highly conserved in ppe genes. As the N-terminal region interacts with TLR2 receptor inducing a protective anti-inflammatory immune response, genetic heterogeneity has a potential impact on the vaccine efficiency, however, this has to be investigated in future studies.

  5. A brachytic dwarfism trait (dw) in peach trees is caused by a nonsense mutation within the gibberellic acid receptor PpeGID1c.

    PubMed

    Hollender, Courtney A; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors controlling tree size and shape. Here, we studied the genetic basis for a recessive brachytic dwarfism trait (dw) in peach (Prunus persica) that has little or no effect on fruit development. A sequencing-based mapping strategy positioned dw on the distal end of chromosome 6. Further sequence analysis and fine mapping identified a candidate gene for dw as a non-functional allele of the gibberellic acid receptor GID1c. Expression of the two GID1-like genes found in peach, PpeGID1c and PpeGID1b, was analyzed. GID1c was predominantly expressed in actively growing vegetative tissues, whereas GID1b was more highly expressed in reproductive tissues. Silencing of GID1c in plum via transgenic expression of a hairpin construct led to a dwarf phenotype similar to that of dw/dw peaches. In general, the degree of GID1c silencing corresponded to the degree of dwarfing. The results suggest that PpeGID1c serves a primary role in vegetative growth and elongation, whereas GID1b probably functions to regulate gibberellic acid perception in reproductive organs. Modification of GID1c expression could provide a rational approach to control tree size without impairing fruit development. PMID:26639453

  6. Conserved Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) Protein Domains Target LipY Lipases of Pathogenic Mycobacteria to the Cell Surface via the ESX-5 Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Daleke, Maria H.; Cascioferro, Alessandro; de Punder, Karin; Ummels, Roy; Abdallah, Abdallah M.; van der Wel, Nicole; Peters, Peter J.; Luirink, Joen; Manganelli, Riccardo; Bitter, Wilbert

    2011-01-01

    The type VII secretion system ESX-5 is a major pathway for export of PE and PPE proteins in pathogenic mycobacteria. These mycobacteria-specific protein families are characterized by conserved N-terminal domains of 100 and 180 amino acids, which contain the proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) motifs after which they are named. Here we investigated secretion of the triacylglycerol lipase LipY, which in fast-growing mycobacteria contains a signal sequence, but in slow-growing species appears to have replaced the signal peptide with a PE or PPE domain. Selected LipY homologues were expressed in wild-type Mycobacterium marinum and its corresponding ESX-5 mutant, and localization of the proteins was investigated by immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Our study shows that Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE-LipY (LipYtub) and M. marinum PPE-LipY (LipYmar) are both secreted to the bacterial surface in an ESX-5-dependent fashion. After transport, the PE/PPE domains are removed by proteolytic cleavage. In contrast, Mycobacterium gilvum LipY, which has a signal sequence, is not transported to the cell surface. Furthermore, we show that LipYtub and LipYmar require their respective PE and PPE domains for ESX-5-dependent secretion. The role of the PE domain in ESX-5 secretion was confirmed in a whole cell lipase assay, in which wild-type bacteria expressing full-length LipYtub, but not LipYtub lacking its PE domain, were shown to hydrolyze extracellular lipids. In conclusion, both PE and PPE domains contain a signal required for secretion of LipY by the ESX-5 system, and these domains are proteolytically removed upon translocation. PMID:21471225

  7. The Potential of N-Rich Plasma-Polymerized Ethylene (PPE:N) Films for Regulating the Phenotype of the Nucleus Pulposus

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Fackson; Petit, Alain; Tian Wang, Hong; Epure, Laura M; Girard-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc; Ouellet, Jean A; Wertheimer, Michael R; Antoniou, John

    2008-01-01

    We recently developed a nitrogen-rich plasma-polymerized biomaterial, designated “PPE:N” (N-doped plasma-polymerized ethylene) that is capable of suppressing cellular hypertrophy while promoting type I collagen and aggrecan expression in mesenchymal stem cells from osteoarthritis patients. We then hypothesized that these surfaces would form an ideal substrate on which the nucleus pulposus (NP) phenotype would be maintained. Recent evidence using microarrays showed that in young rats, the relative mRNA levels of glypican-3 (GPC3) and pleiotrophin binding factor (PTN) were significantly higher in nucleus pulposus (NP) compared to annulus fibrosus (AF) and articular cartilage. Furthermore, vimentin (VIM) mRNA levels were higher in NP versus articular cartilage. In contrast, the levels of expression of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and matrix gla protein precursor (MGP) were lower in NP compared to articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to compare the expression profiles of these genes in NP cells from fetal bovine lumbar discs when cultured on either commercial polystyrene (PS) tissue culture dishes or on PPE:N with time. We found that the expression of these genes varies with the concentration of N ([N]). More specifically, the expression of several genes of NP was sensitive to [N], with a decrease of GPC3, VIM, PTN, and MGP in function of decreasing [N]. The expression of aggrecan, collagen type I, and collagen type II was also studied: no significant differences were observed in the cells on different surfaces with different culture time. The results support the concept that PPE:N may be a suitable scaffold for the culture of NP cells. Further studies are however necessary to better understand their effects on cellular phenotypes. PMID:19478889

  8. Residue determination of glufosinate in plant origin foods using modified Quick Polar Pesticides (QuPPe) method and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Yongtao; Song, Le; Zhao, Pengyue; Li, Yanjie; Zou, Nan; Qin, Yuhong; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2016-04-15

    A sensitive and specific method for the determination of glufosinate in plant origin foods was developed. The method involves extraction using modified QuPPe method, clean-up by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) and detection with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was validated on twelve matrices spiked at 10 or 20, 100 and 500 μg/kg. The recovery ranged from 80% to 108% with intra-day RSDs (n=5) of 0.6-9.8% and inter-day RSDs (n=15) of 3.0-9.4%. Good linearities (R(2)⩾0.9991) were obtained for all matrices. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the selected matrices ranged from 0.3 to 3.3 μg kg(-1) and from 1 to 10 μg kg(-1), respectively. The method was demonstrated to be reliable and sensitive for the routine monitoring of glufosinate in plant origin foods.

  9. Comparative genomic and proteomic analyses of PE/PPE multigene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and H37Ra reveal novel and interesting differences with implications in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Sakshi; Singh, Yadvir; Sharma, Khushbu; Mittal, Aditya; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a leading infectious disease taking one human life every 15 s globally. The two well-characterized strains H37Rv and H37Ra, derived from the same parental strain M. tuberculosis H37, show dramatically different pathogenic phenotypes. PE/PPE gene family, comprising of 176 open reading frames and present exclusively in genus Mycobacterium, accounts for ∼10% of the M. tuberculosis genome. Our comprehensive in silico analyses of PE/PPE family of H37Ra and virulent H37Rv strains revealed genetic differences between these strains in terms of several single nucleotide variations and InDels and these manifested in changes in physico-chemical properties, phosphorylation sites, and protein: protein interacting domains of the corresponding proteomes. Similar comparisons using the 13 sigma factor genes, 36 members of the mammalian cell entry family, 13 mycobacterial membrane protein large family members and 11 two-component signal transduction systems along with 5 orphaned response regulators and 2 orphaned sensor kinases failed to reveal very significant difference between H37Rv and H37Ra, reinforcing the importance of PE/PPE genes. Many of these changes between H37Rv and H37Ra can be correlated to differences in pathogenesis and virulence of the two strains. PMID:22618876

  10. The Differential Gene Expression Pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Response to Capreomycin and PA-824 versus First-Line TB Drugs Reveals Stress- and PE/PPE-Related Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li M.; Tai, Shu C.

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a leading infectious disease causing millions of deaths each year. How to eradicate mycobacterial persistence has become a central research focus for developing next-generation TB drugs. Yet, the knowledge in this area is fundamentally limited and only a few drugs, notably capreomycin and PA-824, have been shown to be active against non-replicating persistent TB bacilli. In this study, we performed a new bioinformatics analysis on microarray-based gene expression data obtained from the public domain to explore genes that were differentially induced by drugs between the group of capreomycin and PA-824 and the group of mainly the first-line TB drugs. Our study has identified 42 genes specifically induced by capreomycin and PA-824. Many of these genes are related to stress responses. In terms of the distribution of identified genes in a specific category relative to the whole genome, only the categories of PE/PPE and conserved hypotheticals have statistical significance. Six among the 42 genes identified in this study are on the list of the top 100 persistence targets selected by the TB Structural Genomics Consortium. Further biological elucidation of their roles in mycobacterial persistence is warranted. PMID:20016672

  11. Establishing the skill of precipitation reconstructions through PPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Werner, Johannes P.; Wagner, Sebastian; Luterbacher, Jürg; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the skill of several climate field reconstruction techniques (CFR) to reconstruct past precipitation over continental Europe and the Mediterranean at seasonal time scales over the last two millennia from proxy records. A number of pseudoproxy experiments are performed within the virtual reality of a regional paleoclimate simulation at 45 km resolution to analyse different aspects of reconstruction skill. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), two versions of an Analog Method (AM) and Bayesian hierarchical modeling (BHM) are applied to reconstruct precipitation from a synthetic network of pseudoproxies that are contaminated with various types of noise. The skill of the derived reconstructions is assessed through comparison with precipitation simulated by the regional climate model. Unlike BHM, CCA systematically underestimates the variance. The AM can be adjusted to overcome this shortcoming, presenting an intermediate behaviour between the two aforementioned techniques. However, a trade-off between reconstruction-target correlations and reconstructed variance is the drawback of all CFR techniques. CCA (BHM) presents the largest (lowest) skill in preserving the temporal evolution, whereas the AM can be tuned to reproduce better correlation at the expense of losing variance. While BHM has been shown to perform well for temperatures, it relies heavily on prescribed spatial correlation lengths. While this assumption is valid for temperature, it is hardly warranted for precipitation. In general, none of the methods outperforms the other. All experiments agree that a dense and regularly distributed proxy network is required to reconstruct precipitation accurately, reflecting its high spatial and temporal variability. This is especially true in summer, when a specifically short de-correlation distance from the proxy location is caused by localised summertime convective precipitation events.

  12. Selecting PPE for the Workplace (Personal Protective Equipment for the Eyes and Face)

    MedlinePlus

    ... OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 800-321-6742 (OSHA) TTY www.OSHA.gov FEDERAL GOVERNMENT White House Affordable Care Act Disaster Recovery ...

  13. Sugar-Coated PPE's, Novel Nanomaterial's and Sensing Modules for Disease and Bioterrorism Related Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Bunz, Uwe

    2003-11-21

    The detection and sensing of biological warfare agents (ricin, anthrax toxin), of disease agents (cholera, botulinum, and tetnus toxins, influenza virus, etc.) and of biologically active species important for national security and disease control.

  14. 77 FR 72411 - The Standard on Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Shipyard Employment; Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...), hands and body (Sec. 1915.157), lifesaving equipment (Sec. 1915.158), personal fall arrest systems (Sec... Agency's functions, including whether the information is useful; The accuracy of OSHA's estimate of the.... Authority and Signature David Michaels, Ph.D., MPH, Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety...

  15. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conjunction with engineering controls, guards, and safe work practices and procedures. 2. Assessment and..., insulators, electricians, machinists, mobile equipment mechanics and repairers, plumbers and ship...

  16. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contact lenses must also wear appropriate eye and face protection devices in a hazardous environment. It... contact lens wearers. (g) Caution should be exercised in the use of metal frame protective devices in...). Glare Poor vision Spectacles with shaded or special-purpose lenses, as suitable. See notes (9),...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of three types of alkoxy-substituted hybrid PPV-PPE polymers: potential candidates for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayuk Mbi Egbe, Daniel; Bader, Cornelia; Nowotny, Juergen; Klemm, Elisabeth

    2004-02-01

    Polymers of general constitutional structures: (formula available in paper) have been synthesized through the Horner- Wadsworth-Emmons olefination reactions of bisphosphonates 3 and fluorophoric dialdehydes 1, 2, 12 and 13 respectively. High molecular-weight, thermostable and transparent film-forming materials were obtained in high yields. The new compounds exhibit lyotropic and thermotropic liquid crystalline behavior. The insertion of triple bonds into the conjugated backbone enhances the electronaffinity relative to PPV and make them highly luminescent in solution as well as in solid state. Fluorescence quantum yields between 60 and 80% in solution and between 20 and 50% in film and extinction coefficients around 100,000 M-1cm-1 were obtained. In the cases of 4 and 5 are the solid state properties side - chains dependent. The three classes of polymers 5, 14 and 15 show similar photoluminescence behavior despite the differences in constitutional structures. This can be ascribed to identical chromophore system responsible for the emission. They are presently used in the design of light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells devices.

  18. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Consideration: (1) Impact (2) Penetration (3) Compression (roll-over) (4) Chemical (5) Heat (6) Harmful dust (7...) Sources of light radiation, for instance, welding, brazing, cutting, heat treating, furnaces, and high... face shield. Heat: Furnace operations, pouring, casting, hot dipping, and welding Hot sparks...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Consideration: (1) Impact (2) Penetration (3) Compression (roll-over) (4) Chemical (5) Heat (6) Harmful dust (7...) Sources of light radiation, for instance, welding, brazing, cutting, heat treating, furnaces, and high... face shield. Heat: Furnace operations, pouring, casting, hot dipping, and welding Hot sparks...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Consideration: (1) Impact (2) Penetration (3) Compression (roll-over) (4) Chemical (5) Heat (6) Harmful dust (7...) Sources of light radiation, for instance, welding, brazing, cutting, heat treating, furnaces, and high... face shield. Heat: Furnace operations, pouring, casting, hot dipping, and welding Hot sparks...

  1. An Assessment of the Theoretical Underpinnings of Practical Participatory Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the underpinnings of practical participatory evaluation (PPE). Evaluation approaches have long been criticized because their results are often not used. It is believed that PPE addresses this drawback. The article focuses on the mechanisms underlying the links between activities and consequences in PPE. A PPE theory…

  2. Physical Properties, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films Containing Carvacrol and Pomegranate Peel Extract.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Lv, Hua; Yang, Bingjie; Chen, Xiaoe; Sun, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan-based active films were developed by incorporation of carvacrol (10 g/L), pomegranate peel extract (PPE, 10 g/L) and carvacrol + PPE (10 g/L of each) and their physical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were investigated. Incorporation of carvacrol and carvacrol + PPE into the films significantly decreased the water vapor permeability, tensile strength and percentage of elongation at break. Incorporation of carvacrol, PPE and carvacrol + PPE into the films decreased the transparency, but significantly increased the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. All the films, with the exception of PPE-incorporated film, exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus of the film incorporated with carvacrol + PPE was moderately higher than that incorporated with carvacrol or PPE alone, suggesting a synergistic action between carvacrol and PPE. PMID:26083037

  3. Health Care Wide Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... Employee Downloads Additional Information Latex Allergy Legionnaires' Disease Mercury Needlesticks Noise Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/ ... Staphylococcus aureus Latex Allergy Legionnaires' Disease Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Lack ...

  4. Attitude towards personal protective equipment in the French nuclear fuel industry.

    PubMed

    Guseva Canu, Irina; Faust, Ségolène; Canioni, Pierre; Collomb, Philippe; Samson, Eric; Laurier, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional study examines the compliance of workers from the European Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Consortium (EURODIF) with personal protection equipment (PPE) in view of the various hazards in the nuclear fuel industry. The PPE inventory was drawn up by an industrial hygienist in charge of the PPE at EURODIF. Two hundred and twenty seven (10%) randomly selected, active and retired, EURODIF workers filled in a questionnaire on their attitudes towards PPE. Exposure data from the EURODIF job exposure matrix were used to examine whether PPE usage varies according to exposure level. The study suggests a PPE usage profile that varies depending on the hazards present and PPE available. Anti-uranium PPE and gloves were among the best rated, while anti-spray goggles were the least used. We found that, for most hazards known to cause cancer or irreversible health damage, PPE usage varied according to exposure (homogeneity test, p<0.05; trend test, p<0.05). The continuous use of PPE among workers should be encouraged through improvements to the PPE management system. A precise model of individual exposure can only be designed if the use and efficiency of PPE are taken into consideration.

  5. Ebola virus disease: The use of fluorescents as markers of contamination for personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Bell, Todd; Smoot, John; Patterson, Justin; Smalligan, Roger; Jordan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has created interest in personal protective equipment (PPE) content and usage. PPE testing has historically been done by individual component, rather than as a bundle for contact isolation. Fluorescent agents are commonly used in training for infection control techniques. The purpose of our study was to compare 2 PPE bundles and to evaluate the feasibility of fluorescent markers as an assessment tool for PPE effectiveness. Eight healthcare providers volunteered for this preliminary study. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 PPE bundles that meet current (October 20, 2014) CDC recommendations. One PPE bundle utilized commercial EVD-recommended components. The other PPE bundle used components already available at local hospitals or retail stores. Participants were also randomized to standard or high volume exposures (HVE) to simulate fluid splash. Each participant was assisted in PPE donning and doffing by an experienced trainer. A training mannequin was contaminated with fluorescent agents to simulate bodily fluids. Participants were then given clinical tasks to care for the EVD "patient." De-gowned participants were examined under "black light" for fluorescence indicative of contamination. One participant in each PPE arm had evidence of contamination. One of the contamination events was suspected during the patient care exercise. The other contamination event was not suspected until black light examination. In spite of a large difference in cost of PPE, the two bundle arms performed similarly. Bundle testing using fluorescent markers could help identify optimal PPE systems.

  6. Ebola virus disease: The use of fluorescents as markers of contamination for personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Bell, Todd; Smoot, John; Patterson, Justin; Smalligan, Roger; Jordan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has created interest in personal protective equipment (PPE) content and usage. PPE testing has historically been done by individual component, rather than as a bundle for contact isolation. Fluorescent agents are commonly used in training for infection control techniques. The purpose of our study was to compare 2 PPE bundles and to evaluate the feasibility of fluorescent markers as an assessment tool for PPE effectiveness. Eight healthcare providers volunteered for this preliminary study. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 PPE bundles that meet current (October 20, 2014) CDC recommendations. One PPE bundle utilized commercial EVD-recommended components. The other PPE bundle used components already available at local hospitals or retail stores. Participants were also randomized to standard or high volume exposures (HVE) to simulate fluid splash. Each participant was assisted in PPE donning and doffing by an experienced trainer. A training mannequin was contaminated with fluorescent agents to simulate bodily fluids. Participants were then given clinical tasks to care for the EVD "patient." De-gowned participants were examined under "black light" for fluorescence indicative of contamination. One participant in each PPE arm had evidence of contamination. One of the contamination events was suspected during the patient care exercise. The other contamination event was not suspected until black light examination. In spite of a large difference in cost of PPE, the two bundle arms performed similarly. Bundle testing using fluorescent markers could help identify optimal PPE systems. PMID:26793445

  7. Ebola virus disease: The use of fluorescents as markers of contamination for personal protective equipment

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Todd; Smoot, John; Patterson, Justin; Smalligan, Roger; Jordan, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has created interest in personal protective equipment (PPE) content and usage. PPE testing has historically been done by individual component, rather than as a bundle for contact isolation. Fluorescent agents are commonly used in training for infection control techniques. The purpose of our study was to compare 2 PPE bundles and to evaluate the feasibility of fluorescent markers as an assessment tool for PPE effectiveness. Eight healthcare providers volunteered for this preliminary study. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 PPE bundles that meet current (October 20, 2014) CDC recommendations. One PPE bundle utilized commercial EVD-recommended components. The other PPE bundle used components already available at local hospitals or retail stores. Participants were also randomized to standard or high volume exposures (HVE) to simulate fluid splash. Each participant was assisted in PPE donning and doffing by an experienced trainer. A training mannequin was contaminated with fluorescent agents to simulate bodily fluids. Participants were then given clinical tasks to care for the EVD “patient.” De-gowned participants were examined under “black light” for fluorescence indicative of contamination. One participant in each PPE arm had evidence of contamination. One of the contamination events was suspected during the patient care exercise. The other contamination event was not suspected until black light examination. In spite of a large difference in cost of PPE, the two bundle arms performed similarly. Bundle testing using fluorescent markers could help identify optimal PPE systems. PMID:26793445

  8. Chest Compression With Personal Protective Equipment During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Lu, Kai-Zhi; Yi, Bin; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Following a chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear incident, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure is essential for patients who suffer cardiac arrest. But CPR when wearing personal protection equipment (PPE) before decontamination becomes a challenge for healthcare workers (HCW). Although previous studies have assessed the impact of PPE on airway management, there is little research available regarding the quality of chest compression (CC) when wearing PPE. A present randomized cross-over simulation study was designed to evaluate the effect of PPE on CC performance using mannequins. The study was set in one university medical center in the China. Forty anesthesia residents participated in this randomized cross-over study. Each participant performed 2 min of CC on a manikin with and without PPE, respectively. Participants were randomized into 2 groups that either performed CC with PPE first, followed by a trial without PPE after a 180-min rest, or vice versa. CPR recording technology was used to objectively quantify the quality of CC. Additionally, participants’ physiological parameters and subjective fatigue score values were recorded. With the use of PPE, a significant decrease of the percentage of effective compressions (41.3 ± 17.1% with PPE vs 67.5 ± 15.6% without PPE, P < 0.001) and the percentage of adequate compressions (67.7 ± 18.9% with PPE vs 80.7 ± 15.5% without PPE, P < 0.001) were observed. Furthermore, the increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and subjective fatigue score values were more obvious with the use of PPE (all P < 0.01). We found significant deterioration of CC performance in HCW with the use of a level-C PPE, which may be a disadvantage for enhancing survival of cardiac arrest. PMID:27057878

  9. Chest Compression With Personal Protective Equipment During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Randomized Crossover Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Lu, Kai-Zhi; Yi, Bin; Chen, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Following a chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear incident, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure is essential for patients who suffer cardiac arrest. But CPR when wearing personal protection equipment (PPE) before decontamination becomes a challenge for healthcare workers (HCW). Although previous studies have assessed the impact of PPE on airway management, there is little research available regarding the quality of chest compression (CC) when wearing PPE.A present randomized cross-over simulation study was designed to evaluate the effect of PPE on CC performance using mannequins.The study was set in one university medical center in the China.Forty anesthesia residents participated in this randomized cross-over study.Each participant performed 2 min of CC on a manikin with and without PPE, respectively. Participants were randomized into 2 groups that either performed CC with PPE first, followed by a trial without PPE after a 180-min rest, or vice versa.CPR recording technology was used to objectively quantify the quality of CC. Additionally, participants' physiological parameters and subjective fatigue score values were recorded.With the use of PPE, a significant decrease of the percentage of effective compressions (41.3 ± 17.1% with PPE vs 67.5 ± 15.6% without PPE, P < 0.001) and the percentage of adequate compressions (67.7 ± 18.9% with PPE vs 80.7 ± 15.5% without PPE, P < 0.001) were observed. Furthermore, the increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and subjective fatigue score values were more obvious with the use of PPE (all P < 0.01).We found significant deterioration of CC performance in HCW with the use of a level-C PPE, which may be a disadvantage for enhancing survival of cardiac arrest. PMID:27057878

  10. Localization of a filarial phosphate permease that is up-regulated in response to depletion of essential Wolbachia endobacteria.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth M

    2014-03-01

    Wolbachia of filarial nematodes are essential, obligate endobacteria. When depleted by doxycycline worm embryogenesis, larval development and worm survival are inhibited. The molecular basis governing the endosymbiosis between Wolbachia and their filarial host is still being deciphered. In rodent filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis, a nematode encoded phosphate permease gene (Ls-ppe-1) was up-regulated at the mRNA level in response to Wolbachia depletion and this gene promises to have an important role in Wolbachia-nematode endosymbiosis. To further characterize this gene, the regulation of phosphate permease during Wolbachia depletion was studied at the protein level in L. sigmodontis and in the human filaria Onchocerca volvulus. And the localization of phosphate permease (PPE) and Wolbachia in L. sigmodontis and O. volvulus was investigated in untreated and antibiotic treated worms. Depletion of Wolbachia by tetracycline (Tet) resulted in up-regulation of Ls-ppe-1 in L. sigmodontis. On day 36 of Tet treatment, compared to controls (Con), >98% of Wolbachia were depleted with a 3-fold increase in mRNA levels of Ls-ppe-1. Anti-Ls-PPE serum used in Western blots showed up-regulation of Ls-PPE at the protein level in Tet worms on day 15 and 36 of treatment. Immunohistology revealed the localization of Wolbachia and Ls-PPE in the embryos, microfilariae and hypodermis of L. sigmodontis female worms and up-regulation of Ls-PPE in response to Wolbachia depletion. Expression of O. volvulus phosphate permease (Ov-PPE) studied using anti-Ov-PPE serum, showed up-regulation of Ov-PPE at the protein level in doxycycline treated Wolbachia depleted O. volvulus worms and immunohistology revealed localization of Ov-PPE and Wolbachia and up-regulation of Ov-PPE in the hypodermis and embryos of doxycycline treated worms. Ls-PPE and Ov-PPE are upregulated upon Wolbachia depletion in same tissues and regions where Wolbachia are located in untreated worms, reinforcing a link

  11. Using reduced personal protective equipment in an endemically infected mouse colony.

    PubMed

    Baker, Samuel W; Prestia, Kevin A; Karolewski, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) frequently is used to reduce the risk of spreading adventitial diseases in rodent colonies. The PPE worn often reflects the historic practices of the research institution rather than published performance data. Standard PPE for a rodent facility typically consists of a disposable hair bonnet, gown, face mask, shoe covers, and gloves, which are donned on facility entry and removed on exiting. This study evaluated the effect of a reduced PPE protocol on disease spread within an endemically infected mouse colony. In the reduced protocol, only the parts of the wearer that came in direct contact with the mice or their environment were covered with PPE. To test the reduced PPE protocol, proven naïve mice were housed in a facility endemically infected with murine norovirus and mouse hepatitis virus for 12 wk. During that time, routine husbandry operations were conducted by using either the standard or reduced PPE protocols. All study mice remained free of virus antibody when reduced PPE was implemented. These results indicate that reduced PPE is adequate for disease containment when correct techniques for handling microisolation caging are used. Reducing the amount of PPE used in an animal facility affords considerable cost savings yet limits the risk of disease spread. PMID:24827569

  12. Using Reduced Personal Protective Equipment in an Endemically Infected Mouse Colony

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Samuel W; Prestia, Kevin A; Karolewski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) frequently is used to reduce the risk of spreading adventitial diseases in rodent colonies. The PPE worn often reflects the historic practices of the research institution rather than published performance data. Standard PPE for a rodent facility typically consists of a disposable hair bonnet, gown, face mask, shoe covers, and gloves, which are donned on facility entry and removed on exiting. This study evaluated the effect of a reduced PPE protocol on disease spread within an endemically infected mouse colony. In the reduced protocol, only the parts of the wearer that came in direct contact with the mice or their environment were covered with PPE. To test the reduced PPE protocol, proven naïve mice were housed in a facility endemically infected with murine norovirus and mouse hepatitis virus for 12 wk. During that time, routine husbandry operations were conducted by using either the standard or reduced PPE protocols. All study mice remained free of virus antibody when reduced PPE was implemented. These results indicate that reduced PPE is adequate for disease containment when correct techniques for handling microisolation caging are used. Reducing the amount of PPE used in an animal facility affords considerable cost savings yet limits the risk of disease spread. PMID:24827569

  13. How Do I Know? A Guide to the Selection of Personal Protective Equipment for Use in Responding to A Release of Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.

    1999-05-01

    An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with an HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and monitoring devices used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel.

  14. Clinical Issues-July 2016.

    PubMed

    Burlingame, Byron L

    2016-07-01

    Wearing ring dosimeters Key words: dosimeter, ring dosimeters, finger dosimeters. Reporting a retained surgical item (RSI) Key words: reportable event, retained surgical item, RSI, retained foreign object, counts. Definition of an implant Key words: implant, implant documentation. Determining whether RN first assistants (RNFAs) must maintain CNOR certification to practice Key words: CNOR, CRNFA, RNFA, first assistant, RN first assistant. Definition of personal protective equipment (PPE) Key words: personal protective equipment, PPE, surgical attire, removing PPE. PMID:27350357

  15. Photopyroelectric technique for the measurement of thermal and optical properties of pigments in liquid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-López, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    The analytical solution for the one-dimensional heat diffusion problem for a two-layer system, in the Beer-Lambert model for light absorption, is shown to be useful for the implementation of a novel photopyroelectric (PPE) methodology, for the measurement of thermal and optical properties for pigments in liquid solution. The PPE signal, as a function of the sample's thickness, is used for this goal. Exponential decay for the PPE amplitude, followed by a constant PPE phase, for solutions at low dye concentration and an exponential decay for the PPE amplitude but a linear PPE phase behavior for the higher concentrated ones are shown and are, respectively, used for the measurement of the optical absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity for liquid samples. These PPE phase behaviors also provide a criterion to decide on the corresponding limit for optical and thermal properties measurement. This PPE methodology was tested by measuring the optical absorption coefficient (at 658 nm) and thermal diffusivity for solution of methylene blue and copper sulfate in distilled water at various concentrations. Independent measurements of optical properties, using a commercial spectrometer, were done to compare with the corresponding ones obtained with this PPE methodology, finding very good agreement to each other.

  16. Inhibition of intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice by green tea polyphenols (polyphenon E) and individual catechins.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xingpei; Sun, Yuhai; Yang, Chung S; Bose, Mousumi; Lambert, Joshua D; Ju, Jihyeung; Lu, Gang; Lee, Mao-Jung; Park, Sunny; Husain, Ali; Wang, Steven

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we compared the cancer preventive activities of Polyphenon E (PPE), a standardized green tea polyphenol preparation given in diet versus drinking fluid as well as the activities of PPE versus individual catechins. We treated Apc(Min/+) mice for 9 wk with 0.08% (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), 0.08% (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, or 0.12% PPE in drinking fluid or diet. Only 0.12% dietary PPE and 0.08% EGCG in drinking fluid significantly decreased tumor multiplicity (70% and 51%, respectively). Compared to PPE in drinking fluid, dietary PPE delivered twofold more EGCG to the small intestine. Immunohistochemistry showed that adenomas in groups treated with PPE and EGCG had decreased cell proliferation, Beta -catenin nuclear expression, and phospho-Akt levels; higher cleaved caspase-3 levels, and partially restored retinoid X receptor alpha expression. The results suggest that these molecular events contribute to the cancer prevention activity of EGCG and PPE. Furthermore, diet appears to be a better route of administration for PPE than drinking fluid.

  17. Wearing gloves in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Infection control - wearing gloves; Patient safety - wearing gloves; Personal protective equipment - wearing gloves; PPE - wearing gloves; Nosocomial infection - wearing gloves; Hospital acquired infection - wearing gloves

  18. Photopyroelectric technique for the measurement of thermal and optical properties of pigments in liquid solution.

    PubMed

    Balderas-López, J A

    2011-07-01

    The analytical solution for the one-dimensional heat diffusion problem for a two-layer system, in the Beer-Lambert model for light absorption, is shown to be useful for the implementation of a novel photopyroelectric (PPE) methodology, for the measurement of thermal and optical properties for pigments in liquid solution. The PPE signal, as a function of the sample's thickness, is used for this goal. Exponential decay for the PPE amplitude, followed by a constant PPE phase, for solutions at low dye concentration and an exponential decay for the PPE amplitude but a linear PPE phase behavior for the higher concentrated ones are shown and are, respectively, used for the measurement of the optical absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity for liquid samples. These PPE phase behaviors also provide a criterion to decide on the corresponding limit for optical and thermal properties measurement. This PPE methodology was tested by measuring the optical absorption coefficient (at 658 nm) and thermal diffusivity for solution of methylene blue and copper sulfate in distilled water at various concentrations. Independent measurements of optical properties, using a commercial spectrometer, were done to compare with the corresponding ones obtained with this PPE methodology, finding very good agreement to each other.

  19. Personal Protective Equipment for Infectious Disease Preparedness: A Human Factors Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Flewwelling, Christopher J; Hall, Trevor N T; Bañez, Carleene; Morita, Plinio P; Beverley, Paul; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hota, Susy

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify issues during donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) for infectious diseases and to inform PPE procurement criteria and design. DESIGN A mixed methods approach was used. Usability testing assessed the appropriateness, potential for errors, and ease of use of various combinations of PPE. A qualitative constructivist approach was used to analyze participant feedback. SETTING Four academic health sciences centers: 2 adult hospitals, 1 trauma center, and 1 pediatric hospital, in Toronto, Canada. PARTICIPANTS Participants (n=82) were representative of the potential users of PPE within Western healthcare institutions. RESULTS None of the tested combinations provided a complete solution for PPE. Environmental factors, such as anteroom layout, and the design of protocols and instructional material were also found to impact safety. The study identified the need to design PPE as a complete system, rather than mixing and matching components. CONCLUSIONS Healthcare institutions are encouraged to use human factors methods to identify risk and failure points with the usage of their selected PPE, and to modify on the basis of iterative evaluations with representative end users. Manufacturers of PPE should consider usability when designing the next generation of PPE. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1022-1028. PMID:27291787

  20. Oxidative stress and nitrosative stress are involved in different stages of proteolytic pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Lanzetti, Manuella; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; Barroso, Marina Valente; Martins, Vanessa; Victoni, Tatiana; Lagente, Vincent; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; e Silva, Patrícia Machado Rodrigues; Resende, Angela Castro; Porto, Luis Cristóvão; Benjamim, Cláudia Farias; Valença, Samuel Santos

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to pancreatic porcine elastase (PPE) instillation (0.05 or 0.5 U per mouse, i.t.) to induce pulmonary emphysema. Lungs were collected on days 7, 14, and 21 after PPE instillation. The control group was sham injected. Also, mice treated with 1% aminoguanidine (AMG) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) knockout mice received 0.5 U PPE (i.t.), and lungs were analyzed 21 days after. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage, biochemical analyses of oxidative stress, and lung stereology and morphometry assays. Emphysema was observed histologically at 21 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment; tissues from these mice exhibited increased alveolar linear intercept and air-space volume density in comparison with the control group. TNF-α was elevated at 7 and 14 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment, concomitant with a reduction in the IL-10 levels at the same time points. Myeloperoxidase was elevated in all groups treated with 0.5 U PPE. Oxidative stress was observed during early stages of emphysema, with increased nitrite levels and malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity at 7 days after 0.5 U PPE treatment. Glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in all groups treated with 0.5 U PPE. The emphysema was attenuated when iNOS was inhibited using 1% AMG and in iNOS knockout mice. Furthermore, proteolytic stimulation by PPE enhanced the expression of nitrotyrosine and iNOS, whereas the PPE+AMG group showed low expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine. PPE stimulus also induced endothelial (e) NOS expression, whereas AMG reduced eNOS. Our results suggest that the oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways are triggered by nitric oxide production via iNOS expression in pulmonary emphysema.

  1. Utility of a Novel Reflective Marker Visualized by Flash Photography for Assessment of Personnel Contamination During Removal of Personal Protective Equipment.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Myreen E; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Mana, Thriveen S C; Jencson, Annette L; Koganti, Sreelatha; Alhmidi, Heba; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-06-01

    In an experimental study, the frequency of contamination of healthcare personnel during removal of contaminated personal protective equipment (PPE) was similar for bacteriophage MS2 and a novel reflective marker visualized using flash photography. The reflective marker could be a useful tool to visualize and document personnel contamination during PPE removal. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:711-713. PMID:26976219

  2. Tetomilast attenuates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema through inhibition of oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Baila, Bulin; Ohno, Yasushi; Nagamoto, Hisashi; Kotosai, Kounori; Yabuuchi, Youichi; Funaguchi, Norihiko; Ito, Fumitaka; Endo, Junki; Mori, Hidenori; Takemura, Genzou; Fujiwara, Takako; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    Tetomilast was originally identified as a potent inhibitor of superoxide production in human neutrophils, and is of interest because it may relieve oxidative stress related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was to determine whether tetomilast effectively protects against the development of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced emphysema in rabbits. Rabbits were divided into three groups (sham n=19, PPE n=19, PPE/Tetomilast n=18). The rabbits were once daily orally administered vehicle solution or tetomilast 5 d/week for 4 weeks before the PPE instillation. We compared pulmonary function, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative stress, and the incidences of apoptosis among the three groups. Tetomilast suppressed PPE-induced increases in the incidence of apoptosis and the production of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in lung tissues. PPE-instilled rabbits treated with tetomilast showed significantly less mean linear intercept and significantly better pulmonary function than rabbits administered PPE alone. Tetomilast may inhibit the development of emphysema by attenuating pulmonary inflammation and apoptosis caused by PPE-induced oxidative stress.

  3. Effect of 2 month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H.; Spicer, Darcy; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Yang, Chung S.; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2013-01-01

    There have been no controlled intervention studies to investigate the effects of green tea on circulating hormone levels, an established breast cancer risk factor. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the effect of the main green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), taken in a green tea extract, Polyphenon E (PPE). Postmenopausal women (n=103) were randomized into three arms: placebo, 400 mg EGCG as PPE, or 800 mg EGCG as PPE as capsules per day for 2 months. Urinary tea catechin and serum estrogen, androgen, lipid, glucose-related markers, adiponectin, and growth factor levels were measured at baseline and at the end of months 1 and 2 of intervention. Based on urinary tea catechin concentrations, compliance was excellent. Supplementation with PPE did not produce consistent patterns of changes in estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), or testosterone (T) levels. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly in both PPE groups but was unchanged in the placebo group; the change in LDL-cholesterol differed between the placebo and PPE groups (P=0.02). Glucose and insulin levels decreased nonsignificantly in the PPE groups but increased in the placebo group; statistically significant differences in changes in glucose (P=0.008) and insulin (P=0.01) were found. In summary, green tea (400 and 800 mg EGCG as PPE; ~5–10 cups) supplementation for 2 months had suggestive beneficial effects on LDL cholesterol concentrations and glucose-related markers. PMID:22246619

  4. Enhanced Anti-inflammatory Effects of γ-irradiated Pig Placenta Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn Kyu; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Oh, Yu-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Porcine placenta extract (PPE) is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties owing to its high concentration of bioactive substances. However, the need to eliminate blood-borne infectious agents while maintaining biological efficacy raises concerns about the optimal method for sterilizing PPE. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of the standard pressurized heat (autoclaving) method of sterilization with γ-irradiation on the anti-inflammatory effects of PPE. The anti-inflammatory actions of these two preparations of PPE were evaluated by measuring their inhibitory effects on the production of NO, the expression of iNOS protein, and the expression of iNOS, COX2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Compared with autoclaved PPE, γ-irradiated PPE showed significantly greater inhibition of NO production and iNOS protein expression, and produced a greater reduction in the expression of iNOS, COX2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA. These results provide evidence that the sterilization process is crucial in determining the biological activity of PPE, especially its anti-inflammatory activity. Collectively, our data suggest that γ-irradiated PPE acts at the transcriptional level to effectively and potently suppresses the production of NO and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26761842

  5. Personal protective equipment use among students with special health care needs reporting injuries in school-sponsored vocational, career, and technical education programs in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Eric; Shendell, Derek; Eggert, Brain C; Marcella, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    Students with special health care needs (SHCNs) and individualized education plans (IEPs) may be injured more often in vocational, career, and technical education (CTE) programs. No research to date considers personal protective equipment (PPE) use among students with SHCNs in school-based programs reporting injuries to agencies. Data from 1999 to 2011 on PPE use among injured students in CTE programs in public schools and private secondary schools for the disabled were analyzed; students with SHCNs were distinguished by IEP status within New Jersey Safe Schools surveilance data. Among students with IEPs using PPE, 36% of injuries occurred to body parts PPE was meant to protect. Likely injury types were cuts-lacerations and burns for students with IEPs using PPE and cuts-lacerations and sprains for students with IEPs not using PPE. Females with IEPs using PPE were injured less often than males across ages. Results suggested students with SHCNs with IEPs need further job-related training with increased emphasis on properly selecting and fitting PPE.

  6. Polyphenol-Rich Propolis Extracts Strengthen Intestinal Barrier Function by Activating AMPK and ERK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Xiaolu; Chen, Yifan; Song, Zehe; Jiang, Xiasen; Hu, Fuliang; Conlon, Michael A.; Topping, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Propolis has abundant polyphenolic constituents and is used widely as a health/functional food. Here, we investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich propolis extracts (PPE) on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, as well as in rats. In Caco-2 cells, PPE increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased lucifer yellow flux. PPE-treated cells showed increased expression of the tight junction (TJ) loci occludin and zona occludens (ZO)-1. Confocal microscopy showed organized expressions in proteins related to TJ assembly, i.e., occludin and ZO-1, in response to PPE. Furthermore, PPE led to the activation of AMPK, ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of PPE on barrier function were abolished in cells in which AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling were inhibited. Moreover, rats fed a diet supplemented with PPE (0.3% in the diet) exhibited increased colonic epithelium ZO-1 expression. Overall, these data suggest that PPE strengthens intestinal barrier function by activating AMPK and ERK signaling and provide novel insights into the potential application of propolis for human gut health. PMID:27164138

  7. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma in antiangiogenic effect of pomegranate peel extract

    PubMed Central

    Dana, Nasim; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Rafiee, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Herbal medicines are promising cancer preventive candidates. It has been shown that Punica granatum L. could inhibit angiogenesis and tumor invasion. In this study, we investigated whether the anti-angiogenic effect of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) is partly attributable to Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation in the Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract from PPE was prepared. HUVECs were treated in four groups (with PPE (10 μg/ml) alone, PPE with or without PPARγ (T0070907) and α (GW6471) antagonists, and control group). The possible effect of PPARs on angiogenic regulation was checked by Matrigel assay. The mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected by Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Results: PPE significantly inhibited both tube formation (size, length, and junction of tubes) and VEGF mRNA expression (P<0.05). Our results showed that the anti-angiogenic effects of PPE were significantly reversed by both PPAR antagonists (P<0.05). There was no difference between PPE plus antagonists groups and the control group. Conclusion: In summary our results showed that the anti-angiogenic effects of PPE could be mediated in part through PPAR dependent pathway. PMID:27096071

  8. Antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of black pomegranate peel extract on melanoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Dana, N.; Javanmard, Sh. Haghjooy; Rafiee, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study possible effects of black pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the B16F10 melanoma cells proliferation and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) angiogenesis were investigated. PPE was added into the cell lines (B16F10 and HUVECs) media with different concentrations (10–450 μg/ml). After 48 h, the cell survival was measured by 3-(Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Angiogenesis was investigated by matrigel assay (PPE (200, 300, 400 μg/ml)); HUVECs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression was detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay. VEGF concentration in culture medium of HUVECs was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPE had positive anti proliferative effect on melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not on HUVECs. The matrigel assay results indicated that PPE significantly inhibited length, size and junction of the tube like structures (P<0.05). VEGF mRNA expression and concentration levels in culture medium of PPE treated HUVECs reduced significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05). Simultaneous inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation and angiogenesis proposed that, PPE can be a good candidate against melanoma development. Based on the results, PPE could effectively suppress angiogenesis potentially through a VEGF dependent mechanism. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26487888

  9. 76 FR 19476 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... by law, will not present an undue risk to public health or safety, and are consistent with the common... equipment (PPE) (i.e., hardhat, safety glasses, hearing protection, gloves, etc.) and that additional PPE is..., which is located above the suspended ceiling with the only exposing combustible being a tray with...

  10. Antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of black pomegranate peel extract on melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Dana, N; Javanmard, Sh Haghjooy; Rafiee, L

    2015-01-01

    In the present study possible effects of black pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the B16F10 melanoma cells proliferation and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) angiogenesis were investigated. PPE was added into the cell lines (B16F10 and HUVECs) media with different concentrations (10-450 μg/ml). After 48 h, the cell survival was measured by 3-(Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Angiogenesis was investigated by matrigel assay (PPE (200, 300, 400 μg/ml)); HUVECs, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression was detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay. VEGF concentration in culture medium of HUVECs was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPE had positive anti proliferative effect on melanoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not on HUVECs. The matrigel assay results indicated that PPE significantly inhibited length, size and junction of the tube like structures (P<0.05). VEGF mRNA expression and concentration levels in culture medium of PPE treated HUVECs reduced significantly in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05). Simultaneous inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation and angiogenesis proposed that, PPE can be a good candidate against melanoma development. Based on the results, PPE could effectively suppress angiogenesis potentially through a VEGF dependent mechanism. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26487888

  11. The Nigerian Institute of Architects' Professional Practice Examination: Conceptions, Misconceptions and the Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobadoye, Sunday A.; Afolami, Adewale J.; Olabode, Ogunmakinde; Aribisala, Emmanuel E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the link between the Nigeria Institute of Architects and the Architects Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON) with respect to the Professional Practice Examinations (PPE). It sought to establish why so many graduates are yet to write the PPE and to identify the perceptions about the examination and the professional…

  12. Beyond Resistance: Exploring Health Managers' Propensity for Participatory Evaluation in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Pernelle A.; Champagne, Francois; Farand, Lambert

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the…

  13. Structure of a PE–PPE–EspG complex from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals molecular specificity of ESX protein secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Cox, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 10% of the coding capacity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is devoted to two highly expanded and enigmatic protein families called PE and PPE, some of which are important virulence/immunogenicity factors and are secreted during infection via a unique alternative secretory system termed “type VII.” How PE-PPE proteins function during infection and how they are translocated to the bacterial surface through the five distinct type VII secretion systems [ESAT-6 secretion system (ESX)] of M. tuberculosis is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of a PE-PPE heterodimer bound to ESX secretion-associated protein G (EspG), which adopts a novel fold. This PE-PPE-EspG complex, along with structures of two additional EspGs, suggests that EspG acts as an adaptor that recognizes specific PE–PPE protein complexes via extensive interactions with PPE domains, and delivers them to ESX machinery for secretion. Surprisingly, secretion of most PE-PPE proteins in M. tuberculosis is likely mediated by EspG from the ESX-5 system, underscoring the importance of ESX-5 in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Moreover, our results indicate that PE-PPE domains function as cis-acting targeting sequences that are read out by EspGs, revealing the molecular specificity for secretion through distinct ESX pathways. PMID:25275011

  14. Effect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Spicer, Darcy; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Yang, Chung S; Pike, Malcolm C

    2012-03-01

    There have been no controlled intervention studies to investigate the effects of green tea on circulating hormone levels, an established breast cancer risk factor. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the effect of the main green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), taken in a green tea extract, polyphenon E (PPE). Postmenopausal women (n = 103) were randomized into three arms: placebo, 400-mg EGCG as PPE, or 800-mg EGCG as PPE as capsules per day for 2 months. Urinary tea catechin and serum estrogen, androgen, lipid, glucose-related markers, adiponectin, and growth factor levels were measured at baseline and at the end of months 1 and 2 of intervention. On the basis of urinary tea catechin concentrations, compliance was excellent. Supplementation with PPE did not produce consistent patterns of changes in estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), or testosterone (T) levels. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly in both PPE groups but was unchanged in the placebo group; the change in LDL-cholesterol differed between the placebo and PPE groups (P = 0.02). Glucose and insulin levels decreased nonsignificantly in the PPE groups but increased in the placebo group; statistically significant differences in changes in glucose (P = 0.008) and insulin (P = 0.01) were found. In summary, green tea (400- and 800-mg EGCG as PPE; ∼5-10 cups) supplementation for 2 months had suggestive beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol concentrations and glucose-related markers.

  15. Methods of evaluating protective clothing relative to heat and cold stress: thermal manikin, biomedical modeling, and human testing.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Catherine; Blanchard, Laurie A; Cadarette, Bruce S; Endrusick, Thomas L; Xu, Xiaojiang; Berglund, Larry G; Sawka, Michael N; Hoyt, Reed W

    2011-10-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to clothing and equipment designed to protect individuals from chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive hazards. The materials used to provide this protection may exacerbate thermal strain by limiting heat and water vapor transfer. Any new PPE must therefore be evaluated to ensure that it poses no greater thermal strain than the current standard for the same level of hazard protection. This review describes how such evaluations are typically conducted. Comprehensive evaluation of PPE begins with a biophysical assessment of materials using a guarded hot plate to determine the thermal characteristics (thermal resistance and water vapor permeability). These characteristics are then evaluated on a thermal manikin wearing the PPE, since thermal properties may change once the materials have been constructed into a garment. These data may be used in biomedical models to predict thermal strain under a variety of environmental and work conditions. When the biophysical data indicate that the evaporative resistance (ratio of permeability to insulation) is significantly better than the current standard, the PPE is evaluated through human testing in controlled laboratory conditions appropriate for the conditions under which the PPE would be used if fielded. Data from each phase of PPE evaluation are used in predictive models to determine user guidelines, such as maximal work time, work/rest cycles, and fluid intake requirements. By considering thermal stress early in the development process, health hazards related to temperature extremes can be mitigated while maintaining or improving the effectiveness of the PPE for protection from external hazards.

  16. Risk by use of hearing protectors--expert programme supports SMEs in appropriate selection and use.

    PubMed

    Liedtke, M

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive protection by use of PPE against the hazards at work requires more than proper selection based on the protection level needed: The PPE user directive (Council Directive 89/656/EEC, Official Journal of the European Communities L 393, 30/12/1989 p.0018 - 0028) requires an assessment of personal protective equipment itself, which has to consider the risks which may be introduced by use of PPE or use of combinations of PPE. As an example risks which may be introduced by use of hearing protectors are described. Assistance in the assessment required by PPE user directive (Council Directive 89/656/EEC, Official Journal of the European Communities L 393, 30/12/1989 p. 0018 - 0028) and in selection and use of hearing protectors with regard to this assessment is presented.

  17. Evaluation of activated carbon respirator filter effectiveness by concentration mapping of dimethyl methylphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Billingsley, Brit G; Logue, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been used extensively in personal protective equipment (PPE) to adsorb toxic substances for the purpose of protecting the user from exposure. The ability to evaluate localized carbon utilization in multiple PPE designs would help engineers develop more effective PPE. Therefore, a method to map dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a common PPE testing agent, concentrations throughout AC filters was developed and tested on DMMP-exposed filters, some purposefully occluded to simulate defective filters. DMMP concentrations were highest at the point of entry and dispersed outward in a radial pattern from that site, decreasing with distance from the point of exposure. Occluded filters were detected by observing DMMP adsorption inconsistent with unblocked filters and showed high concentrations of DMMP localized in unblocked areas of the filter. The DMMP mapping technique detailed in this study provides a tool for testing AC utilization inside DMMP-exposed PPE. PMID:24517267

  18. Center for Macromolecular Crystallography, University of Alabama in Birmingham

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navia, Manuel A.

    1991-01-01

    Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) crystals grown under microgravity conditions on mission STS-26 of the Space Shuttle Discovery were shown to diffract to considerably higher resolution than the best PPE crystals grown by us on the ground. We have now independently refined both the microgravity and ground-based data. Preliminary results of these refinements are summarized. These results show nearly a doubling of experimental diffraction data for this structure, exceeding 1.3 A resolution. Improved phase information derived from the refined structure of PPE based on this microgravity data has allowed us to interpret previously-uninterpretable electron density obtained from ground-based crystals of a complex of PPE with a chemically-reactive inhibitor. Intermediate stages in the enzyme-inhibitor reaction mechanism in the crystal can now be directly observed. Further refinement of PPE structures is in progress.

  19. [Use of personal protective equipment for motorcycle taxi drivers: perception of risks and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Santos, Ninalva de Andrade; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Santos, Ramon Araújo dos; Mota, Tilson Nunes

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the practices and perceptions of motorcycle taxi drivers concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), based on field research and an exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach. Thirty motorcycle taxi drivers from Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil, were interviewed. Data collection used a semi-structured interview and questionnaire. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results showed: Category 1 - risk perception, subcategory conditioning/determinant factors for the use of PPE; Category 2 - adherence, subcategory adherence to the use of personal protective equipment; Category 3 - PPE as a protective factor against traffic accidents, subcategories 1 - work-related accidents, 2 - use of PPE at the time of the accident, 3 - non-use of PPE at the time of the accident. Finally, motorcycle taxi drivers clearly have some knowledge of personal protective equipment and even acknowledge the importance of its use, despite not always using it properly. PMID:24896065

  20. Analysis of photosynthetic picoeukaryote community structure along an extended Ellett Line transect in the northern North Atlantic reveals a dominance of novel prymnesiophyte and prasinophyte phylotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkham, Amy R.; Jardillier, Ludwig E.; Holland, Ross; Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Scanlan, Dave J.

    2011-07-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) of a size <3 μm can contribute significantly to primary production. Here, PPE community structure was analysed along an extended Ellett Line transect, an area in the North Atlantic well studied by physical oceanographers but largely neglected in the field of microalgal ecology. Distribution patterns of specific PPE classes were determined using dot-blot hybridization analysis, while the taxonomic composition of specific PPE classes was revealed by phylogenetic analysis of plastid 16S rRNA gene sequences. In addition, we performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of seawater samples collected along the transect to provide a PCR-independent survey of class level PPE distribution patterns. We found the PPE community was dominated by members of the Prymnesiophyceae, Prasinophyceae and Mamiellophyceae. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis revealed several novel Prymnesiophyceae and Prasinophyceae phylotypes (with only 85-96% identity to neighbouring sequences) within lineages for which cultured counterparts are unknown.

  1. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of pine pollen extract in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ae-Jung; Choi, Eun-Mi

    2009-01-01

    To determine the medicinal properties of pine pollen, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of pine pollen extract (PPE) were investigated. PPE displayed a strong free radical scavenger activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and hydrogen peroxide. It was observed also that the antioxidant activity, measured by the ferric thiocyanate method, increased with the addition of PPE to the linoleic acid emulsion system. PPE was also found to inhibit significantly the amount of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls formed from liver homogenate. Like the antioxidant activity, the reducing power of PPE was excellent. Thereafter, the study investigated the effects of PPE in modulating the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the effect of PPE on interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) production and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation in the human synovial sarcoma cell line, SW982. PPE was found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 in LPS-activated macrophages. Treatment with PPE at 10 microg/mL significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited IL-1beta-induced MMPs (MMP-1 and -3) production in SW982 cells. IL-1beta-induced JNK activation was inhibited by PPE (10 microg/mL), whereas p38 and ERK1/2 were not affected. These findings suggest that pine pollen is a potential antioxidant and beneficial for inflammatory conditions through down-regulation of JNK and MMPs.

  2. Oil sands development contributes elements toxic at low concentrations to the Athabasca River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin N; Schindler, David W; Hodson, Peter V; Short, Jeffrey W; Radmanovich, Roseanna; Nielsen, Charlene C

    2010-09-14

    We show that the oil sands industry releases the 13 elements considered priority pollutants (PPE) under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Water Act, via air and water, to the Athabasca River and its watershed. In the 2008 snowpack, all PPE except selenium were greater near oil sands developments than at more remote sites. Bitumen upgraders and local oil sands development were sources of airborne emissions. Concentrations of mercury, nickel, and thallium in winter and all 13 PPE in summer were greater in tributaries with watersheds more disturbed by development than in less disturbed watersheds. In the Athabasca River during summer, concentrations of all PPE were greater near developed areas than upstream of development. At sites downstream of development and within the Athabasca Delta, concentrations of all PPE except beryllium and selenium remained greater than upstream of development. Concentrations of some PPE at one location in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan were also greater than concentration in the Athabasca River upstream of development. Canada's or Alberta's guidelines for the protection of aquatic life were exceeded for seven PPE-cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc-in melted snow and/or water collected near or downstream of development. PMID:20805486

  3. Generalized 1D photopyroelectric technique for optical and thermal characterization of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-López, J. A.

    2012-06-01

    The analytical solution for the one-dimensional heat diffusion problem for a three-layer system, in the Beer-Lambert model for light absorption, is used for the implementation of a photopyroelectric (PPE) methodology for thermal and optical characterization of pigments in liquid solution, even for those ones potentially harmful to the pyroelectric sensor, taking the liquid sample's thickness as the only variable. Exponential decay of the PPE amplitude followed by a constant PPE phase for solutions at low pigment concentration, and exponential decay of the PPE amplitude but a linear decrease of the PPE phase for the concentrated ones are theoretically shown, allowing measurements of the optical absorption coefficient (at the wavelength used for the analysis) and the thermal diffusivity for the liquid sample, respectively. This PPE methodology was tested by measuring the thermal diffusivity of a concentrated solution of methylene blue in distilled water and the optical absorption coefficient, at two wavelengths (658 and 785 nm), of water solutions of copper sulfate at various concentrations. These optical parameters were used for measuring the molar absorption coefficient of this last pigment in water solution at these two wavelengths. This last optical property was also measured using a commercial spectrometer, finding very good agreement with the corresponding ones using this PPE technique.

  4. Anticancer Drug Induced Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasamurthy, Sureshkumar; Dubashi, Biswajit; Chandrasekaran, Adithan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) is a dose limiting toxicity of anticancer agents. In some cases it may mandate for discontinuation of anticancer agents. Evaluation of data of PPE among reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from the Department of Medical Oncology could quantify the burden. Aim: To evaluate and analyse the PPE among reported ADRs from medical Oncology. Materials and Methods: The data of all cases of reported PPE were collected during January 2012 to September 2013 and were analysed with WHO causality assessment scale. The severity was clinically graded. The follow-up data regarding outcome of ADRs were also noted. Results: During the study period of 21 months a total of 1418 ADRs have been reported from 1076 patients. Among them PPE was reported from 31 cases (2.9%). Majority (32.2%) of these patients were on chemotherapy for breast cancer. Patient’s age ranged from 17 to 68 y and the median age was 50 y. There were 18 female (58%) and 13 male patients (42%). Capecitabine was the leading drug involved in PPE, reported with 20 cases (64.5%), and followed by docetaxel with 5 cases (16.1%). Majority (67.7%) of the reactions was categorized as certain and 64.5% was grade II severity clinically. Conclusion: Our findings show that PPE accounts for 2.9% of total reported ADRs from Medical Oncology during 21 months. Majority of the reactions were classified as certain. Capecitabine is commonly implicated drug. PMID:25478366

  5. Anticandidal activity of pomegranate peel extract aerosol as an applicable sanitizing method.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F

    2010-03-01

    Pomegranate is a wonderful fruit from the paradise which contains a wide variety of precious phytochemical compounds applicable in the fields of therapeutics and health care. Candida albicans is the most common etiological agent for many clinical mycoses which could lead to human and animal death. Determination of the anticandidal activity of pomegranate peel extracts (PPE), and application of PPE aerosol as sanitizer agent against C. albicans contamination were investigated. Agar diffusion assay and broth microdilution susceptibility test were applied for qualitative and quantitative determining the PPE anticandidal activity, respectively, versus commonly used fungicides. Aerosolization of PPE using an experimentally designed sanitizer room was applied for examining C. albicans sanitation potentiality of extract. PPE exhibited potent anticandidal activity against C. albicans strains comparing with standard fungicides in both used susceptibility techniques. Methanol, ethanol and water extracts were the most effective for inhibiting C. albicans growth. PPE aerosol was an efficient method for complete sanitizing of semi-closed places against C. albicans growth. Application of PPE aerosol is a proper sanitizing method for preventing C. albicans contamination and growth in suspected places. PMID:19207830

  6. Punica granatum peel extract protects against ionizing radiation-induced enteritis and leukocyte apoptosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Toklu, Hale Z; Sehirli, Ozer; Ozyurt, Hazan; Mayadağli, A Alpaslan; Ekşioğlu-Demiralp, Emel; Cetinel, Sule; Sahin, Hülya; Yeğen, Berrak C; Ulusoylu Dumlu, Melek; Gökmen, Vural; Sener, Göksel

    2009-07-01

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a well-recognized sequel of therapeutic irradiation. Therefore we examined the radioprotective properties of Punica granatum peel extract (PPE) on the oxidative damage in the ileum. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body X-ray irradiation of 800 cGy. Irradiated rats were pretreated orally with saline or PPE (50 mg/kg/day) for 10 days before irradiation and the following 10 days, while control rats received saline or PPE but no irradiation. Then plasma and ileum samples were obtained. Irradiation caused a decrease in glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, which was accompanied by increases in malondialdehyde levels, myeloperoxidase activity, collagen content of the tissue with a concomitant increase 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (an index of oxidative DNA damage). Similarly, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6) and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated in irradiated groups as compared to control. PPE treatment reversed all these biochemical indices, as well as histopathological alterations induced by irradiation. Furthermore, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in irradiated animals, while PPE reversed these effects. PPE supplementation reduced oxidative damage in the ileal tissues, probably by a mechanism that is associated with the decreased production of reactive oxygen metabolites and enhancement of antioxidant mechanisms. Adjuvant therapy of PPE may have a potential to support a successful radiotherapy by protecting against radiation-induced enteritis. PMID:19478462

  7. RIPPLY3 is a retinoic acid-inducible repressor required for setting the borders of the pre-placodal ectoderm

    PubMed Central

    Janesick, Amanda; Shiotsugu, Jason; Taketani, Mao; Blumberg, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Retinoic acid signaling is a major component of the neural posteriorizing process in vertebrate development. Here, we identify a new role for the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) in the anterior of the embryo, where RAR regulates Fgf8 expression and formation of the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). RARα2 signaling induces key pre-placodal genes and establishes the posterolateral borders of the PPE. RAR signaling upregulates two important genes, Tbx1 and Ripply3, during early PPE development. In the absence of RIPPLY3, TBX1 is required for the expression of Fgf8 and hence, PPE formation. In the presence of RIPPLY3, TBX1 acts as a transcriptional repressor, and functions to restrict the positional expression of Fgf8, a key regulator of PPE gene expression. These results establish a novel role for RAR as a regulator of spatial patterning of the PPE through Tbx1 and RIPPLY3. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ripply3, acting downstream of RAR signaling, is a key player in establishing boundaries in the PPE. PMID:22354841

  8. Farmers' use of personal protective equipment during handling of plant protection products: Determinants of implementation.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2016-11-15

    Understanding factors affecting the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during handling of plant protection products (PPPs) is of major importance for the design of tailored interventions to minimize exposure among farmers. However, data regarding this issue are highly limited. Factors related to the use of PPE during handling of PPPs were explored in a survey of cotton farmers in northern Greece. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the farmers based on a questionnaire with structured items on the frequency of use of various personal protective devices during handling of PPPs. New evidence on patterns of PPE use and potential exposure of farmers to PPPs is provided. Most farmers (49.3%) showed potentially unsafe behaviour with respect to PPE use. Hat and boots were the most commonly used protective items during PPPs use, but most of the farmers surveyed reported low frequency of use for gloves, goggles, face mask, coveralls, and respirator. Especially the respirator was reported to be the least used PPE item amongst farmers. Farmers who perceived PPPs as harmful substances or those who had an episode of intoxication in the past reported more frequent use of several PPE items. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the variable episode of intoxication in the past exerted the strongest positive influence on PPE use, followed by the perception of PPPs being hazardous substances, upper secondary education, previous training on PPPs (i.e., spraying equipment, application parameters, risks to human health and environment, safety issues) and farm size under cultivation. Old age exerted a significant negative influence on PPE use, namely, elderly farmers tended not to use PPE. Strategies to maximize the protection of applicators of PPPs from hazardous exposures still require innovation to achieve increased effectiveness. Emphasis on lifelong training and education of farmers about hazards and risks of PPPs is crucial for changing

  9. Topical formulations containing Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus extract: In vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo efficacy against UV-B-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Campanini, Marcela Z; Custódio, Dayana L; Ivan, Ana L M; Martins, Sarah M; Paranzini, Maria J R; Martinez, Renata M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Arakawa, Nilton S; de J Faria, Terezinha; Baracat, Marcela M; Casagrande, Rúbia; Georgetti, Sandra R

    2014-02-01

    Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus is a Brazilian native plant that presents high concentrations of flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds. Herein, we evaluated: (1) the chemical properties of P. pseudocaryophyllus ethanolic extract (PPE), (2) the in vitro antioxidant activity (AA) of PPE and of two different topical formulations (F1 and F2) containing PPE, (3) physico-chemical and functional stability, (4) in vitro release of PPE, and (5) in vivo capacity of formulations to prevent UV-B irradiation-induced skin damage. Results show that the polyphenol and flavonoid contents in PPE were 199.33 and 28.32 mg/g, respectively, and HPLC results show the presence of eugenol, tannic acid, and rutin. Evaluation of the in vitro AA of PPE demonstrated a dose-dependent effect and an IC50 of 4.75 μg/mL in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 3.0 μg/mL in 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. The ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay) was 0.046 μmol/L trolox equivalent/μg/mL of extract. Among the AA, only the capacity to scavenge DPPH radical of PPE was maintained in F1 and F2. In addition, both formulations satisfactorily released the extract. The evaluation of the functional stability of F1 and F2 did not demonstrate loss of activity by storage at room temperature and at 4°C/6 months. In irradiated mice, treatment with F1 and F2 added with PPE significantly increased the capacity to scavenge ABTS radical and the FRAP of skin compared to vehicle-treated mice. In conclusion, the present results suggest that formulations containing PPE may be a topical source of antioxidant compounds to decrease oxidative damages of the skin.

  10. Effects of Porcine Placenta Extract Ingestion on Ultraviolet B-induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential benefits of an oral supplement containing porcine placenta extract (PPE) on skin parameters related to cutaneous physiology and aging. PPEs were administered orally to hairless mice for 12 wk. The effects of oral PPE administration on skin water-holding capacity and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) were similar to those of oral collagen (HYCPU2) administered as a positive control. Magnified photographs and replica images showed a reduction in UVB-induced wrinkle formation after collagen and PPE treatments. PPE treatments ameliorated the thicker skin surface that results from UVB exposure, based on a histological examination of skin tissue. The groups that were orally administered PPE (0.05%, OL; 0.1%, OH group) showed significantly reduced Matrix Metaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression levels compared with the UVB control (Con), by 33.5% and 35.2%, respectively. The mRNA expression of another collagen-degrading protein, MMP-9, was also significantly lower in the groups that received oral administration of PPE (especially in the OH group) than in the control group. Additionally, oral administration of PPE significantly upregulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and -2 mRNA expression levels compared with expression levels in the control group (p<0.05). This indicates that orally administered PPE activated the expression of Timp-1 and -2, inhibitors of MMP, which is responsible for collagen degradation in skin. Taken together, we propose that long-term oral administration of PPE might have a beneficial effect with respect to skin photo-aging. PMID:26761856

  11. Farmers' use of personal protective equipment during handling of plant protection products: Determinants of implementation.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2016-11-15

    Understanding factors affecting the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during handling of plant protection products (PPPs) is of major importance for the design of tailored interventions to minimize exposure among farmers. However, data regarding this issue are highly limited. Factors related to the use of PPE during handling of PPPs were explored in a survey of cotton farmers in northern Greece. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the farmers based on a questionnaire with structured items on the frequency of use of various personal protective devices during handling of PPPs. New evidence on patterns of PPE use and potential exposure of farmers to PPPs is provided. Most farmers (49.3%) showed potentially unsafe behaviour with respect to PPE use. Hat and boots were the most commonly used protective items during PPPs use, but most of the farmers surveyed reported low frequency of use for gloves, goggles, face mask, coveralls, and respirator. Especially the respirator was reported to be the least used PPE item amongst farmers. Farmers who perceived PPPs as harmful substances or those who had an episode of intoxication in the past reported more frequent use of several PPE items. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the variable episode of intoxication in the past exerted the strongest positive influence on PPE use, followed by the perception of PPPs being hazardous substances, upper secondary education, previous training on PPPs (i.e., spraying equipment, application parameters, risks to human health and environment, safety issues) and farm size under cultivation. Old age exerted a significant negative influence on PPE use, namely, elderly farmers tended not to use PPE. Strategies to maximize the protection of applicators of PPPs from hazardous exposures still require innovation to achieve increased effectiveness. Emphasis on lifelong training and education of farmers about hazards and risks of PPPs is crucial for changing

  12. Personal Protective Equipment for Filovirus Epidemics: A Call for Better Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Armand G.; Caluwaerts, An; Draper, Mike; Feldmann, Heinz; Frey, Clifford P.; Funk, Renée H.; Kobinger, Gary; Le Duc, James W.; Spiropoulou, Christina; Williams, Warren Jon

    2015-01-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) is an important part of worker protection during filovirus outbreaks. The need to protect against a highly virulent fluid-borne pathogen in the tropical environment imposes a heat stress on the wearer that is itself a safety risk. No evidence supports the choice of PPE employed in recent outbreaks, and standard testing procedures employed by the protective garment industry do not well simulate filovirus exposure. Further research is needed to determine the appropriate PPE for filoviruses and the heat stress that it imposes. PMID:25821225

  13. Personal Protective Equipment for Filovirus Epidemics: A Call for Better Evidence.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Armand G; Caluwaerts, An; Draper, Mike; Feldmann, Heinz; Frey, Clifford P; Funk, Renée H; Kobinger, Gary; Le Duc, James W; Spiropoulou, Christina; Williams, Warren Jon

    2015-10-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) is an important part of worker protection during filovirus outbreaks. The need to protect against a highly virulent fluid-borne pathogen in the tropical environment imposes a heat stress on the wearer that is itself a safety risk. No evidence supports the choice of PPE employed in recent outbreaks, and standard testing procedures employed by the protective garment industry do not well simulate filovirus exposure. Further research is needed to determine the appropriate PPE for filoviruses and the heat stress that it imposes.

  14. Cross-functional support ensures success.

    PubMed

    Paree, Tim

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive PPE program that has the support of key stakeholders at the corporate and plant levels has the potential to yield significant safety, productivity, and cost improvements. An automotive manufacturer, for example, was able to decrease injuries by 70 percent and reduce SKUs 24 percent by implementing recommendations resulting from a comprehensive PPE program that had the endorsement of key safety, procurement, operations, and production personnel from the start. Gaining cross-functional commitment for a comprehensive PPE program not only will move the improvement process forward, but also will ensure the company benefits from optimal cost and performance advantages that positively impact the bottom line. PMID:22590821

  15. Moderate Thermal Strain in Healthcare Workers Wearing Personal Protective Equipment During Treatment and Care Activities in the Context of the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Grélot, Laurent; Koulibaly, Fassou; Maugey, Nancy; Janvier, Frédéric; Foissaud, Vincent; Aletti, Marc; Savini, Hélène; Cotte, Jean; Dampierre, Henry; Granier, Hervé; Carmoi, Thierry; Sagui, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    The extent of thermal strain while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) during care activities for Ebola virus disease patients has not yet been characterized. From January to March 2015, 25 French healthcare workers (HCWs) in Conakry, Guinea, volunteered to be monitored while wearing PPE using an ingestible thermal sensor. The mean (standard deviation) working ambient temperature and relative humidity were 29.6 °C (2.0 °C) and 65.4% (10.3%), respectively; the mean time wearing PPE was 65.7 (13.5) minutes; and the mean core body temperature increased by 0.46 °C (0.20 °C). Four HCWs reached or exceeded a mean core body temperature of ≥ 38.5 °C. HCWs wearing PPE for approximately 1 hour exhibited moderate but safe thermal strain. PMID:26655297

  16. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    PubMed

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy.

  17. The need for empirically derived permeation data for personal protective equipment: the death of Dr. Karen E. Wetterhahn.

    PubMed

    Blayney, M B

    2001-02-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) is an essential component in any occupational health and safety program. The appropriate selection and use of PPE can help prevent or limit exposure to hazardous materials. The inappropriate selection or use of PPE can lead to unnecessary exposure or --with extremely hazardous materials--serious harm including death. In 1997, Dr. Karen E. Wetterhahn died from mercury poisoning resulting from a single exposure to dimethylmercury almost a year before. Her death raised numerous questions as to how this tragedy occurred and what could be done to protect against a chemical as dangerous as dimethylmercury. This article provides a brief review of the case and discusses the glove permeation testing done during the course of the accident investigation. Using this case as an example, the author argues that all recommendations for PPE be based on empirical testing using accepted methods and that this information be readily available.

  18. Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... control measures and reinforcement of standard precautions, particularly hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), safe injection ... the basic level of infection control and include hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment to avoid direct ...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.132 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... boots. (4) The employer is not required to pay for: (i) The logging boots required by 29 CFR 1910.266(d... sunscreen. (5) The employer must pay for replacement PPE, except when the employee has lost or...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.132 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... boots. (4) The employer is not required to pay for: (i) The logging boots required by 29 CFR 1910.266(d... sunscreen. (5) The employer must pay for replacement PPE, except when the employee has lost or...

  1. Personal protective equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective equipment. Available at: www.cdc.gov/niosh/ppe . Accessed October 27, 2015. Holland MG, Cawthon D. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children. Emerg Med Clin N ...

  2. Elastase kinetics and structural features of colorimetric and fluorescent peptides on cellulose nanocrystals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) are serine proteases with destructive proteolytic activity. Because of this activity, there is considerable interest in elastase sensors. Herein we report the synthesis, characterization, and kinetic profiles of tri- and tetrapept...

  3. Improvements in powered air purifying respirator protection in an ABSL-3E facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of and experimentation with zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) requires risk mitigation strategies including laboratory engineering controls and safety equipment, personal protective equipment (PPE), and proper practices and techniques. Incidences of potent...

  4. Considerations for selecting personal protective equipment for hazardous materials decontamination.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Jeff

    2002-09-01

    PPE is necessary to protect staff and to deliver rapid and efficient care to patients contaminated with HAZMAT chemicals. Planning for HAZMAT cases includes learning about the common chemicals in the area, what resources are available to care for victims, identifying a decontamination area, and providing PPE to protect employees and other patients. A customized service can be used to meet OSHA standards and reduce costs. Ongoing training will be an important part of any HAZMAT program.

  5. Novel reaction of elastase with cephalosporin. beta. -lactams

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.Y.; Williams, H.R.; Navia, M.A.; Springer, J.P.; Hoogsteen, K.; Shah, S.K.; Finke, P.E.; Doherty, J.B.; Firestone, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) was inactivated by two cephalosporin ..beta..-lactams, 3-acetoxymethyl-7-..cap alpha..-chloro-3-cephem-4-carboxylate-1,1-dioxide t-butylester (I) and its 7-..cap alpha..-methoxy analog (II) with the first-order rate constants for inactivation, 0.023 and 0.018 s-1 respectively at pH 7.4, 25/sup 0/C. The inhibition was caused by stoichiometric binding of the compounds with PPE (KI, 80 and 30 nM at pH 7.4, respectively) followed by acylation of the active site serine with opening of the lactam ring. PPE inactivated by II (E-II) spontaneously regenerated enzyme activity with a t1/2 of 100 min at both pH 7.4 and 5.0. The reactivation of E-II was slowed with 1% SDS. The major /sup 14/C-labeled tryptic peptide of PPE modified with (/sup 14/C)MeO-labeled II had the amino acid composition of the sequence Ser182 to Arg211. PPE inactivation with I did not reactivate but showed a time-dependent resistance to reactivation by treatment with 0.5 M NH2OH at pH 7.5 and 37/sup 0/C for 10 min. The acid hydrolyzate of PPE-I contained 5 residues of histidine/mole rather than 6 for native PPE. PPE crystals soaked with I in 35% PEG 4000, 0.1 M NaOAc, pH 5.0 were subjected to high resolution x-ray diffraction analysis. The cross-linking of the active site at Ser188 OH and His45 N/sup 2/ by a 2-substituted, 5-methylene-1,3-thiazine dioxide was clearly demonstrated.

  6. Postpneumonectomy and postlobectomy empyema.

    PubMed

    Gharagozloo, Farid; Margolis, Marc; Facktor, Matthew; Tempesta, Barbara; Najam, Farzad

    2006-08-01

    Although similar strategies are used in the management of PPE and PLE, these conditions need to be viewed as two separate entities. For the purpose of devising the appropriate management strategy, PPE should be divided into early and late, with and without mediastinal induration and extensive pleural space contamination. If at all possible, PLE should be managed as a postpneumonic empyema with prolonged chest tube drainage. The key to these conditions is prevention.

  7. [Student assessment of pharmacy practice experiences in France: a national survey].

    PubMed

    Girollet, T; Beltier, M; Catala, O; Vinciguerra, C; Charpiat, B

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacy practice experience (PPE) aims to help trainees to become independent professional practitioners and is a prerequisite for developing skills and competence. In France, it does not exist any study that describes student satisfaction related to preregistration trainings. The aim of this study was to assess student perceptions related to the four PPE types that are planned along the course of study. A questionnaire was sent to each student. Concerning the first and second year introductory PPE, among the 8491 responses, 73% of the students stated that the length was too long regarding their actual knowledge and the objectives were not always achieved. Four thousand and eleven responses regarding third and fourth year PPE were analyzed. Sixty-two percent of the students did not deliver drugs related to the practice's subject and 57% declared doing similar task assigned during the first year PPE especially storage one's. One thousand six hundred and seven questionnaires regarding hospital practices were received. Forty-one percent of the trainees were not asked to perform task that were related to their actual knowledge. Additional comments focused on overmuch shadowing. Among the 853 responses related to the 6th year PPE, 88% of the students considered that they were overall satisfied of the training. Although 30% felt they acquired insufficient skills and professionalism and declared they were not ready to integrate the work world. Those results should prompt decision makers to modify in depth PPE programs in France in order to improve trainees' professionalism and skills acquisition. Promoting and developing researches in the field of PPE is urgently needed.

  8. Pomegranate peel extract prevents liver fibrosis in biliary-obstructed rats.

    PubMed

    Toklu, Hale Z; Dumlu, Melek U; Sehirli, Ozer; Ercan, Feriha; Gedik, Nursal; Gökmen, Vural; Sener, Goksel

    2007-09-01

    Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) is a widely used plant that has high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic administration of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. PPE (50 mg kg(-1)) or saline was administered orally for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined to assess liver function and tissue damage. Proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1 beta) in the serum and antioxidant capacity (AOC) were measured in plasma samples. Samples of liver tissue were taken for measurement of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen content. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence assay. Serum AST, ALT, LDH and cytokines were elevated in the BDL group compared with the control group; this increase was significantly decreased by PPE treatment. Plasma AOC and hepatic GSH levels were significantly depressed by BDL but were increased back to control levels in the PPE-treated BDL group. Increases in tissue MDA levels and MPO activity due to BDL were reduced back to control levels by PPE treatment. Similarly, increased hepatic collagen content in the BDL rats was reduced to the level of the control group with PPE treatment. Thus, chronic PPE administration alleviated the BDL-induced oxidative injury of the liver and improved the hepatic structure and function. It therefore seems likely that PPE, with its antioxidant and antifibrotic properties, may be of potential therapeutic value in protecting the liver from fibrosis and oxidative injury due to biliary obstruction. PMID:17939210

  9. Considerations for selecting personal protective equipment for hazardous materials decontamination.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Jeff

    2002-09-01

    PPE is necessary to protect staff and to deliver rapid and efficient care to patients contaminated with HAZMAT chemicals. Planning for HAZMAT cases includes learning about the common chemicals in the area, what resources are available to care for victims, identifying a decontamination area, and providing PPE to protect employees and other patients. A customized service can be used to meet OSHA standards and reduce costs. Ongoing training will be an important part of any HAZMAT program. PMID:12685463

  10. Heat strain imposed by personal protective ensembles: quantitative analysis using a thermoregulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Gonzalez, Julio A.; Santee, William R.; Blanchard, Laurie A.; Hoyt, Reed W.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of personal protective equipment (PPE) and specific PPE layers, defined as thermal/evaporative resistances and the mass, on heat strain during physical activity. A stepwise thermal manikin testing and modeling approach was used to analyze a PPE ensemble with four layers: uniform, ballistic protection, chemical protective clothing, and mask and gloves. The PPE was tested on a thermal manikin, starting with the uniform, then adding an additional layer in each step. Wearing PPE increases the metabolic rates (dot{M}) , thus dot{M} were adjusted according to the mass of each of four configurations. A human thermoregulatory model was used to predict endurance time for each configuration at fixed dot{M} and at its mass adjusted dot{M} . Reductions in endurance time due to resistances, and due to mass, were separately determined using predicted results. Fractional contributions of PPE's thermal/evaporative resistances by layer show that the ballistic protection and the chemical protective clothing layers contribute about 20 %, respectively. Wearing the ballistic protection over the uniform reduced endurance time from 146 to 75 min, with 31 min of the decrement due to the additional resistances of the ballistic protection, and 40 min due to increased dot{M} associated with the additional mass. Effects of mass on heat strain are of a similar magnitude relative to effects of increased resistances. Reducing resistances and mass can both significantly alleviate heat strain.

  11. The role of carbon-carbon phenyl migration in the pyrolysis mechanism of beta-O-4 lignin model compounds: phenethyl phenyl ether and alpha-hydroxy phenethyl phenyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Beste, Ariana; Buchanan III, A C

    2012-01-01

    We investigate phenyl shift and subsequent beta-scission reactions for PhCHXCHOPh [X = H, OH], which are part of the pyrolysis mechanism of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) and alpha-hydroxy PPE. PPE and its derivatives are model compounds for the most common linkage in lignin, the beta-O-4 linkage. We use density functional theory to locate transition states and equilibrium structures, and kinetic Monte Carlo in combination with transition state theory for kinetic simulations. Oxygen-carbon and carbon-carbon phenyl shift reactions proceed through cyclic intermediates with similar barriers. But, while subsequent beta-scission of the oxygen-carbon shift products proceeds with virtually no barrier, the activation energy for beta-scission of the carbon-carbon shift products exceeds 15 kcal/mol. We found that about 15 % of beta-radical conversion can be attributed to carbon-carbon shift for PPE and alpha-hydroxy PPE at 618 K. Whereas the oxygen-carbon shift reaction has been established as an integral part of the pyrolysis mechanism of PPE and its derivatives, participation of the carbon-carbon shift reaction has not been shown previously.

  12. Ameliorative Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract against Dietary-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver in Rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaaibi, Siham N K; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Subhi, Lyutha; Tageldin, Mohamed H; Al-Balushi, Nada M; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2016-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by fat accumulation and is associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract (PPE) against oxidative stress in the liver of rats with NAFLD. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD), 20% corn oil, or palm oil for 8 weeks in the presence or absence of PPE. The control group was fed a basal diet. The progression of NAFLD was evaluated histologically and by measuring liver enzymes (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase), serum lipids (triglycerides and total cholesterol), and oxidative stress markers. The HFD feeding increased the body weight and caused NAFLD, liver steatosis, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, and elevated liver enzymes. Administration of PPE ameliorated the hepatic morphology, reduced body weight, improved liver enzymes, and inhibited lipogenesis. Furthermore, PPE enhanced the cellular redox status in the liver tissue of rats with NAFLD. Our findings suggest that PPE could improve HFD-induced NAFLD via abolishment of hepatic oxidative damage and hyperlipidemia. PPE might be considered as a potential lead material in the treatment of NAFLD and obesity through the modulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:27069901

  13. Disinfecting personal protective equipment with pulsed xenon ultraviolet as a risk mitigation strategy for health care workers.

    PubMed

    Jinadatha, Chetan; Simmons, Sarah; Dale, Charles; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Villamaria, Frank Charles; Goulding, Nicole; Tanner, Benjamin; Stachowiak, Julie; Stibich, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) after contamination with pathogens such as Ebola poses a risk to health care workers. Pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) disinfection has been used to disinfect surfaces in hospital settings. This study examined the impact of PX-UV disinfection on an Ebola surrogate virus on glass carriers and PPE material to examine the potential benefits of using PX-UV to decontaminate PPE while worn, thereby reducing the pathogen load prior to doffing. Ultraviolet (UV) safety and coverage tests were also conducted. PX-UV exposure resulted in a significant reduction in viral load on glass carriers and PPE materials. Occupational Safety and Health Administration-defined UV exposure limits were not exceeded during PPE disinfection. Predoffing disinfection with PX-UV has potential as an additive measure to the doffing practice guidelines. The PX-UV disinfection should not be considered sterilization; all PPE should still be considered contaminated and doffed and disposed of according to established protocols.

  14. Ameliorative Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract against Dietary-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shaaibi, Siham N. K.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Subhi, Lyutha; Tageldin, Mohamed H.; Al-Balushi, Nada M.; Rahman, Mohammad S.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by fat accumulation and is associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract (PPE) against oxidative stress in the liver of rats with NAFLD. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD), 20% corn oil, or palm oil for 8 weeks in the presence or absence of PPE. The control group was fed a basal diet. The progression of NAFLD was evaluated histologically and by measuring liver enzymes (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase), serum lipids (triglycerides and total cholesterol), and oxidative stress markers. The HFD feeding increased the body weight and caused NAFLD, liver steatosis, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, and elevated liver enzymes. Administration of PPE ameliorated the hepatic morphology, reduced body weight, improved liver enzymes, and inhibited lipogenesis. Furthermore, PPE enhanced the cellular redox status in the liver tissue of rats with NAFLD. Our findings suggest that PPE could improve HFD-induced NAFLD via abolishment of hepatic oxidative damage and hyperlipidemia. PPE might be considered as a potential lead material in the treatment of NAFLD and obesity through the modulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:27069901

  15. Role of carbon-carbon phenyl migration in the pyrolysis mechanism of β-O-4 lignin model compounds: phenethyl phenyl ether and α-hydroxy phenethyl phenyl ether.

    PubMed

    Beste, Ariana; Buchanan, A C

    2012-12-20

    We investigate phenyl shift and subsequent β-scission reactions for PhCHXCH·OPh [X = H, OH], which are part of the pyrolysis mechanism of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) and α-hydroxy PPE. PPE and its derivatives are model compounds for the most common linkage in lignin, the β-O-4 linkage. We use density functional theory to locate transition states and equilibrium structures and kinetic Monte Carlo in combination with transition-state theory for kinetic simulations. Oxygen-carbon and carbon-carbon phenyl shift reactions proceed through cyclic intermediates with similar barriers. However, while subsequent β-scission of the oxygen-carbon shift products proceeds with virtually no barrier, the activation energy for β-scission of the carbon-carbon shift products exceeds 15 kcal/mol. We found that about 15% of β-radical conversion can be attributed to carbon-carbon shift for PPE and α-hydroxy PPE at 618 K. Whereas the oxygen-carbon shift reaction has been established as an integral part of the pyrolysis mechanism of PPE and its derivatives, participation of the carbon-carbon shift reaction has not been shown previously.

  16. Effect of vacuum packaging and pomegranate peel extract on quality aspects of ground goat meat and nuggets.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Thorat, Pramod; Manjunatha, M

    2014-10-01

    The effect of vacuum packaging and pomegranate peel extract on ground goat meat and cooked nuggets during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1 °C) was evaluated. Three different treatments evaluated were: I). Aerobic packaging (AP); II) Vacuum packaging (VP) and III). Vacuum packaging along with 1 % pomegranate peel extract (VP + PPE). Results of quality evaluation showed that VP and VP + PPE maintained a more stable colour than AP. In all treatments, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in hardness and gumminess of nuggets was observed during the storage. But, VP nuggets showed minimum changes in texture parameters. TBARS values were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in VP and VP + PPE than AP. In ground meat, VP reduced the TBARS by 27 % and PPE reduced the TBARS by 41 %. In nuggets, TBARS was decreased by 17 % and 40 % in VP and VP + PPE respectively. Total plate counts were significantly higher (>log 7) in AP than VP meat and nuggets. Thus VP and PPE have a synergistic antioxidant effect and VP extended the refrigerated shelf life of goat meat and nuggets. PMID:25328212

  17. Extracts of black bean peel and pomegranate peel ameliorate oxidative stress-induced hyperglycemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Yun; Zhu, Chuang; Qian, Tian-Wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Fan; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a central role in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can directly result in the injury of islet β cells and consequent hyperglycemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of black bean peel extract (BBPE), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and a combination of the two (PPE + BBPE) on streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Oxidative stress was assessed by the levels of total antioxidative capability and glutathione in the serum. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the pancreas weight index and the histological changes in the pancreas, were also determined. The results showed that, after fours weeks of treatment with PPE, BBPE or PPE + BBPE, DM mice showed, to different degrees, a decrease in blood glucose, increases in insulin secretion and the pancreas weight index, and an increase in antioxidative activity. These changes were particularly evident in the DM mice subjected to the combined intervention strategy of PPE + BBPE. The histological findings indicated that the injury to the pancreatic islets in DM mice was also ameliorated following treatment. In conclusion, PPE and BBPE, particularly the combination of the two, have the ability to ameliorate hyperglycemia by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced pancreatic damage; this finding may be useful in the prevention and treatment of DM. PMID:25452774

  18. Quality of care and investment in property, plant, and equipment in hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, S W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explores the relationship between quality of care and investment in property, plant, and equipment (PPE) in hospitals. DATA SOURCES. Hospitals' investment in PPE was derived from audited financial statements for the fiscal years 1984-1989. Peer Review Organization (PRO) Generic Quality Screen (GQS) reviews and confirmed failures between April 1989 and September 1990 were obtained from the Massachusetts PRO. STUDY DESIGN. Weighted least squares regression models used PRO GQS confirmed failure rates as the dependent variable, and investment in PPE as the key explanatory variable. DATA EXTRACTION. Investment in PPE was standardized, summed by the hospital over the six years, and divided by the hospital's average number of beds in that period. The number of PRO reviewed cases with one or more GQS confirmed failures was divided by the total number of cases reviewed to create confirmed failure rates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Investment in PPE in Massachusetts hospitals is correlated with GQS confirmed failure rates. CONCLUSIONS. A financial variable, investment in PPE, predicts certain dimensions of quality of care in hospitals. PMID:8113054

  19. Renoprotective effect of Egyptian cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) against acute renal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Physalis peruviana L. extract (PPE) on acute renal injury in rats. Adult male rats (n = 36) were divided into six groups that were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (33 days). The first group was normal group, the second and the third groups were administered orally with 100 and 150 mg PPE/kg body weight (BW) respectively, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg BW cisplatin once on the 28th day to induced ARI, and the fifth and sixth groups were treated like the second and the third groups and were injected with cisplatin on the 28th day. Many bioactive compounds were found in PPE. PPE did not cause any changes in the second and third groups compared to normal control group. Administration of PPE prior to cisplatin injection caused significant reduction in relative kidney weight, serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen, and significant increments in body weight, feed intake, total protein, albumin, and total globulin compared to cisplatin group. Pretreatment with PPE improved kidney histology and diminished the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and enhanced other antioxidant enzymes in kidney homogenate compared to cisplatin group.

  20. Subjective perceptions and ergonomics evaluation of a liquid cooled garment worn under protective ensemble during an intermittent treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor; Williams, W Jon; Roberge, Raymond J

    2011-07-01

    While a personal protective equipment (PPE) ensemble effectively provides workers with protection from occupational hazards, working in a vapour-resistant ensemble increases the risk of heat illness/injuries and physiological burdens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body cooling via a liquid-cooled garment (LCG) underneath a PPE ensemble on perceived thermal strain, physiological responses and ergonomics during an intermittent treadmill exercise in warm environmental conditions. The results of the present study indicated that the concomitant wearing of LCG underneath the PPE ensemble significantly reduced subjective perception of heat and alleviated overall increase in body temperature and heart rate while no impact of wearing LCG on ergonomic features was found. The extension of the present findings to practical applications in occupational settings requires further research on a LCG system design and performance evaluations while the LCG is incorporated within the PPE ensemble. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Implementation of a LCG underneath PPE for body cooling was investigated, focusing on its impact on individuals' perceived thermal strain, physiological responses and ergonomics. The findings of the present study indicated that body cooling via a wearable LCG underneath PPE significantly alleviated both perceived thermal and physiological strain in uncompensable heat stress condition. PMID:21770750

  1. Personal safety issues related to the use of pesticides in agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman.

    PubMed

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The level of uptake and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) by farm workers in Oman is low; the conditions under which pesticides are stored are frequently below acceptable international standards. Research was undertaken to explore the drivers working against safe storage of agrochemicals and effective personal protection usage by pesticide application personnel. Results from a survey of over 200 respondents, representing workers in, and owners of, farms either within or outside a local farmer's association (FA), suggest that FA membership raises standards of behaviour both in terms of safe pesticide storage and use of PPE. Age of respondents had no apparent effect on the likelihood of PPE (gloves and masks) use. PPE use was, however, highest among respondents with more advanced educational backgrounds. Positive responses for glove and mask use, when applying pesticides, were higher for owners and workers in FA farms compared to non-FA farms. Lowest reported use of PPE was among workers in non-FA farms. Analysis of responses appears to indicate that behaviour patterns of workers in FA farms mirror that of the farm owners. This was not the case in non-FA farms. The results suggest that conformity to social norms, in this case acceptable work-environment behaviour, is a powerful driver behind raised usage levels of PPE in farms in Oman.

  2. Subjective perceptions and ergonomics evaluation of a liquid cooled garment worn under protective ensemble during an intermittent treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Coca, Aitor; Williams, W Jon; Roberge, Raymond J

    2011-07-01

    While a personal protective equipment (PPE) ensemble effectively provides workers with protection from occupational hazards, working in a vapour-resistant ensemble increases the risk of heat illness/injuries and physiological burdens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body cooling via a liquid-cooled garment (LCG) underneath a PPE ensemble on perceived thermal strain, physiological responses and ergonomics during an intermittent treadmill exercise in warm environmental conditions. The results of the present study indicated that the concomitant wearing of LCG underneath the PPE ensemble significantly reduced subjective perception of heat and alleviated overall increase in body temperature and heart rate while no impact of wearing LCG on ergonomic features was found. The extension of the present findings to practical applications in occupational settings requires further research on a LCG system design and performance evaluations while the LCG is incorporated within the PPE ensemble. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Implementation of a LCG underneath PPE for body cooling was investigated, focusing on its impact on individuals' perceived thermal strain, physiological responses and ergonomics. The findings of the present study indicated that body cooling via a wearable LCG underneath PPE significantly alleviated both perceived thermal and physiological strain in uncompensable heat stress condition.

  3. Curcumin attenuates elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masaru; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Ito, Yoko; Nagai, Katsura; Odajima, Nao; Moriyama, Chinatsu; Nasuhara, Yasuyuki; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2009-04-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment obtained from turmeric (Curcumina longa), is a dietary polyphenol that has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The effect of curcumin against the development of pulmonary emphysema in animal models is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether curcumin is able to attenuate the development of pulmonary emphysema in mice. Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with intratracheal porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) or exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) (60 min/day for 10 consecutive days or 5 days/wk for 12 wk) to induce pulmonary inflammation and emphysema. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) or vehicle was administrated daily by oral gavage 1 h and 24 h before intratracheal PPE treatment and daily thereafter throughout a 21-day period in PPE-exposed mice and 1 h before each CS exposure in CS-exposed mice. As a result, curcumin treatment significantly inhibited PPE-induced increase of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 6 h and on day 1 after PPE administration, with an increase in antioxidant gene expression at 6 h and significantly attenuated PPE-induced air space enlargement on day 21. It was also found that curcumin treatment significantly inhibited CS-induced increase of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after 10 consecutive days of CS exposure and significantly attenuated CS-induced air space enlargement after 12 wk of CS exposure. In conclusion, oral curcumin administration attenuated PPE- and CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema in mice.

  4. Curcumin attenuates elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masaru; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Ito, Yoko; Nagai, Katsura; Odajima, Nao; Moriyama, Chinatsu; Nasuhara, Yasuyuki; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2009-04-01

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment obtained from turmeric (Curcumina longa), is a dietary polyphenol that has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The effect of curcumin against the development of pulmonary emphysema in animal models is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether curcumin is able to attenuate the development of pulmonary emphysema in mice. Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with intratracheal porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) or exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) (60 min/day for 10 consecutive days or 5 days/wk for 12 wk) to induce pulmonary inflammation and emphysema. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) or vehicle was administrated daily by oral gavage 1 h and 24 h before intratracheal PPE treatment and daily thereafter throughout a 21-day period in PPE-exposed mice and 1 h before each CS exposure in CS-exposed mice. As a result, curcumin treatment significantly inhibited PPE-induced increase of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 6 h and on day 1 after PPE administration, with an increase in antioxidant gene expression at 6 h and significantly attenuated PPE-induced air space enlargement on day 21. It was also found that curcumin treatment significantly inhibited CS-induced increase of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after 10 consecutive days of CS exposure and significantly attenuated CS-induced air space enlargement after 12 wk of CS exposure. In conclusion, oral curcumin administration attenuated PPE- and CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and emphysema in mice. PMID:19168576

  5. Prevalence and clinical significance of postpartum endometritis and wound infection.

    PubMed Central

    Chaim, W; Bashiri, A; Bar-David, J; Shoham-Vardi, I; Mazor, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To correlate clinical variables (gestational age, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, history of previous cesarean sections, fetal distress, perinatal mortality, postpartum anemia, Apgar score < or = 3 at 1 minute and < or = 7 at 5 minutes, and instrumental delivery) with postpartum endometritis (PPE) and wound infection. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study of the outcome of 75,947 term and preterm singleton deliveries; vaginally and by cesarean section from 1989-1997. RESULTS: The prevalence of PPE after vaginal deliveries was 0.17% (120/68,273). Gestational age of less than 37 weeks, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal distress, instrumental deliveries, neonatal mortality, postpartum anemia, and Apgar scores of < 7 after 5 minutes were significantly associated with PPE. Gestational diabetes and an Apgar score of < 3 after 1 minute showed similar frequency with and without PPE. The prevalence of PPE after cesarean section was 2.63% (202/7,677). Preterm cesarean sections, history of previous cesarean sections, anemia, and low Apgar scores were seen more frequently with PPE than without. The incidence of cesarean delivery with gestational diabetes mellitus, fetal distress, and perinatal mortality was similar in presence and absence of PPE. The rate of wound infection after cesarean section was 3.97% (318/7,995). Gestational diabetes mellitus, history of previous cesarean deliveries, and low Apgar scores were significantly more frequent with than without wound infection. Gestational age, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal distress, perinatal mortality, and postpartum anemia were not associated with wound infection. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of the aforementioned associations may prevent and shorten hospital stay by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:10805361

  6. Pulmonary edema following generalized tonic clonic seizures is directly associated with seizure duration

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jeffrey D.; Hardin, Kimberly A.; Parikh, Palak; Li, Chin-Shang; Seyal, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Postictal pulmonary edema (PPE) is almost invariably present in human and animal cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) coming to autopsy. PPE may be a contributing factor in SUDEP. The incidence of postictal PPE is unknown. We retrospectively investigated PPE following generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) in the epilepsy monitoring unit. Methods Chest X-Rays (CXR) following each GTCS were obtained in 24 consecutive patients. Relationship of CXR abnormality to seizure duration, ictal/postictal oxygen desaturation (SpO2), apnea and presence of postictal generalized EEG suppression (PGES) was investigated using logistic regression. Results Eleven of 24 patients had CXR abnormalities following a GTCS. In these 11 patients, 22 CXR were obtained and abnormalities were present in 15 CXR. Abnormalities included PPE in 7 patients, of which 2 also had focal infiltrates. In 4 patients focal infiltrates were present without PPE. There was no significant difference in mean time to CXR (225 min) following GTCS in the abnormal CXR group versus the normal group of patients (196 min). Mean preceding seizure duration was longer (p=0.002) in GTCS with abnormal CXR (259.7 sec) versus GTCS with normal CXR (101.2 sec). Odds-ratio for CXR abnormality was 20.46 (p=0.006) with seizure duration greater than 100 sec versus less than 100 sec. On multivariable analysis, only the seizure duration was a significant predictor of CXR abnormality (p=0.015). Conclusions Radiographic abnormalities are not uncommon following GTCS. The presence of CXR abnormality is significantly associated with the duration of the preceding GTCS. Severe, untreated PPE may be relevant to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. PMID:25844030

  7. Premature Progesterone Elevation Does Not Affect Pregnancy Outcome in High-Responder Patients Undergoing Short-Interval Coasting in IVF Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Acet, Mustafa; Aktün, Lebriz Hale; Başaranoğlu, Serdar; Yorgunlar, Betül; Acet, Tuba; Deregözü, Ayşegül

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to present the relationship between premature progesterone elevation (PPE) and clinical outcomes in high-responder patients who had a coasting period of <4 days in length due to their high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and who were treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-agonist) protocol in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. Material/Methods This retrospective study was conducted at the University Hospital Assisted Reproductive Technology Center. The outcomes of 101 patients undergoing IVF- intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles who showed a high response to COH (estradiol >4000 pg/ml and/or >20 follicles each ≥10 mm in diameter and at least 20% ≥15 mm) and who were coasted for <4 days were evaluated. Number of oocytes, 2 pronuclei (PN) embryos, implantation rate, and live birth rate were measured. Results The incidence of PPE was 32.6%. Compared with those without PPE, patients with PPE had a higher number of oocytes retrieved. Total mature and fertilized oocytes and the mean number of embryos transferred were not significantly different between groups. Live birth rates (41.9% vs. 38.7%) and implantation rates (26.5% vs. 23%) were also not significantly divergent in the PPE and non-PPE groups, respectively. Conclusions P concentrations ≥1.3 ng/ml on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration, designated in this study as PPE, does not appear to be related to adverse effects in terms of clinical outcomes in high-responder patients undergoing coasting <4 days due to their high risk of developing OHSS treated with a long-acting GnRH-a protocol in IVF-embryo transfer cycles. PMID:26634938

  8. Enhancement of Human Hair Growth Using Ecklonia cava Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyoseung; Cho, A-Ri; Kim, Dong Young; Munkhbayer, Semchin; Choi, Soon-Jin; Jang, Sunhyae; Kim, Seong Ho; Shin, Hyeon-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecklonia cava is a brown alga that contains various compounds, including carotenoids, fucoidans, and phlorotannins. E. cava polyphenols (ECPs) are known to increase fibroblast survival. The human dermal papilla cell (hDPC) has the properties of mesenchymal-origin fibroblasts. Objective This study aims to investigate the effect of ECPs on human hair growth promotion in vitro and ex vivo. Methods MTT assays were conducted to examine the effect of ECPs on hDPC proliferation. Hair growth was measured using ex-vivo hair follicle cultures. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate the mRNA expression of various growth factors in ECP-treated hDPCs. Results Treatment with 10 µg/ml purified polyphenols from E. cava (PPE) enhanced the proliferation of hDPCs 30.3% more than in the negative control (p<0.001). Furthermore, 0.1 µg/ml PPE extended the human hair shaft 30.8% longer than the negative control over 9 days (p<0.05). Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA expression increased 3.2-fold in hDPCs following treatment with 6 µg/ml PPE (p<0.05). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression was also increased 2.0-fold by 3 µg/ml PPE (p<0.05). Treatment with 10 µg/ml PPE reduced oxidative stress in hDPCs (p<0.05). Conclusion These results suggest that PPE could enhance human hair growth. This can be explained by hDPC proliferation coupled with increases in growth factors such as IGF-1 and VEGF. Reducing oxidative stress is also thought to help increase hDPCs. These favorable results suggest that PPE is a promising therapeutic candidate for hair loss. PMID:26848214

  9. Specific induction of cranial placode cells from Xenopus ectoderm by modulating the levels of BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Kanai, Yuna; Matsukawa, Shinya; Michiue, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    The neural-epidermal boundary tissues include the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm (PPE) as primordial constituents. The PPE region is essential for the development of various sensory and endocrine organs, such as the anterior lobe of the pituitary, olfactory epithelium, lens, trigeminal ganglion, and otic vesicles. During gastrulation, a neural region is induced in ectodermal cells that interacts with mesendodermal tissue and responds to several secreted factors. Among them, inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in the presumptive neuroectoderm is essential for the induction of neural regions, and formation of a Wnt and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling gradient along the midline determines anterior-posterior patterning. In this study, we attempted to specifically induce PPE cells from undifferentiated Xenopus cells by regulating BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling. We showed that the proper level of BMP inhibition with an injection of truncated BMP receptor or treatment with a chemical antagonist triggered the expression of PPE genes. In addition, by varying the amount of injected chordin, we optimized specific expression of the PPE genes. PPE gene expression is increased by adding an appropriate dose of an FGF receptor antagonist. Furthermore, co-injection with either wnt8 or the Wnt inhibitor dkk-1 altered the expression levels of several region-specific genes according to the injected dose. We specifically induced PPE cell differentiation in animal cap cells from early-stage Xenopus embryos by modulating BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling. This is not the first research on placode induction, but our simple method could potentially be applied to mammalian stem cell systems. PMID:26249012

  10. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract efficacy as a dietary antioxidant against azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rat.

    PubMed

    Waly, Mostafa I; Ali, Amanat; Guizani, Nejib; Al-Rawahi, Amani S; Farooq, Sardar A; Rahman, Mohammad S

    2012-01-01

    Functional foods include antioxidant nutrients which may protect against many human chronic diseases by combating reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors in rats as an in vivo experimental model. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 groups containing 10 rats per group, and were treated with either AOM, PPE, or PPE plus AOM or injected with 0.9% physiological saline solution as a control. At 8 weeks of age, the rats in the AOM and PPE plus AOM groups were injected with 15 mg AOM/kg body weight, once a week for two weeks. After the last AOM injection, the rats were continuously fed ad-libitum their specific diets for another 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment (i.e. at the age of 4 months), all rats were killed and the colon tissues were examined microscopically for lesions suspected of being preneoplastic lesions or tumors as well as for biochemical measurement of oxidative stress indices. The results revealed a lower incidence of aberrant crypt foci in the PPE plus AOM administered group as compared to the AOM group. In addition, PPE blocked the AOM-induced impairment of biochemical indicators of oxidative stress in the examined colonic tissue homogenates. The results suggest that PPE can partially inhibit the development of colonic premalignant lesions in an AOM-induced colorectal carcinogenesis model, by abrogating oxidative stress and improving the redox status of colonic cells. PMID:23098515

  11. The antioxidant potency of Punica granatum L. Fruit peel reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, Miris; Ozturk, Nilgün; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2011-12-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to possess pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant and anticancer. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potency of a methanolic pomegranate fruit peel extract (PPE) and the relation with its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of PPE were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau and the 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl free radical methods, respectively. Phenolic acids present in the extract were characterized by a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Cell proliferation was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay. The apoptotic effects were determined by in situ Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The extraction yield as a percentage of plant material was 37.97% (wt/wt), and total phenolic content was 331.28 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract. According to HPLC analysis, the most abundant phenolic acid detected in the extract was ellagic acid. MCF-7 cell proliferation decreased depending on PPE concentration (25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 μg/mL) and incubation times (24, 48, and 72 hours). After 48 and 72 hours, the apoptotic cell numbers were significantly increased at 100, 200, and 300 μg/mL PPE concentrations. In addition, expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax was increased, and that of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 was decreased after 200 and 300 μg/mL PPE treatment for 48 and 72 hours. Because PPE reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis on MCF-7 cancer cells, we believe that PPE has important antioxidant and apoptotic effects. PMID:21861726

  12. The antioxidant potency of Punica granatum L. Fruit peel reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, Miris; Ozturk, Nilgün; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2011-12-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to possess pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant and anticancer. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potency of a methanolic pomegranate fruit peel extract (PPE) and the relation with its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of PPE were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau and the 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl free radical methods, respectively. Phenolic acids present in the extract were characterized by a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Cell proliferation was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay. The apoptotic effects were determined by in situ Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The extraction yield as a percentage of plant material was 37.97% (wt/wt), and total phenolic content was 331.28 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract. According to HPLC analysis, the most abundant phenolic acid detected in the extract was ellagic acid. MCF-7 cell proliferation decreased depending on PPE concentration (25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 μg/mL) and incubation times (24, 48, and 72 hours). After 48 and 72 hours, the apoptotic cell numbers were significantly increased at 100, 200, and 300 μg/mL PPE concentrations. In addition, expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax was increased, and that of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 was decreased after 200 and 300 μg/mL PPE treatment for 48 and 72 hours. Because PPE reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis on MCF-7 cancer cells, we believe that PPE has important antioxidant and apoptotic effects.

  13. Atypical Pleural Fluid Profiles in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion: Sequential Changes Compared with Parapneumonic and Malignant Pleural Effusions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Ho; Lee, So Yeon; Lee, Yong Dae; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Cha, Seung Ick; Park, Jae Yong; Lee, Jaehee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is commonly characterized by lymphocytic predominance and high adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels, it may present with neutrophilic predominance or low ADA levels, which are more commonly found in parapneumonic effusion (PPE) or malignant pleural effusion (MPE), respectively. A few studies have observed that the atypical pleural fluid profiles of these cases of TPE may resolve at follow-up thoracentesis. However, these observations were incompletely analyzed and lacked comparison with proper control groups. Thus, limited data are available comparing the sequential pleural fluid changes between TPE and PPE or MPE with similar pleural fluid profiles. Methods TPE, PPE, and MPE patients who underwent sequential thoracentesis were retrospectively reviewed. The sequential changes in the pleural fluid profiles were compared between neutrophilic TPE and PPE, and lymphocytic TPE and MPE with low ADA levels. Results Twenty-three TPE patients (16 with neutrophilic exudates, seven with lymphocytic exudates), 72 cases of PPE with neutrophilic exudates, and 18 cases of MPE with lymphocytic exudates were included in the analysis. A sequential shift to lymphocytic exudates occurred significantly more often in TPE than in PPE cases. The initial and follow-up ADA levels in TPE cases with a lymphocytic shift were significantly higher than those in PPE cases with a lymphocytic shift. The ADA levels in the TPE cases with initial lymphocytic exudates and low ADA levels significantly increased at follow-up thoracentesis. For the TPE and MPE cases with initial lymphocytic exudates and ADA levels <40 U/L, the frequency of effusion with ADA levels ≥40 U/L at the second thoracentesis was significantly higher in the TPE cases. Conclusion Follow-up thoracentesis may provide useful information for clinical decision-making in suspected atypical TPE cases with neutrophilic exudates or low ADA levels. PMID:27374670

  14. User Perceptions of ¡Protéjase!: An Intervention Designed to Increase Protective Equipment Use Among Mexican Immigrant and Mexican American Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Ishino, Francisco A; Smyth, Joshua M; Murphy, Dennis J; Miranda, Patricia Y; Davis, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers’ exposures to pesticides are reduced when they wear personal protective equipment (PPE), and mobile health (mHealth) platforms can potentially deliver information to farmworkers to help promote PPE use. However, little is known about the feasibility of using mHealth platforms to promote farmworkers’ use of PPE. Objective The objective of the study was to describe the development and feasibility-testing of Protect Yourself! (¡Protéjase!), an intervention designed to increase PPE use. As the vast majority of farmworkers in the United States are from Mexico, we examined the intervention in a primarily Mexican-origin farmworker population. Methods ¡Protéjase was developed in several steps. First, we performed ethnographic observations to understand what prevents PPE use. Next, we developed program components that met the challenges uncovered in the ethnographic observations, seeking direct feedback from farmworkers on each component. Feasibility was assessed using surveys and focus groups. Material was provided in Spanish or English at the preference of the participant. Finally, we pilot tested each component of the intervention, including: (1) PPE that was provided to each worker for their personal use during the intervention trial, and (2) delivery of an application-based tool that promoted the use of PPE through daily individualized messaging. Results 55 farmworkers enrolled in the study, but only 41 of 55 (75%) completed the entire pilot intervention trial. Results focus on the evaluation of the intervention, and include only those who completed the entire trial. Among farmworkers who completed the entire intervention trial, all but two farmworkers were born in Mexico and were Spanish speaking. Still, all study participants self-identified as Mexican or Mexican-American. When asked what changes were needed in the intervention’s messaging or delivery to increase user satisfaction, 22 out of 41 participants (54%) felt that no changes

  15. Species-specificity of equine and porcine Lawsonia intracellularis isolates in laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Francesca; Vannucci, Fabio A.; Allen, Andrew L.; Pusterla, Nicola; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J.; Ball, Katherine R.; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M.; Hamilton, Don L.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2013-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis infection causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in many mammalian species, with porcine and equine proliferative enteropathy (PPE and EPE) known worldwide. Hamsters are a well-published animal model for PPE infection studies in pigs. There is no laboratory animal model for EPE infection studies and it is not known whether there is species-specificity for equine or porcine isolates of L. intracellularis in animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether it is possible to generate typical EPE lesions in hamsters after inoculation with an equine strain of L. intracellularis (EPE strain) and whether it is comparatively possible to generate PPE lesions in rabbits after inoculation with a porcine strain of L. intracellularis (PPE strain). In 2 separate trials, 4-week-old and 3-week-old weanling golden Syrian hamsters were challenged with EPE strains and compared to uninfected (both trials) and PPE-infected controls (Trial 2 only). Concurrently, 6 female New Zealand white juvenile rabbits were infected with PPE strain and observed concomitantly to 8 similar rabbits infected with EPE strain for a different experiment. Hamsters and rabbits were observed for 21 to 24 days post-infection (DPI), depending on the experiment. Neither infected species developed clinical signs. The presence of disease was assessed with diagnostic techniques classically used for pigs and horses: immune-peroxidase monolayer assay on sera; quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of molecular DNA in feces; and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on intestinal tissues. Our results showed that EPE-challenged hamsters do not develop infection when compared with PPE controls (IHC, P = 0.009; qPCR, P = 0.0003). Conversely, PPE-challenged rabbits do not develop typical intestinal lesions in comparison to EPE-challenged rabbits, with serological response at 14 DPI being significantly lower (P = 0.0023). In conclusion

  16. Species-specificity of equine and porcine Lawsonia intracellularis isolates in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Francesca; Vannucci, Fabio A; Allen, Andrew L; Pusterla, Nicola; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Ball, Katherine R; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M; Hamilton, Don L; Gebhart, Connie J

    2013-10-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis infection causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in many mammalian species, with porcine and equine proliferative enteropathy (PPE and EPE) known worldwide. Hamsters are a well-published animal model for PPE infection studies in pigs. There is no laboratory animal model for EPE infection studies and it is not known whether there is species-specificity for equine or porcine isolates of L. intracellularis in animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether it is possible to generate typical EPE lesions in hamsters after inoculation with an equine strain of L. intracellularis (EPE strain) and whether it is comparatively possible to generate PPE lesions in rabbits after inoculation with a porcine strain of L. intracellularis (PPE strain). In 2 separate trials, 4-week-old and 3-week-old weanling golden Syrian hamsters were challenged with EPE strains and compared to uninfected (both trials) and PPE-infected controls (Trial 2 only). Concurrently, 6 female New Zealand white juvenile rabbits were infected with PPE strain and observed concomitantly to 8 similar rabbits infected with EPE strain for a different experiment. Hamsters and rabbits were observed for 21 to 24 days post-infection (DPI), depending on the experiment. Neither infected species developed clinical signs. The presence of disease was assessed with diagnostic techniques classically used for pigs and horses: immune-peroxidase monolayer assay on sera; quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of molecular DNA in feces; and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on intestinal tissues. Our results showed that EPE-challenged hamsters do not develop infection when compared with PPE controls (IHC, P = 0.009; qPCR, P = 0.0003). Conversely, PPE-challenged rabbits do not develop typical intestinal lesions in comparison to EPE-challenged rabbits, with serological response at 14 DPI being significantly lower (P = 0.0023). In conclusion

  17. Costs and process of in-patient tuberculosis management at a central academic hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marais, F.; Mehtar, S.; Baltussen, R. M. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Setting: South Africa reports more cases of tuberculosis (TB) than any other country, but an up-to-date, precise estimate of the costs associated with diagnosing, treating and preventing TB at the in-patient level is not available. Objective: To determine the costs associated with TB management among in-patients and to study the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) at a central academic hospital in Cape Town. Design: Retrospective and partly prospective cost analysis of TB cases diagnosed between May 2008 and October 2009. Results: The average daily in-patient costs were US$238; the average length of stay was 9.7 days. Mean laboratory and medication costs per stay were respectively US$26.82 and US$8.68. PPE use per day cost US$0.99. The average total TB management costs were US$2373 per patient. PPE was not always properly used. Discussion: The costs of in-patient TB management are high compared to community-based treatment; the main reason for the high costs is the high number of in-patient days. An efficiency assessment is needed to reduce costs. Cost reduction per TB case prevented was approximately US$2373 per case. PPE use accounted for the lowest costs. Training is needed to improve PPE use. PMID:26392953

  18. The Impact of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment and Treadmill Protocol on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO2max between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO2max was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO2 in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO2 but not VO2max. These results suggest that firefighters’ maximal performance determined from a typical VO2max test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10). PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). PPE at 10–100 μg mL−1 attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL−1). PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter. PMID:27247608

  20. Accelerating Monte Carlo power studies through parametric power estimation.

    PubMed

    Ueckert, Sebastian; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the power for a non-linear mixed-effects model-based analysis is challenging due to the lack of a closed form analytic expression. Often, computationally intensive Monte Carlo studies need to be employed to evaluate the power of a planned experiment. This is especially time consuming if full power versus sample size curves are to be obtained. A novel parametric power estimation (PPE) algorithm utilizing the theoretical distribution of the alternative hypothesis is presented in this work. The PPE algorithm estimates the unknown non-centrality parameter in the theoretical distribution from a limited number of Monte Carlo simulation and estimations. The estimated parameter linearly scales with study size allowing a quick generation of the full power versus study size curve. A comparison of the PPE with the classical, purely Monte Carlo-based power estimation (MCPE) algorithm for five diverse pharmacometric models showed an excellent agreement between both algorithms, with a low bias of less than 1.2 % and higher precision for the PPE. The power extrapolated from a specific study size was in a very good agreement with power curves obtained with the MCPE algorithm. PPE represents a promising approach to accelerate the power calculation for non-linear mixed effect models.

  1. Preparation and photoelectric properties of poly(phenylethanone)- manganese phthalocyanine derivative for polymer photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Benhua; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Wangxi; Gu, Feng; Cao, Meng; Zhang, Jiancheng

    2010-10-01

    A novel soluble poly(phenylethanone) derivative grafted with tetra-acyl-chlorich manganese phthalocyanine (TACMnPc) was synthesized via esterification and characterized by electronic absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectra. The derivative (PPE-MnPc) exhibits high solubility and excellent film-forming property. Electronic absorption spectrum of the polymer exhibits a Q-band peak positioned at about 736 nm, which is obviously red shifted compared with 2, 9, 16, 23-tetra-carboxyl manganese(II) phthalocyanine (TCMnPc). PPE-MnPc films were prepared by dip-coating technology. Photoconductivity of PPE-MnPc films was characterized by current-voltage measurement. At bias voltage of 20 V, photoconductivity of the film was 6.8×10-9 S and dark conductivity was 7.5 ×10-10 S. The electrical conductivity of PPE-MnPc films under irradiation was nine times higher than that in the dark, which indicated that PPE-MnPc had a good photovoltaic response.

  2. Preparation and photoelectric properties of poly(phenylethanone)- manganese phthalocyanine derivative for polymer photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Benhua; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Wangxi; Gu, Feng; Cao, Meng; Zhang, Jiancheng

    2011-02-01

    A novel soluble poly(phenylethanone) derivative grafted with tetra-acyl-chlorich manganese phthalocyanine (TACMnPc) was synthesized via esterification and characterized by electronic absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectra. The derivative (PPE-MnPc) exhibits high solubility and excellent film-forming property. Electronic absorption spectrum of the polymer exhibits a Q-band peak positioned at about 736 nm, which is obviously red shifted compared with 2, 9, 16, 23-tetra-carboxyl manganese(II) phthalocyanine (TCMnPc). PPE-MnPc films were prepared by dip-coating technology. Photoconductivity of PPE-MnPc films was characterized by current-voltage measurement. At bias voltage of 20 V, photoconductivity of the film was 6.8×10-9 S and dark conductivity was 7.5 ×10-10 S. The electrical conductivity of PPE-MnPc films under irradiation was nine times higher than that in the dark, which indicated that PPE-MnPc had a good photovoltaic response.

  3. Antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of pomegranate peel against Pseudomonas stutzeri isolated from poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Jaiswal, Parnita; Jha, Shyam N; Bharadwaj, Rishi; Viswas, K N

    2013-06-01

    In this study antibacterial activity of pomegranate peel (PPE) was evaluated against bacteria isolated from poultry meat. The bacteria were identified using 16S rRNA gene and DNA sequencing. Results of molecular characterization showed that the bacteria isolated were having 100% homology with the Pseudomonas stutzeri strain CTSP36 and further analysis showed that sample sequence clustered with the P. stutzeri strain CTSP36. Antibacterial activity of PPE was demonstrated by clear zone of inhibition in plates inoculated with extract. The diameter of inhibition zones were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in PPE as compared to standard antibiotic discs used (tetracycline, vancomycin and streptomycin). Results of broth dilution assay also revealed that PPE at 1%, 5% and 10% were effective in inhibiting bacterial growth in test plates. Further, a decrease in the growth of bacterial cells and a gradual decline in protein content of bacterial cells were also observed when bacterial culture was grown with different concentration of PPE along with a control. These results showed the potential application of pomegranate peel extract as antibacterial agent against P. stutzeri.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10). PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). PPE at 10-100 μg mL(-1) attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL(-1)). PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter. PMID:27247608

  5. Evaluation of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) exposures and illness among physicians in training

    PubMed Central

    de Perio, Marie A.; Brueck, Scott E.; Mueller, Charles A.; Milne, Caroline K.; Rubin, Michael A.; Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Mayer, Jeanmarie

    2015-01-01

    Background A cluster of influenza-like illness (ILI) among physicians in training during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic (pH1N1) led to a health hazard evaluation. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine exposures, infection control practices, ILI prevalence, and transmission among physicians in training at 4 affiliated hospitals during the pandemic. We administered an electronic survey and met with physicians in training and hospital personnel. Results Of the 88 responding physicians, 85% reported exposure to pH1N1. Exposures occurred at work from patients or coworkers and outside of work from coworkers, household members, or the community. Thirteen cases of ILI were reported in May-June 2009; 10 respondents reported working while ill (duration, 1-4 days). Between 13% and 88% of respondents knew which personal protective equipment (PPE) was recommended when caring for influenza patients at the 4 hospitals. The most common reasons for not using PPE were not knowing that a patient had pH1N1 or ILI and not having PPE readily available. Conclusions Physicians in training have gaps in their knowledge of and adherence to recommended PPE and compliance with work restrictions. Our findings underscore the importance of installing isolation precaution signage, making PPE readily available near patients with influenza, and facilitating work restrictions for ill health care personnel. PMID:22622511

  6. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) on Eimeria papillata-Induced Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Omar S. O.; Dkhil, Mohamed A.; Hikal, Wafaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the most prevalent disease causing widespread economic loss, especially in poultry farms. Here, we investigated the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the outcome of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria papillata in mice. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata and treated with PPE revealed a significant decrease in the output of oocysts in their faeces by day 5 p.i. Infection also induced inflammation and injury of the jejunum. This was evidenced (i) as increases in reactive oxygen species, (ii), as increased neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes in blood (ii) as increased mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Bcl-2 gene, and of the cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and (iv) as downregulation of mucin gene MUC2 mRNA. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during PPE treatment. In particular, PPE counteracted the E. papillata-induced loss of the total antioxidant capacity. Our data indicated that PPE treatment significantly attenuated inflammation and injury of the jejunum induced by E. papillata infections. PMID:25654088

  7. Palatability and chemical safety of apple juice fortified with pomegranate peel extract.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry with potential health effects, was explored for use to fortify reconstituted apple juice in the concentration range 0.5 to 2.0% (w/w). Radical scavenging and antioxidative capacities of the fortified apple juices were evaluated using (i) electron spin resonance (ESR) to quantify their ability to scavenge the stable radical Fremy's salt and (ii) the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and compared to apple juice without fortification as control. The highest antioxidative capacity was found in the apple juice fortified with the highest percentage of pomegranate peel extract, while the optimal sensory quality was found by addition of 0.5 g PPE per 100 mL. The Artemia salina assay was used as a fast screening method for evaluating overall toxicity, and showed little toxicity with up to 1.0 g per 100 mL addition of PPE, but increasing toxicity at higher concentrations. Accordingly, it is important to balance addition of PPE, when used for enrichment of apple juice in order to obtain a healthier product, without compromising the sensorial quality or toxicological safety of the apple juice. Concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 g PPE per 100 mL seem to be acceptable.

  8. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) on Eimeria papillata-induced infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Amer, Omar S O; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Hikal, Wafaa M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the most prevalent disease causing widespread economic loss, especially in poultry farms. Here, we investigated the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the outcome of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria papillata in mice. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata and treated with PPE revealed a significant decrease in the output of oocysts in their faeces by day 5 p.i. Infection also induced inflammation and injury of the jejunum. This was evidenced (i) as increases in reactive oxygen species, (ii), as increased neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes in blood (ii) as increased mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Bcl-2 gene, and of the cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and (iv) as downregulation of mucin gene MUC2 mRNA. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during PPE treatment. In particular, PPE counteracted the E. papillata-induced loss of the total antioxidant capacity. Our data indicated that PPE treatment significantly attenuated inflammation and injury of the jejunum induced by E. papillata infections. PMID:25654088

  9. Antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of pomegranate peel against Pseudomonas stutzeri isolated from poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Jaiswal, Parnita; Jha, Shyam N; Bharadwaj, Rishi; Viswas, K N

    2013-06-01

    In this study antibacterial activity of pomegranate peel (PPE) was evaluated against bacteria isolated from poultry meat. The bacteria were identified using 16S rRNA gene and DNA sequencing. Results of molecular characterization showed that the bacteria isolated were having 100% homology with the Pseudomonas stutzeri strain CTSP36 and further analysis showed that sample sequence clustered with the P. stutzeri strain CTSP36. Antibacterial activity of PPE was demonstrated by clear zone of inhibition in plates inoculated with extract. The diameter of inhibition zones were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in PPE as compared to standard antibiotic discs used (tetracycline, vancomycin and streptomycin). Results of broth dilution assay also revealed that PPE at 1%, 5% and 10% were effective in inhibiting bacterial growth in test plates. Further, a decrease in the growth of bacterial cells and a gradual decline in protein content of bacterial cells were also observed when bacterial culture was grown with different concentration of PPE along with a control. These results showed the potential application of pomegranate peel extract as antibacterial agent against P. stutzeri. PMID:24425952

  10. Palatability and chemical safety of apple juice fortified with pomegranate peel extract.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Harholt, Jesper; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry with potential health effects, was explored for use to fortify reconstituted apple juice in the concentration range 0.5 to 2.0% (w/w). Radical scavenging and antioxidative capacities of the fortified apple juices were evaluated using (i) electron spin resonance (ESR) to quantify their ability to scavenge the stable radical Fremy's salt and (ii) the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and compared to apple juice without fortification as control. The highest antioxidative capacity was found in the apple juice fortified with the highest percentage of pomegranate peel extract, while the optimal sensory quality was found by addition of 0.5 g PPE per 100 mL. The Artemia salina assay was used as a fast screening method for evaluating overall toxicity, and showed little toxicity with up to 1.0 g per 100 mL addition of PPE, but increasing toxicity at higher concentrations. Accordingly, it is important to balance addition of PPE, when used for enrichment of apple juice in order to obtain a healthier product, without compromising the sensorial quality or toxicological safety of the apple juice. Concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 g PPE per 100 mL seem to be acceptable. PMID:23989519

  11. [Parapneumonic pleural effusions and empyema in adults:current practice].

    PubMed

    Porcel, J M; Light, R W

    2009-11-01

    About 20% of hospitalized patients with bacterial pneumonia have an accompanying pleural effusion. Parapneumonic effusions (PPE) are associated with a considerable morbidity and mortality. The main decision in managing a patient with a PPE is whether to insert a chest tube (complicated PPE). Imaging (i.e., chest radiograph, ultrasound and computed tomography) and pleural fluid analysis (i.e., pH, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, bacterial cults) provide essential information for patient management. Therefore, all PPEs should be aspirated for diagnostic purposes. This may require image-guidance if the effusion is small or heavily loculated. According to the current guidelines, any PPE that fulfills at least one of the following criteria should be drained: size > or = 1/2 of the hemithorax, loculations, pleural fluid pH < 7.20 (or alternatively pleural fluid glucose < 60 mg/dl), positive pleural fluid Gram stain or culture, or purulent appearance. The key components of the treatment of complicated PPE and empyema are the use of appropriate antibiotics, provision of nutritional support, and drainage of the pleural space by one of the following methods: therapeutic thoracentesis, tube thoracostomy, intrapleural fibrinolytics, thoracoscopy with breakdown of adhesions or thoracotomy with decortication. The routine use of intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy remains controversial. (c) 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved. PMID:19889319

  12. Safety climate and use of personal protective equipment and safety medical devices among home care and hospice nurses.

    PubMed

    Leiss, Jack K

    2014-01-01

    Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and safety medical devices is mandated for healthcare workers to reduce the risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) from exposure to patients' blood. Research has shown that a strong safety climate may promote increased use of PPE. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between safety climate and use of PPE among homecare/hospice nurses in North Carolina. To this end, a mail survey was conducted in 2006. The response rate, adjusted on the assumption that the proportion of eligible nurses from among those who did not return the questionnaire or could not be contacted was similar to the proportion among those who did return the questionnaire, was 69% (n=833 eligibles). The percentage of nurses who used the specified PPE was two to three times greater among nurses who had a strong safety climate. Safety climate was only weakly associated with using safety devices. These results suggest that improving safety climate may be a powerful tool for increasing use of PPE. PMID:25055845

  13. Nitrogen-rich coatings for promoting healing around stent-grafts after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Lerouge, Sophie; Major, Annie; Girault-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc; Raymond, Marc-André; Laplante, Patrick; Soulez, Gilles; Mwale, Fackson; Wertheimer, Michael R; Hébert, Marie-Josée

    2007-02-01

    Complications following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) are related to deficient healing around the stent-graft (SG). New generations of SG with surface properties that foster vascular repair could overcome this limitation. Our goal was to evaluate the potential of a new nitrogen-rich plasma-polymerised biomaterial, designated PPE:N, as an external coating for polyethylene terephtalate (PET)- or polytetrafluoro-ethylene (PTFE)-based SGs, to promote healing around the implant. Thin PPE:N coatings were deposited on PET and PTFE films. Then, adhesion, growth, migration and resistance to apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and fibroblasts, as well as myofibroblast differentiation, were assessed in vitro. In another experimental group, chondroitin sulphate (CS), a newly described mediator of vascular repair, was added to normal culture medium, to search for possible additional benefit. PPE:N-coatings, especially on PET, increased and accelerated cell adhesion and growth, compared with control PET and with standard polystyrene culture plates (PCP). PPE:N was also found to increase the resistance to apoptosis in VSMC, an important finding as aneurysms are characterised by VMSC depletion caused by a pro-apoptotic phenotype. Addition of CS in solution further increased migration and resistance to apoptosis. In conclusion, PPE:N-coating and/or CS could promote vascular repair around SGs following EVAR. PMID:17129601

  14. Bioinformatics prediction of miRNAs in the Prunus persica genome with validation of their precise sequences by miR-RACE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Bai, Youhuang; Han, Jian; Chen, Ming; Kayesh, Emrul; Jiang, Weibing; Fang, Jinggui

    2013-01-01

    We predicted 262 potential MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belonging to 70 miRNA families from the peach (Prunus persica) genome and two specific 5' and 3' miRNA rapid amplification of cDNA ends (miR-RACE) PCR reactions and sequence-directed cloning were employed to accurately validate 61 unique P. persica miRNAs (Ppe-miRNAs) sequences belonging to 61 families comprising 97 Ppe-miRNAs. Validation of the termini nucleotides in particular can define the real sequences of the Ppe-miRNAs on peach genome. Comparison between predicted and validated Ppe-miRNAs through alignment revealed that 43 unique orthologous sequences were identical, while the remaining 18 exhibited some divergences at their termini nucleotides. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was further employed to analyze the expression of all the 61 miRNAs and 10 putative targets of 8 randomly selected Ppe-miRNAs in peach leaves, flowers and fruits at different stages of development, where both the miRNAs and the putative target genes showed tissue-specific expression.

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms (Bromeliaceae) fruit extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the family Bromeliaceae are characterized by the production of proteases in unusual amounts, especially in fruits. Bromelain, an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus L., and a few other proteases have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, but bromelain is still mainly being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to the treatment with glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. In this study, the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract from Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms fruits (PPE(Pm)) is presented, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases. The effect of PPE(Pm) was assessed in carrageenan-induced and serotonin-induced rat paw edema, as well as in the cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of PPE(Pm) and bromelain produced significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses in the acute inflammatory models assayed, supporting the hypothesis that proteolytic activity could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. On the contrary, comparable anti-inflammatory effects of PPE(Pm) and bromelain in the chronic inflammatory assay required a much lower proteolytic activity content of PPE(Pm), which could be due to a differential affinity for the protein target involved in this process. PMID:24601082

  16. Chemical exposure reduction: Factors impacting on South African herbicide sprayers' personal protective equipment compliance and high risk work practices.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Rivas, Federico; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The high exposure risks of workers to herbicides in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health concern because of the potential resulting negative impacts on workers' health. This study investigated workers' personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance as a risk mitigation measure; particularly workers who apply herbicides for Working for Water (WfW) - a South African invasive alien vegetation control programme. The study aim was to understand workers' low PPE compliance by analysing their risk perceptions of herbicide use, working conditions and socio-cultural context. Research methods included ethnographic observations, informal interviews, visual media, questionnaires and a focus group. Study results indicated that low PPE compliance persists despite workers' awareness of herbicide exposure risks and as a result of the influence from workers' socio-cultural context (i.e. gender dynamics and social status), herbicide risk perceptions and working conditions (i.e. environmental and logistical). Interestingly, teams comprised of mostly women had the highest compliance rate. These findings highlighted that given the complexity of PPE compliance, especially in countries with several economic and social constraints, exposure reduction interventions should not rely solely on PPE use promotion. Instead, other control strategies requiring less worker input for effectiveness should be implemented, such as elimination and substitution of highly hazardous pesticides, and altering application methods. PMID:26093240

  17. Comparison of lead zirconate titanate thin films for microelectromechanical energy harvester with interdigitated and parallel plate electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Balma, Davide; Muralt, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films on insulator- buffered silicon substrates with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) have the potential to harvest more energy than parallel plate electrode (PPE) structures because the former exploit the longitudinal piezoelectric effect, which is about twice as high as the transverse piezoelectric effect used by PPE structures. In this work, both options are compared with respect to dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties, leakage currents, and figure of merit (FOM) for energy harvesting. The test samples were silicon beams with {100} PZT thin films in the case of the PPE geometry, and random PZT thin films for the IDE geometry. Both films were obtained by an identical sol-gel route. Almost the same dielectric constants were derived when the conformal mapping method was applied for the IDE capacitor to correct for the IDE geometry. The dielectric loss was smaller in the IDE case. The ferroelectric loops showed a higher saturation polarization, a higher coercive field, and less back-switching for the IDE case. The leakage current density of the IDE structure was measured to be about 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of the PPE structure. The best FOM of the IDE structures was 20% superior to that of the PPE structures while also having a voltage response that was ten times higher (12.9 mV/μ strain). PMID:25004526

  18. Chemical exposure reduction: Factors impacting on South African herbicide sprayers' personal protective equipment compliance and high risk work practices.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Rivas, Federico; Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The high exposure risks of workers to herbicides in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health concern because of the potential resulting negative impacts on workers' health. This study investigated workers' personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance as a risk mitigation measure; particularly workers who apply herbicides for Working for Water (WfW) - a South African invasive alien vegetation control programme. The study aim was to understand workers' low PPE compliance by analysing their risk perceptions of herbicide use, working conditions and socio-cultural context. Research methods included ethnographic observations, informal interviews, visual media, questionnaires and a focus group. Study results indicated that low PPE compliance persists despite workers' awareness of herbicide exposure risks and as a result of the influence from workers' socio-cultural context (i.e. gender dynamics and social status), herbicide risk perceptions and working conditions (i.e. environmental and logistical). Interestingly, teams comprised of mostly women had the highest compliance rate. These findings highlighted that given the complexity of PPE compliance, especially in countries with several economic and social constraints, exposure reduction interventions should not rely solely on PPE use promotion. Instead, other control strategies requiring less worker input for effectiveness should be implemented, such as elimination and substitution of highly hazardous pesticides, and altering application methods.

  19. Risk Stratification for Athletes and Adventurers in High-Altitude Environments: Recommendations for Preparticipation Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aaron D; McIntosh, Scott E; Nyberg, Andy; Powell, Amy P; Schoene, Robert B; Hackett, Peter

    2015-12-01

    High-altitude athletes and adventurers face a number of environmental and medical risks. Clinicians often advise participants or guiding agencies before or during these experiences. Preparticipation evaluation (PPE) has the potential to reduce risk of high-altitude illnesses in athletes and adventurers. Specific conditions susceptible to high-altitude exacerbation also important to evaluate include cardiovascular and lung diseases. Recommendations by which to counsel individuals before participation in altitude sports and adventures are few and of limited focus. We reviewed the literature, collected expert opinion, and augmented principles of a traditional sport PPE to accommodate the high-altitude wilderness athlete/adventurer. We present our findings with specific recommendations on risk stratification during a PPE for the high-altitude athlete/adventurer.

  20. Stabilization of porcine pancreatic elastase crystals by glutaraldehyde cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Stefan; Brito, José A; Mulchande, Jalmira; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Pessanha, Miguel; Moreira, Rui; Archer, Margarida

    2015-10-01

    Elastase is a serine protease from the chymotrypsin family of enzymes with the ability to degrade elastin, an important component of connective tissues. Excessive elastin proteolysis leads to a number of pathological diseases. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) is often used for drug development as a model for human leukocyte elastase (HLE), with which it shares high sequence identity. Crystals of PPE were grown overnight using sodium sulfate and sodium acetate at acidic pH. Cross-linking the crystals with glutaraldehyde was needed to resist the soaking procedure with a diethyl N-(methyl)pyridinyl-substituted oxo-β-lactam inhibitor. Crystals of PPE bound to the inhibitor belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2₁2₁2₁, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.0, b = 58.3, c = 74.9 Å, and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution using an in-house X-ray source.

  1. A log-rank-type test to compare net survival distributions.

    PubMed

    Grafféo, Nathalie; Castell, Fabienne; Belot, Aurélien; Giorgi, Roch

    2016-09-01

    In population-based cancer studies, it is often interesting to compare cancer survival between different populations. However, in such studies, the exact causes of death are often unavailable or unreliable. Net survival methods were developed to overcome this difficulty. Net survival is the survival that would be observed if the disease under study was the only possible cause of death. The Pohar-Perme estimator (PPE) is a nonparametric consistent estimator of net survival. In this article, we present a log-rank-type test for comparing net survival functions (as estimated by PPE) between several groups. We put the test within the counting process framework to introduce the inverse probability weighting procedure as required by the PPE. We built a stratified version to control for categorical covariates that affect the outcome. We performed simulation studies to evaluate the performance of this test and worked an application on real data. PMID:26821615

  2. Thermal characterization of starch-water system by photopyroelectric technique and adiabatic scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Orea, A.; Bentefour, E. H.; Jamée, P.; Chirtoc, M.; Glorieux, C.; Pitsi, G.; Thoen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important carbohydrate sources in human nutrition. For the thermal analysis of starch, techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry have been extensively used. As an alternative, we have applied a photopyroelectric (PPE) configuration and adiabatic scanning calorimetry (ASC) to study the thermal properties of starch-water systems. For this study we used nixtamalized corn flour and potato starch with different quantities of distilled water, in order to obtain samples with different moisture content. By using PPE and ASC methods we have measured, for each technique separately, the heat capacity by unit volume (ρcp) at room temperature for a corn flour sample at 90% moisture. The obtained values agree within experimental uncertainty. By using these techniques we also studied the thermal behavior of potato starch, at 80% moisture, in the temperature range where phase transitions occur. In this case the PPE signal phase could be used as a sensitive and versatile monitor for phase transitions.

  3. Simultaneous Photoacoustic and Photopyroelectric Detection of Trace Gas Emissions from Some Plant Parts and Their Related Essential Oils in a Combined Detection Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Al-Jamal, A. J.; Eideh, H.

    The aim of this work was to establish the feasibility of the combined photoacoustic (PA) and photopyroelectric (PPE) detection of the vapours emitted from essential oils and their corresponding uncrushed leaves or flowers. Gas traces of jasmine (Jessamine (Jasminum)), mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and Damask rose (Rosa damascena Miller) and their essential oils were tested using a combined cell fitted with both a photopyroelectric film (PVDF) and a microphone in conjunction with a pulsed wideband infrared source (PWBS) source. Infrared PA and PPE absorbances were obtained simultaneously at room temperatures with excellent reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratios. Significant similarities found between the PA and PPE spectra of the trace gas emissions of plant parts, i.e., flowers or leaves and their related essential oils show the good correlation of their emissions and that both effects are initiated by the same absorbing molecules.

  4. Image potential states in monolayer, bilayer, and trilayer epitaxial graphene studied with time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Imamura, Masaki; Yamamoto, Isamu; Azuma, Junpei; Kamada, Masao

    2014-04-01

    Image potential states (IPSs) on monolayer, bilayer, and trilayer graphene epitaxially grown on SiC(0001) have been studied by time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopy. The free-electron-like dispersions of even and odd symmetry IPSs with a quantum number of n = 1+, 1-, 2, 3 were observed. All observed IPSs showed the dispersions with effective masses of m*=1.0±0.1me. The 2PPE intensity of the lowest IPS (n = 1+) was attenuated with an increasing number of graphene layers. The time-resolved 2PPE measurements revealed that these IPSs have significantly shorter lifetimes, suggesting a coupling of IPSs with electronic states in the buffer layer and the SiC substrate.

  5. Emergency Department Response to SARS, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Chang

    2005-01-01

    How emergency departments of different levels and types cope with a large-scale contagious infectious disease is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed the response of 100 emergency departments regarding use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and implementation of infection control measures (ICMs) during the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Taiwan. Emergency department workers in large hospitals were more severely affected by the epidemic. Large hospitals or public hospitals were more likely to use respirators. Small hospitals implemented more restrictive ICMs. Most emergency departments provided PPE (80%) and implemented ICMs (66%) at late stages of the outbreak. Instructions to use PPE or ICMs more frequently originated by emergency department administrators. The difficulty of implementing ICMs was significantly negatively correlated with their effectiveness. Because ability to prepare for and respond to emerging infectious diseases varies among hospitals, grouping infectious patients in a centralized location in an early stage of infection may reduce the extent of epidemics. PMID:16022782

  6. The effect of hyperhydration on physiological and perceived strain during treadmill exercise in personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Hostler, David; Gallagher, Michael; Goss, Fredric L; Seitz, Jennifer R; Reis, Steven E; Robertson, Robert J; Northington, William E; Suyama, Joe

    2009-03-01

    Work in personal protective equipment (PPE) impairs thermoregulation causing cardiovascular stress, increased core body temperature, and hypohydration. We examined the effect of pretreating first responders performing treadmill exercise in PPE with an infusion of normal saline on physiological and perceptual strain. Ten (eight males, two females) euhydrated subjects performed treadmill exercise on two occasions wearing a chemical resistant coverall, air purifying respirator, butyl gloves, and heavy boots. During the hyperhydration session, normal saline was rapidly infused through an arm vein prior to donning PPE. Exercise duration and maximum core temperature did not differ between euhydrated and hyperhydrated conditions. Perceptual strain index (PeSI) was higher than physiological strain index (PhSI) in the euhydrated condition (P = 0.002) but neither index differed between the control and experimental conditions. Intravenous hyperhydration did not reduce physiological stress, increase exercise, or influence perceptual strain time when compared to the euhydrated condition in moderately fit individuals. PMID:19037655

  7. Stabilization of porcine pancreatic elastase crystals by glutaraldehyde cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Stefan; Brito, José A; Mulchande, Jalmira; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Pessanha, Miguel; Moreira, Rui; Archer, Margarida

    2015-10-01

    Elastase is a serine protease from the chymotrypsin family of enzymes with the ability to degrade elastin, an important component of connective tissues. Excessive elastin proteolysis leads to a number of pathological diseases. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) is often used for drug development as a model for human leukocyte elastase (HLE), with which it shares high sequence identity. Crystals of PPE were grown overnight using sodium sulfate and sodium acetate at acidic pH. Cross-linking the crystals with glutaraldehyde was needed to resist the soaking procedure with a diethyl N-(methyl)pyridinyl-substituted oxo-β-lactam inhibitor. Crystals of PPE bound to the inhibitor belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2₁2₁2₁, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.0, b = 58.3, c = 74.9 Å, and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution using an in-house X-ray source. PMID:26457529

  8. Swine worker awareness and behavior regarding prevention of zoonotic influenza transmission.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Fowler, Heather; Odofin, Lynda Osadepe; Messinger, Chelsea; Sparer, Judy; Vegso, Sally

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A convenience survey of swine workers on large and small commercial farms in the Northeast and Midwest United States regarding zoonotic influenza awareness and precautions was conducted. Workers reported low levels of concern regarding the risk of contracting influenza from swine, and were generally not aware of national guidelines for influenza prevention. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) varied by task, N95 respirator use was rare, and no workers were enrolled in respirator programs. Reported influenza vaccination coverage was greater than the national average in 2009-2010, but declined in 2010-2011. Workers on large farms were more likely to use PPE in some tasks and to report using more precautions when pigs appeared ill. Although reporting low levels of concern regarding zoonotic influenza and low adherence to national influenza guidelines, swine workers reported making task-based and risk-based decisions about use of PPE, suggesting opportunities for enhanced prevention of zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:24125045

  9. Swine worker awareness and behavior regarding prevention of zoonotic influenza transmission.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Fowler, Heather; Odofin, Lynda Osadepe; Messinger, Chelsea; Sparer, Judy; Vegso, Sally

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A convenience survey of swine workers on large and small commercial farms in the Northeast and Midwest United States regarding zoonotic influenza awareness and precautions was conducted. Workers reported low levels of concern regarding the risk of contracting influenza from swine, and were generally not aware of national guidelines for influenza prevention. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) varied by task, N95 respirator use was rare, and no workers were enrolled in respirator programs. Reported influenza vaccination coverage was greater than the national average in 2009-2010, but declined in 2010-2011. Workers on large farms were more likely to use PPE in some tasks and to report using more precautions when pigs appeared ill. Although reporting low levels of concern regarding zoonotic influenza and low adherence to national influenza guidelines, swine workers reported making task-based and risk-based decisions about use of PPE, suggesting opportunities for enhanced prevention of zoonotic disease transmission.

  10. Justification for Selecting Level A vs. Level B Personal Protective Equipment to Remediate a Room Containing Concentrated Acids, Bases and Radiological Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J. M.; Thompson, A. L.; Walter, J. F.; Deecke, T. A.

    2002-02-25

    Selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is based on providing an adequate level of employee protection relative to the task-specific conditions and hazards. PPE is categorized into four ensembles, based on the degree of protection afforded; e.g., Levels A (most restrictive), B, C, and D (least restrictive). What is often overlooked in preparing an ensemble is that the PPE itself can create significant worker hazards; i.e., the greater the level of PPE, the greater the associated risks. Furthermore, there is confusion as to whether a more ''conservative approach'' should always be taken since Level B provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but less skin protection. This paper summarizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations addressing Level A versus Level B, and provides justification for selecting Level B over Level A without under-protecting the employee during a particular remediation scenario. The scenario consisted of an entry team performing (1) an initial entry into a room containing concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid), bases, and radiological constituents; (2) sampling and characterizing container contents; and (3) retrieving characterized containers. The invasive nature of the hydrofluoric acid sampling and characterization scenario created a high potential for splash, immersion, and exposure to hazardous vapors, requiring additional skin protection. The hazards associated with this scenario and the chemical nature of hydrofluoric acid provided qualitative evidence to justify Level A. Once the hydrofluoric acid was removed from the room, PPE performance was evaluated against the remaining chemical inventory. If chemical breakthrough from direct contact was not expected to occur and instrument readings confirmed the absence of any hazardous vapors, additional skin protection afforded by wearing a vapor-tight, totally-encapsulated suit was not required. Therefore, PPE performance and

  11. Free energy of mixing of acetone and methanol: a computer simulation investigation.

    PubMed

    Idrissi, Abdenacer; Polok, Kamil; Barj, Mohammed; Marekha, Bogdan; Kiselev, Mikhail; Jedlovszky, Pál

    2013-12-19

    The change of the Helmholtz free energy, internal energy, and entropy accompanying the mixing of acetone and methanol is calculated in the entire composition range by the method of thermodynamic integration using three different potential model combinations of the two compounds. In the first system, both molecules are described by the OPLS, and in the second system, both molecules are described by the original TraPPE force field, whereas in the third system a modified version of the TraPPE potential is used for acetone in combination with the original TraPPE model of methanol. The results reveal that, in contrast with the acetone-water system, all of these three model combinations are able to reproduce the full miscibility of acetone and methanol, although the thermodynamic driving force of this mixing is very small. It is also seen, in accordance with the finding of former structural analyses, that the mixing of the two components is driven by the entropy term corresponding to the ideal mixing, which is large enough to overcompensate the effect of the energy increase and entropy loss due to the interaction of the unlike components in the mixtures. Among the three model combinations, the use of the original TraPPE model of methanol and modified TraPPE model of acetone turns out to be clearly the best in this respect, as it is able to reproduce the experimental free energy, internal energy, and entropy of mixing values within 0.15 kJ/mol, 0.2 kJ/mol, and 1 J/(mol K), respectively, in the entire composition range. The success of this model combination originates from the fact that the use of the modified TraPPE model of acetone instead of the original one in these mixtures improves the reproduction of the entropy of mixing, while it retains the ability of the original model of excellently reproducing the internal energy of mixing.

  12. Zoonotic disease risk and prevention practices among biologists and other wildlife workers--results from a national survey, US National Park Service, 2009.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Stacey A; Musgrave, Karl; Wong, David

    2013-07-01

    In 2007, a National Park Service (NPS) biologist died from pneumonic plague after unprotected exposure to an infected mountain lion. This incident increased awareness of occupational zoonotic disease transmission and prompted an assessment of employees who handle wildlife. During April-June 2009, we conducted a national online survey of NPS biologists and other wildlife workers to assess in the preceding 12 mo: 1) potential work-related zoonotic disease exposures; 2) protective practices, including use of personal protective equipment (PPE); and 3) barriers and facilitators to PPE use. Summary protective measure scores were calculated and compared with sociodemographic and work-related factors. Surveys were completed by 238 employees from 131 parks in all NPS regions. Seventy-one percent were biologists or technicians, 16% natural resource specialists or managers, and 13% had other job titles. Among a majority of respondents, interactions with animals were infrequent and occurred approximately several times per year as follows: handling live (39%), sick (43%), or dead animals (46%), and drawing blood from animals (42%). The most frequently reported protective measures used were hand hygiene and gloves. Commonly agreed-upon measures that would facilitate PPE use included having PPE stocked and readily available (92%) and having specific PPE kits for use during necropsies (91%) and in remote field settings (91%). Significantly higher summary protective measure scores were found if respondents had either read or reviewed "NPS safe work practices for employees handling wildlife" with their supervisor, had zoonotic disease safety or PPE use included in their employee performance appraisal plans, or had conducted a job-hazard analysis for handling wildlife. Ninety (38%) respondents reported receiving zoonotic disease training. Our findings support the development and implementation of workplace interventions to increase zoonotic disease awareness and promote a culture of

  13. Zoonotic disease risk and prevention practices among biologists and other wildlife workers--results from a national survey, US National Park Service, 2009.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Stacey A; Musgrave, Karl; Wong, David

    2013-07-01

    In 2007, a National Park Service (NPS) biologist died from pneumonic plague after unprotected exposure to an infected mountain lion. This incident increased awareness of occupational zoonotic disease transmission and prompted an assessment of employees who handle wildlife. During April-June 2009, we conducted a national online survey of NPS biologists and other wildlife workers to assess in the preceding 12 mo: 1) potential work-related zoonotic disease exposures; 2) protective practices, including use of personal protective equipment (PPE); and 3) barriers and facilitators to PPE use. Summary protective measure scores were calculated and compared with sociodemographic and work-related factors. Surveys were completed by 238 employees from 131 parks in all NPS regions. Seventy-one percent were biologists or technicians, 16% natural resource specialists or managers, and 13% had other job titles. Among a majority of respondents, interactions with animals were infrequent and occurred approximately several times per year as follows: handling live (39%), sick (43%), or dead animals (46%), and drawing blood from animals (42%). The most frequently reported protective measures used were hand hygiene and gloves. Commonly agreed-upon measures that would facilitate PPE use included having PPE stocked and readily available (92%) and having specific PPE kits for use during necropsies (91%) and in remote field settings (91%). Significantly higher summary protective measure scores were found if respondents had either read or reviewed "NPS safe work practices for employees handling wildlife" with their supervisor, had zoonotic disease safety or PPE use included in their employee performance appraisal plans, or had conducted a job-hazard analysis for handling wildlife. Ninety (38%) respondents reported receiving zoonotic disease training. Our findings support the development and implementation of workplace interventions to increase zoonotic disease awareness and promote a culture of

  14. Transcriptional regulation of cranial sensory placode development

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Cranial sensory placodes derive from discrete patches of the head ectoderm, and give rise to numerous sensory structures. During gastrulation, a specialized “neural border zone” forms around the neural plate in response to interactions between the neural and non-neural ectoderm and signals from adjacent mesodermal and/or endodermal tissues. This zone subsequently gives rise to two distinct precursor populations of the peripheral nervous system: the neural crest and the pre-placodal ectoderm (PPE). The PPE is a common field from which all cranial sensory placodes arise (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, lens, trigeminal, epibranchial, otic). Members of the Six family of transcription factors are major regulators of PPE specification, in partnership with co-factor proteins such as Eya. Six gene activity also maintains tissue boundaries between the PPE, neural crest and epidermis by repressing genes that specify the fates of those adjacent ectodermally-derived domains. As the embryo acquires anterior-posterior identity, the PPE becomes transcriptionally regionalized, and it subsequently subdivides into specific placodes with distinct developmental fates in response to signaling from adjacent tissues. Each placode is characterized by a unique transcriptional program that leads to the differentiation of highly specialized cells, such as neurosecretory cells, somatic sensory receptor cells, chemosensory neurons, peripheral glia and supporting cells. In this review, we summarize the transcriptional and signaling factors that regulate key steps of placode development, influence subsequent sensory neuron specification, and discuss what is known about mutations in some of the essential PPE genes that underlie human congenital syndromes. PMID:25662264

  15. Photoinduced stiffening and photoplastic effect of ZnS individual nanobelt in nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, X. J.; Yu, G. C.; Chen, Y. Q.; Mao, S. X.; Zhang, T.

    2010-11-15

    The photoinduced stiffening (PIS) and photoplastic effect (PPE) of ZnS individual nanobelt (NB) were observed by using a nanoindenter in conjunction with an incident ultraviolet (UV) light source system. The results show that the elastic modulus and hardness of ZnS individual NB under UV illumination are at least 32% and 20% larger than those in darkness. The mechanisms of PIS and PPE are interpreted by the increase in electronic strain and Peierls barrier due to the photogeneration of free carriers in ZnS individual NB. The research may offer useful guidelines to the application of optoelectronic devices based on individual nanostructures.

  16. Volatile Organic Compounds Off-gassing from Firefighters' Personal Protective Equipment Ensembles after Use.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Evans, Douglas E; Booher, Donald; Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Horn, Gavin P; Dalton, James

    2015-01-01

    Firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) ensembles will become contaminated with various compounds during firefighting. Some of these compounds will off-gas following a response, which could result in inhalation exposure. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated during controlled structure burns that subsequently off-gassed from the firefighters' PPE, and were systemically absorbed and exhaled in firefighters' breath. Three crews of five firefighters performed entry, suppression, and overhaul during a controlled burn. We used evacuated canisters to sample air inside the burn structure during active fire and overhaul. After each burn, we placed PPE from two firefighters inside clean enclosures and sampled the air using evacuated canisters over 15 min. Firefighters' exhaled breath was collected ∼1 hr before and 4-14 min after each burn. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the evacuated canister samples were analyzed for 64 VOCs and the exhaled breath samples were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene (BTEXS). Fourteen of the same VOCs were detected off-gassing from PPE in 50% or more of the samples. Compared to background levels, we measured >5 fold increases in mean off-gas concentrations of styrene, benzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, acetone, and cyclohexane. Several of the compounds detected off-gassing from PPE were also measured at concentrations above background during active fire and overhaul, including benzene, propene, and styrene. The overhaul and off-gas air concentrations were well below applicable short-term occupational exposure limits. Compared to pre-burn levels, we measured >2 fold increases in mean breath concentrations of benzene, toluene, and styrene after the burns. Air concentrations of BTEXS measured off-gassing from firefighters' used PPE and in firefighters' post-burn exhaled breath were significantly correlated. The firefighters

  17. Environmental effects of poly(phenylene ether) blends after long-term exposure to potable hot water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Steven

    In recent years, engineering thermoplastic resins have been contemplated for use in a variety pressurized fluid handling components such as potable water delivery pipes, fitting and valves. In this research, rigid blends of glassy poly(phenylene ether) (PPE) polymer are studied to assess their suitability in long-term, potable, hot water environments. Three distinct PPE-based model compounds were prepared for this research: (i) a 50/50 blend of PPE and high impact polystyrene (HIPS); (ii) a 50/50 blend of PPE and HIPS with the inclusion of an anti-oxidant package and; (iii) a blend consisting of capped PPE, crystal polystyrene and styrene-ethyelene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) rubber. A fourth engineering thermoplastic, namely bisphenol-A polysulfone (PSU), was incorporated into the study as a benchmark material due to its proven reliability in hot water applications. Aging experiments were carried out for 8,000 hours in an 80°C water bath and an 80°C convection oven to characterize physical property retention and degradation mechanisms in each material. During water bath immersion, excessive, non-Fickian water diffusion occurred in both PPE/HIPS blends which led to water clustering and disc shaped microcavities on the order of 50 to 100 mum in diameter. These voids in the bulk caused appreciable losses in tensile elongation and fatigue resistance. The capped PPE/PS/SEBS blend, however, managed water uptake more effectively and its chemistry deterred water clustering. With further improvements to the formulation, such as larger rubber domains or an alternative impact modifier, the capped PPE blend may be able to offer physical property retention equal to that of PSU. With the exception of slight craze formation at sharp specimen edges during hot water immersion, the PSU material proved to be an exceptional material candidate throughout the entire experimentation. Surprisingly long-term hot water exposure did not cause gross chemical degradation in any of the materials

  18. Social factors in occupational health: a history of hard hats.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Beth; Levenstein, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) is the least desirable way to ensure workplace safety, and it is difficult to use consistently. Hard hats are different; they have cachet and are often worn even when they are not required. We investigated the history of this personal protective equipment to see if there were any lessons that could be applied to other forms of PPE. We learned that what makes hard hats special are social factors that are specific to a certain time and place. The importance of social factors illuminates the requirement that cultural and social norms of workers be included in any kind of worker safety and health training.

  19. Pesticides and Health in Vegetable Production in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Macharia, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of pesticide-related cost of illness (COI) and acute symptoms, using a balanced panel of 363 farmers interviewed from seven major vegetable producing districts of Kenya. Finding shows that the incidences of pesticide-related health impairments have increased. Variation in number of symptoms and symptom severity significantly explained COI. The personal protective equipment (PPE), education level, record keeping, and geographical location considerably determined health impairments. Encouraging the proper use of PPE and record keeping of pesticide use could greatly reduce poisoning cases and COI.

  20. Pesticides and Health in Vegetable Production in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Macharia, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of pesticide-related cost of illness (COI) and acute symptoms, using a balanced panel of 363 farmers interviewed from seven major vegetable producing districts of Kenya. Finding shows that the incidences of pesticide-related health impairments have increased. Variation in number of symptoms and symptom severity significantly explained COI. The personal protective equipment (PPE), education level, record keeping, and geographical location considerably determined health impairments. Encouraging the proper use of PPE and record keeping of pesticide use could greatly reduce poisoning cases and COI. PMID:26783515

  1. Examination of the protective roles of helmet/faceshield and directionality for human head under blast waves.

    PubMed

    Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Hesam; Jazi, Mehdi Salimi; Rezaei, Asghar; Karami, Ghodrat; Ziejewski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to delineate the efficacy of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as ballistic faceshields and advanced combat helmets, in the case of a blast. The propagations of blast waves and their interactions with an unprotected head, a helmeted one, and a fully protected finite element head model (FEHM) were modeled. The biomechanical parameters of the brain were recorded when the FEHM was exposed to shockwaves from the front, back, top, and bottom. The directional dependent tissue response of the brain and the variable efficiency of PPE with respect to the blast orientation were two major results of this study. PMID:25413615

  2. Three-dimensional accurate detection of lung emphysema in rats using ultra-short and zero echo time MRI.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Andrea; Tibiletti, Marta; Kjørstad, Åsmund; Birk, Gerald; Schad, Lothar R; Stierstorfer, Birgit; Rasche, Volker; Stiller, Detlef

    2015-11-01

    Emphysema is a life-threatening pathology that causes irreversible destruction of alveolar walls. In vivo imaging techniques play a fundamental role in the early non-invasive pre-clinical and clinical detection and longitudinal follow-up of this pathology. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using high resolution radial three-dimensional (3D) zero echo time (ZTE) and 3D ultra-short echo time (UTE) MRI to accurately detect lung pathomorphological changes in a rodent model of emphysema.Porcine pancreas elastase (PPE) was intratracheally administered to the rats to produce the emphysematous changes. 3D ZTE MRI, low and high definition 3D UTE MRI and micro-computed tomography images were acquired 4 weeks after the PPE challenge. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured in PPE-treated and control rats. T2* values were computed from low definition 3D UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements were made after euthanizing the animals. Both ZTE and UTE MR images showed a significant decrease in the SNR measured in PPE-treated lungs compared with controls, due to the pathomorphological changes taking place in the challenged lungs. A significant decrease in T2* values in PPE-challenged animals compared with controls was measured using UTE MRI. Histomorphometric measurements showed a significant increase in the mean linear intercept in PPE-treated lungs. UTE yielded significantly higher SNR compared with ZTE (14% and 30% higher in PPE-treated and non-PPE-treated lungs, respectively).This study showed that optimized 3D radial UTE and ZTE MRI can provide lung images of excellent quality, with high isotropic spatial resolution (400 µm) and SNR in parenchymal tissue (>25) and negligible motion artifacts in freely breathing animals. These techniques were shown to be useful non-invasive instruments to accurately and reliably detect the pathomorphological alterations taking place in emphysematous lungs, without incurring the risks of cumulative radiation

  3. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by 29 CFR 1910.134. ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by 29 CFR 1910.134. ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154...

  5. Diazobenzene-containing conjugated polymers as dark quenchers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiatao; Tan, Ying; Xie, Yonghua; Wu, Yi; Zhao, Rui; Jiang, Yuyang; Tan, Chunyan

    2013-12-18

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of new conjugated polymers (CPs) with alternating phenylethynylene and diazobenzene (azo-PPE) units were reported, which showed broadened absorption and no measurable fluorescence. Quenching studies showed that azo-PPEs displayed high efficiency over a wide wavelength range.

  6. A guide to the selection of personal protective equipment for use in responding to a release of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, C.B.

    1997-10-01

    Recognition by the US Army that a potential threat to the public from continued storage was potentially as great a threat as from transportation and the final demilitarization of chemical agents gave rise to the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). CSEPP is a civilian community emergency preparedness program complementing the Department of Defense`s initiative to destroy domestic stockpiles of aged chemical warface munitions. An incident involving chemical warfare agents requires a unique hazardous materials (HAZMAT) response. As with any HAZMAT event, federal regulations prescribe that responders must be protected from exposure to the chemical agents. But unlike other HAZMAT events, special considerations govern the selection of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE includes all clothing, respirators and detection equipment used to respond to a chemical release. PPE can differ depending on whether responders are military or civilian personnel. FEMA requested that ORNL create training materials for CSEPP participants. These training materials were to provide information on a variety of topics and answer questions that a typical CSEPP participant might ask, including the following: how did the Army select the CSEPP recommended ensemble (i.e., protective clothing, respiratory equipment, and detection equipment); how does the CSEPP participant know this ensemble is the right PPE for chemical warfare agents and will actually protect him; what are the concept of operations and work rules? Does one need to know what the CSEPP concept of operations and work rules include? This report describes the training document ORNL created.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice: effects of ambient existing particulate matters.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Koike, Eiko; Takano, Hirohisa

    2010-11-01

    Pulmonary exposure of rodents to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) induces lesions that morphologically resemble human panacinar emphysema. However, there has been little work on the comprehensive analysis of this model. The present study was designed to extensively examine the biological effects of PPE on inflammation, cell damage, emphysematous change, and cholinergic reactivity in the lungs of mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the disease model. Intratracheal administration of PPE induced (1) proinflammatory response in the lungs that was characterized by significant infiltration of leukocytes such as macrophages, eosinophils, and lymphocytes and an increased level of interleukin-1β in lung homogenates, (2) lung cell damage, indicated by higher levels of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in lung homogenates, (3) emphysema-related morphological changes including airspace enlargement and progressive destruction of alveolar wall structures, and (4) airway responsiveness to methacholine in the context of the compliance value of the respiratory system in a dose-dependent manner showing an overall trend. A single intratracheal administration of DEP did not significantly facilitate the hallmark of the disease. This is the first study to extensively analyze PPE-induced lung emphysema in mice with evaluation of the effects of DEP. Furthermore, this bioassay may be applied to future investigations that evaluate new therapeutic agents or risk factors for pulmonary emphysema.

  8. Photopyroelectric calorimetry of liquids; recent development and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadarlat, D.

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the main photopyroelectric (PPE) calorimetric techniques proposed in the last years for accurate measurements of dynamic thermal parameters of liquids. The area of interest is restricted to liquids because, due to the perfect sample-sensor thermal contact, accurate quantitative results can be obtained and consequently, intimate processes occurring in liquids (as molecular associations, structural changes in nanofluids, adulteration and spoilage of liquid foodstuffs, etc.) can be studied. The paper describes the possibilities offered by the two main used PPE detection configurations, “back” and “front”in investigating two dynamic thermal parameters: thermal diffusivity and effusivity. In the paper we analyzed only the information contained in the phase of the PPE signal, due to the fact that the phase, as a source of information, leads to more accurate results than the amplitude. A study of the accuracy of the investigations when using the chopping frequency, or sample’s thickness as scanning parameters is also made. Some basic applications concerning high-resolution measurements of thermal diffusivity and effusivity of some “special”liquid samples (magnetic nanofluids, adulterated vegetable oils) are described. A new possibility of using the thickness scan of the phase of the PPE signal of a liquid, in order to obtain the thermal parameters of a solid is analyzed.

  9. Incorporating the e-HIM[R] Virtual Lab into the Health Information Administration Professional Practice Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barefield, Amanda C.; Condon, Jim; McCuen, Charlotte; Sayles, Nanette B.

    2010-01-01

    This article will highlight the experiences of two baccalaureate Health Information Administration (HIA) programs in the adoption of the American Health Information Management Association's (AHIMA) e-HIM Virtual Laboratory (Virtual Lab) into the Professional Practice Experience (PPE). Information is provided describing the implementation of the…

  10. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by 29 CFR 1910.134. ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by 29 CFR 1910.134. ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154...

  12. A Review of Isolation Gowns in Healthcare: Fabric and Gown Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, F. Selcen

    2016-01-01

    The threat of emerging infectious diseases including Ebola hemorrhagic fever, pandemic influenza, avian influenza, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and SARS has highlighted the need for effective personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect healthcare workers (HCWs), patients, and visitors. PPE is a critical component in the hierarchy of controls used to protect HCWs from infectious hazards. HCW PPE may include gowns, respirators, face masks, gloves, eye protection, face shields, and head and shoe coverings. Important research has been conducted in certain areas, such as respirators and protective masks, but studies in other areas, particularly gowns, are scarce. Gowns are identified as the second-most-used piece of PPE, following gloves, in the healthcare setting. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Guideline for Isolation Precautions, isolation gowns should be worn to protect HCWs’ arms and exposed body areas during procedures and patient-care activities when anticipating contact with clothing, blood, bodily fluids, secretions and excretions. Isolation gowns currently available on the marketplace offer varying resistance to blood and other bodily fluids depending on the type of the material, its impermeability, and wear and tear. While some studies show no benefit of the routine use of isolation gowns, others demonstrate that its use is associated with a reduced infection rate. This paper reviews isolation gowns in healthcare settings, including the fabrics used, gown design and interfaces, as well as critical parameters that affect microorganism and liquid transmission through fabrics. PMID:26989351

  13. Syntheses and studies of acetylenic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Yiwei, Ding

    1994-03-03

    Based on new diiodo aryl compounds a series of novel soluble polymers, poly(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenyleneethynylene)s (PPE polymers) were synthesized using palladium-catalysis. The molecular weights (MW) range from 8,000 to 40,000. Properties such as absorption, fluorescence, and conductivity were studied. A PPE polymer with butoxy side chain exhibits a weak electrical conductivity ({sigma} = 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm) after doping with AsF{sub 5}. Absorption spectra in THF solution at room temperature (RT) show a maximum at 440 nm. However, absorption spectra of PPE polymers in the film state at (RT) show a maximum at 480 nm. PPE polymer-based light emitting diode (LED) devices have been prepared; greenish light from these LED devices can be observed. Poly(ethynylene-p-arylene-ethynylene-silylene)s were synthesized through the same palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs are between 6,000 and 82,000. Absorption and fluorescence were studied. Some of these polymers exhibit thermotropic liquid crystalline properties. In addition, nonlinear optical properties were briefly examined. Poly(silylene-ethynylene) homopolymers as well as alternating copolymers were synthesized through a novel palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs range from 56 {times} 10{sup 3} to 5.3 {times} 10{sup 3}. Thermal stability of these was also investigated; char yields range from 56 to 83%. One of these polymers exhibits thermotropic liquid crystalline properties.

  14. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire..., overheads, metal partitions, or sandwich-type construction may be ignited by conduction or radiation;...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire..., overheads, metal partitions, or sandwich-type construction may be ignited by conduction or radiation;...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire..., overheads, metal partitions, or sandwich-type construction may be ignited by conduction or radiation;...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire..., overheads, metal partitions, or sandwich-type construction may be ignited by conduction or radiation;...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.504 - Fire watches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personal protective equipment (PPE) that must be made available and worn as required by 29 CFR Part 1915... 29 CFR Part 1915, Subpart B, requires that a fire watch be posted. (c) Assigning employees to fire..., overheads, metal partitions, or sandwich-type construction may be ignited by conduction or radiation;...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.153 - Eye and face protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eye and face protection. 1915.153 Section 1915.153 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.153 Eye and face protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate eye or face protection where there are exposures to eye or...

  3. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  4. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected..., chemical burns, thermal burns, harmful temperature extremes, and sharp objects. (b) Hot work...

  5. Factors Surgical Team Members Perceive Influence Choices of Wearing or Not Wearing Personal Protective Equipment during Operative/Invasive Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuming, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to certain bloodborne pathogens can prematurely end a person's life. Healthcare workers (HCWs), especially those who are members of surgical teams, are at increased risk of exposure to these pathogens. The proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during operative/invasive procedures reduces that risk. Despite this, some HCWs fail…

  6. Milker’s nodule - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Adriano, André Ricardo; Quiroz, Carlos Daniel; Acosta, Martha Liliana; Jeunon, Thiago; Bonini, Flávia

    2015-01-01

    Milker's nodule is an occupational viral skin disease of universal distribution, caused by the Paravaccinia virus and that occurs in individuals who deal with dairy cattle herds. We describe a case acquired due to lack of use of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) and perform a literature review. PMID:26131876

  7. Nebulized Isotonic Saline versus Water following a Laryngeal Desiccation Challenge in Classically Trained Sopranos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Muntz, Faye; Houtz, Daniel R.; Sauder, Cara; Elstad, Mark; Wright-Costa, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of nebulized isotonic saline (IS) versus sterile water (SW) on self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) and phonation threshold pressure (PTP) following a surface laryngeal dehydration challenge in classically trained sopranos. Method: In a double-blind, within-subject crossover design, 34 sopranos breathed dry air…

  8. The Effects of Three Nebulized Osmotic Agents in the Dry Larynx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Elstad, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation examined the effects of nebulized hypertonic saline, isotonic saline (IS), and sterile (hypotonic) water on phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) following a surface laryngeal dehydration challenge. Method: In a double-blind, randomized experimental trial, 60 vocally healthy women…

  9. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each...

  11. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part IV--Property, Plant, & Equipment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This fourth article in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course is dedicated to the topic of property, plant, and equipment (PP&E), including both the accounting treatment and its related conceptual connections. The paper also addresses the measurement dilemmas, scandalous accounting…

  12. Hypoxia facilitates neurogenic dural plasma protein extravasation in mice: a novel animal model for migraine pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Hunfeld, Anika; Segelcke, Daniel; Bäcker, Ingo; Mecheri, Badreddine; Hemmer, Kathrin; Dlugosch, Elisabeth; Andriske, Michael; Paris, Frank; Zhu, Xinran; Lübbert, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Migraine animal models generally mimic the onset of attacks and acute treatment processes. A guinea pig model used the application of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) to trigger immediate dural plasma protein extravasation (PPE) mediated by 5-HT2B receptors. This model has predictive value for antimigraine drugs but cannot explain the delayed onset of efficacy of 5-HT2B receptor antagonists when clinically used for migraine prophylaxis. We found that mCPP failed to induce dural PPE in mice. Considering the role 5-HT2B receptors play in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vessel muscularization, we were encouraged to keep mice under hypoxic conditions and tested whether this treatment will render them susceptible to mCPP-induced dural PPE. Following four-week of hypoxia, PPE, associated with increased transendothelial transport, was induced by mCPP. The effect was blocked by sumatriptan. Chronic application of 5-HT2B receptor or nitric oxide synthase blockers during hypoxia prevented the development of susceptibility. Here we present a migraine model that distinguishes between a migraine-like state (hypoxic mice) and normal, normoxic mice and mimics processes that are related to chronic activation of 5-HT2B receptors under hypoxia. It seems striking, that chronic endogenous activation of 5-HT2B receptors is crucial for the sensitization since 5-HT2B receptor antagonists have strong, albeit delayed migraine prophylactic efficacy. PMID:26644235

  13. A process of informed consent for student learning through peer physical examination in pelvic floor physiotherapy practice.

    PubMed

    Delany, Clare; Frawley, Helena

    2012-03-01

    Peer physical examination (PPE) is a method of teaching and learning clinical skills in which students use fellow students as surrogate patients or models. PPE is recognised as useful as an experiential learning method to increase skill development for physiotherapy clinical practice. However students may feel pressured to participate despite discomfort and embarrassment when practising physical examination and treatment skills with their peers. Obtaining students' informed consent to participate in PPE is an important process to address these disadvantages of PPE. This paper proposes a three stage process for obtaining informed consent from postgraduate physiotherapy students learning pelvic floor examination and treatment skills. The process is designed to encourage educators to articulate the ethical issues that are relevant in this area of teaching; to provide information to students to enable them to understand what is involved and to choose to participate, and to offer alternatives to participation through a formalised process of informed consent. These steps mirror students' future obligations and actions when communicating with their patients.

  14. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.156 Foot protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears protective footwear when working in areas where there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or...

  19. Predicting Student Achievement with the Education Production-Function and Per-Pupil Expenditure: Synthesizing Regression Models from 1968-1994

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Therese D.; Williams, Ryan T.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Wu-Bohanon, Meng-Jia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research to investigate the heterogeneity of per-pupil expenditure (PPE) slope estimates in predicting student achievement. The research question guiding this project is: how does the measured relationship between per-pupil expenditure vary across studies that use different models? In concert with SREE's 2012 conference mission…

  20. 29 CFR 1915.160 - Positioning device systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Positioning device systems. 1915.160 Section 1915.160 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.160 Positioning device systems. Positioning device systems and their use shall conform to... (22.24 Kn). (3) Positioning device systems shall be secured to an anchorage capable of supporting...

  1. Evolutionary genomics place the origin of Wolbachia in nematodes, not arthropods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wolbachia, the most widely studied endosymbiont in arthropods, is a target for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases (malaria and dengue virus), and antibiotic elimination of infectious filarial nematodes. We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a new strain (wPpe) in the plant-parasitic nem...

  2. A Physical Education Program for Preschoolers of All Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Julienne K.; Randall, Lynn M.

    2002-01-01

    Preschool physical education (PPE) that integrates developmentally appropriate activities can benefit children of all abilities. The paper presents a multi-task activity, Trails in the Jungle, that has been used successfully by children of varying abilities. Trails in the Jungle incorporates different types of movement as well as imagination and…

  3. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.155 Head protection. (a) Use. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.155 Head protection. (a) Use. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.155 Head protection. (a) Use. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.155 Head protection. (a) Use. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.155 Head protection. (a) Use. (1) The employer shall ensure that each affected employee wears a protective helmet when working in areas where there is a potential for injury to the head...

  8. Evidence for Adverse Phonatory Change Following an Inhaled Combination Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Voice problems are reported as a frequent side effect of inhaled combination (IC) treatments. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate whether IC treatments are detrimental to phonation. We hypothesized that IC treatment would significantly increase phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and perceived phonatory effort (PPE),…

  9. TCAP Scores and per Pupil Expenditures: Statewide Changes before and after Tennessee's First to the Top Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Martha Ely

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the changes in Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) scores and the changes in Per Pupil Expenditures (PPE) after the enactment of "First to the Top Act of 2010" and the receipt of $501,000,000 in federal Race to the Top (RTTT) grant monies. Half of that…

  10. 75 FR 28861 - Walking-Working Surfaces and Personal Protective Equipment (Fall Protection Systems)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... FR 47660) on April 10, 1990, and republished in the Federal Register on May 2, 2003 (69 FR 23528... (38 FR 24300). In April 1976, OSHA withdrew the 1973 proposal (41 FR 17227) because it was outdated..., OSHA updated other portions of the PPE standard (59 FR 16334) by adding new requirements for...

  11. Polyphenol-rich extract of pomegranate peel alleviates tissue inflammation and hypercholesterolaemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice: potential implication of the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Van Hée, Vincent F; Bindels, Laure B; De Backer, Fabienne; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-03-14

    Pomegranate extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine to confer health benefits in a number of inflammatory diseases, microbial infections and cancer. Peel fruit are rich in polyphenols that exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities in vitro. Recent studies strongly suggest that the gut microbiota is an environmental factor to be taken into account when assessing the risk factors related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the prebiotic potency of a pomegranate peel extract (PPE) rich in polyphenols in a nutritional model of obesity associated with hypercholesterolaemia and inflammatory disorders. Balb/c mice were fed either a control diet or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without PPE (6 mg/d per mouse) over a period of 4 weeks. Interestingly, PPE supplementation increased caecal content weight and caecal pool of bifidobacteria. It did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycaemia, glucose tolerance and inflammatory markers measured in the serum. However, it reduced the serum level of cholesterol (total and LDL) induced by HF feeding. Furthermore, it counteracted the HF-induced expression of inflammatory markers both in the colon and the visceral adipose tissue. Together, these findings support that pomegranate constitutes a promising food in the control of atherogenic and inflammatory disorders associated with diet-induced obesity. Knowing the poor bioavailability of pomegranate polyphenols, its bifidogenic effect observed after PPE consumption suggests the involvement of the gut microbiota in the management of host metabolism by polyphenolic compounds present in pomegranate. PMID:22676910

  12. Material structure-composite morphology-photovoltaic performance relationship for organic bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Troshin, Pavel A; Mukhacheva, Olga A; Goryachev, Andrey E; Dremova, Nadezhda N; Voylov, Dmitry; Ulbricht, Christoph; Egbe, Daniel A M; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Razumov, Vladimir F

    2012-10-01

    Conjugated PPV-PPE copolymer has been investigated in organic solar cells in combination with twelve different fullerene derivatives. It was shown that the length of solubilizing alkyl chains in the fullerene derivative structures correlates well with the performance of photovoltaic cells.

  13. Medical Students' Attitudes towards Peer Physical Examination: Findings from an International Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Charlotte E.; Wearn, Andy M.; Vnuk, Anna K.; Sato, Toshio J.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies have begun to shed light on medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination (PPE), they have been conducted at single sites, and have generally not examined changes in medical students' attitudes over time. Employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, the current study examines medical students' attitudes…

  14. Unoccupied electronic structure and molecular orientation of rubrene; from evaporated films to single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueba, T.; Park, J.; Terawaki, R.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamada, T.; Munakata, T.

    2016-07-01

    Two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) have been performed for rubrene single crystals and evaporated thin films on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The changes in the 2PPE intensity from the single crystals by the polarization of the light and by the angle of the light incident plane against the crystalline axes indicate that the molecular arrangement on the surface is similar to that in the bulk crystal. On the other hand, in the case of evaporated films, the polarization dependence of 2PPE indicates that the tetracene backbone becomes standing upright as the thickness increases. In spite of the alignment of molecules, the broadened 2PPE spectral features for thick films suggest that the films are amorphous and molecules are in largely different environments. The film structures are confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) derived levels of the single crystal are shifted by + 0.18 and - 0.20 eV, respectively, from those of the 0.8 ML film. The shifts are attributed to the packing density of molecules. It is shown that the unoccupied electronic structure is more sensitively affected by the film structure than the occupied electronic structure.

  15. Surface decontamination and quality enhancement in meat steaks using plant extracts as natural biopreservatives.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Moussa, Shaaban H; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M

    2012-08-01

    Nine plant extracts were evaluated as biopreservatives to decontaminate and maintain the quality of meat steaks. Most of the extracts exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant strains from Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. The pomegranate peel extract (PPE), cinnamon bark extract (CBE), and lemon grass leaves extract (LGE) were the most effective as bactericides, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 250, 350, and 550 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective treatments, for decontaminating meat steak surfaces, were the application of combined PPE, CBE, and LGE at their MIC values and the treatment with double MIC from PPE; these treatments resulted in complete bacterial inhibitions during the first 2 days of storage period for 7 days. The sensory evaluation of treated steaks revealed that these two treatments had the highest panelist overall scores. The highest scores, for individual attributes, were observed in the treated steaks with double MIC from PPE. Application of plant extracts could be impressively recommended for comprehensive meat decontamination and quality attributes enhancement. PMID:22827400

  16. Distribution and chemical coding of intramural neurons in the porcine ileum during proliferative enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Pidsudko, Z; Kaleczyc, J; Wasowicz, K; Sienkiewicz, W; Majewski, M; Zajac, W; Lakomy, M

    2008-01-01

    Enteric neurons are highly adaptive in their response to various pathological processes including inflammation, so the aim of this study was to describe the chemical coding of neurons in the ileal intramural ganglia in porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE). Accordingly, juvenile Large White Polish pigs with clinically diagnosed Lawsonia intracellularis infection (PPE; n=3) and a group of uninfected controls (C; n=3) were studied. Ileal tissue from each animal was processed for dual-labelling immunofluorescence using antiserum specific for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) in combination with antiserum to one of: vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide Y (NPY) or galanin (GAL). In infected pigs, enteric neurons were found in ganglia located within three intramural plexuses: inner submucosal (ISP), outer submucosal (OSP) and myenteric (MP). Immunofluorescence labelling revealed increases in the number of neurons containing GAL, SOM, VIP and CGRP in pigs with PPE. Neuropeptides may therefore have an important role in the function of porcine enteric local nerve circuits under pathological conditions, when the nervous system is stressed, challenged or afflicted by disease such as PPE. However, further studies are required to determine the exact physiological relevance of the observed adaptive changes. PMID:18061202

  17. Identification of a Non-Pentapeptide Region Associated with Rapid Mycobacterial Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Warholm, Per; Light, Sara

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of the coding capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is devoted to the production of proteins containing several copies of the pentapeptide-2 repeat, namely the PE/PPE_MPTR proteins. Protein domain repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. They are not as common in prokaryotes, compared to eukaryotes, but the enrichment of pentapeptide-2 repeats in Mycobacteria constitutes an exception to that rule. The genes encoding the PE/PPE_MPTR proteins have undergone many rearrangements and here we have identified the expansion patterns across the Mycobacteria. We have performed a reclassification of the PE/PPE_MPTR proteins using cohesive regions rather than sparse domain architectures. It is clear that these proteins have undergone large insertions of several pentapeptide-2 domains appearing adjacent to one another in a repetitive pattern. Further, we have identified a non-pentapeptide motif associated with rapid mycobacterial evolution. The sequence composition of this region suggests a different structure compared to pentapeptide-2 repeats. By studying the evolution of the PE/PPE_MPTR proteins, we have distinguished features pertaining to tuberculosis-inducing species. Further studies of the non-pentapeptide region associated with repeat expansions promises to shed light on the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:27149271

  18. Kinetic and structural analysis of fluorescent peptides on cotton cellulose nanocrystals as elastase sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) are serine proteases that have been associated with destructive proteolytic activity when their levels are elevated in chronic diseases. Thus there is considerable interest in the development of elastase sensors. Nanocyrsta...

  19. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    PubMed

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy. PMID:25434530

  20. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.157 - Hand and body protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand and body protection. 1915.157 Section 1915.157 Labor... (PPE) § 1915.157 Hand and body protection. (a) Use. The employer shall ensure that each affected employee uses appropriate hand protection and other protective clothing where there is exposure to...

  2. Three-dimensional soft tissue change after paranasal augmentation with porous polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Kwon, T-G; Kang, S-M; Hwang, H-D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of porous polyethylene (PPE) in paranasal augmentation on midfacial soft tissue architecture. This retrospective study recruited patients with midface retrusion and mandibular prognathism. Twenty adult patients who had undergone bilateral PPE augmentation (ready-made type, thickness 4.5mm, Medpor) to the piriform aperture and simultaneous mandibular setback surgery were included in this study. The soft tissue morphology and thickness of the midface were evaluated using three-dimensional reformatted images from cone beam computed tomography done before and 6 months after surgery. The soft tissue outline of the midface was augmented 1-4mm. The average increase in soft tissue outline near the peri-alar region was 3.1-3.4mm, which comprised 68-74% of the PPE thickness (P<0.01). The nasolabial angle and columellar inclination were increased significantly (2.2° and 1.4°, respectively; both P<0.05), whereas the nasal tip angle, nasal tip protrusion, columellar length, and bilateral nostril axis angle did not change. The alar base became wider on average by 2.2mm (P<0.01). The results showed that paranasal augmentation with PPE significantly increased the overlying soft tissue outline without influencing the nasal projection and could enhance paranasal aesthetics with minimal morbidity.

  3. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing... section, to use PPE (exception: training in the use of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems training is covered in §§ 1915.159 and 1915.160). Each employee shall be trained to understand...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing... section, to use PPE (exception: training in the use of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems training is covered in §§ 1915.159 and 1915.160). Each employee shall be trained to understand...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing... section, to use PPE (exception: training in the use of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems training is covered in §§ 1915.159 and 1915.160). Each employee shall be trained to understand...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.152 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system, including protective clothing... section, to use PPE (exception: training in the use of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems training is covered in §§ 1915.159 and 1915.160). Each employee shall be trained to understand...

  7. 78 FR 16539 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Personal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... equipment (PPE) for the eyes, face, head, extremities, torso, and respiratory system whenever workers are... shields, protective barriers, life-saving equipment, personal fall arrest systems, and positioning device systems that meet the applicable provisions of the subpart. This ICR covers hazard assessment...

  8. Crystallization of porcine pancreatic elastase and a preliminary neutron diffraction experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Tamada, Taro; Imai, Keisuke; Kurihara, Kazuo; Ohhara, Takashi; Tada, Toshiji; Kuroki, Ryota

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the structural characteristics of a covalent inhibitor bound to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), including H atoms and hydration by water, a crystal of porcine pancreatic elastase with its inhibitor was grown to a size of 1.6 mm{sup 3} for neutron diffraction study. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination owing to the similar atomic scattering properties of deuterium and carbon. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) resembles the attractive drug target leukocyte elastase, which has been implicated in a number of inflammatory disorders. In order to investigate the structural characteristics of a covalent inhibitor bound to PPE, including H atoms and the hydration by water, a single crystal of PPE for neutron diffraction study was grown in D{sub 2}O containing 0.2 M sodium sulfate (pD 5.0) using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal was grown to a size of 1.6 mm{sup 3} by repeated macroseeding. Neutron diffraction data were collected at room temperature using a BIX-3 diffractometer at the JRR-3 research reactor of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The data set was integrated and scaled to 2.3 Å resolution in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.2, b = 57.8, c = 75.6 Å.

  9. Using Observational Assessment to Help Identify Factors Associated with Parent Participation Engagement in Community-Based Child Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadnick, Nicole A.; Haine-Schlagel, Rachel; Martinez, Jonathan I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parent engagement in child mental health (MH) services has received growing attention due to its significance in intervention outcomes and evidence-based care. In particular, parent participation engagement (PPE) reflects active and responsive contributions in and between sessions. Yet, limited research has examined factors associated…

  10. Evaluation of various static in vitro-in vivo extrapolation models for risk assessment of the CYP3A inhibition potential of an investigational drug.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Md L T; Kirby, B; Ragueneau-Majlessi, I; Galetin, A; Chien, J Y L; Einolf, H J; Fahmi, O A; Fischer, V; Fretland, A; Grime, K; Hall, S D; Higgs, R; Plowchalk, D; Riley, R; Seibert, E; Skordos, K; Snoeys, J; Venkatakrishnan, K; Waterhouse, T; Obach, R S; Berglund, E G; Zhang, L; Zhao, P; Reynolds, K S; Huang, S-M

    2014-02-01

    Nine static models (seven basic and two mechanistic) and their respective cutoff values used for predicting cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibition, as recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency, were evaluated using data from 119 clinical studies with orally administered midazolam as a substrate. Positive predictive error (PPE) and negative predictive error (NPE) rates were used to assess model performance, based on a cutoff of 1.25-fold change in midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by inhibitor. For reversible inhibition, basic models using total or unbound systemic inhibitor concentration [I] had high NPE rates (46-47%), whereas those using intestinal luminal ([I]gut) values had no NPE but a higher PPE. All basic models for time-dependent inhibition had no NPE and reasonable PPE rates (15-18%). Mechanistic static models that incorporate all interaction mechanisms and organ specific [I] values (enterocyte and hepatic inlet) provided a higher predictive precision, a slightly increased NPE, and a reasonable PPE. Various cutoffs for predicting the likelihood of CYP3A inhibition were evaluated for mechanistic models, and a cutoff of 1.25-fold change in midazolam AUC appears appropriate. PMID:24048277

  11. Etiology and risk factors associated with a pruritic papular eruption in people living with HIV in India

    PubMed Central

    Farsani, Terry T; Kore, Sachin; Nadol, Patrick; Ramam, Mandalaparthy; Thierman, Sara J; Leslie, Kieron; Chandrasekar, Chockalingam; Sikhamani, Rajasekaran; Manoharan, Gurusamy; Kubba, Asha; Maurer, Toby A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Papulopruritic eruption (PPE) occurs in people living with HIV in India. Understanding the risk factors associated with this disease may help decrease the prevalence of PPE. Methods This study was a case-control study performed at the Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine, a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, India. Cases included HIV-positive, antiretroviral (ARV) therapy-naïve adults experiencing a pruritic skin eruption for longer than one month, with evidence of multiple papular or nodular lesions and biopsy consistent with arthropod bite. Controls included HIV-positive, ARV-naïve patients without active skin rash. Main outcome measures were CD4 cell count, histology, and environmental exposures. We performed statistical analysis using Epi Info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 11.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Categorical variables such as gender, urban versus rural residence, occupation, treatment history, CD4 count, use of insect repellents, and environmental exposures were evaluated using the χ2 test (or the Fisher exact test when an expected value for a category was less than 5). The t-test was used to evaluate differences in age and the duration since HIV diagnosis. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare non-normally distributed values such as CD4 cell count. A p-value that was less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Forty-one cases and 149 control subjects were included. Subjects with PPE had significantly lower CD4 cell counts compared to controls (225.5 cells/µL vs. 425 cells/µL; p=0.0001). Sixty-six percent of cases had a CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/µL. PPE cases were less likely to use mosquito repellent techniques (odds ratio 2.81, CI = 1.45–5.45). Discussion PPE may be an altered and exaggerated immune response to arthropod bites in HIV-positive patients. CD4 cell count is significantly lower in patients with PPE, and therefore it may be considered a qualifying clinical finding for ARV

  12. Polar Desolvation and Position 226 of Pancreatic and Neutrophil Elastases Are Crucial to their Affinity for the Kunitz-Type Inhibitors ShPI-1 and ShPI-1/K13L.

    PubMed

    Hernández González, Jorge Enrique; García-Fernández, Rossana; Valiente, Pedro Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The Kunitz-type protease inhibitor ShPI-1 inhibits human neutrophil elastase (HNE, Ki = 2.35·10-8 M) but does not interact with the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE); whereas its P1 site variant, ShPI-1/K13L, inhibits both HNE and PPE (Ki = 1.3·10-9 M, and Ki = 1.2·10-8 M, respectively). By employing a combination of molecular modeling tools, e.g., structural alignment, molecular dynamics simulations and Molecular Mechanics Generalized-Born/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area free energy calculations, we showed that D226 of HNE plays a critical role in the interaction of this enzyme with ShPI-1 through the formation of a strong salt bridge and hydrogen bonds with K13 at the inhibitor's P1 site, which compensate the unfavorable polar-desolvation penalty of the latter residue. Conversely, T226 of PPE is unable to establish strong interactions with K13, thereby precluding the insertion of K13 side-chain into the S1 subsite of this enzyme. An alternative conformation of K13 site-chain placed at the entrance of the S1 subsite of PPE, similar to that observed in the crystal structure of ShPI-1 in complex with chymotrypsin (PDB: 3T62), is also unfavorable due to the lack of stabilizing pair-wise interactions. In addition, our results suggest that the higher affinity of ShPI-1/K13L for both elastases mainly arises from the lower polar-desolvation penalty of L13 compared to that of K13, and not from stronger pair-wise interactions of the former residue with those of each enzyme. These results provide insights into the PPE and HNE inhibition and may contribute to the design of more potent and/or specific inhibitors toward one of these proteases. PMID:26372354

  13. Efficacy of topical formulations containing Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Campanini, Marcela Z; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Ivan, Ana L M; Ferreira, Vitor S; Vilela, Fernanda M P; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Martinez, Renata M; Zarpelon, Ana C; Fonseca, Maria J V; Faria, Terezinha J; Baracat, Marcela M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Georgetti, Sandra R; Casagrande, Rúbia

    2013-10-01

    Plants rich in antioxidant substances may be a promising strategy for preventing UV-induced oxidative and inflammatory damage of the skin. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus is native to Brazil and presents flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds in high concentration. Thus, the present study evaluated the possible effects of topical formulations containing P. pseudocaryophyllus ethanolic extract (PPE) at inhibiting UV-B irradiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. PPE was administered on the dorsal skin of hairless mice using two formulations: F1 (non-ionic emulsion with high lipid content) and F2 (anionic emulsion with low lipid content) before and after UV-B irradiation. The following parameters were evaluated in skin samples: edema, myeloperoxidase activity, cytokines levels, matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) secretion/activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation levels, and mRNA expression for glutathione reductase and gp91phox. The UV-B irradiation increased all parameters, except for IL-10 levels and glutathione reductase mRNA expression, which were not altered, and GSH levels, which were reduced by exposure to UV-B light. Treatments with F1 and F2 containing PPE inhibited UV-B-induced edema formation (89% and 86%), myeloperoxidase activity (85% and 81%), IL-1β production (62% and 82%), MMP-9 activity (71% and 74%), GSH depletion (73% and 85%), superoxide anion (83% and 66%) and TBARS (100% and 100%) levels, increased glutathione reductase (2.54 and 2.55-fold) and reduced gp91phox (67% and 100%) mRNA expression, respectively. F2 containing PPE also increased IL-10 levels. Therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of topical formulations containing PPE in inhibiting UV-B irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of the skin.

  14. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disorders Among Iranian Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shahin; Moradi Shahpar, Farhad; Norouzi, Gholamreza; Ghazalian, Farshad; Poursaid Esfehani, Mehrshad; Abedi Yekta, Amir Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletes’ health is an important issue and for promoting it, pre-participation examination (PPE) is widely performed by responsible bodies around the world. Objectives This study was to determine prevalence of cardiovascular disorders among athletes participating in the Asian games and answering the question whether the electrocardiogram (ECG) is a necessary part of pre-participation examination (PPE) for prevention of sudden cardiac death. Materials and Methods All athletes participated at Asian games came to sports medicine federation for a PPE including a comprehensive questionnaire, physical examination and ECG. In this retrospective study all profiles of 338 athletes have been studied as well as their electrocardiograms. Multiple logistic regressions as well as Firth’s bias reduction were used with R statistical software and SPSS. For predicting the changes in ECG, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve has done. Results Among 388 athletes, 80 (20.6%) were female and 308 (79.4%) male with mean age of 23.2 + 8 years. Nine athletes (2.3%) were smokers, 28 of them (7.2%) experienced chest pain and discomfort, 45 of them (13.3%) had palpitations and 28 (7.2%) had history of anemia. Study of their electrocardiograms showed that long Q-T interval was not seen for anyone, but evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy was seen in 12 (3.1%), inverted T wave in 6 (1.5%), and right bundle branch block in 45 (13.3%). Conclusions PPE provides very important information of athletes’ health. This study has shown that there was not any significant relation between current examination and electrocardiogram changes but regarding the ECG changes we recommend it as a routine part of PPE. PMID:27625762

  15. Substituent effects on the reaction rates of hydrogen abstraction in the pyrolysis of phenethyl phenyl ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Beste, Ariana; Buchanan III, A C

    2010-01-01

    We report reaction profiles and forward rate constants for hydrogen abstraction reactions occurring in the pyrolysis of methoxy-substituted derivatives of phenethyl phenyl ether (PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh, PPE), where the substituents are located on the aryl ether ring (PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh-X). We use density functional theory in combination with transition-state theory, and anharmonic corrections are included within the independent mode approximation. PPE is the simplest model of the abundant {beta}-O-4 linkage in lignin. The mechanism of PPE pyrolysis and overall product selectivities have been studied experimentally by one of us, which was followed by computational analysis of key individual hydrogen-transfer reaction steps. In the previous work, we have been able to use a simplified kinetic model based on quasi-steady-state conditions to reproduce experimental {alpha}/{beta} selectivities for PPE and PPEs with substituents on the phenethyl ring (X-PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh). This model is not applicable to PPE derivatives where methoxy substituents are located on the phenyl ring adjacent to the ether oxygen because of the strongly endothermic character of the hydrogen abstraction by substituted phenoxy radicals as well as the decreased kinetic chain lengths resulting from enhanced rates of the initial C?O homolysis step. Substituents decelerate the hydrogen abstraction by the phenoxy radical, while the influence on the benzyl abstraction is less homogeneous. The calculations provide insight into the contributions of steric and polar effects in these important hydrogen-transfer steps. We emphasize the importance of an exhaustive conformational space search to calculate rate constants and product selectivities. The computed rate constants will be used in future work to numerically simulate the pyrolysis mechanism, pending the calculation of the rate constants of all participating reactions.

  16. Disease Risk Perception and Safety Practices: A Survey of Australian Flying Fox Rehabilitators

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Cecilia A.; Baker, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions with flying foxes pose disease transmission risks to volunteer rehabilitators (carers) who treat injured, ill, and orphaned bats. In particular, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) can be transmitted directly from flying foxes to humans in Australia. Personal protective equipment (PPE) and rabies vaccination can be used to protect against lyssavirus infection. During May and June 2014, active Australian flying fox carers participated in an online survey (SOAR: Survey Of Australian flying fox Rehabilitators) designed to gather demographic data, assess perceptions of disease risk, and explore safety practices. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed thematically. A logistic regression was performed to assess whether rehabilitators’ gender, use of PPE, threat perception, and years of experience predicted variation in their odds of being bitten or scratched. Eligible responses were received from 122 rehabilitators located predominantly on the eastern coast of Australia. Eighty-four percent of respondents were female. Years of experience ranged from <1 to 30 years (median 5 years). Respondents were highly educated. All rehabilitators were vaccinated against rabies and 94% received a rabies titre check at least every two years. Sixty-three percent of carers did not perceive viruses in flying foxes as a potential threat to their health, yet 74% of carers reported using PPE when handling flying foxes. Eighty-three percent of rehabilitators had received a flying fox bite or scratch at some point during their career. Carers provide an important community service by rescuing and rehabilitating flying foxes. While rehabilitators in this study have many excellent safety practices, including a 100% vaccination rate against rabies, there is room for improvement in PPE use. We recommend 1) the establishment of an Australia-wide set of guidelines for safety when caring for bats and 2) that the responsible government agencies in Australia support carers who

  17. Polar Desolvation and Position 226 of Pancreatic and Neutrophil Elastases Are Crucial to their Affinity for the Kunitz-Type Inhibitors ShPI-1 and ShPI-1/K13L

    PubMed Central

    Hernández González, Jorge Enrique; García-Fernández, Rossana; Valiente, Pedro Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The Kunitz-type protease inhibitor ShPI-1 inhibits human neutrophil elastase (HNE, Ki = 2.35·10−8 M) but does not interact with the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE); whereas its P1 site variant, ShPI-1/K13L, inhibits both HNE and PPE (Ki = 1.3·10−9 M, and Ki = 1.2·10−8 M, respectively). By employing a combination of molecular modeling tools, e.g., structural alignment, molecular dynamics simulations and Molecular Mechanics Generalized-Born/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area free energy calculations, we showed that D226 of HNE plays a critical role in the interaction of this enzyme with ShPI-1 through the formation of a strong salt bridge and hydrogen bonds with K13 at the inhibitor’s P1 site, which compensate the unfavorable polar-desolvation penalty of the latter residue. Conversely, T226 of PPE is unable to establish strong interactions with K13, thereby precluding the insertion of K13 side-chain into the S1 subsite of this enzyme. An alternative conformation of K13 site-chain placed at the entrance of the S1 subsite of PPE, similar to that observed in the crystal structure of ShPI-1 in complex with chymotrypsin (PDB: 3T62), is also unfavorable due to the lack of stabilizing pair-wise interactions. In addition, our results suggest that the higher affinity of ShPI-1/K13L for both elastases mainly arises from the lower polar-desolvation penalty of L13 compared to that of K13, and not from stronger pair-wise interactions of the former residue with those of each enzyme. These results provide insights into the PPE and HNE inhibition and may contribute to the design of more potent and/or specific inhibitors toward one of these proteases. PMID:26372354

  18. The influence of salinity on tropical Atlantic instability waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tong; Lagerloef, Gary; Kao, Hsun-Ying; McPhaden, Michael J.; Willis, Joshua; Gierach, Michelle M.

    2014-12-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) data derived from the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite mission are analyzed along with other satellite and in situ data to assess Aquarius' capability to detect tropical instability waves (TIWs) and eddies in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and to investigate the influence that SSS has on the variability. Aquarius data show that the magnitude of SSS anomalies associated with the Atlantic TIWs is ±0.25 practical salinity unit, which is weaker than those in the Pacific by 50%. In the central equatorial Atlantic, SSS contribution to the mean meridional density gradient is similar to sea surface temperature (SST) contribution. Consequently, SSS is important to TIW-related surface density anomalies and perturbation potential energy (PPE). In this region, SSS influences surface PPE significantly through the direct effect and the indirect effect associated with SSS-SST covariability. Ignoring SSS effects would underestimate TIW-related PPE by approximately three times in the surface layer. SSS also regulates the seasonality of the TIWs. The boreal-spring peak of the PPE due to SSS leads that due to SST by about one month. Therefore, SSS not only affects the spatial structure, but the seasonal variability of the TIWs in the equatorial Atlantic. In the northeast Atlantic near the Amazon outflow and the North Brazil Current retroflection region and in the southeast Atlantic near the Congo River outflow, SSS accounts for 80-90% of the contribution to mean meridional density gradient. Not accounting for SSS effect would underestimate surface PPE in these regions by a factor of 10 and 4, respectively.

  19. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disorders Among Iranian Elite Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shahin; Moradi Shahpar, Farhad; Norouzi, Gholamreza; Ghazalian, Farshad; Poursaid Esfehani, Mehrshad; Abedi Yekta, Amir Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background Athletes’ health is an important issue and for promoting it, pre-participation examination (PPE) is widely performed by responsible bodies around the world. Objectives This study was to determine prevalence of cardiovascular disorders among athletes participating in the Asian games and answering the question whether the electrocardiogram (ECG) is a necessary part of pre-participation examination (PPE) for prevention of sudden cardiac death. Materials and Methods All athletes participated at Asian games came to sports medicine federation for a PPE including a comprehensive questionnaire, physical examination and ECG. In this retrospective study all profiles of 338 athletes have been studied as well as their electrocardiograms. Multiple logistic regressions as well as Firth’s bias reduction were used with R statistical software and SPSS. For predicting the changes in ECG, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve has done. Results Among 388 athletes, 80 (20.6%) were female and 308 (79.4%) male with mean age of 23.2 + 8 years. Nine athletes (2.3%) were smokers, 28 of them (7.2%) experienced chest pain and discomfort, 45 of them (13.3%) had palpitations and 28 (7.2%) had history of anemia. Study of their electrocardiograms showed that long Q-T interval was not seen for anyone, but evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy was seen in 12 (3.1%), inverted T wave in 6 (1.5%), and right bundle branch block in 45 (13.3%). Conclusions PPE provides very important information of athletes’ health. This study has shown that there was not any significant relation between current examination and electrocardiogram changes but regarding the ECG changes we recommend it as a routine part of PPE.

  20. Disease Risk Perception and Safety Practices: A Survey of Australian Flying Fox Rehabilitators.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Cecilia A; Baker, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Interactions with flying foxes pose disease transmission risks to volunteer rehabilitators (carers) who treat injured, ill, and orphaned bats. In particular, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) can be transmitted directly from flying foxes to humans in Australia. Personal protective equipment (PPE) and rabies vaccination can be used to protect against lyssavirus infection. During May and June 2014, active Australian flying fox carers participated in an online survey (SOAR: Survey Of Australian flying fox Rehabilitators) designed to gather demographic data, assess perceptions of disease risk, and explore safety practices. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed thematically. A logistic regression was performed to assess whether rehabilitators' gender, use of PPE, threat perception, and years of experience predicted variation in their odds of being bitten or scratched. Eligible responses were received from 122 rehabilitators located predominantly on the eastern coast of Australia. Eighty-four percent of respondents were female. Years of experience ranged from <1 to 30 years (median 5 years). Respondents were highly educated. All rehabilitators were vaccinated against rabies and 94% received a rabies titre check at least every two years. Sixty-three percent of carers did not perceive viruses in flying foxes as a potential threat to their health, yet 74% of carers reported using PPE when handling flying foxes. Eighty-three percent of rehabilitators had received a flying fox bite or scratch at some point during their career. Carers provide an important community service by rescuing and rehabilitating flying foxes. While rehabilitators in this study have many excellent safety practices, including a 100% vaccination rate against rabies, there is room for improvement in PPE use. We recommend 1) the establishment of an Australia-wide set of guidelines for safety when caring for bats and 2) that the responsible government agencies in Australia support carers who rescue

  1. Characterizing adoption of precautionary risk management guidance for nanomaterials, an emerging occupational hazard.

    PubMed

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Dahm, Matthew M; Schulte, Paul A; Hodson, Laura; Geraci, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to engineered nanomaterials (substances with at least one dimension of 1-100 nm) has been of increased interest, with the recent growth in production and use of nanomaterials worldwide. Various organizations have recommended methods to minimize exposure to engineered nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate available data to examine the extent to which studied U.S. companies (which represent a small fraction of all companies using certain forms of engineered nanomaterials) follow the guidelines for reducing occupational exposures to engineered nanomaterials that have been issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and other organizations. Survey data, field reports, and field notes for all NIOSH nanomaterial exposure assessments conducted between 2006 and 2011 were collected and reviewed to: (1) determine the level of adoption of precautionary guidance on engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE), and (2) evaluate the reliability of companies' self-reported use of engineering controls and PPE. Use of PPE was observed among 89% [95% confidence interval (CI): 76%-96%] of 46 visited companies, and use of containment-based engineering controls for at least some processes was observed among 83% (95% CI: 76%-96%). In on-site evaluations, more than 90% of the 16 engineered carbonaceous nanomaterial companies that responded to an industrywide survey were observed to be using engineering controls and PPE as reported or more stringently than reported. Since PPE use was slightly more prevalent than engineering controls, better communication may be necessary to reinforce the importance of the hierarchy of controls. These findings may also be useful in conducting exposure assessment and epidemiologic research among U.S. workers handling nanomaterials.

  2. Basin-scale distribution patterns of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes along an Atlantic Meridional Transect.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Amy R; Jardillier, Ludwig E; Tiganescu, Ana; Pearman, John; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, David J

    2011-04-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) of a size < 3 µm play a crucial role in oceanic primary production. However, little is known of the structure of the PPE community over large spatial scales. Here, we investigated the distribution of various PPE classes along an Atlantic Meridional Transect sampled in boreal autumn 2004 that encompasses a range of ocean provinces (gyres, upwelling, temperate regions), using dot blot hybridization technology targeting plastid 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Two algal classes, Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae, dominated the PPE community throughout the Atlantic Ocean, over a range of water masses presenting different trophic profiles. However, these classes showed strongly complementary distributions with Chrysophyceae dominating northern temperate waters, the southern gyre and equatorial regions, while prymnesiophytes dominated the northern gyre. Phylogenetic analyses using both plastid and nuclear rRNA genes revealed a high diversity among members of both classes, including sequences contained in lineages with no close cultured counterpart. Other PPE classes were less prevalent along the transect, with members of the Cryptophyceae, Pelagophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae essentially restricted to specific regions. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed strong relationships between the distribution patterns of some of these latter PPE classes and temperature, light intensity and nutrient concentrations. Cryptophyceae, for example, were mostly found in the upwelling region and associated with higher nutrient concentrations. However, the key classes of Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae were not strongly influenced by the variables measured. Although there appeared to be a positive relationship between Chrysophyceae distribution and light intensity, the complementary distributions of these classes could not be explained by the variables recorded and this requires further explanation. PMID:21219562

  3. Hydrogen sulfide suicide: a new trend and threat to healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Ruder, John B; Ward, Jeanette G; Taylor, Scott; Giles, Karon; Higgins, Thomas; Haan, James M

    2015-01-01

    First popularized in Japan, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas suicide is an underreported form of suicide with known risk for secondary disaster. Mortality rate commonly exceeds 90% because of the gas's lethal, noncontained nature. Instances in the United States are increasing, up from 2 cases in 2008 to 18 in 2010. Because H2S poisonings remain rare, there exists a lack of knowledge regarding the residual effects of gas venting after victim extrication. Identifying instances of the efficacious use of personal protection equipment (PPE) is critical in the effort to alleviate risks faced by hospital and rescue personnel. The current case demonstrates the effective use of PPEs after prolonged H2S exposure. In 2011, a 20-year-old man threatened suicide using H2S gas inside a vehicle on a remote rural highway. First responders identified a "rotten egg smell" and subsequently experienced low poisoning symptoms. After prolonged Hazmat-assisted extrication (4 hours) the patient was unconscious and experiencing seizures. He was decontaminated on-scene (20 minutes) and transported to the closest hospital (22 minutes). Ambulance personnel who wore PPE and used the ambulance's reverse ventilation system (RVS)reported no adverse effects. The patient was transferred to the authors' burn facility by helicopter (38 minutes). Life-flight personnel, who did not wear PPE (no ventilatory system available), complained of watery eyes, headache, and dizziness. Hospital personnel, who did not use PPE (or RVS), complained of watery eyes or headache. Exposed personnel demonstrated no deficits or residual effects. In spite of spontaneous movement, the patient began to seize and died. This case is unique given the multiple primary and secondary H2S gas exposures involved. Exposed personnel without RVS and not using PPE demonstrated moderate H2S symptoms. PPE (self-contained breathing apparatuses) and RVS were shown to be effective during an H2S emergency; however, there are currently limited data

  4. Assessing the Relationship between Lung Density and Function with Oxygen-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Mouse Model of Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Zurek, Magdalena; Sladen, Louise; Johansson, Edvin; Olsson, Marita; Jackson, Sonya; Zhang, Hui; Mayer, Gaell; Hockings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A magnetic resonance imaging method is presented that allows for the simultaneous assessment of oxygen delivery, oxygen uptake, and parenchymal density. The technique is applied to a mouse model of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) induced lung emphysema in order to investigate how structural changes affect lung function. Method Nine-week-old female C57BL6 mice were instilled with saline or PPE at days 0 and 7. At day 19, oxygen delivery, oxygen uptake, and lung density were quantified from T1 and proton-density measurements obtained via oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OE-MRI) using an ultrashort echo-time imaging sequence. Subsequently, the lungs were sectioned for histological observation. Blood-gas analyses and pulmonary functional tests via FlexiVent were performed in separate cohorts. Principal Findings PPE-challenged mice had reduced density when assessed via MRI, consistent with the parenchyma loss observed in the histology sections, and an increased lung compliance was detected via FlexiVent. The oxygenation levels, as assessed via the blood-gas analysis, showed no difference between PPE-challenged animals and control. This finding was mirrored in the global MRI assessments of oxygen delivery and uptake, where the changes in relaxation time indices were matched between the groups. The heterogeneity of the same parameters however, were increased in PPE-challenged animals. When the oxygenation status was investigated in regions of varying density, a reduced oxygen-uptake was found in low-density regions of PPE-challenged mice. In high-density regions the uptake was higher than that of regions of corresponding density in control animals. The oxygen delivery was proportional to the oxygen uptake in both groups. Conclusions The proposed method allowed for the regional assessment of the relationship between lung density and two aspects of lung function, the oxygen delivery and uptake. When compared to global indices of lung function, an

  5. Hydrogen sulfide suicide: a new trend and threat to healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Ruder, John B; Ward, Jeanette G; Taylor, Scott; Giles, Karon; Higgins, Thomas; Haan, James M

    2015-01-01

    First popularized in Japan, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas suicide is an underreported form of suicide with known risk for secondary disaster. Mortality rate commonly exceeds 90% because of the gas's lethal, noncontained nature. Instances in the United States are increasing, up from 2 cases in 2008 to 18 in 2010. Because H2S poisonings remain rare, there exists a lack of knowledge regarding the residual effects of gas venting after victim extrication. Identifying instances of the efficacious use of personal protection equipment (PPE) is critical in the effort to alleviate risks faced by hospital and rescue personnel. The current case demonstrates the effective use of PPEs after prolonged H2S exposure. In 2011, a 20-year-old man threatened suicide using H2S gas inside a vehicle on a remote rural highway. First responders identified a "rotten egg smell" and subsequently experienced low poisoning symptoms. After prolonged Hazmat-assisted extrication (4 hours) the patient was unconscious and experiencing seizures. He was decontaminated on-scene (20 minutes) and transported to the closest hospital (22 minutes). Ambulance personnel who wore PPE and used the ambulance's reverse ventilation system (RVS)reported no adverse effects. The patient was transferred to the authors' burn facility by helicopter (38 minutes). Life-flight personnel, who did not wear PPE (no ventilatory system available), complained of watery eyes, headache, and dizziness. Hospital personnel, who did not use PPE (or RVS), complained of watery eyes or headache. Exposed personnel demonstrated no deficits or residual effects. In spite of spontaneous movement, the patient began to seize and died. This case is unique given the multiple primary and secondary H2S gas exposures involved. Exposed personnel without RVS and not using PPE demonstrated moderate H2S symptoms. PPE (self-contained breathing apparatuses) and RVS were shown to be effective during an H2S emergency; however, there are currently limited data

  6. Crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of porcine pancreatic elastase in complex with a novel inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tânia F; Mulchande, Jalmira; Moreira, Rui; Iley, Jim; Archer, Margarida

    2007-01-01

    Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) was crystallized in complex with a novel inhibitor at pH 5 and X-ray diffraction data were collected at a synchrotron source to 1.66 A. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit cell parameters a = 50.25 A, b = 57.94 A and c = 74.69 A. PPE is often used as model for drug target, due to its structural homology with the important therapeutic target human leukocyte elastase (HLE). Elastase is a serine protease that belongs to the chymotrypsin family, which has the ability to degrade elastin, an important component in connective tissues. Excessive elastin proteolysis leads to a number of pathological diseases. PMID:17266656

  7. A cascaded model of spectral distortions due to spectral response effects and pulse pileup effects in a photon-counting x-ray detector for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Cammin, Jochen E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Taguchi, Katsuyuki E-mail: ktaguchi@jhmi.edu; Xu, Jennifer; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hartsough, Neal E.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Energy discriminating, photon-counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology for computed tomography (CT) with various potential benefits for clinical CT. The photon energies measured by PCDs can be distorted due to the interactions of a photon with the detector and the interaction of multiple coincident photons. These effects result in distorted recorded x-ray spectra which may lead to artifacts in reconstructed CT images and inaccuracies in tissue identification. Model-based compensation techniques have the potential to account for the distortion effects. This approach requires only a small number of parameters and is applicable to a wide range of spectra and count rates, but it needs an accurate model of the spectral distortions occurring in PCDs. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of those spectral distortions and to evaluate the model using a PCD (model DXMCT-1; DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA) and various x-ray spectra in a wide range of count rates. Methods: The authors hypothesize that the complex phenomena of spectral distortions can be modeled by: (1) separating them into count-rate independent factors that we call the spectral response effects (SRE), and count-rate dependent factors that we call the pulse pileup effects (PPE), (2) developing separate models for SRE and PPE, and (3) cascading the SRE and PPE models into a combined SRE+PPE model that describes PCD distortions at both low and high count rates. The SRE model describes the probability distribution of the recorded spectrum, with a photo peak and a continuum tail, given the incident photon energy. Model parameters were obtained from calibration measurements with three radioisotopes and then interpolated linearly for other energies. The PPE model used was developed in the authors’ previous work [K. Taguchi et al., “Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects,” Med. Phys. 38(2), 1089–1102 (2011

  8. The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE), which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system. We collected the data under a 400-kV power line. The test person stood on isolated aluminum paper, and the current between the ground and the aluminum paper was measured. When the test subject wore the arc flash PPE, the current to the ground was only 9.5% of the current measured when wearing normal clothes, which represents a clear decrease in exposure. PMID:27669278

  9. Sonochemical proteinaceous microspheres for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel; Ferreira, Helena; Vasconcelos, Andreia; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we report a novel approach using proteinaceous microspheres of bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and silk fibroin (SF) containing different organic solvents, namely n-dodecane, mineral oil and vegetable oil, to reduce the activity of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) found in high levels on chronic wounds. The ability of these devices to inhibit HNE was evaluated using porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) solution as a model of wound exudates. The results obtained indicated that the level of PPE activity can be tuned by changing the organic solvent present on different protein microspheres, thus showing an innovative way of controlling the elastase-antielastase imbalance found in chronic wounds. Furthermore, these proteinaceous microspheres were shown to be important carriers of elastase inhibitors causing no cytotoxicity in human skin fibroblasts in vitro, making them suitable for biomedical applications, such as chronic wounds.

  10. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks. PMID:27263180

  11. Photoreduction of metal nanostructures on periodically proton exchanged MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Balobaid, Laila; Craig Carville, N.; Collins, Liam; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia

    2013-10-28

    Local reactivity on periodically proton exchanged lithium niobate (PPE:LN) surfaces is a promising route for the fabrication of regularly spaced nanostructures. Here, using MgO-doped PPE:LN templates, we investigate the influence of the doping on the nanostructure formation as a function of the proton exchange (PE) depth. The deposition is found to occur preferentially along the boundary between MgO-doped LN and the PE region when the PE depth is at least 1.73 μm, however, for shallower depths, deposition occurs across the entire PE region. The results are found to be consistent with an increased photoconductivity of the MgO-doped LN.

  12. Inverse analysis of water profile in starch by non-contact photopyroelectric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandas, A.; Duvaut, T.; Paris, D.

    2000-07-01

    The photopyroelectric (PPE) method in a non-contact configuration was proposed to study water migration in starch sheets used for biodegradable packaging. A 1-D theoretical model was developed, allowing the study of samples having a water profile characterized by an arbitrary continuous function. An experimental setup was designed or this purpose which included the choice of excitation source, detection of signals, signal and data processing, and cells for conditioning the samples. We report here the development of an inversion procedure allowing for the determination of the parameters that influence the PPE signal. This procedure led to the optimization of experimental conditions in order to identify the parameters related to the water profile in the sample, and to monitor the dynamics of the process.

  13. Rashba splitting in an image potential state investigated by circular dichroism two-photon photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, T.; Takagi, N.; Kawai, Maki; Ishida, H.; Arafune, R.

    2016-09-01

    We have explored the band splitting and spin texture of the image potential state (IPS) on Au(001) derived from the Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction (SOI) by using angle-resolved bichromatic two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectroscopy in combination with circular dichroism (CD). The Rashba parameter for the first (n =1 ) IPS is determined to be 48-20+8meV Å , which is consistent with the spin-polarized band structure calculated from the embedded Green's function technique for semi-infinite crystals. The present results demonstrate that bichromatic CD-2PPE spectroscopy is powerful for mapping the spin-polarized unoccupied band structures originating from SOIs in various classes of condensed matter.

  14. Thermal Properties of Biodiesel and Their Corresponding Precursor Vegetable Oils Obtained by Photopyroelectric Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, F. A. L.; Zanelato, E. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    The photopyroelectric technique (PPE) was used for thermal characterization of biodiesel and their corresponding precursor vegetable oils. Different configurations of PPE were applied in these studies. The standard and inverse configurations allowed the determination of the thermal diffusivity ( α) and thermal effusivity ( e), respectively. From these two parameters the thermal conductivity was calculated. Measurements were performed for reference samples (water and ethylene glycol), biodiesel, and some corresponding precursor vegetable oils. The experiments showed good reproducibility, with uncertainties around 1 % to 2 % for all the samples. Lower values for both α and e of the biodiesel when compared to their corresponding precursor vegetable oils were observed, indicating that these thermophysical properties were sensitive to structural changes during the transesterification process.

  15. Ethical, Legal, and Administrative Considerations for Preparticipation Evaluation for Wilderness Sports and Adventures.

    PubMed

    Young, Craig C; Campbell, Aaron D; Lemery, Jay; Young, David S

    2015-09-01

    Preparticipation evaluations (PPEs) are common in team, organized, or traditional sports but not common in wilderness sports or adventures. Regarding ethical, legal, and administrative considerations, the same principles can be used as in traditional sports. Clinicians should be trained to perform such a PPE to avoid missing essential components and to maximize the quality of the PPE. In general, participants' privacy should be observed; office-based settings may be best for professional and billing purposes, and adequate documentation of a complete evaluation, including clearance issues, should be essential components. Additional environmental and personal health issues relative to the wilderness activity should be documented, and referral for further screening should be made as deemed necessary, if unable to be performed by the primary clinician. Travel medicine principles should be incorporated, and recommendations for travel or adventure insurance should be made.

  16. Setting, Structure, and Timing of the Preparticipation Examination: The Wilderness Adventure Consultation.

    PubMed

    Green, Gary A

    2015-12-01

    Patients pursue wilderness experiences throughout the entire life cycle, and while outdoor pursuits are relatively safe, injuries do occur. Many of these adverse events can be anticipated, identified, and prevented through a wilderness preparticipation examination (PPE). To accomplish this, it is incumbent on the physician to assess the extrinsic and intrinsic factors faced by the patient and attempt to correct them to ensure an enjoyable experience in the outdoors. This article outlines the goals of the PPE along with identification of various risk factors that can influence a trip. Most injuries and rescues occur from underestimating the risks from extrinsic, environmental factors, and/or overestimating one's intrinsic skills. By matching the patient's fitness and skill level to the environment, the physician can help reduce the risk of serious injury.

  17. Setting, Structure, and Timing of the Preparticipation Examination: The Wilderness Adventure Consultation.

    PubMed

    Green, Gary A

    2015-09-01

    Patients pursue wilderness experiences throughout the entire life cycle, and while outdoor pursuits are relatively safe, injuries do occur. Many of these adverse events can be anticipated, identified, and prevented through a wilderness preparticipation examination (PPE). To accomplish this, it is incumbent on the physician to assess the extrinsic and intrinsic factors faced by the patient and attempt to correct them to ensure an enjoyable experience in the outdoors. This article outlines the goals of the PPE along with identification of various risk factors that can influence a trip. Most injuries and rescues occur from underestimating the risks from extrinsic, environmental factors, and/or overestimating one's intrinsic skills. By matching the patient's fitness and skill level to the environment, the physician can help reduce the risk of serious injury.

  18. Ethical, Legal, and Administrative Considerations for Preparticipation Evaluation for Wilderness Sports and Adventures.

    PubMed

    Young, Craig C; Campbell, Aaron D; Lemery, Jay; Young, David S

    2015-12-01

    Preparticipation evaluations (PPEs) are common in team, organized, or traditional sports but not common in wilderness sports or adventures. Regarding ethical, legal, and administrative considerations, the same principles can be used as in traditional sports. Clinicians should be trained to perform such a PPE to avoid missing essential components and to maximize the quality of the PPE. In general, participants' privacy should be observed; office-based settings may be best for professional and billing purposes, and adequate documentation of a complete evaluation, including clearance issues, should be essential components. Additional environmental and personal health issues relative to the wilderness activity should be documented, and referral for further screening should be made as deemed necessary, if unable to be performed by the primary clinician. Travel medicine principles should be incorporated, and recommendations for travel or adventure insurance should be made.

  19. Image potential states at chevron-shaped graphene nanoribbons /Au(111) interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, Christopher; Haase, Anton; Tegeder, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Image potential states (IPSs) have been observed for various adsorbed carbon structures, such as graphene or carbon nanotubes. Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are intriguing nanostructures with a significant band gap which promise applications in nanotechnology. In the present paper we employ two-photon photoemission (2PPE) to investigate the unoccupied electronic structure and particularly the IPS of chevron-shaped GNR which are synthesized in a thermally activated on-surface synthesis on Au(111). Angle- and time-resolved 2PPE are utilized to gain further insights into the properties of the IPS. Compared to the pristine surface, reduced effective masses between 0.6 and 0.8 electron masses are observed and the lifetimes of the IPS are below the experimental detection limit, which is in the femtosecond regime. Independent of the concentration of N dopant atoms introduced in the GNR we observe a constant binding energy with respect to the vacuum level of the system.

  20. Analysis of Maize Seed Germs by Photoacoustic Microscopy and Photopyroelectric Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, A. Domínguez; Aguilar, C. Hernández; Cruz-Orea, A.

    2013-05-01

    A knowledge about thermal parameters of structural components of maize seed is of great relevance in the seed technology practice. The objective of the present study was to determine the thermal effusivity of germs of maize ( Zea mays L.) of different genotypes by means of the photopyroelectric technique (PPE) in the inverse configuration and obtaining the thermal imaging of these samples by photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). Germs from crystalline maize (white pigment), semi-crystalline maize (yellow pigment), and floury maize (blue pigment) were used in this investigation. The results show differences between germs of maize seeds mainly in the values of their thermal effusivities. The thermal images showed minimum inhomogeneity of these seed germs. Characterizations of thermal parameters in seeds are important in agriculture and food production and could be particularly useful to define their quality and determine their utility. PPE and PAM can be considered as potential diagnostic tools for the characterization of agriculture seeds.

  1. Quantification of total pigments in citrus essential oils by thermal wave resonant cavity photopyroelectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Gerardo A; Antonio-Pérez, Aurora; Díaz-Reyes, J

    2015-05-01

    A general theory of thermal wave resonant cavity photopyroelectric spectroscopy (TWRC-PPE) was recently proposed by Balderas-López (2012) for the thermo-optical characterisation of substances in a condensed phase. This theory is used to quantify the total carotenoids and chlorophylls in several folded and un-folded citrus essential oils to demonstrate the viability of using this technique as an alternative analytical method for the quantification of total pigments in citrus oils. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) reveals significant differences (p < 0.05) among the means of optical absorption coefficient data for the folding degree and fruit type in citrus oils. The experimental results show that TWRC-PPE spectroscopy can be used to quantify concentrations up to five times higher of total carotenoids and chlorophylls in citrus oils than UV-Vis spectroscopy without sample preparation or dilution. The optical limits of this technique and possible interference are also described.

  2. Hazard Assessment of Personal Protective Clothing for Hydrogen Peroxide Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Ben; McClure, Mark B.; Johnson, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Selection of personal protective equipment (PPE) for hydrogen peroxide service is an important part of the hazard assessment process. But because drip testing of chemical protective clothing for hydrogen peroxide service has not been reported for about 40 years, it is of great interest to test new protective clothing materials with new, high-concentration hydrogen peroxide following similar procedures. The suitability of PPE for hydrogen peroxide service is in part determined by observations made when hydrogen peroxide is dripped onto swatches of protective clothing material. Protective clothing material was tested as received, in soiled condition, and in grossly soiled condition. Materials were soiled by pretreating the material with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution then drying to promote a reaction. Materials were grossly soiled with solid KMnO4 to greatly promote reaction. Observations of results including visual changes to the hydrogen peroxide and materials, times to ignition, and self-extinguishing characteristics of the materials are reported.

  3. A cascaded model of spectral distortions due to spectral response effects and pulse pileup effects in a photon-counting x-ray detector for CT

    PubMed Central

    Cammin, Jochen; Xu, Jennifer; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hartsough, Neal E.; Taguchi, Katsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Energy discriminating, photon-counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology for computed tomography (CT) with various potential benefits for clinical CT. The photon energies measured by PCDs can be distorted due to the interactions of a photon with the detector and the interaction of multiple coincident photons. These effects result in distorted recorded x-ray spectra which may lead to artifacts in reconstructed CT images and inaccuracies in tissue identification. Model-based compensation techniques have the potential to account for the distortion effects. This approach requires only a small number of parameters and is applicable to a wide range of spectra and count rates, but it needs an accurate model of the spectral distortions occurring in PCDs. The purpose of this study was to develop a model of those spectral distortions and to evaluate the model using a PCD (model DXMCT-1; DxRay, Inc., Northridge, CA) and various x-ray spectra in a wide range of count rates. Methods: The authors hypothesize that the complex phenomena of spectral distortions can be modeled by: (1) separating them into count-rate independent factors that we call the spectral response effects (SRE), and count-rate dependent factors that we call the pulse pileup effects (PPE), (2) developing separate models for SRE and PPE, and (3) cascading the SRE and PPE models into a combined SRE+PPE model that describes PCD distortions at both low and high count rates. The SRE model describes the probability distribution of the recorded spectrum, with a photo peak and a continuum tail, given the incident photon energy. Model parameters were obtained from calibration measurements with three radioisotopes and then interpolated linearly for other energies. The PPE model used was developed in the authors’ previous work [K. Taguchi , “Modeling the performance of a photon counting x-ray detector for CT: Energy response and pulse pileup effects,” Med. Phys. 38(2), 1089–1102 (2011)]. The

  4. Dielectric dispersion of BaxSr1-xTiO3 thin film with parallel-plate and coplanar interdigital electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Song, Qing; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Su; Wang, Peng; Ong, C. K.

    2009-03-01

    Ferroelectric BaxSr1-xTiO3 (BST) thin films with x = 0.25 and 0.5 were grown by pulsed laser deposition on single crystal LaAlO3 and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates, respectively. Capacitors were then fabricated from the BST thin films based on coplanar interdigital electrodes (CIEs) and parallel-plate electrodes (PPEs). The dielectric properties of the BST film with CIE and PPE were investigated and compared over a wide frequency range from 100 Hz to 10 GHz. The dielectric dispersion in PPE configuration, caused by the interfacial polarization in film/electrode interfaces, exhibited a strong dependence on frequency. However, the permittivity ɛCIE in CIE configuration shows a gentle variation with the frequency indicating interfacial polarization substantially suppressed. The influence upon the dielectric properties of the columnar BST grains due to the use of different forms of electrodes was discussed.

  5. Evaluation of Parkia pendula lectin mRNA differentially expressed in seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rêgo, M J B M; Santos, P B; Carvalho-Junior, L B; Stirling, J; Beltrão, E I C

    2014-05-01

    Parkia pendula (Willd.) Walp. (Fabaceae) is a neotropical species of the genus Parkia more abundantly distributed in Central to South America. From the seeds of P. pendula a glucose/mannose specific lectin (PpeL) was isolated that has been characterised and used as a biotechnological tool but until now this is the first manuscript to analyse P. pendula mRNA expression in seedlings. For this porpoise a Differential display reverse transcription polimerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of P. pendula lectin mRNAs in non-rooted seedlings. No bands were observed in the agarose gel, indicating the absence of mRNA of PpeL seedlings. our findings confirm that lectins mRNAs are differently regulated among species even if they are grouped in the same class. PMID:25166336

  6. Update: Causes and symptoms of sudden cardiac death in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Asif, Irfan M; Yim, Eugene S; Hoffman, Jacob M; Froelicher, Vic

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death during exercise. While initial reports suggested that the most common cause of SCD in young athletes was due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a critical review of investigations in several populations (athletes, non-athletes, military, national, and international) supports that the most common finding at autopsy of young individuals with SCD is actually a structurally normal heart (SNH). This information is vital for sports medicine clinicians, especially with regard to the pre-participation evaluation (PPE) since cardiac death associated with a SNH is likely attributed to disorders such as arrhythmia or ion channel diseases. This comprehensive review explores the causes of SCD, along with the symptoms preceding death, which ultimately may help refine the PPE and maximize the ability to detect potentially lethal disease prior to competition.

  7. Biomolecular simulations with the transferable potentials for phase equilibria: extension to phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Navendu; Kamath, Ganesh; Potoff, Jeffrey J

    2013-08-29

    The Transferable Potentials for Phase Equilibria (TraPPE) is extended to zwitterionic and charged lipids including phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). The performance of the force field is validated through isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NPT) molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated lipid bilayers performed with the aforementioned head groups combined with saturated and unsaturated alkyl tails containing 12-18 carbon atoms. The effects of water model and sodium ion parameters on the performance of the lipid force field are determined. The predictions of the TraPPE force field for the area per lipid, bilayer thickness, and volume per lipid are within 1-5% of experimental values. Key structural properties of the bilayer, such as order parameter splitting in the sn-2 chain and X-ray form factors, are found to be in close agreement with experimental data.

  8. Health and safety perception of workers in Turkey: a survey of construction sites.

    PubMed

    Ulubeyli, Serdar; Kazaz, Aynur; Er, Bayram

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the general health and safety (HS) conditions in the Turkish construction industry from the perspective of construction labor. Toward this aim, a questionnaire survey was carried out with 800 workers employed in 32 construction projects in Turkey. Contractors were found to neglect their legal liabilities in paying workers' insurance premiums. Also, they overlooked safety training and were reluctant to hiring physicians at construction sites and investing in personal protective equipment (PPE). As the real constructors of projects, workers did not attach adequate importance to occupational training. In addition, they were not willing to use some PPE. Key participants of HS affairs such as workers, contractors, unions, and government should comprehend their drawbacks to overcome the current dangerous view of the industry. In this regard, related government bodies should compel contractors and workers to adapt to the relatively new regulations on occupational HS.

  9. The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Korpinen, Leena; Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE), which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system. We collected the data under a 400-kV power line. The test person stood on isolated aluminum paper, and the current between the ground and the aluminum paper was measured. When the test subject wore the arc flash PPE, the current to the ground was only 9.5% of the current measured when wearing normal clothes, which represents a clear decrease in exposure. PMID:27669278

  10. Skin exposure: Assessing the hazard in the workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummins, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    An outline of the Occupational Safety and Health Agency's concerns of skin exposure to hazardous chemicals is presented, followed by the corresponding slide narrations. Specifically, dermatitis and skin absorption as compared to lung absorption are addressed. Lung versus skin exposure is examined for glycol ethers and acrylamide. Examples of skin exposure include PBC's in transformers, toluene and xylene from autobody work, polynuclear aromatics (PNA's) among Coke oven workers, toluene diisocyanate (TDI), and occupational chemical exposures in an academic medical center. Permeation through gloves in the semiconductor industry is addressed as evidence for the need to assess the effectiveness of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment). This leads to the revisions of the PPE standard and the Safety and Health Program standard.

  11. Data Sharing Report for the Quantification of Removable Activity in Various Surveillance and Maintenance Facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect

    King, David A

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OR-EM) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. Specifically, DOE OR-EM requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting potential removable radiological contamination that may be transferrable to future personal protective equipment (PPE) and contamination control materials—collectively referred to as PPE throughout the remainder of this report—used in certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Project facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Routine surveys in Bldgs. 3001, 3005, 3010, 3028, 3029, 3038, 3042, 3517, 4507, and 7500 continuously generate PPE. The waste is comprised of Tyvek coveralls, gloves, booties, Herculite, and other materials used to prevent worker exposure or the spread of contamination during routine maintenance and monitoring activities. This report describes the effort to collect and quantify removable activity that may be used by the ORNL S&M Project team to develop radiation instrumentation “screening criteria.” Material potentially containing removable activity was collected on smears, including both masselin large-area wipes (LAWs) and standard paper smears, and analyzed for site-related constituents (SRCs) in an analytical laboratory. The screening criteria, if approved, may be used to expedite waste disposition of relatively clean PPE. The ultimate objectives of this effort were to: 1) determine whether screening criteria can be developed for these facilities, and 2) provide process knowledge information for future site planners. The screening criteria, if calculated, must be formally approved by Federal Facility Agreement parties prior to use for

  12. Protein matrices for improved wound healing: elastase inhibition by a synthetic peptide model.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andreia; Pêgo, Ana Paula; Henriques, Lara; Lamghari, Meriem; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2010-09-13

    The unique properties of silk fibroin were combined with keratin to develop new wound-dressing materials. Silk fibroin/keratin (SF/K) films were prepared to reduce high levels of elastase found on chronic wounds. This improved biological function was achieved by the incorporation of a small peptide synthesized based on the reactive-site loop of the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI) protein. In vitro degradation and release were evaluated using porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) solution as a model of wound exudate. It was found that biological degradation and release rate are highly dependent on film composition. Furthermore, the level of PPE activity can be tuned by changing the film composition, thus showing an innovative way of controlling the elastase-antielastase imbalance found on chronic wounds.

  13. Ab initio study of the kinetics of hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin

    SciTech Connect

    Beste, Ariana; Britt, Phillip F; Buchanan III, A C; Harrison, Robert J; Hathorn, Bryan C

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen abstraction reactions play a key role in many thermal and catalytic processes involved in the production of fuels and chemicals. In this paper, the reaction barriers and rate constants for the hydrogen abstraction reactions on toluene and tetralin by the benzyl radical are calculated by ab initio methods. These reactions are representatives of similar reactions occurring in the thermolysis of lignin model compounds containing the phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) structural moiety. Thermolysis of PPE occurs by a free radical chain mechanism in which the product selectivity arises from competitive hydrogen abstraction at the benzylic and nonbenzylic methylen sites by chain carrying benzyl and phenoxyl radicals. The title reactions serve to calibrate the theoretical methods to be used in the study of PPE through comparison of the rate constants and the reaction enthalpies with reliable experimental values. In this study, we used two different hybrid density functionals (BHandHLYP, B3LYP) and second-order perturbation theory to obtain equilibrium and transition state geometries. Multiple transition states were found for both reactions. BHandHLYP underestimates and second-order perturbation theory overestimates the reaction barriers; B3LYP energy barriers agree well with experiment. Absolute and relative rate constants were calculated using transition state theory. We found that the relative rate constant using the B3LYP functional agrees within a factor of 2.0 with experiment at the experimental temperature of 333 K, indicating that the B3LYP functional will be successful in predicting relative rate constants for hydrogen abstraction reactions participating in the pyrolysis of PPE.

  14. Annexin V decreases PS-mediated macrophage efferocytosis and deteriorates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, S; Minematsu, N; Chubachi, S; Nakamura, H; Miyazaki, M; Tsuduki, K; Takahashi, S; Miyasho, T; Iwabuchi, T; Takamiya, R; Tateno, H; Mouded, M; Shapiro, S D; Asano, K; Betsuyaku, T

    2012-11-15

    Efferocytosis is believed to be a key regulator for lung inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study we pharmacologically inhibited efferocytosis with annexin V and attempted to determine its impact on the progression of pulmonary emphysema in mouse. We first demonstrated in vitro and in vivo efferocytosis experiments using annexin V, an inhibitor for phosphatidylserine-mediated efferocytosis. We then inhibited efferocytosis in porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-treated mice. PPE-treated mice were instilled annexin V intranasally starting from day 8 until day 20. Mean linear intercept (Lm) was measured, and cell apoptosis was assessed in lung specimen obtained on day 21. Cell profile, apoptosis, and mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and growth factors were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells on day 15. Annexin V attenuated macrophage efferocytosis both in vitro and in vivo. PPE-treated mice had a significant higher Lm, and annexin V further increased that by 32%. More number of macrophages was found in BAL fluid in this group. Interestingly, cell apoptosis was not increased by annexin V treatment both in lung specimens and BAL fluid, but macrophages from mice treated with both PPE and annexin V expressed higher MMP-2 mRNA levels and had a trend for higher MMP-12 mRNA expression. mRNA expression of keratinocyte growth factor tended to be downregulated. We showed that inhibited efferocytosis with annexin V worsened elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, which was, at least partly, attributed to a lack of phenotypic change in macrophages toward anti-inflammatory one.

  15. Adenoviral Transduction of Human Acid Sphingomyelinase into Neo-Angiogenic Endothelium Radiosensitizes Tumor Cure

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, John D.; Rotolo, Jimmy A.; García-Barros, Mónica; Feldman, Regina; Rao, Shyam; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Harats, Dror; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Fuks, Zvi; Sadelain, Michel; Kolesnick, Richard

    2013-01-01

    These studies define a new mechanism-based approach to radiosensitize tumor cure by single dose radiotherapy (SDRT). Published evidence indicates that SDRT induces acute microvascular endothelial apoptosis initiated via acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) translocation to the external plasma membrane. Ensuing microvascular damage regulates radiation lethality of tumor stem cell clonogens to effect tumor cure. Based on this biology, we engineered an ASMase-producing vector consisting of a modified pre-proendothelin-1 promoter, PPE1(3x), and a hypoxia-inducible dual-binding HIF-2α-Ets-1 enhancer element upstream of the asmase gene, inserted into a replication-deficient adenovirus yielding the vector Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x)-ASMase. This vector confers ASMase over-expression in cycling angiogenic endothelium in vitro and within tumors in vivo, with no detectable enhancement in endothelium of normal tissues that exhibit a minute fraction of cycling cells or in non-endothelial tumor or normal tissue cells. Intravenous pretreatment with Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x)-ASMase markedly increases SDRT cure of inherently radiosensitive MCA/129 fibrosarcomas, and converts radiation-incurable B16 melanomas into biopsy-proven tumor cures. In contrast, Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x)-ASMase treatment did not impact radiation damage to small intestinal crypts as non-dividing small intestinal microvessels did not overexpress ASMase and were not radiosensitized. We posit that combination of genetic up-regulation of tumor microvascular ASMase and SDRT provides therapeutic options for currently radiation-incurable human tumors. PMID:23936314

  16. Separable roles for Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESX-3 effectors in iron acquisition and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Tufariello, JoAnn M.; Chapman, Jessica R.; Kerantzas, Christopher A.; Wong, Ka-Wing; Vilchèze, Catherine; Jones, Christopher M.; Cole, Laura E.; Tinaztepe, Emir; Thompson, Victor; Fenyö, David; Niederweis, Michael; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Philips, Jennifer A.; Jacobs, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes five type VII secretion systems (T7SS), designated ESX-1–ESX-5, that are critical for growth and pathogenesis. The best characterized is ESX-1, which profoundly impacts host cell interactions. In contrast, the ESX-3 T7SS is implicated in metal homeostasis, but efforts to define its function have been limited by an inability to recover deletion mutants. We overcame this impediment using medium supplemented with various iron complexes to recover mutants with deletions encompassing select genes within esx-3 or the entire operon. The esx-3 mutants were defective in uptake of siderophore-bound iron and dramatically accumulated cell-associated mycobactin siderophores. Proteomic analyses of culture filtrate revealed that secretion of EsxG and EsxH was codependent and that EsxG–EsxH also facilitated secretion of several members of the proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) protein families (named for conserved PE and PPE N-terminal motifs). Substrates that depended on EsxG–EsxH for secretion included PE5, encoded within the esx-3 locus, and the evolutionarily related PE15–PPE20 encoded outside the esx-3 locus. In vivo characterization of the mutants unexpectedly showed that the ESX-3 secretion system plays both iron-dependent and -independent roles in Mtb pathogenesis. PE5–PPE4 was found to be critical for the siderophore-mediated iron-acquisition functions of ESX-3. The importance of this iron-acquisition function was dependent upon host genotype, suggesting a role for ESX-3 secretion in counteracting host defense mechanisms that restrict iron availability. Further, we demonstrate that the ESX-3 T7SS secretes certain effectors that are important for iron uptake while additional secreted effectors modulate virulence in an iron-independent fashion. PMID:26729876

  17. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis.

    PubMed

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Anna V; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-03-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity. PMID:26729798

  18. Converse mode piezoelectric coefficient for lead zirconate titanate thin film with interdigitated electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram, N.; Balma, D.; Nigon, R.; Mazzalai, A.; Matloub, R.; Sandu, C. S.; Muralt, P.

    2015-04-01

    The use of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) in conjunction with ferroelectric thin films shows many attractive features for piezoelectric MEMS applications. In this work, growth of {1 0 0}-textured lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films was achieved on insulating MgO buffered, oxidized silicon substrates. IDEs were fabricated by lift-off techniques and cantilevers were formed by dicing. The deflection upon application of a sweeping voltage was measured as large signal response in parallel to the ferroelectric polarization (PV loop). Likewise, the small signal piezoelectric response was measured in parallel to the capacitance-voltage (CV) measurement. In this way, a complete picture of the ferroelectric-piezoelectric element was obtained. From the deflection, the in-plane piezoelectric stress in the PZT thin film was derived and, from this, the effective piezoelectric coefficients. For the latter, two types were defined: an engineering type corresponding to the average value along the IDE, which can directly be compared to coefficient of a parallel plate electrode (PPE) capacitor and a second one that approximately yields the idealized coefficient governing between the electrode fingers. The IDE structures were experimentally compared with PPE structures of identical film thickness. The resulting coefficients were of opposite sign, as expected. In spite of a much better polarization loop, the IDE device showed a lower average piezoelectric stress. The estimated peak value between the fingers was about the same as in the PPE device, corresponding to about 20 C m-2. Nevertheless, the result is very promising for cases where compressive piezoelectric stresses are required and for preventing cracking due to large piezoelectric tensile stresses in PPE systems.

  19. Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers Containing cis-Phenylenevinylenes by Titanium Mediated Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Moslin, Ryan M.; Espino, Christine G.; Swager, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    The utility of Sato's titanium-mediated reduction of alkynes towards the synthesis of all cis-poly(phenylenevinylene)s (PPVs) is demonstrated by the syn-selective reduction of a variety of model diynes as well as a tetrayne. This technique was then applied to the reduction of a poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE) to provide the corresponding all-cis PPV polymer. PMID:20827441

  20. The effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on emergency airway management.

    PubMed

    Wong, Evelyn; Ho, Khoy Kheng

    2006-07-01

    From early March 2003 to late May 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was detected in Singapore. The increase in workload and new infection control procedures were thought to affect resuscitation and airway management. Our aim was to study the effects of wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) and the restriction in the number of resuscitation personnel on airway management during the SARS crisis. Data was collected prospectively through an ongoing emergency airway registry. The data was divided into three periods: (1) before PPE was instituted from 1 November 2002 to 31 March 2003; (2) during SARS (when PPE use was mandatory) from 1 April to 31 July 2003; (3) post-SARs (when PPE use was non-mandatory but encouraged) from 1 August to 31 March 2004. There was no change in patient demographics during the three periods. There were significant increases in the proportion of resuscitation cases and airway interventions during the SARS period compared to the pre-SARS period. The resident medical officer intubation rate decreased from 45.1% pre-SARS to 35.2% during SARS and 17.7% post-SARS. The complication rates were 10.5%, 9.9% and 9.4% in periods 1-3, respectively. Restriction in the number of healthcare staff attending to each patient may have influenced the department's decision to allow only the most confident or experienced personnel to manage the airway. The exposure of junior medical officers in emergency airway management during SARS and the immediate post-SARS period was decreased. This trend should be monitored further and intervention may be necessary should it continue to decline. PMID:16762480

  1. Characterization of the KOI-94 system with transit timing variation analysis: Implication for the planet-planet eclipse

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Kento; Taruya, Atsushi; Suto, Yasushi; Hirano, Teruyuki; Nagasawa, Makiko

    2013-12-01

    The KOI-94 system is a closely packed, multi-transiting planetary system discovered by the Kepler space telescope. It is known as the first system that exhibited a rare event called a 'planet-planet eclipse (PPE)', in which two planets partially overlap with each other in their double-transit phase. In this paper, we constrain the parameters of the KOI-94 system with an analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs). Such constraints are independent of the radial velocity (RV) analysis recently performed by Weiss and coworkers, and valuable in examining the reliability of the parameter estimate using TTVs. We numerically fit the observed TTVs of KOI-94c, KOI-94d, and KOI-94e for their masses, eccentricities, and longitudes of periastrons, and obtain the best-fit parameters including m{sub c}=9.4{sub −2.1}{sup +2.4} M{sub ⊕}, m{sub d}=52.1{sub −7.1}{sup +6.9} M{sub ⊕}, m{sub e}=13.0{sub −2.1}{sup +2.5} M{sub ⊕}, and e ≲ 0.1 for all the three planets. While these values are mostly in agreement with the RV result, the mass of KOI-94d estimated from the TTV is significantly smaller than the RV value m {sub d} = 106 ± 11 M {sub ⊕}. In addition, we find that the TTV of the outermost planet KOI-94e is not well reproduced in the current modeling. We also present analytic modeling of the PPE and derive a simple formula to reconstruct the mutual inclination of the two planets from the observed height, central time, and duration of the brightening caused by the PPE. Based on this model, the implication of the results of TTV analysis for the time of the next PPE is discussed.

  2. The Enigma of Progressively Partial Endoreplication: New Insights Provided by Flow Cytometry and Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hřibová, Eva; Holušová, Kateřina; Trávníček, Pavel; Petrovská, Beáta; Ponert, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Kubátová, Barbora; Jersáková, Jana; Čurn, Vladislav; Suda, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In many plant species, somatic cell differentiation is accompanied by endoreduplication, a process during which cells undergo one or more rounds of DNA replication cycles in the absence of mitosis, resulting in nuclei with multiples of 2C DNA amounts (4C, 8C, 16C, etc.). In some orchids, a disproportionate increase in nuclear DNA contents has been observed, where successive endoreduplication cycles result in DNA amounts 2C + P, 2C + 3P, 2C + 7P, etc., where P is the DNA content of the replicated part of the 2C nuclear genome. This unique phenomenon was termed “progressively partial endoreplication” (PPE). We investigated processes behind the PPE in Ludisia discolor using flow cytometry (FCM) and Illumina sequencing. In particular, we wanted to determine whether chromatin elimination or incomplete genome duplication was involved, and to identify types of DNA sequences that were affected. Cell cycle analysis of root tip cell nuclei pulse-labeled with EdU revealed two cell cycles, one ending above the population of nuclei with 2C + P content, and the other with a typical “horseshoe” pattern of S-phase nuclei ranging from 2C to 4C DNA contents. The process leading to nuclei with 2C + P amounts therefore involves incomplete genome replication. Subsequent Illumina sequencing of flow-sorted 2C and 2C + P nuclei showed that all types of repetitive DNA sequences were affected during PPE; a complete elimination of any specific type of repetitive DNA was not observed. We hypothesize that PPE is part of a highly controlled transition mechanism from proliferation phase to differentiation phase of plant tissue development. PMID:27324917

  3. The effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on emergency airway management.

    PubMed

    Wong, Evelyn; Ho, Khoy Kheng

    2006-07-01

    From early March 2003 to late May 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was detected in Singapore. The increase in workload and new infection control procedures were thought to affect resuscitation and airway management. Our aim was to study the effects of wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) and the restriction in the number of resuscitation personnel on airway management during the SARS crisis. Data was collected prospectively through an ongoing emergency airway registry. The data was divided into three periods: (1) before PPE was instituted from 1 November 2002 to 31 March 2003; (2) during SARS (when PPE use was mandatory) from 1 April to 31 July 2003; (3) post-SARs (when PPE use was non-mandatory but encouraged) from 1 August to 31 March 2004. There was no change in patient demographics during the three periods. There were significant increases in the proportion of resuscitation cases and airway interventions during the SARS period compared to the pre-SARS period. The resident medical officer intubation rate decreased from 45.1% pre-SARS to 35.2% during SARS and 17.7% post-SARS. The complication rates were 10.5%, 9.9% and 9.4% in periods 1-3, respectively. Restriction in the number of healthcare staff attending to each patient may have influenced the department's decision to allow only the most confident or experienced personnel to manage the airway. The exposure of junior medical officers in emergency airway management during SARS and the immediate post-SARS period was decreased. This trend should be monitored further and intervention may be necessary should it continue to decline.

  4. The proteins encoded by the Drosophila Planar Polarity Effector genes inturned, fuzzy and fritz interact physically and can re-pattern the accumulation of “upstream” Planar Cell Polarity proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Yan, Jie; Lee, Haeryun; Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    The frizzled/starry night pathway regulates planar cell polarity in a wide variety of tissues in many types of animals. It was discovered and has been most intensively studied in the Drosophila wing where it controls the formation of the array of distally pointing hairs that cover the wing. The pathway does this by restricting the activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal edge of wing cells. This results in hairs initiating at the distal edge and growing in the distal direction. All of the proteins encoded by genes in the pathway accumulate asymmetrically in wing cells. The pathway is a hierarchy with the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) genes (aka the core genes) functioning as a group upstream of the Planar Polarity Effector (PPE) genes which in turn function as a group upstream of multiple wing hairs. Upstream proteins, such as Frizzled accumulate on either the distal and/or proximal edges of wing cells. Downstream PPE proteins accumulate on the proximal edge under the instruction of the upstream proteins. A variety of types of data support this hierarchy, however, we have found that when over expressed the PPE proteins can alter both the subcellular location and level of accumulation of the upstream proteins. Thus, the epistatic relationship is context dependent. We further show that the PPE proteins interact physically and can modulate the accumulation of each other in wing cells. We also find that over expression of Frtz results in a marked delay in hair initiation suggesting that it has a separate role/activity in regulating the cytoskeleton that is not shared by other members of the group. PMID:25072625

  5. The potential role of Punica granatum treatment on murine malaria-induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hafiz, Taghreed A; Mubaraki, Murad A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2016-04-01

    Malaria is a health burden disease where the world harnessed the power of expertise and innovation to understand the biology of the parasite and the pathogenesis of the disease as well as to discover effective drugs. However, the treatment of malaria remains a challenging task and inadequate to address today's perplexing problem, the emergence of resistant strains. Historically, traditional medicine has been a mainstay for remediation and still retains its importance with the presence of potent natural products. Pomegranate has been used as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory against a range of diseases. Therefore, pomegranate peel extract (PPE) was used in this study to examine its effect on Plasmodium chabaudi-induced hepatic inflammation. Animals were allocated into three groups: a vehicle control group, a group infected with 10(6) P. chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes and a pomegranate-treated group infected with 10(6) P. chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes. This group received 100 μl of 300 mg/kg PPE after infection. The results showed the effectiveness of PPE on reversing the anaemic signs that have been provoked by P. chabaudi infection through instating the haemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte count back to normal values. Moreover, PPE exhibited hepatoprotective activities upon histopathological examination and liver function tests. These data were further confirmed by the significant reduction of the hepatic oxidative markers, glutathione, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, in mice infected with P. chabaudi. Based on these outcomes, pomegranate could be used as a hepatoprotective agent against P. chabaudi-induced hepatic injury. However, further studies are needed in order to determine the mode of action of pomegranate upon infection. PMID:26670312

  6. Nosocomial poisoning associated with emergency department treatment of organophosphate toxicity--Georgia, 2000.

    PubMed

    Geller, R J; Singleton, K L; Tarantino, M L; Drenzek, C L; Toomey, K E

    2001-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) staff caring for patients contaminated with toxic chemicals are at risk for developing toxicity from secondary contamination. This report describes three cases of occupational illnesses associated with organophosphate toxicity caused by exposure to a contaminated patient and underscores the importance of using personal protection equipment (PPE) and establishing and following decontamination procedures in EDs and other areas of acute care hospitals. PMID:11327219

  7. Nosocomial poisoning associated with emergency department treatment of organophosphate toxicity--Georgia, 2000.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) staff caring for patients contaminated with toxic chemicals are at risk for developing toxicity from secondary contamination. This report describes three cases of occupational illnesses associated with organophosphate toxicity caused by exposure to a contaminated patient and underscores the importance of using personal protection equipment (PPE) and establishing and following decontamination procedures in EDs and other areas of acute care hospitals. PMID:11198947

  8. Characterization of the KOI-94 System with Transit Timing Variation Analysis: Implication for the Planet-Planet Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kento; Hirano, Teruyuki; Taruya, Atsushi; Nagasawa, Makiko; Suto, Yasushi

    2013-12-01

    The KOI-94 system is a closely packed, multi-transiting planetary system discovered by the Kepler space telescope. It is known as the first system that exhibited a rare event called a "planet-planet eclipse (PPE)," in which two planets partially overlap with each other in their double-transit phase. In this paper, we constrain the parameters of the KOI-94 system with an analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs). Such constraints are independent of the radial velocity (RV) analysis recently performed by Weiss and coworkers, and valuable in examining the reliability of the parameter estimate using TTVs. We numerically fit the observed TTVs of KOI-94c, KOI-94d, and KOI-94e for their masses, eccentricities, and longitudes of periastrons, and obtain the best-fit parameters including m_c = 9.4_{-2.1}^{+2.4}\\, M_{\\oplus }, m_d = 52.1_{-7.1}^{+6.9}\\, M_{\\oplus }, m_e = 13.0_{-2.1}^{+2.5}\\, M_{\\oplus }, and e <~ 0.1 for all the three planets. While these values are mostly in agreement with the RV result, the mass of KOI-94d estimated from the TTV is significantly smaller than the RV value m d = 106 ± 11 M ⊕. In addition, we find that the TTV of the outermost planet KOI-94e is not well reproduced in the current modeling. We also present analytic modeling of the PPE and derive a simple formula to reconstruct the mutual inclination of the two planets from the observed height, central time, and duration of the brightening caused by the PPE. Based on this model, the implication of the results of TTV analysis for the time of the next PPE is discussed.

  9. Effect of nitrogen-rich cell culture surfaces on type X collagen expression by bovine growth plate chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) may be a systemic disease since mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from OA patients express type X collagen, a marker of late stage chondrocyte hypertrophy (associated with endochondral ossification). We recently showed that the expression of type X collagen was suppressed when MSCs from OA patients were cultured on nitrogen (N)-rich plasma polymer layers, which we call "PPE:N" (N-doped plasma-polymerized ethylene, containing up to 36 atomic percentage (at.% ) of N. Methods In the present study, we examined the expression of type X collagen in fetal bovine growth plate chondrocytes (containing hypertrophic chondrocytes) cultured on PPE:N. We also studied the effect of PPE:N on the expression of matrix molecules such as type II collagen and aggrecan, as well as on proteases (matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and molecules implicated in cell division (cyclin B2). Two other culture surfaces, "hydrophilic" polystyrene (PS, regular culture dishes) and nitrogen-containing cation polystyrene (Primaria®), were also investigated for comparison. Results Results showed that type X collagen mRNA levels were suppressed when cultured for 4 days on PPE:N, suggesting that type X collagen is regulated similarly in hypertrophic chondrocytes and in human MSCs from OA patients. However, the levels of type X collagen mRNA almost returned to control value after 20 days in culture on these surfaces. Culture on the various surfaces had no significant effects on type II collagen, aggrecan, MMP-13, and cyclin B2 mRNA levels. Conclusion Hypertrophy is diminished by culturing growth plate chondrocytes on nitrogen-rich surfaces, a mechanism that is beneficial for MSC chondrogenesis. Furthermore, one major advantage of such "intelligent surfaces" over recombinant growth factors for tissue engineering and cartilage repair is potentially large cost-saving. PMID:21244651

  10. The effect of novel nitrogen-rich plasma polymer coatings on the phenotypic profile of notochordal cells

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Fackson; Wang, Hong Tian; Petit, Alain; Girard-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc; Hunter, Christopher J; Ouellet, Jean A; Wertheimer, Michael R; Antoniou, John

    2007-01-01

    Background The loss of the notochordal cells from the nucleus pulposus is associated with ageing and disc degeneration. However, understanding the mechanisms responsible for the loss of these cells has been hampered in part due to the difficulty of culturing and maintaining their phenotype. Furthermore, little is known about the influence of the substratum on the molecular markers of notochordal cells. Methods Notochordal cells were isolated from lumbar spine of non-chondrodystrophoid dogs and cultured on N-rich plasma polymer layers, so-called "PPE:N" (N-doped plasma-polymerised ethylene, containing up to 36% [N]) surfaces, for 3, 7 or 14 days. Gene expression of vimentin (VIM), pleiotrophin (PTN), matrix Gla protein (MGP), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), keratin 18 (KRT 18), aggrecan (AGG), collagen type 1 (COL1A2), collagen type 2 (COL2A1) was analyzed through semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Notochordal cells were maintained in culture on PPE:N for up to 14 days with no loss in cell viability. Except for VIM, gene expression varied depending on the culture periods and [N] concentration of the substratum. Generally, PPE:N surfaces altered gene expression significantly when cells were cultured for 3 or 7 days. Conclusion The present study has shown that notochordal cells from dogs can attach to and grow on PPE:N surfaces. Analysis of the expression of different genes in these cells cultured on different N-functionalized surfaces indicates that cellular behaviour is gene-specific and time-dependent. Further studies are required to better understand the roles of specific surface functionalities on receptor sites, and their effects on cellular phenotypes. PMID:17822560

  11. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis.

    PubMed

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Anna V; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-03-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity.

  12. New Safety Policy Reduces Injuries by One-Fourth | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Terri Bray, Dave Heimbrook, Craig Reynolds, and Robert Wiltrout, Guest Writers Whether in a research laboratory or an operations environment, past performance is frequently reviewed to plan for future improvements. Such was the case last year when management recognized the need to change the policy on the minimum set of personal protective equipment (PPE) to be worn in the laboratories to reduce both the number and consequence of injuries at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR).

  13. The Enigma of Progressively Partial Endoreplication: New Insights Provided by Flow Cytometry and Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hřibová, Eva; Holušová, Kateřina; Trávníček, Pavel; Petrovská, Beáta; Ponert, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Kubátová, Barbora; Jersáková, Jana; Čurn, Vladislav; Suda, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In many plant species, somatic cell differentiation is accompanied by endoreduplication, a process during which cells undergo one or more rounds of DNA replication cycles in the absence of mitosis, resulting in nuclei with multiples of 2C DNA amounts (4C, 8C, 16C, etc.). In some orchids, a disproportionate increase in nuclear DNA contents has been observed, where successive endoreduplication cycles result in DNA amounts 2C + P, 2C + 3P, 2C + 7P, etc., where P is the DNA content of the replicated part of the 2C nuclear genome. This unique phenomenon was termed "progressively partial endoreplication" (PPE). We investigated processes behind the PPE in Ludisia discolor using flow cytometry (FCM) and Illumina sequencing. In particular, we wanted to determine whether chromatin elimination or incomplete genome duplication was involved, and to identify types of DNA sequences that were affected. Cell cycle analysis of root tip cell nuclei pulse-labeled with EdU revealed two cell cycles, one ending above the population of nuclei with 2C + P content, and the other with a typical "horseshoe" pattern of S-phase nuclei ranging from 2C to 4C DNA contents. The process leading to nuclei with 2C + P amounts therefore involves incomplete genome replication. Subsequent Illumina sequencing of flow-sorted 2C and 2C + P nuclei showed that all types of repetitive DNA sequences were affected during PPE; a complete elimination of any specific type of repetitive DNA was not observed. We hypothesize that PPE is part of a highly controlled transition mechanism from proliferation phase to differentiation phase of plant tissue development. PMID:27324917

  14. Hydralazine administration activates sympathetic preganglionic neurons whose activity mobilizes glucose and increases cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lindsay M; Damanhuri, Hanafi A; Fletcher, Sophie P S; Goodchild, Ann K

    2015-04-16

    Hypotensive drugs have been used to identify central neurons that mediate compensatory baroreceptor reflex responses. Such drugs also increase blood glucose. Our aim was to identify the neurochemical phenotypes of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) and adrenal chromaffin cells activated following hydralazine (HDZ; 10mg/kg) administration in rats, and utilize this and SPN target organ destination to ascribe their function as cardiovascular or glucose regulating. Blood glucose was measured and adrenal chromaffin cell activation was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity (-ir) and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase, respectively. The activation and neurochemical phenotype of SPN innervating the adrenal glands and celiac ganglia were determined using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit, in combination with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Blood glucose was elevated at multiple time points following HDZ administration but little evidence of chromaffin cell activation was seen suggesting non-adrenal mechanisms contribute to the sustained hyperglycemia. 16±0.1% of T4-T11 SPN contained c-Fos and of these: 24.3±1.4% projected to adrenal glands and 29±5.5% projected to celiac ganglia with the rest innervating other targets. 62.8±1.4% of SPN innervating adrenal glands were activated and 29.9±3.3% expressed PPE mRNA whereas 53.2±8.6% of SPN innervating celiac ganglia were activated and 31.2±8.8% expressed PPE mRNA. CART-ir SPN innervating each target were also activated and did not co-express PPE mRNA. Neurochemical coding reveals that HDZ administration activates both PPE+SPN, whose activity increase glucose mobilization causing hyperglycemia, as well as CART+SPN whose activity drive vasomotor responses mediated by baroreceptor unloading to raise vascular tone and heart rate.

  15. Design for end-user acceptance: requirements for work clothing for fishermen in Mediterranean and northern fishing grounds.

    PubMed

    Storholmen, Tore Christian Bjorsvik; Naesgaard, Ole Petter; Faerevik, Hilde; Reitan, Jarl; Holmen, Ingunn Marie; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo

    2012-01-01

    Fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations, and as many as 24,000 fishermen around the world suffer fatal injuries or drowning at sea every year. Although fishermen in the European fishing fleet work in harsh and dangerous environments, many fishermen do not use personal protective clothing and buoyancy aids due to reduced work comfort and poor functionality. This emphasizes the importance of designing work clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE) with functionality that matches the fishermen's needs. The aim of this study was to identify the requirements for work clothing in terms of comfort, protection, and safety for fishermen operating in northern fishing grounds and in the Mediterranean. Furthermore, we investigated whether fishermen in the Mediterranean prioritize work-clothing requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. Interviews and observations of fishermen provided us with the requirements for work clothing for fishermen. A questionnaire was then distributed to a selection of European fishermen. The study showed that fishermen operating in the Mediterranean prioritized their requirements differently from fishermen in northern fishing grounds. There was good agreement on requirements regarding work comfort. Safety requirements, such as integrated buoyancy, were ranked as less important by the Mediterranean fishermen compared to fishermen in northern fishing grounds. The results of this study provide a basis for the development of work clothing and PPE for fishermen. Work clothing and PPE that fulfil the requirements are likely to obtain end-user acceptance and thus improve safety for fishermen at sea. PMID:22669810

  16. Analysis of area-time efficiency for an integrated focal plane architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, William H.; Wills, D. Scott

    2003-05-01

    Monolithic integration of photodetectors, analog-to-digital converters, digital processing, and data storage can improve the performance and efficiency of next-generation portable image products. Our approach combines these components into a single processing element, which is tiled to form a SIMD focal plane processor array with the capability to execute early image applications such as median filtering (noise removal), convolution (smoothing), and inside edge detection (segmentation). Digitizing and processing a pixel at the detection site presents new design challenges, including the allocation of silicon resources. This research investigates the area-time (A"T2) efficiency by adjusting the number of Pixels-per-Processing Element (PPE). Area calculations are based upon hardware implementations of components scaled for 250nm or 120nm technology. The total execution time is calculated from the sequential execution of each application on a generic focal plane architectural simulator. For a Quad-CIF system resolution (176×144), results show that 1 PPE provides the optimal area-time efficiency (5.7 μs2 x mm2 for 250nm, 1.7 μs2 x mm2 for 120nm) but requires a large silicon chip (2072mm2 for 250nm, 614mm2 for 120nm). Increasing the PPE to 4 or 16 can reduce silicon area by 48% and 60% respectively (120nm technology) while maintaining performance within real-time constraints.

  17. Type B accident investigation board report of the July 2, 1997 curium intake by shredder operator at Building 513 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    On July 2, 1997 at approximately 6:00 A.M., two operators (Workers 1 and 2), wearing approved personal protective equipment (PPE), began a shredding operation of HEPA filters for volume reduction in Building 513 (B-513) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The waste requisitions indicated they were shredding filters containing {le} 1 {micro}Ci of americium-241 (Am-241). A third operator (Worker 3) provided support to the shredder operators in the shredding area (hot area) from a room that was adjacent to the shredding area (cold area). At Approximately 8:00 A.M., a fourth operator (Worker 4) relieved Worker 2 in the shredding operation. Sometime between 8:30 A.M. and 9:00 A.M., Worker 3 left the cold area to make a phone call and set off a hand and foot counter in Building 514. Upon discovering the contamination, the shredding operation was stopped and surveys were conducted in the shredder area. Surveys conducted on the workers found significant levels of contamination on their PPE and the exterior of their respirator cartridges. An exit survey of Worker 1 was conducted at approximately 10:05 A.M., and found contamination on his PPE, as well as on the exterior and interior of his respirator. Contamination was also found on his face, chest, back of neck, hair, knees, and mustache. A nose blow indicated significant contamination, which was later determined to be curium-244.

  18. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preparticipation Physical Examinations and Disqualifying Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Kevin M.; Bolin, Delmas J.; Carek, Peter J.; Konin, Jeff G.; Neal, Timothy L.; Violette, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Objective To present athletic trainers with recommendations for the content and administration of the preparticipation physical examination (PPE) as well as considerations for determining safe participation in sports and identifying disqualifying conditions. Background Preparticipation physical examinations have been used routinely for nearly 40 years. However, considerable debate exists as to their efficacy due to the lack of standardization in the process and the lack of conformity in the information that is gathered. With the continuing rise in sports participation at all levels and the growing number of reported cases of sudden death in organized athletics, the sports medicine community should consider adopting a standardized process for conducting the PPE to protect all parties. Recommendations Recommendations are provided to equip the sports medicine community with the tools necessary to conduct the PPE as effectively and efficiently as possible using available scientific evidence and best practices. In addition, the recommendations will help clinicians identify those conditions that may threaten the health and safety of participants in organized sports, may require further evaluation and intervention, or may result in potential disqualification. PMID:24499039

  19. The effect of pomegranate mouthrinse on Streptococcus mutans count and salivary pH: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Dilshad; Dilshad, Bahija; Farhan, Mohammed; Ali, Arshiya; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Herbal mouthwashes have been considered to be a more advantageous option to their chemical counterparts, for a long-time. The use of pomegranate fruit dates from ancient times and reports of its therapeutic abilities have echoed throughout the ages. To evaluate the effect on the salivary pH and the Streptococcus mutans count in healthy subjects before and after pomegranate mouthrinse. Fifty healthy patients were randomly divided into two groups of 25 subjects each. Group A was treated with 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse; while Group B was treated with pomegranate peel extract (PPE) mouthrinse and the saliva samples were collected at three different intervals: Prerinse, after 10 min, and 60 min. The salivary pH was measured using a digital pH meter and the S. mutans count was determined by the commercial system Dentocult SM. The statistical analyses used in this study are Mann–Whitney U-test and t-test. PPE mouthrinse had an inhibitory effect on S. mutans count in adults. There was also an increase in the salivary pH after 10 min of the mouthrinse. PPE mouthrinse may be considered as a potential anticariogenic mouthrinse. PMID:26955605

  20. Design and analysis of a PZT-based micromachined acoustic sensor with increased sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheyao; Wang, Chao; Liu, Litian

    2005-10-01

    The ever-growing applications of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films to sensing devices have given birth to a variety of microsensors. This paper presents the design and theoretical analysis of a PZT-based micro acoustic sensor that uses interdigital electrodes (IDE) and in-plane polarization (IPP) instead of commonly used parallel plate-electrodes (PPE) and through-thickness polarization (TTP). The sensitivity of IDE-based sensors is increased due to the small capacitance of the interdigital capacitor and the large and adjustable electrode spacing. In addition, the sensitivity takes advantage of a large piezoelectric coefficient d33 rather than d31, which is used in PPE-based sensors, resulting in a further improvement in the sensitivity. Laminated beam theory is used to analyze the laminated piezoelectric sensors, and the capacitance of the IDE is deduced by using conformal mapping and partial capacitance techniques. Analytical formulations for predicting the sensitivity of both PPE- and IDE-based microsensors are presented, and factors that influence sensitivity are discussed in detail. Results show that the IDE and IPP can improve the sensitivity significantly.

  1. Reflective-emissive liquid-crystal displays constructed from AIE luminogens (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ben Zhong; Zhao, Dongyu; Qin, Anjun

    2015-10-01

    The chiral nematic liquid crystal (N*-LC) has plenty of prospective applications in LC display (LCD) owing to the selective reflection and circular dichroism. The molecules in the N*-LC are aligned forming a helically twisted structure and the specific wavelength of incident light is reflected by the periodically varying refractive index in the N*-LC plane without the aid of a polarizer or color filter. However, N*-LC do not emit light which restricts its application in the dark environment. Moreover, the view angle of N*-LC display device was severe limited due to the strong viewing angle dependence of the structure color of the one dimensional photonic crystal of a N*-LC. In order to overcome these weaknesses, we have synthesized a luminescent liquid crystalline compound consisting of a tetraphenylethene (TPE) core, TPE-PPE, as a luminogen with mesogenic moieties. TPE-PPE exhibits both the aggregate-induced emission (AIE) and thermotropic liquid crystalline characteristics. By dissolving a little amount of TPE-PPE into N*-LC host, a circular polarized emission was obtained on the unidirectional orientated LC cell. Utilizing the circular polarized luminescence property of the LC mixture, we fabricated a photoluminescent liquid crystal display (PL-LCD) device which can work under both dark and sunlit conditions. This approach has simplified the device design, lowered the energy consumption and increased brightness and application of the LCD.

  2. Alternative Calorimetry Based on the Photothermoelectric (PTE) Effect: Application to Magnetic Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadarlat, Dorin; Misse, Patrick R. N.; Maignan, Antoine; Guilmeau, Emmanuel; Turcu, Rodica; Vekas, Ladislau; Tudoran, Cristian; Depriester, Michael; Sahraoui, Abdelhak Hadj

    2015-09-01

    Photothermoelectric (PTE) calorimetry was applied for the first time for thermal characterization of liquids. Both back and front detection configurations, together with the thermal-wave resonator cavity (TWRC) scanning procedure, have been used in order to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity of a particular magnetic nanofluid: carrier liquid—transformer oil, surfactant—oleic acid, nanoparticles' type—{Fe}3{O}4.The investigations were performed as a function of the nanoparticles' concentration. Small increases of thermal diffusivity (from 9.06× 10^{-8} {m}2{\\cdot } {s}^{-1} up to 9.84× 10^{-8} {m}2{\\cdot } {s}^{-1}) and thermal effusivity (from 450 {W}{\\cdot } {s}^{1/2}{\\cdot } {m}^{-2}{\\cdot } {K}^{-1} up to 520 {W}{\\cdot } {s}^{1/2}{\\cdot } {m}^{-2}{\\cdot } {K}^{-1}) with increasing concentration of {Fe}3{O}4 nanoparticles (from 0 up to 0.623 mg {Fe}3{O}4/{ml} fluid) were observed. The comparison with the photopyroelectric (PPE) method shows that PTE and PPE give similar results but, for the moment, PPE is more accurate.

  3. Isolation gowns in health care settings: Laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc Balci, F. Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Although they play an important role in infection prevention and control, textile materials and personal protective equipment (PPE) used in health care settings are known to be one of the sources of cross-infection. Gowns are recommended to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in certain settings; however, laboratory and field studies have produced mixed results of their efficacy. PPE used in health care is regulated as either class I (low risk) or class II (intermediate risk) devices in the United States. Many organizations have published guidelines for the use of PPE, including isolation gowns, in health care settings. In addition, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation published a guidance document on the selection of gowns and a classification standard on liquid barrier performance for both surgical and isolation gowns. However, there is currently no existing standard specific to isolation gowns that considers not only the barrier resistance but also a wide array of end user desired attributes. As a result, infection preventionists and purchasing agents face several difficulties in the selection process, and end users have limited or no information on the levels of protection provided by isolation gowns. Lack of knowledge about the performance of protective clothing used in health care became more apparent during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. This article reviews laboratory studies, regulations, guidelines and standards pertaining to isolation gowns, characterization problems, and other potential barriers of isolation gown selection and use. PMID:26391468

  4. Starfish gonadotropic hormone: Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptides.

    PubMed

    Mita, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) of starfish Patiria (= Asterina) pectinifera is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin to trigger final gamete maturation. Recently, chemical structures of RGP were identified in several species of starfish. Three kinds of RGP molecules are found in the class Asteroidea. The chemical structure of P. pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP) is conserved among starfish of the order Valvatida beyond species. In contrast, the chemical structures of RGP identified in Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica of the order Forcipulatida are quite different from that of PpeRGP. The chemical structure of RGP in A. amurensis (AamRGP) is exactly the same as that in Asterias rubens (the order Forcipulatida), Astropecten scoparius (the order Paxillosida), Astropecten polyacanthus (the order Paxillosida), and Echinaster luzonicus (the order Spinulosida). The chemical structure of Coscinasterias acutispina RGP (the order Forcipulatida) is consistent with that of A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP). In cross-experiments using P. pectinifera, A. amurensis, and A. japonica ovaries, AamRGP and AjaRGP can induce each species of ovaries. Neither AamRGP nor AjaRGP induce oocyte maturation and ovulation in the ovary of P. pectinifera, although the PpeRGP is active in ovaries of A. amurensis and A. japonica. This suggests that the AamRGP and AjaRGP partly act species specificity.

  5. Supermassive black hole tests of general relativity with eLISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwyler, Cédric; Porter, Edward K.; Jetzer, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the parametrized post-Einsteinian (ppE) scheme devised by Yunes and Pretorius, which introduces corrections to the post-Newtonian coefficients of the frequency domain gravitational waveform in order to emulate alternative theories of gravity, we compute analytical time domain waveforms that, after a numerical Fourier transform, aim to represent (phase corrected only) ppE waveforms. In this formalism, alternative theories manifest themselves via corrections to the phase and frequency, as predicted by general relativity (GR), at different post-Newtonian (PN) orders. To present a generic test of alternative theories of gravity, we assume that the coupling constant of each alternative theory is manifestly positive, allowing corrections to the GR waveforms to be either positive or negative. By exploring the capabilities of massive black hole binary GR waveforms in the detection and parameter estimation of corrected time domain ppE signals, using the current eLISA configuration (as presented for the European Space Agency Cosmic Vision L3 mission), we demonstrate that for corrections arising at higher than 1PN order in phase and frequency GR waveforms are sufficient for both detecting and estimating the parameters of alternative theory signals. However, for theories introducing corrections at the 0 and 0.5PN orders, GR waveforms are not capable of covering the entire parameter space, requiring the use of non-GR waveforms for detection and parameter estimation.

  6. Effects of potential models on the adsorption of ethane and ethylene on graphitized thermal carbon black. Study of two-dimensional critical temperature and isosteric heat versus loading.

    PubMed

    Do, D D; Do, H D

    2004-12-01

    Adsorption of ethylene and ethane on graphitized thermal carbon black and in slit pores whose walls are composed of graphene layers is studied in detail to investigate the packing efficiency, the two-dimensional critical temperature, and the variation of the isosteric heat of adsorption with loading and temperature. Here we used a Monte Carlo simulation method with a grand canonical Monte Carlo ensemble. A number of two-center Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential models are investigated to study the impact of the choice of potential models in the description of adsorption behavior. We chose two 2C-LJ potential models in our investigation of the (i) UA-TraPPE-LJ model of Martin and Siepmann for ethane and Wick et al. for ethylene and (ii) AUA4-LJ model of Ungerer et al. for ethane and Bourasseau et al. for ethylene. These models are used to study the adsorption of ethane and ethylene on graphitized thermal carbon black. It is found that the solid-fluid binary interaction parameter is a function of adsorbate and temperature, and the adsorption isotherms and heat of adsorption are well described by both the UA-TraPPE and AUA models, although the UA-TraPPE model performs slightly better. However, the local distributions predicted by these two models are slightly different. These two models are used to explore the two-dimensional condensation for the graphitized thermal carbon black, and these values are 110 K for ethylene and 120 K for ethane.

  7. Dual roles of a conserved pair, Arg23 and Ser20, in recognition of multiple substrates in {alpha}-aminoadipate aminotransferase from Thermus thermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchi, Takuya; Tomita, Takeo; Miyagawa, Tomoharu; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2009-10-09

    To clarify the mechanism for substrate recognition of {alpha}-aminoadipate aminotransferase (AAA-AT) from Thermus thermophilus, the crystal structure of AAA-AT complexed with N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-glutamate (PPE) was determined at 1.67 A resolution. The crystal structure revealed that PPE is recognized by amino acid residues the same as those seen in N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-{alpha}-aminoadipate (PPA) recognition; however, to bind the {gamma}-carboxyl group of Glu at a fixed position, the C{alpha} atom of the Glu moiety moves 0.80 A toward the {gamma}-carboxyl group in the PPE complex. Markedly decreased activity for Asp can be explained by the shortness of the aspartyl side chain to be recognized by Arg23 and further dislocation of the C{alpha} atom of bound Asp. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Arg23 has dual functions for reaction, (i) recognition of {gamma} ({delta})-carboxyl group of Glu (AAA) and (ii) rearrangement of {alpha}2 helix by changing the interacting partners to place the hydrophobic substrate at the suitable position.

  8. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; PARK, Joonhee; PARK, Huiju; COCA, Aitor; KIM, Jung-Hyun; TAYLOR, Nigel A.S.; SON, Su-Young; TOCHIHARA, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying ‘a location monitoring system’ as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred ‘an automatic body cooling system’ while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally ‘an automatic body cooling system’ and ‘a wireless communication system’. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: ‘a location monitoring system’, ‘an automatic body cooling system’, ‘a wireless communication system’, and ‘a vision support system’. The least preferred elements were ‘an automatic body warming system’ and ‘a voice recording system’. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE. PMID:26027710

  9. Genomic evidence for plant-parasitic nematodes as the earliest Wolbachia hosts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amanda M. V.; Wasala, Sulochana K.; Howe, Dana K.; Peetz, Amy B.; Zasada, Inga A.; Denver, Dee R.

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia, one of the most widespread endosymbionts, is a target for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases (malaria and dengue virus), and antibiotic elimination of infectious filarial nematodes. We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a new Wolbachia strain (wPpe) in the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Phylogenomic analyses placed wPpe as the earliest diverging Wolbachia, suggesting two evolutionary invasions into nematodes. The next branches comprised strains in sap-feeding insects, suggesting Wolbachia may have first evolved as a nutritional mutualist. Genome size, protein content, %GC, and repetitive DNA allied wPpe with mutualistic Wolbachia, whereas gene repertoire analyses placed it between parasite (A, B) and mutualist (C, D, F) groups. Conservation of iron metabolism genes across Wolbachia suggests iron homeostasis as a potential factor in its success. This study enhances our understanding of this globally pandemic endosymbiont, highlighting genetic patterns associated with host changes. Combined with future work on this strain, these genomic data could help provide potential new targets for plant-parasitic nematode control. PMID:27734894

  10. Preparticipation Evaluation for Climbing Sports.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aaron D; Davis, Christopher; Paterson, Ryan; Cushing, Tracy A; Ng, Pearlly; Peterson, Charles S; Sedgwick, Peter E; McIntosh, Scott E

    2015-09-01

    Climbing is a popular wilderness sport among a wide variety of professional athletes and amateur enthusiasts, and many styles are performed across many environments. Potential risks confront climbers, including personal health or exacerbation of a chronic condition, in addition to climbing-specific risks or injuries. Although it is not common to perform a preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for climbing, a climber or a guide agency may request such an evaluation before participation. Formats from traditional sports PPEs can be drawn upon, but often do not directly apply. The purpose of this article was to incorporate findings from expert opinion from professional societies in wilderness medicine and in sports medicine, with findings from the literature of both climbing epidemiology and traditional sports PPEs, into a general PPE that would be sufficient for the broad sport of climbing. The emphasis is on low altitude climbing, and an overview of different climbing styles is included. Knowledge of climbing morbidity and mortality, and a standardized approach to the PPE that involves adequate history taking and counseling have the potential for achieving risk reduction and will facilitate further study on the evaluation of the efficacy of PPEs.

  11. Effect of silica nanoparticles on reinforcement of poly(phenylene ether) based thermoplastic elastomer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Samik; Maiti, Parnasree; Krishnamoorthy, Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Raja; Menon, Ashok; Bhowmick, Anil K

    2008-04-01

    Reinforcement of a novel poly(phenylene ether) (PPE) based thermoplastic elastomer (TPE), i.e., styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and PPE-polystyrene (PS), was studied to develop a reinforced thermoplastic elastomer or thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV). An effort was made to reinforce selectively the elastomeric dispersed phase of EVA by silica nanoparticles and silica sol-gel precursors, like alkoxy orthosilanes, using twin-screw extrusion and injection molding processes. Improvement of tensile strength and percent elongation at break was observed both with silica nanoparticles and tetraethoxy orthosilane (TEOS). Addition of TEOS transformed the dispersed EVA lamellar morphology into semispherical domains as a consequence of possible crosslinking. Soxhlet extraction was done on the silica and TEOS reinforced materials. The insoluble residues collected from both the silica and TEOS reinforced samples were analyzed in detail using both morphological and spectroscopic studies. This extensive study also provided an in-depth conceptual understanding of the PPE based TPE behavior upon reinforcement with silica nanoparticles and silica sol-gel precursors and the effect of reinforcement on recycling behavior.

  12. Beyond resistance: exploring health managers' propensity for participatory evaluation in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Smits, Pernelle A; Champagne, François; Farand, Lambert

    2012-05-01

    The evaluation of interventions is becoming increasing common and now often seeks to involve managers in the process. Such practical participatory evaluation (PPE) aims to increase the use of evaluation results through the participation of stakeholders. This study focuses on the propensity of health managers for PPE, as measured through the components of learning, working in groups, use of judgment and use of systematic methods. We interviewed 16 health managers to determine the meaning they ascribe to these four components in their practice in a developing country, Haïti. We found that learning was often informal and that all managers attached a negative meaning to the use of judgment. Working in groups was favored by all managers, while the health managers viewed the use of systematic methods differently than do evaluators. The administrative health managers generally ranked lower in propensity for PPE than did their clinical colleagues. Implications for the practice of evaluation are discussed in relation to the work styles exhibited by managers in everyday practice, the proactive repetition of actions, the control exercised by formal procedures, and the collective versus "solitary" image of one's environment of action. PMID:22221891

  13. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonylmore » PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.« less

  14. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-11-03

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonyl PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone.

  15. Structure of EspB, a secreted substrate of the ESX-1 secretion system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Korotkova, Natalia; Piton, Jérémie; Wagner, Jonathan M.; Boy-Röttger, Stefanie; Japaridze, Aleksandre; Evans, Timothy J.; Cole, Stewart T.; Pojer, Florence; Korotkov, Konstantin V.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretes multiple virulence factors during infection via the general Sec and Tat pathways, and via specialized ESX secretion systems, also referred to as type VII secretion systems. The ESX-1 secretion system is an important virulence determinant because deletion of ESX-1 leads to attenuation of M. tuberculosis. ESX-1 secreted protein B (EspB) contains putative PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) domains, and a C-terminal domain, which is processed by MycP1 protease during secretion. We determined the crystal structure of PE–PPE domains of EspB, which represents an all-helical, elongated molecule closely resembling the structure of the PE25–PPE41 heterodimer despite limited sequence similarity. Also, we determined the structure of full-length EspB, which does not have interpretable electron density for the C-terminal domain confirming that it is largely disordered. Comparative analysis of EspB in cell lysate and culture filtrates of M. tuberculosis revealed that mature secreted EspB forms oligomers. Electron microscopy analysis showed that the N-terminal fragment of EspB forms donut-shaped particles. These data provide a rationale for the future investigation of EspB's role in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:26051906

  16. Detection of capecitabine (Xeloda®) on the skin surface after oral administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mao-Dong; Fuss, Harald; Lademann, Jürgen; Florek, Stefan; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina C.; Jung, Sora

    2016-04-01

    Palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), or hand-foot syndrome, is a cutaneous toxicity under various chemotherapeutics contributing to the most frequent side effects in patients treated with capecitabine (Xeloda®). The pathomechanism of PPE has been unclear. Here, the topical detection of capecitabine in the skin after oral application was shown in 10 patients receiving 2500 mg/m2/day capecitabine. Sweat samples were taken prior to and one week after oral administration of capecitabine. Using high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometry, the changes in concentrations of fluorine, which is an ingredient of capecitabine, were quantified and statistically analyzed. Here, we show an increase in fluorine concentrations from 40±10 ppb (2±0.5 pM) before capecitabine administration to 27.7±11.8 ppm (14.6±6.5 nM) after application, p<0.001. The results show the secretion of capecitabine on the skin surface after oral administration, indicating a local toxic effect as a possible pathomechanism of PPE.

  17. A Treatment with a Protease Inhibitor Recombinant from the Cattle Tick (Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus) Ameliorates Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Juliana D.; Neves, Luana P.; Olivo, Clarice R.; Duran, Adriana; Almeida, Francine M.; Arantes, Petra M. M.; Prado, Carla M.; Leick, Edna Aparecida; Tanaka, Aparecida S.; Martins, Mílton A.; Sasaki, Sergio D.; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To determine whether a serine protease inhibitor treatment can prevent or minimize emphysema in mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were subjected to porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) nasal instillation to induce emphysema and were treated with a serine protease inhibitor (rBmTI-A) before (Protocol 1) and after (Protocol 2) emphysema development. In both protocols, we evaluated lung function to evaluate the airway resistance (Raw), tissue damping (Gtis) and tissue elastance (Htis). The inflammatory profile was analyzed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and through the use of morphometry; we measured the mean linear intercept (Lm) (to verify alveolar enlargement), the volume proportion of collagen and elastic fibers, and the numbers of macrophages and metalloprotease 12 (MMP-12) positive cells in the parenchyma. We showed that at both time points, even after the emphysema was established, the rBmTI-A treatment was sufficient to reverse the loss of elastic recoil measured by Htis, the alveolar enlargement and the increase in the total number of cells in the BALF, with a primary decrease in the number of macrophages. Although, the treatment did not control the increase in macrophages in the lung parenchyma, it was sufficient to decrease the number of positive cells for MMP-12 and reduce the volume of collagen fibers, which was increased in PPE groups. These findings attest to the importance of MMP-12 in PPE-induced emphysema and suggest that this metalloprotease could be an effective therapeutic target. PMID:24886716

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction of apple skin.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Wilson, Ana María; Castro-Arredondo, Sergio Ivan; Espinosa-Plascencia, Angélica; Robles-Burgueño, María Del Refugio; Balandrán-Quintana, René Renato; Bermúdez-Almada, María Del Carmen

    2016-02-01

    The apple is a food rich in diverse classes of polyphenols (PP), among which the proanthocyanidins (PCs), which are primarily concentrated in the skin, are one of the most abundant. These compounds are of considerable interest for their possible positive health effects because of their antioxidant properties. However, depending on the classes of PP present (chemical composition) and their relative concentrations in the apple skin, their antioxidant effects vary and some of their components can even generate prooxidant effects. This work determined the chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract (PPE) and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF) of apple skin, along with the contribution of their most abundant individual compounds, based on their copper chelating ability, ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals and TEAC (Trolox-Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay. For this purpose, chromatographic and colorimetric methods were used. The majority compounds identified in PPE were flavan-3-ols (44.58%), flavonols (42.89%) and dihydrochalcones (11.60%). In PRF, we detected monomers and oligomers from dimers to heptamers, which were composed of 97% (-)-epicatechin and 3% (+)-catechin. The antioxidant potential was notably higher in PRF than in PPE. The (-)-epicatechin monomer and the procyanidin B2 dimer showed more ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals compared to other compounds of the apple skin, whereas phloridzin dihydrochalcone produced prooxidant effects. PMID:27441252

  19. Counseling for the Wilderness Athlete and Adventurer During a Preparticipation Evaluation for Preparation, Safety, and Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Young, Justin Mark J; Campbell, Aaron D; Raastad, Kate K

    2015-09-01

    Wilderness sports and adventures continue to increase in popularity. Counseling is an essential element of the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for athletes in traditional sports. This approach can be applied to and augmented for the wilderness athlete and adventurer. The authors reviewed the literature on counseling during PPEs and gathered expert opinion from medical professionals who perform such PPEs for wilderness sports enthusiasts. The objective was to present findings of this review and make recommendations on the counseling component of a wilderness sports/adventure PPE. The counseling component of a PPE for wilderness sports/adventures should take place after a basic medical evaluation, and include a discussion on sport or activity-specific injury prevention, personal health, travel recommendations, and emergency event planning. Counseling should be individualized and thorough, and involve shared decision making. This should take place early enough to allow ample time for the athlete or adventurer to further prepare as needed based on the recommendations. Resources may be recommended for individuals desiring more information on selected topics.

  20. Counseling for the Wilderness Athlete and Adventurer During a Preparticipation Evaluation for Preparation, Safety, and Injury Prevention.

    PubMed

    Young, Justin Mark J; Campbell, Aaron D; Raastad, Kate K

    2015-12-01

    Wilderness sports and adventures continue to increase in popularity. Counseling is an essential element of the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for athletes in traditional sports. This approach can be applied to and augmented for the wilderness athlete and adventurer. The authors reviewed the literature on counseling during PPEs and gathered expert opinion from medical professionals who perform such PPEs for wilderness sports enthusiasts. The objective was to present findings of this review and make recommendations on the counseling component of a wilderness sports/adventure PPE. The counseling component of a PPE for wilderness sports/adventures should take place after a basic medical evaluation, and include a discussion on sport or activity-specific injury prevention, personal health, travel recommendations, and emergency event planning. Counseling should be individualized and thorough, and involve shared decision making. This should take place early enough to allow ample time for the athlete or adventurer to further prepare as needed based on the recommendations. Resources may be recommended for individuals desiring more information on selected topics.

  1. The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes.

    PubMed

    Abitua, Philip Barron; Gainous, T Blair; Kaczmarczyk, Angela N; Winchell, Christopher J; Hudson, Clare; Kamata, Kaori; Nakagawa, Masashi; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Levine, Michael

    2015-08-27

    The sudden appearance of the neural crest and neurogenic placodes in early branching vertebrates has puzzled biologists for over a century. These embryonic tissues contribute to the development of the cranium and associated sensory organs, which were crucial for the evolution of the vertebrate "new head". A previous study suggests that rudimentary neural crest cells existed in ancestral chordates. However, the evolutionary origins of neurogenic placodes have remained obscure owing to a paucity of embryonic data from tunicates, the closest living relatives to those early vertebrates. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis exhibits a proto-placodal ectoderm (PPE) that requires inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and expresses the key regulatory determinant Six1/2 and its co-factor Eya, a developmental process conserved across vertebrates. The Ciona PPE is shown to produce ciliated neurons that express genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a G-protein-coupled receptor for relaxin-3 (RXFP3) and a functional cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA), which suggests dual chemosensory and neurosecretory activities. These observations provide evidence that Ciona has a neurogenic proto-placode, which forms neurons that appear to be related to those derived from the olfactory placode and hypothalamic neurons of vertebrates. We discuss the possibility that the PPE-derived GnRH neurons of Ciona resemble an ancestral cell type, a progenitor to the complex neuronal circuit that integrates sensory information and neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates. PMID:26258298

  2. Preparticipation Evaluation for Climbing Sports.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Aaron D; Davis, Christopher; Paterson, Ryan; Cushing, Tracy A; Ng, Pearlly; Peterson, Charles S; Sedgwick, Peter E; McIntosh, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    Climbing is a popular wilderness sport among a wide variety of professional athletes and amateur enthusiasts, and many styles are performed across many environments. Potential risks confront climbers, including personal health or exacerbation of a chronic condition, in addition to climbing-specific risks or injuries. Although it is not common to perform a preparticipation evaluation (PPE) for climbing, a climber or a guide agency may request such an evaluation before participation. Formats from traditional sports PPEs can be drawn upon, but often do not directly apply. The purpose of this article was to incorporate findings from expert opinion from professional societies in wilderness medicine and in sports medicine, with findings from the literature of both climbing epidemiology and traditional sports PPEs, into a general PPE that would be sufficient for the broad sport of climbing. The emphasis is on low altitude climbing, and an overview of different climbing styles is included. Knowledge of climbing morbidity and mortality, and a standardized approach to the PPE that involves adequate history taking and counseling have the potential for achieving risk reduction and will facilitate further study on the evaluation of the efficacy of PPEs.

  3. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Gene Electroporation into Skeletal Muscle as a Novel Gene Therapeutic Approach for Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tobinaga, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Furukawa, Katsuro; Abo, Takafumi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Miyazaki, Takuro; Koji, Takehiko

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a progressive disease with airspace destruction and an effective therapy is needed. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) promotes pulmonary epithelial proliferation and has the potential to induce lung regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using KGF gene therapy for treatment of a mouse emphysema model induced by porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Eight-week-old BALB/c male mice treated with intra-tracheal PPE administration were transfected with 80 μg of a recombinant human KGF (rhKGF)-expressing FLAG-CMV14 plasmid (pKGF-FLAG gene), or with the pFLAG gene expressing plasmid as a control, into the quadriceps muscle by electroporation. In the lung, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was augmented, and surfactant protein A (SP-A) and KGF receptor (KGFR) were co-expressed in PCNA-positive cells. Moreover, endogenous KGF and KGFR gene expression increased significantly by pKGF-FLAG gene transfection. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed that the PaO2 level was not significantly reduced on day 14 after PPE instillation with pKGF-FLAG gene transfection compared to that of normal mice. These results indicated that KGF gene therapy with electroporation stimulated lung epithelial proliferation and protected depression of pulmonary function in a mouse emphysema model, suggesting a possible method of treating pulmonary emphysema. PMID:26160987

  4. Synthesis and structures of four homochiral metal camphorates with auxiliary bipyridine ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, E.; Lian, Ting-Ting; Lin, Shen; Chen, Shu-Mei

    2011-12-01

    Four homochiral metal camphorates with auxiliary bipyridine ligands are hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. The structure of compound [Cd( D-Hcam) 2(bpa)(H 2O)] n ( 1; D-H 2cam = D-(+)-camphoric acid, bpa = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)-ethane) presents a rare case where the D-Hcam is not a bridging ligand, but a dangling unit attached to the infinite [Cd(bpa)] chain. Compounds [M 2( D-cam) 2(4,4'-bipy)(H 2O) 4] n (M = Co, 2; M = Cd, 3; 4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine) are isostructural and have homochiral [M( D-cam)] n chains linked by the 4,4'-bipy ligands into a honeycomb-like 6 3 layer. Compound [Zn 2( D-cam) 2(PPE) 2] n ( 4, PPE = 1-(4-pyridyl)-2-(2-pyridyl)-ethylene) consists of the grid-like 4 4 layers with the dinuclear Zn 2(COO) 4 units and D-cam ligands, where the PPE ligands are only monodentately coordinated to the dinuclear units and act as the separators between two homochiral layers. The results demonstrate the rich coordination chemistry of the enantiopure D-camphorate ligand and the structural diversity of metal-camphorate compounds.

  5. Hearing protector use in noise-exposed workers: a retrospective look at 1983.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rickie R; Sieber, W Karl

    2002-01-01

    Although hearing protectors have been available for more than 60 years, little field surveillance has been done to assess their appropriate wear in noisy occupational environments. This study examined historical field survey data to determine whether workers use hearing protection when exposed to loud noise. Data from the 1981-83 NIOSH National Occupational Exposure Survey were analyzed to determine whether workers in noise greater than or equal to 85 dBA were using hearing protection. The study also looked at the effect of company personal protective equipment (PPE) policies on hearing protector compliance. This study found that, in 1981-83, an estimated 4.1 million industrial workers were exposed to noise greater than or equal to 85 dBA. Of these, 41% were wearing some form of hearing protection. This percentage varied from 79% of workers exposed in SIC 76 (Miscellaneous Repair Service) to less than 1% in Communications (SIC 48), Wholesale Trade Nondurable Goods (SIC 51), and Automotive Dealers & Service Stations (SIC 55). Whether an establishment had a written policy on wearing PPE seemed to make no difference, because there appeared to be no tie between the percentage of workers wearing of hearing protection and presence of a PPE policy. PMID:11975657

  6. Design of human surrogates for the study of biomechanical injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Payne, Thomas; Mitchell, Séan; Bibb, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Human surrogates are representations of living human structures employed to replicate "real-life" injurious scenarios in artificial environments. They are used primarily to evaluate personal protective equipment (PPE) or integrated safety systems (e.g., seat belts) in a wide range of industry sectors (e.g., automotive, military, security service, and sports equipment). Surrogates are commonly considered in five major categories relative to their form and functionality: human volunteers, postmortem human surrogates, animal surrogates, anthropomorphic test devices, and computational models. Each surrogate has its relative merits. Surrogates have been extensively employed in scenarios concerning "life-threatening" impacts (e.g., penetrating bullets or automotive accidents). However, more frequently occurring nonlethal injuries (e.g., fractures, tears, lacerations, contusions) often result in full or partial debilitation in contexts where optimal human performance is crucial (e.g., military, sports). Detailed study of these injuries requires human surrogates with superior biofidelity to those currently available if PPE designs are to improve. The opportunities afforded by new technologies, materials, instrumentation, and processing capabilities should be exploited to develop a new generation of more sophisticated human surrogates. This paper presents a review of the current state of the art in human surrogate construction, highlighting weaknesses and opportunities, to promote research into improved surrogates for PPE development. PMID:23510009

  7. Mis-modelling in Gravitational Wave Astronomy: The Trouble with Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Laura; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    Waveform templates are a powerful tool for extracting and characterizing gravitational wave signals. There are, however, attendant dangers in using these highly restrictive signal priors. If strong field gravity is not accurately described by General Relativity (GR), then using GR templates may result in fundamental bias in the recovered parameters, or worse - a complete failure to detect signals. Here we study such dangers, concentrating on three distinct possibilities. First, we show that there exist modified theories compatible with all existing tests that would fail to be detected by the LIGO/Virgo network using searches based on GR templates, but which would be detected using a one parameter post-Einsteinian extension. Second, we study modified theories that produce departures from GR that do not naively fit into the simplest parameterized post-Einsteinian (ppE) scheme. We show that even the simplest ppE templates are still capable of picking up these strange signals and diagnosing a departure from GR. Third, we study how using inspiral-only ppE waveforms for signals that include merger and ringdown can lead to problems in misidentifying a GR departure. We present an easy technique that allows us to self-consistently identify the inspiral portion of the signal.

  8. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  9. The effect of pomegranate mouthrinse on Streptococcus mutans count and salivary pH: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Umar, Dilshad; Dilshad, Bahija; Farhan, Mohammed; Ali, Arshiya; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Herbal mouthwashes have been considered to be a more advantageous option to their chemical counterparts, for a long-time. The use of pomegranate fruit dates from ancient times and reports of its therapeutic abilities have echoed throughout the ages. To evaluate the effect on the salivary pH and the Streptococcus mutans count in healthy subjects before and after pomegranate mouthrinse. Fifty healthy patients were randomly divided into two groups of 25 subjects each. Group A was treated with 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse; while Group B was treated with pomegranate peel extract (PPE) mouthrinse and the saliva samples were collected at three different intervals: Prerinse, after 10 min, and 60 min. The salivary pH was measured using a digital pH meter and the S. mutans count was determined by the commercial system Dentocult SM. The statistical analyses used in this study are Mann-Whitney U-test and t-test. PPE mouthrinse had an inhibitory effect on S. mutans count in adults. There was also an increase in the salivary pH after 10 min of the mouthrinse. PPE mouthrinse may be considered as a potential anticariogenic mouthrinse. PMID:26955605

  10. A Calculus-Level Introductory Physics Course with an Astronomy Theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Physics from Planet Earth (PPE) is a one-semester, calculus-based introductory course in classical mechanics intended for first year students of physics, chemistry, astronomy and engineering. Most of the core topics in mechanics are included, but many of the examples and applications are drawn from astronomy, space science, and astrophysics. The laws of physics are assigned the task of exploring the heavens - the same task addressed by Newton over 300 years ago at the birth of classical mechanics. How do we know the distance to the Moon, Sun, or other galaxies? How do we know the masses of the Earth, Sun, and other planets and stars, and why do we believe in "missing” mass? As a physics course, PPE concentrates on how we know rather than what we know. Examples and applications include those of historical importance (the Earth-Moon distance, the Earth-Sun distance, Ptolemaic vs. Copernican models, weighing the Earth) as well as those of contemporary interest (Hubble's Law, rocket propulsion, spacecraft gravity boosts, the Roche limit, search for extrasolar planets, orbital mechanics, pulsars, galactic rotation curves). The course has been taught successfully at Colgate for over a decade, using materials that have been developed and refined during the past 15 years. Developers of PPE are eager to enrich the course by identifying other topics in contemporary astronomy that can be adapted for the first year physics audience.

  11. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-06-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

  12. Effect of plasma etching on destructive adsorption properties of polypropylene fibers containing magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lange, Laura E; Obendorf, S Kay

    2012-02-01

    Dermal absorption of pesticides poses a danger for agricultural workers. Use of personal protection equipment (PPE) is required to provide protection; some of the current PPE involves impermeable barriers. In these barrier materials, the same mechanism that prevents the penetration of toxic chemicals also blocks the passage of water vapor and air from flowing through the material, making the garments uncomfortable. Fibers that degrade organophosphate pesticides, such as methyl parathion, were developed by incorporating metal oxides. These modified fibers can be incorporated into conventional fabric structures that allow water vapor to pass through, thereby maintaining comfort. Fibers with self-decontamination functionality were developed by incorporating magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles into a polypropylene (PP) melt-extruded fiber. These fibers were then treated with plasma etching to expose increased surface area of the MgO nanoparticles. Three steps were involved in this research project: (1) determining the reactivity of MgO and methyl parathion, (2) making melt-spun MgO/PP fibers, and (3) testing the reactivity of MgO/PP composite fibers and methyl parathion. It was confirmed that MgO stoichiometrically degrades methyl parathion by way of destructive adsorption. The etching of the PP fibers containing MgO nanoparticles increased the chemical accessibility of MgO reactive sites, therefore making them more effective in degrading methyl parathion. These fibers can enhance the protection provided by PPE to agricultural and horticultural workers and military personnel. PMID:21850511

  13. Monte carlo simulation of carboxylic acid phase equilibria.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Scott; Bolton, Kim; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2006-11-01

    Configurational-bias Monte Carlo simulations were carried out in the Gibbs ensemble to generate phase equilibrium data for several carboxylic acids. Pure component coexistence densities and saturated vapor pressures were determined for acetic acid, propanoic acid, 2-methylpropanoic acid, and pentanoic acid, and binary vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the propanoic acid + pentanoic acid and 2-methylpropanoic acid + pentanoic acid systems. The TraPPE-UA force field was used, as it has recently been extended to include parameters for carboxylic acids. To simulate the branched compound 2-methylpropanoic acid, certain minor assumptions were necessary regarding angle and torsion terms involving the -CH- pseudo-atom, since parameters for these terms do not exist in the TraPPE-UA force field. The pure component data showed good agreement with the available experimental data, particularly with regard to the saturated liquid densities (mean absolute errors were less than 1.1%). On average, the predicted critical temperature and density were within 1% of the experimental values. All of the binary simulations showed good agreement with the experimental x-y data. However, the TraPPE-UA force field predicts saturated vapor pressures of pure components that are larger than the experimental values, and consequently the P-x-y and T-x-y data of the binary systems also deviate from the measured data.

  14. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Gene Electroporation into Skeletal Muscle as a Novel Gene Therapeutic Approach for Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Emphysema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tobinaga, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Furukawa, Katsuro; Abo, Takafumi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Miyazaki, Takuro; Koji, Takehiko

    2015-06-29

    Pulmonary emphysema is a progressive disease with airspace destruction and an effective therapy is needed. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) promotes pulmonary epithelial proliferation and has the potential to induce lung regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using KGF gene therapy for treatment of a mouse emphysema model induced by porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Eight-week-old BALB/c male mice treated with intra-tracheal PPE administration were transfected with 80 μg of a recombinant human KGF (rhKGF)-expressing FLAG-CMV14 plasmid (pKGF-FLAG gene), or with the pFLAG gene expressing plasmid as a control, into the quadriceps muscle by electroporation. In the lung, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was augmented, and surfactant protein A (SP-A) and KGF receptor (KGFR) were co-expressed in PCNA-positive cells. Moreover, endogenous KGF and KGFR gene expression increased significantly by pKGF-FLAG gene transfection. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed that the PaO2 level was not significantly reduced on day 14 after PPE instillation with pKGF-FLAG gene transfection compared to that of normal mice. These results indicated that KGF gene therapy with electroporation stimulated lung epithelial proliferation and protected depression of pulmonary function in a mouse emphysema model, suggesting a possible method of treating pulmonary emphysema.

  15. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Park, Huiju; Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Taylor, Nigel A S; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying 'a location monitoring system' as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred 'an automatic body cooling system' while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally 'an automatic body cooling system' and 'a wireless communication system'. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: 'a location monitoring system', 'an automatic body cooling system', 'a wireless communication system', and 'a vision support system'. The least preferred elements were 'an automatic body warming system' and 'a voice recording system'. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE. PMID:26027710

  16. Proper use of surgical n95 respirators and surgical masks in the OR.

    PubMed

    Benson, Stacey M; Novak, Debra A; Ogg, Mary J

    2013-04-01

    Proper adherence to infection control precautions, including appropriate selection and use of personal protective equipment (PPE), is of significant importance to the health and well-being of perioperative personnel. Surgical masks are intended for use as a barrier to protect the wearer's face from large droplets and splashes of blood and other body fluids; however, surgical and high-filtration surgical laser masks do not provide enough protection to be considered respiratory PPE. Potential exposure to airborne contaminants and infectious agents, including those present in surgical smoke, necessitates the use of respiratory PPE, such as a surgical N95 particulate filtering facepiece respirator. Filtering facepiece respirators greatly reduce a wide size range of particles from entering the wearer's breathing zone and are designed to protect the user from both droplet and airborne particles. Every health care worker who must use a respirator to control hazardous exposures in the workplace must be trained to properly use the respirator and pass a fit test before using it in the workplace. PMID:23531312

  17. Thermolysis of surface-immobilized phenethyl phenyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Hitsman, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    Our research has focused on modeling the constraints on free-radical reactions that might be imposed in coal as a consequence of its cross-linked macromolecular structure by covalently bonding diphenylalkanes to an inert silica surface. A surface-immobilized phenethyl phenyl ether ({approx}PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}POh, or {approx}PPE-3) has been prepared as a model for ether linkages in lignin by the condensation of p-HOPhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh with the surface hydroxyls of a high purity fumed silica. Thermolysis of {approx}PPE-3 at saturation surface coverage at 375{degree}C produces {approx}PhCH = CH{sub 2} and PhOH as the major products which are consistent with the proposed free-radical chain mechanism for the decomposition of fluid-phase phenethyl phenyl ether. However, significant quantities of {approx}PhCH{sub 3} and PhCHO (ca. 18% of the products) are produced indicating the emergence of a new reaction pathway on the surface. The mechanism for the decomposition of {approx}PPE-3 will be discussed in light of this new information. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Peucedanum Pastinacifolium Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Sajjadi, S. Ebrahim; Moknatjou, Reza

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus, significantly contributing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Peucedanum pastinacifolium Boiss. & Hausskn. is commonly used as an antihyperlipidemic vegetable in Iranian folk medicine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, we examined a hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Peucedanum pastinacifolium to determine its lipid-lowering activity in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin. Normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were separated into four groups. The groups were fed with 0, 125, 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight of Peucedanum Pastinacifolium hydroalcoholic Extract (PPE) in aqueous solution for 30 days. RESULTS: The results show that there were significant (P < 0.05) increases in total serum cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with PPE over a period of a month returned these levels close to control levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PPE has hypolipidemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:20613940

  19. Regional fractional ventilation mapping in spontaneously breathing mice using hyperpolarized ¹²⁹Xe MRI.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hirohiko; Matsumoto, Hironobu; Miyakoshi, Erika; Okumura, Shintaro; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Kimura, Atsuomi

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of ventilation imaging with hyperpolarized (HP) (129) Xe MRI has been investigated for quantitative and regional assessment of ventilation in spontaneously breathing mice. The multiple breath ventilation imaging technique was modified to the protocol of spontaneous inhalation of HP (129) Xe delivered continuously from a (129) Xe polarizer. A series of (129) Xe ventilation images was obtained by varying the number of breaths before the (129) Xe lung imaging. The fractional ventilation, r, was successfully evaluated for spontaneously breathing mice. An attempt was made to detect ventilation dysfunction in the emphysematous mouse lung induced by intratracheal administration of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). As a result, the distribution of fractional ventilation could be visualized by the r map. Significant dysfunction of ventilation was quantitatively identified in the PPE-treated group. The whole-lung r value of 0.34 ± 0.01 for control mice (N = 4) was significantly reduced, to 0.25 ± 0.07, in PPE-treated mice (N = 4) (p = 0.038). This study is the first application of multiple breath ventilation imaging to spontaneously breathing mice, and shows that this methodology is sensitive to differences in the pulmonary ventilation. This methodology is expected to improve simplicity as well as noninvasiveness when assessing regional ventilation in small rodents.

  20. Functionalizing CNTs for Making Epoxy/CNT Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jian; Rajagopal, Ramasubramaniam

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with linear molecular side chains of polyphenylene ether (PPE) has been shown to be effective in solubilizing the CNTs in the solvent components of solutions that are cast to make epoxy/CNT composite films. (In the absence of solubilization, the CNTs tend to clump together instead of becoming dispersed in solution as needed to impart, to the films, the desired CNT properties of electrical conductivity and mechanical strength.) Because the PPE functionalizes the CNTs in a noncovalent manner, the functionalization does not damage the CNTs. The functionalization can also be exploited to improve the interactions between CNTs and epoxy matrices to enhance the properties of the resulting composite films. In addition to the CNTs, solvent, epoxy resin, epoxy hardener, and PPE, a properly formulated solution also includes a small amount of polycarbonate, which serves to fill voids that, if allowed to remain, would degrade the performance of the film. To form the film, the solution is drop-cast or spin-cast, then the solvent is allowed to evaporate.

  1. Design of human surrogates for the study of biomechanical injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Payne, Thomas; Mitchell, Séan; Bibb, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Human surrogates are representations of living human structures employed to replicate "real-life" injurious scenarios in artificial environments. They are used primarily to evaluate personal protective equipment (PPE) or integrated safety systems (e.g., seat belts) in a wide range of industry sectors (e.g., automotive, military, security service, and sports equipment). Surrogates are commonly considered in five major categories relative to their form and functionality: human volunteers, postmortem human surrogates, animal surrogates, anthropomorphic test devices, and computational models. Each surrogate has its relative merits. Surrogates have been extensively employed in scenarios concerning "life-threatening" impacts (e.g., penetrating bullets or automotive accidents). However, more frequently occurring nonlethal injuries (e.g., fractures, tears, lacerations, contusions) often result in full or partial debilitation in contexts where optimal human performance is crucial (e.g., military, sports). Detailed study of these injuries requires human surrogates with superior biofidelity to those currently available if PPE designs are to improve. The opportunities afforded by new technologies, materials, instrumentation, and processing capabilities should be exploited to develop a new generation of more sophisticated human surrogates. This paper presents a review of the current state of the art in human surrogate construction, highlighting weaknesses and opportunities, to promote research into improved surrogates for PPE development.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Investigation of the Substrate Binding Mechanism in Carboxylesterase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Qi; Luan, Zheng-Jiao; Cheng, Xiaolin; Xu, Jian-He

    2015-02-25

    A recombinant carboxylesterase, cloned from Pseudomonas putida and designated as rPPE, is capable of catalyzing the bioresolution of racemic 2-acetoxy-2-(2 -chlorophenyl)acetate (rac-AcO-CPA) with excellent (S)-enantioselectivity. Semi-rational design of the enzyme showed that the W187H variant could increase the activity by ~100-fold compared to the wild type (WT) enzyme. In this study, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both apo-rPPE and rPPE in complex with (S)-AcO-CPA to gain insights into the origin of the increased catalysis in the W187H mutant. Moreover, our results show differential binding of (S)-AcO-CPA in the WT and W187H enzymes, especially the interactions of themore » substrate with the two active site residues Ser159 and His286. The replacement of Trp187 by His leads to considerable structural rearrangement in the active site of W187H. Unlike in the WT rPPE, the cap domain in the W187 mutant shows an open conformation in the simulations of both apo and substrate-bound enzymes. This open conformation exposes the catalytic triad to the solvent through a water accessible channel, which may facilitate the entry of the substrate and/or the exit of the product. Binding free energy calculations confirmed that the substrate binds more strongly in W187H than in WT. Based on these computational results, furthermore, we predicted that the mutations W187Y and D287G might also be able to increase the substrate binding, thus improve the enzyme s catalytic efficiency. Experimental binding and kinetic assays on W187Y and D287G show improved catalytic efficiency over WT, but not W187H. Contrary to our prediction, W187Y shows slightly decreased substrate binding coupled with a 100 fold increase in turn-over rate, while in D287G the substrate binding is 8 times stronger but with a slightly reduced turn-over rate. Finally, our work provides important molecular-level insights into the binding of the (S)-AcO-CPA substrate to carboxylesterase r

  3. Molecular Dynamics Investigation of the Substrate Binding Mechanism in Carboxylesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qi; Luan, Zheng-Jiao; Cheng, Xiaolin; Xu, Jian-He

    2015-02-25

    A recombinant carboxylesterase, cloned from Pseudomonas putida and designated as rPPE, is capable of catalyzing the bioresolution of racemic 2-acetoxy-2-(2 -chlorophenyl)acetate (rac-AcO-CPA) with excellent (S)-enantioselectivity. Semi-rational design of the enzyme showed that the W187H variant could increase the activity by ~100-fold compared to the wild type (WT) enzyme. In this study, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of both apo-rPPE and rPPE in complex with (S)-AcO-CPA to gain insights into the origin of the increased catalysis in the W187H mutant. Moreover, our results show differential binding of (S)-AcO-CPA in the WT and W187H enzymes, especially the interactions of the substrate with the two active site residues Ser159 and His286. The replacement of Trp187 by His leads to considerable structural rearrangement in the active site of W187H. Unlike in the WT rPPE, the cap domain in the W187 mutant shows an open conformation in the simulations of both apo and substrate-bound enzymes. This open conformation exposes the catalytic triad to the solvent through a water accessible channel, which may facilitate the entry of the substrate and/or the exit of the product. Binding free energy calculations confirmed that the substrate binds more strongly in W187H than in WT. Based on these computational results, furthermore, we predicted that the mutations W187Y and D287G might also be able to increase the substrate binding, thus improve the enzyme s catalytic efficiency. Experimental binding and kinetic assays on W187Y and D287G show improved catalytic efficiency over WT, but not W187H. Contrary to our prediction, W187Y shows slightly decreased substrate binding coupled with a 100 fold increase in turn-over rate, while in D287G the substrate binding is 8 times stronger but with a slightly reduced turn-over rate. Finally, our work provides important molecular-level insights into the binding of the (S)-AcO-CPA substrate to carboxylesterase r

  4. A Duplicated ESAT-6 Region of ESX-5 Is Involved in Protein Export and Virulence of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Swati; Cannon, Joe R.; Fenselau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The ESX-5 secretion system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is important for bacterial virulence and for the secretion of the large PE/PPE protein family, whose genes constitute 10% of the M. tuberculosis genome. A four-gene region of the ESX-5 system is duplicated three times in the M. tuberculosis genome, but the functions of these duplicates are unknown. Here we investigated one of these duplicates: the region carrying the esxI, esxJ, ppe15, and pe8 genes (ESX-5a). An ESX-5a deletion mutant in the model system M. marinum background was deficient in the secretion of some members of the PE/PPE family of proteins. Surprisingly, we also identified other proteins that are not members of this family, thus expanding the range of ESX-5 secretion substrates. In addition, we demonstrated that ESX-5a is important for the virulence of M. marinum in the zebrafish model. Furthermore, we showed the role of the M. tuberculosis ESX-5a region in inflammasome activation but not host cell death induction, which is different from the case for the M. tuberculosis ESX-5 system. In conclusion, the ESX-5a region is nonredundant with its ESX-5 paralog and is necessary for secretion of a specific subset of proteins in M. tuberculosis and M. marinum that are important for bacterial virulence of M. marinum. Our findings point to a role for the three ESX-5 duplicate regions in the selection of substrates for secretion via ESX-5, and hence, they provide the basis for a refined model of the molecular mechanism of this type VII secretion system. PMID:26303392

  5. Risks to health professionals from hazardous drugs in Iran: a pilot study of understanding of healthcare team to occupational exposure to cytotoxics

    PubMed Central

    Shahrasbi, Abdol ali; Afshar, Minoo; Shokraneh, Farnaz; Monji, Faezeh; Noroozi, Mahjabin; Ebrahimi-Khojin, Maryam; Madani, Seyed Farzam; Ahadi-Barzoki, Mehdi; Rajabi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing concerns exist regarding the dangers inherent when handling cytotoxics, particularly drugs which are in parenteral formulations. On occasions, nurses and medical doctors have been preparing and administrating these drugs in the open spaces of wards in the absence of suitable personal protective equipment (PPE) and safety cabinets. To explore further into the severity of occupational hazards, we conducted our research in order to evaluate the healthcare’s understanding of occupational exposure to cytotoxics and occurrence of any side effects. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was distributed amongst oncology nurses in nine specialized cancer centers in Tehran. The questionnaire was based on most reputable international guidelines, aiming to evaluate the attitude, knowledge and safe practices of nurses' handling cytotoxic drugs. The gathered data and reported side effects were compared between “oncology/hematology” and “non-oncology” participants. The majority of nurses from oncology wards were aware of the potential hazards associated with handling of chemotherapy and reported high levels of compliance with the use of PPE during reconstitution of antineoplastic agents. Almost all nurses reported the use of a safety cabinet during preparation, however only 55 % reported that they have annual medical checkups and 45 % reported having received specialized training. This work was also to evaluate the experimental procedures as well as cleaning solutions used to reduce the level exposure. While the level of knowledge about antineoplastic agents is high among nurses, along with the level of PPE use, medical surveillance and employee training seems to be lagging behind. PMID:26417276

  6. Investigation of Biodiesel Through Photopyroelectric and Dielectric-Constant Measurements as a Function of Temperature: Freezing/Melting Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanelato, E. B.; Machado, F. A. L.; Rangel, A. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; Vargas, H.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    Biodiesel is a promising option for alternative fuels since it derives from natural and renewable materials; it is biodegradable and less polluting than fossil fuels. A gradual replacement of diesel by biodiesel has been adopted by many countries, making necessary the investigation of the physical properties of biodiesel and of its mixture in diesel. Photothermal techniques, specifically the photopyroelectric technique (PPE), have proved to be suitable in the characterization of biodiesel and of its precursor oils, as well as of the biodiesel/diesel mixtures. In this paper, we investigate thermal and electrical properties of animal fat-based biodiesel as a function of temperature, aiming to characterize the freezing/melting interval and the changes in the physical properties from the solid to the liquid phase. The samples were prepared using the transesterification method, by the ethylic route. Optical transmittance experiments were carried out in order to confirm the phase transition interval. Solid and liquid phases present distinct thermal diffusivities and conductivities, as well as dielectric constants. The PPE signal amplitude is governed by the changes in the thermal diffusivity/conductivity. As a consequence, the amplitude of the signal becomes like a step function, which is smoothed and sometimes delayed by the nucleation processes during cooling. A similar behavior is found in the dielectric constant data, which is higher in the liquid phase since the molecules have a higher degree of freedom. Both methods (PPE/dielectric constant) proved to be useful in the characterization of the freezing/melting interval, as well as to establish the distinction in the physical properties of solid and liquid phases. The methodology allowed a discussion of the cloud point and the pour point of the samples in the temperature variation interval.

  7. Factors associated with severe occupational injuries at mining company in Zimbabwe, 2010: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chimamise, Chipo; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Chadambuka, Addmore; Shambira, Gerald; Chimusoro, Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Injury rate among mining workers in Zimbabwe was 789/1000 workers in 2008. The proportion of severe occupational injuries increased from 18% in 2008 to 37% in 2009. We investigated factors associated with severe injuries at the mine. Methods An unmatched 1:1 case-control study was carried out at the mine, a case was any worker who suffered severe occupational injury at the mine and was treated at the mine or district hospital from January 2008 to April 2010, a control was any worker who did not suffer occupational injury during same period. We randomly selected 156 cases and 156 controls and used interviewer administered questionnaires to collect data from participants. Results Majority of cases, 155(99.4%) and of controls 142(91%) were male, 127(81.4%) of cases and 48(30.8%) of controls worked underground. Majority (73.1%) of severe occupational injuries occurred during night shift. Underground temperatures reached 500C. Factors independently associated with getting severe occupational injuries included working underground (AOR = 10.55; CI 5.97-18.65), having targets per shift (AOR = 12.60; CI 3.46-45.84), inadequate PPE (AOR= 3.65 CI 1.34-9.89) and working more than 8 hours per shift (AOR = 8.65 CI 2.99-25.02). Conclusion Having targets exerts pressure to perform on workers. Prolonged working periods decrease workers’ attention and concentration resulting in increased risk to severe injuries as workers become exhausted, lose focus and alertness. Underground work environment had environmental hazards so managers to install adequate ventilation and provide adequate PPE. Management agreed to standardize shifts to eight hours and workers in some departments have been supplied with adequate PPE. PMID:23504270

  8. Pinatubo Emulation in Multiple Models (POEMs): co-ordinated experiments in the ISA-MIP model intercomparison activity component of the SPARC Stratospheric Sulphur and it's Role in Climate initiative (SSiRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lindsay; Mann, Graham; Carslaw, Ken; Toohey, Matthew; Aquila, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The World Climate Research Program's SPARC initiative has a new international activity "Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate" (SSiRC) to better understand changes in stratospheric aerosol and precursor gaseous sulphur species. One component of SSiRC involves an intercomparison "ISA-MIP" of composition-climate models that simulate the stratospheric aerosol layer interactively. Within PoEMS each modelling group will run a "perturbed physics ensemble" (PPE) of interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA) simulations of the Pinatubo eruption, varying several uncertain parameters associated with the eruption's SO2 emissions and model processes. A powerful new technique to quantify and attribute sources of uncertainty in complex global models is described by Lee et al. (2011, ACP). The analysis uses Gaussian emulation to derive a probability density function (pdf) of predicted quantities, essentially interpolating the PPE results in multi-dimensional parameter space. Once trained on the ensemble, a Monte Carlo simulation with the fast Gaussian emulator enabling a full variance-based sensitivity analysis. The approach has already been used effectively by Carslaw et al., (2013, Nature) to quantify the uncertainty in the cloud albedo effect forcing from a 3D global aerosol-microphysics model allowing to compare the sensitivy of different predicted quantities to uncertainties in natural and anthropogenic emissions types, and structural parameters in the models. Within ISA-MIP, each group will carry out a PPE of runs, with the subsequent analysis with the emulator assessing the uncertainty in the volcanic forcings predicted by each model. In this poster presentation we will give an outline of the "PoEMS" analysis, describing the uncertain parameters to be varied and the relevance to further understanding differences identified in previous international stratospheric aerosol assessments.

  9. Using Computer Vision and Depth Sensing to Measure Healthcare Worker-Patient Contacts and Personal Protective Equipment Adherence Within Hospital Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junyang; Cremer, James F.; Zarei, Kasra; Segre, Alberto M.; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. We determined the feasibility of using computer vision and depth sensing to detect healthcare worker (HCW)-patient contacts to estimate both hand hygiene (HH) opportunities and personal protective equipment (PPE) adherence. Methods. We used multiple Microsoft Kinects to track the 3-dimensional movement of HCWs and their hands within hospital rooms. We applied computer vision techniques to recognize and determine the position of fiducial markers attached to the patient's bed to determine the location of the HCW's hands with respect to the bed. To measure our system's ability to detect HCW-patient contacts, we counted each time a HCW's hands entered a virtual rectangular box aligned with a patient bed. To measure PPE adherence, we identified the hands, torso, and face of each HCW on room entry, determined the color of each body area, and compared it with the color of gloves, gowns, and face masks. We independently examined a ground truth video recording and compared it with our system's results. Results. Overall, for touch detection, the sensitivity was 99.7%, with a positive predictive value of 98.7%. For gowned entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.15%. For masked entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.75%; for gloved entrances, the sensitivity was 86.21% and specificity was 98.28%. Conclusions. Using computer vision and depth sensing, we can estimate potential HH opportunities at the bedside and also estimate adherence to PPE. Our fine-grained estimates of how and how often HCWs interact directly with patients can inform a wide range of patient-safety research. PMID:26949712

  10. The effects of the king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii (higher Basidiomycetes) on glycemic control in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ping; Lei, Ya-li; Zhan, Huan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Pleurotus eryngii on glycemic metabolism. Alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice were used to study the effects of P. eryngii on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic β-cells, total antioxidant status (TAOS), and hepatic glycogen in hyperglycemic mice. Sixty diabetic mice were divided equally into 5 groups: the alloxan (AX)-induced hyperglycemic group, the AX and glibenclamide (GLI)-treated group, the AX and P. eryngii extracts (PEEs) 50-treated group (PEE 50 mg/kg), the AX and PEE100-treated group (PEE 100 mg/kg), and the AX and PEE200-treated group (PEE 200 mg/kg). The other 12 normal mice were injected intravenously with the normal saline and used as the control group. After PEE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice over 5 weeks, blood glucose and HbAlc were significantly decreased in AX-induced hyperglycemic mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), whereas the level of insulin secretion was markedly elevated in (P < 0.05). The pancreatic β-cells damaged by AX partially and gradually recovered after PPE extract was administered to the hyperglycemic mice for 35 days. In addition, PEE treatment gradually increased the body weight and significantly increased the concentration of hepatic glycogen in hyperglycemic mice (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the action of PPE on glycemic metabolism occurs via increasing glycogen and insulin concentrations as well as recovering injured β-cells and reducing free radical damage. PPE may become a new potential hypoglycemic food for hyperglycemic people. PMID:24941163

  11. Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions for the Pliocene (Plio-QUMP): Initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, J.O.; Collins, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.; Hunter, S.J.; Lunt, D.J.; Pickering, S.J.; Pound, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP; ~. 3.3 to 3.0. Ma BP) provides an excellent opportunity to test the ability of climate models to reproduce warm climate states, thereby assessing our confidence in model predictions. To do this it is necessary to relate the uncertainty in model simulations of mPWP climate to uncertainties in projections of future climate change. The uncertainties introduced by the model can be estimated through the use of a Perturbed Physics Ensemble (PPE). Developing on the UK Met Office Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) Project, this paper presents the results from an initial investigation using the end members of a PPE in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model (HadCM3) running with appropriate mPWP boundary conditions. Prior work has shown that the unperturbed version of HadCM3 may underestimate mPWP sea surface temperatures at higher latitudes. Initial results indicate that neither the low sensitivity nor the high sensitivity simulations produce unequivocally improved mPWP climatology relative to the standard. Whilst the high sensitivity simulation was able to reconcile up to 6 ??C of the data/model mismatch in sea surface temperatures in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (relative to the standard simulation), it did not produce a better prediction of global vegetation than the standard simulation. Overall the low sensitivity simulation was degraded compared to the standard and high sensitivity simulations in all aspects of the data/model comparison. The results have shown that a PPE has the potential to explore weaknesses in mPWP modelling simulations which have been identified by geological proxies, but that a 'best fit' simulation will more likely come from a full ensemble in which simulations that contain the strengths of the two end member simulations shown here are combined. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Depth profiling of mechanical degradation of PV backsheets after UV exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaohong; Krommenhoek, Peter J.; Lin, Chiao-Chi; Yu, Li-Chieh; Nguyen, Tinh; Watson, Stephanie S.

    2015-09-01

    Polymeric multilayer backsheets protect the photovoltaic modules from damage of moisture and ultraviolet (UV) while providing electrical insulation. Due to the multilayer structures, the properties of the inner layers of the backsheets, including their interfaces, during weathering are not well known. In this study, a commercial type of PPE (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/PET/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)) backsheet films was selected as a model system for a depth profiling study of mechanical properties of a backsheet film during UV exposure. The NIST SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) was used for the accelerated laboratory exposure of the materials with UV at 85°C and two relative humidities (RH) of 5 % (dry) and 60 % (humid). Cryomicrotomy was used to obtain cross-sectional PPE samples. Mechanical depth profiling of the cross-sections of aged and unaged samples was conducted by nanoindentation, and a peak-force based quantitative nanomechanical atomic force microscopy (QNM-AFM) mapping techniquewas used to investigate the microstructure and adhesion properties of the adhesive tie layers. The nanoindentation results show the stiffening of the elastic modulus in the PET outer and pigmented EVA layers. From QNM-AFM, the microstructures and adhesion properties of the adhesive layers between PET outer and core layers and between PET core and EVA inner layers are revealed and found to degrade significantly after aging under humidity environment. The results from mechanical depth profiling of the PPE backsheet are further related to the previous chemical depth profiling of the same material, providing new insights into the effects of accelerated UV and humidity on the degradation of multilayer backsheet.

  13. The initial management of trauma patients is an especially relevant setting to evaluate professional practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Harrois, A; Mertes, P-M; Tazarourte, K; Atchabahian, A; Duranteau, J; Langeron, O; Vigué, B

    2013-01-01

    The initial management of trauma patients in a dedicated location is a crucial step in the treatment of these patients. The characteristics of this phase are such that they meet all the criteria for a professional practice patterns evaluation (PPPE or PPE): formalized protocols, clear-cut timeframes, specific roles of different stakeholders, and multidisciplinary medical and paramedical team. In addition, the expected result of the PPE approach, improved care, will have a direct impact on patient outcomes. This PPE modeled on an audit aims at evaluating the care process based on representative criteria. These criteria should include: the planned structure and organization; the protocols; the strategy and time frames for procedure implementation; the relationships between stakeholders; the results. For each criterion, differences between the expected characteristics and the observed reality are analyzed. The prospective (independent observer or video) and/or retrospective (records, register) collection of data during 20 consecutive encounters should be sufficient to identify dysfunctions and provide guidance on the changes that need to be implemented. The proposed data collection form includes 15 items representative of the five defined criteria. These items often describe departmental choice. The pursuit of quality is defined first in terms of medical and paramedical results, but also in administrative and financial terms. Following the analysis produced by a representative group of actors, a multidisciplinary discussion of the results should be followed by proposals for simple changes approved by everyone. After a few months of implementation, the impact of the proposed improvement measures will be assessed by a new survey. This approach, in addition to improving the quality of care, allows better team stress management and greater work enjoyment. PMID:23916520

  14. Cracking and delamination behaviors of photovoltaic backsheet after accelerated laboratory weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Lyu, Yadong; Hunston, Donald L.; Kim, Jae Hyun; Wan, Kai-Tak; Stanley, Deborah L.; Gu, Xiaohong

    2015-09-01

    The channel crack and delamination phenomena that occurred during tensile tests were utilized to study surface cracking and delamination properties of a multilayered backsheet. A model sample of commercial PPE (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/PET/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)) backsheet was studied. Fragmentation testing was performed after accelerated aging with and without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in two relative humidity (RH) levels (5 % RH and 60 % RH) at elevated temperature (85 °C) conditions for 11 days and 22 days. Results suggest that the embrittled surface layer resulting from the UV photo-degradation is responsible for surface cracking when the strain applied on the sample is far below the yielding strain (2.2 %) of the PPE sample. There was no surface cracking observed on the un-aged sample and samples aged without UV irradiation. According to the fragmentation testing results, the calculated fracture toughness (KIC) values of the embrittled surface layer are as low as 0.027 MPa·m1/2 to 0.104 MPa·m1/2, depending on the humidity levels and aging times. Surface analysis using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared and atomic force microscopy shows the degradation mechanism of the embrittled surface layer is a combination of the photodegradation within a certain degradation depth and the moisture erosion effect depending on the moisture levels. Specifically, UV irradiation provides a chemical degradation effect while moisture plays a synergistic effect on surface erosion, which influences surface roughness after aging. Finally, there was no delamination observed during tensile testing in this study, suggesting the surface cracking problem is more significant than the delamination for the PPE backsheet material and conditions tested here.

  15. Health care workers and disaster preparedness: barriers to and facilitators of willingness to respond

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is limited research on preparation of health care workers for disasters. Prior research addressed systems-level responses rather than specific institutional and individual responses. Methods An anonymous online survey of hospital employees, who were grouped into clinical and non-clinical staff, was conducted. The objective of this study was to compare perceptions of clinical and non-clinical staff with regard to personal needs, willingness to report (WTR) to work, and level of confidence in the hospital‘s ability to protect safety and provide personal protective equipment (PPE) in the event of a disaster. Results A total of 5,790 employees were surveyed; 41 % responded (77 % were women and 63 % were clinical staff). Seventy-nine percent either strongly or somewhat agreed that they know what to do in the event of a disaster, and the majority was willing to report for duty in the event of a disaster. The most common barriers included ‘caring for children’ (55 %) and ‘caring for pets’ (34 %). Clinical staff was significantly more likely than non-clinical staff to endorse childcare responsibilities (58.9 % vs. 48 %) and caring for pets (36 % vs. 30 %, respectively) as barriers to WTR. Older age was a significant facilitator of WTR [odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95 % CI: 1.27-1.65]. Non-clinical staff was more confident in the hospital’s ability to protect safety and provide PPE compared to clinical staff (OR 1.43, 95 % CI: 1.15-1.78). Conclusion Clinical and non-clinical staff differ in the types of barriers to WTR endorsed, as well as their confidence in the hospital’s ability to provide them with PPE and guarantee their safety. PMID:22716272

  16. Metabolomics screening identifies reduced L-carnitine to be associated with progressive emphysema.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Thomas M; Bartel, Jörg; Ballweg, Korbinian; Günter, Stefanie; Prehn, Cornelia; Krumsiek, Jan; Meiners, Silke; Theis, Fabian J; Adamski, Jerzy; Eickelberg, Oliver; Yildirim, Ali Önder

    2016-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic bronchitis, small airway remodelling and emphysema. Emphysema is the destruction of alveolar structures, leading to enlarged airspaces and reduced surface area impairing the ability for gaseous exchange. To further understand the pathological mechanisms underlying progressive emphysema, we used MS-based approaches to quantify the lung, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum metabolome during emphysema progression in the established murine porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model on days 28, 56 and 161, compared with PBS controls. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed greater changes in the metabolome of lung followed by BALF rather than serum during emphysema progression. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that emphysema progression is associated with a reduction in lung-specific L-carnitine, a metabolite critical for transporting long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for their subsequent β-oxidation. In vitro, stimulation of the alveolar epithelial type II (ATII)-like LA4 cell line with L-carnitine diminished apoptosis induced by both PPE and H2O2. Moreover, PPE-treated mice demonstrated impaired lung function compared with PBS-treated controls (lung compliance; 0.067±0.008 ml/cmH20 compared with 0.035±0.005 ml/cmH20, P<0.0001), which improved following supplementation with L-carnitine (0.051±0.006, P<0.01) and was associated with a reduction in apoptosis. In summary, our results provide a new insight into the role of L-carnitine and, importantly, suggest therapeutic avenues for COPD.

  17. A novel CGRP-neutralizing Spiegelmer attenuates neurogenic plasma protein extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Hoehlig, K; Johnson, K W; Pryazhnikov, E; Maasch, C; Clemens-Smith, A; Purschke, W G; Vauléon, S; Buchner, K; Jarosch, F; Khiroug, L; Vater, A; Klussmann, S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays an important role in the pathology of migraine, and recent clinical trials suggest the inhibition of CGRP-mediated processes as a new therapeutic option in migraine. In this study, we describe the generation of NOX-L41, a CGRP-neutralizing mirror-image (l-)aptamer (Spiegelmer) and investigate its in vitro and in vivo function. Experimental Approach A CGRP-binding Spiegelmer was identified by in vitro selection. Binding studies were performed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and the inhibitory activity was determined in cell-based assays. The pharmacokinetic profile comparing i.v. and s.c. dosing was analysed in rats. Intravital two-photon microscopy was employed to follow extravasation from meningeal vessels. Finally, in vivo efficacy was tested in a model of electrically evoked meningeal plasma protein extravasation (PPE) in rats. Key Results We identified NOX-L41, a novel CGRP-neutralizing Spiegelmer. SPR studies showed that NOX-L41 binds to human and rat/mouse CGRP with sub-nanomolar affinities and is highly selective against related peptides such as amylin. In vitro, NOX-L41 effectively inhibited CGRP-induced cAMP formation in SK-N-MC cells. In rats, NOX-L41 had a plasma half-life of 8 h. Pharmacodynamic studies showed that NOX-L41 extravasates from blood vessels in the dura mater and inhibits neurogenic meningeal PPE for at least 18 h after single dosing. Conclusions and Implications This is the first description of the CGRP-neutralizing Spiegelmer NOX-L41. Preclinical studies confirmed a role for CGRP in neurogenic PPE and provided proof-of-concept for the potential use of this new drug candidate for the treatment or prevention of migraine. PMID:25659966

  18. Chemical depth profiling of photovoltaic backsheets after accelerated laboratory weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chiao-Chi; Krommenhoek, Peter J.; Watson, Stephanie S.; Gu, Xiaohong

    2014-10-01

    Polymeric multilayer backsheets provide protection for the backside of photovoltaic (PV) module from the damage of moisture and ultraviolet (UV). Due to the nature of multilayer films, certain material property characterization of a backsheet could only be studied by examining its cross-section parallel to the thickness direction of the film. In this study, commercial PPE (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/PET/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)) backsheet films were aged on the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) with UV irradiance at 170 W/m2 (300 nm to 400 nm) under accelerated weathering conditions of 85°C and two relative humidity (R.H.) levels of 5% (low) and 60% (high). Cryo-microtomy was used to obtain cross-sectional PPE samples with a flat surface parallel to the thickness direction, and chemical depth profiling of multilayers was conducted by Raman microscopic mapping. Atomic force microscopy with peak force tapping mode was used complementarily for cross-sectional imaging. The results revealed that the PPE backsheet films were comprised of five main layers, including pigmented-PET, core PET, inner EVA, pigmented-EVA and outer EVA, along with their interfacial regions and two adhesive layers. UV and moisture degradation on the outer pigmented PET layer was clearly observed; while the damage on the core PET layer was less significance, indicating that the outer pigmented PET layer effectively reduced the damage from UV. In high R.H. exposure, both adhesive layers were severely deteriorated. It was found that the EVA layers were susceptible to moisture at elevated temperature, especially for the pigmented-EVA. Based on the results of accelerated weathering, this depth profiling study brings new understanding to the mechanisms of failure observed in polymeric multilayer backsheets during field exposure.

  19. Respirator Use in a Hospital Setting: Establishing Surveillance Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, Mary I.; Ficken, Meredith E.; Lehmann, Christoph U.; Talbot, Thomas R.; Swift, Melanie D.; McGown, Paula W.; Wheaton, Robert F.; Bruer, Michele; Little, Steven W.; Oke, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Information that details use and supply of respirators in acute care hospitals is vital to prevent disease transmission, assure the safety of health care personnel, and inform national guidelines and regulations. Objective To develop measures of respirator use and supply in the acute care hospital setting to aid evaluation of respirator programs, allow benchmarking among hospitals, and serve as a foundation for national surveillance to enhance effective Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) use and management. Methods We identified existing regulations and guidelines that govern respirator use and supply at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC). Related routine and emergency hospital practices were documented through an investigation of hospital administrative policies, protocols, and programs. Respirator dependent practices were categorized based on hospital workflow: Prevention (preparation), patient care (response), and infection surveillance (outcomes). Associated data in information systems were extracted and their quality evaluated. Finally, measures representing major factors and components of respirator use and supply were developed. Results Various directives affecting multiple stakeholders govern respirator use and supply in hospitals. Forty-seven primary and secondary measures representing factors of respirator use and supply in the acute care hospital setting were derived from existing information systems associated with the implementation of these directives. Conclusion Adequate PPE supply and effective use that limit disease transmission and protect health care personnel are dependent on multiple factors associated with routine and emergency hospital practices. We developed forty-seven measures that may serve as the basis for a national PPE surveillance system, beginning with standardized measures of respirator use and supply for collection across different hospital types, sizes, and locations to inform hospitals, government agencies

  20. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE Proteins Rv0285 and Rv1386 Modulate Innate Immunity and Mediate Bacillary Survival in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Bhavana Mishra; Kannan, Nisha; Vemu, Lakshmi; Raghunand, Tirumalai R.

    2012-01-01

    The unique PE/PPE multigene family of proteins occupies almost 10% of the coding sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of human tuberculosis. Although some members of this family have been shown to be involved in pathways essential to M.tb pathogenesis, their precise physiological functions remain largely undefined. Here, we investigate the roles of the conserved members of the ‘PE only’ subfamily Rv0285 (PE5) and Rv1386 (PE15) in mediating host-pathogen interactions. Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strains expressing PE5 and PE15 showed enhanced survival vs controls in J774.1 and THP-1 macrophages - this increase in viable counts was correlated with a reduction in transcript levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase. An up-regulation of anti- and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels was also observed in infected macrophages implying an immuno-modulatory function for these proteins. Induction of IL-10 production upon infection of THP-1 macrophages was associated with increased phosphorylation of the MAP Kinases p38 and ERK1/2, which was abolished in the presence of the pharmacological inhibitors SB203580 and PD98059. The PE5-PPE4 and PE15-PPE20 gene pairs were observed to be co-operonic in M.tb, hinting at an additional level of complexity in the functioning of these proteins. We conclude that M.tb exploits the PE proteins to evade the host immune response by altering the Th1 and Th2 type balance thereby favouring in vivo bacillary survival. PMID:23284742

  1. Using Computer Vision and Depth Sensing to Measure Healthcare Worker-Patient Contacts and Personal Protective Equipment Adherence Within Hospital Rooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junyang; Cremer, James F; Zarei, Kasra; Segre, Alberto M; Polgreen, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  We determined the feasibility of using computer vision and depth sensing to detect healthcare worker (HCW)-patient contacts to estimate both hand hygiene (HH) opportunities and personal protective equipment (PPE) adherence. Methods.  We used multiple Microsoft Kinects to track the 3-dimensional movement of HCWs and their hands within hospital rooms. We applied computer vision techniques to recognize and determine the position of fiducial markers attached to the patient's bed to determine the location of the HCW's hands with respect to the bed. To measure our system's ability to detect HCW-patient contacts, we counted each time a HCW's hands entered a virtual rectangular box aligned with a patient bed. To measure PPE adherence, we identified the hands, torso, and face of each HCW on room entry, determined the color of each body area, and compared it with the color of gloves, gowns, and face masks. We independently examined a ground truth video recording and compared it with our system's results. Results.  Overall, for touch detection, the sensitivity was 99.7%, with a positive predictive value of 98.7%. For gowned entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.15%. For masked entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.75%; for gloved entrances, the sensitivity was 86.21% and specificity was 98.28%. Conclusions.  Using computer vision and depth sensing, we can estimate potential HH opportunities at the bedside and also estimate adherence to PPE. Our fine-grained estimates of how and how often HCWs interact directly with patients can inform a wide range of patient-safety research.

  2. Upper body cooling during exercise-heat stress wearing the improved toxicological agent protective system for HAZMAT operations.

    PubMed

    Cadarette, Bruce S; Levine, Leslie; Staab, Janet E; Kolka, Margaret A; Correa, Matthew M; Whipple, Matthew; Sawka, Michael N

    2003-01-01

    This study compared endurance in a U.S. Army developmental Occupational Safety and Health Administration Level B personal protective equipment (PPE) system against the toxicological agent protective (TAP) suit, the Army's former standard PPE for Level A and Level B toxic environments. The developmental system consisted of two variations: the improved toxicological agent protective (ITAP) suit with self-contained breathing apparatus (ITAP-SCBA), weight 32 kg, and the ITAP with blower (ITAP-B), weight 21 kg. Both ITAP suits included the personal ice cooling system (PICS). TAP (weight 9.5 kg) had no cooling. It was hypothesized that PICS would effectively cool both ITAP configurations, and endurance in TAP would be limited by heat strain. Eight subjects (six men, two women) attempted three 2-hour treadmill walks (0.89 m/sec, 0% grade, rest/exercise cycles of 10/20 min) at 38 degrees C, 30% relative humidity. Metabolic rate for TAP (222+/-35 W) was significantly less than either ITAP-SCBA (278+/-27 W) or ITAP-B (262+/-24 W) (p<0.05). Endurance time was longer in ITAP-SCBA (85+/-20 min) and ITAP-B (87+/-25 min) than in TAP (46+/-10 min) (p<0.05). Heat storage was greater in TAP (77+/-15 W.m(-2)) than in ITAP-SCBA (51+/-16 W.m(-2)) (p<0.05), which was not different from ITAP-B (59+/-14 W.m(-2)). Sweating rate was greater in TAP (23.5+/-11.7 g/min(1)) than in either ITAP-SCBA (11.1+/-2.9 g/min) or ITAP-B (12.8+/-3.5 g/min) (p<0.05). Endurance in ITAP was nearly twice as long as in PPE with no cooling, even though the PICS, SCBA tanks, and new uniform itself all served to increase metabolic cost over that in TAP. PICS could also be used with civilian Levels A and B PPE increasing work time and worker safety.

  3. Measurement of effective piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films for energy harvesting application with interdigitated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Nachiappan; Mazzalai, Andrea; Muralt, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) systems with lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films play an increasingly important role for two reasons: first, such a configuration generates higher voltages than parallel plate capacitor-type electrode (PPE) structures, and second, the application of an electric field leads to a compressive stress component in addition to the overall stress state, unlike a PPE structure, which results in tensile stress component. Because ceramics tend to crack at relatively moderate tensile stresses, this means that IDEs have a lower risk of cracking than PPEs. For these reasons, IDE systems are ideal for energy harvesting of vibration energy, and for actuators. Systematic investigations of PZT films with IDE systems have not yet been undertaken. In this work, we present results on the evaluation of the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients with IDE systems. Additionally, we also propose a simple and measurable figure of merit (FOM) to analyze and evaluate the relevant piezoelectric parameter for harvesting efficiency without the need to fabricate the energy harvesting device. Idealized effective coefficients e(IDE) and h(IDE) are derived, showing its composite nature with about one-third contribution of the transverse effect, and about two-thirds contribution of the longitudinal effect in the case of a PZT film deposited on a (100)-oriented silicon wafer with the in-plane electric field along one of the <011> Si directions. Randomly oriented 1-μm-thick PZT 53/47 film deposited by a sol-gel technique, was evaluated and yielded an effective coefficient e(IDE) of 15 C·m(-2). Our FOM is the product between effective e and h coefficient representing twice the electrical energy density stored in the piezoelectric film per unit strain deformation (both for IDE and PPE systems). Assuming homogeneous fields between the fingers, and neglecting the contribution from below the electrode fingers, the FOM for IDE structures with larger electrode gap is derived

  4. Comparative Genomics and Proteomic Analysis of Four Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium Species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex: Occurrence of Shared Immunogenic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Michel, Anita; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Rutten, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The Esx and PE/PPE families of proteins are among the most immunodominant mycobacterial antigens and have thus been the focus of research to develop vaccines and immunological tests for diagnosis of bovine and human tuberculosis, mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. In non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), multiple copies of genes encoding homologous proteins have mainly been identified in pathogenic Mycobacterium species phylogenically related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Only ancestral copies of these genes have been identified in nonpathogenic NTM species like Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium sp. KMS, Mycobacterium sp. MCS, and Mycobacterium sp. JLS. In this study we elucidated the genomes of four nonpathogenic NTM species, viz Mycobacterium komanii sp. nov., Mycobacterium malmesburii sp. nov., Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, and Mycobacterium fortuitum ATCC 6841. These genomes were investigated for genes encoding for the Esx and PE/PPE (situated in the esx cluster) family of proteins as well as adjacent genes situated in the ESX-1 to ESX-5 regions. To identify proteins actually expressed, comparative proteomic analyses of purified protein derivatives from three of the NTM as well as Mycobacterium kansasii ATCC 12478 and the commercially available purified protein derivatives from Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium was performed. The genomic analysis revealed the occurrence in each of the four NTM, orthologs of the genes encoding for the Esx family, the PE and PPE family proteins in M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. The identification of genes of the ESX-1, ESX-3, and ESX-4 region including esxA, esxB, ppe68, pe5, and pe35 adds to earlier reports of these genes in nonpathogenic NTM like M. smegmatis, Mycobacterium sp. JLS and Mycobacterium KMS. This report is also the first to identify esxN gene situated within the ESX-5 locus in M. nonchromogenicum. Our proteomics analysis

  5. Optimizing Treatment of Intra-amniotic Infection and Early-Onset Postpartum Endometritis: Advantages of Single-Agent Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stiglich, Norma; Alston, Meredith; vanSwam, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-amniotic infection (IAI) and early-onset postpartum endometritis (PPE) require prompt antibiotic treatment and are generally treated by either of two regimens. A complicated multi-agent regimen is most commonly used, despite a lack of clear evidence that it produces better outcomes than a simpler single-agent regimen. Objective: We compared treatment outcomes between a multi-agent regimen of ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin versus a single-agent regimen of ampicillin/sulbactam for IAI and early-onset PPE. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study by collecting data from the records of all patients at Denver Health Medical Center treated for IAI or PPE during two 6-month periods: a baseline period during which a regimen of ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin was used and a subsequent period when ampicillin/sulbactam was used. Primary outcomes were prolonged antibiotic treatment and readmission for endometritis or wound cellulitis. Results: Of potential study participants, 323 women met inclusion criteria; 179 were treated with the multi-agent regimen and 144 were treated with the single-agent regimen. The groups were statistically similar for demographic and intrapartum characteristics, except for a lower rate of premature rupture of membranes in the single-agent treatment group. Twelve patients required prolonged treatment, and 2 were readmitted; these subgroups were combined for statistical analyses. The primary outcomes were significantly associated with cesarean delivery and blood loss >500 mL for vaginal deliveries and >1000 mL for cesarean deliveries; however, there was no significant difference in the incidence of the primary outcomes between the 2 treatment groups when adjusted for these variables. Treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam resulted in fewer antibiotic doses administered to patients with an uncomplicated treatment course. Conclusion: Ampicillin/sulbactam treatment of IAI and early-onset PPE

  6. Comparative Genomics and Proteomic Analysis of Four Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium Species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex: Occurrence of Shared Immunogenic Proteins.

    PubMed

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Michel, Anita; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Rutten, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The Esx and PE/PPE families of proteins are among the most immunodominant mycobacterial antigens and have thus been the focus of research to develop vaccines and immunological tests for diagnosis of bovine and human tuberculosis, mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. In non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), multiple copies of genes encoding homologous proteins have mainly been identified in pathogenic Mycobacterium species phylogenically related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Only ancestral copies of these genes have been identified in nonpathogenic NTM species like Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium sp. KMS, Mycobacterium sp. MCS, and Mycobacterium sp. JLS. In this study we elucidated the genomes of four nonpathogenic NTM species, viz Mycobacterium komanii sp. nov., Mycobacterium malmesburii sp. nov., Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum, and Mycobacterium fortuitum ATCC 6841. These genomes were investigated for genes encoding for the Esx and PE/PPE (situated in the esx cluster) family of proteins as well as adjacent genes situated in the ESX-1 to ESX-5 regions. To identify proteins actually expressed, comparative proteomic analyses of purified protein derivatives from three of the NTM as well as Mycobacterium kansasii ATCC 12478 and the commercially available purified protein derivatives from Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium was performed. The genomic analysis revealed the occurrence in each of the four NTM, orthologs of the genes encoding for the Esx family, the PE and PPE family proteins in M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. The identification of genes of the ESX-1, ESX-3, and ESX-4 region including esxA, esxB, ppe68, pe5, and pe35 adds to earlier reports of these genes in nonpathogenic NTM like M. smegmatis, Mycobacterium sp. JLS and Mycobacterium KMS. This report is also the first to identify esxN gene situated within the ESX-5 locus in M. nonchromogenicum. Our proteomics analysis

  7. Solubility of methane in water: the significance of the methane-water interaction potential.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Oliver; Lankau, Timm

    2005-12-15

    The influence of the methane-water interaction potential on the value of the Henry constant obtained from molecular dynamics simulations was investigated. The SPC, SPC/E, MSPC/E, and TIP3P potentials were used to describe water and the OPLS-UA and TraPPE potentials for methane. Nonbonding interactions between unlike atoms were calculated both with one of four mixing rules and with our new methane-water interaction potential. The Henry constants obtained from simulations using any of the mixing rules differed significantly from the experimental ones. Good agreement between simulation and experiment was achieved with the new potential over the whole temperature range. PMID:16375336

  8. Structure dependence of lasing action in organic polymer films on DFB gratings for dinitrotoluene vapor detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiufeng; Qiu, Keqiang; He, Shengnan; Liu, Honglin; Liu, Zhengkun; Hong, Yilin; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-06-20

    Structure effects of distributed feedback (DFB) gratings on lasing action have been investigated for detecting explosive vapors. For the first time, we have established the optimized profiles of the DFB grating, and given the theoretical path to design its structure for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of organic polymer films based on Bragg conditions. A poly(p-phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) film can realize detection of dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapors in 2 min with a reduced excitation threshold of 26 mJ cm(-2) by using a simple and common 405 nm laser. PMID:27277339

  9. Clinical review: Tokyo - protecting the health care worker during a chemical mass casualty event: an important issue of continuing relevance.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Sumie; Okumura, Tetsu; Ishimatsu, Shinichi; Miura, Kunihisa; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Toshio

    2005-08-01

    Determine the effectiveness of decontamination, and perform thorough dry or wet decontamination, depending on the circumstances. Always remain cognizant of the fact that, even after decontamination has been completed, contamination may not have been completely eliminated. Perform periodic monitoring to determine whether secondary exposure has occurred in health care workers; if it appears that secondary exposure has occurred, then the PPE level must be increased and attempts must be made to identify and eliminate the source of the contamination. Finally, if the victims were exposed through ingestion, then consider the possibility that secondary exposure will occur during gastric lavage.

  10. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  11. Gunite and associated tanks remediation project recycling and waste minimization effort

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Saunders, A.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated clean up of legacy waste resulting from the Manhattan Project. The gunite and associated tanks project has taken an active pollution prevention role by successfully recycling eight tons of scrap metal, reusing contaminated soil in the Area of Contamination, using existing water (supernate) to aid in sludge transfer, and by minimizing and reusing personal protective equipment (PPE) and on-site equipment as much as possible. Total cost savings for Fiscal Year 1997 activities from these efforts are estimated at $4.2 million dollars.

  12. NFPA 70E: Performing the electrical flash hazard analysis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, W Jon

    2005-08-01

    Arc flash hazards pose a serious risk to employee safety; proper safe work practices must be utilized. Electrical equipment > or = 50 volts must be deenergized and locked out/tagged out prior to servicing and maintenance unless doing so would increase hazards or is infeasible. Remember, convenience is not an acceptable reason for keeping equipment energized during servicing and maintenance. If electrical equipment must remain energized during Servicing and maintenance, NFPA 70E should be consulted to determine flash hazard boundaries as well as required PPE. Finally, circuit breakers and electrical disconnects must be marked to warn qualified employees of potential arc flash hazards. PMID:16212025

  13. Solubility of methane in water: the significance of the methane-water interaction potential.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Oliver; Lankau, Timm

    2005-12-15

    The influence of the methane-water interaction potential on the value of the Henry constant obtained from molecular dynamics simulations was investigated. The SPC, SPC/E, MSPC/E, and TIP3P potentials were used to describe water and the OPLS-UA and TraPPE potentials for methane. Nonbonding interactions between unlike atoms were calculated both with one of four mixing rules and with our new methane-water interaction potential. The Henry constants obtained from simulations using any of the mixing rules differed significantly from the experimental ones. Good agreement between simulation and experiment was achieved with the new potential over the whole temperature range.

  14. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  15. Clinical review: Tokyo - protecting the health care worker during a chemical mass casualty event: an important issue of continuing relevance.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Sumie; Okumura, Tetsu; Ishimatsu, Shinichi; Miura, Kunihisa; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Toshio

    2005-08-01

    Determine the effectiveness of decontamination, and perform thorough dry or wet decontamination, depending on the circumstances. Always remain cognizant of the fact that, even after decontamination has been completed, contamination may not have been completely eliminated. Perform periodic monitoring to determine whether secondary exposure has occurred in health care workers; if it appears that secondary exposure has occurred, then the PPE level must be increased and attempts must be made to identify and eliminate the source of the contamination. Finally, if the victims were exposed through ingestion, then consider the possibility that secondary exposure will occur during gastric lavage. PMID:16137390

  16. Upper body cooling during exercise-heat stress wearing the improved toxicological agent protective system for HAZMAT operations.

    PubMed

    Cadarette, Bruce S; Levine, Leslie; Staab, Janet E; Kolka, Margaret A; Correa, Matthew M; Whipple, Matthew; Sawka, Michael N

    2003-01-01

    This study compared endurance in a U.S. Army developmental Occupational Safety and Health Administration Level B personal protective equipment (PPE) system against the toxicological agent protective (TAP) suit, the Army's former standard PPE for Level A and Level B toxic environments. The developmental system consisted of two variations: the improved toxicological agent protective (ITAP) suit with self-contained breathing apparatus (ITAP-SCBA), weight 32 kg, and the ITAP with blower (ITAP-B), weight 21 kg. Both ITAP suits included the personal ice cooling system (PICS). TAP (weight 9.5 kg) had no cooling. It was hypothesized that PICS would effectively cool both ITAP configurations, and endurance in TAP would be limited by heat strain. Eight subjects (six men, two women) attempted three 2-hour treadmill walks (0.89 m/sec, 0% grade, rest/exercise cycles of 10/20 min) at 38 degrees C, 30% relative humidity. Metabolic rate for TAP (222+/-35 W) was significantly less than either ITAP-SCBA (278+/-27 W) or ITAP-B (262+/-24 W) (p<0.05). Endurance time was longer in ITAP-SCBA (85+/-20 min) and ITAP-B (87+/-25 min) than in TAP (46+/-10 min) (p<0.05). Heat storage was greater in TAP (77+/-15 W.m(-2)) than in ITAP-SCBA (51+/-16 W.m(-2)) (p<0.05), which was not different from ITAP-B (59+/-14 W.m(-2)). Sweating rate was greater in TAP (23.5+/-11.7 g/min(1)) than in either ITAP-SCBA (11.1+/-2.9 g/min) or ITAP-B (12.8+/-3.5 g/min) (p<0.05). Endurance in ITAP was nearly twice as long as in PPE with no cooling, even though the PICS, SCBA tanks, and new uniform itself all served to increase metabolic cost over that in TAP. PICS could also be used with civilian Levels A and B PPE increasing work time and worker safety. PMID:12908867

  17. Comparison of united-atom potentials for the simulation of vapor-liquid equilibria and interfacial properties of long-chain n-alkanes up to n-C100.

    PubMed

    Müller, Erich A; Mejía, Andrés

    2011-11-10

    Canonical ensemble molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are reported which compute both the vapor-liquid equilibrium properties (vapor pressure and liquid and vapor densities) and the interfacial properties (density profiles, interfacial tensions, entropy and enthalpy of surface formation) of four long-chained n-alkanes: n-decane (n-C(10)), n-eicosane (n-C(20)), n-hexacontane (n-C(60)), and n-decacontane (n-C(100)). Three of the most commonly employed united-atom (UA) force fields for alkanes (SKS: Smit, B.; Karaborni, S.; Siepmann, J. I. J. Chem. Phys. 1995,102, 2126-2140; J. Chem. Phys. 1998,109, 352; NERD: Nath, S. K.; Escobedo, F. A.; de Pablo, J. J. J. Chem. Phys. 1998, 108, 9905-9911; and TraPPE: Martin M. G.; Siepmann, J. I. J. Phys. Chem. B1998, 102, 2569-2577.) are critically appraised. The computed results have been compared to the available experimental data and those fitted using the square gradient theory (SGT). In the latter approach, the Lennard-Jones chain equation of state (EoS), appropriately parametrized for long hydrocarbons, is used to model the homogeneous bulk phase Helmholtz energy. The MD results for phase equilibria of n-decane and n-eicosane exhibit sensible agreement both to the experimental data and EoS correlation for all potentials tested, with the TraPPE potential showing the lowest deviations. However, as the molecular chain increases to n-hexacontane and n-decacontane, the reliability of the UA potentials decreases, showing notorious subpredictions of both saturated liquid density and vapor pressure. Based on the recommended data and EoS results for the heaviest hydrocarbons, it is possible to attest, that in this extreme, the TraPPE potential shows the lowest liquid density deviations. The low absolute values of the vapor pressure preclude the discrimination among the three UA potentials studied. On the other hand, interfacial properties are very sensitive to the type of UA potential thus allowing a differentiation of the

  18. Clinical review: Tokyo – protecting the health care worker during a chemical mass casualty event: an important issue of continuing relevance

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Sumie; Okumura, Tetsu; Ishimatsu, Shinichi; Miura, Kunihisa; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    Determine the effectiveness of decontamination, and perform thorough dry or wet decontamination, depending on the circumstances. Always remain cognizant of the fact that, even after decontamination has been completed, contamination may not have been completely eliminated. Perform periodic monitoring to determine whether secondary exposure has occurred in health care workers; if it appears that secondary exposure has occurred, then the PPE level must be increased and attempts must be made to identify and eliminate the source of the contamination. Finally, if the victims were exposed through ingestion, then consider the possibility that secondary exposure will occur during gastric lavage. PMID:16137390

  19. Applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in Mining Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairul Nizam Mahmad, Mohd; Z, Mohd Remy Rozainy M. A.; Baharun, Norlia

    2016-06-01

    RFID technology has recently become a dream of many companies or organizations because of its strategic potential in transforming mining operations. Now is the perfect time, for RFID technology arise as the next revolution in mining industries. This paper will review regarding the application of RFID in mining industries and access knowledge regarding RFID technology and overseen the opportunity of this technology to become an importance element in mining industries. The application of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) in mining industries includes to control of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), control of personnel to access mining sites and RFID solutions for tracking explosives.

  20. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  1. Artificial Optical Radiation photobiological hazards in arc welding.

    PubMed

    Gourzoulidis, G A; Achtipis, A; Topalis, F V; Kazasidis, M E; Pantelis, D; Markoulis, A; Kappas, C; Bourousis, C A

    2016-08-01

    Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is associated with crucial social, economic, cultural and technical issues. A highly specialized OHS sector deals with the photobiological hazards from artificial optical radiation (AOR), which is divided into visible light, UV and IR emitted during various activities and which is legally covered by European Directive 2006/25/EC. Among the enormous amount of sources emitting AOR, the most important non-coherent ones to consider for health effects to the whole optical range, are arcs created during metal welding. This survey presents the effort to assess the complicated exposure limits of the Directive in the controlled environment of a welding laboratory. Sensors covering the UV and blue light range were set to measure typical welding procedures reproduced in the laboratory. Initial results, apart from apparently justifying the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) due to even subsecond overexposures measured, also set the basis to evaluate PPE's properties and support an integrated risk assessment of the complex welding environment. These results can also improve workers' and employer's information and training about radiation hazards, which is a crucial OHS demand.

  2. Conjugated Polyelectrolytes with Imidazolium Solubilizing Groups. Properties and Application to Photodynamic Inactivation of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Anand; Pappas, Harry C; Hill, Eric H; Huang, Yun; Whitten, David G; Schanze, Kirk S

    2015-12-30

    This article reports an investigation of the photophysical properties and the light- and dark-biocidal activity of two poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE)-based conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) bearing cationic imidazolium solubilizing groups. The two polymers feature the same PPE-type backbone, but they differ in the frequency of imidazoliums on the chains: PIM-4 features two imidazolium units on every phenylene repeat, whereas PIM-2 contains two imidazolium units on every other phenylene unit. Both polymers are very soluble in water and polar organic solvents, but their propensity to aggregate in water differs with the density of the imidazolium units. The polymers are highly fluorescent, and they exhibit the amplified quenching effect when exposed to a low concentration of anionic electron-acceptor anthraquinone disulfonate. The CPEs are also quenched by a relatively low concentration of pyrophosphate by an aggregation-induced quenching mechanism. The biocidal activity of the cationic imidazolium CPEs was studied against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the dark and under blue-light illumination. Both polymers are effective biocides, exhibiting greater than 3 log kill with 30-60 min of light exposure at concentrations of ≤10 μg mL(-1).

  3. Hazardous materials. Disaster medical planning and response.

    PubMed

    Levitin, H W; Siegelson, H J

    1996-05-01

    Hazardous materials offer a variety of unique challenges to emergency personnel. These agents have immense economic impact, but when mishandled, they become notorious for turning contained accidents into disasters involving the entire community. During a hazmat accident, the victims often ignore the rules of the disaster plan by seeking out the nearest hospital for medical care, regardless of that institution's capabilities. Health care workers rushing to the aid of contaminated individuals, without taking appropriate precautions (i.e., donning PPE), potentially make themselves victims. Disaster preparedness requires planning, policy, and procedure development, hazard analysis, training, and the availability of personal protective equipment for all responding personnel. Presently, the level of hazmat preparedness varies greatly among different hospitals, EMS and fire services, and disaster response teams. These differences in hazmat preparedness can be linked to a variety of factors (lack of awareness, funding, and support) and controversies (types of PPE and level of training required) which have prevented the establishment of a national hazmat policy for most of these organizations. Despite these difficulties, emergency departments continue to be the primary provider of care to contaminated individuals. As a result, emergency physicians must work with their hospital to implement a hazmat decontamination program in order to appropriately care for these individuals. The appendix to this article presents a list of recommendations for hospital hazmat preparedness. It is modeled after existing CDC and OSHA guidelines.

  4. Effect of Porcine Placenta Extract from Subcritical Water Extraction on Photodamage in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bok Kyung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Hong, Yang Hee; Jung, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluated the photoprotective effects of porcine placenta extract (PPE) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to evaluate its functional activities as a skin food ingredient. PPE prepared by subcritical water extraction was termed SPE, and subsequently digested by enzymes to prepare E-SPE. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels (192.0%) induced by UVB were decreased by SPE and E-SPE. SPE had more effective ROS scavenging activity than E-SPE treatment. UVB treatment increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and this elevated expression was decreased by E-SPE treatment. High-dose treatment with E-SPE (50 and 100 µg/mL) reduced TIMP-1 expression levels of UVB-C (control) to 33.5 and 34.6%, respectively. In contrast, at low SPE doses (1 and 10 µg/mL), the treatment slightly decreased TIMP-1 expression levels to 73.3% and 71.3% of UVB-C, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the protective effect of SPE and E-SPE against UVB damage in keratinocytes via ROS scavenging, down-regulating MMP-2 expression and up-regulating TIMP-1 expression. This highlights the potential for SPE as an ingredient in the preparation of functional food against photoaging. PMID:26761824

  5. From unilateral to bilateral parkinsonism: Effects of lateralization on dyskinesias and associated molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Rodríguez-Oroz, M C

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying lateralization and progression of motor symptoms from unilateral to bilateral in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain to be elucidated. In addition, the molecular mechanisms involved in levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) depending on lateralization and disease progression from unilaterally to bilateral have not been described yet. We investigated motor symptoms, LIDs and associated striatal molecular markers expression after unilateral left or right, and after a sequential bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced nigrostriatal lesions in rats. Sequentially bilateral lesioned animals showed a bilateral increase in striatal preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA without changes in pre-prodynorphin (PDyn) mRNA expression. The increase in dyskinesias when parkinsonism becomes bilateral was mostly due to an increase in orolingual dyskinesias associated to a increase in PDyn mRNA expression. Right lesion induces, or facilitates when first-done, a greater level of LIDs and an increase in striatal PPE and PDyn mRNAs in the second lesioned side. We describe a new striatal molecular pattern that appears when parkinsonism becomes bilateral and the relevance of the lateralization for the development of LIDs.

  6. The effects of metabolic work rate and ambient environment on physiological tolerance times while wearing explosive and chemical personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Costello, Joseph T; Stewart, Kelly L; Stewart, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the physiological tolerance times when wearing explosive and chemical (>35 kg) personal protective equipment (PPE) in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Twelve healthy males undertook nine trials which involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4, and 5.5 km·h(-1) in the following environmental conditions, 21, 30, and 37°C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). Participants exercised for 60 min or until volitional fatigue, core temperature reached 39°C, or heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum. Tolerance time, core temperature, skin temperature, mean body temperature, heart rate, and body mass loss were measured. Exercise time was reduced in the higher WBGT environments (WBGT37 < WBGT30 < WBGT21; P < 0.05) and work intensities (5.5 < 4 < 2.5 km·h(-1); P < 0.001). The majority of trials (85/108; 78.7%) were terminated due to participant's heart rate exceeding 90% of their maximum. A total of eight trials (7.4%) lasted the full duration. Only nine (8.3%) trials were terminated due to volitional fatigue and six (5.6%) due to core temperatures in excess of 39°C. These results demonstrate that physiological tolerance times are influenced by the external environment and workload and that cardiovascular strain is the limiting factor to work tolerance when wearing this heavy multilayered PPE.

  7. The influence of demographics and working conditions on self-reported injuries among Latino day laborers

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Atkinson, John A; Montano, Cecilia F

    2015-01-01

    Background: The majority of day laborers in the USA are Latinos. They are engaged in high-risk occupations and suffer high occupational injury rates. Objectives: To describe on-the-job injuries reported by Latino day laborers, explore the extent that demographic and occupational factors predict injuries, and whether summative measures for total job types, job conditions, and personal protective equipment (PPE) predict injuries. Methods: A community survey was conducted with 327 participants at 15 corners in Houston, Texas. Hierarchical and multiple logistic regressions explored predictors of occupational injury odds in the last year. Results: Thirty-four percent of respondents reported an occupational injury in the previous year. Education, exposure to loud noises, cold temperatures, vibrating machinery, use of hard hats, total number of job conditions, and total PPE significantly predicted injury odds. Conclusion: Risk for injury among day laborers is not only the product of a specific hazard, but also the result of their exposure to multiple occupational hazards. PMID:25291983

  8. Direct observation of photocarrier electron dynamics in C60 films on graphite by time-resolved two-photon photoemission

    PubMed Central

    Shibuta, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Ohta, Tsutomu; Nakaya, Masato; Eguchi, Toyoaki; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy is employed to probe the electronic states of a C60 fullerene film formed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), acting as a model two-dimensional (2D) material for multi-layered graphene. Owing to the in-plane sp2-hybridized nature of the HOPG, the TR-2PPE spectra reveal the energetics and dynamics of photocarriers in the C60 film: after hot excitons are nascently formed in C60 via intramolecular excitation by a pump photon, they dissociate into photocarriers of free electrons and the corresponding holes, and the electrons are subsequently detected by a probe photon as photoelectrons. The decay rate of photocarriers from the C60 film into the HOPG is evaluated to be 1.31 × 1012 s−1, suggesting a weak van der Waals interaction at the interface, where the photocarriers tentatively occupy the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of C60. The photocarrier electron dynamics following the hot exciton dissociation in the organic thin films has not been realized for any metallic substrates exhibiting strong interactions with the overlayer. Furthermore, the thickness dependence of the electron lifetime in the LUMO reveals that the electron hopping rate in C60 layers is 3.3 ± 1.2 × 1013 s−1. PMID:27775005

  9. Transferable potentials for phase equilibria-united atom description of five- and six-membered cyclic alkanes and ethers.

    PubMed

    Keasler, Samuel J; Charan, Sophia M; Wick, Collin D; Economou, Ioannis G; Siepmann, J Ilja

    2012-09-13

    While the transferable potentials for phase equilibria-united atom (TraPPE-UA) force field has generally been successful at providing parameters that are highly transferable between different molecules, the polarity and polarizability of a given functional group can be significantly perturbed in small cyclic structures, which limits the transferability of parameters obtained for linear molecules. This has motivated us to develop a version of the TraPPE-UA force field specifically for five- and six-membered cyclic alkanes and ethers. The Lennard-Jones parameters for the methylene group obtained from cyclic alkanes are transferred to the ethers for each ring size, and those for the oxygen atom are common to all compounds for a given ring size. However, the partial charges are molecule specific and parametrized using liquid-phase dielectric constants. This model yields accurate saturated liquid densities and vapor pressures, critical temperatures and densities, normal boiling points, heat capacities, and isothermal compressibilities for the following molecules: cyclopentane, tetrahydrofuran, 1,3-dioxolane, cyclohexane, oxane, 1,4-dioxane, 1,3-dioxane, and 1,3,5-trioxane. The azeotropic behavior and separation factor for the binary mixtures of 1,3-dioxolane/cyclohexane and ethanol/1,4-dioxane are qualitively reproduced. PMID:22900670

  10. Surface Charges and Shell Crosslinks Each Play Significant Roles in Mediating Degradation, Biofouling, Cytotoxicity and Immunotoxicity for Polyphosphoester-based Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhang, Fuwu; Deng, Zhou J.; Lim, Young H.; Wang, Hai; Parsamian, Perouza; Hammond, Paula T.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-11-01

    The construction of nanostructures from biodegradable precursors and shell/core crosslinking have been pursued as strategies to solve the problems of toxicity and limited stability, respectively. Polyphosphoester (PPE)-based micelles and crosslinked nanoparticles with non-ionic, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic surface characteristics for potential packaging and delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, were constructed using a quick and efficient synthetic strategy, and importantly, demonstrated remarkable differences in terms of cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and biofouling properties, as a function of their surface characteristics and also with dependence on crosslinking throughout the shell layers. For instance, crosslinking of zwitterionic micelles significantly reduced the immunotoxicity, as evidenced from the absence of secretions of any of the 23 measured cytokines from RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages treated with the nanoparticles. The micelles and their crosslinked analogs demonstrated lower cytotoxicity than several commercially-available vehicles, and their degradation products were not cytotoxic to cells at the range of the tested concentrations. PPE-nanoparticles are expected to have broad implications in clinical nanomedicine as alternative vehicles to those involved in several of the currently available medications.

  11. Bioinformatics Identification of Drug Resistance-Associated Gene Pairs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ze-Jia; Yang, Qing-Yong; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhu, Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Due to the extensive use of anti-tuberculosis drugs and the development of mutations, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is recognized as one of the most dangerous threats to global tuberculosis control. Some single mutations have been identified to be significantly linked with drug resistance. However, the prior research did not take gene-gene interactions into account, and the emergence of transmissible drug resistance is connected with multiple genetic mutations. In this study we use the bioinformatics software GBOOST (The Hong Kong University, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China) to calculate the interactions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) pairs and identify gene pairs associated with drug resistance. A large part of the non-synonymous mutations in the drug target genes that were included in the screened gene pairs were confirmed by previous reports, which lent sound solid credits to the effectiveness of our method. Notably, most of the identified gene pairs containing drug targets also comprise Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) family proteins, suggesting that PPE family proteins play important roles in the drug resistance of Mtb. Therefore, this study provides deeper insights into the mechanisms underlying anti-tuberculosis drug resistance, and the present method is useful for exploring the drug resistance mechanisms for other microorganisms. PMID:27618895

  12. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  13. Heat stress management program improving worker health and operational effectiveness: a case study.

    PubMed

    Huss, Rosalyn G; Skelton, Scott B; Alvis, Kimberly L; Shane, Leigh A

    2013-03-01

    Heat stress monitoring is a vital component of an effective health and safety program when employees work in exceptionally warm environments. Workers at hazardous waste sites often wear personal protective equipment (PPE), which increases the body heat stress load. No specific Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations address heat stress; however, OSHA does provide several guidance documents to assist employers in addressing this serious workplace health hazard. This article describes a heat stress and surveillance plan implemented at a hazardous waste site as part of the overall health and safety program. The PPE requirement for work at this site, coupled with extreme environmental temperatures, made heat stress a significant concern. Occupational health nurses and industrial hygienists developed a monitoring program for heat stress designed to prevent the occurrence of significant heat-related illness in site workers. The program included worker education on the signs of heat-related illness and continuous physiologic monitoring to detect early signs of heat-related health problems. Biological monitoring data were collected before workers entered the exclusion zone and on exiting the zone following decontamination. Sixty-six site workers were monitored throughout site remediation. More than 1,700 biological monitoring data points were recorded. Outcomes included improved worker health and safety, and increased operational effectiveness. PMID:23429639

  14. Vascular and central hemodynamic changes following exercise-induced heat stress.

    PubMed

    Lefferts, Wesley K; Heffernan, Kevin S; Hultquist, Eric M; Fehling, Patricia C; Smith, Denise L

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of moderate exercise-induced heat stress (EIHS) on vascular function, central hemodynamic load and indices of coronary perfusion. Vascular-hemodynamic measures were collected in 12 healthy men (aged 22±3 years) pre and post 100 minutes of moderate, intermittent exercise in two randomized conditions: heat stress (HS; wearing firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE)), and no heat stress (NHS; wearing a cooling shirt and equivalent PPE weight). Aortic blood pressure, reflected wave pressure (Pb), systolic (SPTI) and diastolic pressure time-integral (DPTI), and aortic stiffness were assessed before and after each condition. SPTI was significantly greater, and DPTI and Pb were significantly lower for HS-post compared to NHS-post (p<0.05). Pulse wave velocity was not different between conditions. In conclusion, EIHS does not affect aortic stiffness, but increases indices of myocardial work and reduces indices of coronary perfusion which may be related to chronotropic responses to EIHS. The mismatch between oxygen demand and oxygen supply may increase cardiac vulnerability to ischemia during strenuous work in the heat. PMID:25939655

  15. The effects of metabolic work rate and ambient environment on physiological tolerance times while wearing explosive and chemical personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Costello, Joseph T; Stewart, Kelly L; Stewart, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the physiological tolerance times when wearing explosive and chemical (>35 kg) personal protective equipment (PPE) in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Twelve healthy males undertook nine trials which involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4, and 5.5 km·h(-1) in the following environmental conditions, 21, 30, and 37°C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). Participants exercised for 60 min or until volitional fatigue, core temperature reached 39°C, or heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum. Tolerance time, core temperature, skin temperature, mean body temperature, heart rate, and body mass loss were measured. Exercise time was reduced in the higher WBGT environments (WBGT37 < WBGT30 < WBGT21; P < 0.05) and work intensities (5.5 < 4 < 2.5 km·h(-1); P < 0.001). The majority of trials (85/108; 78.7%) were terminated due to participant's heart rate exceeding 90% of their maximum. A total of eight trials (7.4%) lasted the full duration. Only nine (8.3%) trials were terminated due to volitional fatigue and six (5.6%) due to core temperatures in excess of 39°C. These results demonstrate that physiological tolerance times are influenced by the external environment and workload and that cardiovascular strain is the limiting factor to work tolerance when wearing this heavy multilayered PPE. PMID:25866818

  16. Computational Mechanistic Studies of Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Model Dimers for Lignin Depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Sturgeon, M. R.; Chmely, S. C.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a heterogeneous alkyl-aromatic polymer that constitutes up to 30% of plant cell walls, and is used for water transport, structure, and defense. The highly irregular and heterogeneous structure of lignin presents a major obstacle in the development of strategies for its deconstruction and upgrading. Here we present mechanistic studies of the acid-catalyzed cleavage of lignin aryl-ether linkages, combining both experimental studies and quantum chemical calculations. Quantum mechanical calculations provide a detailed interpretation of reaction mechanisms including possible intermediates and transition states. Solvent effects on the hydrolysis reactions were incorporated through the use of a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and with cluster models including explicit water molecules in the first solvation shell. Reaction pathways were computed for four lignin model dimers including 2-phenoxy-phenylethanol (PPE), 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-ethanol (HPPE), 2-phenoxy-phenyl-1,3-propanediol (PPPD), and 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-1,3-propanediol (HPPPD). Lignin model dimers with a para-hydroxyphenyl ether (HPPE and HPPPD) show substantial differences in reactivity relative to the phenyl ether compound (PPE and PPPD) which have been clarified theoretically and experimentally. The significance of these results for acid deconstruction of lignin in plant cell walls will be discussed.

  17. Bioinformatics Identification of Drug Resistance-Associated Gene Pairs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ze-Jia; Yang, Qing-Yong; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhu, Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Ye

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Due to the extensive use of anti-tuberculosis drugs and the development of mutations, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is recognized as one of the most dangerous threats to global tuberculosis control. Some single mutations have been identified to be significantly linked with drug resistance. However, the prior research did not take gene-gene interactions into account, and the emergence of transmissible drug resistance is connected with multiple genetic mutations. In this study we use the bioinformatics software GBOOST (The Hong Kong University, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China) to calculate the interactions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) pairs and identify gene pairs associated with drug resistance. A large part of the non-synonymous mutations in the drug target genes that were included in the screened gene pairs were confirmed by previous reports, which lent sound solid credits to the effectiveness of our method. Notably, most of the identified gene pairs containing drug targets also comprise Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) family proteins, suggesting that PPE family proteins play important roles in the drug resistance of Mtb. Therefore, this study provides deeper insights into the mechanisms underlying anti-tuberculosis drug resistance, and the present method is useful for exploring the drug resistance mechanisms for other microorganisms. PMID:27618895

  18. Thermoregulatory responses to layered personal protective clothing: practical implications for oil spill clean-up and remediation.

    PubMed

    Sirikul, Bovorn; Bishop, Phillip A; Nevett, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Many jobs in toxic environments and in less than ideal surroundings, such as oil spill remediation, require the use of 2 layers of personal protective equipment (PPE) to maximize worker safety. This study was designed to assess physiological and subjective responses while working in a single-layer (SL) or double-layer (DL) ensemble during a continuous work protocol in a hot environment of 31 °C WBGT. Eleven men in a repeated-measures design performed 2 counterbalanced work-bouts at a time-weighted work rate of 300 kcal/h. All tests were terminated when a rectal temperature (Tre) of 38.7 °C was attained. Total work time was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter in DL (60.5 ± 3.9 versus 66.4 ± 4.6 min in SL), and final microenvironmental temperature (MEt) (35.6 ± 0.9 °C vs 37.1 ± 0.3 °C) and humidity (MEh) (90.0 ± 4.0% vs 95.4 ± 1.1%) were higher in DL. There were no differences for Tre, mean skin temperature, or sweat rate over time. These data have practical implications in that although the physiological strain on workers in DL was not substantially greater than in SL, worker safety, and productivity can be reduced while working in layered PPE.

  19. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  20. Optimization of pulsed ultrasound-assisted technique for extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peel of Malas variety: Punicalagin and hydroxybenzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Milad; Karim, Roselina; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2016-09-01

    Pomegranate peel is a rich source of phenolic compounds (such as punicalagin and hydroxybenzoic acids). However, the content of such bioactive compounds in the peel extract can be affected by extraction type and condition. It was hypothesized that the optimization of a pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction (PUAE) technique could result in the pomegranate peel extract with higher yield and antioxidant activity. The main goal was to optimize PUAE condition resulting in the highest yield and antioxidant activity as well as the highest contents of punicalagin and hydroxybenzoic acids. The operation at the intensity level of 105W/cm(2) and duty cycle of 50% for a short time (10min) had a high efficiency for extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peel. The application of such short extraction can save the energy and cost of the production. Punicalagin and ellagic acid were the most predominant phenolic compounds quantified in the pomegranate peel extract (PPE) from Malas variety. PPE contained a minor content of gallic acid. PMID:27041311

  1. Permeation Resistance of Personal Protective Equipment Materials to Monomethyhydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, J. M.; Williams, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Permeation resistance was determined by measuring the breakthrough time and time-averaged vapor transmission rate of monomethylhydrazine (MMH) through two types of personal protective equipment (PPE). The two types of PPE evaluated were the totally encapsulating ILC Dover Chemturion Model 1212 chemical protective suit with accessories, and the FabOhio polyvinyl chloride (PVC) splash garment. Two exposure scenarios were simulated: (1) a saturated vapor exposure for 2 hours (h), and (2) a brief MMH 'splash' followed by a 2-h saturated vapor exposure. Time-averaged MMH concentrations inside the totally-encapsulating suit were calculated by summation of the area-weighted contributions made by each suit component. Results show that the totally encapsulating suit provides adequate protection at the new 10 ppb Threshold Limit Value Time-Weighted Average (TLV-TWA). The permeation resistance of the PVC splash garment to MMH was poorer than any of the totally encapsulating suit materials tested. Breakthrough occurred soon after initial vapor or 'splash' exposure.

  2. Database for Safety-Oriented Tracking of Chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Jacob; Carr, Sandra; Plumlee, Debrah; Slater, Andy; Samson, Thomas M.; Holowaty, Toby L.; Skeete, Darren; Haenz, Mary Alice; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa

    2010-01-01

    SafetyChem is a computer program that maintains a relational database for tracking chemicals and associated hazards at Johnson Space Center (JSC) by use of a Web-based graphical user interface. The SafetyChem database is accessible to authorized users via a JSC intranet. All new chemicals pass through a safety office, where information on hazards, required personal protective equipment (PPE), fire-protection warnings, and target organ effects (TOEs) is extracted from material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and recorded in the database. The database facilitates real-time management of inventory with attention to such issues as stability, shelf life, reduction of waste through transfer of unused chemicals to laboratories that need them, quantification of chemical wastes, and identification of chemicals for which disposal is required. Upon searching the database for a chemical, the user receives information on physical properties of the chemical, hazard warnings, required PPE, a link to the MSDS, and references to the applicable International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 standard work instructions and the applicable job hazard analysis. Also, to reduce the labor hours needed to comply with reporting requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the data can be directly exported into the JSC hazardous- materials database.

  3. Predicting hydration Gibbs energies of alkyl-aromatics using molecular simulation: a comparison of current force fields and the development of a new parameter set for accurate solvation data.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Nuno M; Jorge, Miguel; Queimada, António J; Gomes, José R B; Economou, Ioannis G; Macedo, Eugénia A

    2011-10-14

    The Gibbs energy of hydration is an important quantity to understand the molecular behavior in aqueous systems at constant temperature and pressure. In this work we review the performance of some popular force fields, namely TraPPE, OPLS-AA and Gromos, in reproducing the experimental Gibbs energies of hydration of several alkyl-aromatic compounds--benzene, mono-, di- and tri-substituted alkylbenzenes--using molecular simulation techniques. In the second part of the paper, we report a new model that is able to improve such hydration energy predictions, based on Lennard Jones parameters from the recent TraPPE-EH force field and atomic partial charges obtained from natural population analysis of density functional theory calculations. We apply a scaling factor determined by fitting the experimental hydration energy of only two solutes, and then present a simple rule to generate atomic partial charges for different substituted alkyl-aromatics. This rule has the added advantages of eliminating the unnecessary assumption of fixed charge on every substituted carbon atom and providing a simple guideline for extrapolating the charge assignment to any multi-substituted alkyl-aromatic molecule. The point charges derived here yield excellent predictions of experimental Gibbs energies of hydration, with an overall absolute average deviation of less than 0.6 kJ mol(-1). This new parameter set can also give good predictive performance for other thermodynamic properties and liquid structural information.

  4. Aging behavior of polymeric solar absorber materials - Part 1: Engineering plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlen, S.; Wallner, G.M.; Lang, R.W.

    2010-09-15

    In this series of two papers, various polymeric materials are investigated as to their potential applicability as absorber materials for solar thermal collectors. The focus of the investigation is to study the aging behavior of these materials under maximum operating conditions (80 C in water up to 16,000 h) and stagnation conditions (140 C in air up to 500 h) typical for northern climate. The materials supplied or produced as polymer films were first characterized in the unaged state and then for different states of aging by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and by mechanical tensile tests. Physical aging phenomena were studied by DSC, SEC analysis provided information on chemical degradation of the materials. In addition, physical and chemical aging were both analyzed via the small and large strain mechanical behavior. While the present Part 1 of this paper series deals with the aging behavior of engineering plastics, including two amorphous polymers (a polyphenylene ether polystyrene blend (PPE + PS) and polycarbonate (PC)) and two semi-crystalline polymers (two types of polyamide 12 (PA12)), the aging behavior of so-called ''commodity'' plastics (PE and PP) is the subject of Part 2. Comparing the two aging conditions, the amorphous materials (PPE + PS and PC) turned out to be more prone to physical and chemical aging at 140 C in air. In contrast, the semi-crystalline PA12 materials were more strongly affected by exposure to water at 80 C, although to different degrees, depending on the modification. (author)

  5. Phagotrophy by the picoeukaryotic green alga Micromonas: implications for Arctic Oceans.

    PubMed

    McKie-Krisberg, Zaid M; Sanders, Robert W

    2014-10-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE) are recognized as major primary producers and contributors to phytoplankton biomass in oceanic and coastal environments. Molecular surveys indicate a large phylogenetic diversity in the picoeukaryotes, with members of the Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyseae tending to be more common in open ocean waters and Prasinophyceae dominating coastal and Arctic waters. In addition to their role as primary producers, PPE have been identified in several studies as mixotrophic and major predators of prokaryotes. Mixotrophy, the combination of photosynthesis and phagotrophy in a single organism, is well established for most photosynthetic lineages. However, green algae, including prasinophytes, were widely considered as a purely photosynthetic group. The prasinophyte Micromonas is perhaps the most common picoeukaryote in coastal and Arctic waters and is one of the relatively few cultured representatives of the picoeukaryotes available for physiological investigations. In this study, we demonstrate phagotrophy by a strain of Micromonas (CCMP2099) isolated from Arctic waters and show that environmental factors (light and nutrient concentration) affect ingestion rates in this mixotroph. In addition, we show size-selective feeding with a preference for smaller particles, and determine P vs I (photosynthesis vs irradiance) responses in different nutrient conditions. If other strains have mixotrophic abilities similar to Micromonas CCMP2099, the widespread distribution and frequently high abundances of Micromonas suggest that these green algae may have significant impact on prokaryote populations in several oceanic regimes. PMID:24553471

  6. Treatment of complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion and pleural parapneumonic empyema

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Pedro Rodríguez; Gilart, Jorge Freixinet; Pérez, José María Hernández; Serhal, Mohamed Hussein; Artalejo, Antonio López

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background We performed this observational prospective study to evaluate the results of the application of a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion (CPPE) and pleural parapneumonic empyema (PPE). Material/Methods From 2001 to 2007, 210 patients with CPPE and PPE were confirmed through thoracocentesis and treated with pleural drainage tubes (PD), fibrinolytic treatment or surgical intervention (videothoracoscopy and posterolateral thoracotomy). Patients were divided into 3 groups: I (PD); II (PD and fibrinolytic treatment); IIIa (surgery after PD and fibrinolysis), and IIIb (direct surgery). The statistical study was done by variance analysis (ANOVA), χ 2 and Fisher exact test. Results The presence of alcohol or drug consumption, smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were strongly associated with a great necessity for surgical treatment. The IIIa group was associated with increased drainage time, length of stay and complications. No mortality was observed. The selective use of PD and intrapleural fibrinolysis makes surgery unnecessary in more than 75% of cases. Conclusions The selective use of PD and fibrinolysis avoids surgery in more than 75% of cases. However, patients who require surgery have more complications, longer hospital stay, and more days on PD and they are more likely to require admittance to the Intensive Care Unit. PMID:22739734

  7. Cell cycle-related transformation of the E2F4-p130 repressor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Boris . E-mail: popov_478@hotmail.com; Chang, L.-S.; Serikov, Vladimir

    2005-10-28

    During G0 phase the p130, member of the pRb tumor suppressor protein family, forms a repressor complex with E2F4 which is inactivated in G1/S by hyperphosphorylation of the p130. The role of p130 after G1/S remains poorly investigated. We found that in nuclear extracts of T98G cells, the p130-E2F4-DNA (pp-E2F4) complex does not dissociate at G1/S transition, but instead reverts to the p130-E2F4-cyclin E/A-cdk2 (cyc/cdk-pp-E2F4) complex, which is detected in S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Hyperphosphorylation of the p130 at G1/S transition is associated with a decrease of its total amount; however, this protein is still detected during the rest of the cell cycle, and it is increasingly hyperphosphorylated in the cytosol, but continuously dephosphorylated in the nucleus. Both nuclear and cytosol cell fractions in T98G cells contain a hyperphosphorylated form of p130 in complex with E2F4 at S and G2/M cell cycle phases. In contrast to T98G cells, transformation of the p130 containing cyc/cdk-pp-E2F4 complex into the p130-pp-E2F4 repressor does not occur in HeLa cells under growth restriction conditions.

  8. Kinetic and structural analysis of fluorescent peptides on cotton cellulose nanocrystals as elastase sensors.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Prevost, Nicolette T; French, Alfred D; Concha, Monica; Condon, Brian D

    2015-02-13

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) are serine proteases with destructive proteolytic activity. Because of this activity, there is considerable interest in elastase sensors. Herein we report the synthesis, characterization, and kinetic profiles of tri- and tetrapeptide substrates of elastase as glycine-esterified fluorescent analogs of cotton cellulose nanocrystals (CCN). The degree of substitution of peptide incorporated in CCN was 3-4 peptides per 100 anhydroglucose units. Glycine and peptide-cellulose-nanocrystals revealed crystallinity indices of 79 and 76%, respectively, and a crystallite size of 58.5 Å. A crystallite model of the peptide-cellulose conjugate is shown. The tripeptide conjugate of CCN demonstrated five-fold greater efficiency in HNE than the tripeptide in solution judged by its kcat/Km of 33,515. The sensor limits of detection at 2mg of the tri- and tetrapeptide CCN conjugates over a 10 min reaction time course were 0.03 U/mL PPE and 0.05 U/mL HNE, respectively.

  9. Protective immunity induced by immunization with a live, cultured Anaplasma marginale strain

    PubMed Central

    Hammac, G. Kenitra; Ku, Pei-Shin; Galletti, Maria F.; Noh, Susan M.; Scoles, Glen A.; Palmer, Guy H.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant economic losses resulting from infection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogen of cattle, available vaccines provide, at best, only partial protection against clinical disease. The green-fluorescent protein expressing mutant of the A. marginale St. Maries strain is a live, marked vaccine candidate (AmStM-GFP1). To test whether AmStM-GFP is safe and provides clinical protection, a group of calves was vaccinated, and clinical parameters, including percent parasitized erythrocytes (PPE), packed cell volume (PCV) and days required to reach peak bacteremia, were measured following inoculation and following tick challenge with wild type St Maries strain (AmStM). These clinical parameters were compared to those obtained during infection with the A. marginale subsp. centrale vaccine strain (A. centrale) or wild type AmStM. AmStM-GFP resulted in similar clinical parameters to A. centrale, but had a lower maximum PPE, smaller drop in PCV and took longer to reach peak bacteremia than wild type AmStM. AmStM-GFP provided clinical protection, yielding a stable PCV and low bacteremia following challenge, whereas A. centrale only afforded partial clinical protection. PMID:23664994

  10. Artificial Optical Radiation photobiological hazards in arc welding.

    PubMed

    Gourzoulidis, G A; Achtipis, A; Topalis, F V; Kazasidis, M E; Pantelis, D; Markoulis, A; Kappas, C; Bourousis, C A

    2016-08-01

    Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is associated with crucial social, economic, cultural and technical issues. A highly specialized OHS sector deals with the photobiological hazards from artificial optical radiation (AOR), which is divided into visible light, UV and IR emitted during various activities and which is legally covered by European Directive 2006/25/EC. Among the enormous amount of sources emitting AOR, the most important non-coherent ones to consider for health effects to the whole optical range, are arcs created during metal welding. This survey presents the effort to assess the complicated exposure limits of the Directive in the controlled environment of a welding laboratory. Sensors covering the UV and blue light range were set to measure typical welding procedures reproduced in the laboratory. Initial results, apart from apparently justifying the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) due to even subsecond overexposures measured, also set the basis to evaluate PPE's properties and support an integrated risk assessment of the complex welding environment. These results can also improve workers' and employer's information and training about radiation hazards, which is a crucial OHS demand. PMID:27422373

  11. Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium-99

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, P. M.; Watson, D. D.; Hylko, J. M.

    2002-02-25

    This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge, experience, expertise, and field observations. The information and experience gained from each previous stage and rehearsals contributed to modifying subsequent entries, further emphasizing the importance of developing hold points and incorporating lessons learned. The hold points and lessons learned, such as performing detailed personal protective equipment (PPE) inspections during sizing and repackaging operations, and using foam-type piping insulation to prevent workers from cutting or puncturing their PPE on sharp edge s or small shards generated during sizing operations, minimized direct contact with the Tc-99. To prevent the spread of contamination, the decommissioning activities were performed inside a containment enclosure connected to negative air machines. After performing over 235 individual entries totaling over 285 project hours, only one first aid was recorded during this five-stage project.

  12. Acute illness and injury from swimming pool disinfectants and other chemicals--United States, 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    2011-10-01

    Swimming pools require disinfectants and other chemicals to maintain water quality and prevent swimmers from acquiring infections. When these chemicals are stored or used improperly or when they are handled or applied by persons not using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), illness or injury can result. To assess the frequency of illness and injury related to pool chemicals, CDC analyzed data for the period 2002--2008 from six states participating in the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risk (SENSOR)--Pesticides surveillance program and from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which identified 584 cases of illness or injury associated with pool chemicals in the six SENSOR-Pesticides states and indicated an estimated national total of 28,071 cases (based on 688 NEISS cases) during that period. For the 77% of state cases and 49% of NEISS cases that had sufficient information to determine factors contributing to illness or injury, the most common contributing factors included mixing incompatible products, spills and splashes of chemicals, lack of appropriate PPE use, and dust clouds or fumes generated by opening a chemical container. Adhering to existing CDC recommendations can prevent some of the reported illnesses and injuries, but additional measures (e.g., improving package design to limit the release of dust clouds and fumes when a container is opened, making containers child-proof, and making product labels easier to understand) might reduce them further.

  13. The Effects of Metabolic Work Rate and Ambient Environment on Physiological Tolerance Times While Wearing Explosive and Chemical Personal Protective Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Joseph T.; Stewart, Kelly L.; Stewart, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the physiological tolerance times when wearing explosive and chemical (>35 kg) personal protective equipment (PPE) in simulated environmental extremes across a range of differing work intensities. Twelve healthy males undertook nine trials which involved walking on a treadmill at 2.5, 4, and 5.5 km·h−1 in the following environmental conditions, 21, 30, and 37°C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). Participants exercised for 60 min or until volitional fatigue, core temperature reached 39°C, or heart rate exceeded 90% of maximum. Tolerance time, core temperature, skin temperature, mean body temperature, heart rate, and body mass loss were measured. Exercise time was reduced in the higher WBGT environments (WBGT37 < WBGT30 < WBGT21; P < 0.05) and work intensities (5.5 < 4 < 2.5 km·h−1; P < 0.001). The majority of trials (85/108; 78.7%) were terminated due to participant's heart rate exceeding 90% of their maximum. A total of eight trials (7.4%) lasted the full duration. Only nine (8.3%) trials were terminated due to volitional fatigue and six (5.6%) due to core temperatures in excess of 39°C. These results demonstrate that physiological tolerance times are influenced by the external environment and workload and that cardiovascular strain is the limiting factor to work tolerance when wearing this heavy multilayered PPE. PMID:25866818

  14. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

  15. Development of novel synthetic muscle tissues for sports impact surrogates.

    PubMed

    Payne, Thomas; Mitchell, Séan; Bibb, Richard; Waters, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Impact injuries are commonplace in sport and often lead to performance detriment and debilitation. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is prescribed as a mandatory requirement in most sports where these impacts are likely to occur, though the methods of governance and evaluation criteria often do not accurately represent sports specific injury scenarios. One of the key shortcomings of such safety test standards is the human surrogate to which the PPE is affixed; this typically embodies unrepresentative geometries, masses, stiffness and levels of constraint when compared to humans. A key aspect of any human surrogate element is the simulant material used. Most previous sports specific surrogates tend to use off-the-shelf silicone blends to represent all the soft tissue structures within the human limb segment or organ; this approach potentially neglects important human response phenomena caused by the different tissue structures. This study presents an investigation into the use of bespoke additive cure Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) silicone blends to match the reported mechanical properties of human relaxed and contracted skeletal muscle tissues. The silicone simulants have been tested in uniaxial compression through a range of strain rates and fit with a range of constitutive hyperelastic models (Mooney Rivlin, Ogden and Neo Hookean) and a viscoelastic Prony series.

  16. Knowledge Representation Of CT Scans Of The Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, Laurens V.; Burke, M. W.; Rada, Roy

    1984-06-01

    We have been investigating diagnostic knowledge models which assist in the automatic classification of medical images by combining information extracted from each image with knowledge specific to that class of images. In a more general sense we are trying to integrate verbal and pictorial descriptions of disease via representations of knowledge, study automatic hypothesis generation as related to clinical medicine, evolve new mathematical image measures while integrating them into the total diagnostic process, and investigate ways to augment the knowledge of the physician. Specifically, we have constructed an artificial intelligence knowledge model using the technique of a production system blending pictorial and verbal knowledge about the respective CT scan and patient history. It is an attempt to tie together different sources of knowledge representation, picture feature extraction and hypothesis generation. Our knowledge reasoning and representation system (KRRS) works with data at the conscious reasoning level of the practicing physician while at the visual perceptional level we are building another production system, the picture parameter extractor (PPE). This paper describes KRRS and its relationship to PPE.

  17. Solvent effects on optical excitations of poly para phenylene ethynylene studied by QM/MM simulations based on many-body Green's functions theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, B.; Karttunen, M.; Baumeier, B.

    2016-07-01

    Electronic excitations in dilute solutions of poly para phenylene ethynylene (poly-PPE) are studied using a QM/MM approach combining many-body Green's functions theory within the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation with polarizable force field models. Oligomers up to a length of 7.5 nm (10 repeat units) functionalized with nonyl side chains are solvated in toluene and water, respectively. After equilibration using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD), the system is partitioned into a quantum region (backbone) embedded into a classical (side chains and solvent) environment. Optical absorption properties are calculated solving the coupled QM/MM system self-consistently and special attention is paid to the effects of solvents. The model allows to differentiate the influence of oligomer conformation induced by the solvation from electronic effects related to local electric fields and polarization. It is found that the electronic environment contributions are negligible compared to the conformational dynamics of the conjugated PPE. An analysis of the electron-hole wave function reveals a sensitivity of energy and localization characteristics of the excited states to bends in the global conformation of the oligomer rather than to the relative of phenyl rings along the backbone.

  18. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of H2O diffusivity in liquid and supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moultos, Othonas A.; Orozco, Gustavo A.; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2015-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were employed for the calculation of diffusion coefficients of pure CO2 and of H2O in CO2 over a wide range of temperatures (298.15 K < T < 523.15 K) and pressures (5.0 MPa < P < 100.0 MPa), that are of interest to CO2 capture-and-sequestration processes. Various combinations of existing fixed-point-charge force-fields for H2O (TIP4P/2005 and Exponential-6) and CO2 (elementary physical model 2 [EPM2], transferable potentials for phase equilibria [TraPPE], and Exponential-6) were tested. All force-field combinations qualitatively reproduce the trends of the experimental data for infinitely diluted H2O in CO2; however, TIP4P/2005-EPM2, TIP4P/2005-TraPPE and Exponential-6-Exponential-6 were found to be the most consistent. Additionally, for H2O compositions ranging from infinite dilution to ?, the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient is shown to have a weak non-linear composition dependence.

  19. Hazardous materials. Disaster medical planning and response.

    PubMed

    Levitin, H W; Siegelson, H J

    1996-05-01

    Hazardous materials offer a variety of unique challenges to emergency personnel. These agents have immense economic impact, but when mishandled, they become notorious for turning contained accidents into disasters involving the entire community. During a hazmat accident, the victims often ignore the rules of the disaster plan by seeking out the nearest hospital for medical care, regardless of that institution's capabilities. Health care workers rushing to the aid of contaminated individuals, without taking appropriate precautions (i.e., donning PPE), potentially make themselves victims. Disaster preparedness requires planning, policy, and procedure development, hazard analysis, training, and the availability of personal protective equipment for all responding personnel. Presently, the level of hazmat preparedness varies greatly among different hospitals, EMS and fire services, and disaster response teams. These differences in hazmat preparedness can be linked to a variety of factors (lack of awareness, funding, and support) and controversies (types of PPE and level of training required) which have prevented the establishment of a national hazmat policy for most of these organizations. Despite these difficulties, emergency departments continue to be the primary provider of care to contaminated individuals. As a result, emergency physicians must work with their hospital to implement a hazmat decontamination program in order to appropriately care for these individuals. The appendix to this article presents a list of recommendations for hospital hazmat preparedness. It is modeled after existing CDC and OSHA guidelines. PMID:8635411

  20. Chemical-biological-radiological (CBR) response: a template for hospital emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gim A; Fitzgerald, Mark C B

    2002-08-19

    Chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) incidents have the potential to shut down emergency departments that do not have an adequate CBR response. Secondary contamination also poses a threat to the safety and wellbeing of staff and other patients. On activation of a CBR response, "clean" and "contaminated" areas should be clearly marked, and all patients decontaminated before being allowed into the emergency department or outpatients department. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is needed for all staff. Staff using PPE must be monitored for signs of heat illness. Stocks of coveralls, bags for contaminated clothes, plastic sheeting for radiological incidents, barriers for crowd control, and selected drugs should be obtained. Staff required include medical, nursing, security, clerical, orderlies, patient care assistants and other staff, depending on the type of threat. An on-call roster that allows regular rotation of staff is needed. All hospital personnel should understand the response plan, and recognise that the emergency department and hospital is a community asset that requires protection. PMID:12175324

  1. Development of novel synthetic muscle tissues for sports impact surrogates.

    PubMed

    Payne, Thomas; Mitchell, Séan; Bibb, Richard; Waters, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Impact injuries are commonplace in sport and often lead to performance detriment and debilitation. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is prescribed as a mandatory requirement in most sports where these impacts are likely to occur, though the methods of governance and evaluation criteria often do not accurately represent sports specific injury scenarios. One of the key shortcomings of such safety test standards is the human surrogate to which the PPE is affixed; this typically embodies unrepresentative geometries, masses, stiffness and levels of constraint when compared to humans. A key aspect of any human surrogate element is the simulant material used. Most previous sports specific surrogates tend to use off-the-shelf silicone blends to represent all the soft tissue structures within the human limb segment or organ; this approach potentially neglects important human response phenomena caused by the different tissue structures. This study presents an investigation into the use of bespoke additive cure Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) silicone blends to match the reported mechanical properties of human relaxed and contracted skeletal muscle tissues. The silicone simulants have been tested in uniaxial compression through a range of strain rates and fit with a range of constitutive hyperelastic models (Mooney Rivlin, Ogden and Neo Hookean) and a viscoelastic Prony series. PMID:25260952

  2. Inhibition of pancreatic elastase by polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Brás, Natércia F; Gonçalves, Rui; Mateus, Nuno; Fernandes, Pedro A; Ramos, Maria João; de Freitas, Victor

    2010-10-13

    Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites commonly present in the human diet that possess the ability to bind and inhibit digestive proteins. In the present study, kinetic measurements of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) activity were determined using Suc-(Ala)(3)-p-nitroanilide as substrate and polyphenolic compounds as inhibitors. A positive relationship between the degree of polyphenol polymerization and the capacity of the polyphenols to inhibit PPE was observed. Procyanidins with a molecular weight of at least 1154 Da were necessary to observe a significant inhibitory ability. Kinetic parameters were also calculated and confirmed that the inhibition is reversible and competitive. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations demonstrated that the tetramer structure has a higher affinity to the enzyme due the establishment of more contact points with the amino acids present in its active site. Hydrogen bond interactions and hydrophobic effects established between the polyphenol groups and the side chain of residues stabilize and favor the binding mode of this procyanidin. This work is relevant to the study of the antinutritional effects caused by dietary tannins on the digestive enzymes' activity, reducing food digestibility and the absorption of nutrients. In general, the elastase model studied herein allows a better understanding of the inhibitory ability of polyphenol compounds. PMID:20839876

  3. Clinical characterization of 2D pressure field in human left ventricles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, Maria; Rossini, Lorenzo; Martinez-Legazpi, Pablo; Benito, Yolanda; Alhama, Marta; Yotti, Raquel; Perez Del Villar, Candelas; Gonzalez-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Bermejo, Javier; Khan, Andrew; Del Alamo, Juan Carlos

    2014-11-01

    The evaluation of left ventricle (LV) function in the clinical setting remains a challenge. Pressure gradient is a reliable and reproducible indicator of the LV function. We obtain 2D relative pressure field in the LV using in-vivo measurements obtained by processing Doppler-echocardiography images of healthy and dilated hearts. Exploiting mass conservation, we solve the Poisson pressure equation (PPE) dropping the time derivatives and viscous terms. The flow acceleration appears only in the boundary conditions, making our method weakly sensible to the time resolution of in-vivo acquisitions. To ensure continuity with respect to the discrete operator and grid used, a potential flow correction is applied beforehand, which gives another Poisson equation. The new incompressible velocity field ensures that the compatibility equation for the PPE is satisfied. Both Poisson equations are efficiently solved on a Cartesian grid using a multi-grid method and immersed boundary for the LV wall. The whole process is computationally inexpensive and could play a diagnostic role in the clinical assessment of LV function.

  4. From unilateral to bilateral parkinsonism: Effects of lateralization on dyskinesias and associated molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Rodríguez-Oroz, M C

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying lateralization and progression of motor symptoms from unilateral to bilateral in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain to be elucidated. In addition, the molecular mechanisms involved in levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) depending on lateralization and disease progression from unilaterally to bilateral have not been described yet. We investigated motor symptoms, LIDs and associated striatal molecular markers expression after unilateral left or right, and after a sequential bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced nigrostriatal lesions in rats. Sequentially bilateral lesioned animals showed a bilateral increase in striatal preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA without changes in pre-prodynorphin (PDyn) mRNA expression. The increase in dyskinesias when parkinsonism becomes bilateral was mostly due to an increase in orolingual dyskinesias associated to a increase in PDyn mRNA expression. Right lesion induces, or facilitates when first-done, a greater level of LIDs and an increase in striatal PPE and PDyn mRNAs in the second lesioned side. We describe a new striatal molecular pattern that appears when parkinsonism becomes bilateral and the relevance of the lateralization for the development of LIDs. PMID:26113400

  5. Electrocortical Analysis of Patients with Intercostobrachial Pain Treated with TENS after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Julio Guilherme; Santana, Camila Gonçalves; Inocêncio, Kelly Rosane; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Sergio; Bergmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Among the physical therapeutic procedures to decrease pain, there is transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation (TENS). There is no consensus about its efficacy for oncological patients, especially for post-mastectomy pain and eletrocortical changes in somatosensory areas. The aim of this study was to analyze acute electrocortical changes after TENS treatment of patients with intercostobrachial post mastectomy pain. [Subjects] Eighteen patients were divided into acupuncture (A) and burst (B) group. [Methods] In this pre and post-intervention study each group was measured for EEG analysis in absulte power in alpha band (8–14 Hz). Outcomes variables were the alpha waveband in the sensorymotor cortex and pain pre-and-post TENS intervention. Data were analyzed using ANOVA to compare times (rest, 10 and 15 min), group and electrodes. Pain was analyzed using percentual pain evaluation (PPE) in both groups. [Results] Outcomes indicate main effects of time and electrodes because of slow (8–10 Hz) and fast alpha (10–12 Hz) wavebands decreased. PPE reduced 88.4% in A and 66.3% in G. [Conclusion] TENS promoted electrical modification in the parietal region and a decrease in pain. Future studies should investigate other wave must be proposed for other bands and use different methods of EEG analysis to elucidate the actual mechanisms behind the efficacy of TENS treatment. PMID:24707082

  6. Full-Color Emission and Temperature Dependence of the Luminescence in Poly-P -Phenylene Ethynylene-ZnS:Mn2+ Composite Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Joly, Alan G.; Malm, Jan-Olle; Bovin, Jan-Olov; Wang, Shaopeng

    2003-07-10

    Synthesis of a nanocomposite material composed of anionic poly (phenylene ethynylene) (aPPE) polymer particles and ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticles is described and its luminescence properties investigated. aPPE particles have two emissions, one in the blue (460 nm), which are assigned to the 0-0 transition and an excimer, respectively. ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticle have an emission at 596 nm which is due to the 4T1-6A1 transition of Mn2+ and an emission at 706 nm which is ascribed to a defect-related luminescence. The blue, green, yellow, and red emissions make the composite a potential material for full-color displays. More interesting, the relative intensities of the different emissions may be varied by changing the excitation energy. Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra as well as observations on luminescence lifetimes indicate that there is negligible energy transfer from the polymer particles to the ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticle. Temperature studies reveal that the ZnS:Mn2+ particles in the nanocomposite have a significantly reduced thermal quenching energy relative to bare ZnS: > n2+ nanoparticles. In addition, between room temperature and 90 C, the luminescence of the ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticles at 596 nm increases in intensity with increasing temperature. This surprising phenomenon is attributed to thermoluminescence and thermal curing of the particle surface upon heating.

  7. Passive and Active Protective Clothing against High-Power Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigs, C.; Hustedt, M.; Kaierle, S.; Wenzel, D.; Markstein, S.; Hutter, A.

    The main objective of the work described in this paper was the development of passive and active protective clothing for the protection of the human skin against accidental laser irradiation and of active protective curtains. Here, the passive systems consist of functional multi-layer textiles, providing a high level of passive laser resistance. In addition, the active functional multi-layer textiles incorporate sensors that detect laser exposure and are, by means of a safety control, able to deactivate the laser beam automatically.Due to the lack of regulations for testing and qualifying textiles to be used as laser PPE, test methods were defined and validated. Additionally, corresponding testing set-ups were developed.Finally, the gap with respect to standardization was bridged by the definition of a test procedure and the requirements with respect to laser PPE.The developments were demonstrated by a set of tailored functional passive and active laser-protective clothing prototypes (gloves, jackets, aprons, trousers) and active curtains as well as by a prototype testing rig, providing the possibility to perform the specified low-power and high-power textile test procedure.

  8. Eye dose to staff involved in interventional and procedural fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, D.; Hadaya, D.; Tse, J.

    2016-03-01

    In 2011 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) lowered the occupational eye dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv/yr [1]. While international jurisdictions are in a process of adopting these substantial changes, medical physicists at the clinical level have been advising medical colleagues on specific situations based on dose measurements. Commissioned and calibrated TLDs mounted in commercially available holders designed to simulate the measurement of Hp(3), were applied to staff involved in x-ray procedures for a one month period. During this period clinical procedure data was concurrently collected and subject to audit. The use or not of eye personal protective equipment (PPE) was noted for all staff. Audits were conducted in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory, the interventional angiography rooms and the procedural room where endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures are performed. Significant levels of occupational dose were recorded in the cardiac and interventional procedures, with maximum reading exceeding the new limit for some interventional radiologists. No significant eye doses were measured for staff performing ERCP procedures. One outcome of the studies was increased use of eye PPE for operators of interventional equipment with increased availability also to nursing staff, when standing in close proximity to the patient during procedures.

  9. Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonça; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

    2008-04-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence.

  10. Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonça; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence. PMID:24031211

  11. Persimmon peel extract attenuates PDGF-BB-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell migration and invasion through inhibition of c-Src activity.

    PubMed

    Son, Joe Eun; Hwang, Mun Kyung; Lee, Eunjung; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong-Eun; Jung, Sung Keun; Kim, Jong Rhan; Ahn, Gwang-Hwan; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2013-12-15

    The unregulated migration and invasion of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) into the intima is a crucial step in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, the oriental persimmon extract (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Fuyu) has been investigated for its anti-atherogenic properties, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the inhibitory effects of persimmon peel and flesh extract on the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB-induced MMP-1 expression using Western blot, and abnormal migration and invasion of HASMCs using a modified Boyden chamber assay and a wound healing assay. We also evaluated the inhibitory effects of persimmon peel extract on aortic vessel thickening using a rat aortic sprouting assay. Persimmon peel (PPE), but not flesh extract (PFE), inhibited PDGF-BB-induced MMP-1 expression, cell migration and invasion in HASMCs, while suppressing the rat aortic sprouting. Western blot and in vitro kinase assay data demonstrated that PPE inhibited Src kinase activity and subsequently attenuated PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt signalling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that persimmon peel might possess a potential anti-atherogenic effect through attenuation of ASMCs migration and invasion and aortic sprouting by direct inhibition of the c-Src kinase activity.

  12. Dynamics of polydots: Soft luminescent polymeric nanoparticles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maskey, Sabina; Osti, Naresh C.; Grest, Gary S.; Perahia, Dvora

    2016-03-04

    The conformation and dynamics of luminescent polymers collapsed into nanoparticles or polydots were studied using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, providing a first insight into their internal dynamics. Controlling the conformation and dynamics of confined polymers is essential for realization of the full potential of polydots in nanomedicine and biotechnology. Specifically, the shape and internal dynamics of polydots that consist of highly rigid dialkyl p-phenylene ethynylene (PPE) are probed as a function of temperature. At room temperature, the polydots are spherical without any correlations between the aromatic rings on the PPE backbone. With increasing temperature, they expand and becomemore » slightly aspherical; however, the polymers remain confined. The coherent dynamic structure factor reveals that the internal motion of the polymer backbone is arrested, and the side chains dominate the internal dynamics of the polydots. Lastly, these new soft nanoparticles retain their overall shape and dynamics over an extended temperature range, and their conformation is tunable via their degree of expansion.« less

  13. Dilepton production in proton-proton and quasifree proton-neutron reactions at 1.25 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Shyam, R.; Mosel, U.

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the pp{yields}ppe{sup +}e{sup -} and quasifree pn{yields}pne{sup +}e{sup -} reactions within an effective Lagrangian model at a laboratory kinetic energy of 1.25 GeV for which experimental data have recently been reported by the HADES Collaboration. The model uses a meson-exchange approximation to describe the initial nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering. Contributions to the reaction amplitudes are included from the NN bremsstrahlung as well as from the excitation, propagation, and radiative decay of the {Delta}(1230) isobar state. It is found that the HADES data on the e{sup +}e{sup -} invariant mass distribution in the pp{yields}ppe{sup +}e{sup -} reaction are excellently reproduced by our model where the {Delta} isobar term dominates the spectrum. In the case of the quasifree pn{yields}pne{sup +}e{sup -} reaction, a strong sensitivity to the pion electromagnetic form factor is observed which helps to bring the calculated cross sections closer to the data in the higher dilepton mass region.

  14. Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaozhong; Buregyeya, Esther; Musoke, David; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Whalen, Christopher; Bazeyo, William; Williams, Phillip; Ssempebwa, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Results. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Among these, 39.5% experienced biological hazards while 31.5% experienced nonbiological hazards. Predictors for experiencing hazards included not wearing the necessary personal protective equipment (PPE), working overtime, job related pressures, and working in multiple health facilities. Control measures to mitigate hazards were availing separate areas and containers to store medical waste and provision of safety tools and equipment. Conclusion. Healthcare workers in this setting experience several hazards in their workplaces. Associated factors include not wearing all necessary protective equipment, working overtime, experiencing work related pressures, and working in multiple facilities. Interventions should be instituted to mitigate the hazards. Specifically PPE supply gaps, job related pressures, and complacence in adhering to mitigation measures should be addressed. PMID:25802531

  15. Heat stress management program improving worker health and operational effectiveness: a case study.

    PubMed

    Huss, Rosalyn G; Skelton, Scott B; Alvis, Kimberly L; Shane, Leigh A

    2013-03-01

    Heat stress monitoring is a vital component of an effective health and safety program when employees work in exceptionally warm environments. Workers at hazardous waste sites often wear personal protective equipment (PPE), which increases the body heat stress load. No specific Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations address heat stress; however, OSHA does provide several guidance documents to assist employers in addressing this serious workplace health hazard. This article describes a heat stress and surveillance plan implemented at a hazardous waste site as part of the overall health and safety program. The PPE requirement for work at this site, coupled with extreme environmental temperatures, made heat stress a significant concern. Occupational health nurses and industrial hygienists developed a monitoring program for heat stress designed to prevent the occurrence of significant heat-related illness in site workers. The program included worker education on the signs of heat-related illness and continuous physiologic monitoring to detect early signs of heat-related health problems. Biological monitoring data were collected before workers entered the exclusion zone and on exiting the zone following decontamination. Sixty-six site workers were monitored throughout site remediation. More than 1,700 biological monitoring data points were recorded. Outcomes included improved worker health and safety, and increased operational effectiveness.

  16. Chromium Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors in Printing Workers in Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the chromium exposure levels in printing workers. The study evaluated the airborne, serum, and urinary chromium levels and determines any correlation between level of chromium in specimen and airborne chromium levels. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 75 exposed and 75 matched nonexposed subjects. Air breathing zone was measured by furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum and urine samples were collected to determine chromium levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The printing workers' urinary chromium levels (6.86 ± 1.93 μg/g creatinine) and serum chromium levels (1.24 ± 1.13 μg/L) were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). Work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE), and personal hygiene were significantly associated with urinary chromium level and serum chromium levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). This study found a correlation between airborne chromium levels and urinary chromium levels (r = 0.247, p = 0.032). A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of urinary and serum chromium levels were shown in this study. Conclusion. Improvements in working conditions, occupational health training, and PPE use are recommended to reduce chromium exposure. PMID:26448746

  17. Surface Charges and Shell Crosslinks Each Play Significant Roles in Mediating Degradation, Biofouling, Cytotoxicity and Immunotoxicity for Polyphosphoester-based Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhang, Fuwu; Deng, Zhou J.; Lim, Young H.; Wang, Hai; Parsamian, Perouza; Hammond, Paula T.; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    The construction of nanostructures from biodegradable precursors and shell/core crosslinking have been pursued as strategies to solve the problems of toxicity and limited stability, respectively. Polyphosphoester (PPE)-based micelles and crosslinked nanoparticles with non-ionic, anionic, cationic, and zwitterionic surface characteristics for potential packaging and delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, were constructed using a quick and efficient synthetic strategy, and importantly, demonstrated remarkable differences in terms of cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and biofouling properties, as a function of their surface characteristics and also with dependence on crosslinking throughout the shell layers. For instance, crosslinking of zwitterionic micelles significantly reduced the immunotoxicity, as evidenced from the absence of secretions of any of the 23 measured cytokines from RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages treated with the nanoparticles. The micelles and their crosslinked analogs demonstrated lower cytotoxicity than several commercially-available vehicles, and their degradation products were not cytotoxic to cells at the range of the tested concentrations. PPE-nanoparticles are expected to have broad implications in clinical nanomedicine as alternative vehicles to those involved in several of the currently available medications. PMID:24264796

  18. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    PubMed

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis SigM positively regulates Esx secreted protein and nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes and down regulates virulence-associated surface lipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sahadevan; Puyang, Xiaoling; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Young, David C; Moody, D Branch; Husson, Robert N

    2006-12-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 12 alternative sigma factors, several of which regulate stress responses and are required for virulence in animal models of acute infection. In this work we investigated M. tuberculosis SigM, a member of the extracytoplasmic function subfamily of alternative sigma factors. This sigma factor is expressed at low levels in vitro and does not appear to function in stress response regulation. Instead, SigM positively regulates genes required for the synthesis of surface or secreted molecules. Among these are genes encoding two pairs of Esx secreted proteins, a multisubunit nonribosomal peptide synthetase operon, and genes encoding two members of the proline-proline-glutamate (PPE) family of proteins. Genes up regulated in a sigM mutant strain include a different PPE gene, as well as several genes involved in surface lipid synthesis. Among these are genes involved in synthesis of phthiocerol dimycocerosate (PDIM), a surface lipid critical for virulence during acute infection, and the kasA-kasB operon, which is required for mycolic acid synthesis. Analysis of surface lipids showed that PDIM synthesis is increased in a sigM-disrupted strain and is undetectable in a sigM overexpression strain. These findings demonstrate that SigM positively and negatively regulates cell surface and secreted molecules that are likely to function in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:17028284

  20. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events. PMID:25812425

  1. A Unique Mutation in a MYB Gene Cosegregates with the Nectarine Phenotype in Peach

    PubMed Central

    Dondini, Luca; Pacheco, Igor; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Gazza, Laura; Scalabrin, Simone; Strozzi, Francesco; Tartarini, Stefano; Bassi, Daniele; Verde, Ignazio; Rossini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Nectarines play a key role in peach industry; the fuzzless skin has implications for consumer acceptance. The peach/nectarine (G/g) trait was described as monogenic and previously mapped on chromosome 5. Here, the position of the G locus was delimited within a 1.1 cM interval (635 kb) based on linkage analysis of an F2 progeny from the cross ‘Contender’ (C, peach) x ‘Ambra’ (A, nectarine). Careful inspection of the genes annotated in the corresponding genomic sequence (Peach v1.0), coupled with variant discovery, led to the identification of MYB gene PpeMYB25 as a candidate for trichome formation on fruit skin. Analysis of genomic re-sequencing data from five peach/nectarine accessions pointed to the insertion of a LTR retroelement in exon 3 of the PpeMYB25 gene as the cause of the recessive glabrous phenotype. A functional marker (indelG) developed on the LTR insertion cosegregated with the trait in the CxA F2 progeny and was validated on a broad panel of genotypes, including all known putative donors of the nectarine trait. This marker was shown to efficiently discriminate between peach and nectarine plants, indicating that a unique mutational event gave rise to the nectarine trait and providing a useful diagnostic tool for early seedling selection in peach breeding programs. PMID:24595269

  2. Photopyroelectric Calorimetry of Magnetic Nanofluids: Effect of Type of Surfactant and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadarlat, D.; Longuemart, S.; Turcu, R.; Streza, M.; Vekas, L.; Hadj Sahraoui, A.

    2014-11-01

    Five types of magnetic nanofluids, based on nanoparticles with water as the carrier liquid, were investigated by using the two photopyroelectric (PPE) detection configurations (back (BPPE) and front (FPPE)), together with the thermal-wave resonator cavity (TWRC) technique as the scanning procedure. The difference between the nanofluids was the type of surfactant: double layers of lauric (LA-LA), oleic (OA-OA), and miristic (MA-MA) acids and also double layers of lauric-miristic (LA-MA) and palmitic-oleic (PA-OA) fatty acids were used. In both detection configurations, the information was contained in the phase of the PPE signal. The thermal diffusivity of nanofluids was obtained in the BPPE configuration, from the scan of the phase of the signal as a function of the liquid's thickness. Using the same scanning procedure in the FPPE configuration, the thermal effusivity was directly measured. The influence of a 0.12 kG magnetic field on the thermal effusivity and thermal diffusivity was also investigated. Because of different surfactants, the thermal effusivity of the investigated nanofluids ranges from to , and the thermal diffusivity, from to . The magnetic field has practically no influence on the thermal effusivity, and produces a maximum increase of the thermal diffusivity (LA-LA surfactant) of about 4 %.

  3. A Green's Function Approach to PIV Pressure Estimates with an Application to Micro Energy Harvesters in Turbulent and Vortical Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goushcha, Oleg

    In the present work we demonstrate the feasibility to harness energy from fluid flows by using piezoelectric generators. These ac-coupled devices convert fluid kinetic energy, which otherwise would be wasted, into electrical energy. The available power density in a flowing fluid is proportional to the cube of its velocity and if it is properly harvested can be used for continuously powering very small electronic devices or can be rectified and stored for intermittent use. A key quantity in these applications which affects the performance is the forcing which the fluid exerts on the harvesters. An analytical solution is presented for the Pressure Poisson Equation (PPE) that uses Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) field data to find the pressure in a flow domain and to calculate the pressure and therefore the force exerted by the fluid on the solid surface. The solution provides a favorable method of calculating pressure field from PIV data as it eliminates the need to compute higher order derivatives of velocity on the domain that are present in viscous terms as well as eliminates the need to integrate Navier-Stokes equations to find the pressure along the boundaries of interest. The solution is validated against a theoretical solution for a pressure distribution inside a tornado-like vortex; pressure solutions obtained by derivative momentum transform method for a vortex flow and some experimental results for the pressure distribution inside a turbulent boundary layer. Several experiments were carried out in which pressure was calculated using PPE: i) a discrete vortex passing over a simple cantilever beam harvester ii) a simple cantilever harvester placed in the boundary layer iii) a self-excited harvester placed in the free stream flow. In a discrete vortex experiment, the self-propelled vortex is passed over the cantilever beam. The pressure distribution and the net force of the beam are calculated by solving PPE as the vortex passes over the beam. In a boundary

  4. On interfacial properties of tetrahydrofuran: Atomistic and coarse-grained models from molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, J. M.; Algaba, J.; Míguez, J. M.; Mendiboure, B.; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I.; Piñeiro, M. M.; Blas, F. J.

    2016-04-01

    We have determined the interfacial properties of tetrahydrofuran (THF) from direct simulation of the vapor-liquid interface. The molecules are modeled using six different molecular models, three of them based on the united-atom approach and the other three based on a coarse-grained (CG) approach. In the first case, THF is modeled using the transferable parameters potential functions approach proposed by Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen [J. Chem. Phys. 77, 5073 (1982)] and a new parametrization of the TraPPE force fields for cyclic alkanes and ethers [S. J. Keasler et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 11234 (2012)]. In both cases, dispersive and coulombic intermolecular interactions are explicitly taken into account. In the second case, THF is modeled as a single sphere, a diatomic molecule, and a ring formed from three Mie monomers according to the SAFT-γ Mie top-down approach [V. Papaioannou et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 054107 (2014)]. Simulations were performed in the molecular dynamics canonical ensemble and the vapor-liquid surface tension is evaluated from the normal and tangential components of the pressure tensor along the simulation box. In addition to the surface tension, we have also obtained density profiles, coexistence densities, critical temperature, density, and pressure, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying special attention to the comparison between the estimations obtained from different models and literature experimental data. The simulation results obtained from the three CG models as described by the SAFT-γ Mie approach are able to predict accurately the vapor-liquid phase envelope of THF, in excellent agreement with estimations obtained from TraPPE model and experimental data in the whole range of coexistence. However, Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen model presents significant deviations from experimental results. We also compare the predictions for surface tension as obtained from simulation results for all the models with

  5. Measurements of free radical in vitamin E-doped ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: Dependence on materials processing and irradiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, M. D.; Jahan, M. S.

    2007-12-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), doped with vitamin E (α-tocopherol (α-T)), was irradiated with gamma rays in nitrogen (N 2) or air, and the resulting free radicals were detected in air using an electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Two groups of samples were investigated. In one group, samples were prepared from blends of α-T (20 wt%) and UHMWPE powder (PPE-α-T) and, in the other, from compression molded blocks (CMPE-α-T). The CMPE-α-T blocks contained 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, 10.0%, 15.0%, 20.0% and 25.0% α-T by weight. When irradiation was performed in air, the ESR spectrum of powder samples showed the presence of only vitamin E radical (tocopheroxyl, α-T-O rad ), and there was no detectable signal due to PE radicals (alkyl/allyl). Most likely, all PE radicals were quenched by vitamin E during irradiation in air. However, when irradiation was performed in N 2, composite ESR spectra showed the presence of both PE and α-T-O rad radicals. Compared to the control (PPE, 0% α-T) PE radicals in PPE-20% α-T were found to be significantly reduced or quenched by α-T. The presence of α-T in powder samples, however, did not affect the long-term (71 days in this study) oxidation behavior of the PE radicals. Compression molded samples, with and without α-T, produced identical ESR spectra irrespective of their irradiation environment N 2 or air. However, radical concentration, measured immediately after irradiation, was found to be an order of magnitude less in CMPE-α-T than in the control (CMPE-0% α-T). They also evidenced identical structural changes in the respective ESR spectra during subsequent oxidation for 24 days in open air. These observations suggest that α-T can effectively quench a significant fraction of PE radicals during irradiation, but has no measurable effect on subsequent reactions. No significant difference was found in the ESR spectra of samples containing different α-T concentration.

  6. Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to describe farmers’ pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported. Methods The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration. Results Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%). Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases. Conclusions The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers’ knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their

  7. Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE`s Office of Science and Technology sponsors Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDPs) in which developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE`s projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased cost of operation. As buildings are demolished as part of the DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project`s (FEMP`s) D and D Plan, many of the activities are performed in hot weather and usually require use of various types and layers of personal protective equipment (PPE). While PPE is designed to protect the worker from contamination, it also significantly compromises the body`s ability to cool itself, leading to potentially serious heat stress situations. This report describes a comparative demonstration between the methodology currently used for heat stress management (i.e., limited stay times and cool-down rooms) and an alternative personal ice cooling suit technology. The baseline methodology for heat stress management is limited stay times when working in hot conditions. The FEMP`s Safety Performance Requirements outline the procedures and stay times to be followed and consider the temperature of the working environment, work load, and the type and amount of PPE required for the job. While these common criteria for determining stay times, other sites may have different requirements. This demonstration investigates the feasibility of using the personal ice cooling suite as a tool for managing heat stress in workers at the FEMP. This report provides a comparative analysis of

  8. On interfacial properties of tetrahydrofuran: Atomistic and coarse-grained models from molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J M; Algaba, J; Míguez, J M; Mendiboure, B; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A I; Piñeiro, M M; Blas, F J

    2016-04-14

    We have determined the interfacial properties of tetrahydrofuran (THF) from direct simulation of the vapor-liquid interface. The molecules are modeled using six different molecular models, three of them based on the united-atom approach and the other three based on a coarse-grained (CG) approach. In the first case, THF is modeled using the transferable parameters potential functions approach proposed by Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen [J. Chem. Phys. 77, 5073 (1982)] and a new parametrization of the TraPPE force fields for cyclic alkanes and ethers [S. J. Keasler et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 11234 (2012)]. In both cases, dispersive and coulombic intermolecular interactions are explicitly taken into account. In the second case, THF is modeled as a single sphere, a diatomic molecule, and a ring formed from three Mie monomers according to the SAFT-γ Mie top-down approach [V. Papaioannou et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 054107 (2014)]. Simulations were performed in the molecular dynamics canonical ensemble and the vapor-liquid surface tension is evaluated from the normal and tangential components of the pressure tensor along the simulation box. In addition to the surface tension, we have also obtained density profiles, coexistence densities, critical temperature, density, and pressure, and interfacial thickness as functions of temperature, paying special attention to the comparison between the estimations obtained from different models and literature experimental data. The simulation results obtained from the three CG models as described by the SAFT-γ Mie approach are able to predict accurately the vapor-liquid phase envelope of THF, in excellent agreement with estimations obtained from TraPPE model and experimental data in the whole range of coexistence. However, Chandrasekhar and Jorgensen model presents significant deviations from experimental results. We also compare the predictions for surface tension as obtained from simulation results for all the models with

  9. Caracterisation de nanofilms polymeriques deposes par plasma froid : Stabilite et proprietes mecaniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrette, Jeremie

    The current project is inscribed in the research axis on bioactive coatings of Dr. Sophie Lerouge's Laboratoire de Biomatériaux endovasculaires (LBeV). The aim of our work was to extract mechanical properties of a new plasma polymer called L-PPE :N (developed to enhance healing around stent-graft) and determine the effect of various experimental parameters on the stability behavior of our thin films (hundred nanometer thick coatings). Subsidiary to these goals, we also had in mind to test whether usual methods for characterizing polymers and films were applicable on our cold-plasma deposited material. Properties concerned by our endeavor included Young's modulus, hardness, storage and loss modulus, resistance to tearing, ultimate strain and aqueous stability under different temperature and pH for films of varying ratio of gases and thicknesses. Apparatus and work hypothesis used to succeed in our characterization work included, but was not limited to: a quartz crystal dissipative microbalance (QCM-D), a nanoindenter, an ellipsometer, and a tensile testing bench specifically designed for microscopic observation. Hypothesis attached to these methods are that each of these will work as intended for the characterization of our material. Furthermore, we also need to consider the properties of our film as constant throughout its volume (surface-wise for QCM-D analysis and thickness-wise for nanoindentation). QCM-D results allowed us to determine the best compromise of deposition gas ratio R=NH3/C2H4 of L-PPE:N for our biomedical application to be 0.75, from a stability and bioactivity point of view. Starting from that information, we submitted ratio 0.75 films to temperature, thickness and pH essays to make sure they could handle every situation we could need to put them through. Nanoindentation essays have helped us finding reduced modulus and hardness of 8.0 and 0.4 GPa for the 2 µm coating and 10.4 and 0.5 GPa for the 200 nm film

  10. Farmers Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Health Problems Associated with Pesticide Use in Rural Irrigation Villages, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Woldemichael, Kifle; Massa, Desalegn; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone. Respondents were 796 irrigation farmers from 20 kebeles (lowest administration unit) in Jimma Zone. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. Both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis were performed. A binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with attitudes of farmers towards the safe use of pesticides at P value of ≤ 0.05 in the final model. Results Among the participants, 54.4% (95%CI, 50.7–58%) knew at least one pesticide control method and 53.7% had positive attitudes towards safe use of pesticide. The mean score of attitudes was found to be 3.9(±0.4). Knowledge including each of the following: the names of the pesticides (AOR, 0.41; 95%CI, 0.25–0.67), methods of pest control and the use of gloves during pesticide exposure (AOR, 1.52; 95%CI, 1.07–2.16) was found to be independent predictor of the farmers’ attitudes about safe use of pesticides. Past exposure of pesticide was reported by 89.6% of farmers. Participants reported ingestion (88.9%) and inhalation (90.4%) as possible mechanisms of pesticide exposure. Nearly 42% of farmers had never used any personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect themselves against pesticide exposure. Farmers reported several health complications, which were perceived as complications of pesticide exposure, including: headache, nausea and vomiting, skin rash and irritation and abdominal pain. Conclusions The study exposed the existence of high probability of

  11. Determinants of Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibition Among Agricultural Pesticide Handlers in Washington State: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Krenz, Jennifer E.; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Smith, Theresa R.; Cunningham, Rad N.; Fenske, Richard A.; Simpson, Christopher D.; Keifer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides are used widely in agriculture to manage insect pests of economic importance. Agricultural workers are more likely to suffer exposure because of the widespread use of OP/CBs in agriculture, and pesticide-related illnesses among handlers may be more severe when compared to other farm workers. The goal of this study was to identify occupational and personal characteristics associated with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition in participants recruited from the Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program from 2006 to 2011. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study among agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State during the OP/CB spray season (March–July) over a 6-year period (2006–2011). Linear mixed effects regression models were used to evaluate BuChE inhibition in relation to self-reported occupational and personal characteristics. Results: Relative to pre-season baseline levels, the mean decrease in BuChE activity during the OP/CB spray season over all years of the study period was 3.77% (P < 0.001). Greater BuChE inhibition was observed among handlers who reported using multiple OP/CBs (β = −2.70, P = 0.045), mixed or loaded OP/CBs (β = −3.97, P = 0.002), did not store personal protective equipment (PPE) in a locker at work (β = −3.4, P = 0.014), or did not wear chemical-resistant boots (β = −16.6, P < 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions: The Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program has provided a valuable opportunity to evaluate potential sources of OP/CB exposure among agricultural pesticide handlers. Several previously reported associations were confirmed in the current analysis, which included a larger number of pesticide handlers enrolled over a longer time period. The use of multiple OP/CBs and mixing/loading activities were significant risk factors, and the use of chemical-resistant boots and lockers for PPE storage were protective factors

  12. Some metal complexes of three new potentially heptadentate (N4O3) tripodal Schiff base ligands; synthesis, characterizatin and X-ray crystal structure of a novel eight coordinate Gd(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbedaghi, Reza; Moradi, Somaeyh; Salehzadeh, Sadegh; Blackman, Allan G.

    2016-03-01

    The symmetrical and asymmetrical potentially heptadentate (N4O3) tripodal Schiff base ligands (H3L1-H3L3) were synthesized from the condensation reaction of three tripodal tetraamine ligands tpt (trpn), tris (3-aminopropyl) amine; ppe (abap), (2-aminoethyl)bis(3-aminopropyl)amine, and tren, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, with 5-methoxysalicylaldehyde. Then, the reaction of Ln(III) (Ln = Gd, La and Sm), Al(III), and Fe(III) metal ions with the above ligands was investigated. The resulting compounds were characterized by IR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis in all cases and NMR spectroscopy in the case of the Schiff base ligands. The X-ray crystal structure of the Gd complex of H3L3 ligand showed that in addition to all donor atoms of the ligand one molecule of H2O is also coordinated to the metal ion and a neutral eight-coordinate complex is formed.

  13. Available Interventions for Prevention of Cotton Dust-Associated Lung Diseases Among Textile Workers.

    PubMed

    Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2016-08-01

    The authors reviewed literature on interventions for cotton dust-associated lung diseases among textile workers. Internet sources (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google and Google Scholar) were accessed and interventions were categorized into: Engineering or administrative controls, or personal protective equipment (PPE). Ten relevant articles were shortlisted, five related to engineering controls (pre-processing, bactericidal treatment of cotton, improved workplace design, machinery and dust control measures). Administrative controls may involve setting standards, environmental surveillance, periodic medical examinations, and workers training. Although specific guidelines are available regarding the use of PPEs, but there was little literature on their effectiveness. It was concluded that there is a dearth of literature regarding field-based assessment of interventions for control of cotton dust associated respiratory diseases and the available studies primarily focus on pre-processing of cotton. This review highlights the uncertainties that remain; and recommends several areas for future research on respiratory health of textile workers. PMID:27539764

  14. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium orygis isolates from wild animals of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Jeewan; Nakajima, Chie; Maharjan, Bhagwan; Poudell, Ajay; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Mycobacterium orygis, a new member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, was isolated from a captive spotted deer (Axis axis) and a blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) in Nepal. Analyses by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing, region of difference and single nucleotide polymorphism of genes gyrB, mmpL6, TbD1, PPE55 and Rv2042c confirmed the isolates as M. orygis. Moreover, analyses by spoligotyping (SIT587) as well as MIRU-VNTR showed that the isolates shared a similar pattern with many reported isolates. From previous and the present studies, it can be inferred that South Asia is one of the endemic regions for M. orygis. Further investigation including a larger sample size and different host interaction will help to understand the ecology and epidemiology of M. orygis in Nepal. PMID:26563034

  15. Implicit Incompressible SPH.

    PubMed

    Ihmsen, Markus; Cornelis, Jens; Solenthaler, Barbara; Horvath, Christopher; Teschner, Matthias

    2013-07-25

    We propose a novel formulation of the projection method for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). We combine a symmetric SPH pressure force and an SPH discretization of the continuity equation to obtain a discretized form of the pressure Poisson equation (PPE). In contrast to previous projection schemes, our system does consider the actual computation of the pressure force. This incorporation improves the convergence rate of the solver. Furthermore, we propose to compute the density deviation based on velocities instead of positions as this formulation improves the robustness of the time-integration scheme. We show that our novel formulation outperforms previous projection schemes and state-of-the-art SPH methods. Large time steps and small density deviations of down to 0.01% can be handled in typical scenarios. The practical relevance of the approach is illustrated by scenarios with up to 40 million SPH particles.

  16. Implicit incompressible SPH.

    PubMed

    Ihmsen, Markus; Cornelis, Jens; Solenthaler, Barbara; Horvath, Christopher; Teschner, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel formulation of the projection method for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). We combine a symmetric SPH pressure force and an SPH discretization of the continuity equation to obtain a discretized form of the pressure Poisson equation (PPE). In contrast to previous projection schemes, our system does consider the actual computation of the pressure force. This incorporation improves the convergence rate of the solver. Furthermore, we propose to compute the density deviation based on velocities instead of positions as this formulation improves the robustness of the time-integration scheme. We show that our novel formulation outperforms previous projection schemes and state-of-the-art SPH methods. Large time steps and small density deviations of down to 0.01 percent can be handled in typical scenarios. The practical relevance of the approach is illustrated by scenarios with up to 40 million SPH particles.

  17. Sorafenib Induced Hand Foot Skin Rash in FLT3 ITD Mutated Acute Myeloid Leukemia-A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Jayastu; Devasia, Anup J.; Ganapule, Abhijeet; George, Leni; Viswabandya, Auro

    2014-01-01

    Sorafenib is a novel small molecule multiple kinase inhibitor which has been used for metastatic renal cancer, hepatocellular cancer. Sorafenib induced skin rash has been discussed as a side effect in trials in both, FLT3 wild type and mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as monotherapy or as combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. We describe a patient with FLT 3 ITD mutated AML, who was started on adjunctive Sorafenib therapy. Skin reactions manifested as NCI Grade III palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), requiring drug discontinuation. Several pathogenic mechanisms have been implicated in Sorafenib induced skin reactions, but none has been conclusively proven. While treatment options are varied for early stage skin reactions, drug discontinuation remains the only possible therapy presently for severe grade skin reaction. PMID:24678393

  18. Three charged particles in the continuum: astrophysical examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. B.; Levin, S. B.; Yakovlev, S. L.

    2004-03-01

    We suggest a new adiabatic approach for the description of three charged particles in the continuum. This approach is based on the Coulomb-Fourier transformation of a three-body Hamiltonian, which allows us to develop a scheme, alternative to the Born-Oppenheimer one. The approach appears as an expansion of the kernels of corresponding integral transformations in terms of small mass-ratio parameter. To be specific, the results are presented for the system ppe in the continuum. The wavefunction of such a system is compared with the one which is used for the estimation of the rate for triple reaction p + p + e rarr d + ngr, which takes place as a step of the pp-cycle in the centre of the Sun. The problem of microscopic screening for this particular reaction is discussed.

  19. Medical toxicology and public health-update on research and activities at the centers for disease control and prevention and the agency for toxic substances and disease registry.

    PubMed

    Snook, Curtis P; Cardarelli, John; Mickelsen, R Leroy; Mattorano, Dino; Nalipinski, Michael

    2008-12-01

    An extensive review of CDC epidemiological responses to human outbreaks of anthrax from occupational settings between the years of 1950 and 2001 documented a variety of approaches to mitigation and decontamination [2]. These approaches included taking no action, burning contaminated materials, chlorinating water supplies, instituting administrative and engineering controls and PPE, vaccinating potentially exposed individuals, and in 2 instances, fumigating with formaldehyde vapor (now considered to be a human carcinogen). Secondary contamination of a worker's home was documented in 1 case, but not felt to be clinically significant to warrant any decontamination efforts. In response to the B. anthracis attacks in 2001, chlorine dioxide fumigation, vaporous hydrogen peroxide fumigation, and a combination of HEPA vacuuming, cleaning, and bleach application were all techniques used successfully to clean B. anthracis spore contamination.

  20. Acceleration of lithotripsy using cavitation bubbles induced by second-harmonic superimposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuga, Masamizu; Yasuda, Jun; Jimbo, Hayato; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy potentially produces residual stone fragments too large to pass through ureters and significant injury to the normal tissue surrounding the stone. Previous works have shown that the collapse of cavitation bubbles induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound can produce small stone fragments via cavitation erosion. However, the erosion rate is hypothesized to be reduced by ultrasound attenuation by excessively generated bubble clouds. If so, it is important to generate the bubbles only on the stone surface. The effects of peak-negative-enhanced (PNE) and peak-positive-enhanced (PPE) waves obtained by second-harmonic superimposition were investigated to control cavitation bubbles. With the PNE waves, the bubbles were generated only on the stone surface and the maximum erosion rate was 232 ± 32 mg/min. All the fragments were smaller than 2 mm, which makes them pass through ureters naturally. The proposed method shows the potential to significantly improve the speed of lithotripsy.