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Sample records for avena cross-sectional study

  1. Cross sectional study of osteoporosis among women.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tripti; Verma, A K

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, associated with substantial morbidity and socio-economic burden. An early detection can help in reducing the fracture rates and overall socio-economic burden. The present study was carried out to screen the bone status (osteopenia and osteoporosis) above the age of 35 yrs in the women. A community based cross sectional study was carried out in 158 women by calculating WHO T-scores utilizing calcaneal QUS as diagnostic tool. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was found to be 13.3% ± 5.29% and 48.1% ± 7.79% respectively. Statistical association of prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was found to be significant with age group; gravida status; attainment of menopause; body weight and physically active status of the women. The statistical association was not significant in relation to the rank status of their husband, as well as dietary pattern of the women but still it has to be substantiated by conducting larger community based trials in future. The present study found that there was statistically significant relationship between age group and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. There was a negative correlation between age of the women and BMD. Besides age, gravida status and menopausal status have negative correlation with BMD while positive correlation with physically active lifestyle. The results were found to be non-significant in relation to rank status of husband and dietary pattern.

  2. Allergic conjunctivitis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, A; Piliego, F; Castegnaro, A; Lazzarini, D; La Gloria Valerio, A; Mattana, P; Fregona, I

    2015-06-01

    Ocular allergy is a common disease in daily practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate clinical aspects of and therapeutic approaches to ocular allergy in Italy. Of the 3685 patients affected by ocular allergy and enrolled by 304 ophthalmologists nationally, 3545 were eligible to be included in the statistical analysis. A questionnaire was administered in office to record demographic data, comorbidities, trigger factors, number of conjunctivitis episodes, and past treatments. Signs and symptoms were graded according to their severity, frequency, and duration. Mean age of enrolled patients was 38 ± 19 years. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (55% of patients) was equally distributed among the different age groups, while perennial allergic conjunctivitis (18%) increased with age and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (9%) was more frequent under the age of 18. Itching and redness were reported in 90% and 85%, respectively; lid skin involvement was observed in 22% of cases and keratitis in 11%. Pollen sensitivities were indicated as the most frequent triggers; however, exposure to non-specific environmental conditions, pollutants, and cigarette smoke was frequently reported. Only 35% of patients underwent a diagnostic evaluation of specific allergic sensitization, with positive allergy tests found in 82% of this subset. With regard to treatment, topical decongestants were used in 43% of patients, corticosteroids in 41%, antihistamines in 29%, systemic antihistamines in 27%, and mast cell stabilizers in 15%. This survey provided useful epidemiological information regarding the clinical characteristics and treatment options of a large cohort of patients affected by different forms of ocular allergy. An understanding of ocular allergic disease, its incidence, demographics, and treatment paradigms provides important information towards understanding its pharmacoeconomics and burden on the national health system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Study of Exotic Nuclear Structures via Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takechi, Maya

    2009-10-01

    Nuclear radius is one of the most basic physical quantities to study unknown exotic nuclei. A number of radii for unstable nuclei were studied through measurements of interaction cross sections (σI) at high energies, using the Glauber-type calculation (Optical-Limit approximation (OLA) of Glauber theory) to investigate halo and skin structures of exotic nuclei. On the other hand, it was indicated that reaction cross sections (σR) at intermediate energies (from several tens to hundreds of MeV/nucleon) were more sensitive to dilute nucleon density distribution owing to large nucleon-nucleon total cross sections (σNN) compared to high-energy region. Recently, we developed a new method to deduce nucleon density distributions from the energy dependences of σ R, through the precise measurements of σ R for various nuclei and some modifications of Glauber-type calculation. Using this method, we studied nucleon density distributions of light nuclei by measuring σ R for those nuclei at HIMAC (Heavy ion Medical Accelerator in CHIBA), NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences). And very recently, we deduced nuclear radii of neutron-rich Ne isotopes (^28-32Ne) which are in the island-of-inversion region by measuring σI using BigRIPS at RIBF (RI Beam Factory) to study nuclear structures of those isotopes using our method. In this workshop, results of nucleon density distributions obtained at HIMAC and results of the studies of Ne isotopes at RIBF will be introduced and discussed.

  4. A study of radar cross section measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Malcolm W.

    1986-01-01

    Past, present, and proposed future technologies for the measurement of radar cross section were studied. The purpose was to determine which method(s) could most advantageously be implemented in the large microwave anechoic chamber facility which is operated at the antenna test range site. The progression toward performing radar cross section measurements of space vehicles with which the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle will be called upon to rendezvous and dock is a natural outgrowth of previous work conducted in recent years of developing a high accuracy range and velocity sensing radar system. The radar system was designed to support the rendezvous and docking of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle with various other space vehicles. The measurement of radar cross sections of space vehicles will be necessary in order to plan properly for Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle rendezvous and docking assignments. The methods which were studied include: standard far-field measurements; reflector-type compact range measurements; lens-type compact range measurement; near field/far field transformations; and computer predictive modeling. The feasibility of each approach is examined.

  5. Studies of 54,56Fe Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Henderson, S. L.; Howard, T. J.; Pecha, R. L.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Liu, S.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-05-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering differential cross sections and γ-ray production cross sections have been measured on 54,56Fe at several incident energies in the fast neutron region between 1.5 and 4.7 MeV. All measurements were completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL) using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. The facilities at UKAL allow the investigation of both elastic and inelastic scattering with nearly mono-energetic incident neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques were used to detect the scattered neutrons for the differential cross section measurements. The measured cross sections are important for fission reactor applications and also for testing global model calculations such as those found at ENDF, since describing both the elastic and inelastic scattering is important for determining the direct and compound components of the scattering mechanism. The γ-ray production cross sections are used to determine cross sections to unresolved levels in the neutron scattering experiments. Results from our measurements and comparisons to model calculations are presented.

  6. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuhei; Tamesue, Dai; Asahi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance.

  7. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance. PMID:26335001

  8. Exploring resilience in Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Fang; Cross, Wendy; Plummer, Virginia; Lam, Louisa; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2017-04-01

    To explore the state of resilience and its predictors among nurses in mainland China. Resilience is considered as an important ability to influence the prevention of job dissatisfaction and burnout. There are few studies on resilience in Chinese nurses, particularly investigating the predictors of resilience. A cross-sectional survey was employed and 1061 nurses from six three-level hospitals in Hunan responded to participate in the study. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires. Nurses experienced moderate levels of resilience and self-efficacy and tended to use a positive coping style. Multiple linear regression showed that a high level of self-efficacy and education, having a positive coping style rather than a negative coping style, exercising regularly and not using cigarettes predicted a high level of resilience (P < 0.01). This study shows a moderate level of resilience among nurses and suggests that a high level of self-efficacy and education, as well as having a positive coping style and choosing a healthy lifestyle may increase nurses' resilience. Hospital administrators and nursing managers need to explore the resilience state among nurses and understand the predictors of resilience. Then, scientific and evidence-based interventions for improving resilience should be adopted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both). The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001). However, total score is not significantly different. The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one's effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  10. Emergency Department Crowding Disparity: a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding. PMID:27478347

  11. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. Methods: We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results: We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both). The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001). However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion: The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience PMID:25674571

  13. Cross-sectional study of malocclusion in Spanish children

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Puertes-Fernández, Neus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the orthodontic treatment need of the child population of the Valencia region of Spain, employing the DAI and the IOTN, to examine the relations between treatment need, socio-economic data and gender and to assess the diagnostic agreement between the two indices. Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a random representative sample of the schoolchild population of the Valencia region of Spain. The sample size was a total of 765 children aged 12 and 15 years at 39 schools. Results: The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the DAI was 21.7% at 12 years of age and 14.1% at 15 years. The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the IOTN DHC was 20.9% at 12 years of age and 12.7% at 15 years. The diagnostic agreement between the DAI and the modified IOTN was moderate, with Kappa scores of 0.426 at 12 years of age and 0.415 for the 15-year-old group. Conclusions: Approximately 20% of the children needed orthodontic treatment. Neither gender nor social class appeared to exert a significant influence on orthodontic treatment need. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, children, malocclusion. PMID:23986013

  14. Cross-sectional study of malocclusion in Spanish children.

    PubMed

    Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel; Montiel-Company, José-María; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Puertes-Fernández, Neus

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the orthodontic treatment need of the child population of the Valencia region of Spain, employing the DAI and the IOTN, to examine the relations between treatment need, socio-economic data and gender and to assess the diagnostic agreement between the two indices. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a random representative sample of the schoolchild population of the Valencia region of Spain. The sample size was a total of 765 children aged 12 and 15 years at 39 schools. The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the DAI was 21.7% at 12 years of age and 14.1% at 15 years. The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the IOTN DHC was 20.9% at 12 years of age and 12.7% at 15 years. The diagnostic agreement between the DAI and the modified IOTN was moderate, with Kappa scores of 0.426 at 12 years of age and 0.415 for the 15-year-old group. Approximately 20% of the children needed orthodontic treatment. Neither gender nor social class appeared to exert a significant influence on orthodontic treatment need.

  15. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable.

  16. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable. PMID:27247932

  17. Cross-sectional study of violence in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Theories of emerging adulthood, the evolutionary perspective, and the presence of turning points in the lives of 19-25-year olds were examined in relation to serious perpetrated violence for a cross-sectional sample of men and women (n=14,098) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave III. Perpetrated, self-reported violence included armed robbery, gang fighting, using a weapon in a fight, pulling a knife or gun on someone, or shooting or stabbing someone. Results showed that 11.3% of emergent adults had perpetrated at least one of these behaviors in the past year. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis partially supported the three theories for both men and women, beyond the contribution of violence in adolescence. The presence of Wave III violence was more likely given the unique contributions of unmarried status and economic risk. Moreover, and consistent with the theory of emerging adulthood, both sensation seeking and depression declined with age and contributed to the acknowledgement of Wave III violence, beyond the contribution of controls for Wave I violence (6 years earlier), demographics, age, gender, unmarried status, and economic risk. Findings of age-related declines and gender differences in prevalence rates were consistent with previous research on nationally representative samples, and with the predictions of the three theories.

  18. Swimming and spinal deformities: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Minnella, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of spinal deformities and low back pain (LBP) in adolescent competitive swimmers and normal controls. This was a cross-sectional study with convenience sample of 112 adolescent competitive swimmers (62 females) compared with 217 students (106 females) of the same age (12.5 years). We designed a questionnaire to collect data on LBP and measured the angle of trunk rotation with a Bunnell scoliometer to screen for scoliosis, along with the plumbline distances for kyphosis and lordosis. Clinical cutoffs defined in the literature for detection of spinal deformities were applied. Analyses were performed using the t test and χ(2) test, and ORs and 95% CIs were calculated. Swimming was found to increase the risk of trunk asymmetries (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.08-3.20). Swimming also increased the risk of hyperkyphosis (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.35-3.77) and hyperlordosis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.06-4.73), and increased LBP in females by 2.1-fold (95% CI, 1.08-4.06). Swimming is associated with an increased risk of trunk asymmetries and hyperkyphosis. Although swimming has been considered a complete sport and a treatment option for scoliosis, our data contradict that approach, and also show a higher prevalence of LBP in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors affecting blood sample haemolysis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Ed B G; Potter, David L; Ayling, Ruth M; Higginson, Ian; Bailey, Andrew G; Smith, Jason E

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effect of blood sampling through an intravenous catheter compared with a needle in Emergency Department blood sampling. We undertook a prospective, cross-sectional study in a UK university teaching hospital Emergency Department. A convenience sample of 985 patients who required blood sampling via venepuncture was collected. A total of 844 complete sets of data were analysed. The median age was 63 years, and 57% of patients were male. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of haemolysis in blood samples obtained via a needle compared with samples obtained via an intravenous catheter. Secondary outcome measures defined the effect on sample haemolysis of the side of the patient the sample was obtained from, the anatomical location of sampling, the perceived difficulty in obtaining the sample, the order of sample tubes collected, estimated tourniquet time and bench time. Data were analysed with logistic regression, and expressed as odds ratios (95% confidence intervals; P-values). Blood samples obtained through an intravenous catheter were more likely to be haemolysed than those obtained via a needle, odds ratio 5.63 (95% confidence interval 2.49-12.73; P<0.001). Blood sampling via an intravenous catheter was significantly associated with an increase in the likelihood of sample haemolysis compared with sampling with a needle. Wherever practicable, blood samples should be obtained via a needle in preference to an intravenous catheter. Future research should include both an economic evaluation, and staff and patient satisfaction of separating blood sampling and intravenous catheter placement.

  20. Regulatory approval of new medical devices: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Payne, Christopher J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Marcus, Adam P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2016-05-20

     To investigate the regulatory approval of new medical devices.  Cross sectional study of new medical devices reported in the biomedical literature.  PubMed was searched between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004 to identify clinical studies of new medical devices. The search was carried out during this period to allow time for regulatory approval.  Articles were included if they reported a clinical study of a new medical device and there was no evidence of a previous clinical study in the literature. We defined a medical device according to the US Food and Drug Administration as an "instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, in vitro reagent, or other similar or related article."  Type of device, target specialty, and involvement of academia or of industry for each clinical study. The FDA medical databases were then searched for clearance or approval relevant to the device.  5574 titles and abstracts were screened, 493 full text articles assessed for eligibility, and 218 clinical studies of new medical devices included. In all, 99/218 (45%) of the devices described in clinical studies ultimately received regulatory clearance or approval. These included 510(k) clearance for devices determined to be "substantially equivalent" to another legally marketed device (78/99; 79%), premarket approval for high risk devices (17/99; 17%), and others (4/99; 4%). Of these, 43 devices (43/99; 43%) were actually cleared or approved before a clinical study was published.  We identified a multitude of new medical devices in clinical studies, almost half of which received regulatory clearance or approval. The 510(k) pathway was most commonly used, and clearance often preceded the first published clinical study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cognitive Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grippin, Pauline; And Others

    Students in grades K, 1, 3, and 5 were administered the Rod and Frame Test (RFT), the Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test, and the Piagetian tasks of Discontinuous Quantity, Class Inclusion, Multiplication of Classes, and Multiplication of Relations. Cross-sectional trends were found in all tasks with older children being less impulsive, more…

  2. Nursing Student Attitudes toward Euthanasia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Kazem; Rafiei, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Euthanasia is among the most common and controversial end-of-life care issues. Examining the attitudes of nursing students to this issue is important because they may well encounter these issues during the course of their clinical placements. Research aims: This study aims to examine the attitudes of a sample of Iranian nursing students towards euthanasia. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants and research context: Using convenience sampling, 382 Muslim nursing students were enrolled in this study. Data were collected using a demographic variables checklist and a self-administered questionnaire that included a definition of euthanasia and 11 closed questions that sought to record participants' level of agreement with euthanasia based on a Likert scale. Ethical consideration: Consent for participation was implicit, indicated by the participants having returned the completed questionnaires. Participants were assured that their data would remain anonymous, be kept confidential and be stored safely. Of the 382 participants, 61.5% were female, and the remainder were male. The mean age was 62.6 ± 14.1 years (range: 32-91 years). In total, 34.2%, 41.6% and 24% of students reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia, respectively. Most students with clinical experience, and 38.5% of students with no clinical experience, indicated their agreement with active euthanasia. There are a number of misconceptions among Iranian Muslim nursing students regarding the definition of euthanasia. Nonetheless, most students exhibit positive attitudes to euthanasia consistent with their clinical experiences. It is recommended to explore the factors that induced nursing students' tendency to euthanasia.

  3. Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh

    2014-04-01

    Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.003), school grade (P < 0.011), father's educational level (P < 0.045), mother's educational level (P < 0.021), and mother's occupation (P < 0.008). Female and older students are at higher risk of developing unhealthy lifestyle. Consequently, healthcare providers, health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence

  4. Decisional conflict in asthma patients: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Des Cormiers, Annick; Légaré, France; Simard, Serge; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the level of decisional conflict in asthmatic individuals facing recommendation-based decisions provided to improve asthma control. This was a cross-sectional study performed on a convenience sample of 50 adults aged between 18 and 65 years with a diagnosis of asthma. They completed a decisional conflict scale (possible range of 0-100%), asthma knowledge and control questionnaires (both 0% and 100%), and a general questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics. A decisional conflict was considered clinically significant with a score greater than 37.5%. Simple descriptive statistics were used to investigate associations with decisional conflict. Participants were mainly women (76%) and diagnosed with mild asthma (72%). The median age (1st and 3rd quartile) was 25 years (22 and 42). The median score (1st and 3rd quartile) of decisional conflict was 33% (24 and 44). A clinically significant score (>37.5%) was obtained in 36% of subjects. A statistically significant negative correlation between the knowledge score and the decisional conflict score (r(p) = -0.38; p = 0.006) was observed. The level of knowledge was the only statistically independent variable associated with the decisional conflict score (p = 0.0043). A considerable proportion of patients with asthma have a clinically significant level of decisional conflict when facing decisions aimed at improving asthma control. Patients with poor knowledge of asthma are more at risk of clinically significant level of decisional conflict. These findings support the relevance of providing asthmatic patients with relevant information in decision aids.

  5. Depression in military medicine cadets: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Dimitrios; Palaiodimos, Leonidas; Dagiasis, Matthaios; Katsarou, Angeliki; Ntouros, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Military medicine cadets undergo strenuous military training alongside demanding medical studies. This stressful and complex educational environment can lead to the emergence of depressive symptoms. We investigated the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a cohort of military medicine cadets. We conducted a descriptive questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among Greek military medicine cadets in the undergraduate program of the Hellenic Military School of Combat Support Officers. The Greek translation of the Zung self-rating depression scale questionnaire was used to screen for the presence of depressive symptoms. In addition, demographic, academic and dietary information was collected. The Shapiro-Wilk test of normality, Pearson correlation test, Chi-square test, t-test and Mann Whitney U test were employed for statistical analysis. We enrolled 55 female and 91 male military medicine cadets with a mean age of 19.84 years (SD = 0.99). The mean Zung crude score was 43.32 (SD = 4.55): 42.8 (SD = 4.43) for female cadets and 43.64 (SD = 4.6) for male cadets. Cadets were further subdivided into low and high risk groups for the presence of depressive symptoms. We identified 57 (39 %) cadets with a total Zung crude score of 45 or above: 21 females and 36 males. Statistical analysis did not reveal any significant differences between the two groups based on gender, year of training, academic performance, alcohol consumption, smoking status, vitamin supplementation, dietary habits or BMI. We report a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in a cohort of military medicine cadets that underscores the need for effective screening and appropriate and timely interventions. We did not identify any related risk factors. Military medicine cadets are exposed to a challenging military and medical training environment, and thus represent a group at risk for development of depression.

  6. Antihypertensive drugs for elderly patients: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ka Keat; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As the population ages, the prevalence of hypertension also increases. Although primary care is usually the patient’s first point of contact for healthcare, little is known about the management of hypertension among elderly patients at the primary care level. This study aimed to determine the antihypertensive prescription trend for elderly patients, the predictors of antihypertensive use and any inappropriate prescribing practices in both public and private primary care settings. METHODS Data on patient demographics, diagnosis, prescription pattern, payment mode and follow-up was extracted from a cross-sectional study involving 122 public primary care clinics and 652 private primary care clinics in Malaysia. Encounters with hypertensive patients aged ≥ 60 years were included. RESULTS A total of 1,017 antihypertensive medications were prescribed – calcium channel blockers (27.1%), beta blockers (25.5%), diuretics (23.3%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (14.9%) and angiotensin receptor blockers (6.3%). Out of the 614 patient encounters, 53.1% of the patients were prescribed monotherapy, 31.6% were prescribed dual therapy, 12.2% triple therapy, 2.8% quadruple therapy and 0.3% quintuple therapy. Type of primary care clinic and payment mode were significant predictors for the prescription of combination therapy and fixed-dose combination therapy, respectively. Four types of inappropriate prescriptions were identified. CONCLUSION Calcium channel blockers were the most common antihypertensive drug prescribed and more than half of the elderly patients were on monotherapy. Antihypertensive drug prescription was found to be associated with the type of primary care clinic and the payment mode, suggesting that prescription is influenced by the cost of the drug. PMID:25597751

  7. Smoking habits in French farmers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Roux, Pauline; Guillien, Alicia; Soumagne, Thibaud; Ritter, Ophélie; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Travers, Cécile; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Peiffer, Gérard; Laurent, Lucie; Degano, Bruno

    2017-02-04

    Farmers are exposed to multiple air contaminants that may interact with tobacco smoking in the development of respiratory diseases. Farmers are currently considered to smoke less than non-farmers, but precise data in different categories of age and farming activities are lacking. Smoking habits were studied in a cross-sectional study involving 4105 farmers and 996 non-farming controls aged 40-74 years in 9 French departments between October 2012 and May 2013. Three age groups were defined (40-54, 55-64 and 65-74years). Farmers were divided into four activity groups, namely cattle breeders, livestock farmers working in confined spaces, crop farmers and others. Smoking prevalence was compared between farmers and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) for smoking adjusted for age were calculated. The adjusted OR for ever-smoking was lower among farmers than among non-farmers in all age categories, but the ORs for current smoking were similar in farmers and controls. Smoking prevalence varied according to the type of farming activity, and was lower than in non-farming controls only among cattle breeders and confined livestock farmers. In farmers, the proportion of smokers was higher in the youngest age categories compared with the older age classes. Our results confirm that the prevalence of ever-smokers is lower in farmers than in non-farmers. Nevertheless, our data show that active smoking prevalence is similar in farmers and in non-farmers. This suggests that farmers, just like non-farmers, should be targeted by primary prevention campaigns against smoking.

  8. Adolescents and Body Image: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mannat M; Ashok, Lena; Binu, V S; Parsekar, Shradha S; Bhumika, T V

    2015-12-01

    To assess proportion of adolescents perceiving their body image as normal and to study association between body shape, self-esteem and body mass index; each with body image perception. A cross sectional study was conducted among pre university college (PUC) students of Udupi taluk. A total of 550 students in the age group of 15-19y were randomly selected from 11 PUC's: four were taken from government and unaided strata respectively and three from aided. The PUC's were selected based on proportional allocation from a total of 48 PUC's. From each PUC a class was randomly chosen as a cluster; all students in the class were included. Body shape questionnaire and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used to assess body shape concerns and self-esteem respectively. Height and weight was measured and body mass index was calculated. SPSS version 15 has been used for analysis. Results were tabulated using frequency distribution and proportions. Multinomial logistic regression was done. About 38 % of the respondents perceived their body image as normal. Body shape [OR = 0.48,95 % CI: 0.305, 0.76], self-esteem [OR = 6.12,95 % CI: 2.76, 13.9] and body mass index [OR = 4.65,95 % CI: 2.13,10.12] were found to be independently associated with body image perception. Educational institutes are a major component of adolescent's lives; the identified factors for body image perception should be taken into consideration and appropriate educational efforts to be incorporated into the routine curriculum.

  9. Acromegaly and aging: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Yuruyen, Mehmet; Keskin, Ela; Yavuzer, Hakan; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Doventas, Alper; Erdincler, Deniz Suna; Beger, Tanju; Kadioglu, Pinar; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive and functional geriatric assessment may change in acromegaly. Herein we aimed to determine at which points geriatric assessment of the cases with acromegaly differs from that of general elderly population. In this comparative cross-sectional study, a total of 30 cases with acromegaly (controlled n = 14, uncontrolled n = 16) and 30 gender and body-mass index-matched cases without acromegaly (control group, CG) above 60 years old were included. Cognitive functions were evaluated on the basis of the mini-mental state exam (MMSE). Affective status was determined using the geriatric depression scale. Activities of daily living (ADL) were ranked according to the Barthel index while instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were graded on the basis of the Lawton scale. Nutritional status was evaluated using the mini-nutritional assessment (MNA). Body composition was measured through bioimpedance analysis. Functional mobility was determined using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and muscle strength with the handgrip strength test. Scores on the MMSE were significantly lower in the elderly cases with acromegaly than in the cases without acromegaly (p < 0.001). Dementia was more frequent in the acromegaly group than in the CG (p = 0.04). Total MNA scores were significantly lower in cases with acromegaly than in the CG (p = 0.006). More subjects in the acromegaly group (33%) were at greater risk of malnutrition than in the CG (3%) (p = 0.003). There was greater moderate functional impairment based on Barthel ADL in the acromegaly group than in the CG (p = 0.04). Acromegaly may impair cognitive functions, functional mobility and instrumental daily living activities in the geriatric population. With acromegaly, the risk of malnutrition may also increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China, Radar Cross Section Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-03

    Section" (translated microstrip elements, to the extent possible. In order to by Ruan Yingzheng et al.), Electronics Industry Pub- reduce RCS further... ELECTRONICA SINICA] in Chinese Vol 18 No 6, difficult. There is a great deal of theoretical and experi- Nov 90 pp 92-96 [MS received Jul 89, revised Dec 89...34] 2. E. F. Knott, et al., "Radar Scattering Cross Section" [Excerpts] Abstract (Ruan Yingzheng, et al., editors), Electronics Industry Publishing

  12. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  13. Sarcopenia among hospitalized patients - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana S; Guerra, Rita S; Fonseca, Isabel; Pichel, Fernando; Amaral, Teresa F

    2015-12-01

    Data on the prevalence of sarcopenia among hospitalized older patients are scarce and there is no available information on the burden of sarcopenia among younger patients. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about the frequency of sarcopenia among hospitalized patients and to evaluate the influence of different diagnostic criteria in these estimates. A cross-sectional study was conducted in hospitalized adult patients. Sarcopenia was defined, according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), as the presence of both low muscle mass, assessed by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), adjusted for height, and low muscle function (hand grip strength). Two other criteria were applied, also using hand grip strength for evaluating muscle function, one that also assessed muscle mass by BIA, but adjusted for weight, and another which estimated muscle mass based on mid-arm muscle circumference. Nutritional status was evaluated by Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment. The degree of agreement between the different diagnostic criteria was assessed using kappa. Multivariable logistic regression models were used in order to identify factors associated with sarcopenia. 608 hospitalized adult patients aged ≥18 years composed the study sample. According to EWGSOP's criteria, 25.3% patients were sarcopenic. However, depending on age and on the applied criteria, frequency of sarcopenia varied from 5% to 41.1% for men and from 4.9% to 38.3% for women. There was 95.7% (k = 0.89) agreement between criteria that estimated muscle mass by BIA. According to EWGSOP criteria approximately 20% of the non-undernourished patients were sarcopenic. Furthermore, 29.5% of overweight and 18.7% of obese patients were sarcopenic. Factors associated with sarcopenia were male gender, age ≥65 years, moderate or severe dependence, being undernourished and admitted to a medical ward. Sarcopenia is frequent among hospitalized patients and varies widely

  14. Doctors' Attitude Towards Euthanasia: A Cross-sectional Study Experience.

    PubMed

    Subba, Sonu Hangma; Khullar, Varun; Latafat, Yusra; Chawla, Khushboo; Nirmal, Apoorva; Chaudhary, Tanvi

    2016-06-01

    Euthanasia is a controversial issue that puts doctors into a dilemma and can have the capacity to end the patients' sufferings. However, it is never an easy decision; hence, this study was planned to find the attitude of practicing doctors of medical colleges in a South Indian city of Mangalore towards euthanasia. A cross sectional study was conducted in March-April 2010 among the doctors practicing in the four medical colleges of Mangalore city. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 220 doctors after their informed consent. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Mean age of the doctors was 37.9 years (SD=9. 4), most of them were males and belonging to the Hindu religion. Euthanasia was justified according to 46.8% of the doctors in order to curtail the sufferings of the patients or to ameliorate the emotional and financial burden. Another 41% said it should be legalized and 39% said that they would use it if it was legalized. Nevertheless 84.5% of them were concerned that it may be misused if legalized. More than half of them felt it was not justified in the face of moral obligations and legal complications. Religion and department were independently associated with the doctors feeling that euthanasia was justified with 69.4% of Muslim doctors saying it was justified as compared to 59.2% of Hindu doctors (OR=2.82; p=.001) and 59.3% of doctors from medical specialities said it was justified as opposed to 39.8% of doctors from surgical specialities (OR=2.3; p=.008). Despite the illegality of it, 25% of the doctors had received requests from patients and 22.3% from relatives for euthanasia. Though euthanasia is illegal in the country, there are doctors who feel it is justified in some situations, yet not without reservations. The fact that they had been requested for euthanasia by the patients and relatives show that even the public are being aware and accepting the practice. Yet, the law in our country has not changed and it

  15. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  16. Cross-sectional study of nutritional markers in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Subhadra; Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Yadav, Manisha; Usha, B. R.; Kumar, Sunesh; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To note the value of serum Vitamin B12, folic acid, and ferritin in normal and high-risk pregnancies (HRPs) in patients attending antenatal clinic at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS). Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study where a total of 282 patients attending Gynaecology Outpatient Department at AIIMS, New Delhi, India were recruited. Among the 282 subjects, 251 were pregnant, and 31 were controls. The serum was tested for serum Vitamin B12, serum folic acid, and serum ferritin levels using Beckman Coulter Access 2 immunoassay. Results: The median value of serum folic acid level in pregnant women was 12 pg/ml with range being 2–20 pg/ml in contrast to 8 pg/ml with range being 3–20 pg/ml in nonpregnant female. This difference was statistically significant. (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the median level of serum Vitamin B12 and serum ferritin in pregnant and nonpregnant group. Serum Vitamin B12 level was lower in the third trimester (127 pg/ml) than in first trimester (171 pg/ml) and the difference is statistically significant (P = 0.03). Serum ferritin levels were also significantly lower in the second trimester (16.4 pg/ml) than third trimester (24.55 pg/ml). Although the median serum folic acid level was lower in the first trimester (9.84 pg/ml) than in second trimester (10.8 pg/ml) and in the third trimester (13.18 pg/ml) but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in Vitamin B12 level in HRPs (median value 134 pg/ml) as compared to low-risk pregnancies (149.5 pg/ml). Conclusion: Serum folic acid levels are significantly higher during pregnancy as compared to nonpregnant state. However, there was no significant difference in the median level of serum Vitamin B12 and serum ferritin in pregnant and nonpregnant group. Serum folic acid level and ferritin level were significantly higher in HRPs compared to low-risk pregnancies. PMID:27867887

  17. [Study for differential cross section of ring effect].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Chen, Liang-fu; Su, Lin; Tao, Jin-hua; Li, Shen-shen; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zi-feng

    2010-08-01

    The Ring effect is a significant limitation to the accuracy of the retrieval of trace gas constituents in atmosphere, while using satellite data with differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique. The Ring effect refers to the filling in of Fraunhofer lines, known as solar absorption lines, caused almost entirely by rotational Raman scattering. The inelastic component of the molecular scattering results in a net increase in radiance in the line because more radiation is shifted to the wavelength of an absorption line than shifted from this wavelength to other wavelengths. The rotational Raman scattering by N2 and Oz in the atmosphere is the main factor that leads to Ring effect. Basically, the Ring effect is considered as a pseudo-absorption process in retrieval of trace gas constituents in atmosphere. The solar spectrum measured by OMI/AURA is convolved with rotational Raman cross sections of N2 and O2, divided by the original solar spectrum, with a cubic polynomial subtracted off, to create differential Ring spectrum. This method has been suggested in order to obtain an effective differential Ring cross-section for the DOAS fitting process. The differential Ring spectrum could be used to improve the accuracy of the retrieval of the trace gases concentration. The results in this paper have been in basic agreement with the corresponding results calculated with RTM, and the R2 Statistic is 0. 966 3.

  18. Study on cross section of high temperature superconducting coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguri, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao

    2007-01-01

    It is in particular of importance for HTS coils to secure a larger central magnetic field and/or a large stored energy with shorter length of HTS tapes. The critical current of an HTS tape depends on both the flux density and the flux angle against tapes. From this point, the performance improvement of HTS coils is taken into account with an analytical model. The minimum volume coil derived from the Fabry Factor constant curve is taken concerning the original coil shape, which is often employed in low temperature superconducting coils. The coil critical current was analyzed in consideration of the anisotropic properties of the tape. The electric field of HTS tapes in the coil was calculated at the coil critical current and the high electric field portion were cut out. The optimal coil cross section is obtained by iterating this calculation process. As a result, the critical current and the stored energy density of the coil were improved. The stored energy density increased about 17% and the central magnetic field was almost kept constant regardless of 19% reduction of HTS tapes, as compared with the original coil with the rectangular cross section.

  19. Fluid intake in Mexican adults; a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Homero

    2014-05-01

    An adequate hydration is critical for a series of body functions, including proper regulation of core body temperature, elimination of waste metabolites by the kidney and maintenance of normal physical and cognitive functions. Some institutions have set recommendations for adequate intake of water, but these recommendations vary widely. To estimate the usual daily consumption of fluids (water and all other beverages) by a selective sample of Mexican population. Cross-sectional sample of 1,492 male and female adults between 18-65 years of age, drawn from 16 cities throughout Mexico. Self-reported fluid intake data collected over a 7-day consecutive period, recording intake of water, milk and derivatives, hot beverages, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB), alcoholic beverages and others. We found that 87.5% of adult males and 65.4% of adult females reported drinking below their recommended daily fluid intake (3 L for males and 2 L for females), and in 80% of the population SSB, not including hot beverages or milk and derivatives, accounted for a larger amount and proportion of fluid intake than plain water. Sixty-five percent of adult males and 66% of adult females consumed more than 10% of their estimated daily caloric intake from fluids. Fluid intake did not differ significantly by gender, but showed a declining trend with age. Our findings may have important implications for policy recommendations, as part of comprehensive strategies to promote the adoption of healthy life styles, in this case, promoting consumption of plain water while discouraging excessive consumption of caloric beverages. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Augmented Cross-Sectional Studies with Abbreviated Follow-up for Estimating HIV Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Claggett, B.; Lagakos, S.W.; Wang, R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010) propose an augmented cross-sectional design which provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population who remain negative permanently and subsequently incorporate this information in the cross-sectional incidence estimator. In an augmented cross-sectional study, subjects who test negative on the less-sensitive test in the cross-sectional survey are followed forward for transition into the nonrecent state, at which time they would test positive on the less-sensitive test. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the appropriate length of follow-up and the size of the infected population who remain nonreactive permanently to the less-sensitive test. In this paper, we assess the impact of varying follow-up time on the resulting incidence estimators from an augmented cross-sectional study, evaluate the robustness of cross-sectional estimators to assumptions about the existence and the size of the subpopulation who will remain negative permanently, and propose a new estimator based on abbreviated follow-up time (AF). Compared to the original estimator from an augmented cross-sectional study, the AF Estimator allows shorter follow-up time and does not require estimation of the mean window period, defined as the average time between detectability of HIV infection with the sensitive and less-sensitive tests. It is shown to perform well in a wide range of settings. We discuss when the AF Estimator would be expected to perform well and offer design considerations for an augmented cross-sectional study with abbreviated follow-up. PMID:21668904

  1. Radar cross section studies/compact range research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Dominek, A. K.; Gupta, I. J.; Newman, E. H.; Pathak, P. H.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Achievements in advancing the state-of-the-art in the measurement, control, and analysis of electromagnetic scattering from general aerodynamic targets are summarized. The major topics associated with this study include: (1) electromagnetic scattering analysis; (2) indoor scattering measurement systems; (3) RCS control; (4) waveform processing techniques; (5) material scattering and design studies; (6) design and evaluation of standard targets; and (7) antenna studies. Progress in each of these areas is reported and related publications are listed.

  2. Radar Cross Section Studies/Compact Range Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Dominek, A. K.; Gupta, I. J.; Newman, E. H.; Pathak, P. H.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is given of the achievements of NASA Grant NsG-1613 by Ohio State University from May 1, 1987 to April 30, 1988. The major topics covered are as follows: (1) electromagnetic scattering analysis; (2) indoor scattering measurement systems; (3) RCS control; (4) waveform processing techniques; (5) material scattering and design studies; (6) design and evaluation of design studies; and (7) antenna studies. Major progress has been made in each of these areas as verified by the numerous publications produced.

  3. Internet Addiction among Junior Doctors: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of Internet users in India crossed 205 million in October 2013. Excessive internet use has been attributed to socio-occupational dysfunction, and this study is targeting the junior doctors on whom not many studies have been done till date. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the proportion of junior doctors with internet addiction and whether there is any relation between increased internet use and psychological distress, assessed using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Materials and Methods: One hundred postgraduate students and house surgeons were requested to fill out the specially prepared pro forma, Internet Addiction Test Questionnaire and GHQ, and the data were analyzed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among the 100 study participants, 13% were found to have moderate addiction and none were in severe addiction range. Internet addiction was more common among those from urban areas (P = 0.011). A significant association was found between GHQ score and internet addiction test score (P = 0.031). Conclusion: The Internet is a double-edged social revolution. Further studies are required to delineate the specific effects on human behavior. PMID:28852233

  4. Historical Note about Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.

    1985-01-01

    The article discusses a study by L. Terman in which results of the two methods can be compared. Both types of comparisons indicated that CMT (Concept Mastery Test) ability improves considerably with age. This multiple checking of several groups each time versus the same groups over time strengthens the conclusion. (Author/CL)

  5. Psychological autopsy of suicide—a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farooq Ahmed; Anand, B.; Devi, M. Gowri; Murthy, K. Krishna

    2005-01-01

    Background: Psychological autopsy is the reconstruction of events leading to death. There are few studies on psychological autopsy. Aim: To understand the profile of suicide completers and find out ways of dealing with it. Methods: Fifty suicide cases were analysed. Using a semi-structured, self-designed questionnaire, the family, friends and relatives of the deceased were interviewed. Results: The presence of some type of psychiatric disorder and stressful life events are two important reasons for committing suicide. Conclusion: Psychological autopsy is a very important tool for assessing the causes and precipitants of suicide. More and more studies in this field are required with a larger sample size for the evaluation of suicides. PMID:20711285

  6. A study of the fusion and elastic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, W. H. Z.

    2010-08-01

    This work is complementary to that of Canto et al. [1], improving the approximations made to obtain the local Polarization Potential (PP). We study the Trivially Equivalent Local Polarization Potential (TELPP) obtained directly from the two Coupled Channel Equations (CCE), with the help of Feshbach formalism. The inelastic channel has been associated with a nuclear monopole resonant state of 6He at the breakup threshold, EB = 0.973 MeV.

  7. A study of the fusion and elastic cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, W. H. Z.

    2010-08-04

    This work is complementary to that of Canto et al., improving the approximations made to obtain the local Polarization Potential (PP). We study the Trivially Equivalent Local Polarization Potential (TELPP) obtained directly from the two Coupled Channel Equations (CCE), with the help of Feshbach formalism. The inelastic channel has been associated with a nuclear monopole resonant state of {sup 6}He at the breakup threshold, E{sub B} = 0.973 MeV.

  8. Quantifying consumer portion control practices. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Spence, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Stefan, V; Livingstone, M B E; Gibney, E R; Dean, M

    2015-09-01

    The use of portion control practices has rarely been quantified. The present study aimed to: (1) explore which portion control practices are actually used by the general population and their association with cognitive restraint, demographic background and general health interest (GHI), and (2) examine how the usage of portion control practices predicts the estimated consumption of an energy dense food (i.e. pizza). Twenty-two portion control practices were rated in terms of their frequency of use from 'never' to 'very often' by a representative sample of 1012 consumers from the island of Ireland. Three factors were extracted and named: measurement-strategy scale, eating-strategy scale, and purchasing-strategy scale. The eating-strategy scale score was the highest, while the measurement-strategy scale carried the lowest frequency score. For each strategy scale score, the strongest predictor was GHI, followed by gender. Having higher GHI and being female were independently associated with more frequent portion control. Both the eating-strategy scale score and the purchasing-strategy scale score were negatively associated with pizza portion size consumption estimates. In conclusion, while this study demonstrates that the reported use of portion control practices is low, the findings provide preliminary evidence for their validity. Further studies are needed to explore how portion control practices are used in different kinds of portion size decisions and what their contribution is to the intake of food over an extended period of time. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-sectional study on respiratory effect of toner exposure.

    PubMed

    Terunuma, Niina; Kurosaki, Shizuka; Kitamura, Hiroko; Hata, Koichi; Ide, Reiko; Kuga, Hiroaki; Kakiuchi, Noriaki; Masuda, Masashi; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Osato, Atsushi; Uchino, Bungo; Kitahara, Kayo; Iwasaki, Akio; Yoshizumi, Koji; Morimoto, Yasuo; Kasai, Hiroshi; Murase, Tadashi; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2009-06-01

    In this baseline study, part of a cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on the respiratory system, we surveyed 803 male toner workers and 802 referents with regard to their subjective respiratory symptoms and chest X-ray results. We also examined individual exposure history, current working conditions, and personal exposure levels to toner. There was a significantly higher prevalence of "coughing and sputum" related complaints among toner-exposed workers in the 30 and 40-year age groups. The group with toner-exposure history showed a higher odds ratio, by logistic regression, in relation to all questions regarding coughing. Mild fibrotic changes were observed in the chest X-rays of four workers who had engaged in toner-exposure work for at least a decade or more, and all four had reported allergic disease. Although we observed a tendency of higher prevalence of "coughing and sputum" in toner-exposed workers, the possibility of information bias cannot be eliminated. It should also be noted that this tendency did not exceed that of the general public. Further analysis is required in this ongoing 10-year cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on the respiratory system.

  10. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Moen, BE; Hollund, BE; Riise, T

    2008-01-01

    Background Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. Methods All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41), as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64) in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest). Results The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. Conclusion There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms among the dental assistants

  11. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Moen, Be; Hollund, Be; Riise, T

    2008-05-18

    Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41), as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64) in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest). The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms among the dental assistants may be related to their previous work

  12. The prevalence of childhood dysphonia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Carding, Paul N; Roulstone, Sue; Northstone, Kate

    2006-12-01

    There is only very limited information on the prevalence of voice disorders, particularly for the pediatric population. This study examined the prevalence of dysphonia in a large cohort of children (n = 7389) at 8 years of age. Data were collected within a large prospective epidemiological study and included a formal assessment by one of five research speech and language therapists as well as a parental report of their child's voice. Common risk factors that were also analyzed included sex, sibling numbers, asthma, regular conductive hearing loss, and frequent upper respiratory infection. The research clinicians identified a dysphonia prevalence of 6% compared with a parental report of 11%. Both measures suggested a significant risk of dysphonia for children with older siblings. Other measures were not in agreement between clinician and parental reports. The clinician judgments also suggested significant risk factors for sex (male) but not for any common respiratory or otolaryngological conditions that were analyzed. Parental report suggested significant risk factors with respect to asthma and tonsillectomy. These results are discussed in detail.

  13. Maternal hormones during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianhui; Lundin, Eva; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wulff, Marianne; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Schock, Helena; Johansson, Robert; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about correlates of first trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first trimester maternal concentrations of 4 hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), α-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II. Methods 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975–2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case-control study. The associations between maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models. Results In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed. Conclusions Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations. PMID:20084544

  14. TREATMENT OF TRAUMATIC GLENOHUMERAL DISLOCATION: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wajnsztejn, André; Sugawara Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Netto, Nicola Archetti; Belotti, João Carlos; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Faloppa, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate Brazilian orthopedists' opinions regarding the main aspects of the treatment of glenohumeral traumatic dislocation and compare these to literature's current concepts. Methods: Two hundred questionnaires containing 13 items were randomly distributed to orthopedists who were attending a Brazilian orthopedics congress; 158 were filled, in correctly and were considered in this study. Results: The preferred maneuver was traction-countertraction (60.8%). Among the respondents, 68.4% stated that glenohumeral dislocation reduction was achieved in the first attempt in 90% of the cases. The first attempt of reduction occurred mainly in the Emergency room (96.5%). Seventy-nine individuals (50%) reported that they do not use any analgesic prior to reduction. The majority of the participants immobilize their patients after the reduction (98.1%). 75.4% of them keep their patients immobilized from 2 to 3 weeks. Conclusion: Generally, Brazilian orthopaedists perform tractioncountertraction maneuvers, achieving reduction in the first attempt in more than 90% of the cases in the Emergency room. No previous analgesic agent is used prior to reduction. Immobilization of the patient is made with a Velpeau dressing or a sling for 2 to 3 weeks. PMID:27004185

  15. Maternal mortality: a cross-sectional study in global health.

    PubMed

    Sajedinejad, Sima; Majdzadeh, Reza; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-02-12

    Although most of maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality reduction programs have not been completely successful. As targeting individuals alone does not seem to be an effective strategy to reduce maternal mortality (Millennium Development Goal 5), the present study sought to reveal the role of many distant macrostructural factors affecting maternal mortality at the global level. After preparing a global dataset, 439 indicators were selected from nearly 1800 indicators based on their relevance and the application of proper inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to assess the relationship between these indicators and maternal mortality. Only indicators with statistically significant correlation more than 0.2, and missing values less than 20% were maintained. Due to the high multicollinearity among the remaining indicators, after missing values analysis and imputation, factor analysis was performed with principal component analysis as the method of extraction. Ten factors were finally extracted and entered into a multiple regression analysis. The findings of this study not only consolidated the results of earlier studies about maternal mortality, but also added new evidence. Education (std. B = -0.442), private sector and trade (std. B = -0.316), and governance (std. B = -0.280) were found to be the most important macrostructural factors associated with maternal mortality. Employment and labor structure, economic policy and debt, agriculture and food production, private sector infrastructure investment, and health finance were also some other critical factors. These distal factors explained about 65% of the variability in maternal mortality between different countries. Decreasing maternal mortality requires dealing with various factors other than individual determinants including political will, reallocation of national resources (especially health resources) in the governmental sector, education

  16. Factors related to venous ulceration: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Maksimovic, Milos; Radak, Djordje

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the factors related to venous ulceration. Patients with venous ulceration (278 patients) were compared with 1401 patients in other categories of clinical classification of venous disease (clinical, etiologic, anatomic, and pathophysiological [CEAP]). Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. According to multivariate analyses, risk factors for venous ulceration were age, male sex, personal history of superficial and deep venous thrombosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, skeletal or joint disease in the legs and emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher body mass index and physical inactivity, parental history of ankle ulcer as well as reflux in deep and perforator veins, deep obstruction, and combination of reflux and obstruction. It seems reasonable to pay special attention to patients in whom the postulated risk factors for venous ulceration are present.

  17. Cyberdrugs: a cross-sectional study of online pharmacies characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-08-01

    As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their precise location. Ninety-six (81.4%) online pharmacies did not require a medical prescription from the customer's physician. Online pharmacies rise complex issues in terms of patient-doctor relationship, consumer empowerment, drug quality, regulation and public health implications.

  18. Self-stigma and schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vrbova, Kristyna; Prasko, Jan; Holubova, Michaela; Kamaradova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Marackova, Marketa; Latalova, Klara; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of self-stigma in schizophrenia and its association with clinical and demographic factors. Patients and methods A total of 197 outpatients (54.3% females) diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder) according to International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 40.10±11.49 years. All individuals completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale and a demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed by both a psychiatrist (the objective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [objCGI-S]) and the patients (the subjective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [subjCGI-S]). Treatment with antipsychotics stabilized the patients. Results The overall level of self-stigma measured by the total score of the ISMI was 63.32±13.59. The total score of the ISMI positively correlated with the severity of the disorder measured by the objCGI-S and subjCGI-S. In addition, self-stigma positively correlated with the treatment duration and the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. The backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis identified the following regressors as the most relevant to self-stigma: the number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, the severity of the disorder rated by a psychiatrist, and the difference between the objective rating and the subjective rating of the severity of the disorder. Conclusion Outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, who have undergone a higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, who dispose of a higher severity of the disorder and show a higher discrepancy between their rating of the severity and the psychiatric rating, showed a greater degree of self-stigma. The management of

  19. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  20. Eyebrow bleaching among females: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; Moussa, Noura A

    2011-06-01

    Eyebrow bleaching is a common practice among women with dark hair that allows for alterations in the eyebrows' shape without the use of hair removal. A literature search on this topic failed to reveal any extant studies. To explore the prevalence, associated motives, and side effects of eyebrow bleaching among women. Methods  A questionnaire about eyebrow bleaching was distributed randomly to female patients attending the outpatient clinics at a university hospital between June and August 2008. The response rate was 87.2%; with 567 of the 650 distributed questionnaires returned. The mean age was 32.01±10.17 years. 48.4% (253/522) of the participants reported having bleached their eyebrows. Of these individuals, 55.8% (101/181) experienced side effects related to eyebrow bleaching. These side effects included increased or decreased density of the eyebrow hair, and redness, itching, and scaling of the eyebrow skin. The motives behind eyebrow bleaching varied widely, but were primarily esthetic in nature. Younger women, students, and participants with higher monthly incomes reported bleaching their eyebrows a greater number of times than others (P<0.001, 0.04 and 0.003, respectively). In this sample of female patients, eyebrow bleaching was reported to be a common practice. Bleaching was associated with local side effects in over 50% of those who use the technique. Thus, there is a need to educate the public about these side effects. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Biosimilar uptake by British local formularies: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alnahar, Saja; Elliott, Rachel A; Smith, Murray D

    2017-09-04

    Background Biological medicines are starting to lose their patent protection, so similar, inexact copies (biosimilars) are being developed and licensed. The high acquisition costs of biologics for healthcare providers could be reduced by switching to biosimilars, thus alleviating budgetary pressures and increasing patient access. Therefore, the acceptance of biosimilars by prescribers in Great Britain (GB; England, Scotland, Wales) needs to be described and understood. Objective To determine uptake of the first wave of biosimilars (somatropin, epoetin, filgrastim) by local formularies (lists of preferred medicines for prescribing in local healthcare settings). Settings This study targeted local formularies in GB. Method In November 2014, local formularies (medicines formularies of Acute Trusts and Health Boards in GB) were screened for their approach to listing of biologics and their biosimilars as well as recommendations on usage of these pharmaceuticals. Main Outcomes Measures Listing frequencies of biosimilars. Results One hundred and forty-six British local formularies were screened. Amongst the 80% of formularies in which brand names were specified, biosimilar filgrastim was the most frequently listed when compared to the other targeted biosimilars. Biosimilars were listed in preference to reference biologic medicine in 49% of local formularies for filgrastim, 11% for somatropin and in only 6% for epoetin. Conclusion Although the market for biosimilars can act in parallel to the generic market, their uptake measured using local British formularies was less than what is expected given that the British market for medicines has a strong focus on generics. Finally, geographical variability within GB requires further investigation.

  2. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, Danik; Descarreaux, Martin; Normand, Martin C; Harrison, Deed E

    2007-01-01

    Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation). Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years) received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet database. Children were stratified and analyzed by years of age with n = 36 in the youngest age group (4 years) and n = 184 in the oldest age group (12 years). Children were analyzed in the neutral upright posture. Variables measured were sagittal translation distances in millimeters of: the knee relative to the tarsal joint, pelvis relative to the tarsal joint, shoulder relative to the tarsal joint, and head relative to the tarsal joint. A two-way factorial ANOVA was used to test for age and gender effects on posture, while polynomial trend analyses were used to test for increased postural displacements with years of age. Results Two-way ANOVA yielded a significant main effect of age for all 4 sagittal postural variables and gender for all variables except head translation. No age × gender interaction was found. Polynomial trend analyses showed a significant linear association between child age and all four postural variables: anterior head translation (p < 0.001), anterior shoulder translation (p < 0.001), anterior pelvic translation (p < 0.001), anterior knee translation (p < 0.001). Between the ages of 11 and 12 years, for anterior knee translation, T-test post hoc analysis revealed only one significant rough break in the continuity of the age related trend. Conclusion A significant linear trend for increasing sagittal plane postural translations of the head, thorax, pelvis, and knee was found as children age from 4 years to 12 years. These postural translations provide preliminary

  3. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. Methods In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. Findings We obtained 911 913 records of hospital visits, of which 324 906 came from 104 830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167 000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67 987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109 509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions – i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to – and apparently had no negative impacts on – the Thai health system and economy. Conclusion We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system. PMID:26769994

  4. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. We obtained 911,913 records of hospital visits, of which 324,906 came from 104,830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167,000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67,987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109,509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions - i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to - and apparently had no negative impacts on - the Thai health system and economy. We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system.

  5. Toilet Training in Iranian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hooman, Nakysa; Safaii, Afshin; Valavi, Ehsan; Amini-Alavijeh, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Objective There is still controversy about the methods and the age of toilet training that are varied in different cultures. This is a survey of Iranian parents’ views about the appropriate age, the true age, the methods used for toilet training, and the association with voiding problems. Methods Questionnaires were filled-out containing items on demographic data, the parents’ view, the method applied, and the age at which toilet training was accomplished in children aged 2 months to 5 years. In addition, pediatric lower urinary tract scoring system questionnaires were distributed among 217 children aged 5-15 years with lower urinary tract symptoms between 2008 and 2010 in outpatient clinics. P<0.05 was considered significant. Findings 566 children (335 girls and 231 boys) were assigned to the study. In asymptomatic group, the majority of parents believed that the appropriate age to start toilet training was 1-2 years. The method used by the parents was intensive in 52% and child-oriented in 44%. There was strong reverse correlation between the level of education of father with applying punishment for training and direct correlation between toilet refusal and the later age of completing toilet training (LR: 6.3, P<0.05). The mean age of completing toilet training was about 23 months in asymptomatic and 23.7 months in symptomatic children (P>0.05). There was no correlation between wetting episodes at day or night and the age of toilet training. Conclusion Intensive approach was more popular and the age of toilet training had no influence on the lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:23724175

  6. Correction of sampling bias in a cross-sectional study of post-surgical complications.

    PubMed

    Fluss, Ronen; Mandel, Micha; Freedman, Laurence S; Weiss, Inbal Salz; Zohar, Anat Ekka; Haklai, Ziona; Gordon, Ethel-Sherry; Simchen, Elisheva

    2013-06-30

    Cross-sectional designs are often used to monitor the proportion of infections and other post-surgical complications acquired in hospitals. However, conventional methods for estimating incidence proportions when applied to cross-sectional data may provide estimators that are highly biased, as cross-sectional designs tend to include a high proportion of patients with prolonged hospitalization. One common solution is to use sampling weights in the analysis, which adjust for the sampling bias inherent in a cross-sectional design. The current paper describes in detail a method to build weights for a national survey of post-surgical complications conducted in Israel. We use the weights to estimate the probability of surgical site infections following colon resection, and validate the results of the weighted analysis by comparing them with those obtained from a parallel study with a historically prospective design. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cross-Sectional Shape of Rat Mesenteric Arterioles at Branching Studied by Confocal Laser Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Atushi; Minamiyama, Motomu; Niimi, Hideyuki

    This study was aimed to investigate the cross-sectional shape of mesenteric arterioles at branching, using confocal laser microscopy. Wistar rats (8 weeks, male) were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital sodium. Blood flow and microvascular network in the mesentery were observed using video microscopy. The rat intestine with mesentery was extracted and the intestinal vasculature was perfused with Krebs-Ringer and then fixed with paraformaldehyde under a static pressure of 100mmHg. A section of mesentery was isolated from the intestine, and spread up to the in vivo geometry based on the intravital microscopic observation. The mesentery section was stained with tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-phalloidin. The samples were observed under a confocal laser microscope. The cross-sectional image was re-sliced to measure the cross-sectional area and major/minor axes of the best fitting ellipse. The aspect ratio was defined in terms of the minor/major diameter ratio. The extended focus image of mesenteric arterioles showed that the cross-sectional shape was not circular but elliptic-like. The cross-sectional area of the parent vessel decreased from proximal to distal positions. The mean aspect ratio of the parent vessel was approximately 0.5, while that of the branching vessel was approximately 0.8. The flattened shape and variation of the cross-sectional area of arterioles requires some correction of in vivo data of the two-dimensional mesenteric microvasculature obtained using intravital microscopy.

  8. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations.

  9. How to Use Benchmark and Cross-section Studies to Improve Data Libraries and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, V.; Suchopár, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Svoboda, O.; Tichý, P.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, S.; Tyutyunikov, S.; Vladimirovna, N.; Závorka, L.

    2016-06-01

    Improvements of the Monte Carlo transport codes and cross-section libraries are very important steps towards usage of the accelerator-driven transmutation systems. We have conducted a lot of benchmark experiments with different set-ups consisting of lead, natural uranium and moderator irradiated by relativistic protons and deuterons within framework of the collaboration “Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Waste”. Unfortunately, the knowledge of the total or partial cross-sections of important reactions is insufficient. Due to this reason we have started extensive studies of different reaction cross-sections. We measure cross-sections of important neutron reactions by means of the quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources based on the cyclotrons at Nuclear Physics Institute in Řež and at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. Measurements of partial cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions were the second direction of our studies. The new results obtained during last years will be shown. Possible use of these data for improvement of libraries, models and benchmark studies will be discussed.

  10. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  11. Cross-section studies of important neutron and relativistic deuteron reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, V.; Suchopár, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Herman, T.; Svoboda, O.; Geier, B.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Khushvaktov, J.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.; Tyutyunikov, S.; Zavorka, L.; Vladimirova, N.; Bielewicz, M.; Kilim, S.; Szuta, M.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    2014-09-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied by the means of activation method. The deuteron beams produced by JINR Nuclotron (Russia) with energies from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were used. Lack of such cross-sections prevents the usage of copper foils for beam integral monitoring. The copper monitors will help us to improve the beam integral determination during ADS studies. The yttrium samples are very suitable activation detectors for monitoring of neutron fields not only in the ADS studies. But experimental cross-section data for higher energy threshold neutron reactions are still missing. This situation is the reason why we have started to study neutron reactions on yttrium by the means of quasi mono-energetic neutron source based on NPI Řež cyclotron (Czech Republic).

  12. Studies of neutron cross-sections important for spallation experiments using the activation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Suchopár, M.; Svoboda, O.; Wagner, V.

    2014-09-01

    A series of experiments devoted to studies of neutron cross-sections by activation method was carried out. The cross-sections of various threshold reactions were studied by means of different quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources with energies from 14 MeV up to 100 MeV. Threshold reactions in various materials are among other used to measure fast neutron fields produced during accelerator driven system studies. For this reason our measurements of neutron cross-sections are crucial. At present, neither experimental nor evaluated data above 30 MeV are available for neutron threshold reactions in Au, I and In published in this proceedings. We studied materials in the form of thin foils and compared our data with the calculations preformed using the deterministic code TALYS 1.4.

  13. Discordance between cross-sectional and longitudinal studies for the effect of dust on COPD: why?

    PubMed

    Hendrick, David J; Becklake, Margaret; Hanley, James A

    2005-12-01

    Regression analyses for the effect of an environmental agent on lung function often give discordant results when derived from cross-sectional compared with longitudinal studies. To evaluate why this occurs, a normal population was created by computer, and modeled to simulate functional change during life. Thus, factors known to influence lung function measurement (including those that may cause COPD) were manipulated experimentally so that their contributions to any discordance could be assessed. Regression analyses showed that significant discordance could be induced if the oldest birth cohort failed to reach the same maximal level of function as the youngest (a "cohort effect"). This distorted the cross-sectional (but not longitudinal) estimate for the dominating effect of age and additionally influenced cross-sectional estimates for the effects of partially collinear variables such as cumulative exposure to hazardous environmental dust. Discordance also occurred if regression coefficients became imprecise through random measurement/reporting error, between-subject variability, and differing susceptibility, but then the differences (sometimes marked) between cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates were not significant. We conclude that modeling a population with known characteristics can provide a useful means of demonstrating that cross-sectional versus longitudinal discordance may be fundamental and unavoidable (though explicable), or merely a consequence of imprecision.

  14. The Development of Learning Patterns of Student Teachers: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Research on learning pattern development during pre-service teacher education is scarce. In a cross-sectional (study 1) and longitudinal study (study 2) the development of learning patterns of student teachers is analysed. Participants in study 1 were 646 first-year and 350 third-year student teachers enrolled in an initial pre-service teacher…

  15. TEM studies of oxidized NiAl and Ni3Al cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Ruhle, M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections of oxide scale/(Ni-Al) intermetallics were prepared by a new method and studied using primarily TEM. The cross sections were prepared by encasing an oxidized metal specimen sandwich in a low-melting-temperature zinc alloy. Observations of oxidized zirconium-doped beta-NiAl cross sections revealed crystallographic voids beneath an adherent Al2O3 scale. The oxide-metal interface was incoherent, but a high dislocation density in the metal near the interface suggested that a large tensile stress was induced by the attached oxide scale. A duplex Al2O3-NiAl2O4 scale formed on zirconium-doped and zirconium/boron-doped gamma-prime-Ni3Al alloys. Additional results are presented involving oxidation mechanisms and oxide-metal interface structures.

  16. Fission hindrance studies in {sup 200}Pb: Evaporation residue cross section and spin distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shidling, P. D.; Badiger, N. M.; Nath, S.; Kumar, R.; Jhingan, A.; Singh, R. P.; Sugathan, P.; Muralithar, S.; Madhavan, N.; Sinha, A. K.; Pal, Santanu; Kailas, S.; Verma, S.; Kalita, K.; Mandal, S.; Singh, R.; Behera, B. R.; Varier, K. M.; Radhakrishna, M. C.

    2006-12-15

    Evaporation residue cross sections and spin distributions have been measured for {sup 200}Pb compound nucleus formed in {sup 16}O+{sup 184}W reaction at the laboratory beam energies of 84, 92, 100, 108, 116, and 120 MeV. The evaporation residues have been selected using the recoil mass spectrometer, HIRA and detected using a 2D position sensitive silicon detector. The evaporation residue spin distributions have been measured by detecting gamma rays with 14 element BGO multiplicity filter. Measured evaporation residue cross sections and spin distributions are compared with the values predicted by a standard statistical model code. Comparison shows that, in the energy region studied, the nuclear viscosity parameter {gamma}=3 is required to explain total evaporation residue cross sections and evaporation residue spin distributions.

  17. Comparing Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsakoglu, Omer Faruk; Sahin, Cigdem; Karsli, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of examining how Prospective Science Teachers' (PST) Science Process Skills (SPS) develop according to different grades. In this study, a cross-sectional research approach in the form of a case study was used. The sample group consisted of a total number of 102 undergraduate students who were selected from…

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study of School Experiences of Boys with Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soim, Aida; Lamb, Molly; Campbell, Kimberly; Pandya, Shree; Peay, Holly; Howard, James F., Jr.; Fox, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate types of supportive school services received and factors related to provision of these services. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the school experience of males with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. Study subjects were identified through the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance,…

  19. Comparing Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsakoglu, Omer Faruk; Sahin, Cigdem; Karsli, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of examining how Prospective Science Teachers' (PST) Science Process Skills (SPS) develop according to different grades. In this study, a cross-sectional research approach in the form of a case study was used. The sample group consisted of a total number of 102 undergraduate students who were selected from…

  20. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study among College-Age Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…

  1. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study among College-Age Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…

  2. Description of alpha-nucleus interaction cross sections for cosmic ray shielding studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear interactions of high-energy alpha particles with target nuclei important for cosmic ray studies are discussed. Models for elastic, quasi-elastic, and breakup reactions are presented and compared with experimental data. Energy-dependent interaction cross sections and secondary spectra are presented based on theoretical models and the limited experimental data base.

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study about Meaning Access Processes for Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievas, Francisco; Justicia, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the effect of meaning frequency, referred to as ''dominance'' in the semantic priming paradigm, where ambiguous words (primes) were processed in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to target words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph…

  4. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  5. URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil

    Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

  6. Request Strategies: Cross-Sectional Study of Iranian EFL Learners and Australian Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalilifar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    This study was a cross-sectional investigation into the request strategies used by Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language and Australian native speakers of English. The sample involved 96 BA and MA Persian students and 10 native speakers of English. A Discourse Completion Test (DCT) was used to generate data related to the request…

  7. Language Factors Associated with Achievement Grouping in Math Classrooms: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…

  8. URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil

    Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study about Meaning Access Processes for Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievas, Francisco; Justicia, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the effect of meaning frequency, referred to as ''dominance'' in the semantic priming paradigm, where ambiguous words (primes) were processed in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to target words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph…

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prosodic Sensitivity and Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Andrew J.; Wood, Clare; Sheehy, Kieron

    2012-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we explore the relationship between prosodic sensitivity (suprasegmental phonology) and phonological awareness (segmental phonology) and investigate whether a group of poor readers display significant suprasegmental phonological deficits in comparison to chronological age-matched controls and younger, reading…

  11. Factors Associated with Women's Antenatal Plans to Use a Baby Walker: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Rachel; Kendrick, Denise; Collier, Jacqueline; Woods, Amanda; Wattse, Kim; Dewey, Michael; Chen, Chih-Mei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of these analyses was to explore maternal antenatal decisions about baby walker use, factors associated with these decisions and the relationship between antenatal plans to use a walker and postnatal walker use. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Mothers-to-be (n = 1174) participating in a cluster randomised…

  12. Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

  13. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum…

  14. Factors Associated with Women's Antenatal Plans to Use a Baby Walker: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Rachel; Kendrick, Denise; Collier, Jacqueline; Woods, Amanda; Wattse, Kim; Dewey, Michael; Chen, Chih-Mei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of these analyses was to explore maternal antenatal decisions about baby walker use, factors associated with these decisions and the relationship between antenatal plans to use a walker and postnatal walker use. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Mothers-to-be (n = 1174) participating in a cluster randomised…

  15. Students' Needs, Teachers' Support, and Motivation for Doing Homework: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Idit; Kaplan, Avi; Gueta, Gila

    2010-01-01

    Self-determination theory provided the theoretical framework for a cross-sectional investigation of elementary and junior high school students' autonomous motivation for homework. More specifically, the study focused on the role of teachers' support of students' psychological needs in students' motivation for homework in the two school systems.…

  16. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  17. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum…

  18. PBL and Critical Thinking Disposition in Chinese Medical Students--A Randomized Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, XiangYun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon; Sun, Baozhi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU) were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the…

  19. Influence of the Visual Attention Span on Child Reading Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Valdois, Sylviane

    2009-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span deficit hypothesis was found successfully to account for variability in developmental dyslexia (Bosse, Tainturier & Valdois, 2007). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 417 typically developing children from first, third and fifth grades examining the role of VA span on the development of reading skills. A battery…

  20. Experimental studies of partial photodetachment cross sections in K- below the K(7 2P) threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, A. O.; Rohlén, J.; Hultgren, H.; Kiyan, I. Yu.; Pegg, D. J.; Walter, C. W.; Hanstorp, D.

    2012-03-01

    A collinear beams apparatus has been used to determine photodetachment cross sections for K- in the photon energy range 4.250-4.360 eV. State-selective detection, utilizing a resonance ionization scheme, was applied to measure partial cross sections for those channels which leave the residual K atoms in the excited 72S, 52F, and 52G states. The energy region studied encompassed the openings of the aforementioned channels, as well as the channel that leaves the K atom in the 72P state. Two previously unobserved resonances were seen in all three partial cross sections between the K(52G) and K(72P) thresholds. It is shown that a more reliable determination of resonance parameters can be made if the same resonances are observed in several channels. In the region below the K(52F) threshold, three previously observed resonances were investigated [Kiyan , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.84.5979 84, 5979 (2000)]. A greatly increased modulation of the signal was obtained by detecting in the K(72S) channel instead of the K(52S) channel used in the previous study. Furthermore, the shapes of the cross sections in the threshold regions are discussed. A detailed description of the apparatus and the experimental procedure employed is presented in the paper.

  1. [Study on temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption cross sections of nitric oxide at high temperatures].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Shi-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Hu

    2007-07-01

    To study the temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption characteristics of NO species in flue gas, the absorption cross sections of NO in the spectral region 200-230 nm at temperatures ranging from 285 to 410 K were measured using a grating monochromator with 0.2 nm resolution, a deuterium lamp and a specially-fabricated closed sample cell. The absorption spectrum of NO consists of discrete bands superimposed on a continuous base. Results indicated that discrete absorption bands were present with a fixed wavelength interval of roughly 10.5 nm. The peaks of discrete bands decreased first and started to increase later as the temperature rose from 285 to 410 K, with a maximum relative variation of 19.3%. Peak position and half width of the absorption peaks did not exhibit apparent change with the variation of temperature. Continuous absorption cross section increased monotonously with the temperature, and the variation gradient gradually decrease with wavelength red shift. The absorption cross section of NO should not be considered as constant when applied in online monitoring of NO concentration in flue gas. A compensation calculation of absorption cross section with respect to temperature effect is indispensable for the purpose of improving online measurement precision of NO concentration.

  2. Anthropometric body fat composition reference values in Spanish adolescents. The AVENA Study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, L A; Mesana, M I; González-Gross, M; Gil, C M; Fleta, J; Wärnberg, J; Ruiz, J R; Sarría, A; Marcos, A; Bueno, M

    2006-02-01

    To determine reference values for body mass index (BMI), sum of six skinfolds (sigma6 skinfolds) and body fat percentage (BF%) in Spanish adolescents aged 13-18 years, included in the AVENA Study (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes: Food and Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Adolescents). Multicentre cross-sectional study. Representative sample of Spanish adolescents. The population was selected by means of a multiplestep, simple random sampling. The final number of subjects included in the AVENA Study was 2859 adolescents; 2160 adolescents had a complete set of anthropometric measurements and were then included in this study (1109 males and 1051 females). Weight, height and six skinfold thicknesses were measured. As indices of total adiposity, we calculated BMI, summation sigma6 skinfolds and BF% with the formulas described by Slaughter et al. Sigma6 skinfolds and BF% in each age group were significantly higher in females than in males. In males, age showed a significant effect for BMI, sigma6 skinfolds and BF%; however, in females, the effect was only significant for BF%. The percentile distribution was more disperse towards higher sigma6 skinfolds and BF% values in males when compared with females. The presented percentile values will help us to classify adolescents in comparison with a well-established reference population, and to estimate the proportion of adolescents with high or low adiposity amounts. The AVENA-Study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Health (FIS 00/0015), and grants from Panrico SA, Madaus SA and Procter and Gamble SA. This study was also supported by Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain), RCESP (C03/09) and Spanish Ministry of Education (AP2003-2128).

  3. Recruitment rate and retention of stroke subjects in cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Polese, Janaine Cunha; Faria-Fortini, Iza de; Basílio, Marluce Lopes; Faria, Giselle Silva E; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2017-01-01

    This article aimed to determine the recruitment rate of chronic stroke survivors to cross-sectional studies and to determine their retention at the two days of assessments. Participants after six months of a unilateral stroke were screened for eligibility and invited to participate in two cross-sectional studies, by telephone. The number of people who were screened, eligible, and successfully recruited was recorded. Retention at the two days of assessments was also recorded. From a list of 654 individuals, 87 were ineligible. Of the 567 left, 216 had wrong contact numbers, 144 refused to participate, and 12 had died. A total of 165 subjects participated in both studies. Out of the 56 who agreed to attend to the second day of assessment, eight did not return. The results showed that individuals with chronic stroke had low rates of recruitment and retention.

  4. Association between adolescent suicide and sociodemographic factors in Chile: cross-sectional ecological study.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Zitko, Pedro; Covarrubias, Trinidad; Hernandez, Dunia; Sade, Cristina; Klein, Carolina; Gomez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide rates (ASR) are a matter of concern worldwide. Causes of this trend are not understood and could correspond to socioeconomic factors such as inequality. To investigate sociodemographic variables related to ASR, particularly the potential association with indicators of socioeconomic inequality. Cross-sectional ecological study analyzing data from 29 health districts with univariate and multivariable multilevel Poisson models. ASR were higher in male adolescents and at increasing age. No association was found between ASR and inequality (Gini coefficient and 20/20 ratio). Analysis revealed that living in a single-parent family is associated with ASR. The usual demographic patterns of adolescent suicide apply in Chile. An emerging variable of interest is single-parent family. No cross-sectional association between social inequality and ASR was found based on conflicting evidence. These results should be explored in future prospective population studies to further understand associated social factors.

  5. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions on copper by activation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchopár, M.; Wagner, V.; Svoboda, O.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Závorka, L.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Khushvaktov, J.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.; Tyutyunnikov, S.

    2015-02-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the model spallation targets in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The irradiation of activation samples was performed by beams in the energy range from 1 to 8 GeV. Residual nuclides were measured by the gamma spectrometry. While the EXFOR database contains sets of data for relativistic proton reactions, data for deuteron reactions in this energy range are almost missing. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the use of copper foils from beam integral monitoring. For this reason our experiments focused on their measurement and completely new data were obtained in the energy region where no experimental data have been available so far. The copper monitors with their low sensitivity to fast neutrons will contribute to improvement of the beam integral determination during accelerator-driven system studies.

  6. What leads children to adopt new strategies? A microgenetic/cross-sectional study of class inclusion.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Svetina, Matija

    2006-01-01

    Learning of class inclusion by 5-year-olds in response to empirical and logical explanations of an adult's answers was examined. Contrary to the view that young children possess an empirical bias, 5-year-olds learned more, and continued learning for longer, when given logical explanations of correct answers than when given empirical explanations. Once children discovered how to solve the problems, they showed few regressions. Many children in the microgenetic experiment followed the path of change anticipated from previous cross-sectional studies, but children in the cross-sectional part of the study seemed to follow a different path. Reasons for the superior effectiveness of the logical explanations were discussed.

  7. Hatha yoga and vascular function: results from cross-sectional and interventional studies.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stacy D; Tarumi, Takashi; Dhindsa, Mandeep S; Nualnim, Nantinee; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hatha yoga on arterial elasticity and endothelial function. First, a cross-sectional study was performed to determine whether yoga practitioners would demonstrate greater arterial compliance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation than their sedentary peers. Second, an intervention study involving 13 sedentary middle-aged and older adults (51 ± 7 years) was performed to determine whether 12 weeks of hatha yoga would elicit increases in arterial compliance and endothelial function. In the cross-sectional study involving a total of 34 subjects, there were no group differences in body fatness, blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, carotid artery compliance or brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Hemoglobin A1c was lower in yoga practitioners than in sedentary adults (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c decreased after the intervention (P < 0.05) while carotid artery compliance and brachial artery FMD did not change. The results of both cross-sectional and interventional studies indicate that regular practice of hatha yoga is not associated with improvements in vascular functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Positron Scattering from Molecules: An Experimental Cross Section Compilation for Positron Transport Studies and Benchmarking Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2017-06-01

    We present a compilation of recommended positron-molecule cross sections for a range of scattering processes including elastic scattering, vibrational excitation, discrete electronic-state excitation, positronium formation, ionization, and also for the grand total cross section. Where possible, in particular for possible application in positron transport simulations for a given molecule, we try and list data for energies in the range 0.1-1000 eV although in practice the actual energy is highly target-molecule and scattering process specific. Aside from being relevant to positron transport studies, through, for example, Monte Carlo simulations, the present compilation should also be germane for benchmarking the validity and accuracy of positron-molecule scattering calculations and, just as importantly, to allow a comparison with corresponding electron scattering results. That latter comparison can shed real light on the projectile-target interactions that underpin the scattering dynamics.

  9. Study of the protein distribution in the pig lens cross section by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gutiérrez, C; Frausto-Reyes, C; Quintanar-Stephano, J L; Sato-Berrú, R; Barbosa-García, O

    2004-06-01

    The distribution of proteins in the cross section of a normal pig lens was studied by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra were measured in the visual and equatorial axes of this cross section and the protein peak intensities were determined. It was found that along each axis the protein intensities fluctuate. They have a considerable increment along the visual axis with the exception of the C-N bond peak intensities at 1087.2 cm(-1), which decrease, and along the equatorial axis the increment is slight. This increment in protein distribution along the visual axis is related with the refractive gradient of the lens. The classification of pig lens spectra in these axes was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Cross-validation shows an excellent group separation.

  10. Joint spatial Bayesian modeling for studies combining longitudinal and cross-sectional data

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Andrew B; Carroll, Rachel; Castro, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Design for intervention studies may combine longitudinal data collected from sampled locations over several survey rounds and cross-sectional data from other locations in the study area. In this case, modeling the impact of the intervention requires an approach that can accommodate both types of data, accounting for the dependence between individuals followed up over time. Inadequate modeling can mask intervention effects, with serious implications for policy making. In this paper we use data from a large-scale larviciding intervention for malaria control implemented in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, collected over a period of almost 5 years. We apply a longitudinal Bayesian spatial model to the Dar es Salaam data, combining follow-up and cross-sectional data, treating the correlation in longitudinal observations separately, and controlling for potential confounders. An innovative feature of this modeling is the use of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process to model random time effects. We contrast the results with other Bayesian modeling formulations, including cross-sectional approaches that consider individual-level random effects to account for subjects followed up in two or more surveys. The longitudinal modeling approach indicates that the intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam by 20% whereas the joint model did not suggest significance within the results. Our results suggest that the longitudinal model is to be preferred when longitudinal information is available at the individual level. PMID:24713159

  11. SAFE-PML approach for modal study of waveguides with arbitrary cross sections immersed in inviscid fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Peng; Fan, Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave is an important non-destructive tool for large area inspections of immersed structures as well as fluid characterizations. In this paper, a numerical tool is developed for the modal study of immersed waveguides with arbitrary cross sections, by coupling the Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method with Perfectly Matched Layer (PML). The model is first validated on waveguides with regular cross sections with analytical solutions. It is then applied to immersed waveguides with rectangular cross sections and L-shaped cross sections, showing the potential of guided waves for NDT applications and fluid characterizations.

  12. Solar Corona Loop Studies with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. I. Cross-sectional Temperature Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, Paul

    2011-05-01

    We present a first systematic study on the cross-sectional temperature structure of coronal loops using the six coronal temperature filters of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We analyze a sample of 100 loop snapshots measured at 10 different locations and 10 different times in active region NOAA 11089 on 2010 July 24, 21:00-22:00 UT. The cross-sectional flux profiles are measured and a cospatial background is subtracted in six filters in a temperature range of T ≈ 0.5-16 MK, and four different parameterizations of differential emission measure (DEM) distributions are fitted. We find that the reconstructed DEMs consist predominantly of narrowband peak temperature components with a thermal width of σlog (T) <= 0.11 ± 0.02, close to the temperature resolution limit of the instrument, consistent with earlier triple-filter analysis from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer by Aschwanden & Nightingale and from EIS/Hinode by Warren et al. or Tripathi et al. We find that 66% of the loops could be fitted with a narrowband single-Gaussian DEM model, and 19% with a DEM consisting of two narrowband Gaussians (which mostly result from pairs of intersecting loops along the same line of sight). The mostly isothermal loop DEMs allow us also to derive an improved empirical response function of the AIA 94 Å filter, which needs to be boosted by a factor of q 94 = 6.7 ± 1.7 for temperatures at log (T) <~ 6.3. The main result of near-isothermal loop cross-sections is not consistent with the predictions of standard nanoflare scenarios, but can be explained by flare-like heating mechanisms that drive chromospheric evaporation and upflows of heated plasma coherently over loop cross-sections of w ≈ 2-4 Mm.

  13. Cross sections and low temperature rate coefficients for the H + CH+ reaction: a quasiclassical trajectory study.

    PubMed

    Halvick, Philippe; Stoecklin, Thierry; Larrégaray, Pascal; Bonnet, Laurent

    2007-02-07

    The H + CH(+) reaction is studied by quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) calculations, along with phase space theory (PST) and quantum rigid rotor calculations, employing a global single-valued potential energy surface recently derived by our group. We report QCT total cross sections for each of the three channels, for low collision energies and different reactant rotational quantum numbers. At the lowest collision energies, all cross sections exhibit a capture-like behaviour, as expected from a barrierless reaction. At higher energies, there are important dynamical effects coming from the opening of new channels in the inelastic and reactive exchange collisions. The inelastic cross sections turn out to largely increase, while the reactive abstraction cross sections are declining faster than predicted by the capture theory. A large value of the reactant rotational quantum number tends to suppress these dynamical effects. The QCT rate coefficients are reported for a temperature range from 1-700 K. Below 20 K, the abstraction and exchange QCT rate coefficients are almost constant, as predicted by the capture theory. Above this temperature, the abstraction rate coefficient declines, while the exchange and inelastic rate coefficients are increasing, due to the opening of new channels. A good agreement is observed between the experimental abstraction rate coefficient and the QCT and PST ones. The QCT inelastic results are also compared with those obtained from rigid rotor close coupling (CCRR) calculations in order to check the ability of this approach to provide a reliable estimate of the inelastic rate coefficients for a reactive system without a barrier. The laws of variation as a function of temperature are found to be very similar and the curves are parallel above 20 K. However, reaction is not allowed in the rigid rotor approximation, therefore the CCRR results are about twice as large as their QCT counterparts.

  14. Quantum and semiclassical studies on photodetachment cross sections of H- in a harmonic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai-Jun, Zhao; Wei-Long, Liu; Meng-Li, Du

    2016-03-01

    The photodetachment cross section of H- in a linear harmonic oscillator potential is investigated. This system provides a rare example that can be studied analytically by both quantum and semiclassical methods with some approximations. The formulas of the cross section for different laser polarization directions are explicitly derived by both the traditional quantum approach and closed-orbit theory. In the traditional quantum approach, we calculate the cross sections in coordinate representation and momentum representation, and get the same formulas. We compare the quantum formulas with closed-orbit theory formulas, and find that when the detachment electron energy is larger than , where ω is the frequency of the oscillator potential, the quantum results are shown to be in good agreement with the semiclassical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11421063 and 11474079), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2009011004), and the Program for the Top Young Academic Leaders of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi Province, China.

  15. Association between chronic periodontitis and hypertension in South Indian population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paddmanabhan, Preethe; Gita, Bagvad; Chandrasekaran, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work was investigating if there is any association between chronic periodontitis and hypertension, to assess any individual relationship with Basal metabolic index (BMI) and any association with white blood cell count (WBC count) in South Indian population. Settings and Design: This study is a cross-sectional study. The study sample consisted of 77 patients between the age group of 30–50 years, who were included after excluding risk factors for hypertension. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Sree Balaji Dental College in the Outpatient Department of Periodontology. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded in the sitting, standing, and lying positions. The three positions were examined to assess the mean value of BP. Other data collected include sociodemographic details, diet, education status, height, weight, BMI, and WBC. The periodontal status of the subjects was assessed by the bleeding index (Ainamo and Bay) and community periodontal index by community periodontal index and treatment needs. Statistical Data: The statistical data were assessed by SPSS software version 17. Results: There were 77 subjects participated in this study. However, there was an association between BMI sitting systolic BP is negative the P = 0.044, which is significant. Mean of generalized chronic periodontitis in sitting systolic BP is 118.0833 (95% confidence intervals 112.17 ± 123.99). Conclusions: We did not find any statistical significance between these two variables. However, this study is a cross-sectional study further; longitudinal studies need to be done to establish the true phenomena. PMID:26538914

  16. Knowledge of Ebola virus disease among a university population: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Shehzadi, Naureen; Hussain, Khalid; Saleem, Fahad; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Asif, Nauman; Yousaf, Maria; Rafique, Maham; Bedar, Rushda; Tariq, Sonia; AbuBakar, Usman; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of a Pakistani university population (students and employees) regarding Ebola virus disease. A total of 2,200 individuals were approached and 1,647 were enrolled in the study. We observed that the vast majority of study participants (91.8%) had inadequate knowledge of Ebola virus disease (knowledge score ≤ 12). Our findings highlight the need to increase the knowledge of Ebola virus disease by using multidimensional approach involving awareness campaigns, print, electronic, and social media. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Makyoh-topography studies of the morphology of the cross sections of renal stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesz, Ferenc; Pramatarova, L. D.; Pramatarova, R.; Tóth, A. L.

    2002-11-01

    Makyoh topography is applied to study the morphology of mechanically polished cross sections of renal stones. The results are compared to roughness and height profile data obtained by white-light interferometry, and to microstructure studies using optical and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that Makyoh topography is able to furnish qualitative information on the surface roughness and height profile. Correlation with compositional data obtained by X-ray diffraction are established and discussed in terms of mechanical properties. Potential application for the study of the inner structure of the renal stones and implications for shock wave lithotripsy are discussed.

  18. Academic stress and depression among adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, P; Thirunavukarasu, M; Rajkumar, Rajamanickam

    2015-03-08

    To examine the relationship between academic stress and depression among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted at higher secondary schools in Tamil Nadu. 1120 adolescents were included in the study after screening by MINI-kid tool. Modified Educatonal Stress Scale for Adolescents was administered to all children. Adolescents who had academic stress were at 2.4 times (95% CI=0.9-2.4) (P<0.001) higher risk of depression than adolescents without academic stress. Adolescents with severe academic stress need to be identified early as interventions to reduce academic stress is likely to affect the occurrence and severity of depression.

  19. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF) among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n=1,196). They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean's criteria), and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  20. Preparation of multilayered materials in cross-section for in situ TEM tensile deformation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, M. A., LLNL

    1997-05-13

    The success of in-situ transmission electron microscopy experimentation is often dictated by proper specimen preparation. We report here a novel technique permitting the production of cross-sectioned tensile specimens of multilayered films for in-situ deformation studies. Of primary importance in the development of this technique is the production of an electron transparent micro-gauge section using focused ion beam technology. This microgauge section predetermines the position at which plastic deformation is initiated; crack nucleation, growth and failure are then subsequently observed.

  1. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. Results Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. Conclusions Wine buyers made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer. PMID:16428251

  2. Parametric Study of the Absorption Cross-Section for a Moderately Conducting Thin Cylinder.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurton, Kristan Peter

    A system has been developed to measure the absorption cross section of a single carbon fiber at 35 GHz as a function of length, orientation, and diameter. Typical lengths considered ranged from 1 to 20 mm, and diameters ranged from 3 to 8 um. The results were compared with the modified integral equation calculations of Waterman and Pedersen that describe the scattering and absorption behavior for a wire of finite length and conductivity. Good agreement was found for all lengths, orientations, and diameters studied.

  3. Parametric study of the absorption cross section for a moderately conducting thin cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurton, Kristan P.; Bruce, Charles W.

    1995-05-01

    A system has been developed to measure the absorption cross section for a single carbon fiber at 35 GHz as a function of length, orientation, and diameter. Typical lengths of the fibers considered ranged from 1 to 20 mm, and diameters ranged from 3 to 8 mu m. The results were compared with the modified integral equation calculations of Waterman and Pedersen that describe the scattering and absorption behavior for a wire of finite length and conductivity. Good agreement was found for all lengths, orientations, and diameters studied.

  4. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik; Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-03-04

    To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. Cross sectional study. Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. Wine buyers made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer.

  5. Depression among the urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Leong; Yadav, Hematram

    2013-01-01

    This community based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression among urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence or absence of depression. The prevalence of depression among the urban poor was 12.3%. Factors significantly associated with depression included respondents under 25 years old, male gender, living in the area for less than four years and those who do not exercise regularly. It is important to identify individuals with depression and its associated factors early because depression can severely affect the quality of life.

  6. Studies of the radar cross section variations near the frontal boundary during Fasinex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, David E.; Li, Fuk; Neumann, Greg

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between Amscat scatterometer measurements during Fasinex (the Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment) and surface winds, waves, and surface stress is studied. Fasinex, which took place during the winter/spring of 1985-1986, focused on an oceanic front in the subtropical convergence zone southwest of Bermuda. Particular attention is given to data collected on February 18 when the Ku-band scatterometer measured the radar cross sections along two 80-km flight paths that ran north-south, approximately perpendicular to the front boundary.

  7. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    PubMed Central

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gui, Xin-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Jin, Hong-Zhong; Zuo, Ya-Gang; Wu, Chao

    2017-03-30

    Psoriasis, a chronic autoimmune skin disorder, is believed to contribute to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Psoriasis's association with the components of metabolic syndrome has been reported previously. However, large-scale cross-sectional studies about psoriasis and metabolic syndrome are rare in China. We assessed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese psoriasis patients and controls. A total of 859 psoriasis patients and 1,718 controls were recruited in an age- and sex-matched cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 14.3% of the psoriasis patients as opposed to 10.0% of the control participants (P = 0.001). Psoriasis patients had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia when compared with controls. Meanwhile, psoriasis patients with metabolic syndrome were older, and had an older age of onset and a longer disease duration when compared with those without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in the Chinese psoriatic population, which can favor cardiovascular events. The present study strengthens the value of treating psoriasis patients not only dealing with the skin lesions, and we suggest appropriate screening and relevant health education be carried out in the treatment of psoriasis patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN UNILATERAL IDIOPATHIC MACULAR HOLE: A Cross-Sectional Study and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhou, Minwen; Wu, Ying; Lu, Bing; Li, Tong; Zhao, Jingke; Wang, Fenghua; Sun, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the choroidal thickness in unilateral idiopathic macular hole (IMH) eyes and compare them with normal control eyes using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). In this cross-sectional study, the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and choroidal thickness at 1 mm and 3 mm nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior to the fovea of IMH eyes and normal control eyes were measured using EDI-OCT. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between choroidal thickness at various locations and clinical factors. A meta-analysis was conducted using the Stata software package to calculate the summary of weighted mean differences (WMDs). Thirty-two unilateral IMH patients and 32 controls were enrolled in this study. The IMH eyes had a thinner choroid than the control eyes at all macular locations (all P < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis further showed that the choroidal thickness at any of the nine points was significantly thinner in association with the IMH diagnosis, as well as being somewhat thinner in association with age and axial length. The result of our cross-sectional study was consistent with the meta-analysis with a pooled WMD of -56.99 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -68.58 to -45.41) for subfoveal choroidal thickness. The study of Chinese unilateral IMH patients, along with the comprehensive meta-analysis, suggested that the choroidal thickness at all macular locations in unilateral IMH eyes significantly decreased relative to the control group.

  10. Comorbidity of dementia: a cross-sectional study of primary care older patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiologic study of comorbidities of an index health problem represents a methodological challenge. This study cross-sectionally describes and analyzes the comorbidities associated with dementia in older patients and reviews the existing similarities and differences between identified comorbid diseases using the statistical methods most frequently applied in current research. Methods Cross-sectional study of 72,815 patients over 64 seen in 19 Spanish primary care centers during 2008. Chronic diseases were extracted from electronic health records and grouped into Expanded Diagnostic Clusters®. Three different statistical methods were applied (i.e., analysis of prevalence data, multiple regression and factor analysis), stratifying by sex. Results The two most frequent comorbidities both for men and women with dementia were hypertension and diabetes. Yet, logistic regression and factor analysis demonstrated that the comorbidities significantly associated with dementia were Parkinson’s disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, anemia, cardiac arrhythmia, chronic skin ulcers, osteoporosis, thyroid disease, retinal disorders, prostatic hypertrophy, insomnia and anxiety and neurosis. Conclusions The analysis of the comorbidities associated with an index disease (e.g., dementia) must not be exclusively based on prevalence rates, but rather on methodologies that allow the discovery of non-random associations between diseases. A deep and reliable knowledge about how different diseases are grouped and associated around an index disease such as dementia may orient future longitudinal studies aimed at unraveling causal associations. PMID:24645776

  11. Studying the Permian cross-section (Volga region) using chemical and isotopic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareev, Bulat; Georgii, Batalin; Nurgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriya

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a study of international important site: the cross-section of Permian system's Urzhumian Stage in the ravine "Pechischy". Outcrop is located on the right bank of the Volga River (about 10 km West of Kazan). It has local, regional and planetary correlation features and also footprints of different geographical scale events. The main objective in the research is the deep study of sediments using chemical and isotopic investigations. XRF spectrometer was used for chemical investigations of samples. Chemistry of carbonates and clastic rocks includes the analysis of chemical elements, compounds, petrochemical (lithogeochemical) modules for the interpretation of the genesis of lithotypes. For the review of the geochemistry of stable isotopes of carbon (oxygen) we used IRMS. The main objective is the nature of the isotope fractionation issues, to addressing the issues of stratigraphy and paleogeography. The measurements have shown the variability of chemical parameters in cross-section. It gives us opportunity to see small changes in sedimentation and recognize the factors that influence to the process. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program in the field of scientific research.

  12. Prevalence of HIV and malaria: a cross-sectional study on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiangbin; Lin, Min; Xie, Dong-De; Li, Jian; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Monte-Nguba, Santiago-M; Ehapo, Juan Carlos Sala; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Yang, Li-Ye

    2017-03-01

    Malaria and HIV are two of the most severe public health problems in Africa. However, epidemiological data on Bioko Island is scarce. To investigate the prevalence of malaria and HIV infections and assess association of malaria and HIV infections and possible confounding factors, we performed a cross-sectional survey of people of malaria-endemic Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. A cross-sectional study of 1 526 subjects was carried out to determine the prevalence of malaria and HIV infection in Malabo region hospital on Bioko Island. Questionnaires were administered and venous blood samples were drawn for malaria parasites and HIV detection. The prevalence of participants infected with malaria and HIV in this area were 13.8% and 6.6% respectively. The average prevalence of co-infection for malaria and HIV was 0.92%. HIV-infection was significantly associated with the age and gender. Malaria infections were significantly associated with the age. This study showed that the prevalence of HIV and malaria on Bioko Island was higher than expected, although the co-infection prevalence of malaria and HIV was low. The results also indicated that malaria and HIV infections lead to more public health risk to youngsters and women.

  13. Prevalence of chronic itch and associated factors in haemodialysis patients: a representative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Melanie; Mettang, Thomas; Tschulena, Ulrich; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Weisshaar, Elke

    2015-09-01

    Chronic itch is a common symptom in haemodialysis (HD) patients, which is often underestimated. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with chronic itch in HD patients. A total of 860 HD patients from a randomly selected cluster-sample of patients attending dialysis units in Germany were included. The patients' mean?±?SD age was 67.2?±?13.5 years, 57.2% were male. The point prevalence of chronic itch was 25.2% (95% CI 22.4-28.1), 12-month prevalence was 27.2% (95% CI 24.1-30.3) and lifetime prevalence was 35.2% (95% CI 31.9-38.3). Chronic itch was significantly less prevalent in patients with secondary glomerulonephritis as primary renal disease. A history of dry skin, eczema, and age cross-sectional study using a precise definition of chronic itch and using different prevalence estimates of chronic itch in HD patients. It demonstrates that chronic itch is a long-lasting burden significantly impairing patients' health.

  14. Studying the Permian Cross-section (Volga Region) Using Chemical and Isotopic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareev, B. I.; Batalin, G. A.; Nurgalieva, N. G.; Nourgaliev, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a study of international important site: the cross-section of Permian system's Urzhumian Stagein the ravine "Pechischy". Outcrop is located on the right bank of the Volga River (about 10 km West of Kazan). Ithas local, regional and planetary correlation features and also footprints of different geographical scale events.The main objective in the research is the deep study of sediments using chemical and isotopic investigations. XRFspectrometer was used for chemical investigations of samples. Chemistry of carbonates and clastic rocks includesthe analysis of chemical elements, compounds, petrochemical (lithogeochemical) modules for the interpretationof the genesis of lithotypes. For the review of the geochemistry of stable isotopes of carbon (oxygen) we usedIRMS. The main objective is the nature of the isotope fractionation issues, to addressing the issues of stratigraphyand paleogeography.The measurements have shown the variability of chemical parameters in cross-section. It gives us opportunity tosee small changes in sedimentation and recognize the factors that influence to the process.The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of KazanFederal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state programin the field of scientific research.

  15. Paleomagnetic studies of upper Neopleistocene rocks from the El'tigen cross section, Kerch Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, O. V.; Trubikhin, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    The upper part of the Neopleistocene El'tigen cross section was studied by the paleomagnetic method. The cross section is located in the Crimean Peninsula, on the shore of the Kerch Strait, and is composed of Surozhian deposits referring to the time interval of ~15-45 kyr B.P. Detailed ChRM angular element curves were obtained, and virtual geomagnetic pole migration curves were constructed. On the basis of these data, singular anomalous intervals (~23-25, ~33-35, and ~41-42 kyr B.P.) were distinguished. These anomalous intervals coincide in age with the periods of Mono Lake and Laschamp geomagnetic excursions. Despite the good time fit between the revealed anomalous horizons and the excursion periods, ChRM anomalies could be caused by other reasons. A continuous amplitude spectrum of variations in angular magnetization components was obtained, and periods of ~0.9, 1.4, 2.1, and 4.3 kyr are identified in it. The presence of general periods in the interval of 15-45 kyr B.P. and their coincidence with the periods studied by archeomagnetism provides grounds to suppose existence of characteristic periods of variations in geomagnetic field.

  16. The Ultimate Monte Carlo: Studying Cross-Sections With Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-energy physics community has been discussing for years the need to bring together the three principal disciplines that study hadron cross-section physics - ground-based accelerators, cosmic-ray experiments in space, and air shower research. Only recently have NASA investigators begun discussing the use of space-borne cosmic-ray payloads to bridge the gap between accelerator physics and air shower work using cosmic-ray measurements. The common tool used in these three realms of high-energy hadron physics is the Monte Carlo (MC). Yet the obvious has not been considered - using a single MC for simulating the entire relativistic energy range (GeV to EeV). The task is daunting due to large uncertainties in accelerator, space, and atmospheric cascade measurements. These include inclusive versus exclusive cross-section measurements, primary composition, interaction dynamics, and possible new physics beyond the standard model. However, the discussion of a common tool or ultimate MC might be the very thing that could begin to unify these independent groups into a common purpose. The Offline ALICE concept of a Virtual MC at CERN s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be discussed as a rudimentary beginning of this idea, and as a possible forum for carrying it forward in the future as LHC data emerges.

  17. Systematic study of deformation effects on fusion cross-sections using various proximity potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Tapan; Kalita, Kushal

    2014-06-01

    The influence of static quadrupole and hexadecapole (positive & negative) deformation of targets are studied using eleven different versions of nuclear potentials. The height and position of the interaction barrier for the reactions induced by spherical projectile (16O) on the deformed targets such as 166Er, 154Sm and 176Yb have been estimated. It is found that the nucleus-nucleus potential strongly depends on the value of the deformation parameters and orientation of the target. The experimental fusion cross-section of the reactions 16O + 176Yb, 16O +166Er and 16O +154Sm are investigated by applyingWong's formula using various parameterizations of the proximity potential as well as an assessment of the results of a multi-dimensional barrier penetration model (BPM). The fusion cross-sections by Prox 77, Prox 88, Prox 00, Prox 00DP, Denisov DP, Bass 80, CW 76 and AW 95 potentials are found to be better than the rest in comparison to experimental data.

  18. Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross sections on erbium isotopes for γ process studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Török, Zs.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-05-01

    The cross sections of the 162Er(α,γ)166Yb and 162,164,166Er(α,n)165,167,169Yb reactions have been measured at MTA Atomki. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured between Ec.m. = 11.21 MeV and Ec.m. = 16.09 MeV just above the astrophysically relevant energy region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at T9 = 3 GK). The 162Er(α,n)165Yb, 164Er(α,n)167Yb and 166Er(α,n)169Yb reactions were studied between Ec.m. = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV, Ec.m. = 13.17 and 16.59 MeV and Ec.m. = 12.68 and 17.08 MeV, respectively. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data for modeling the γ process which is thought to be responsible for the production of the proton-rich isotopes heavier than iron.

  19. The Ultimate Monte Carlo: Studying Cross-Sections With Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-energy physics community has been discussing for years the need to bring together the three principal disciplines that study hadron cross-section physics - ground-based accelerators, cosmic-ray experiments in space, and air shower research. Only recently have NASA investigators begun discussing the use of space-borne cosmic-ray payloads to bridge the gap between accelerator physics and air shower work using cosmic-ray measurements. The common tool used in these three realms of high-energy hadron physics is the Monte Carlo (MC). Yet the obvious has not been considered - using a single MC for simulating the entire relativistic energy range (GeV to EeV). The task is daunting due to large uncertainties in accelerator, space, and atmospheric cascade measurements. These include inclusive versus exclusive cross-section measurements, primary composition, interaction dynamics, and possible new physics beyond the standard model. However, the discussion of a common tool or ultimate MC might be the very thing that could begin to unify these independent groups into a common purpose. The Offline ALICE concept of a Virtual MC at CERN s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be discussed as a rudimentary beginning of this idea, and as a possible forum for carrying it forward in the future as LHC data emerges.

  20. Ideal angle of syndesmotic screw fixation: A CT-based cross-sectional image analysis study.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Hwan; Choi, Won Seok; Choi, Gi Won; Kim, Hak Jun

    2017-09-06

    Without clear reference, the precision of syndesmotic screw placement cannot be guaranteed and malposition of these screws leads to poor results. Therefore, to prevent malpositioning of syndesmotic screws, an improved understanding of the orientation of tibiofibular syndesmosis is essential. We analyzed cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) scans of the foot and ankle to identify precise screw positions for the treatment of syndesmotic injuries. A total of 134 calcaneal fractures with intact tibiofibular syndesmosis were enrolled in this retrospective study. We measured the angle between the perpendicular line of the second proximal phalanx and the line start apex of the lateral cortex of the fibula bisecting the tibial incisura and crossing the center of the tibia in neutral ankle joints, with the second toe positioned anteriorly using a short leg splint. The second toe was used as the reference for clarity and applicability. The ideal angle of syndesmotic screw placement in cross-sectional CT images was 18.8±5.6° (mean±standard deviation) and did not differ according to independent variables (P>0.05). In neutral ankle joints with the second toe positioned anteriorly, the ideal angle of syndesmotic screw placement is 18.8°, which is less than that currently in used in conventional methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross sections on erbium isotopes for γ process studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Török, Zs.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-05-02

    The cross sections of the {sup 162}Er(α,γ){sup 166}Yb and {sup 162,164,166}Er(α,n){sup 165,167,169}Yb reactions have been measured at MTA Atomki. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured between E{sub c.m.} = 11.21 MeV and E{sub c.m.} = 16.09 MeV just above the astrophysically relevant energy region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at T{sub 9} = 3 GK). The {sup 162}Er(α,n){sup 165}Yb, {sup 164}Er(α,n){sup 167}Yb and {sup 166}Er(α,n){sup 169}Yb reactions were studied between E{sub c.m.} = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV, E{sub c.m.} = 13.17 and 16.59 MeV and E{sub c.m.} = 12.68 and 17.08 MeV, respectively. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data for modeling the γ process which is thought to be responsible for the production of the proton-rich isotopes heavier than iron.

  2. The clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: a population based cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Takele; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Kebede, Yigzaw; Abebe, Markos

    2013-01-01

    In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collected demographic and location data from each study participant through house-to-house visits. A spatial scan statistic was used to identify purely spatial and space-time clusters of tuberculosis among permanent residents. Two significant (p<0.001) spatial and space-time clusters were identified in the study district. Tuberculosis is concentrated in certain geographic locations in Dabat, Ethiopia. This kind of clustering can be common in the country, so the National Tuberculosis Control Program can be more effective by identifying such clusters and targeting interventions.

  3. Difference between interaction cross sections and reaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2008-12-15

    We study the validity of the substitution of interaction cross sections for total reaction cross sections for a nucleus incident on a target nucleus at relativistic energies. We show that, for incident stable nuclei, the predicted difference between interaction and total reaction cross sections is large enough to probe the nuclear structure, particularly in a mass region of less than around 40. For analyses of the difference, we construct ''pseudo data'' for the reaction cross sections because empirical data are very limited at high energies. The construction of the pseudo data is based on our assumption that empirically unknown total reaction cross sections are precisely predicted by the phenomenological black-sphere model of nuclei that we developed recently. The comparison with the empirical interaction cross sections suggests a significant difference between the reaction and interaction cross sections for stable projectiles on a carbon target, which is of the order of 0-100 mb.

  4. The Status of Cross Section Measurements for Neutron-induced Reactions Needed for Cosmic Ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions with lunar rocks and meteorites produce small amounts of radionuclides and stable isotopes. Advances in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) allow production rates to be measured routinely in well-documented lunar rocks and meteorites. These measurements are analyzed using theoretical models to learn about the object itself and the history of the cosmic rays that fell on it. Good cross section measurements are essential input to the theoretical calculations. Most primary cosmic ray particles are protons so reliable cross sections for proton-induced reactions are essential. A cross section is deemed accurate if measurements made by different experimenters using different techniques result in consistent values. Most cross sections for proton induced reactions are now well measured. However, good cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions are still needed. These cross sections are required to fully account for all galactic cosmic ray interactions at depth in an extraterrestrial object. When primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles interact with an object many secondary neutrons are produced, which also initiate spallation reactions. Thus, the total GCR contribution to the overall cosmogenic nuclide archive has to include the contribution from the secondary neutron interactions. Few relevant cross section measurements have been reported for neutron-induced reactions at neutron energies greater than approximately 20 MeV. The status of the cross section measurements using quasi-monoenergetic neutron energies at iThemba LABS, South Africa and white neutron beams at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos are reported here.

  5. The Status of Cross Section Measurements for Neutron-induced Reactions Needed for Cosmic Ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions with lunar rocks and meteorites produce small amounts of radionuclides and stable isotopes. Advances in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) allow production rates to be measured routinely in well-documented lunar rocks and meteorites. These measurements are analyzed using theoretical models to learn about the object itself and the history of the cosmic rays that fell on it. Good cross section measurements are essential input to the theoretical calculations. Most primary cosmic ray particles are protons so reliable cross sections for proton-induced reactions are essential. A cross section is deemed accurate if measurements made by different experimenters using different techniques result in consistent values. Most cross sections for proton induced reactions are now well measured. However, good cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions are still needed. These cross sections are required to fully account for all galactic cosmic ray interactions at depth in an extraterrestrial object. When primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles interact with an object many secondary neutrons are produced, which also initiate spallation reactions. Thus, the total GCR contribution to the overall cosmogenic nuclide archive has to include the contribution from the secondary neutron interactions. Few relevant cross section measurements have been reported for neutron-induced reactions at neutron energies greater than approximately 20 MeV. The status of the cross section measurements using quasi-monoenergetic neutron energies at iThemba LABS, South Africa and white neutron beams at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos are reported here.

  6. Photoneutron cross sections for {sup 96}Zr: A systematic experimental study of photoneutron and radiative neutron capture cross sections for zirconium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Kondo, T.; Itoh, O.; Kamata, M.; Yamagata, T.; Goriely, S.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2010-03-15

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for {sup 96}Zr near neutron threshold with quasimonochromatic laser-Compton-scattering {gamma}-ray beams. A systematic analysis of photoneutron and radiative neutron capture data for zirconium isotopes within the statistical model calculation leads to a unified picture of low-energy {gamma}-ray strengths for zirconium isotopes that is described by the HFB + QRPA model of E1 strength supplemented with an extra {gamma} strength attributed to a giant M1 resonance. Results of the systematic analysis including radiative neutron capture cross sections for radioactive {sup 95}Zr and {sup 93}Zr nuclei are presented.

  7. Cross sections for electron collision with fluoroacetylene: A comparative study with acetylene and difluoroacetylene along with fluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Choi, Heechol; Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik

    2017-09-01

    Low energy electron impact cross sections of fluoroacetylene (HCCF) are investigated using the R-matrix method. The best target model, which gave good target properties in comparison with literature values, is used for the final scattering calculation. The fluorination effect on the various elastic, momentum transfer, differential, excitation and ionization cross section is studied by comparing the present results with the recent theoretical results of difluoroacetylene (FCCF) and acetylene (HCCH). This is the first reported detailed investigation of cross sections for HCCF along with the fluorination effect.

  8. The communication skills and the empathic tendency levels of nursing students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pazar, Berrin; Demiralp, Meral; Erer, İmren

    2017-06-01

    The most basic component of communication skills is the complex and multidimensional skill of empathy. This study was conducted to assess the communication skills and empathic tendency levels of female nursing students Turkish university. This cross-sectional study sample consisted of 342 nurse student. There was a significant difference between the classes in terms of communication skills (0.021, p < .05) but no significant difference in terms of the empathic tendency levels (0.712, p > .05). The mean communication skills score increased in the final year but empathic tendency levels did not increase with increasing school years. This result suggests that the empathic tendency level could not be increased with the courses in the curriculum in our study. The results suggest that empathic tendency levels were not increased with subsequent nursing coursework. Determining empathic predisposition levels prior to entry into nursing programs should therefore be considered.

  9. Does habitual physical activity prevent insomnia? A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sachiko; Yorifuji, Takashi; Sugiyama, Masumi; Ohta, Toshiki; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    Few epidemiological studies have examined the potential protective effects of physical activity on insomnia. The authors thus evaluated the association between physical activity and insomnia in a large population-based study in Shizuoka, Japan. Individual data were obtained from participants in an ongoing cohort study. A total of 14,001 older residents who completed questionnaires were followed for 3 yr. Of these, 10,211 and 3,697 participants were eligible for the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, respectively. The authors obtained information about the frequency of physical activity and insomnia. Then, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between physical activity and insomnia were estimated. Habitual physical activity was related to lower prevalence of insomnia. Frequent physical activity also reduced the incidence of insomnia, especially difficulty maintaining sleep. For elderly people with sufficient mobility and no preexisting disease, high-frequency physical activity (e.g., 5 or more days/wk) may help reduce insomnia.

  10. Staple foods consumption and irritable bowel syndrome in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoqiu; Huang, Cong; Guo, Yinting; Niu, Kaijun; Momma, Haruki; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Fukudo, Shin; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrates can cause gastrointestinal symptoms due to incomplete absorption in the small bowel. Thus, high-carbohydrate diets may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This observational and cross-sectional study assessed the association between consumption of several carbohydrate-enriched staple foods, such as rice, Japanese wheat noodles, Chinese noodles, bread, pasta, and buckwheat noodles, and the prevalence of IBS in Japanese adults. One thousand and eighty-two (837 men) Japanese adult employees aged 19-85 were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 2011. IBS diagnosis was based on the Rome III criteria. Consumption of staple foods was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, and divided into three categories (low, middle, high) depending on their distribution. In the multivariate analysis, daily consumption of rice (odds ratios [ORs] and [95% confidence interval (CI)]: middle, 1.36 [0.93-1.99]; high, 1.67 [1.12-2.49]; P for trend = 0.01), bread (middle, 1.88 [1.28-2.75]; high, 1.63 [1.10-2.41]; P for trend = 0.01), pasta (middle, 1.47 [1.01-2.15]; high, 1.68 [1.12-2.52]; P for trend = 0.01), and buckwheat noodles (middle, 1.76 [1.18-2.61]; high, 1.98 [1.31-3.00]; P for trend = 0.001) were associated with higher prevalence of IBS after adjustment for socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle-related factors. Buckwheat noodles, but not other staple foods, retained an association with the prevalence of IBS even after adjustment for daily intake of carbohydrates or plant proteins. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that the consumption of staple foods, such as rice, bread, pasta, and buckwheat noodles is associated with the prevalence of IBS. Of these, the consumption of buckwheat noodles, but not other staple foods, is associated with IBS independent of carbohydrate or plant protein contents.

  11. Exploring the 'Healthy Migrant Paradox' in Sweden. A Cross Sectional Study Focused on Perinatal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Sol Pía; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence shows that in some contexts immigrants have better health than natives in spite of coming from poorer socioeconomic contexts and of facing socioeconomic disadvantages in the host country. However, this is a country or origin- and outcome-specific phenomenon. This study compares different health outcomes derived from birthweight and gestational age among different migrant groups residing in Sweden. Cross-sectional study based on the Swedish Medical Birth Register for years 1987-1993. Multinomial regression models were performed to obtain crude and adjusted Odd Ratios and their 95 % Confidence Intervals. Overall, immigrants show a higher risk of LBW and preterm and a lower risk of macrosomia and post-term. Moreover, some groups performed worse than natives even in indicators at the two ends of the distribution. The healthy migrant paradox is also outcome-specific within different perinatal indicators and the selection explanation cannot fully account for this phenomenon.

  12. Electronic communication experiences of home health care nurses and general practitioners: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lyngstad, Merete; Hellesø, Ragnhild

    2014-01-01

    Future health care will require suitable means of communication between home health care nurses and general practitioners (GPs) to ensure safe care for homebound patients. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of home health care nurses and general practitioners using e-messaging in their communication. We conducted a cross-sectional study with a mailed questionnaire. A total of 584 home health care nurses and GPs who used e-messaging and 495 home health care nurses and GPs who did not use e-messaging completed the questionnaire. The results showed that there was high agreement, in all the groups, that e-messaging led to better communication quality, better access to patient information, and an improved ability to prevent and reduce errors and omissions. Nurses reported the most agreement, which led to the conclusion that it was the characteristics of the profession rather than the use of e-messaging that influenced high agreement.

  13. Nursing burnout: cross-sectional study at a large Army hospital.

    PubMed

    Lang, Gary Morris; Pfister, Elizabeth A; Siemens, Michelle J

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of burnout among U.S. Army and civilian nursing personnel assigned to a large military treatment facility. Using a cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of eligible participants (n = 364) completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory. T-test and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze data. Findings suggest that both groups were experiencing a moderate level of burnout. However, civilian nursing personnel demonstrated statistical lower levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Findings suggest that nursing personnel who worked the day shift, no more than 8 hours a day and had fewer patient care contacts with military personnel injured in Iraq or Afghanistan reported lower levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This study provides ideas for policy changes at medical treatment facilities that are experiencing similar challenges.

  14. Social Media and Evidence-Based Maternity Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Rebecca L.; King, Sarah; Lester, Kara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to describe how people use social media to find and disseminate information about evidence-based maternity care. We used a cross-sectional Internet-based survey design in which 1,661 participants were recruited from childbirth-related blogs. Participants answered questions about how they find, use, and share evidence-based maternity information using social media. Overall, women in this study were highly engaged in using social media to find and share maternity information. Most respondents were very interested in reading evidence-based maternity care articles online. Most intend to use this information that they found, despite the fact that a substantial percentage had no intentions of discussing this information with their childbirth educators or physician. PMID:27445448

  15. [Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in prison institution staff: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Santiago, Silvia Maria; Andrade, Maria da Graça Garcia; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo

    2016-01-01

    to analyze risk factors for cardiovascular disease in prison institution staff. this was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 127 staff of both sexes; prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated adjusted for age and education, as were the respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). higher proportions of waist circumference ratios were found above the recommended values (58.1%) and the accumulation of two risk factors for females (33.8%); among males there was higher prevalence of abnormal glucose levels (PR=10.73 - 95%CI 1.31;87.92) and blood pressure (PR=2.63 - 95%CI 1.31;6.50). the risk factors for cardiovascular disease found among staff in this study were waist circumference, glucose levels and blood pressure above the recommended values; these health risks can to be addressed through health promotion and disease prevention measures, as well as effective attention to those who are already sick.

  16. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-02-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for screening, and a self-administered questionnaire (associated factors). We imputed missing M-CHAT data with successful answers. Since there were no follow-up interviews for the M-CHAT, we used the positive predictive value (0.058) from a large study for prevalence estimates. ASD prevalence was 1 in 66 children (comparable to US). Ratios were: male/female: 1.05; Beirut/Mount-Lebanon: 1.2. Using a more representative sample and ascertaining results are needed for better prevalence estimates in Lebanon.

  17. Body image trends among Icelandic adolescents: a cross-sectional national study from 1997 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Ingolfsdottir, Gudrun; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in body image among Icelandic adolescents from 1997 to 2010. Data from five cross-sectional surveys conducted among national samples of 9th and 10th graders in Iceland using five time points (1997, 2000, 2006, 2009, and 2010) were compared to examine changes in body image. In total, 32,397 adolescents participated in the study. Body image among 14-15-year-old adolescents in Iceland improved significantly over the 13-year period. Girls reported more negative body image than boys at all time points. However, the positive change in body image from 1997 to 2010 was more pronounced for girls than boys, resulting in a narrower gap between the genders. The current results are encouraging and indicate that in an age of increased overweight and obesity, the body image of Icelandic adolescents is becoming more positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Folate and MMA predict cognitive impairment in elderly stroke survivors: A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Linden, Thomas

    2016-09-30

    Elderly stroke survivors are at risk of malnutrition and long-term cognitive impairment. Vitamin B-related metabolites, folate and methylmalonic acid, have been implicated in cognitive function. We conducted a study exploring the relationship between blood folate, methylmalonic acid and post-stroke cognitive impairment. This is a cross sectional study of elderly Swedish patients (n=149) 20 months post-stroke, assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination, serum blood levels of methylmalonic acid and red blood cell levels of folate. Linear modeling indicated that low levels of blood folate and elevated methylmalonic acid significantly contributed to cognitive impairment in stroke survivors. Half of the stroke survivors were shown to have folate deficiency at 20 months after stroke. Folate deficiency is common long term after stroke and both low folate and elevated methylmalonic acid appear to be associated with long term cognitive impairment, in elderly Swedish stroke survivors.

  19. Finnish occupational health nurses' view of work-related stress: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

    2014-03-01

    Occupational stress at work has been increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for chronic disease and poor quality of work life among employees. The purpose of this study was to examine how occupational health nurses in Finland manage work-related stress. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with a sample of 354 Finnish occupational nurses who responded to the survey. No specific standardized tools to assess or handle work-related stress in occupational health services or their client companies were identified. Open-ended interviews together with burnout questionnaires were the most frequently used methods to assess the stress of employees. Interventions were directed at individual employees. A need for standardized stress assessment instruments and stress management by work organizations was found. Methods to cope with work-related stress should be developed by the occupational health team and companies' health resources departments to ensure the adoption of common protocols. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Associations between workplace factors and carpal tunnel syndrome: A multi-site cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Z Joyce; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Gerr, Fred; Eisen, Ellen A; Hegmann, Kurt T; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Evanoff, Bradley; Dale, Ann Marie; Thiese, Matthew S; Garg, Arun; Kapellusch, Jay; Burt, Susan; Merlino, Linda; Rempel, David

    2015-05-01

    Few large epidemiologic studies have used rigorous case criteria, individual-level exposure measurements, and appropriate control for confounders to examine associations between workplace psychosocial and biomechanical factors and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Pooling data from five independent research studies, we assessed associations between prevalent CTS and personal, work psychosocial, and biomechanical factors while adjusting for confounders using multivariable logistic regression. Prevalent CTS was associated with personal factors of older age, obesity, female sex, medical conditions, previous distal upper extremity disorders, workplace measures of peak forceful hand activity, a composite measure of force and repetition (ACGIH Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level), and hand vibration. In this cross-sectional analysis of production and service workers, CTS prevalence was associated with workplace and biomechanical factors. The findings were similar to those from a prospective analysis of the same cohort with differences that may be due to recall bias and other factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Social Media and Evidence-Based Maternity Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Rebecca L; King, Sarah; Lester, Kara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how people use social media to find and disseminate information about evidence-based maternity care. We used a cross-sectional Internet-based survey design in which 1,661 participants were recruited from childbirth-related blogs. Participants answered questions about how they find, use, and share evidence-based maternity information using social media. Overall, women in this study were highly engaged in using social media to find and share maternity information. Most respondents were very interested in reading evidence-based maternity care articles online. Most intend to use this information that they found, despite the fact that a substantial percentage had no intentions of discussing this information with their childbirth educators or physician.

  2. Double ionization of helium by bare ions: Theoretical study of the fully differential cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, S. D.; Garibotti, C. R.; Otranto, S.

    2011-06-15

    This work presents a theoretical study of fully differential cross sections (FDCSs) for the double ionization of an He target by ion impact within a distorted wave model. The initial atomic system is described by two approximated wave functions of different accuracy proposed by Bonham and Kohl. For the final channel several models are considered based upon improvements and simplifications of the well-known three-body Coulomb (3C) model. The influence of the receding projectile on the resulting fragments is also studied by implementing a model with effective charges that depend on the momenta of the four particles. The FDCSs resulting for different electron energy sharing are discussed. The sensitivity of the FDCSs to the projectile charge sign and magnitude is explored over the energy range 700 keV/amu through 6 MeV/amu.

  3. Do "Myths" of low back pain exist among Irish population? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Munigangaiah, Sudarshan; Basavaraju, Navya; Jadaan, Dima Y; Devitt, Aiden T; McCabe, John P

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain remains major public health problem in the Western industrialized world. The known prevalence of low back pain in Ireland is approximately 13 %. It is one of the leading causes of sickness compensation and disability pension in our justification. We hypothesized that there is a widespread misconception about the perception of low back pain among the Irish population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the "Myths" of low back pain existed among the Irish population. We carried out a cross-sectional study in the Republic of Ireland from April 2013 to August 2013. The Irish population who visited Galway University Hospital, Galway, Ireland, was contacted randomly at point of entry to the hospital. During the survey, the authors obtained verbal consent before handing the questionnaire, which contained the Deyo's seven myths. The responders were asked to mark their response in a three-point scale (agree, unsure, disagree) to the seven statements. Out of 500 responders, 59 (11.8 %) people answered none of the questions correctly. Fifty-six (11.2 %) answered one question correctly, 106 (21.2 %) answered two questions correctly, 85 (17 %) people disagreed with three myths, 88 (17.6 %) disagreed with four myths, 55 (11 %) people answered five questions correctly, and 34 (6.8 %) answered six questions correctly. Therefore, only 17 (3.4 %) people disagreed with all the seven myths. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study showed that myths of low back pain widely exist among Irish population studied . The level of education played an important role. The findings from this study suggest that public health information regarding low back pain is inadequate and has not affected attitudes to low back pain in an Irish population.

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of diabetic retinopathy in Beijing, China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing; Ren, Ji-Ping; Chen, Dong-Ning; Xin, Zhong; Yuan, Ming-Xia; Xu, Jie; You, Qi-Sheng; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2017-08-30

    The study aimed to determine the exact risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Chinese population using a cohort of 17  985 individuals from Beijing, China. Cross-sectional study. A hospital. 17  985 individuals from Beijing, China. This was a cross-sectional study of permanent residents from the Changping area (Beijing, China) recruited from July 2010 to March 2011 and from March 2014 to February 2015 during a routine health examination at the Tongren Hospital of Beijing. Eye examinations were conducted by experienced ophthalmologists. Medical history, height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were recorded. Routine laboratory examinations were performed. The prevalence of DR was 1.5% in the general study population and 8.1% among individuals with diabetes. Compared with the non-DR group, individuals in the DR group in the diabetes population had longer disease duration, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and uric acid (UA) (in men) and lower UA (in women) (all p<0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that disease duration (p<0.001), BMI (p=0.046), SBP (p=0.012), creatinine clearance rate (CCR) (p=0.014), UA (p=0.018) and FPG (p<0.001) were independently associated with DR in patients with diabetes. The prevalence of DR was 8.1% among patients with diabetes. Disease duration, BMI, SBP, CCR, UA and FPG were independently associated with DR. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. High Prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome among Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Controlled Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Watson, Nathaniel F.; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in fibromyalgia (FM) and determine the presence and amount of sleep disruption in FM patients with RLS. RLS and FM have been associated in uncontrolled studies using a variety of RLS definitions. We explored this relationship using a cross-sectional study design. Methods: FM cases that met the American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria were recruited through an academic referral clinic and advertising. Pain- and fatigue-free controls were recruited from the Seattle metropolitan area. We enrolled 172 FM patients (mean age 50 years, 93% female) and 63 pain- and fatigue-free controls (mean age 41 years, 56% female). RLS was ascertained by a self-administered validated diagnostic interview. Results: The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of RLS was higher in the FM group than the control group (33.0%; 95% CI: 25.9, 40.1 vs. 3.1%; 95% CI: 0.0, 7.4; p = 0.001). Likewise, the FM group was more likely to report RLS (OR = 11.7; 95% CI: 2.6, 53.0), even after adjusting for age and gender. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was higher among FM patients with RLS than those without (11.8 vs. 9.9; p = 0.01) but subjective limb pain measures did not differ between these 2 groups. Conclusions: There is a higher prevalence and odds of RLS in those with FM compared to controls. Clinicians should routinely query FM patients regarding RLS symptoms because treatment of RLS can potentially improve sleep and quality of life in these patients. Citation: Viola-Saltzman M; Watson NF; Bogart A; Goldberg J; Buchwald D. High prevalence of restless legs syndrome among patients with fibromyalgia: a controlled cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(5):423-427. PMID:20957840

  6. Development of a critical appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies (AXIS)

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Martin J; Brennan, Marnie L; Williams, Hywel C; Dean, Rachel S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a critical appraisal (CA) tool that addressed study design and reporting quality as well as the risk of bias in cross-sectional studies (CSSs). In addition, the aim was to produce a help document to guide the non-expert user through the tool. Design An initial scoping review of the published literature and key epidemiological texts was undertaken prior to the formation of a Delphi panel to establish key components for a CA tool for CSSs. A consensus of 80% was required from the Delphi panel for any component to be included in the final tool. Results An initial list of 39 components was identified through examination of existing resources. An international Delphi panel of 18 medical and veterinary experts was established. After 3 rounds of the Delphi process, the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS tool) was developed by consensus and consisted of 20 components. A detailed explanatory document was also developed with the tool, giving expanded explanation of each question and providing simple interpretations and examples of the epidemiological concepts being examined in each question to aid non-expert users. Conclusions CA of the literature is a vital step in evidence synthesis and therefore evidence-based decision-making in a number of different disciplines. The AXIS tool is therefore unique and was developed in a way that it can be used across disciplines to aid the inclusion of CSSs in systematic reviews, guidelines and clinical decision-making. PMID:27932337

  7. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. Results The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Conclusions Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. PMID:26892792

  8. Literacy and health outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 1002 adults with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Morris, Nancy S; MacLean, Charles D; Littenberg, Benjamin

    2006-08-14

    Inconsistent findings reported in the literature contribute to the lack of complete understanding of the association of literacy with health outcomes. We evaluated the association between literacy, physiologic control and diabetes complications among adults with diabetes. A cross-sectional study of 1,002 English speaking adults with diabetes, randomly selected from the Vermont Diabetes Information System, a cluster-randomized trial of a diabetes decision support system in a region-wide sample of primary care practices was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005. Literacy was assessed by the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Outcome measures included glycated hemoglobin, low density lipoprotein, blood pressure and self-reported complications. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, duration of diabetes, diabetes education, depression, alcohol use, and medication use we did not find a significant association between literacy and glycemic control (beta coefficent,+ 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.01 to +0.01; P = .88), systolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, +0.08; 95% CI, -0.10 to +0.26; P = .39), diastolic blood pressure (beta coefficent, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.12 to +0.07, P = .59), or low density lipoprotein (beta coefficent, +0.04; 95% CI, -0.27 to +0.36, P = .77. We found no association between literacy and report of diabetes complications. These findings suggest that literacy, as measured by the S-TOFHLA, is not associated with glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, lipid levels or self-reported diabetes complications in a cross-sectional study of older adults with diabetes under relatively good glycemic control. Additional studies to examine the optimal measurement of health literacy and its relationship to health outcomes over time are needed.

  9. Inequalities in the spiritual health of young Canadians: a national, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; Freeman, John; King, Nathan; Ascough, Hannah; Davison, Colleen; Trothen, Tracy; Phillips, Sian; Pickett, William

    2016-11-28

    Spiritual health, along with physical, emotional, and social aspects, is one of four domains of health. Assessment in this field of research is challenging methodologically. No contemporary population-based studies have profiled the spiritual health of adolescent Canadians with a focus on health inequalities. In a 2014 nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 11-15 years we therefore: (1) psychometrically evaluated a series of items used to assess the perceived importance of spiritual health and its four potential sub-domains (connections with: self, others, nature and the natural environment, and the transcendent) to adolescents; (2) described potential inequalities in spiritual health within adolescent populations, overall and by spiritual health sub-domain, by key socio-demographic factors. Cross-sectional analysis of survey reports from the 2014 (Cycle 7) of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (weighted n = 25,036). Principal components analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis were used to explore the psychometric properties of the spiritual health items and the associated composite scale describing perceived importance of spiritual health. Associations among this composite scale, its individual sub-domains, and key socio-demographic factors were then explored. The principal components analysis best supported a four-factor structure where the eight scale items loaded highly according to the original four domains. This was also supported in confirmatory factor analyses. We then combined the eight items into composite spiritual health score as supported by theory, principal components analysis findings, and acceptable tests of reliability. Further confirmatory factor analysis suggested the need for additional refinements to this scale. Based upon exploratory cross-sectional analyses, strong socio-demographic inequalities were observed in the spiritual health measures by age, gender, relative material wealth

  10. Medical Students' Stress, Psychological Morbidity, and Coping Strategies: a Cross-Sectional Study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Imran, Nazish; Tariq, Khaula Fatima; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz; Jawaid, Masood; Haider, Imran Ijaz

    2016-02-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stresses, as well as coping strategies in Pakistani medical students. Medical students in Lahore, Pakistan, completed a cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire in 2013 on the sources and severity of various stressors. The General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and Brief COPE assessed the psychological morbidity and coping strategies. Out of 1500 students, 527 responded to the survey. The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 23.3%; 52.3% respondents showed evidence of distress. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-12 caseness was associated with being male and occurrence of health-related stressors. The most common stressors were related to academic concerns. Coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness. The significant psychological morbidity and distress warrants establishing support systems to support students and bringing about evidence-based changes to teaching and evaluation systems. Adequate counseling facilities should be made available and students encouraged to seek help.

  11. Causal Attribution and Illness Perception: A Cross-Sectional Study in Mexican Patients with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment. PMID:25525628

  12. A study of GEOS-3 terrain data with emphasis on radar cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priester, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Radar cross sections (RCS) of terrain are studied using GEOS 3 radar altimeter data. Maps of RCS for portions of four east coast states (U.S.A.) are presented and used to draw curves of RCS versus inland distance as measured from the land/sea interface. The results show RCS to decay approximately exponentially with inland distance. The GEOS 3 data are also used to develop curves of RCS seasonal variation for the same regions. Observed variations correlate strongly with local potential evaporation. Results also show that farming operations in the state of North Carolina are observable in the RCS data. A restricted method for determining surface roughness features from saturated average return waveforms for some types of terrain is developed. Sensor bias induced by receiver saturation for certain terrain returns is briefly discussed.

  13. Bayesian methods of confidence interval construction for the population attributable risk from cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Pirikahu, Sarah; Jones, Geoffrey; Hazelton, Martin L; Heuer, Cord

    2016-08-15

    Population attributable risk measures the public health impact of the removal of a risk factor. To apply this concept to epidemiological data, the calculation of a confidence interval to quantify the uncertainty in the estimate is desirable. However, because perhaps of the confusion surrounding the attributable risk measures, there is no standard confidence interval or variance formula given in the literature. In this paper, we implement a fully Bayesian approach to confidence interval construction of the population attributable risk for cross-sectional studies. We show that, in comparison with a number of standard Frequentist methods for constructing confidence intervals (i.e. delta, jackknife and bootstrap methods), the Bayesian approach is superior in terms of percent coverage in all except a few cases. This paper also explores the effect of the chosen prior on the coverage and provides alternatives for particular situations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Numerical studies of nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves in uniform waveguides with arbitrary cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Fan, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear guided waves have been investigated widely in simple geometries, such as plates, pipe and shells, where analytical solutions have been developed. This paper extends the application of nonlinear guided waves to waveguides with arbitrary cross sections. The criteria for the existence of nonlinear guided waves were summarized based on the finite deformation theory and nonlinear material properties. Numerical models were developed for the analysis of nonlinear guided waves in complex geometries, including nonlinear Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method to identify internal resonant modes in complex waveguides, and Finite Element (FE) models to simulate the nonlinear wave propagation at resonant frequencies. Two examples, an aluminum plate and a steel rectangular bar, were studied using the proposed numerical model, demonstrating the existence of nonlinear guided waves in such structures and the energy transfer from primary to secondary modes.

  15. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy study on II-VI multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierts, A.; Ulloa, J. M.; ćelebi, C.; Koenraad, P. M.; Boukari, H.; Maingault, L.; André, R.; Mariette, H.

    2007-10-01

    Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy is used to study in the atomic scale the structural properties of ZnSeTe /ZnTe multiple quantum wells and N:ZnTe delta-doped structures. Some peculiar effects are found on the cleaved (110) ZnTe surface plane, which have not been observed in III-V semiconductors. In particular, cleavage induced monatomic wide vacancy chains are always present on the Te sublattice. Furthermore, the semiconductor surface is manipulated when certain positive voltages are applied to the sample. Regarding the heterostructures, the ZnSeTe /ZnTe quantum wells are found to have abrupt interfaces and the Se concentration is determined to be significantly larger than the nominal value.

  16. Causal attribution and illness perception: a cross-sectional study in Mexican patients with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment.

  17. [Vibration, back pain and physical exercise in high-risk professionals: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Valenti, M; Prosperini, V; Falzano, P; Hendel, M; Raimondi, P

    2004-01-01

    Repeated loads and vibration stress in professional settings are relevant risk factors for back pain. Aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate: a) the prevalence of back pain in two high-risk professional samples (helicopter pilots and bus drivers); b) the association between physical/sports exercise and back pain subjective perception across age. Prevalence of back pain is 94% in helicopter pilots and 74% in bus drivers; prevalence of back pain significantly increases with age. The positive effect of regular physical/sports exercise on subjective back pain significantly decreases with age. Physical or sports exercise adapted to structural characteristic of patients can result effective in diminishing personal impairment in subjects at professional risk.

  18. The effects of dietary habits on Iranian students' school performance, a pilot cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tayebi, Sirous; Pourabbasi, Ata; Shirvani, Mahbubeh Ebrahimnegad

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether dietary habits in Iranian secondary school students have any effect on an individual's performance in school. The observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran during the 2010-11 academic year. Standardised Graduate Point Average was used as school performance. A validated nationalised nutritional questionnaire, designed by an expert committee, was filled by each student. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. The age of the 96 male high school students ranged betweeen 16 and 17 years, with the mean of 16.65 +/- 0.3 years. Of the total, 50 (52.1%) students had negative and 46 (47.9%) had positive standardised GPA. The average score of the questionnaire for the students in the positive group was significantly higher than the others (26.3 vs. 21.04) (p<0.05). Poor school performance in Iranian secondary school students was in relation with poor dietary habits.

  19. Amantadine use associated with impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease in cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Daniel; Sohr, Mandy; Potenza, Marc N; Siderowf, Andrew D; Stacy, Mark; Voon, Valerie; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Wunderlich, Glen R; Lang, Anthony E

    2010-12-01

    A recent controlled clinical trial suggested a role for amantadine as a treatment for pathological gambling in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Analyzing data from a large cross-sectional study of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in PD, amantadine use (n = 728), vs no amantadine use (n = 2,357), was positively associated with a diagnosis of any ICD (17.6% vs 12.4%, p < 0.001) and compulsive gambling specifically (7.4% vs 4.2%, p < 0.001). This amantadine association remained after controlling for covariates of amantadine use, including both dopamine agonist use and levodopa dosage. Further research, including larger clinical trials, is needed to assess the role of amantadine in the development and treatment of ICDs in PD.

  20. Numerical studies of nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves in uniform waveguides with arbitrary cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Peng; Fan, Zheng; Zhou, Yu

    2016-07-15

    Nonlinear guided waves have been investigated widely in simple geometries, such as plates, pipe and shells, where analytical solutions have been developed. This paper extends the application of nonlinear guided waves to waveguides with arbitrary cross sections. The criteria for the existence of nonlinear guided waves were summarized based on the finite deformation theory and nonlinear material properties. Numerical models were developed for the analysis of nonlinear guided waves in complex geometries, including nonlinear Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method to identify internal resonant modes in complex waveguides, and Finite Element (FE) models to simulate the nonlinear wave propagation at resonant frequencies. Two examples, an aluminum plate and a steel rectangular bar, were studied using the proposed numerical model, demonstrating the existence of nonlinear guided waves in such structures and the energy transfer from primary to secondary modes.

  1. Investigation of the relationship between serum hormones and pilonidal sinus disease: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Z; Aksoy, N; Emir, S; Kanat, B H; Gönen, A N; Yazar, F M; Çimen, A R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether pilonidal sinus is influenced by hormones that stimulate body hair growth. Currently, there are insufficient data on the presence of hormonal abnormalities in pilonidal sinus disease. Hormone levels (including those of thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, oestradiol, testosterone, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone) were measured in 39 patients with pilonodal sinus presenting between February 2013 and March 2013. The results were compared with those of 39 volunteers without this disease. There was no statistically significant difference between men with pilonidal sinus disease (P > 0.05). The prolactin levels of women with pilonoidal sinus were significantly higher than those of women in the control group (P < 0.05). Raised serum prolactin levels in women may be related to the development of pilonidal sinus disease. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF LITHIUM ON GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE IN INDIAN SUBJECTS - A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Baljinder; Mittal, Bhagwant R.; Sud, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sharan, Pratap; Jindal, Surinder K.; Deodhar, Shridhar D.

    2000-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was evaluated in thirty patients on lithium and in thirty healthy prospective kidney donors by single compartment, multiple sample plasma clearance method using 99mTechnetium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (99mTC-DTPA). Normality test revealed that dose and treatment duration were skewed and the coefficient of skewness were 0.067 (p< 0.0001) and 1.41 (p< 0.0001) respectively. Age was marginally skewed (p =0.04) for the control group. At 5% significance level, dose and creatinine were negatively correlated (r=-0.030), whereas age and duration were positively correlated (r =+ 0.53) (single tailed only). Duration and GFR seems to be negatively correlated (r = -0.23), however this correlation did not reach statistically significance level. In the present cross sectional study no significant difference in mean GFR was observed in lithium treated affective disorder patients when compared with the age matched normal subjects. PMID:21407979

  3. A Study of the Effects of Material Type and Configuration on Optical Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feirstine, K.; Yarbrough, J.; Sharples, R.; Crosher, C.; Bowers, D.; Wellems, D.; Jenkins, G.; Rosprim, D.; Duggin, M.; Vaughn, L.

    2012-09-01

    An experiment was designed to study the effects of material type and configuration on Optical Cross Section (OCS) and spectrum. The experiment was conducted at an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) far-field imaging facility, using different diffuse and specular materials and different configurations and/or combinations of each. It was hypothesized that the OCS of certain combinations of materials is dependent on the diffuseness or specularity of the materials used, but the spectrum is independent of these factors and does not change. The objective of the experiment is to capture both OCS and spectra of different material configurations using different combinations of diffuse and specular materials in the bi-static illumination condition. OCS was calculated relative to the scattering of a Spectralon material that was in the scene at all times. Results show the accurateness of the above hypothesis and illustrate other effects that material type and configuration have on OCS and spectra.

  4. Reference Charts for Fetal Cerebellar Vermis Height: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study of 10605 Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Cignini, Pietro; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Brutti, Pierpaolo; Mangiafico, Lucia; Aloisi, Alessia; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish reference charts for fetal cerebellar vermis height in an unselected population. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study between September 2009 and December 2014 was carried out at ALTAMEDICA Fetal–Maternal Medical Centre, Rome, Italy. Of 25203 fetal biometric measurements, 12167 (48%) measurements of the cerebellar vermis were available. After excluding 1562 (12.8%) measurements, a total of 10605 (87.2%) fetuses were considered and analyzed once only. Parametric and nonparametric quantile regression models were used for the statistical analysis. In order to evaluate the robustness of the proposed reference charts regarding various distributional assumptions on the ultrasound measurements at hand, we compared the gestational age-specific reference curves we produced through the statistical methods used. Normal mean height based on parametric and nonparametric methods were defined for each week of gestation and the regression equation expressing the height of the cerebellar vermis as a function of gestational age was calculated. Finally the correlation between dimension/gestation was measured. Results The mean height of the cerebellar vermis was 12.7mm (SD, 1.6mm; 95% confidence interval, 12.7–12.8mm). The regression equation expressing the height of the CV as a function of the gestational age was: height (mm) = -4.85+0.78 x gestational age. The correlation between dimension/gestation was expressed by the coefficient r = 0.87. Conclusion This is the first prospective cross-sectional study on fetal cerebellar vermis biometry with such a large sample size reported in literature. It is a detailed statistical survey and contains new centile-based reference charts for fetal height of cerebellar vermis measurements. PMID:26812238

  5. Cross-Sectional Investigation of HEMS Activities in Europe: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Gava, Paolo; Truhlář, Anatolij; Sandberg, Mårten; Group, The Euphorea

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs) activities across Europe. Methods. Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013) activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, developed by experts of the European Prehospital Research Alliance (EUPHOREA). Results. We invited 143 bases from 11 countries; 85 (60%) reported base characteristics only and 73 (51%) sample-day data too. The variety of base characteristics was enormous; that is, the target population ranged from 94.000 to 4.500.000. Of 158 requested primary missions, 62 (0.82 per base) resulted in landing. Cardiac aetiology (36%) and trauma (36%) prevailed, mostly of life-threatening severity (43%, 0.64 per mission). Had HEMS been not dispatched, patients would have been attended by another physician in 67% of cases, by paramedics in 24%, and by nurses in 9%. On-board physicians estimated to have caused a major decrease of death risk in 47% of missions, possible decrease in 22%, minor benefit in 17%, no benefit in 11%, and damage in 3%. Earlier treatment and faster transport to hospital were the main reasons for benefit. The most frequent therapeutic procedure was drug administration (78% of missions); endotracheal intubation occurred in 25% of missions and was an option hardly offered by ground crews. Conclusions. The study proved feasible, establishing an embryonic network of European HEMS. The participation rate was low and limits the generalizability of the results. Fortunately, because of its cross-sectional characteristics and the handy availability of the web platform, the study is easily repeatable with an enhanced network. PMID:25538947

  6. Frequencies and Associations of Narcolepsy-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lenise Jihe; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Hirotsu, Camila; Araujo, Paula; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a delayed diagnosis. At least 3 years before the disorder identification, several comorbidities can be observed in patients with narcolepsy. The early recognition of narcolepsy symptoms may improve long-term prognosis of the patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of the symptoms associated with narcolepsy and its social and psychological association in a sample of Sao Paulo city inhabitants. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional evaluation with 1,008 individuals from the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Volunteers were also asked about the occurrence of cataplectic-like, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis symptoms. The participants underwent a full-night polysomnography and completed questionnaires about psychological, demographic, and quality of life parameters. Results: We observed a prevalence of 39.2% of EDS, 15.0% of cataplectic-like symptom, 9.2% of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and 14.9% of sleep paralysis in Sao Paulo city inhabitants. A frequency of 6.9% was observed when EDS and cataplectic-like symptoms were grouped. The other associations were EDS + hallucinations (4.7%) and EDS + sleep paralysis (7.5%). Symptomatic participants were predominantly women and younger compared with patients without any narcolepsy symptom (n = 451). Narcolepsy symptomatology was also associated with a poor quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Conclusions: Narcolepsy-related symptoms are associated with poor quality of life and worse psychological parameters. Citation: Kim LJ, Coelho FM, Hirotsu C, Araujo P, Bittencourt L, Tufik S, Andersen ML. Frequencies and associations of narcolepsy-related symptoms: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1377–1384. PMID:26235160

  7. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Nehra, Karan; Jayan, Balakrishna; Poonia, Anish; Bhattal, Hiteshwar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This cross-sectional retrospective study was designed to assess the relationships among breastfeeding duration, nonnutritive sucking habits, convex facial profile, nonspaced dentition, and distoclusion in the deciduous dentition. Materials and methods: A sample of 415 children (228 males, 187 females) aged 4 to 6 years from a mixed Indian population was clinically examined by two orthodontists. Information about breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits was obtained by written questionnaire which was answered by the parents. Results: Chi-square test did not indicate any significant association among breastfeeding duration, convex facial profile, and distoclusion. Statistically significant association was observed between breastfeeding duration and nonspaced dentition and also between breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits. Nonnutritive sucking habits had a statistically significant association with distoclusion and convex facial profile (odds ratio 7.04 and 4.03 respectively). Nonnutritive sucking habits did not have a statistically significant association with nonspaced dentition. Conclusion: The children breastfed < 6 months had almost twofold increased probability for developing sucking habits and nonspaced dentition, respectively, than the children who had breastfeeding > 6 months duration. It can also be hypothesized that nonnutritive sucking habits may act as a dominant variable in the relationship between breastfeeding duration and occurrence of convex facial profile and distoclusion in deciduous dentition. How to cite this article: Agarwal SS, Sharma M, Nehra K, Jayan B, Poonia A, Bhattal H. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):162-166. PMID:27365941

  8. Estimation of ultrasound reference values for the ulnar nerve fascicular number and cross-sectional area in young males: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bedewi, Mohamed Abdelmohsen; Yousef, Ahmed M M; Abd-Elghany, Amr Adel; El-Sharkawy, Mohamed Sherif; Awad, Ezzat M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the reference values for the number of fascicles and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the ulnar nerve at a single predetermined site by ultrasound in healthy young adult males.The demographic and physical characteristics of 50 adult male volunteers were evaluated and recorded. The subjects were positioned supine with the elbow flexed at 90° and the palm of the hand placed on a hard surface. The ulnar nerve was scanned bilaterally 1 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle in projection of the cubital tunnel. The number of fascicles and mean CSA of the ulnar nerve were identified. In addition, the side-to-side differences of the estimated reference values and their correlations with the age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated.The mean fascicular number was 5.66 ± 1.48, the mean ultrasound-estimated CSA of the ulnar nerve was 6.54 ± 1.67 mm and both sides were comparable in the mean CSA and fascicular number (6.43 ± 1.80 mm and 5.88 vs 6.64 ± 1.55 mm and 5.44, for right and left side, respectively). No significant correlations were observed between CSA and fascicles number and age, weight, height, or BMI of study subjects.The reference values for the number of fascicles number and the CSA of the ulnar nerve at a single predetermined site were identified. These values could be used for the sonographic diagnosis and follow-up of the ulnar nerve lesions.

  9. Studies of the dependence of the microwave radar cross section on ocean surface variables during the FASINEX experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, D. A.; Li, Fuk

    1988-01-01

    The ability of theoretical radar cross section (RCS) models to predict the absolute magnitude of the ocean radar cross section under a wide variety of sea and atmospheric conditions was studied using experimental data from the FASINEX Experiment. This consists of RCS data from a Ku-band scatterometer mounted on an aircraft (10 separate flights were conducted), a wide variety of atmospheric measurements (including stress) and sea conditions. Theoretical models are tested. Where discrepancies are observed, revisions are hypothesized and evaluated.

  10. Information technology and hospital patient safety: a cross-sectional study of US acute care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Appari, Ajit; Johnson, Eric M; Anthony, Denise L

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether health information technology (IT) systems are associated with better patient safety in acute care settings. In a cross-sectional retrospective study, data on hospital patient safety performance for October 2008 to June 2010 were combined with 2007 information technology systems data. The sample included 3002 US non-federal acute care hospitals. Electronic health record (EHR) system was coded as a composite dichotomous variable based on the presence of 10 major clinical and administrative applications that (if in use) could potentially meet stage 1 "meaningful use" objectives. The surgical IT system was measured as a dichotomous variable if a hospital used at least 1 of the perioperative, preoperative, or postoperative information systems. Hospital patient safety performance was measured by risk-standardized estimated rates per 1000 admissions. Statistical analyses were conducted using an estimated dependent variable methodology with gamma-log link-based weighted generalized linear models, adjusting for hospital characteristics, historical composite process quality, and propensity for EHR adoption. We found that the use of surgical IT systems was associated with 7% to 26% lower rates for 7 of 8 patient safety indicators (incidence rate ratio [IRR] range from 0.74 to 0.93; all P values < .01). Further, stage 1 meaningful use-capable EHR systems were associated with 7% to 11% lower rates on 3 of 8 measures (IRR range from 0.89 to 0.93; all P values < .01). Our results suggest that the use of IT is associated with modestly lower rates of adverse events in hospitals. However, the cross-sectional design limits our ability to make causal conclusions.

  11. Glaucoma and intraocular pressure in EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma. Design Community based cross sectional observational study. Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas. Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma. Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma. Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma. Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. PMID:28903935

  12. Glaucoma and intraocular pressure in EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2017-09-13

    Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma.Design Community based cross sectional observational study.Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas.Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma.Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma.Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma.Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Study of activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on rhodium up to 40 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.; Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2011-09-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of the activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions, excitation functions of the 103Rh(d,x) 100,101,103Pd, 100g,101m,101g,102m,102gRh and 103gRu reactions were determined up to 40 MeV. Cross-sections were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. Excitation functions of the contributing reactions were calculated using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS codes. From the measured cross-section data integral production yields were calculated and compared with experimental integral yield data reported in the literature. From the measured cross-sections and previous data, activation curves were deduced to support thin layer activation (TLA) on rhodium and Rh containing alloys.

  14. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Page, Matthew J.; Shamseer, Larissa; Altman, Douglas G.; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Tricco, Andrea C.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Li, Lun; Reid, Emma K.; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Moher, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews (SRs) can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%). Few SRs (7%) searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary

  15. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: a hospital-based cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    Milčić, Danijela; Janković, Slavenka; Vesić, Sonja; Milinković, Mirjana; Marinković, Jelena; Ćirković, Andja; Janković, Janko

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests independent associations between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis, and to assess which factors may predict metabolic syndrome in these patients. METHODS A hospital-based, cross-sectional study with 244 psoriatic patients and 163 control subjects with skin diseases other than psoriasis was conducted at the Clinic of Dermatovenerology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from October 2011 to October 2012. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Severity of psoriasis was measured by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and Body Surface Area. RESULTS The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for psoriasis patients vs. non-psoriasis patients were 2.66 (95% CI, 1.58-4.42) for metabolic syndrome, 3.81 (95% CI, 2.30-6.31) for hypertension, 2.29 (95% CI, 1.39-3.78) for central obesity, 1.92 (95% CI, 1.08-3.41) for hyperglycemia, 1.87 (95% CI 1.18-2.96) for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.87-1.04) for hypertrigliceridemia. We failed to find any statistically significant association between the metabolic syndrome and clinical severity of psoriasis. Later onset and longer duration of psoriasis were predicting factors for metabolic syndrome in our patients. Study limitations: The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow us to draw directional causal inferences concerning the association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Factors such as diet, alcohol consumption or mental health, which have not been evaluated in this study, may be confounders in this relation. CONCLUSION A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis than in controls, regardless of disease severity, emphasizes the need for early treatment and

  16. Impact assessment of gilgel gibe hydroelectric dam on schitosomiasis: a cross sectional study in southwest ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yami, Alemeshet; Kebede, Sileshi; Mamo, Yoseph

    2010-07-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis is prevalent in East Africa including Ethiopia. Constructed five years back, Gilgel Gibe dam is suspected to harbor the intermediate host for transmission of schistosomiasis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis and risk factors among school children. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2008 in four Woredas bordering Gilgel Gibe dam, within 10 kilometers, and Bulbul, which is 30 Kms away from the dam. Children attending grades 1-8 in the schools located adjacent to the dam constituted the cases and those living in Bulbul constitute the controls. Using Epinfo version 6.0 for cross-sectional study, a sample size of 937 was determined. Sample size allocation was done 2:1 for cases and control. After interview, stool sample was collected and analyzed. Screening for the presence of intermediate host and physiochemical analyses of selected water bodies along the major water contact sites of the reservoir was also done Data were entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 13.0.1. Out of 624 sampled cases and 312 controls, 585 and 270 participated in the study giving a response rate of 93.8% and 86.5%, respectively. Four hundred seventy four (81.0% of the cases and 203 (75.2%) controls use latrine regularly. On stool examination, 406 (47.5%) children, 295 (50.4%) cases and 111 (41.1%) controls) were positive to intestinal parasites but only two children, both from the control groups, were positive for Schistosoma mansoni. The three river water samples on which malacological survey was done had similar physicochemical characteristics in many ways except high conductivity, pH and percent of dissolved oxygen concentration (milligram per liter) at one site where uninfected Biomphilaria Pfeifferi was found The study revealed that schistosomiasis is not yet a problem at Gilgel-Gibe dam. But, continuous surveying is required as the intermediate host is

  17. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: a hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Milčić, Danijela; Janković, Slavenka; Vesić, Sonja; Milinković, Mirjana; Marinković, Jelena; Ćirković, Andja; Janković, Janko

    2017-01-01

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests independent associations between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis, and to assess which factors may predict metabolic syndrome in these patients. A hospital-based, cross-sectional study with 244 psoriatic patients and 163 control subjects with skin diseases other than psoriasis was conducted at the Clinic of Dermatovenerology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from October 2011 to October 2012. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Severity of psoriasis was measured by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and Body Surface Area. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for psoriasis patients vs. non-psoriasis patients were 2.66 (95% CI, 1.58-4.42) for metabolic syndrome, 3.81 (95% CI, 2.30-6.31) for hypertension, 2.29 (95% CI, 1.39-3.78) for central obesity, 1.92 (95% CI, 1.08-3.41) for hyperglycemia, 1.87 (95% CI 1.18-2.96) for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.87-1.04) for hypertrigliceridemia. We failed to find any statistically significant association between the metabolic syndrome and clinical severity of psoriasis. Later onset and longer duration of psoriasis were predicting factors for metabolic syndrome in our patients. Study limitations: The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow us to draw directional causal inferences concerning the association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Factors such as diet, alcohol consumption or mental health, which have not been evaluated in this study, may be confounders in this relation. A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis than in controls, regardless of disease severity, emphasizes the need for early treatment and follow-up of all psoriatic patients

  18. Empathy in senior year and first year medical students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of fostering the development of empathy in undergraduate students is continuously emphasized in international recommendations for medical education. Paradoxically, some studies in the North-American context using self-reported measures have found that empathy declines during undergraduate medical training. Empathy is also known to be gender dependent- (highest for female medical students) and related to specialty preference - (higher in patient-oriented than technology-oriented specialties). This factor has not been studied in Portuguese medical schools. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of undergraduate medical students on self-rated measures of empathy collected at entrance and at the conclusion of the medical degree, and on the association of empathy measures with gender and specialty preferences in one medical school in Portugal. Empathy was assessed using the Portuguese adaptation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-students version (JSPE-spv) among three cohorts of undergraduate medical students in the first (N = 356) and last (N = 120) year. The construct validity of JSPE-spv was cross-validated with Principal Component Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach' Alpha. Global JSPE-spv score differences were examined by year of medical school, gender and specialty preferences (people-oriented vs technology-oriented specialties). Results The empathy scores of students in the final year were higher as compared to first year students (F (1,387) = 19.33, p < .001, ɳ2p = 0.48; π = 0.99). Female students had higher empathy scores than male students (F (1,387) = 8.82, p < .01, ɳ 2p = 0.23; π = 0.84). Significant differences in empathy were not found between the students who prefer people-oriented specialties compared to those who favor the technology-oriented specialties (F (1,387) = 2.44, p = .12, ɳ 2p = 0.06; π = 0.06). Conclusions This cross-sectional study in one medical

  19. Sexual and reproductive health behaviors of undocumented migrants in Geneva: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sebo, Paul; Jackson, Yves; Haller, Dagmar M; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2011-06-01

    Undocumented migrants face major barriers in accessing prevention and health care. Whereas the association between low socioeconomic status and poor health is well documented only few studies have addressed specific health issues in undocumented migrants. The aim of the present study is to describe sexual and reproductive health behaviors of undocumented migrants in Geneva. This descriptive cross sectional study included consecutive undocumented migrants presenting from November 2007 to February 2008 to a health facility offering free access to health care to this population. Following informed consent, they completed a self administered questionnaire about their socio-demographic profile and sexual and reproductive health behaviors. A total of 384 patients were eligible for the study. 313 (82%) agreed to participate of which 77% (241 patients) completed the survey. Participants were mainly young, Latino-American, single, well-educated and currently working women. They had multiple partners and reported frequently engaging in sexual intercourse. Use of contraceptive methods and strategies of prevention against sexually transmitted infections (STI) were rare. Nearly half of the women had had at least one induced abortion and 40% had had an unplanned pregnancy. One in four participants reported a current or past STI or other genital infection. The results of our study suggest that undocumented migrants engage in frequent and high risk sexual intercourse with insufficient use of contraceptive methods and suboptimal strategies of prevention against STI. Our study underlines the real need for specific sexual and reproductive educational programs targeting this hard to reach population.

  20. Sexual Dysfunction among Females Receiving Psychotropic Medication: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shetageri, Veda N.; Bhogale, Govind S.; Patil, N. M.; Nayak, R. B.; Chate, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a known adverse effect of psychotropic medications. Even though sexual difficulties are common among women; very few studies have been carried out in India. Objective: To study the prevalence and nature of SD among females receiving psychotropic medications and to compare the SD among female patients receiving antipsychotics and antidepressants. Materials and Methods: Female investigator conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study on female patients visiting the psychiatry outpatient department. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for SD disorder as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Text Revision. SD severity was measured using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scale. Results: The prevalence of SD in this study was 68.32%. There was more than one SD in 48 (47.52%). FSFI score was significantly low in patients with SD as compared to patients not having SD (P = 0.001). SD was more common in patients who were on combination of antidepressants and benzodiazepines than antidepressant alone or antipsychotic alone. Conclusion: SD was prevalent in more than 50% of female patients on psychotropic drugs. Number of patients on individual psychotropic drugs was so small that a definite conclusion could not be drawn. Study emphasizes the need to carry out similar study on larger number of patients to get better insight into this problem. PMID:27833229

  1. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  2. Counselling practices in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alaqeel, Sinaa; Abanmy, Norah O

    2015-12-15

    Community pharmacists play a crucial role in optimising medication use and improving patient outcomes, whilst preventing medication misuse and reducing costs. Evidence suggests that pharmacists counselling improves clinical outcomes, quality of life, drug and disease knowledge and reduces health service utilisation. This study aims to investigate the counselling practices of community pharmacists in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The study consisted of two parts: simulated patients (SPs) visits to observe actual counselling practices, and a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists to assess their reported counselling practices. In the SPs method, there were four scenarios involving four medications. Scenarios 1 and 2 concerned drug-drug interactions, scenario 3 concerned the proper time of administration, and scenario 4 concerned side effects. The simulated visits were conducted between April and May 2012. A four-sections questionnaire was distributed in the same period. We conducted 161 simulated visits. Out of the 161 visits a medicine was dispensed in 150 visits. When SPs requested medications, pharmacists asked questions during 15 visits (10.0%), provided information during 7 visits (4.6%), and both asked questions and provided information, i.e. provided counselling, during 4 visits (2.6%). When the SPs started to be inquisitive and demanded information, pharmacists asked SPs questions during 71 visits (47.3%), provided information during 150 visits (100%), and both asked questions and provided information, i.e. provided counselling, during 65 visits (43.3%). Information regarding dose was the most common type of information provided in 146 visits (97.3%). After the SPs started to be inquisitive and probed for information, only 10% were counselled on precautions. In the cross-sectional survey, four hundred pharmacists were approached and 350 agreed to participate in the questionnaire (87% response rate). Of the respondents, 223 (63.7%) reported

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of Household Biomass Fuel Use among a Periurban Population in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Piddock, Katy C.; Gordon, Stephen B.; Ngwira, Andrew; Msukwa, Malango; Nadeau, Gilbert; Davis, Kourtney J.; Nyirenda, Moffat J.; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The Global Burden of Disease Study suggests almost 3.5 million people die as a consequence of household air pollution every year. Respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia in children are strongly associated with exposure to household air pollution. Smoke from burning biomass fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting is the main contributor to high household air pollution levels in low-income countries like Malawi. A greater understanding of biomass fuel use in Malawi should enable us to address household air pollution–associated communicable and noncommunicable diseases more effectively. Objectives To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of biomass fuel use and population demographics among adults in Blantyre, Malawi. Methods We used global positioning system–enabled personal digital assistants to collect data on location, age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, and fuel use. We describe these data and explore associations between demographics and reported fuel type. Measurements and Main Results A total of 16,079 adults participated (nine households refused); median age was 30 years, there was a similar distribution of men and women, 60% were married, and 62% received secondary school education. The most commonly reported occupation for men and women was “salaried employment” (40.7%) and “petty trader and marketing” (23.5%), respectively. Charcoal (81.5% of households), wood (36.5%), and electricity (29.1%) were the main fuels used at home. Only 3.9% of households used electricity exclusively. Lower educational and occupational attainment was associated with greater use of wood. Conclusions This large cross-sectional study has identified extensive use of biomass fuels in a typical sub-Saharan Africa periurban population in which women and people of lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected. Biomass fuel use is likely to be a major driver of existing communicable respiratory

  4. Polysomnographic Findings and Clinical Correlates in Huntington Disease: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Interventions: Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). Measurements and Results: The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2. No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P < 0.02). UHMDRS correlated positively with the ESS score (P < 0.005), and negatively with the percentage of REM sleep. Conclusions: Patients with Huntington disease showed a severe sleep disruption and a high prevalence of periodic limb movements, but no evidence of sleep disordered breathing or REM sleep behavior disorder. Citation: Piano C, Losurdo A, Della Marca G, Solito M

  5. Choosing Public Health Dentistry as a Career: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Guntipalli M.; Prasad, Ghanasyam M.; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Babburi, Suresh; KVNR, Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of dental students towards considering Public Health Dentistry as their future career. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included dental students from different years of study. It consisted of 27 questions that were graded on five point Likert scale. Results: A total of 293 of the 320 registered undergraduate students participated in the study, with an overall response rate of 91.5%. Among the sample, 80 (27%) were males and 213 (73%) were females. Among the total sample which was studied, it was observed that only one third (35.4%) of them had high attitude towards selecting Public Health Dentistry as a future career, and nearly two thirds of them (58.02%) had an average attitude, with very few students having low attitude (6.48%). Conclusion: The present study concluded that there was an average attitude of 58% among dental students, which showed that they had a considerable amount of interest in pursuing post graduation in this speciality. Efforts should be intensified, both by dental council and by the dental colleges, to develop this speciality, keeping in mind the increasing attitude of dental undergraduates towards it. This also helps in increasing the number of dental personnel who are specialized in implementation of oral health policy, which does not exist in India. PMID:24701534

  6. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-08-30

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27-2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  7. Forgotten drugs: long-term prescriptions of thyroid hormones – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Viniol, Annika; Bösner, Stefan; Baum, Erika; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones are among the most prescribed drugs in Germany. Although iodine supply has been improving in the last decade, annual prescriptions for thyroid hormones are rising. The aim of this study was to provide prevalence of thyroid hormone prescribing and to explore reasons for thyroid hormone prescription in primary care settings. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods Data collection took place in six general practitioner (GP) practices in Hesse, Germany. We used the records of six GP practices to estimate prevalence of thyroid hormone prescribing. All patients who received a prescription of the active ingredient levotyroxine during the preceding 3 months were mailed a study invitation. A proportion of the identified patients were interviewed. In addition, demographical data and all medical findings related to thyroid disease were recorded. Results On average, 9.2% (SD 4.6) of all patients from participating practices were taking thyroid hormones. The majority were female (82.5%). In 47.7% of the study participants, the GP’s diagnosis, according to their records, was nonexistent. In 13.6% of cases, the documentation of the diagnostic information was incomplete. While 25% of interviewed patients with high educational background initiated further diagnostic investigation, only 4.4% of the patients with lower education did so. Conclusion In the majority of patients treated with thyroid hormones, doctors had not documented the precise indication for prescription. PMID:23641158

  8. Prevalence of risk factors for stuttering among boys: analytical cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristiane Moço Canhetti; Nogueira, Paula Roberta

    2014-01-01

    There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions. Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university. The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC) and non-stuttering children (NSC), with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering. There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses. The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.

  9. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27–2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57–0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  10. Risk of Advanced Adenomas in Siblings of Individuals With Advanced Adenomas: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Siew C; Lau, James Y W; Chan, Francis K L; Suen, Bing Yee; Tse, Yee Kit; Hui, Aric J; Leung-Ki, En Ling; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Anthony W H; Wong, Martin C S; Ng, Simon S M; To, Ka Fai; Wu, Justin C Y; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2016-03-01

    The risk of colorectal neoplasms among siblings of patients with advanced adenomas is not clear. We determined the prevalence of advanced adenomas in the siblings of patients with advanced adenomas and compared it with that of siblings of individuals without these lesions. In a blinded, cross-sectional study, colonoscopies were performed (from 2010 through 2014), at 2 hospitals in Hong Kong on 200 asymptomatic siblings of patients with advanced adenomas (exposed; mean age, 58.2 ± 6.3 years; adenomas ≥10 mm, high-grade dysplasia, villous, or tubulovillous) and 400 age- and sex-matched siblings of subjects with normal findings from colonoscopies and no family history of colorectal cancer (unexposed; mean age, 58.1 ± 6 years). We recruited 1 sibling per family. The primary outcome was prevalence of advanced adenomas. Baseline demographics (ie, aspirin use, smoking, body mass index, and metabolic diseases) did not differ significantly between exposed and unexposed individuals. The prevalence of advanced adenoma was 11.5% among the exposed subjects and 2.5% among the unexposed subjects (matched odds ratio [mOR] = 6.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.74-13.36; P < .001). The prevalence of adenomas ≥10 mm was higher among exposed than unexposed siblings (10.5% vs 1.8%; mOR = 8.59; 95% CI: 3.44-21.45; P < .001), as was the prevalence of villous adenomas (5.5% vs 1.3% in unexposed; mOR = 6.28; 95% CI: 2.02-19.53; P = .001) and all colorectal adenomas (39.0% vs 19.0% in unexposed; mOR = 3.29; 95% CI: 2.16-5.03; P < .001). Two cancers were detected in exposed siblings and none in unexposed siblings. In a cross-sectional study of subjects undergoing colonoscopy in Hong Kong, siblings of individuals with at least 1 advanced adenoma had a 6-fold increased odds of advanced adenoma compared with subjects who had a sibling with a screening colonoscopy with no identified neoplasia. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT01593098. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier

  11. Antiphospholipid antibodies in vascular surgery patients. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, L M; Chitwood, R W; Dalman, R L; Sexton, G; Goodnight, S H; Porter, J M

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies to phospholipid (aPL) have been associated with vascular thromboses in cerebral, coronary, and peripheral venous and arterial sites. To date, no large cross-sectional study has examined the incidence of occurrence of aPL in patients with peripheral arterial disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with patients admitted for vascular surgery procedures to treat peripheral arterial disease for 23 months between January 1, 1990 and November 1, 1991. Consecutive patients were evaluated for the presence of aPL. Medical records for each patient were reviewed in detail, and historic, operative, and postoperative parameters were tabulated for relationship to the presence of aPL. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-four patients underwent complete testing for aPL. All patients were receiving chronic aspirin therapy. This represented 86% of admissions. Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in 60 patients (26%). No differences in age, sex, operation performed, or postoperative outcome were found between patients with and without aPL. However, patients with aPL were 1.8 times more likely to have undergone previous lower extremity (LE) vascular surgery than patients without aPL (95% confidence interval = 1.0 - 3.6, p = 0.047). Patients with aPL and previous LE vascular surgery were 5.6 times more likely to have had occlusion of that procedure than patients without aPL (95% confidence interval = 1.9 - 16.8, p = 0.03). The occluded previous LE procedures had a shorter duration of patency before occlusion in patients with aPL than in those without (mean duration of patency 17 months vs. 50 months, p < 0.003). Patients with occluded previous LE procedures and aPL were 4 times more likely to be female (95% C.I. = 1.4 - 11.3, p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of aPL in vascular surgery patients is substantial. Vascular surgery patients with aPL are more likely to have failure of previous LE bypass procedures and to be female and the bypass

  12. Cross-sectional retrospective study of muscle function in patients with glycogen storage disease type III.

    PubMed

    Decostre, Valérie; Laforêt, Pascal; Nadaj-Pakleza, Aleksandra; De Antonio, Marie; Leveugle, Sylvain; Ollivier, Gwenn; Canal, Aurélie; Kachetel, Kahina; Petit, François; Eymard, Bruno; Behin, Anthony; Wahbi, Karim; Labrune, Philippe; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by liver and muscle impairment. This study aimed to identify promising muscle function measures for future studies on natural disease progression and therapeutic trials. The age-effect on the manual muscle testing (MMT), the hand-held dynamometry (HHD), the motor function measure (MFM) and the Purdue pegboard test was evaluated by regression analysis in a cross-sectional retrospective single site study. In patients aged between 13 and 56 years old, the Purdue pegboard test and dynamometry of key pinch and knee extension strength were age-sensitive with annual losses of 1.49, 1.10 and 0.70% of the predicted values (%pred), respectively. The MFM score and handgrip strength were also age-sensitive but only in patients older than 29 and 37 years old with annual losses of 1.42 and 1.84%pred, respectively. Muscle strength assessed by MMT and elbow extension measured by HHD demonstrated an annual loss of less than 0.50%pred and are thus unlikely to be promising outcome measures for future clinical trials. In conclusion, our results identified age-sensitive outcomes from retrospective data and may serve for future longitudinal studies in which an estimation of the minimal number of subjects is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Population dynamics and tuberculosis: a cross sectional study of an overlooked disease in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Bishri, Jamal; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Adnan, Mubarki; Tariq, Malik; Abdullah, Harthi; Abdulgoni, Thubaiti; Bander, Guraibi; Altalhi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    International travel, migration and human population movements facilitate the spread of tuberculosis (TB). To study the impact of poorly screened expatriates working in Saudi Arabia on the local incidence of TBs. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Chest Disease Hospital, Taif. All confirmed cases of TB from June 2009 to May 2010 admitted to the hospital were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were diagnosed cases of TB (pulmonary & extra-pulmonary) in patients between the ages of 14 to 65 years. Patients with HIV and coexistent malignancies were excluded. The age, gender and ethnic group of each patient was recorded, and patients were divided into two groups. Of the two groups, Group A consisted of Taif residents and group B of patients referred from other cities in the country. Of the 686 cases studied, 370 (54%) were Saudi nationals (Group A = 80 & Group B = 290) and 316 (46%) cases were from other countries. Males outnumbered females and most of the patients were aged 20 to 29 years. The number of cases from the areas close to the pilgrimage sites, i.e. Makah (233) and Jeddah (275), outnumbered those in Taif (110). Our study identifies an increased prevalence of TB cases in areas close to the pilgrimage (Group B). The higher proportion of non-Saudi TB patients in group B is most likely explained by the higher number of poorly screened illegal expatriates in the region.

  14. Disruptive behavior in Down syndrome children: a cross-sectional comparative study.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Sohier; El-Hadidy, Mohamed; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Amdel-Hady, Dina; Wahba, Yahya; Al-Haggar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with intellectual disability, and patients with DS show significant psychopathology. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of disruptive behavior in DS patients compared to their siblings, and to find any association between the disruptive behavior and the degree of intelligence. This is a cross-sectional comparative study done in Mansoura University Children's Hospital during the period March 1, 2012-February 28, 2013. In this study, 100 cases of DS and an equal number of their brothers/sisters were enrolled in the study. The Arabic version of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used for assessing social and mental intelligence quotient (IQ). The Arabic version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children (MINI-KID) and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) rating scale were used for assessing disruptive behavior disorders. Both social and mental IQs were significantly higher in non-DS than in DS cases. The prevalence of different variants of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD)-impulsive, inattentive, and combined types-was significantly lower in non-DS than in DS cases; however, there was no statistical difference between both groups as regards oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder (CD). Also among DS cases, impulsive and combined types varied significantly with the degree of their IQ. ADHD was more common among DS patients with a special impact of IQ on the type of psychiatric illness. We recommend psychiatric assessment for DS patients as a part of multidisciplinary management.

  15. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies in Patients With Telogen Effluvium: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Evelyn J; Sink, Jacquelyn R; English Iii, Joseph C

    2016-10-01

    Telogen effluvium is one of the most common forms of non-scarring alopecia for which patients present to a dermatologist. It is a challenging disorder to treat and study, primarily owing to its multifactorial etiology which includes both physiologic and non-physiologic factors. Nutritional deficiency has been purported to contribute to hair shedding, and a patient's clinical history usually aids in directing laboratory evaluation. Many prior studies have either supported or failed to find a correlation between telogen effluvium and deficiencies in vitamins and minerals, in particular, vitamin D, ferritin, vitamin B12, folate, and zinc. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with telogen effluvium in the greater Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area, and measured the rates of these deficiencies. Our results demonstrate that the prevalence of vitamin D, ferritin, and zinc deficiencies is non-trivial and therefore justifies including these laboratory studies in initial clinical evaluation.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1235-1237.

  16. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Setting Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. Objective This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect. Results 765 (4.9%) TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67%) and 20 (2.8%) new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000). Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa. Conclusions The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates. PMID:26641654

  17. Who Has Mycobacterial Disease? A Cross Sectional Study in Agropastoral Communities in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kilale, Andrew Martin; Ngadaya, Esther; Muhumuza, Julius; Kagaruki, Gibson Benard; Lema, Yakobo Leonard; Ngowi, Bernard James; Mfinanga, Sayoki Godfrey; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund

    2016-01-01

    To determine and describe clinical symptoms, demographic characteristics and environmental exposures as determinants of pulmonary mycobacterial diseases among patients examined for tuberculosis in agropastoral communities in Northern Tanzania. This was a cross sectional study. Sputum samples were collected from patients attending three hospitals in Tanzania, and were investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis by microscopy between November 2010 and June 2012. The patients were interviewed about background information, and potential exposure to mycobacteria. We examined 1,711 presumptive tuberculosis cases where 936 (54.2%) were males and 775 (45.3%) females. Of all the study participants, 277 (16%) were found to have sputum samples positive for mycobacteria; 228 (13%) were smear positive, 123 (7%) were culture positive and 74 (4%) were positive by both smear microscopy and culture. Of the 123 mycobacterial culture positive, 15 (12.2%) had non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Males were more likely than females to be positive for mycobacteria. Factors associated with mycobacterial disease were loss of appetite, age groups below 41 years, and being a male. Among HIV negative patients, loss of appetite, age below 20 years and being a male were associated with being mycobacterial positive. Among HIV positive patients, males and those patients with a persistently coughing family member were more likely to harbor mycobacteria. The findings in this study show that both M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains were prevalent in the study community. Some risk factors were identified. Although the reported predictors may improve screening for mycobacterial diseases, their use requires some precaution.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fever is an extremely common sign in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that physicians and parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting results about fever management. In this study we aim to identify knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions of primary care physicians regarding fever in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in April-May 2010 involving primary care physicians (n=80). The physicians were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used. Results In our study only 10% of the physicians knew that a body temperature of above 37.2°C according to an auxiliary measurement is defined as fever. Only 26.2% of the physicians took into consideration signs and symptoms other than fever to prescribe antipyretics. 85% of the physicians prescribed antipyretics to control fever or prevent complications of fever especially febrile seizures. Most of the physicians (76.3%) in this study reported that the height of fever may be used as an indicator for severe bacterial infection. A great majority of physicians (91.3%) stated that they advised parents to alternate the use of ibuprofen and paracetamol. Conclusions There were misconceptions about the management and complications of fever. There is a perceived need to improve the recognition, assessment, and management of fever with regards to underlying illnesses in children. PMID:22950655

  19. Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Magnesium Concentrations in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Akio; Ohkido, Ichiro; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Mafune, Aki; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium concentration is a proven predictor of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Recent reports have indicated that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use affects serum magnesium levels, however few studies have investigated the relationship between PPI use and magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to clarify the association between PPI use and serum magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. We designed this cross sectional study and included 1189 hemodialysis patients in stable condition. Associations between PPI and magnesium-related factors, as well as other possible confounders, were evaluated using a multiple regression model. We defined hypomagnesemia as a value < 2.0 mg/dL, and created comparable logistic regression models to assess the association between PPI use and hypomagnesemia. PPI use is associated with a significantly lower mean serum magnesium level than histamine 2 (H2) receptor antagonists or no acid-suppressive medications (mean [SD] PPI: 2.52 [0.45] mg/dL; H2 receptor antagonist: 2.68 [0.41] mg/dL; no acid suppressive medications: 2.68 [0.46] mg/dL; P = 0.001). Hypomagnesemia remained significantly associated with PPI (adjusted OR, OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.14–3.69; P = 0.017). PPI use is associated with an increased risk of hypomagnesemia in hemodialysis patients. Future prospective studies are needed to explore magnesium replacement in PPI users on hemodialysis. PMID:26618538

  20. Family Context and Khat Chewing among Adult Yemeni Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    AL-abed, AL-abed Ali; Sutan, Rosnah; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Khat chewing is associated with unfavourable health outcomes and family dysfunction. Few studies have addressed the factors associated with khat chewing among Yemeni women. However, the family and husband effects on chewing khat by women have not been addressed. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of khat chewing among Yemeni women and its associated factors, particularly husbands and family factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 692 adult Yemeni women in the city of Sana'a in Yemen using structured “face to face” interviews. Mean (±SD) age of women was 27.3 years (±6.10). The prevalence of chewing khat by women was 29.6%. Factors associated with chewing khat among women were chewing khat by husbands (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.53), being married (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.37), frequent family social gatherings (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.10), high family income (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.21), larger house (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.31), and age of women (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.92). It is concluded that khat chewing by women in this study was significantly associated with family factors and with khat chewing by their husbands. Urgent action is needed to control khat chewing particularly among women. PMID:24982886

  1. Psoriatic Arthritis and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dreiher, Jacob; Freud, Tamar; Cohen, Arnon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Diabetes has been associated with psoriasis, but little is known about the association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes. Methods. Patients diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis by a rheumatologist were compared to age- and sex-matched patients without psoriatic arthritis regarding the prevalence of diabetes in a population-based cross-sectional study using logistic multivariate models. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit, the largest healthcare provider organization in Israel. Results. The study included 549 patients with psoriatic arthritis ≥21 years and 1,098 patients without psoriatic arthritis. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with psoriatic arthritis was increased as compared to the prevalence in patients without psoriatic arthritis (15.3% versus 10.7%, P value = 0.008). The difference was prominent among females (18.7% versus 10.3%, P < 0.001) but not among males (11.2% in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis, P = 1.000). In a multivariate analysis, psoriatic arthritis was associated with diabetes among females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.02–2.52, P = 0.040) but not among males (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.42–1.22, P = 0.213). Conclusion. Our study suggests a possible association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes in women. Women with psoriatic arthritis might be candidates for diabetes screening. PMID:23843781

  2. Depression, anxiety and stress among patients with diabetes in primary care: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tan, K C; Chan, G C; Eric, H; Maria, A I; Norliza, M J; Oun, B H; Sheerine, M T; Wong, S J; Liew, S M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus is ever increasing. Individuals with diabetes mellitus may have concurrent mental health disorders and are shown to have poorer disease outcomes. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress (DAS) in diabetes patients aged 20 years or more in the primary care setting. This was a cross-sectional study involving the use of self-administered questionnaire conducted in eight primary care private and government clinics in Pulau Pinang and Melaka, Malaysia. The validated DASS-21 questionnaire was used as a screening tool for the symptoms of DAS. Prior permission was obtained from the patients and, clearance from ethical committee was obtained before the start of the study. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistical software. A total of 320 patients with diabetes from eight centres were enrolled via convenience sampling. Sample size was calculated using the Kish's formula. The prevalence of DAS among patients with diabetes from our study was 26.6%, 40% and 19.4%, respectively. Depression was found to be significantly associated with marital status and family history of DAS; anxiety was significantly associated with monthly household income, presence of co-morbidities and family history of DAS; and stress was significantly associated with occupation and family history of DAS. The prevalence of DAS was higher in patients with diabetes compared with the general community. We recommend to routinely screen all patients with diabetes using the DASS-21 questionnaire because it is easy to perform and inexpensive.

  3. Clergy-laity support and patients’ mood during serious illness: A cross-sectional epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Judith C.; Wood, Laura; Steinhauser, Karen; Olson, Maren K.; Lindquist, Jennifer H.; Tulsky, James

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Religious participation is positively associated with mental health, but attendance at worship services declines during serious illness. This study assessed whether home visits by clergy or laity provide benefits to seriously ill patients who may have difficulty attending religious services. Design and sample A cross-sectional study design nested in an observational epidemiologic cohort study. The regionally-representative sample of patients had metastatic lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer (n=70), Class III and IV congestive heart failure (n=70), or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with hypercapnea (n=70) and observed regarding clergy-laity support in their naturalistic environments. Measures Dependent variable: 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale. Independent variable: A one-item question measuring how much helpful support patients received from clergy or other persons from church, temple, synagogue, or mosque Covariates: demographic, health, social support, religiousness. Analysis Descriptive, bivariate, and general linear models Results Depressed mood was negatively associated with clergy-laity support in a non-linear pattern. Depressed mood was also positively associated with functional deficits and a lifetime history of difficulties related to religious involvement. Conclusions In lieu of worship attendance when people are sick, home visits by members of a patient’s religious community may bolster mood by providing continuity of instrumental, emotional, and spiritual support. PMID:21838948

  4. Internet use, Facebook intrusion, and depression: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Błachnio, A; Przepiórka, A; Pantic, I

    2015-09-01

    Facebook has become a very popular social networking platform today, particularly among adolescents and young adults, profoundly changing the way they communicate and interact. However, some reports have indicated that excessive Facebook use might have detrimental effects on mental health and be associated with certain psychological problems. Because previous findings on the relationship between Facebook addiction and depression were not unambiguous, further investigation was required. The main objective of our study was to examine the potential associations between Internet use, depression, and Facebook intrusion. A total of 672 Facebook users took part in the cross-sectional study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used. For collecting the data, the snowball sampling procedure was used. We showed that depression can be a predictor of Facebook intrusion. Our results provides additional evidence that daily Internet use time in minutes, gender, and age are also predictors of Facebook intrusion: that Facebook intrusion can be predicted by being male, young age, and an extensive number of minutes spent online. On the basis of this study, it is possible to conclude that there are certain demographic - variables, such as age, gender, or time spent online - that may help in outlining the profile of a user who may be in danger of becoming addicted to Facebook. This piece of knowledge may serve for prevention purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain regions involved in swallowing: Evidence from stroke patients in a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Dehaghani, Shiva Ebrahimian; Yadegari, Fariba; Asgari, Ali; Chitsaz, Ahmad; Karami, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Limited data available about the mechanisms of dysphagia and areas involving swallow after brain damage; accordingly it is hard to predict which cases are more likely to develop swallowing dysfunction based on the neuroimaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain lesions and dysphagia in a sample of acute conscious stroke patients. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 113 acute conscious stroke patients (69 male mean [standard deviation (SD)] age 64.37 [15.1]), participated in this study. Two neurologists and one radiologist localized brain lesions according to neuroimaging of the patients. Swallowing functions were assessed clinically by an expert speech pathologist with the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA). The association of brain region and swallowing problem was statistically evaluated using Chi-square test. Results: Mean (SD) MASA score for the dysphagic patients was 139.61 (29.77). Swallowing problem was significantly more prevalent in the right primary sensory (P = 0.03), right insula (P = 0.005), and right internal capsule (P = 0.05). Conclusion: It may be concluded from these findings that the right hemisphere lesions associated with occurring dysphagia. Further studies using more advanced diagnostic tools on big samples particularly in a perspective structure are needed. PMID:27904591

  6. Prevalence of Chronic Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases in Senegalese Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Guéye, Serigne; Tamba, Kéba; Ba, Issa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health threat, particularly in developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, the scarcity of reliable data on NCDs in the general population makes it difficult to develop efficient prevention strategies. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of 4 cardiometabolic NCDs among 402 private-sector workers in Dakar, Senegal: high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods We collected demographic, clinical, and biological data for each worker during routine occupational health visits between September 1 and November 30, 2010. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with NCDs. Results Among the 402 study participants, 24.1% had HBP, 9.7% had diabetes, 16.7% were obese, and 22.4% had CKD. About half of participants (48.5%) were not aware of their diseases before the screening. Univariate analysis showed that age was significantly associated with blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and renal function. After adjusting for age and sex, systolic blood pressure was correlated with renal function, and physical inactivity was significantly associated with obesity. Conclusion Despite its small sample size, our study provides a perspective on the extent of cardiometabolic NCDs in Senegalese workers. Our study also suggests that targeted screening activities focusing on socio-professional groups may be helpful in the absence of national integrated prevention programs. PMID:23286359

  7. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  8. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R.; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41–55 dBA) and severely (71–90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat. PMID:26904137

  9. Prevalence of chronic cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in Senegalese workers: a cross-sectional study, 2010.

    PubMed

    Seck, Sidy Mohamed; Guéye, Serigne; Tamba, Kéba; Ba, Issa

    2013-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health threat, particularly in developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, the scarcity of reliable data on NCDs in the general population makes it difficult to develop efficient prevention strategies. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of 4 cardiometabolic NCDs among 402 private-sector workers in Dakar, Senegal: high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We collected demographic, clinical, and biological data for each worker during routine occupational health visits between September 1 and November 30, 2010. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with NCDs. Among the 402 study participants, 24.1% had HBP, 9.7% had diabetes, 16.7% were obese, and 22.4% had CKD. About half of participants (48.5%) were not aware of their diseases before the screening. Univariate analysis showed that age was significantly associated with blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and renal function. After adjusting for age and sex, systolic blood pressure was correlated with renal function, and physical inactivity was significantly associated with obesity. Despite its small sample size, our study provides a perspective on the extent of cardiometabolic NCDs in Senegalese workers. Our study also suggests that targeted screening activities focusing on socio-professional groups may be helpful in the absence of national integrated prevention programs.

  10. Association between Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Hypertension among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Pei-Fen; Shu, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Tong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Lun

    2016-04-23

    Epidemiological studies of different dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among a middle-aged Chinese population remain extremely scare. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns and investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults aged 45-60 years. The present cross-sectional study includes 2560 participants who reported their dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. We used log-binomial regression analysis to examine the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension risk. Four major dietary patterns were identified and labeled as traditional Chinese, animal food, western fast-food, and high-salt patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of animal food pattern scores had a greater prevalence ratio (PR) for hypertension (PR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.064-1.727; p < 0.05) in comparison to those from the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of high-salt pattern, the highest quartile had a higher prevalence ratio for hypertension (PR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.013-1.635; p < 0.05). Our findings indicated that animal food and high-salt patterns were associated with increased risk of hypertension, while traditional Chinese and western fast-food patterns were not associated with the risk of hypertension. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  11. Association of premature hair graying with family history, smoking, and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyoseung; Ryu, Hyeong Ho; Yoon, Junghee; Jo, Seongmoon; Jang, Sihyeok; Choi, Mira; Kwon, Ohsang; Jo, Seong Jin

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have been concerned about the association of hair graying with systemic diseases. However, the common factors associated with hair graying and systemic diseases have not been elucidated. This study aimed to identify risk factors for premature hair graying (PHG) in young men. We conducted a cross-sectional study using questionnaires in young men. After a pilot study that included 1069 men, we surveyed 6390 men younger than 30 years about their gray hair status and various socioclinical characteristics. The age of participants in the main survey was 20.2 ± 1.3 years (mean ± SD). Of the 6390 participants, 1618 (25.3%) presented with PHG. Family history of PHG (odds ratio [OR], 12.82), obesity (OR, 2.61), and >5 pack-years history of smoking (OR, 1.61) were significantly associated with PHG. In the multivariate analysis, family history of PHG (OR, 2.63) and obesity (OR, 2.22) correlated with the severity of PHG. Owing to the use of questionnaires, the possibility of recall bias exists. Women were not evaluated in this study. Smoking, family history of PHG, and obesity are important factors associated with PHG. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Iron deficiency anemia in an Egyptian pediatric population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al Ghwass, Mohamed M E; Halawa, Eman Fawzy; Sabry, Samar Mohamed; Ahmed, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and associated sociodemographic factors among children between 6 months and 12 years of age. This cross-sectional study enrolled 300 children from June 2011 to June 2012 visiting the pediatric outpatient clinics of Al-Fayoum University Hospital. Data were collected using a structured interview questionnaire. Sociodemographic variables studied included sex, residence, family size, fathers' education, mothers' education, and crowding index. Included patients were evaluated clinically and laboratory for complete blood picture, serum iron, serum ferritin, and transferrin saturation. It was found that 64% of studied children had IDA (20% mild, 41.7% moderate, and 2.3% severe). The logistic regression analysis found that children from rural areas, those from low social class and those of low maternal educational level had a higher risk for IDA than other children. Infants with IDA were found to consume foods with low iron content 50% below recommended daily allowance. The high frequency of IDA is a severe public health problem in developing countries like Egypt, especially in children from rural areas, those from low social class and those of low maternal educational level. Iron-rich foods should be advised by health care providers. Prophylactic iron supplements should be given to all infants from 6 to 23 months.

  13. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87–5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. PMID:26402695

  14. [Skin sensitization to aeroallergens in the child: cross-sectional study of 200 cases].

    PubMed

    Malouche, Sonia; Boussetta, Khadija; Ben Hassine, Lamia; Malouche, Kais; Siala, Maha; Nessib, Fairouz; Mongalgi, Mohamed A; Ben Hassen, Aouatf; Rejeb, Sana; Boussnina, Souad

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of the allergic diseases increased considerably during the last decades. The clinical expression of allergy depends on the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of sensitizing to aeroallergens in the child and to determine the risk factors of sensitizing. We carried out a cross-sectional study relating to 200 pediatric patients of the Mahmoud El Matri hospital, aged from 3 to14 years. We performed skin prick test to 12 current aeroallergens. The prevalence of sensitizing to aeroallergens was 14%. Acarina (DP and/or DF) represented the allergens accused in the majority of the cases (96,4% of the cases). The statistical analysis of the various risk factors of sensitizing showed that these factors were: the presence of a family atopy (p= 0,0034) particularly a maternal asthma (p< 0,001), the personal atopy specially an asthma, an allergic rhinitis or eczema atopic (p< 10-5), the short breast-feeding (p= 0,033) and the home humidity (p=0,0072). Several risk factors reported in the literature did not seem to intervene in our study (the passive smoking, the urban dweling, the age of food diversification, infections at the low age). The prevalence of sensitizing to aeroallergens is relatively high in our series. Many factors could explain the increase of the allergic diseases. Our study stresses the importance of the genetic, nutritional and environmental factors in the appearance of aeroallergens sensitization.

  15. Nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia: a cross-sectional study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Naseh, Ladan; Rafiei, Hossein; Heidari, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Nurses have an important role in caring for terminally ill patients. They are often confronted with euthanasia but little is known about their attitudes towards it. The present study aimed to examine Iranian Muslim nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, all qualified registered nurses working in two teaching hospitals (Kashani and Hajar hospitals) in Iran were invited to participate. The Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) was used to assess the nurses' attitude towards euthanasia. Of 266 nurses who fit the criteria, 190 participated in the study (response rate 72.9%); 91.1% (n=173) were female and 8.9% (n=17) were male. In total, 57.4%, 3.2% and 39.5% of nurses reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia respectively. Nurses reported their most negative attitude to the domain 'practical consideration' with mean of 2.36±0.9 and most positive attitude to the domain 'treasuring life' with a mean EAS score of 2.85±0.4. The majority of Muslim nurses were found to have negative attitudes to euthanasia. We recommend that future studies should be conducted to examine Muslim nurses' attitudes to euthanasia in different cultures to determine the role of culture and religious beliefs in attitude to euthanasia.

  16. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayed, Ahmed A; Al-Rashoudi, Abdualltef H; Al-Eisa, Abdulrhman A; Addar, Abdullah M; Al-Hargan, Abdullah H; Al-Jerian, Albaraa A; Al-Omair, Abdullah A; Al-Sheddi, Ahmed I; Al-Nowaiser, Hussam I; Al-Kathiri, Omar A; Al-Hassan, Abdullah H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs.

  17. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  18. Work ability and health of security guards at a public University: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Marluce Rodrigues; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the work ability and health status of security guards at a public University. a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried with 119 security guards. The following instruments were used: Work Ability Index (WAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), and Demand-Control-Support (DCS). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study samples and the Spearman's coefficient correlation was performed to assess the WAI. Significance level was set at 5%. samples were composed by men; the mean age was 54.9 years (SD=5.7); 80% had partners, and 75% had basic education. The majority (95%) had only one job, the average length of service was 24.8 years (SD=11), ranging from 3 to 43 years. 88.9% worked ≤40 hours and 75% did not work at night shift or rotating shifts. The average score given to work ability was good (40.7 points), with significant correlation to social support at work (p-value=0.002), health conditions (p-value=0.094), and depression symptoms (p-value=0.054). this study showed that many characteristics might affect the work ability scores. Considering the results, we note that healthy life habits and a reorganization of work environments should be encouraged.

  19. Health Impact of Domestic Violence against Saudi Women: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Dosary, Ahmad Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Domestic violence is a major public health problem. A wide range of health hazards result from violence against women directly, or from its long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to determine health related consequences of domestic violence against women. Method A community based cross-sectional study was carried through online survey; convenience sample was taken during the period between December 2013 and February 2014. 421 women completed the survey, who met the inclusion criteria and accepted willing to be a part of this study. The data was collected through online survey website. A validated Arabic version of NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire (NOVAQ) was used as a tool to assess domestic violence among the study sample. Analysis was performed using SPSS, version 18.0. Results A total of 421 women participated in the survey. There was no significant correlation between socio-demographic characteristics and being abused or not. However, by further analysis we found more sexual abuse among non-working women P=0.048. There was significant correlation between abused women and general health status, doctor visits, depression, insomnia, and somatic symptoms. Conclusion The consequences of abuse are profound, extending beyond the health of individual to affect the well-being of entire community. So, we recommend to increase community awareness through national awareness campaign, national prevalence survey of domestic violence and well trained health professionals for assessing domestic violence cases. PMID:27103898

  20. A Cross-sectional Anthropometric Study of Cranial Capacity among Ukwuani People of South Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eboh, Dennis Erhisenebe; Okoro, Ewaen Churchill; Iteire, Kingsley Afoke

    2016-01-01

    Background Cranial capacity is used as a measure of brain volume and has a relationship with age and gender. The purpose of this study was to provide normative data and population-, age- and gender-specific regression formulae related to cranial capacity using head dimensions among the Ukwuani people of Nigeria. Methods This study included 605 subjects grouped according to age as follows: 6–12 years, 13–19 years and ≥20 years. A cross-sectional study design using multistage sampling technique was adopted. Head length, head width, and auricular head height were measured in centimetres using a spreading caliper, and cranial capacity was calculated. The data were analysed using SPSS 20. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. A t-test was used to identify significant gender differences. Regression analyses were performed to derive age-, gender- and population-specific models. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results In all the parameters, males had significantly higher values than females (P < 0.05). The mean (SD) cranial capacity values at 6–12 years, 13–19 years and ≥20 years were 1176.95 (98.35) cc, 1288.59 (113.21) cc and 1408.90 (116.44) cc, respectively. Conclusions All the parameters exhibited sexual dimorphism. Cranial capacity was found to increase with age. The models derived in this work will be relevant to population and growth studies as well as forensic anthropology. PMID:27904428

  1. Household food security status in the Northeast of Iran: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Ali; Foroozanfar, Zohre

    2015-01-01

    An important issue the world faces today is ensuring that households living in different countries have access to enough food to maintain a healthy life. Food insecurity is prevalent in both developed and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the household food security status and related factors among different rural districts of Neyshabur (A city in northeast of Iran). Of 5000 selected rural households 4647 were studied in this cross-sectional study. A validated short questionnaire (with six questions) was used to measure food security. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis through SPSS software. In total, 2747 households (59.1%) were identified as food secure. The highest prevalence of food security was observed in Central district (62.3%) and the lowest was in Miyanjolgeh district (52.9%). Backward multiple logistic regression revealed that car ownership, presence of chronic disease in household and household income (per month) were significantly associated with food security in all of surveyed districts (p< 0.05). According to results of this study, lower than 60% of Neyshabur rural households were food secure and economic variables were the most important factors. Therefore, a special attention should be paid to this health problem in these regions.

  2. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect. 765 (4.9%) TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67%) and 20 (2.8%) new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000). Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa. The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates.

  3. Cross-sectional study of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in human fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge on the normative spinal growth is relevant in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. The present study determines the height, transverse and sagittal diameters, cross sectional area, and volume of individual C1–S5 vertebral bodies. Material and methods Using the methods of computed tomography (CT), digital image analysis, and statistics, the size of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17–30 weeks was examined. Results All the 5 examined parameters changed significantly with gestational age (p < 0.01). The mean height of vertebral bodies revealed an increase from the atlas (2.39 ±0.54 mm) to L2 (4.62 ±0.97 mm), stabilized through L3–L4 (4.58 ±0.92 mm, 4.61 ±0.84 mm), and then was decreasing to S5 (0.43 ±1.06 mm). The mean transverse diameter of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (1.20 ±1.96 mm) to L1 (6.24 ±1.46 mm), so as to stabilize through L2–L3 (6.12 ±1.65, 6.12 ±1.61 mm), and finally was decreasing to S5 (0.26 ±0.96 mm). There was an increase in sagittal diameter of vertebral bodies from the atlas (0.82 ±1.34 mm) to T7 (4.76 ±0.85 mm), its stabilization for T8–L4 (4.73 ±0.86 mm, 4.71 ±1.02 mm), and then a decrease in values to S5 (0.21 ±0.75 mm) was observed. The values for cross-sectional area of vertebral bodies were increasing from the atlas (2.95 ±5.25 mm2) to L3 (24.92 ±11.07 mm2), and then started decreasing to S5 (0.48 ±2.09 mm2). The volumetric growth of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (8.60 ±16.40 mm3) to L3 (122.16 ±74.73 mm3), and then was decreasing to S5 (1.60 ±7.00 mm3). Conclusions There is a sharp increase in size of fetal vertebral bodies between the atlas and the axis, and a sharp decrease in size within the sacral spine. In human fetuses the vertebral body growth is characterized by maximum values in sagittal diameter for T7, in transverse diameter for L1, in height for L2, and in both cross-sectional area and volume for

  4. Theoretical and experimental study on electron interactions with chlorobenzene: Shape resonances and differential cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Sanchez, Sergio d'A.; Ameixa, João; Blanco, Francisco; García, Gustavo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Bettega, Márcio H. F.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report theoretical and experimental cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by chlorobenzene (ClB). The theoretical integral and differential cross sections (DCSs) were obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials (SMCPP) and the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The calculations with the SMCPP method were done in the static-exchange (SE) approximation, for energies above 12 eV, and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation, for energies up to 12 eV. The calculations with the IAM-SCAR method covered energies up to 500 eV. The experimental differential cross sections were obtained in the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer VG-SEELS 400, in Lisbon, for electron energies from 8.0 eV to 50 eV and angular range from 7∘ to 110∘. From the present theoretical integral cross section (ICS) we discuss the low-energy shape-resonances present in chlorobenzene and compare our computed resonance spectra with available electron transmission spectroscopy data present in the literature. Since there is no other work in the literature reporting differential cross sections for this molecule, we compare our theoretical and experimental DCSs with experimental data available for the parent molecule benzene.

  5. Endogenous parathyroid hormone and knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggun

    2016-03-01

    Although animal studies have shown that parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogs can have disease-modifying effect on experimental osteoarthritis, there is little human data. This study aimed to analyze the association between endogenous PTH and knee osteoarthritis in humans. This was a cross-sectional study including 5880 participants of The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum intact PTH was measured by chemiluminescence assay. Radiographic knee osteoarthritis was defined as a Kellgren-Lawrence grade of ≥ 2. The association between knee osteoarthritis and natural log-transformed PTH (lnPTH) was modeled using logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, body mass index categories, calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in both sexes. The prevalence of radiographic knee osteoarthritis tended to be higher in the highest quartile of PTH in women. In men, there was no clear trend across the quartiles of PTH. In multivariable analyses, there was no significant association between lnPTH and radiographic knee osteoarthritis in either sex (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]): 0.81 (0.64-1.02) in women and 0.88 (0.67-1.16) in men. Analyses on symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis showed no significant association. Although there was a trend for a negative association in women, no statistically significant association was found between endogenous PTH and knee osteoarthritis. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Exercise on Prescription: A Cross-sectional Study With Self-reported Outcome.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Helene Buch; Helmer-Nielsen, Morten; Dieperink, Karin Brochstedt; Østergaard, Birte

    2016-04-01

    Exercise on prescription (EOP) is an attempt to increase physical activity among sedentary adults with signs of lifestyle diseases. Until now, no studies have focused on patients with chronic diseases and how they assess the long-term effect of participating in EOP consisting of supervised interventions of different intensities. This study aimed to describe and compare self-reported physical activity in the long term among participants in 3 EOP modules of different intensities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1152 former participants in EOP between July 2005 and May 2007 in 2 Danish counties. Physical activity was measured as number of days with a minimum 30 minutes of moderate/vigorous activity. Seventy-five percent (n = 854) returned the questionnaire. Of these, 36% reported being physically active ≥ 5 days/week. Comparing leisure-time activities before EOP 29% was sedentary vs. 15% (P < 0 .01) after, moderate + hard leisure-time activities was 7% before vs. 19% after EOP (P < 0 .01). Time postintervention did not influence the numbers reporting to be physical active negatively. This study in community-dwelling adults with chronic diseases participating in EOP finds that approximately one-third reported being physically active in the long term postintervention, but no differences between the modalities were found.

  7. Smoking and nicotine dependence in Singapore: findings from a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Chong, Siow Ann

    2012-08-01

    Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of death throughout the world and can lead to nicotine dependence, particularly when initiated at a young age. This paper describes the prevalence of smoking and nicotine dependence in the adult Singapore resident population, whilst also exploring rates among the major ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian), different education levels and those with chronic psychiatric and physical comorbidities. The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) is a cross-sectional epidemiological study that was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010. Information on smoking status was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence measured nicotine dependence. Socio-demographic information was also collected. In total, 6616 respondents participated in the SMHS giving a response rate of 75.9%. We found that 16% of the population were current smokers and 4.5% had nicotine dependence. Current smokers were more likely to be younger (18 to 34 years old), males, Malay and have lower education, whilst males had a 4.6 times higher risk of nicotine dependence to that of females. The prevalence of nicotine dependence was also higher in those with alcohol abuse and those experiencing chronic pain. The results from this study highlight the important differences in the prevalence of smoking and nicotine dependence among different age groups, gender and ethnicity in Singapore and are important for developing future health policies and targeted preventive strategies.

  8. Prevalence of unrecognized dyslipidaemia in Dubai and Northern Emirates: a cross-sectional hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Vela, Barbara Karin; Alhessi, Alaaeldin Y; Popović, Marko; Al-Shaqra, Maryam A

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of unrecognized dyslipidaemia and a specific correlation between lipid values and age, gender or ethnic origin in the study population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 311 subjects who had their lipid profiles checked for the first time in a private hospital in Dubai in a six month - period. The analysis shows an increased prevalence of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) hypercholesterolemia with relatively higher Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) values in male subjects (p < 0.016) as well as with the Middle East ethnic origin group (p < 0.025), while desirable High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-c) was found among female subjects (p = 0). The discordance between the percentages of elevated LDL-c and Total cholesterol (T-c) signifies the role of the LDL-c/non-HDL-c as the main surrogate for dyslipidaemia as a risk for atherosclerosis, and as a primary target of therapy.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiac comorbidities: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Mohit; Shah, Parth S; Shah, Arti D; Francis, Stani A; Patel, Nihar V; Kothari, Kavit K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health issue with cigarette smoking being an important risk factor. COPD affects pulmonary blood vessels, right ventricle, as well as left ventricle leading to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH), cor-pulmonale (COR-P), right and left ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiography provides a rapid, noninvasive, portable, and accurate method to evaluate cardiac functions. Early diagnoses and intervention for cardiac comorbidities would reduce mortalities. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study. Total 50 patients of moderate to severe COPD according to GOLD guidelines were taken from Department of Respiratory Medicine, Smt. B. K. Shah Medical Institute and Research Centre, Vadodara. All patients underwent investigations such as chest X-ray PA view, ECG, and spirometry followed by two-dimensional echocardiography. Results: We investigated 49 males and 1 female patients ranging from 35 to 80 years of age. Twenty-nine individuals were of moderate COPD and twenty-one of severe COPD. Of these cases 29 had left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) changes, 24 were diagnosed with PH and 16 had changes of COR-P. The study showed the linear relation between the severity of LVDD, PH, and COR-P with the severity of COPD. Conclusion: Our study put emphasis on early cardiac screening of all COPD patients which will be helpful in the assessment of the prognosis and will further assist in identifying the individuals likely to suffer increase morbidity and mortality. PMID:27578933

  10. Associations between green space and health in English cities: an ecological, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space.

  11. Factors Associated With Scoliosis in Schoolchildren: a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baroni, Marina Pegoraro; Sanchis, Geronimo José Bouzas; de Assis, Sanderson José Costa; dos Santos, Rafael Gomes; Pereira, Silvana Alves; Sousa, Klayton Galante; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of scoliosis and to analyze the factors associated with scoliosis in schoolchildren aged between 7 and 17 years. Methods This is a cross-sectional and quantitative study with stratified random selection of public school students in the city of Santa Cruz, Brazil. The presence of scoliosis was examined, as well as the flexibility of the posterior muscle chain, socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometry, lifestyle habits, sexual maturation, and ergonomics of school furniture. In order to identify factors associated with scoliosis, the variables were divided in biological, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and ergonomic factors, and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) were estimated by means of Poisson regression analysis. Results Two hundred and twelve pupils participated in this study (mean age 11.61 years, 58% female). The prevalence of scoliosis was 58.1% (n = 123) and associated with female sex (PR 2.54; 95% CI, 1.33–4.86) and age between 13 and 15 years (PR 5.35; 95% CI, 2.17–13.21). Sleeping in a hammock was inversely associated with scoliosis (PR 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.81). Conclusions Scoliosis seems to be positively associated with female sex and age between 13 and 15 years, whereas the habit of sleeping in a hammock is negatively associated with the onset of scoliosis. PMID:25716134

  12. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended.

  13. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco; Huici, Omar; Lander, Flemming; Bælum, Jesper; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Background Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. Methods To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. Results This study documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. Conclusion The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution. PMID:16630337

  14. Brain Ultrasonography Findings in Neonatal Seizure; a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Saeed; Partovi, Parinaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Screening of newborns with seizure, who have curable pathologic brain findings, might be able to improve their final outcome by accelerating treatment intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the brain ultrasonography findings of newborns hospitalized with complaint of seizure. Methods: The present cross-sectional study designed to evaluate brain ultrasonography findings of hospitalized newborns complaining seizure. Neonatal seizure was defined as presence of tonic, clonic, myoclonic, and subtle attacks in 1 - 28 day old newborns. Results: 100 newborns with the mean age of 5.82 ± 6.29 days were evaluated (58% male). Most newborns were in the < 10 days age range (76%), term (83%) and with normal birth weight (81%). 22 (22%) of the ultrasonography examinations showed a pathologic finding. A correlation was only found between birth age and probability of the presence of a pathologic problem in the brain as the frequency of these problems was significantly higher in pre-term newborns (p = 0.023). Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, frequency of pathologic findings in neonatal brain ultrasonography was 22%. Hemorrhage (12%) and hydrocephaly (7%) were the most common findings. The only factor correlating with increased probability of positive findings was the newborns being pre-term. PMID:28286848

  15. A Multi-Center, Cross-Sectional Study on the Burden of Infectious Keratitis in China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiusheng; Xie, Lixin; Tan, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhichong; Yang, Yanning; Yuan, Yuansheng; Deng, Yingping; Fu, Shaoying; Xu, Jianjiang; Sun, Xuguang; Sheng, Xunlun; Wang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence and demographic characteristics of infectious keratitis and infectious corneal blindness. Methods A multi-center, population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to August 31, 2010. A total of 191,242 individuals of all age groups from 10 geographically representative provinces were sampled using stratified, multi-stage, random and systematic sampling procedures. A majority, 168,673 (88.2%), of those sampled participated in the study. The examination protocol included a structured interview, visual acuity testing, an external eye examination, and an anterior segment examination using a slit lamp. The causes and sequelae of corneal disease were identified using uniform customized protocols. Blindness in one eye caused by infectious keratitis was defined as infectious corneal blindness. Results The prevalence of past and active infectious keratitis was 0.192% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.171–0.213%), and the prevalence of viral, bacterial, and fungal keratitis was 0.11%, 0.075%, and 0.007%, respectively. There were 138 cases of infectious corneal blindness in at least one eye in the study population (prevalence of 0.082% [95%CI, 0.068%–0.095%]). Statistical analysis suggested that ocular trauma, alcoholic consumption, low socioeconomic levels, advanced age, and poor education were risk factors for infectious corneal blindness. Conclusions Infectious keratitis is the leading cause of corneal blindness in China. Eye care strategies should focus on the prevention and rehabilitation of infectious corneal blindness. PMID:25438169

  16. Polish medical students' perceptions of the nursing profession: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Marcinowicz, Ludmiła; Foley, Mary; Zarzycka, Danuta; Chlabicz, Sławomir; Windak, Adam; Buczkowski, Krzysztof

    2009-09-01

    This study explored perceptions of the nursing profession held by medical students in Poland. Specifically, this study aimed to: (i) elicit medical students' opinions about the nursing profession; (ii) identify what skills and abilities they perceive as important for nurses and (iii) ascertain what nursing functions are considered a major component of the nurse's job. A cross-sectional study, based on the social construct of role theory, was conducted in medical universities from 2005 to 2006 in three cities situated in different regions of Poland: Białystok, Bydgoszcz and Kraków. A total of 900 medical students, 300 students in each region, in medical school years 1, 3 and 6 completed the Professional Nursing Image Survey. The most favourable nurse characteristics were: 'professional reliability', 'demonstration of good technical skills' and the personal characteristics of friendliness and courteousness. Medication administration, recording vital signs and administering intravenous therapy were most frequently identified as a major part of the nurses' role. In conclusion, the opinions of Polish medical students suggest that nursing therapeutic activities trump independent nursing practice activities. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Factors Affecting Happiness: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Iranian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Mehrdadi, Amir; Sadeghian, Shahnaz; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Happiness is one of the most important concepts in the mental health that has an impact on different aspects of young people. Aim The present study was conducted to identify the factors influencing on happiness among young persons in Liam, Iran during 2014. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young population 15-29-year-old. Multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select the participants. Data were collected using two demographic and Oxford Happiness Inventory. SPSS software Package 14 was used to analyse the data. Results A total of 500 young people, including 272 men and 228 women were enrolled. The Mean ± SD of the participants’ age was 20 ± 2.18 years. There was a significant relationship between the happiness score and location in urban and rural, employment status and physical activity. There was not a significant relationship between gender, marital status and education level with happiness score among participants. Conclusion The age groups, type of occupation, physical activity and place of residence were factors associated with happiness in young persons. However, there was not significant relationship between gender, marital status and education level with a happiness score among study participants. PMID:27437333

  18. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of nigerian newborns.

    PubMed

    Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Adesiyun, Omotayo O; Suleiman, Mohammed B; Bello, Mustapha

    2012-07-31

    The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA) of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  19. Epidemiological Study of Sepsis in China: Protocol of a Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Xie, Jian-Feng; Yu, Kai-Jiang; Yao, Chen; Li, Jian-Guo; Guan, Xiang-Dong; Yan, Jing; Ma, Xiao-Chun; Kang, Yan; Yang, Cong-Shan; Yao, Xiao-Qing; Shang, Hong-Cai; Qiu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death among critically ill patients. Herein, we conducted a national survey to provide data on epidemiology and treatment of sepsis in the clinical practice in China, which has no detailed epidemiological data available on sepsis. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional survey from December 1, 2015 to January 31, 2016 in all provinces/municipalities of the mainland of China. The primary outcome of this study was the incidence of sepsis, and the secondary outcome was its etiology in China. Patients with sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Units were included in this study. The demographic, physiological, bacteriological, and therapeutic data of these patients were recorded. The incidence of sepsis was estimated using the data from the sixth census in China, reported by the Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission and the National Bureau of Statistics as the standard population. The independent risk factors for increased mortality from sepsis were calculated. Conclusions: This study indicated the incidence and outcome of sepsis in China. It also showed the most common etiology of different sites and types of infection, which could guide empiric antibiotic therapy. Moreover, it provided information on the independent risk factors for increased mortality due to sepsis. The findings provide evidence to guide clinical management and may help improve the outcome in septic patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02448472; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02448472. PMID:27958229

  20. The distribution of physicians workforce in Louisiana: results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Oetjen, Reid; Campbell, Claudia; Webber, Larry; Diana, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    For the past two decades, Louisiana's population health rankings as reported by the United Health Foundation have been among the lowest in the nation. In addition, the 2009 Commonwealth State Scorecards Report ranked the Louisiana health system performance, in terms of health outcomes, among the poorest in the nation. One reason for this disparity could be attributed to shortages of physicians and other healthcare resources in the state. These shortages were exacerbated by the damage from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 to hospitals and physicians' practices in New Orleans and throughout the state. This descriptive cross-sectional study focused on the geographical dimension of access and on one of its critical determinants: the availability of physicians. The objective behind this study was to offer a better understanding of the determinants of geographical imbalances in the distribution of physicians in the state of Louisiana. This study is part one of a three-part series that examines the association between total physician supply, primary care, and specialty care supply on mortality amenable to healthcare (MAHC).

  1. Health professionals' attitude toward euthanasia: a cross-sectional study from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turla, Ahmet; Ozkara, Erdem; Ozkanli, Cağlar; Alkan, Nevzat

    There is an ongoing debate on the definition of euthanasia and attempts to change laws about euthanasia and its practice in many countries. It is the medical doctors and the other health professionals who will elucidate the issue. Therefore, we performed this study to reveal attitude of Turkish health professionals toward euthanasia. This is an observational and cross-sectional study and data were collected with a questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to 545 health professionals in Samsun, a city in the Black Sea Region in Turkey. Data were analyzed with SPSS package programs. Of all health professionals included in the study, 43.5% were medical doctors and 45.5% auxiliary health professionals. Of all participants, 33.6% did not object to euthanasia and 7.9% were asked to perform euthanasia. Eighty point seven percent of the participants noted that euthanasia could be abused even if a euthanasia law were passed. It can be concluded that the health professionals should have a chance to discuss euthanasia and that their attitude toward and their expectations and worries about euthanasia should be taken into account when a euthanasia law is drafted.

  2. [Cohesion and family adaptability in women with epilepsy: cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel; Sánchez-Castro, Oneida

    2014-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that women with epilepsy come from families with poor cohesion and adaptability to the disease, compared with healthy women. Cross-sectional study. A retrospective study was done on 263 women from a neurology outpatient department and a family medicine unit from the Mexican Social Security Institute in Sonora (Mexico) between 2010 and 2011. Were 82 women with epilepsy (cases), and 181 healthy women (control group). Age and area of residence was utilized to pair the sample (1:2,2). Univariate analysis was performed for socio-demographic variables, family type, socio-economic status, level of cohesion and family adaptability based on FACES III. A logistic regression analysis was performed for those variables that were associated with functionality of family in women with and without epilepsy. A family dysfunction were found in 22% of epileptic women (OR = 2.91 [2.17, 3.89], p=.0001). Univariate analysis suggested the presence of epilepsy and of family dysfunction associated with age, disease more than 15 years of evolution, and family type (rural, urban and traditional). The logistic regression model confirmed an association only for presence of epilepsy (OR = 7.30 [4.00, 13.33], p=.0001). The study answers the hypothesis that women with epilepsy live in families with greater psychosocial impairment, manifested by deficiencies in cohesion and adaptability to the disease, compared with healthy women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Adherence to medications and associated factors: A cross-sectional study among Palestinian hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Ramahi, Rowa'

    2015-06-01

    To assess adherence of Palestinian hypertensive patients to therapy and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic and psychosocial variables on medication adherence. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken at a group of outpatient clinics of the Ministry of Health, in addition to a group of private clinics and pharmacies in the West Bank. Social and demographic variables and self-reported drug adherence (Morisky scale) were determined for each patient. Low adherence with medications was present in 244 (54.2%) of the patients. The multivariate logistic regression showed that younger age (<45 years), living in a village compared with a city, evaluating health status as very good, good or poor compared with excellent, forgetfulness, fear of getting used to medication, adverse effect, and dissatisfaction with treatment had a statistically significant association with lower levels of medication adherence (P<0.05). Poor adherence to medications was very common. The findings of this study may be used to identify the subset of population at risk of poor adherence who should be targeted for interventions to achieve better blood pressure control and hence prevent complications. This study should encourage the health policy makers in Palestine to implement strategies to reduce non-compliance, and thus contribute toward reducing national health care expenditures. Better patient education and communication with healthcare professionals could improve some factors that decrease adherence such as forgetfulness and dissatisfaction with treatment. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Edméa Fontes de Oliva; Santos, Shirley Andrade; Santos, Ana Teresa Rodrigues de Abreu; Melo, Enaldo Vieira de; Andrade, Tarcísio Matos de

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among medical students at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe-Brazil and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed with randomly selected students in 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory/Student Survey (MBI-SS) and a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, the educational process, and individual aspects were used. Statistical evaluation of multiple variables was performed through backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of burnout was 10.3% (n = 369). The prevalence was higher among those who did not have confidence in their clinical skills (Odds Ratio-OR = 6.47), those who felt uncomfortable with course activities (OR = 5.76), and those who did not see the coursework as a source of pleasure (OR = 4.68). There was a significant prevalence of burnout among the medical students studied. Three variables, in particular, were associated with burnout and were directly related to the medical education process. Preventive and intervention measures must be adopted, and longitudinal studies should be conducted.

  5. Paramedic student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Paramedic students are hesitant to formally report exposure to acts of workplace violence as they feel it may jeopardise their chance of getting a job. The objective of this study was to identify the type and number of workplace violence acts experienced by undergraduate paramedic students whilst on an ambulance clinical placement. This was a cross-sectional study using the Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to obtain student exposure to acts of workplace violence which occurred whilst on ambulance clinical placements. The survey response rate was 29.8%. The students' average age was 24.1 years, median age of 23 years, range 18-47 years. There were 32.6% of students who were exposed to at least one act of workplace violence with 56% of these being females. Verbal abuse 18%, and intimidation 17% were the common acts of workplace violence students were exposed to. One female, a nursing/paramedic student, was exposed to sexual harassment on more than one occasion. The findings from this study suggest that paramedic students are exposed to similar rates of workplace violence as full time practising paramedics. Further research is required into workplace violence against students from all professions and what detrimental effect this may have on them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Drinking Patterns and Behavioral Consequences: A Cross-Sectional Study among Romanian University Students.

    PubMed

    Nasui, Bogdana Adriana; Popa, Monica; Popescu, Codruta Alina

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol/binge drinking among university students has become a major public health problem. Many of young students will be exposed to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialization groups and social activities during the transitional period. The aim of this study was to analyse the alcohol consumption in Romanian university students, and to describe the behaviours occurring after drinking. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 468 undergraduate students, from a university for medicine and law. Of these students, 35.5% were males and 64.5% were females. The mean age of students was 21.9 ± 3.22 years. Validated anonymous paper questionnaires were completed voluntary by the students. Questionnaires contained demographic items, six questions for determining the level of alcohol consumed in terms of quantity and frequency, and 19 statements or problems resulting from drinking. The findings of the study showed that males drunk more units of alcohol/week than females (p<0.001). The prevalence of abstainers was 10.8% in males and 17.6% in women. Heavy drinkers (drinking 5 or more drinks more than once a week) were more common among male (19.3%) than among female students (16.2%). Most frequently, drinking behaviours are related to academic performance, and the possible link between poor academic performance and alcohol consumption appears tenuous and merits further investigation. Effective intervention strategies should be implemented to prevent students' alcohol consumption and adverse health and social consequences resulting from this behaviour.

  7. Self-rated health in centenarians: a nation-wide cross-sectional Greek study.

    PubMed

    Tigani, Xanthi; Artemiadis, Artemios K; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is an inclusive measure of public health that is correlated with quality of life and subsequent mortality. Extensive literature has identified multiple determinants of SRH in different populations. However, such studies on centenarians are scarce and parsimonious. Our objective is to identify SRH determinants in centenarians. This is a nationwide cross-sectional study on 400 Greek centenarians that was carried out between 2007 and 2010. SRH was evaluated by a simple question with a 5-point scale. Three categories of SRH were formed (very good/good/poor), which served as the dependent variable in multinomial regression models. Various sociodemographic, disease-related, lifestyle and psychosocial variables were assessed as candidate determinants of SRH. According to our results, SRH ratings among centenarians were better than that expected according to previous studies showing worse SRH ratings with increasing age in Greece. The 22.4% of the variance in SRH among centenarians was predicted by gender, habitat region and status, financial problems, disease presence and autonomy. Among lifestyle and psychosocial variables, obesity, good relationships with children, lack of feelings of loneliness, high optimism, adaptability and an internal health locus of control profile were independently associated with good SRH. These results indicate that SRH in individuals of extreme longevity were related to specific personal psychosocial factors that contribute to healthy aging and thus support the biopsychosocial model of health promotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Validation of the German version of the Oxford Elbow Score : A cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Marquardt, J; Schöttker-Königer, T; Schäfer, A

    2016-08-01

    Elbow complaints are complex problems leading to severe consequences for affected people and the healthcare system. The German version of the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is the first German-speaking instrument that specifically measures elbow complaints from the patient's perspective and changes of their health status. The aim of this study is the validation of the German version of the OES. In this context the internal consistency and the construct validity were investigated. 59 patients with elbow complaints completed the German version of the OES, the DASH and the SF-36 in a cross-sectional study. The internal consistency was calculated with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to confirm construct validity. Cronbach's alpha for pain, function and psychological subscales was 0.88, 0.81 and 0.90, respectively. The whole questionnaire presents a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.93. Convergent construct validity was confirmed with correlation coefficients containing values of -0.84, -0.77 and -0.82 compared to DASH and values ranging from 0.41 to 0.80 compared with the physical domains of the SF-36. The divergent construct validity presented values ranging from 0.07 to 0.20 with the SF-36 domains of "general health perception" and "mental health". The German OES is an internal consistent instrument with good convergent and divergent construct validity. Other aspects of the validity, the reliability and the responsiveness should be confirmed through further studies.

  9. Dietary patterns according to headache and migraine status: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rist, Pamela M.; Buring, Julie E.; Kurth, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background Several potential dietary trigger factors for migraine have been proposed. However, few studies have examined the intake pattern of these dietary items compared to adequate control populations and if intake levels may vary by migraine aura status or attack frequency. Methods Cross-sectional study among participants in the Women's Health Study. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between migraine and headache status and low intake for foods commonly reported to affect migraine. Results 25,755 women reported no history of migraine or headache; 5573 reported non-migraine headache and 7042 reported any migraine of which 2972 reported migraine without aura and 1974 reported migraine with aura within the past year. Those with non-migraine headache or any migraine were more likely to have low intake of total alcohol (OR=1.22, 95% CI:1.14–1.29 and OR=1.17, 95% CI:1.11–1.24, respectively). Migraineurs with aura were more likely to have low intake of chocolate, ice cream, hot dogs, and processed meats. Those who experience migraine at least once per week were more likely to have low intake of skim/low-fat milk and white and red wine. Conclusion Intake of most suggested migraine dietary triggers differs by migraine aura status and attack frequency, a pattern not found for non-migraine headache. PMID:25424709

  10. Knowledge, perceptions and use of generic drugs: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa de; Oliveira, Jéssica Nathalia Soares; Andrade, Marília Dos Santos; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz

    2014-09-01

    To assess the level of knowledge, perceptions and usage profile for generic drugs among laypersons. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 278 volunteers (180 women and 98 men, aged 37.1±15.8 years). A questionnaire was drawn up with questions on their use, perceptions and knowledge of generic drugs. Most respondents (99.6%) knew that generic drugs exist, but only 48.6% were able to define them correctly, while 78.8% of the respondents had some information about generics. This information was obtained mainly through television (49.3%). In terms of generic drug characteristics, 79.1% stated that they were confident about their efficacy, 74.8% believed that generic drugs have the same effect as branded medications, 88.8% said that generics were priced lower than branded medications, and 80.2% stated that they bought generic drugs because of price. With regard to drugs prescribed by medical practitioners, 17.6% of the participants said that their doctors never prescribed generics and only 7.5% confirmed that their doctors always prescribed generics. For the lay public, the sample in this study has sufficient knowledge of generic drugs in terms of definition, efficacy and cost. Consequently, the volunteers interviewed are very likely to use generics. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that programs should be implemented in order to boost generic drug prescriptions by medical practitioners.

  11. Knowledge, perceptions and use of generic drugs: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Oliveira, Jéssica Nathalia Soares; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the level of knowledge, perceptions and usage profile for generic drugs among laypersons. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 278 volunteers (180 women and 98 men, aged 37.1±15.8 years). A questionnaire was drawn up with questions on their use, perceptions and knowledge of generic drugs. Results Most respondents (99.6%) knew that generic drugs exist, but only 48.6% were able to define them correctly, while 78.8% of the respondents had some information about generics. This information was obtained mainly through television (49.3%). In terms of generic drug characteristics, 79.1% stated that they were confident about their efficacy, 74.8% believed that generic drugs have the same effect as branded medications, 88.8% said that generics were priced lower than branded medications, and 80.2% stated that they bought generic drugs because of price. With regard to drugs prescribed by medical practitioners, 17.6% of the participants said that their doctors never prescribed generics and only 7.5% confirmed that their doctors always prescribed generics. Conclusion For the lay public, the sample in this study has sufficient knowledge of generic drugs in terms of definition, efficacy and cost. Consequently, the volunteers interviewed are very likely to use generics. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that programs should be implemented in order to boost generic drug prescriptions by medical practitioners. PMID:25295444

  12. Donor-specific antibodies after pediatric liver transplantation: a cross-sectional study of 50 patients.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Jesper M; Kosola, Silja; Peräsaari, Juha; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Jalanko, Hannu; Holmberg, Christer; Pakarinen, Mikko P; Lauronen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    The role of donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSAs) after pediatric liver transplantation (LT) is inadequately established. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of DSAs and their association with liver histology and biochemical variables after pediatric LT. Serum samples were drawn for HLA antibody analyses from 50 patients (76% of 66 eligible patients) operated on at age <18 years between 1987 and 2007 with a median of 10.0 (interquartile range 4.0-16.4) years after deceased donor LT. Mixed and single-antigen beads with Luminex were used for HLA antibody screening and detection. A mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) value of 1000 was used for positive cutoff. Twenty-six patients (52%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 39% to 65%) had DSAs. In 22 (85%) patients, DSAs were against class II HLA antigens with a mean (standard deviation) MFI of 13,481 (4727). The unadjusted prevalence ratio for portal inflammation in DSA-positive compared to DSA-negative patients (n = 47; 9/24 vs. 1/23) was 8.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 50.9). Laboratory values at the time of study were comparable between DSA-positive and DSA-negative patients. In conclusion, approximately half of patients studied had DSAs after pediatric LT. Portal inflammation was associated with DSA positivity although the wide confidence interval around the ratio estimate warrants cautious interpretation. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  13. A cross-sectional study on bovine tuberculosis in Hawassa town and its surroundings, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Regassa, Alemayehu; Tassew, Asmelash; Amenu, Kebede; Megersa, Bekele; Abunna, Fufa; Mekibib, Berhanu; Marcotty, Tanguy; Macrotty, Tanguy; Ameni, Gobena

    2010-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hawassa town and its surroundings from October 2007 to May 2008 to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) based on comparative interadermal tuberculin test (CIDT) and abattoir survey. Accordingly, 39 herds comprising 413 cattle were subjected to CIDT, and the herd and individual animal prevalence were 48.7% (19/39) and 11.6% (48/413), respectively. One of the 16 milk samples collected from tuberculin-positive cows was culture positive. The prevalence significantly differed among the age group (P = 0.001) and management system (P = 0.001). Thus, age group over four (OR = 7.9) and animal with poor management system (OR = 4.1) had a higher odds for tuberculin reactivity compared to those with age group under four and cattle with good management system, respectively. Of the total 1,023 cattle subjected to postmortem examination, 11 (1.1%) were found to be positive for gross tuberculous lesions. Larger proportion (50%) of TB lesion was recorded in the respiratory pathway followed by digestive system (28.6%) and prescapular lymph nodes (21.4%). Of 14 tissue specimens collected from the gross lesions, four (28.6%) were positive for histopathological TB lesions. In conclusion, this study revealed the importance of BTB in the study area in particular and the region in general.

  14. Associations between depression and unhealthy behaviours related to metabolic syndrome: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Yumi; Ito, Hiroto; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijo; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether depression was associated with metabolic syndrome and unhealthy behaviours in community residents. Using the 2009-2010 baseline data of the Saku Cohort Study, 1,225 men and women who participated in a community health screening were included in the cross-sectional analyses. Depression was assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Consistent with the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine's definition, we defined metabolic syndrome as abdominal obesity plus two or more of the following: high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, and dyslipidaemia. We defined 'pre- and metabolic syndrome' as the presence of one or more of the three criteria in addition to abdominal obesity. There was no significant association between depression and metabolic syndrome. In women, the prevalence of pre- and metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the depression group than that in the non-depression group (17.5% vs 9.5%, p=0.046), whereas no such significant association was observed in men. Logistic regression analysis showed that depression was associated with unhealthy behavioural factors differently in men and women. This study revealed that depression was associated with several unhealthy behavioural factors in both men and women, but depression was associated with pre- and metabolic syndrome only in women. These findings suggest that depression may be a warning sign of metabolic syndrome in women with unhealthy behavioural factors. Psychological factors should be considered in addition to the assessment of physical status.

  15. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Children: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome in children has become the focus of many research projects in recent years. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Thai children and its correlation with overweight and obesity. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 348 children enrolled in grade 1 to grade 9 was done in Ongkhaluck province in Thailand. Demographic and anthropometric data were gathered. Blood tests were also performed to check for blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 4.0%. Metabolic syndrome was found in 0.7% of non-obese/non-overweight children and 17.6% of obese/overweight children. Participants with metabolic syndrome were found to be significantly older, heavier, and taller and to have higher parameters of adiposity when compared with those without metabolic syndrome. Obesity was significantly correlated with every criterion of diagnosis of metabolic syndrome except Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG). Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Thai children is consistent with other reports from across the world. PMID:24959487

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder among Syrian refugees in Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Bulbul, Feridun; Sagaltici, Eser; Bez, Yasin; Altindag, Abdurrahman; Dalkilic, Alican; Savas, Haluk A

    2015-03-01

    Refugees have had major challenges to meet their health care needs throughout history especially in war zones and natural disaster times. The health care needs of Syrian refugees have been becoming an increasingly important issue. We aimed to examine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and explore its relation with various socioeconomic variables among Syrian refugees, who sought asylum in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tent city. Sample size calculation yielded 352 and the participants of the study were determined randomly. Experienced and native Arabic speaking, psychiatrist evaluated the participants. The frequency of PTSD was 33.5%. Through the binary logistic regression analysis, we calculated that the probability of having PTSD among Syrian refugees in our sample was 71%, if they had the following features: with female gender; being diagnosed with psychiatric disorder in the past; having a family history of psychiatric disorder; and experiencing 2 or more traumas. The findings of our study suggest that PTSD among Syrian refugees in Turkey might be an important mental health issue in refugee camps especially among female refugees, who were exposed to 2 or more traumatic events and had a personal or family history of psychiatric disorder.

  17. Association between Social Relationship and Glycemic Control among Older Japanese: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Nagamine, Yuiko; Tani, Yukako; Shirai, Kokoro; Tazuma, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Aim The present study examined whether social support, informal socializing and social participation are associated with glycemic control in older people. Methods Data for this population-based cross-sectional study was obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2010 linked to the annual health check-up data in Japan. We analyzed 9,554 individuals aged ≥65 years without the certification of needed long-term care. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of social support, informal socializing and social participations on glycemic control. The outcome measure was HbA1c ≥8.4%. Results 1.3% of the participants had a level of HbA1c over 8.4%. Better glycemic control was significantly associated with meeting with friends one to four times per month (odds ratio [OR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]0.30–0.89, compared to meeting with friends a few times per year or less) and participation in sports groups (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.97) even after adjusting for other variables. Meeting with friends more than twice per week, receiving social support, and being married were not associated with better control of diabetes. Conclusions Meeting with friends occasionally is associated with better glycemic control among older people. PMID:28060887

  18. Conflict management styles among Iranian critical care nursing staff: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Conflict among nurses has been recognized as an extremely important issue within health care settings throughout the world. Identifying the conflict management style would be a key strategy for conflict management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of conflict management styles and its related factors among Iranian critical care nursing staff. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a total of 149 critical care nurses who worked in the critical care units of 4 teaching hospitals in Sari (Iran) were evaluated. A 2-part self-reported questionnaire including personal information and Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II was used for data collection. Although Iranian critical care nurses used all 5 conflict management styles to manage conflict with their peers, the collaborating style was the most prevalent conflict management style used by them, followed by compromising, accommodating, avoiding, and competing. Male gender was a predictor for both compromising and competing styles, whereas position and shift time were significant predictors for compromising and competing styles, respectively. Based on the results of this study, nurse managers need to take these factors into account in designing programs to help nurses constructively manage unavoidable conflicts in health care setting.

  19. Evaluation of orofacial motricity in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Turra, Giovana S; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the stomatognathic system and stomatognathic functions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis. Cross-sectional and observational study of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis seen at the outpatient clinic at the Medical Genetics Service of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The inclusion criteria were the existence of a biochemical or molecular diagnosis of any type of mucopolysaccharidosis and the agreement to participate in the study by signing an informed consent form. Seventy-eight patients were evaluated through phonoaudiological anamnesis and physical exam. Alterations in at least one item of each structure of the stomatognathic system or stomatognathic function were found in all patients who allowed evaluation of both items on physical examination (n = 76/78). The most frequently compromised structures and functions were respectively the dental arch and the tongue, swallowing and mastication. The only statistically significant difference found between types of mucopolysaccharidosis involved the habitual position of the tongue between the teeth (most frequent in mucopolysaccharidosis VI). Among patients with mucopolysaccharidosis I, II or VI who underwent enzyme replacement therapy or not, there was statistically significant difference in oral breathing mode (more frequent in the group without enzyme replacement therapy). Alterations in stomatognathic systems and functions are prevalent among individuals with mucopolysaccharidosis, even if enzyme replacement therapy is administered. Such finding suggests that speech therapy follow-up plays a major role in the treatment plan of this group of diseases; this hypothesis should be confirmed by additional studies.

  20. Identification of relevant ICF categories in vocational rehabilitation: a cross sectional study evaluating the clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Finger, Monika E; Glässel, Andrea; Erhart, Peter; Gradinger, Felix; Klipstein, Andreas; Rivier, Gilles; Schröer, Maria; Wenk, Christian; Gmünder, Hans Peter; Stucki, Gerold; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2011-06-01

    Vocational rehabilitation (VR) emphasizes a need for medical support, rehabilitation and biopsychosocial approach to enable individuals to successfully participate in the workforce. Optimal rehabilitation management relies on an in-depth knowledge of the typical spectrum of problems encountered of patients in VR. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is based on a universal conceptual model and provides a holistic view of functioning of the lived experience of people such as those undergoing VR. The objectives of this study are to describe the functioning and health of persons undergoing VR and to identify the most common problems around work and in VR using the ICF as the reference framework. An empirical cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted using convenience sampling from March 2009 to March 2010. Data were collected using a Case Record Form rated by health professionals which was based on an extended version of the ICF Checklist containing 292 ICF categories and sociodemographic information. 152 patients with various health conditions participated. We identified categories from all four ICF components: 24 for body functions, six for body structures, 45 for activities and participation, and 25 for environmental factors. Our study identified a multitude of ICF categories that describe functioning domains and which represent the complexity of VR. Such a comprehensive approach in assessing patients in VR may help to understand and customize the process of VR in the clinical setting and to enhance multidisciplinary communication.

  1. Factors related to taste sensitivity in elderly: cross-sectional findings from SONIC study.

    PubMed

    Uota, M; Ogawa, T; Ikebe, K; Arai, Y; Kamide, K; Gondo, Y; Masui, Y; Ishizaki, T; Inomata, C; Takeshita, H; Mihara, Y; Maeda, Y

    2016-12-01

    The sense of taste is important, as it allows for assessment of nutritional value, as well as safety and quality of foods, with several factors suggested to be associated with taste sensitivity. However, comprehensive variables regarding taste and related factors have not been utilised in previous studies for assessments of sensitivity. In the present study, we performed cross-sectional analyses of taste sensitivity and related factors in geriatric individuals who participated in the SONIC Study. We analysed 2 groups divided by age, 69-71 years (young-old, n = 687) and 79-81 years (old-old, n = 621), and performed a general health assessment, an oral examination and determination of taste sensitivity. Contributing variables were selected by univariate analysis and then subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis. In both groups, females showed significantly better sensitivity for bitter and sour tastes. Additionally, higher cognitive scores for subjects with a fine taste for salty were commonly seen in both groups, while smoking, drinking, hypertension, number of teeth, stimulated salivary flow salt intake and years of education were also shown to be associated with taste sensitivity. We found gender and cognitive status to be major factors affecting taste sensitivity in geriatric individuals.

  2. Hyperammonaemia and associated factors in unprovoked convulsive seizures: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenichiro; Arai, Noritoshi; Omori, Aki; Hida, Ayumi; Kimura, Akio; Takeuchi, Sousuke

    2016-12-01

    Hyperammonaemia is frequently observed in patients who have experienced convulsive seizures. Although excessive muscle contraction is presumed to be responsible for the elevated levels of ammonia, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The present study aimed to identify the independent factors associated with ammonia elevation using large-scale multivariate analysis. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 379 adult patients who had been transported to our emergency department and treated for unprovoked convulsive seizures between August 2010 and September 2015. Elevation of venous plasma ammonia levels was set as the primary endpoint, and patients' clinical and laboratory data were obtained. Those with severe liver dysfunction, known hepatic encephalopathy, or convulsions due to cardiovascular or psychogenic causes, and those taking valproate were excluded. Using a cut-off value of 50μg/dL, 183 patients (48.3%) were found to have elevated levels of plasma ammonia. Four factors were identified as independent variables associated with hyperammonaemia following seizures: elevated venous lactate, lowered venous pH, sex (male), and longer duration of convulsion. The results of the present study revealed independent factors associated with hyperammonaemia following unprovoked convulsive seizures in a larger scale and with more plausible statistical analysis. The authors further suggest that the excessive skeletal muscle contraction and/or respiratory failure during/after convulsive seizure may be the primary mechanism of hyperammonaemia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Association between Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Control in Peruvian School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Uceda, Mónica; Ziegler, Otto; Lindo, Felipe; Herrera-Pérez, Eder

    2013-01-01

    Background. Asthma and allergic rhinitis are highly prevalent conditions that cause major illness worldwide. This study aimed to assess the association between allergic rhinitis and asthma control in Peruvian school children. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 256 children with asthma recruited in 5 schools from Lima and Callao cities. The outcome was asthma control assessed by the asthma control test. A score test for trend of odds was used to evaluate the association between allergic rhinitis severity and the prevalence of inadequate asthma control. A generalized linear regression model was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of inadequate asthma control. Results. Allergic rhinitis was present in 66.4% of the population with asthma. The trend analysis showed a positive association between allergic rhinitis and the probability of inadequate asthma control (P < 0.001). It was associated with an increased prevalence of inadequate asthma control, with adjusted prevalence ratios of 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.19−1.98). Conclusion. This study indicates that allergic rhinitis is associated with an inadequate level of asthma control, giving support to the recommendation of evaluating rhinitis to improve asthma control in children. PMID:23984414

  4. Psychological Violence in the Health Care Settings in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Tamizi, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Hatam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence that can affect professional performance and job satisfaction of health care workers. Although several studies have been conducted in Iran, but there is no consensus regarding current status of such violence. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological violence among healthcare workers employed at teaching hospitals in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 5874 health professionals were selected using multistage random sampling. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: It was found that 74.7% of the participants were subjected to psychological violence during the past 12 months. Totally, 64.5% of psychological violence was committed by patients’ families, but 50.9% of participants had not reported the violence, and 69.9% of them believed that reporting was useless. Conclusions: The results are indicative of high prevalence of psychological violence against healthcare workers. Considering non-reporting of violence in more than half of participants, use of an appropriate reporting system and providing training programs for health professionals in order to prevent and manage workplace violence are essential. PMID:25830157

  5. Consanguinity, endogamy and inborn errors of metabolism in Oman: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Hashmi, Nadia; Al-Mamari, Watfa; Islam, M Mazharul; Al-Yahyaee, Said A

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman, like many other Arab countries, has relatively high rates of consanguinity. Reports suggest that the incidence of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is also high in Oman. This retrospective cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the number of patients with IEM being followed at the only two tertiary centers in Oman treating such patients, and to calculate the consanguinity rates among these families. The electronic medical records of all patients were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics. A total of 285 patients with IEM were being followed at the 2 centers involved; 162 (56.8%) were male and 123 (43.2%) were female. The history of consanguinity was documented or available for 241 patients: 229 patients (95%) were born to consanguineous parents related as second cousins or closer. First-cousin marriages were reported in 191 families (79.3%), while 31 patients (12.9%) were born to second cousins. The parents of 5 patients (2%) were related as double first cousins, and 2 patients (1%) were born to first cousins once removed. The average coefficient of inbreeding (F) in our study was 0.081. Seventeen patients (6%) had associated comorbid conditions other than IEM. Our study highlights the clinical burden of IEM in Oman and emphasizes the high consanguinity rates among the parents of affected patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Use of sun-protective items by Japanese pedestrians: a cross-sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Ng, William; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2011-10-01

    To document the prevalence and characteristics of the use of sun-protective items by Japanese pedestrians during the midday hours of summer weekends. Cross-sectional study. Observations were undertaken at 5 locales in central Tokyo on weekends between 11 am and 2 pm from August 7 through 22, 2010. A total of 2338 Japanese pedestrians, from adolescents to senior citizens, were included in the study. Those wearing uniforms and formal attire and individuals of non-Japanese ethnicity were excluded. The study examined the prevalence of the use of sun-protective items by pedestrians, including hats, parasols, sunglasses, and gloves/protective sleeves, and its association with demographic factors. Japanese female pedestrians demonstrated greater use of 1 or more sun-protective items compared with their male counterparts (53.0% vs 30.2%, P < .001), with parasols being the most popular item (33.0%). The wearing of sunglasses by pedestrians was low overall (males, 8.5%; females, 6.5%), despite the high UV indices recorded during the observation period. A significant proportion of adolescents and young adults (males, 77.1%; females, 65.1%) did not use any sun-protective items. The promotion of sun-safety measures, including the use of sun-protective items among Japanese adolescents and young adults, may be warranted. The low use of sunglasses by Japanese pedestrians suggests a need to raise public awareness of UV-related ocular damage.

  7. Risk factors related to falling in stroke patients: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kihun; Yu, Jaeho; Rhee, Hyeonsook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate a comprehensive understanding of the factors associated with falls in poststroke patients. [Subjects] Forty-eight stroke patients (22 males and 26 females; age 63.79 years) participated in this study. [Methods] This study applied a cross-sectional design. Fear of falling [Falls Efficacy Scale (FES)], balance function [Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Modified Rivermead Mobility Index (MRMI)], ADL performance level [Modified Barthel Index (MBI)] and cognitive function [Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatric Populations (LOTCA-G)] were assessed. [Results] Falls efficacy was moderately correlated with ADL performance, balance, and cognition. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that ADL performance was the explanatory variable closely associated with falls efficacy in stroke patients. [Conclusion] ADL performance was the primary explanatory variable of falls efficacy according to regression analysis. Thus, we suggest that these results may be used as basic data for developing rehabilitation programs for prevention of falls in stroke patients. PMID:26180313

  8. Risk factors related to falling in stroke patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kihun; Yu, Jaeho; Rhee, Hyeonsook

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate a comprehensive understanding of the factors associated with falls in poststroke patients. [Subjects] Forty-eight stroke patients (22 males and 26 females; age 63.79 years) participated in this study. [Methods] This study applied a cross-sectional design. Fear of falling [Falls Efficacy Scale (FES)], balance function [Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Modified Rivermead Mobility Index (MRMI)], ADL performance level [Modified Barthel Index (MBI)] and cognitive function [Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatric Populations (LOTCA-G)] were assessed. [Results] Falls efficacy was moderately correlated with ADL performance, balance, and cognition. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that ADL performance was the explanatory variable closely associated with falls efficacy in stroke patients. [Conclusion] ADL performance was the primary explanatory variable of falls efficacy according to regression analysis. Thus, we suggest that these results may be used as basic data for developing rehabilitation programs for prevention of falls in stroke patients.

  9. Activities of daily living independence in Iranian blind war survivors: a cross sectional study, 2008.

    PubMed

    Amini, Reza; Sahaf, Robab; Kaldi, Alireza; Haghani, Hamid; Davatgaran, Keyvan; Masoumi, Mehdi; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Rassafiani, Mehdi

    2013-07-01

    Assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) can be helpful for designing individualized rehabilitation programs for disabled individuals. Measuring and comparing the basic ADL (BADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) independence between middle aged and senior Iranian blind war survivors (IBWS) was the aim of this study. This cross-sectional study assessed BADL and IADL of 312 blind war survivors, using the Barthel Index and the Lawton-Bordy scale. Data collection was carried out in a recreational event for the blind war survivors in Mashhad, Iran, 2008. The majority of the participants were male (99%), and more than 80% had multiple injuries. None of them were independent in all BADL and IADL. Older groups were more dependent in IADL such as telephone use, drug management, financial management, and BADL such as walking on uneven surfaces, bed/chair transfer and using stairs. The functional status and activities' level differences between those aged younger than 50 years and those aged older than 50 years were significant (P<0.05). In the present study, all the IBWS were dependent in at least one ADL. Multiple physical injuries could be one of the main reasons for the dependency in this group. IBWS aged older than 50 years were considerably more dependent in their BADL and IADL than the younger group. It appears that starting the fifth decade of age in IBWS might cause some considerable decrease in their function. Training and individualized rehabilitation programs are warranted. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S.; Wahab, Moustafa A.; Aboelil, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. Results A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. Conclusions A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed. PMID:26767084

  11. Predictors of indoor smoking at young children's homes--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Sabina; Holdys, Josefine; Meyer, Christian; Kastirke, Nadin; Haug, Severin; John, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine factors associated with indoor smoking in homes (ISIH) using a sample of households with at least one child aged 3 or younger and at least one smoking adult. In a defined German region, all households (n = 3,570) with a child aged 3 or younger were invited to participate in a study that tested the efficacy of an intervention for reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In 1,282 households, at least one parent reported daily smoking. Among these, 917 (71.5 %) participated in the study. ISIH was defined as smoking 'in specific rooms only' or 'everywhere'. Cross-sectional data were analysed using regression analysis. Among the households, 37.5 % reported ISIH. ISIH was more likely if the youngest child had not visited a nursery (OR, 1.81; CI, 1.21-2.70) and if no private outdoor area was present (OR = 4.38, CI, 2.64-7.25). Lower household education level and partly unemployment in dual-parent households were associated with ISIH. Fostering nursery attendance and availability of a private outdoor area may protect young children living in household with smoking parents from environmental tobacco smoke.

  12. Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    de Oliva Costa, Edméa Fontes; Santos, Shirley Andrade; de Abreu Santos, Ana Teresa Rodrigues; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; de Andrade, Tarcísio Matos

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among medical students at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe-Brazil and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with randomly selected students in 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory/Student Survey (MBI-SS) and a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, the educational process, and individual aspects were used. Statistical evaluation of multiple variables was performed through backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of burnout was 10.3% (n = 369). The prevalence was higher among those who did not have confidence in their clinical skills (Odds Ratio–OR = 6.47), those who felt uncomfortable with course activities (OR = 5.76), and those who did not see the coursework as a source of pleasure (OR = 4.68). CONCLUSION: There was a significant prevalence of burnout among the medical students studied. Three variables, in particular, were associated with burnout and were directly related to the medical education process. Preventive and intervention measures must be adopted, and longitudinal studies should be conducted. PMID:22760894

  13. Comorbidity and physical activity in people with paraplegia: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Montesinos-Magraner, L; Serra-Añó, P; García-Massó, X; Ramírez-Garcerán, L; González, L-M; González-Viejo, M Á

    2017-08-01

    Descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in the Spinal Cord Injury Unit of the University Vall d'Hebron Hospital and in the Physical Education and Sports Department of the University of Valencia. The aim of this study was to quantify the presence of comorbidities in spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects who did or did not perform regular physical activity (PA) and to identify the relationship between PA and the level of comorbidity. The sample consisted of patients with complete motor SCI (T2-T12), who were fitted with an accelerometer attached to the non-dominant wrist for a period of 1 week. The clinical and blood analytic variables were selected by an expert panel. In the exploratory analysis, we have found differences in the total number of pathologies between active and inactive patients, with fewer total pathologies in the active patient group. An association was found between the PA level and diabetes mellitus (; P=0.047; φ=0.25). We also observed an association between the cardioprotector level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and PA level (; P=0.057; Φ0.24). Our results suggest that patients considered active showed lower total comorbidity than inactive patients and higher protection levels against developing cardiovascular comorbidity.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 1 August 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.90.

  14. Dynamics of study strategies and teacher regulation in virtual patient learning activities: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Edelbring, Samuel; Wahlström, Rolf

    2016-04-23

    Students' self-regulated learning becomes essential with increased use of exploratory web-based activities such as virtual patients (VPs). The purpose was to investigate the interplay between students' self-regulated learning strategies and perceived benefit in VP learning activities. A cross-sectional study (n = 150) comparing students' study strategies and perceived benefit of a virtual patient learning activity in a clinical clerkship preparatory course. Teacher regulation varied among three settings and was classified from shared to strong. These settings were compared regarding their respective relations between regulation strategies and perceived benefit of the virtual patient activity. Self-regulation learning strategy was generally associated with perceived benefit of the VP activities (rho 0.27, p < 0.001), but was not true in all settings. The association was higher in the two strongly regulated settings. The external regulation strategy did generally associate weakly with perceived benefit (rho 0.17, p < 0.05) with large variations between settings. The flexible student-autonomous appeal of virtual patients should not lead to the dismissal of guidance and related course activities. External teacher and peer regulation seem to be productive for increasing learners' perceived benefit. Awareness of the interplay among teacher regulation (external) and various study strategies can increase the value of flexible web-based learning resources to students.

  15. Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Ahmed, Jamil; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hafeez, Rehan; Hafeez, Assad

    2013-01-09

    Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee's work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee's organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change.

  16. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. Results The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. Conclusion There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended. PMID:25437631

  17. Dietary patterns according to headache and migraine status: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rist, Pamela M; Buring, Julie E; Kurth, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    Several potential dietary trigger factors for migraine have been proposed. However, few studies have examined the intake pattern of these dietary items compared to adequate control populations and whether intake levels may vary by migraine aura status or attack frequency. We conducted a cross-sectional study among participants in the Women's Health Study. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between migraine and headache status and low intake of foods commonly reported to affect migraine. A total of 25,755 women reported no history of migraine or headache, 5573 reported non-migraine headache and 7042 reported any migraine. Those with non-migraine headache or any migraine were more likely to have low intake of total alcohol (OR = 1.22, 95% CI:1.14-1.29 and OR = 1.17, 95% CI:1.11-1.24, respectively). Migraineurs with aura were more likely to have low intake of chocolate, ice cream, hot dogs, and processed meats. Those who experience migraine at least once per week were more likely to have low intake of skim/low-fat milk and white and red wine. Intake of most suggested migraine dietary triggers differs by migraine aura status and attack frequency, a pattern not found for non-migraine headache. © International Headache Society 2014.

  18. Evaluation of prescriptions of medicines not included in Iran medicine list: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zargaran, Marzieh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Iran Food and Drug Administration (IFDA) has the mission to regulate all aspects of pharmaceutical market including registration of the new medicines. Iran Drug Selection Committee has the responsibility to maintain and revise Iran Medicine List (IML). The National law has banned production, importation, distribution, and prescription of medicines not included in IML. Although, IFDA policy makers have created a mechanism to provide medicines not included in the list but might be essential for the treatment of specific patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on prescription of out of IML medicines during the year 2015. This study was conducted on a total of 1375 application forms received by Secretariat of Iran Drug Selection Committee for prescription of out of IML medicines. Findings: It has been shown that among 402 specialist physicians, the most out of IML medicine were prescribed by oncologist/hematologist. Antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents were the most frequently prescribed medicines both in terms of number and diversity. According to the collected data, more than 76% of all medicines were supplied by only 4 out of 25 pharmaceutical companies in 1 year. Conclusion: Results of this study show that despite its early intention this mechanism is easily abused by some pharmaceutical companies as an unethical way of induced demand and marketing of their products. Therefore, IFDA decision makers should revise this mechanism and decide based on its real benefits and harms both to the patients and Iran national health system. PMID:27843958

  19. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of diabetes in Indian women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data from high-income countries suggest that women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are more likely to develop diabetes later in life. Objective We investigated the association between pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (PE&E) during pregnancy and the risk of diabetes in Indian women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting India. Methods Data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005–2006), a cross-sectional survey of women aged 15–49 years, are used. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE&E were obtained from 39 657 women who had a live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey. The association between PE&E and self-reported diabetes status was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for dietary intake, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, frequency of TV watching, sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Results The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of PE&E in women with diabetes was 1.8% (n=207; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0; p<0.0001) and 2.1% (n=85; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.3; p<0.0001), respectively, compared with 1.1% (n=304; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) and 1.2% (n=426; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) in women who did not report any PE&E symptoms. In the multivariable analysis, PE&E was associated with 1.6 times (OR=1.59; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.94; p<0.0001) and 1.4 times (OR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.77; p=0.001) higher risk for self-reported diabetes even after controlling for dietary intake, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions HDP is strongly associated with the risk of diabetes in a large nationally representative sample of Indian women. These findings are important for a country which is already tackling the burden of young onset of diabetes in the population. However, longitudinal medical histories and a clinical measurement of diabetes are needed in this low-resource setting. PMID:27496230

  20. Is the physician's behavior in dyslipidemia diagnosis in accordance with guidelines? Cross-sectional ESCARVAL study.

    PubMed

    Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Gil-Guillén, Vicente F; Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Pallarés-Carratalá, Vicente; Valls-Roca, Francisco; Sanchís-Domenech, Carlos; Martín-Moreno, José M; Redón, Josep; Navarro-Pérez, Jorge; Fernández-Giménez, Antonio; Pérez-Navarro, Ana M; Trillo, José L; Usó, Ruth; Ruiz, Elías

    2014-01-01

    Clinical inertia has been defined as mistakes by the physician in starting or intensifying treatment when indicated. Inertia, therefore, can affect other stages in the healthcare process, like diagnosis. The diagnosis of dyslipidemia requires ≥2 high lipid values, but inappropriate behavior in the diagnosis of dyslipidemia has only previously been analyzed using just total cholesterol (TC). To determine clinical inertia in the dyslipidemia diagnosis using both TC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and its associated factors. Cross-sectional. All health center visits in the second half of 2010 in the Valencian Community (Spain). 11,386 nondyslipidemic individuals aged ≥20 years with ≥2 lipid determinations. Gender, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, age, and ESCARVAL training course. Lipid groups: normal (TC<5.17 mmol/L and normal HDL-c [≥1.03 mmol/L in men and ≥1.29 mmol/L in women], TC inertia (TC≥5.17 mmol/L and normal HDL-c), HDL-c inertia (TC<5.17 mmol/L and low HDL-c), and combined inertia (TC≥5.17 mmol/L and low HDL-c). TC inertia: 38.0% (95% CI: 37.2-38.9%); HDL-c inertia: 17.7% (95% CI: 17.0-18.4%); and combined inertia: 9.6% (95% CI: 9.1-10.2%). The profile associated with TC inertia was: female, no cardiovascular risk factors, no cardiovascular disease, middle or advanced age; for HDL-c inertia: female, cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease; and for combined inertia: female, hypertension and middle age. Cross-sectional study, under-reporting, no analysis of some cardiovascular risk factors or other lipid parameters. A more proactive attitude should be adopted, focusing on the full diagnosis of dyslipidemia in clinical practice. Special emphasis should be placed on patients with low HDL-c levels and an increased cardiovascular risk.

  1. Intellectual performance of kidney transplant recipients' offspring: a cross-sectional, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Buenrostro, Luis Eduardo; Alberu, Josefina; Mancilla-Urrea, Eduardo; Vélez-García, Alicia; Espinoza-Pérez, Ramon; Cruz-Santiago, Jose; Parra-Michel, Renato; Parra-Avila, Idalia; Flores-Nava, Gerardo; Caballero-Andrade, Gabriela; Niebla-Cardenas, Alfonssina; Pérez-Avendaño, Roberto; Angulo-Dominguez, Alejandro; Lascarez, Silvia; Sánchez-Román, Sofía

    2017-10-08

    The number of successful pregnancies in kidney transplant (KT) recipients has increased in recent years. Little evidence is available about the risk of in utero immunosuppressive exposure for long-term cognitive consequences. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of immunosuppression during pregnancy on intellectual performance of children born to KT recipients. Using a cross-sectional design, women who had undergone KT and their children (aged 4+ years) were recruited at the outpatient follow-up in five transplant centers. Women who did not receive immunosuppression during pregnancy with similar distributions of socioeconomic status and length of gestation and their children were also recruited. Children were assessed with Wechsler Intelligence Scales. The study sample included 50 exposed and 50 unexposed children. No differences between groups in all the proposed confounding factors were found. Full-scale IQ did not differ significantly between both groups. Also, significant differences in any index or subscale score were not observed, with the exception of time required to complete the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence (WPPSI) Zoo locations subtest, which was done quicker in the unexposed group (p = .007). Exposure to immunosuppression during pregnancy was not a significant predictor of low IQ in logistic regression after adjustment for other factors. Immunosuppression therapy during pregnancy of KT women did not affect global intellectual performance of their offspring, except maybe for visuospatial working memory in preschool children.

  2. Development for the study of a Cross Sectional Measurement of 3He-3He Solar Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudomi, N.; Itahashi, T.; Kume, K.; Takahisa, K.; Yoshida, S.; Ejiri, H.; Toki, H.; Nagai, Y.; Komori, M.; Ohsumi, H.

    2003-04-01

    The design and construction of a low-energy, high current accelerator for the study of fusion reactions are reported. The accelerator can produce an intense beam of 3He1+ and 3He2+ ions of more than 1mA. It enables us to provide extremely fine cross-section measurements of the 3He(3He,2p)α at 40 to 50 keV. A detection efficiency for proposed detector assembly of ΔE-E counter telescope is simulated with GEANT program and it expects a detection efficiency about 10% for the two proton coincidence for 3He+3He→2p+α. Deuter contaminations in target chamber is estimated to be less than ppm by quadrupole mass spectrometer. To further develop the study of nuclear astrophysics, a plasma target as an experimental apparatus for electron screening effects is proposed. Some parts of such apparatus are assembled. A combination ECR plasma target with a high current ion generator is under construction. The facility will be installed in the underground laboratory, Oto Cosmo Observatory. The facility has just started to operate and, as explained here, it already has been used for the double beta decay measurement and dark matter search programs. The present status of the experimental apparatus and its development are described.

  3. Working and Environmental Factors on Job Burnout: A Cross-sectional Study Among Nurses.

    PubMed

    Galletta, Maura; Portoghese, Igor; Ciuffi, Marta; Sancassiani, Federica; Aloja, Ernesto D'; Campagna, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Burnout is a problem that impacts on the staff management costs and on the patient care quality. This work aimed to investigate some psychosocial factors related to burnout. Specifically, we explored the sample characteristics for moderate/high emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional inefficacy, as well as the relationship between both working and environmental variables and burnout. A cross-sectional study involving 307 nurses from one Italian hospital was carried out. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS 19.0. The results showed that there was a significant difference between nurses with low and moderate/high burnout in all the three components in almost all the examined organizational variables. In addition, we found that the aspects of working life had a significant impact on the three dimensions of burnout. The findings of this study not only can provide useful basis for future research in the field, but also can offer practical suggestions for improving nursing practice and promote effective workplace, thus reducing the risk burnout among nurses.

  4. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples' t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8%) of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47-0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16-0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2-3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67-30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%-64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58-0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65-0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27-0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48-0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01-4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57-2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.

  5. Cat scratches, not bites, are associated with unipolar depression--cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2016-01-05

    A recent study performed on 1.3 million patients showed a strong association between being bitten by a cat and probability of being diagnosed with depression. Authors suggested that infection with cat parasite Toxoplasma could be the reason for this association. A cross sectional internet study on a non-clinical population of 5,535 subjects was undertaken. The subjects that reported having been bitten by a dog and a cat or scratched by a cat have higher Beck depression score. They were more likely to have visited psychiatrists, psychotherapists and neurologists in past two years, to have been previously diagnosed with depression (but not with bipolar disorder). Multivariate analysis of models with cat biting, cat scratching, toxoplasmosis, the number of cats at home, and the age of subjects as independent variables showed that only cat scratching had positive effect on depression (p = 0.004). Cat biting and toxoplasmosis had no effect on the depression, and the number of cats at home had a negative effect on depression (p = 0.021). Absence of association between toxoplasmosis and depression and five times stronger association of depression with cat scratching than with cat biting suggests that the pathogen responsible for mood disorders in animals-injured subjects is probably not the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii but another organism; possibly the agent of cat-scratched disease - the bacteria Bartonella henselae.

  6. Smart phone usage and addiction among dental students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Elluru; Jemal, Mohammad Yousef Al; Samani, Abdullah Saleh Al

    2017-04-06

    Purpose The main aim of this research is to explore measures of smart phone usage, smart phone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behavior-related variables among dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross sectional study involving sample of 205 dental students from Qaseem Private College were surveyed for smart phone use and addiction using the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Results Smart phone addiction was seen in 136 (71.9%) of the 189 students. The findings from our study revealed that high stress levels, low physical activity, higher body mass index (BMI), longer duration of smart phone usage, higher frequency of usage, shorter time period until first smart phone use in the morning and social networking sites (SNS) were associated significantly with the smart phone addiction. Conclusion The current research gives the information about the extent of smart phone over usage and addiction among the dental students in Saudi Arabia with indication of the predictors of addiction and the need for further research in the area with comprehensible interpretation to spread the awareness of the smart phone addiction.

  7. The emotional intelligence of pediatric residents – a descriptive cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Scott A.; Sonnenberg, Lyn K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a type of social intelligence. Excellent scores are achieved by displaying high levels of empathy in interpersonal relationships, strong skills in managing stressful situations as well as other personal competencies. Many of the social competencies that EI describes may have a direct impact on patient care. The objective of this study was to describe EI of pediatric residents and to identify if there are EI skills that should be selected for targeted intervention. Methods This was a cross-sectional study administering the EQ-i 2.0© psychometric instrument to pediatric residents at the University of Alberta. Results Thirty-five residents completed the EQ-i 2.0© (100% response rate). Their overall EI score was not significantly different than a normative group of college-educated professionals. Residents had relative strengths in the subcategories of Emotional expression, Interpersonal Relationships, Empathy, and Impulse Control (all p<0.05). Areas of relative weakness were in the subcategories of Stress Tolerance, Assertiveness, Independence, and Problem Solving (all p<0.05). Conclusion The EI of pediatric residents is consistent with that of other professionals. Educational interventions may be useful in the areas of weakness to enhance the physician-patient relationship. PMID:28344715

  8. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in Baotou: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guisen; Li, Yan; Teng, Xuelong; Wu, Qiang; Gong, Hui; Ren, Fengmei; Guo, Yuxia; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Han

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in Baotou, Inner Mongolia.A cross-sectional study was carried out. Multistage sampling was used to select samples. The visual acuity was estimated using LogMAR and corrected by pinhole as best-corrected visual acuity.There were 7000 samples selected and 5770 subjects included in this investigation. The overall bilateral prevalence rates of low vision and blindness were 3.66% (95% CI: 3.17-4.14) and 0.99% (95% CI: 0.73-1.24), respectively. The prevalence of bilateral low vision, blindness, and visual impairment increased with age and decreased with education level. The main leading cause of low vision and blindness was cataract. Diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration were found to be the second leading causes of blindness in Baotou.The low vision and blindness were more prevalent in elderly people and subjects with low education level in Baotou. Cataract was the main cause for visual impairment and more attention should be paid to fundus diseases. In order to prevent blindness, much more eye care programs should be established.

  9. Noise Annoyance in Urban Children: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Grelat, Natacha; Houot, Hélène; Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Defrance, Jérôme; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Mauny, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Acoustical and non-acoustical factors influencing noise annoyance in adults have been well-documented in recent years; however, similar knowledge is lacking in children. The aim of this study was to quantify the annoyance caused by chronic ambient noise at home in children and to assess the relationship between these children′s noise annoyance level and individual and contextual factors in the surrounding urban area. A cross sectional population-based study was conducted including 517 children attending primary school in a European city. Noise annoyance was measured using a self-report questionnaire adapted for children. Six noise exposure level indicators were built at different locations at increasing distances from the child′s bedroom window using a validated strategic noise map. Multilevel logistic models were constructed to investigate factors associated with noise annoyance in children. Noise indicators in front of the child′s bedroom (p ≤ 0.01), family residential satisfaction (p ≤ 0.03) and socioeconomic characteristics of the individuals and their neighbourhood (p ≤ 0.05) remained associated with child annoyance. These findings illustrate the complex relationships between our environment, how we may perceive it, social factors and health. Better understanding of these relationships will undoubtedly allow us to more effectively quantify the actual effect of noise on human health. PMID:27801858

  10. Atopic dermatitis is not associated with actinic keratosis: cross-sectional results from the Rotterdam study.

    PubMed

    Hajdarbegovic, E; Blom, H; Verkouteren, J A C; Hofman, A; Hollestein, L M; Nijsten, T

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal barrier impairment and an altered immune system in atopic dermatitis (AD) may predispose to ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. To study the association between AD and actinic keratosis (AK) in a population-based cross-sectional study. AD was defined by modified criteria of the U.K. working party's diagnostic criteria. AKs were diagnosed by physicians during a full-body skin examination, and keratinocyte cancers were identified via linkage to the national pathology database. The results were analysed in adjusted multivariable and multinomial models. A lower proportion of subjects with AD had AKs than those without AD: 16% vs. 24%, P = 0·002; unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 0·60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·42-0·83; adjusted OR 0·74, 95% CI 0·51-1·05; fully adjusted OR 0·69, 95% CI 0·47-1·07. In a multinomial model patients with AD were less likely to have ≥ 10 AKs (adjusted OR 0·28, 95% CI 0·09-0·90). No effect of AD on basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma was found: adjusted OR 0·71, 95% CI 0·41-1·24 and adjusted OR 1·54, 95% CI 0·66-3·62, respectively. AD in community-dwelling patients is not associated with AK. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Trends in Use of Hair Dye: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dharmistha; Narayana, Sarala; Krishnaswamy, Bhuvana

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the following study was to assess the knowledge, practice, perception and adverse reactions among hair dye users. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients, their attenders and staff of SDUMC. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire (28) pertaining to use of hair dyes and reactions to them was administered randomly. Statistical Analysis: The demographic data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, quantitative data expressed as percentages. Results: A total of 263 volunteers responded of which 52.5% and 47.5% were females and males respectively with mean age of 32.40 ± 6.01 years. The participants started using hair dye at an age of 27 (±3.63) years. Synthetic dyes were used by 91%. Frequency of use in a year was 2-5 times in 51%. Instruction of the package insert was followed by 63.5%. Skin test was never performed in 34% prior to their use. Nearly 96% expressed hair dyeing was unsafe during pregnancy, lactation and in children. Adverse reactions were reported by 42%, with headache (63%) and itching (38%) being the most common. Conclusion: Hair dyeing was started at very early age. Majority used semi-permanent dyes even though they perceived natural dyes were safe. They continued dyeing despite adverse reactions, which indicates cosmetic importance. PMID:24574693

  12. Age-related differences in hair trace elements: a cross-sectional study in Orenburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Demidov, Vasily A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2016-09-01

    Age-related differences in the trace element content of hair have been reported. However, some discrepancies in the data exist. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the change in hair trace elements content in relation to age. Six hundred and eighteen women and 438 men aged from 10-59 years took part in the current cross-sectional study. Hair Cr, Mn, Ni, Si, Al, As, Be, Cd and Pb tended to decrease with age in the female sample, whereas hair Cu, Fe, I, Se, Li and Sn were characterised by an age-associated increase. Hair levels of Cr, Cu, I, Mn, Ni, Si and Al in men decreased with age, whereas hair Co, Fe, Se, Cd, Li and Pb content tended to increase. Hair mercury increased in association with age in men and in women, whereas hair vanadium was characterised by a significant decrease in both sexes. The difference in hair trace element content between men and women decreased with age. These data suggest that age-related differences in trace element status may have a direct implication in the ageing process.

  13. Prevalence of Raynaud phenomenon and nailfold capillaroscopic abnormalities in Fabry disease: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Deshayes, Samuel; Auboire, Laurent; Jaussaud, Roland; Lidove, Olivier; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Triclin, Nathalie; Imbert, Bernard; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille

    2015-05-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal disorder leading to progressive systemic involvement, including microvascular damage that leads to neurological and cardiovascular disorders. We hypothesize that the latter could be documented at an early stage by performing a microcirculation study with nailfold capillaroscopy and evaluation of Raynaud phenomenon.The objective was to measure the prevalence of Raynaud phenomenon and nailfold capillaroscopic abnormalities in FD.This cross-sectional study included a standardized questionnaire and a nailfold capillaroscopy that assessed previously reported patterns in FD (dystrophic and giant capillaries, avascular fields, irregular architecture, dilatation and density of capillaries, hemorrhage), and was conducted on 32 Fabry patients and 39 controls. Capillaroscopic photographs were reviewed by 2 independent blinded investigators.Twelve Fabry patients (38%) suffered from Raynaud phenomenon, 5 were males (ie, 50% of male Fabry patients), compared with 2 controls (13%) (P < 0.001), of whom none were males (P < 0.001). Raynaud phenomenon was concomitant or before the occurrence of pain in the extremities in 42% of Fabry patients.More ramified capillaries were significantly observed in Fabry patients (12/32, 38%) than in controls (5/39, 13%, P = 0.016).Secondary Raynaud phenomenon should lead to screening for FD, especially in men. By extension, in high-risk populations for FD, the presence of Raynaud phenomenon and ramified capillaries should be assessed.

  14. Factors associated with Internet addiction: Cross-sectional study of Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seyrek, Sezen; Cop, Esra; Sinir, Hayati; Ugurlu, Mehmet; Şenel, Saliha

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA), and the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and IA in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional school-based study with a representative sample of 468 students aged 12-17 years at the first trimester of the 2013-2014 academic year. The students were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Conners' Teacher Rating Scale, Hollingshead-Redlich Scale, and the information form including characteristics of Internet use and socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship between these factors and Internet use was examined. Approximately 1.6% of students were identified as having IA, whereas 16.2% had possible IA. There were significant correlations between IA and depression, anxiety, attention disorder and hyperactivity symptoms in adolescents. Smoking was also related to IA. There was no significant relationship between IA and age, sex, body mass index, school type, and SES. Depression, anxiety, ADHD and smoking addiction are associated with PIU in adolescent students. Preventive public health policies targeting the psychological wellbeing of young people are needed. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. Working and Environmental Factors on Job Burnout: A Cross-sectional Study Among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Galletta, Maura; Portoghese, Igor; Ciuffi, Marta; Sancassiani, Federica; Aloja, Ernesto D'; Campagna, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burnout is a problem that impacts on the staff management costs and on the patient care quality. Objective: This work aimed to investigate some psychosocial factors related to burnout. Specifically, we explored the sample characteristics for moderate/high emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional inefficacy, as well as the relationship between both working and environmental variables and burnout. Method: A cross-sectional study involving 307 nurses from one Italian hospital was carried out. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS 19.0. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between nurses with low and moderate/high burnout in all the three components in almost all the examined organizational variables. In addition, we found that the aspects of working life had a significant impact on the three dimensions of burnout. Conclusions: The findings of this study not only can provide useful basis for future research in the field, but also can offer practical suggestions for improving nursing practice and promote effective workplace, thus reducing the risk burnout among nurses. PMID:27990173

  16. Current and maintained health-enhancing physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Bergman, Patrick; Nordgren, Birgitta; Jensen, Irene; Opava, Christina H

    2013-07-01

    To describe and identify the explanatory factors of variation in current and maintained health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this cross-sectional study, current HEPA was assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and maintained HEPA with the Exercise Stage Assessment Instrument, the latter explicitly focusing on both aerobic physical activity and muscle strength training. Sociodemographic, disease-related, and psychosocial data were retrieved from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality (SRQ) registers and a postal questionnaire. The explained variations in the respective HEPA behaviors were analyzed with logistic regression. In all, 3,152 (58.5%) of 5,391 persons identified as eligible from the SRQ registers responded to the questionnaire. Current HEPA was reported by 69%, and maintained HEPA by 11% of the respondents. The most salient and consistent factors explaining variation in both current and maintained HEPA were self-efficacy, social support, and outcome expectations related to physical activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study exploring maintained physical activity in a large well-defined sample of persons with RA. Our results indicate that a minority perform maintained HEPA, including both aerobic physical activity and muscle strength training, and that psychosocial factors are the most salient and consistent in the explanation of HEPA variation. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Knowledge about HIV prevention and transmission among recently diagnosed tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with Tuberculosis (TB) are a vulnerable group for acquiring HIV infection. Therefore, countries with a concentrated HIV epidemic and high prevalence of TB should provide adequate information about HIV prevention to TB patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the level of knowledge on HIV prevention and transmission among newly diagnosed TB patients in Lima, Peru. The survey evaluated knowledge about HIV infection and prevention and was administered before HIV counseling and blood sampling for HIV testing were performed. Results A total of 171 TB patients were enrolled; mean age was 31.1 years, 101 (59%) were male. The overall mean level of knowledge of HIV was 59%; but the specific mean level of knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention was only 33.3% and 41.5%, respectively. Age and level of education correlated with overall level of knowledge in the multivariate model (P-value: 0.02 and <0.001 respectively). Conclusions The study shows inadequate levels of knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention among newly-diagnosed TB patients in this setting, and underscores the need for implementing educational interventions in this population. PMID:24373517

  18. The emotional intelligence of pediatric residents - a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Scott A; Sonnenberg, Lyn K

    2017-02-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a type of social intelligence. Excellent scores are achieved by displaying high levels of empathy in interpersonal relationships, strong skills in managing stressful situations as well as other personal competencies. Many of the social competencies that EI describes may have a direct impact on patient care. The objective of this study was to describe EI of pediatric residents and to identify if there are EI skills that should be selected for targeted intervention. This was a cross-sectional study administering the EQ-i 2.0© psychometric instrument to pediatric residents at the University of Alberta. Thirty-five residents completed the EQ-i 2.0© (100% response rate). Their overall EI score was not significantly different than a normative group of college-educated professionals. Residents had relative strengths in the subcategories of Emotional expression, Interpersonal Relationships, Empathy, and Impulse Control (all p<0.05). Areas of relative weakness were in the subcategories of Stress Tolerance, Assertiveness, Independence, and Problem Solving (all p<0.05). The EI of pediatric residents is consistent with that of other professionals. Educational interventions may be useful in the areas of weakness to enhance the physician-patient relationship.

  19. Hematologic features among anemic Cameroonian pregnant women: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nkwabong, Elie; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Iron deficiency anemia is the leading cause of anemia worldwide. It may also be the leading cause of anemia in pregnancy, although this has not yet been demonstrated in our country. The aim of the study was to describe hematologic features of Cameroonian anemic pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional analytical study was carried out in the maternity of the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon, from March 1st, 2011 to February 28th, 2013. Two hundred women with singleton pregnancies and Hb concentration at booking <10 g/dl were recruited. Main variables recorded were maternal age, parity, marital status, gestational age, Hb concentration, blood group, Hb electrophoresis, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), pack cell volume (PCV). Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Figures for 110 women (55%) showed microcytosis, hypochromia was observed in 122 (61%) women and megaloblastic anemia in eight women (4%). Thrombopenia was observed in 16 women (8%) and thrombocytosis in six women (3%). Anemia was microcytic hypochromic in 110 women (55%), megaloblastic in eight women (4%), normocytic hypochromic in 12 women (6%), and normocytic normochromic in 70 women (35%). Conclusion Hematologic features of Cameroonian anemic pregnant women showed that although iron deficiency anemia is the leading cause of anemia, megaloblastic anemia is also present in our environment. A normal hematologic feature in more than the third of women shows that the cause of anemia is not always nutritional. PMID:27386037

  20. Hematologic features among anemic Cameroonian pregnant women: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nkwabong, Elie; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the leading cause of anemia worldwide. It may also be the leading cause of anemia in pregnancy, although this has not yet been demonstrated in our country. The aim of the study was to describe hematologic features of Cameroonian anemic pregnant women. This cross sectional analytical study was carried out in the maternity of the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon, from March 1(st), 2011 to February 28(th), 2013. Two hundred women with singleton pregnancies and Hb concentration at booking <10 g/dl were recruited. Main variables recorded were maternal age, parity, marital status, gestational age, Hb concentration, blood group, Hb electrophoresis, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), pack cell volume (PCV). Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Figures for 110 women (55%) showed microcytosis, hypochromia was observed in 122 (61%) women and megaloblastic anemia in eight women (4%). Thrombopenia was observed in 16 women (8%) and thrombocytosis in six women (3%). Anemia was microcytic hypochromic in 110 women (55%), megaloblastic in eight women (4%), normocytic hypochromic in 12 women (6%), and normocytic normochromic in 70 women (35%). Hematologic features of Cameroonian anemic pregnant women showed that although iron deficiency anemia is the leading cause of anemia, megaloblastic anemia is also present in our environment. A normal hematologic feature in more than the third of women shows that the cause of anemia is not always nutritional.

  1. Assessment of Nutrition Competency of Graduating Agriculture Students in Ethiopia: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Mesfin G; Tariku, Mebit K; Yitaferu, Tadele B; Shiferaw, Ephrem D; Desta, Firew A; Yimer, Endris M; Akassa, Kefyalew M; Thompson, Elizabeth C

    2017-04-01

    To assess the level of nutrition-sensitive agriculture competencies of graduating midlevel animal and plant sciences students in Ethiopia and identify factors associated with the attainment of competencies. A cross-sectional study design using structured skills observation checklists, objective written questions, and structured questionnaires was employed. Two agriculture technical vocational education and training colleges in the 2 regions of Ethiopia. A total of 145 students were selected using stratified random sampling techniques from a population of 808 students with the response rate of 93%. Nutrition-sensitive agriculture competency (knowledge and skills attributes) of graduating students. Bivariate and multivariable statistical analyses were used to examine the association between the variables of students' gender, age, department, institutional ownership, and perception of learning environment and their performance in nutrition competency. Combined scores showed that 49% of students demonstrated mastery of nutrition competencies. Gender and institutional ownership were associated with the performance of students (P < .001); male students and students at a federal institution performed better. The study showed low performance of students in nutrition competency and suggested the need for strengthening the curriculum, building tutors' capacity, and providing additional support to female students and regional colleges. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergency and trauma care in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study of healthcare levels

    PubMed Central

    Razzak, Junaid A; Baqir, Syed M; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Heller, David; Bhatti, Junaid; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of emergency medical care for the successful functioning of health systems has been increasingly recognised. This study aimed to evaluate emergency and trauma care facilities in four districts of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Method We conducted a cross-sectional health facility survey in four districts of the province of Sindh in Pakistan using a modified version of WHO’s Guidelines for essential trauma care. 93 public health facilities (81 primary care facilities, nine secondary care hospitals, three tertiary hospitals) and 12 large private hospitals were surveyed. Interviews of healthcare providers and visual inspections of essential equipment and supplies as per guidelines were performed. A total of 141 physicians providing various levels of care were tested for their knowledge of basic emergency care using a validated instrument. Results Only 4 (44%) public secondary, 3 (25%) private secondary hospitals and all three tertiary care hospitals had designated emergency rooms. The majority of primary care health facilities had less than 60% of all essential equipments overall. Most of the secondary level public hospitals (78%) had less than 60% of essential equipments, and none had 80% or more. A fourth of private secondary care facilities and all tertiary care hospitals (n=3; 100%) had 80% or more essential equipments. The average percentage score on the physician knowledge test was 30%. None of the physicians scored above 60% correct responses. Conclusions The study findings demonstrated a gap in both essential equipment and provider knowledge necessary for effective emergency and trauma care. PMID:24157684

  3. Tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Curto, Ariadna; Fernández, Esteve

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis in the city of Barcelona in Spain. Design setting and participants We carried out an observational cross-sectional study in 2011. We selected a systematic sample of 2442 private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis on 40 public roads regulated by traffic lights in all 10 districts of Barcelona. We calculated the prevalence rates and 95% CIs of smoking and SHS exposure in cars, and the corresponding ORs adjusting for the potential confounding variables. Results The prevalence of tobacco consumption was 5.5% (95% CI 4.6% to 6.4%) and was greater for commercial vehicles (9.8%; 95% CI 7.1% to 12.5%). The prevalence of SHS exposure was 5.2% (95% CI 3.8% to 6.6%) and 2.2% (95% CI 0.5% to 3.9%) of passengers under 14 years of age were exposed to SHS in vehicles. Conclusions This study highlights the need to promote public health measures aimed at reducing tobacco consumption in vehicles, especially in the presence of children, as well as enforcement of the current Spanish law against smoking in commercial vehicles and taxis. PMID:22119753

  4. Association Between Sagittal Balance and Scoliosis in Patients with Parkinson Disease: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Bissolotti, Luciano; Donzelli, Sabrina; Gobbo, Massimiliano; Zaina, Fabio; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the association between scoliosis and sagittal balance parameters in Parkinson disease patients. This is a cross-sectional study. Fifty percent of the cohort presented a scoliosis larger than 11 degrees; 84% of the patients with scoliosis presented a thoracolumbar curve, 10% presented a thoracic one, and 6% presented a lumbar one. The group with scoliosis curves presented a lower spinosacral angle (111.6 [21.9] degrees vs. 121.7 [9.8] degrees, P < 0.05), whereas thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and spinopelvic angle were similar. Pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, and sacral slope were not statistically different. In the scoliosis group, the authors found negative correlations for lumbar lordosis/spinopelvic angle, sacral slope/spinosacral angle, and lumbar lordosis/pelvic tilt. Moreover, the sacral slope/pelvic tilt correlation was positive in patients without scoliosis and negative in others. The two groups did not present differences regarding age, years of disease, Hoehn-Yahr score, and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-motor section. Pelvic parameters were similar in the two groups, whereas spinosacral angle was lower in patients with scoliosis. The prevalence of scoliosis in Parkinson disease was higher than what was previously described and the thoracolumbar spine was the mostly affected.

  5. Exposure to hepatitis C virus in homeless men in Central Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Priscilla Martins; Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Souza, Christiane Moreira; Guimarães, Lara Cristina da Cunha; Barros, Cleiciane Vieira de Lima; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Rezza, Giovanni; Spadoni, Lila; Brunini, Sandra Maria

    2017-01-18

    Homeless men are highly vulnerable to acquisition of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) compared to the general population. In Brazil, a country of continental dimensions, the extent of HCV infection in this population remains unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiological profile of exposure to HCV in homeless men in Central Brazil. A Cross-sectional study was conducted in 481 men aged over 18 years attending therapeutic communities specialized in the recovery and reintegration of homeless people. Participants were tested for anti-HCV markers using rapid tests. Poisson regression analysis was used to verify the risk factors associated with exposure to HCV. The prevalence of HCV exposure was 2.5% (95.0% CI: 1.4 to 4.3%) and was associated with age, absence of family life, injection drug use, number of sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Participants reported multiple risk behaviors, such as alcohol (78.9%), cocaine (37.1%) and/or crack use (53.1%), and inconsistent condom use (82.6%). Injection drug use was reported by 8.7% of participants. The prevalence of HCV infection among homeless men was relatively high. Several risk behaviors were commonly reported, which shows the high vulnerability of this population. These findings emphasize the need for the development of specific strategies to reduce the risk of HCV among homeless men.

  6. Phenotypic comparison of Caucasian and Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Erica T; Kao, Chia-Ning; Shinkai, Kanade; Pasch, Lauri; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather G

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), particularly androgen excess, differ between Caucasian and Asian women in the San Francisco Bay Area. Cross-sectional study. Multidisciplinary PCOS clinic at a tertiary academic center. 121 Caucasian and 28 Asian women, aged 18-44, examined between 2006 and 2011 with PCOS verified by a reproductive endocrinologist and dermatologist according to the Rotterdam criteria. Transvaginal ultrasounds, comprehensive dermatologic exams, and serum testing. Hirsutism defined as a modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score ≥ 8, acne, androgenic alopecia, and biochemical hyperandrogenism. Caucasian and Asian women had a similar prevalence of all measures of androgen excess. Both groups had similar total mFG scores and site-specific mFG scores, except Asian women had a lower site-specific mFG score for the chest. Although Asian women were more likely to use laser hair removal, the results were unchanged when the women with a history of laser hair removal were excluded. Caucasian and Asian women with PCOS living in the same geographic region had a similar prevalence of hirsutism as well as other markers for androgen excess. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the need for ethnic-specific mFG scores in women with PCOS. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol Consumption among Students--A Cross-Sectional Study at Three Largest Universities in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Višnjić, Aleksandar; Jović, Sladjana; Grbeša, Grozdanko

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use among university students is increasing in many countries. The aim of the study was to investigate alcohol consumption and alcohol-related knowledge, attitudes and risky behaviors among Serbian university students. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the three state universities from January to June in the academic year 2009/2010 and included 2,285 students of both genders. The students filled out a questionnaire consisting of 70 questions with respect to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, their lifestyle habits, styles and attitudes, health assessment, as well as exposure to different risk factors. It was found that 77.7% of students drank alcohol occasionally, 4.6% of them consumed it on a daily basis. Friedman's test (p < 0.001) showed that students prefer drinking beer to all other alcoholic beverages. Students in Belgrade and students of Technical faculties are undisputed champions when it comes to how often they drink six or more drinks on a single occasion. Older students in Serbia drink more and get drunk more frequently. A high percentage of Serbian students consume alcohol, and even though they have their first drink at an early age, they generally drink less than students in many other countries.

  8. Gaps in awareness of peripheral arterial disease in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weragoda, Janaka; Weerasinghe, Manuj C; Seneviratne, Rohini; Wijeyaratne, S M

    2016-10-12

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an emerging problem in Sri Lanka, particularly with the ageing population. A considerable number of patients are detected at a late stage with severe limb ischemia or chronic non-healing leg ulceration. Public awareness about PAD is important in developing preventive strategies. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess awareness of PAD among adults aged 40-74 years in a district in Sri Lanka. In total, 2912 adults were selected for the study using a multistage probability proportionate to size sampling technique. Data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Participants who were aware of PAD were asked about common risk factors, possible consequences of untreated PAD, and sources of information. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent predictors of PAD awareness. We found that 4.1 % of participants were aware of PAD (95 % confidence interval: 3.4-4.8), which was significantly lower than awareness of other cardiovascular diseases such as cerebrovascular accidents (67.3 %) and myocardial infarction (57.6 %) (p < 0.001). Being male, an urban resident, and having a higher level of education were independent predictors of high PAD awareness. Our findings suggest that a comprehensive PAD awareness program that covers risk factors, consequences, and preventative strategies is needed to enhance public awareness of PAD.

  9. Association between walking, dysphoric mood and anxiety in late pregnancy: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Danica; Perovic, Milan; Lazovic, Biljana; Pantic, Igor

    2016-12-30

    Relationship between physical activity and mental disorders in late pregnancy is unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that there is a significant association between the time spent on walking and symptoms of depression and anxiety in antenatal period. The cross-sectional study was done on a sample of 200 healthy women in 9th month of physiological pregnancy at Health center Kraljevo, Serbia during 2015. Each participant was given a questionnaire consisting of general questions regarding physical activity, pregnancy, and other parameters. Also, each participant completed a Beck depression inventory (BDI) and Zung anxiety scale (ZAS). There was a statistically significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the BDI score and the daily time spent on walking. There was also a strong positive connection between the daily time spent on walking and level of anxiety (p<0.01). To our knowledge this is the first study to jointly test the relationship between scores of Beck depression inventory and Zung anxiety scale, and time spent on walking as physical activity in antenatal period. The results represent the basis for further research in the field of gynecological psychology, psychiatry and behavioral physiology.

  10. Hypersomnolence and accidents in truck drivers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Rachel S N; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco P; Bastos, João Paulo C; Maia, Werllen S; de Mello, Marco Túlio; de Bruin, Veralice M S; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe C

    2006-01-01

    Truck drivers are more likely to suffer severe injury and death due to certain truck driving characteristics. Identifying and preventing factors associated with accidents in this population is important to minimize damage and improve road safety. Excessive daytime sleepiness is a major public health problem, leading to impaired cognitive function, reduced alertness, and increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypersomnolence (defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score greater than 10) among truck drivers. Three hundred male truck drivers were studied. Quality of sleep was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the association between demographic, clinical, and occupational data with excessive sleepiness was analyzed. The mean daily sleep duration was 5.6+/-1.3 h, and poor quality of sleep was found in 46.3% of the individuals. Hypersomnolence was found in 46% of the drivers and was associated with younger age, snoring, and working >10 h without rest. A positive correlation between hypersomnolence and previous accidents was detected (p=0.005). These results show that sleep deprivation and hypersomnolence are frequent among truck drivers. The treatment of sleep-disordered breathing and the implementation of educational programs, particularly targeting younger drivers and promoting increased awareness of the deleterious effects of sleep loss and work overload, may help to reduce hypersomnolence and accidents among truck drivers.

  11. Attitudes of Australian chiropractic students toward whole body donation: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Michelle; Marten, Mathew; Stewart, Ella; Serafin, Stanley; Štrkalj, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Cadavers play an important role in anatomy education. In Australia, bodies for anatomy education are acquired only through donations. To gain insight into educational dynamics in an anatomy laboratory as well as to facilitate body donation programs and thanksgiving ceremonies, it is important to understand students' attitudes toward body donation. In this cross-sectional study, the attitudes of Macquarie University's first, second, and fifth year chiropractic students toward body donation were investigated. Macquarie University chiropractic students have a four semester long anatomy program, which includes cadaver-based instruction on prosected specimens. A questionnaire was used to record respondents' demographics and attitudes toward body donation: personal, by a relative, and by a stranger. It was found that ethnicity and religion affect attitudes toward body donation, with Australian students being more willing to donate a stranger's body and atheists and agnostics being more willing to donate in general. Furthermore, willingness to donate one's own or a family member's body decreases as year of study increases, suggesting a possible negative impact of exposure to cadavers in the anatomy laboratory. This was only true, however, after controlling for age. Thus, the impact of viewing and handling prosected specimens, which is the norm in anatomy classes in Australia, may not be as strong as dissecting cadavers. It is suggested that anatomists and educators prepare students for cadaver-based instruction as well as exhibit sensitivity to cultural differences in how students approach working with cadavers, when informing different communities about body donation programs and in devising thanksgiving ceremonies.

  12. Drug use, mental health and problems related to crime and violence: cross-sectional study1

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Heloísa Garcia; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; Bourdreaux, Janet Titus; Fernandes, Ivan Filipe de Almeida Lopes; Pinho, Paula Hayasi; Tarifa, Rosana Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the correlation between disorders related to the use of alcohol and other drugs and symptoms of mental disorders, problems related to crime and violence and to age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study carried out with 128 users of a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other Drugs, in the city of São Paulo, interviewed by means of the instrument entitled Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Short Screener. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to verify the correlation between the variables. Results: using univariate regression models, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and problems related to crime/violence proved significant and were included in the multiple model, in which only the internalizing symptoms and problems related to crime and violence remained significant. Conclusions: there is a correlation between the severity of problems related to alcohol use and severity of mental health symptoms and crime and violence in the study sample. The results emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary and intersectional character of attention to users of alcohol and other drugs, since they live in a socially vulnerable environment. PMID:26626010

  13. Factors associated with institutional delivery in Dangila district, North West Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Negusie, Azezu Asres

    2016-03-01

    Childbirth in a health institution has been shown to be associated with lower rates of maternal and neonatal mortality. However, about 85% of mothers in Ethiopia deliver at home. To assess factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among women who gave birth within one year prior to the study in Dangila district. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01-28, 2015. A total of 763 mothers were interviewed using structured questionnaire. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis. Crude and adjusted Odds ratios were computed for selected variables. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistical significant. Only 18.3% of mothers gave birth at health facilities. Knowledge on danger signs [AOR=2.0, 95% CI: (1.1, 3.4)], plan to give birth at health institution [AOR=5.4, 95% CI: (3.0, 9.6)], having ANC follow up during pregnancy [AOR=12.9, 95% CI: (5.0, 33.3)] and time taken to get to a nearby health institution [AOR=5.1, 95% CI: (2.9, 9.1)] were associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Institutional delivery was very low. Knowledge about danger signs, having ANC visits, and time were factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Thus, the findings recommend repeated re-enforcement of institutional delivery service utilization through professionals. And also, the findings recommend promotion of institutional delivery service utilization through mass media.

  14. Korean public opinion on alcohol control policy: a cross-sectional International Alcohol Control study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seonwha; Chun, Sungsoo; Newell, Maxine; Yun, Mieun

    2015-01-01

    To examine Korean public opinions toward alcohol control measures on availability, advertisement, drink-driving and pricing policy, and how the views on alcohol control policy vary by demographics, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments. The study used national-based, cross-sectional data collected in 2012 as part of the International Alcohol Control study. 2510 people (M: 1163, F: 1261) aged 15-65 and living in geographically diverse regions of Korea completed the questionnaire asking the support of 12 alcohol control measures. Generally, targeted measures (purchase age of 20 and drink-driving) were more popular than universal (availability, advertisement and price) among Koreans. Gender, age, marital status, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments related to alcohol use of young and heavy drinkers were strong predictors of the opinions on most of the alcohol control measures. It was daily/weekly drinkers who opposed most restrictions on alcohol availability and price and the support from individuals who are more aware of problems with drinking in public place was outstanding in every control measure. These findings should be taken into account by Korean policy-makers as they formulate an alcohol policy for the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination of the elderly in Spain: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Angela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Torner, Núria; Force, Luis; Castilla, Jesús; Mayoral, José María; Tamames, Sonia; Martín, Vicente; Egurrola, Mikel; Sanz, Francisco; Astray, Jenaro; Project PI12/02079 Working Group

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccination of the elderly is an important factor in limiting the impact of pneumonia in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized for causes unrelated to pneumonia, acute respiratory disease, or influenza-like illness in Spain. We made a cross-sectional study during 2013-2014. A bivariate analysis was performed comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, taking into account sociodemographic variables and risk medical conditions. A multivariate analysis was performed using multilevel regression models. 921 patients were included; 403 (43.8%) had received the pneumococcal vaccine (394 received the polysaccharide vaccine). Visiting the general practitioner ≥ 3 times during the last year (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.25-2.57); having received the influenza vaccination in the 2013-14 season (OR = 2.57; 95% CI 1.72-3.84) or in any of the 3 previous seasons (OR = 11.70; 95% CI 7.42-18.45) were associated with receiving the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage of hospitalized elderly people is low. The elderly need to be targeted about pneumococcal vaccination and activities that encourage healthcare workers to proactively propose vaccination might be useful. Educational campaigns aimed at the elderly could also help to increase vaccination coverages and reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease in the community. PMID:27064311

  16. Impact of Patellar Tendinopathy on Knee Proprioception: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rui; Ferreira, João; Silva, Diogo; Rodrigues, Elisa; Bessa, Isabel M; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether high-level athletes with patellar tendinopathy have diminished knee proprioceptive acuity. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory (institutional). Twenty-one basketball and volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy (13 men and 8 women; mean age 24.5 ± 3.6; body mass index = 22.5 ± 2.0 kg/m) and an equal number of athletes without symptoms of patellar tendinopathy injury were included in this study. Participants underwent knee proprioception assessments on a single day. Furthermore, age, sex, height, weight, VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment) questionnaire sports participation, medical history, knee injuries, previous treatment, and medication were obtained. Knee proprioception was evaluated by assessing sense of resistance, using a weight discrimination protocol, and joint position sense (JPS). No significant differences were observed in JPS at 30 and 60 degrees of knee flexion between groups (P = 0.165 and 0.481, respectively). In regard to the ability to discriminate weight, significant differences between the 2 groups were found with the tendinopathy group showing a higher percentage of error (P = 0.009), namely when the set of incremental weights varied by 10% from the standard weight. Athletes with patellar tendinopathy have a diminished perception of force signals required for weight discrimination, whereas JPS remains unaffected in these athletes.

  17. Minimum effective dosages of anti-TNF in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Inmaculada; Valor, Lara; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Montoro, María; Carreño, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the modified dosages of anti-TNF in controlling disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) measured by DAS28-ESR. Cross-sectional study: RA patients treated with etanercept (ETN), adalimumab (ADA) or infliximab (IFX), at standard or modified doses. dosage, concomitant disease modifying drugs (DMARDs), DAS28-ESR. 195 RA patients included (79% women, mean age 58.1 years): ETN=81, ADA=56, IFX=58. Mean disease duration and time to first biological treatment was higher in IFX group (P=.01). Patients distribution by dosage: standard: ETN (72.8%), ADA (69.6%), IFX (27.6%); escalated: IFX (69%), ADA (5.4%), ETN (0%); reduced: ETN (27.1%), ADA (25%), IFX (3.4%). Concomitant DMARDs use was lower in ETN (58.2%) than ADA (66.07%) and IFX (79.31%). Higher proportion of responders (DAS28 ≤3.2) in ADA (65.3%) and ETN (61.7%) than IFX (48.3%). RA clinical control can be preserved with modified anti-TNF dosages. Controlled prospective studies should be performed to define when therapy can be tailored and for which patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Awareness and Performance of Iranian Nurses with Regard to Health Economics: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Abbas; Mazloom, Reza; Najar, Ali Vafaee; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Health costs have risen everywhere, worldwide, and nurses play a pivotal role in cost savings and in contributing to the financial stability of hospitals. This study evaluated the awareness and performance of Iranian nursing staff, with regard to health economics. A total of 175 nurses who worked in three teaching hospitals in Mashhad (Iran) were selected for this descriptive cross-sectional study, and data were gathered via a 27-item questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, multiple regression analysis, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. A total of 78% (n = 39) of nurses did not have a good awareness of health economics. The overall mean score for economic awareness was 5.9 ± 2.1 (possible range, 0-16), and for economic performance was 26.6 ± 4 (possible range, 0-44). There was a significant relationship between the economic awareness and performance of nurses, and nurses in higher positions had a greater awareness of health economics. Considering the inadequacy of the health economics awareness and performance of nurses, it is essential that efforts are made to enhance their knowledge and behavior with regard to economic issues and cost saving in all the fields of nursing, through the use of continuing education courses and workshops.

  19. Awareness and Performance of Iranian Nurses with Regard to Health Economics: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Mazloom, Reza; Najar, Ali Vafaee; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health costs have risen everywhere, worldwide, and nurses play a pivotal role in cost savings and in contributing to the financial stability of hospitals. Aim: This study evaluated the awareness and performance of Iranian nursing staff, with regard to health economics. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 nurses who worked in three teaching hospitals in Mashhad (Iran) were selected for this descriptive cross-sectional study, and data were gathered via a 27-item questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, multiple regression analysis, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 78% (n = 39) of nurses did not have a good awareness of health economics. The overall mean score for economic awareness was 5.9 ± 2.1 (possible range, 0-16), and for economic performance was 26.6 ± 4 (possible range, 0-44). There was a significant relationship between the economic awareness and performance of nurses, and nurses in higher positions had a greater awareness of health economics. Conclusions: Considering the inadequacy of the health economics awareness and performance of nurses, it is essential that efforts are made to enhance their knowledge and behavior with regard to economic issues and cost saving in all the fields of nursing, through the use of continuing education courses and workshops. PMID:26605201

  20. Iranian Nurses’ Views on Barriers and Facilitators in Patient Education: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanli, Somayeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a major factor in patient-centered care, patient education has a great impact on the quality of care provided by nurses; however, clinical nurses’ performance with regard to patient education is not satisfactory. This study is an attempt to investigate barriers and facilitators in patient education from nurses’ point of view. Methods: 122 nurses at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences participated in this descriptive-cross sectional study. Sampling was based on the census method. The questionnaire used to collect data included questions about nurses’ demography, barriers (10 questions), and facilitators (10 questions) in patient education. The questionnaire was designed to be completed independently. To analyze the data, the researchers used descriptive statistics, including frequency, mean and standard deviation. Results: The highest scores related to barriers to patient education were: nurses’ insufficient knowledge, patients’ physical and emotional unpreparedness, and lack of a proper environment for education. The most important facilitators, on the other hand, were: enhancement of instructing nurses’ knowledge and skills, motivating nurses, and a step-by-step approach to patient education. Conclusion: It is important that nurses be prepared and motivated to train their patients. By satisfactory patient education on the part of nurses, patients will be more willing to cooperate in the treatment process. PMID:26156926

  1. Serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels across different ethnic groups: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bhide, P; Gudi, A; Shah, A; Homburg, R

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether ethnic differences in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) exist in a population of subfertile women presenting to a fertility clinic. Observational cross-sectional study. Homerton University Hospital Fertility Centre, London, UK. A total of 865 women attending the fertility clinic for their first consultation appointment between September 2012 and September 2013. Serum AMH was compared amongst women from five different ethnic groups. Serum AMH and ethnicity were the primary outcome variables. Although initial comparison showed South Asian women to have a higher serum AMH, compared with white European and Afro-Caribbean women (F = 3.817; P < 0.005), South Asian women attending the clinic were significantly younger and less likely to be smokers than women from other ethnic groups. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was significantly higher in South Asian and South East Asian women than in other ethnic groups. Differences in serum AMH were no longer significant after controlling for confounding factors: age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status with (P = 0.869) and without (P = 0.215) controlling for PCOS. The results from our study show that there was no independent association of ethnicity and serum AMH levels in an unselected population of women attending the fertility clinic. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination of the elderly in Spain: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Angela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Torner, Núria; Force, Luis; Castilla, Jesús; Mayoral, José María; Tamames, Sonia; Martín, Vicente; Egurrola, Mikel; Sanz, Francisco; Astray, Jenaro; Project Pi12/02079 Working Group

    2016-07-02

    Vaccination of the elderly is an important factor in limiting the impact of pneumonia in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized for causes unrelated to pneumonia, acute respiratory disease, or influenza-like illness in Spain. We made a cross-sectional study during 2013-2014. A bivariate analysis was performed comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, taking into account sociodemographic variables and risk medical conditions. A multivariate analysis was performed using multilevel regression models. 921 patients were included; 403 (43.8%) had received the pneumococcal vaccine (394 received the polysaccharide vaccine). Visiting the general practitioner ≥ 3 times during the last year (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.25-2.57); having received the influenza vaccination in the 2013-14 season (OR = 2.57; 95% CI 1.72-3.84) or in any of the 3 previous seasons (OR = 11.70; 95% CI 7.42-18.45) were associated with receiving the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage of hospitalized elderly people is low. The elderly need to be targeted about pneumococcal vaccination and activities that encourage healthcare workers to proactively propose vaccination might be useful. Educational campaigns aimed at the elderly could also help to increase vaccination coverages and reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease in the community.

  3. Health impact of chest binding among transgender adults: a community-engaged, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Peitzmeier, Sarah; Gardner, Ivy; Weinand, Jamie; Corbet, Alexandra; Acevedo, Kimberlynn

    2017-01-01

    Chest binding involves the compression of chest tissue for masculine gender expression among people assigned a female sex at birth, particularly transgender and gender non-conforming individuals. There are no peer-reviewed studies that directly assess the health impacts of chest binding, yet transgender community resources commonly discuss symptoms such as pain and scarring. A cross-sectional 32-item survey was administered online to an anonymous, non-random sample of adults who were assigned a female sex at birth and had had experience of binding (n = 1800). Multivariate regression models were used to identify practices associated with self-reported health outcomes. Of participants, 51.5% reported daily binding. Over 97% reported at least one of 28 negative outcomes attributed to binding. Frequency (days/week) was consistently associated with negative outcomes (22/28 outcomes). Compression methods associated with symptoms were commercial binders (20/28), elastic bandages (14/28) and duct tape or plastic wrap (13/28). Larger chest size was primarily associated with dermatological problems. Binding is a frequent activity for many transmasculine individuals, despite associated symptoms. Study findings offer evidence of how binding practices may enhance or reduce risk. Clinicians caring for transmasculine patients should assess binding practices and help patients manage risk.

  4. Patients’ Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zirak, Mohammad; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Aliafsari Mamaghani, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients’ dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a) demographic characteristics, and (b) patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13) software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation) of total score of patient’s dignity was 108.17 (25.28). According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2%) were not aware of patient’s rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients’ dignity. PMID:28299297

  5. Cross-sectional study of antimicrobials used for surgical prophylaxis by bovine veterinary practitioners in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hardefeldt, Laura Y; Browning, Glen F; Thursky, Karin A; Gilkerson, James R; Billman-Jacobe, Helen; Stevenson, Mark A; Bailey, Kirsten E

    2017-09-11

    Antimicrobials are widely used in veterinary practices, but there has been no investigation of antimicrobial classes used or the appropriateness of their use in bovine practice. This study investigated antimicrobial use for surgical prophylaxis in bovine practice in Australia. A cross-sectional study of veterinarian antimicrobial usage patterns was conducted using an online questionnaire. Information solicited included respondent's details, the frequency with which antimicrobials were used for specific surgical conditions (including the dose, timing and duration of therapy) and details of practice antimicrobial use policies and sources of information about antimicrobials. In total, 212 members of the Australian veterinary profession working in bovine practice completed the survey. Antimicrobials were always or frequently used by more than 75 per cent of respondents in all scenarios. Generally, antimicrobial drug choice was appropriate for the reported surgical conditions. Procaine penicillin and oxytetracycline accounted for 93 per cent of use. However, there was a wide range of doses used, with underdosing and inappropriate timing of administration being common reasons for inappropriate prophylactic treatment. There was very low use of critically important antimicrobials (3.3 per cent of antimicrobials reported). Antimicrobial use guidelines need to be developed and promoted to improve the responsible use of antimicrobials in bovine practice. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Late Neurosyphilis and Tertiary Syphilis in Guangdong Province, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weiming; Huang, Shujie; Chen, Lei; Yang, Ligang; Tucker, Joseph D.; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Due to challenges in diagnosis and the need for complex laboratory tests, misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis is common in China. We validated the diagnosis and examined the treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis in Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases reported between 2009 and 2014 in Guangdong, China. Descriptive analysis, bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the structural factors associated with correct diagnosis and standard treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis. Among the 3805 respondents (3805/3936, 96.7%), 1,837 (48.3%) met the misdiagnosed criteria. The misdiagnosis rate decreased over the study period (54.2% in 2009 and 41.8% in 2014). Only 27.1% and 24.9% of the correctly diagnosed late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases received standard treatment, respectively. Multiple logistic regression revealed that departments of dermatology or STDs [aOR = 3.24, 95% CI: 2.66–3.95], county or township level hospitals [aOR = 2.89, 95% CI: 2.14–3.89], and hospitals situated outside of Pearl River Delta area [aOR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.46–1.97] had higher likelihood in misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis, compared to the reference groups. Targeted trainings for physicians and expanded syphilis screening services are urgently needed. PMID:28338084

  7. Readiness of hospital nurses for disaster responses in Taiwan: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Feng, Hsin-Pei; Cheng, Wei-Tung; Lin, Chia-Huei; Chiang, Li-Chi; Pai, Lu; Lee, Chun-Lan

    2016-12-01

    Because patients in disaster areas require the most critical care, mobilising hospital nurses has become a pivotal strategy. Given the importance of disaster nursing training programmes, understanding how well prepared hospital nurses are to provide disaster care is vital. This paper analyses the perceived readiness of hospital nurses for a disaster response and the factors influencing their report for work outside the hospital environment. A cross-sectional research design was used. This study was conducted at a military hospital in Taiwan. A sample of 311 registered nurses participated in this study. Data were collected on readiness for disaster responses using a 40-item researcher-designed, self-administered questionnaire found to have satisfactory reliability and validity. The questionnaire has four domains: personal preparation (16 items), self-protection (11 items), emergency response (6 items), and clinical management (7 items). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, independent t-tests and generalised linear models. The majority of hospital nurses demonstrated poor readiness for disaster responses. Scores on the four domains were most associated with nurses' disaster-related training, experience in disaster response and emergency/intensive care experience. Our results indicate that disaster-related training should be included in undergraduate programmes and continuing education courses to help hospital nurses recognise and improve their own readiness for disaster responses outside the hospital environment. Future research is needed to improve hospital nurses' disaster-response readiness in Taiwan and other countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of chronic venous disease by general practitioners in Serbia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dunic, Ivana; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Maksimovic, Milos; Radak, Djordje

    2014-03-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is one of the most prevalent medical conditions in the general population worldwide. To evaluate the management of CVD provided by general practitioners (GPs). The 2-center cross-sectional study comprised 2284 patients with CVD diagnosed and treated by GPs. Demographic and clinical data were obtained by physical examinations and standardized interviews. Patients were counseled about different types of therapy; lifestyle advice was recommended to 88.8%, venoactive drugs to 90.8%, compression therapy to 44.0% of patients, anticoagulants to 16.7%, surgical treatment to 8.3%, and other types of therapy were recommended to 7.8% of patients. The most common types of treatment were dual and triple therapies recommended to 39.5% and 33.1%, respectively. The number of therapies recommended to patients increased with CVD progression. Treatment was not recommended to < 1% of patients. Only 8.4% of patients were referred to a vein specialist. Although GPs had undergone special medical training about CVD before they were included in the study, some patients did not receive complete management of their condition. Continuous training of GPs and clinical guidelines for the management of CVD may help GPs to make adequate decisions.

  9. Dental pain in the medical emergency department: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Currie, C C; Stone, S J; Connolly, J; Durham, J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the number of patients attending a medical emergency department (MED) with dental problems over a three-year period. This cross-sectional study was carried out as part of a service evaluation. Data were collected via a database search of patient attendances at the MED using free text and the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) for oral and dental diagnoses. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-squared tests. Over the three-year period, there were 2504 visits to the MED for dental-related complaints, accounting for 0·7% of all attendances. The majority of patients were male (53·9%), with a mean age of 29 (s.d. 19·4) years for men, and 32 (s.d. 19·7) years for females. The mean index of multiple deprivation per cent rank was 35·0%. The most common diagnosis was unspecified dental disorder. Ten per cent of dental attendances to MED were repeat attendances by the same patients. In conclusion, patient attendances at MED for dental problems account for 0.7% of all attendances. MED may not be the most appropriate place for these patients to attend, in terms of care pathways, and also for economic reasons. The reasons why patients attend MED for dental problems clearly warrant further research.

  10. Empathy in health professional students: A comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Cristina; La Cerra, Carmen; Aloisio, Federica; Montanari, Paola; Lancia, Loreto

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown that empathy strengthens the relationship between patients and health professionals and also improves patient and health professional satisfaction, which helps promote the best clinical outcomes. Empathy is considered an essential prerequisite for a nurse to effectively care for a patient and for a holistic understanding of a patient's perspective in a student population. The main aim was to compare empathy levels between health professional students attending different university courses. A comparative study with a cross-sectional approach was conducted in two successive academic year cohorts of 1st year health professional students at a public Italian university. A sample of 1st year health professional students at a public Italian university was investigated using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Health Professional Students version (JSE-HPS). Overall, 502 health professional students were included in the study. The students in nursing showed significantly higher empathy levels than the students in other health professions. Furthermore, the female students were found to exhibit significantly more overall empathy than the male students were. The undergraduate nursing students showed a significantly higher mean score of empathy measured by the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Health Professional Students version (JSE-HPS) than the students attending other health undergraduate courses. This could mean that a particular aptitude in establishing a help-relationship with other people exists among the students that choose to become a nurse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Health literacy among refugees in Sweden - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wångdahl, Josefin; Lytsy, Per; Mårtensson, Lena; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-10-03

    Refugees have poorer health compared to indigenous populations, which may be explained by lower health literacy, i.e. not being able to access, understand, appraise or apply health information. This study aims to determine levels of functional and comprehensive health literacy, and factors associated with inadequate health literacy, in refugees coming to Sweden. A cross-sectional study was performed among 455 adult refugees speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English. Participants in 16 strategically selected language schools for immigrants responded to a questionnaire. Health literacy was measured using the Swedish Functional Health Literacy Scale and the HLS-EU-Q16 questionnaire. Uni- and multivariate statistical methods were used to investigate group differences. The majority of the participating refugees had inadequate or limited functional health literacy and comprehensive health literacy. About 60% of them had inadequate functional health literacy and 27% had inadequate comprehensive health literacy. Low education and/or being born in Somalia were factors associated with an increased risk of having inadequate functional health literacy. Having inadequate functional health literacy was associated with an increased risk of having inadequate comprehensive health literacy. The majority of refugees in the language schools had limited or poor health literacy. Health literacy should be taken into consideration in contexts and in activities addressing migrants. More research is needed to better understand health literacy among refugees and to develop strategies and methods to increase health literacy and make life easier for those with low health literacy.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Psychological Needs of Adults Living with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pakhale, Smita; Baron, Justine; Armstrong, Michael; Tasca, Georgio; Gaudet, Ena; Aaron, Shawn; Cameron, William; Balfour, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are prevalent in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet psychological services are rarely accessible in CF clinics. This cross-sectional single center study reports on a psychological needs assessment of people with CF. Methods We asked adults attending a CF clinic, without integrated psychological services, to complete a psychological needs assessment survey that included items on: a) past access to psychological services (via a CF referral service), b) concerns relevant to discuss with a psychologist, and c) their likelihood of accessing psychological services if available at the CF clinic, and standardized measures of depression (CES-D) and anxiety (GAD-7). Results We enrolled 49 participants and 45 (91.8%) completed the survey. Forty percent reported elevated symptoms of depression and 13% had elevated anxiety. A majority of individuals (72.2% and 83.3%, respectively) indicated they would be likely to use psychological services, if available at the clinic. Concerns considered most relevant to discuss with a psychologist were: 1) worries (51.1%), 2) mood (44.4%), 3) life stress (46.6%), 4) adjustment to CF (42.2%), 5) life transitions (42.2%) and 6) quality of life (42.2%). Conclusions This study highlights the rationale for screening adults with CF for depression and anxiety, and to facilitate provision of psychological services and preventative mental health interventions as an integral component of multi-disciplinary CF care. PMID:26102351

  13. Low back pain in adolescent and associated factors: A cross sectional study with schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mônica R O G C M; Badaró, Ana Fátima V; Dall'Agnol, Marinel M

    2014-10-10

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of low back pain nonspecific and associated factors in schoolchildren. Method: This cross-sectional study investigated 343 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, of both sexes of public schools. The questionnaire included questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, type of school transportation, body mass index and low back pain. The outcome was defined as discomfort localized below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds in the last 12 months. Results : The prevalence of low back pain in the last year was 57% (n=195) among participants, with no significant difference between the sexes (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.37). Advancing age and body mass index were associated with the presence of low back pain in the bivariate analysis. The remaining seated at school in usual days was considered one of the main activities that trigger symptoms that lasted up to seven days for the majority (80%) of adolescents. Conclusions: The high prevalence of low back pain presented, indicating that it is a common condition among these adolescents. There was no difference between the sexes, but had influence of age and body mass index. Our results point to the need for the development epidemiological studies of low back pain among children and adolescents.

  14. Oral mixing ability and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weijenberg, R A F; Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-07-01

    Masticatory performance has been positively associated with cognitive ability in both animals and healthy humans. We hypothesised that there would also be a positive correlation between masticatory performance and cognition in older persons suffering from dementia. Older persons suffering from dementia (n = 114) and receiving institutionalised care were studied in a cross-sectional design. The assessments included masticatory performance, which was measured objectively with a two-colour gum mixing ability test, and cognition, which was assessed with a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Significant relationships were observed between masticatory performance and general cognition and between masticatory performance and verbal fluency. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the correlation with general cognition was influenced by the scores for dependency in activities of daily living. The association between verbal fluency and masticatory performance was not significantly affected by secondary variables. An unexpected limitation of this study was the high dropout rate for the mixing ability test. The clinical implications of these findings are profound; care professionals should endeavour to maintain and stimulate mastication in older persons with dementia in an attempt to preserve cognition.

  15. Microcredit participation and women's health: results from a cross-sectional study in Peru.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Fernald, Lia C H

    2015-08-05

    Social and economic conditions are powerful determinants of women's health status. Microcredit, which involves the provision of small loans to low-income women in the hopes of improving their living conditions, is an increasingly popular intervention to improve women's socioeconomic status. Studies examining the health effects of microcredit programs have had mixed results. We conduct a cross-sectional study among female clients of a non-profit microcredit program in Peru (N = 1,593). The predictor variable is length of microcredit participation. We conduct bivariate and multivariate linear regressions to examine the associations between length of microcredit participation and a variety of measures of women's health. We control for participants' sociodemographic characteristics. We find that longer participation is associated with decreased depressive symptoms, increased social support, and increased perceived control, but these differences are attenuated with the inclusion of covariates. We find no association between length of participation and contraception use, cancer screening, or self-reported days sick. These results demonstrate a positive association between length of microcredit participation and measures of women's psychological health, but not physical health. These findings contribute to the discussion on the potential of microcredit programs to address the socioeconomic determinants of health, and suggest that addressing socioeconomic status may be a key way to improve women's health worldwide.

  16. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders. PMID:26371020

  17. Awareness of blood pressure among older adults: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Shin

    2007-07-01

    To measure the degree that elderly persons are knowledgeable about blood pressure (BP) and hypertension in general and are aware of their own BP in particular and to determine the degree that such knowledge and awareness relates to actual BP readings. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the senior activity centers. A convenience sample of 276 men and women between 60 and 75 years completed two BP measurements, cognitive impairment assessments, a 21-item Awareness of Blood Pressure Questionnaire, motivation for health, and personal information. Individuals indicated much less awareness about their own BP than their self-reported behaviors about their BP would suggest. Of the participants, 74% were aware of their BP, while 90% reported asking about their BP on visits to healthcare providers; 32% of those with isolated systolic hypertension were unaware of their hypertensive status. More than half of the participants had inaccurate knowledge about BP in general and about systolic BP as it related to the aging process. Knowledge of BP and hypertension was higher among people who knew their own BP levels. The study revealed that one's awareness of BP does not necessarily reflect one's actual BP status. This finding deserves the attention of older adults and healthcare providers who consider patient awareness as fundamental to behavioral change and BP control.

  18. Injecting drug users and their health seeking behavior: a cross-sectional study in dhaka, bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed; Biswas, Tuhin; Bhuiyan, Faiz Ahmed; Islam, Md Serajul; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Nessa, Hurun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean ± SD and median (IQR) age of the participants were 32.5 ± 21.3 and 33 (27-38) years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior.

  19. Inconsistent Reporting Between Meta-analysis Protocol and Publication - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Alberto Falk; Delgado, Anna Falk

    2017-09-01

    Inconsistent reporting in published meta-analyses compared to registered protocol are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to assess inconsistencies between registered protocols and published reports among oncology drug meta-analyses. A cross-sectional study was performed including oncology drug meta-analyses published between January 1st and November 14th 2016 with a published protocol. Two investigators extracted data on: selection criteria, outcome(s) and statistical plan in protocol and manuscript, plus self-acknowledgement of inconsistent reporting between protocol and publication. Protocol registration was present in 19% (23/119) of all oncology drug meta-analyses. In meta-analyses with protocol (n=23), 70% (16/23) had issues with inconsistent reporting between protocol and published report concerning; inclusion criteria, comparator group, intervention, outcome (PICO) or statistical analysis. Self-acknowledgement of changes between protocol and publication was found in 50% (8/16). In meta-analyses with protocol, discrepancies between registered protocols and publications are frequent. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Injecting Drug Users and Their Health Seeking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Tuhin; Bhuiyan, Faiz Ahmed; Islam, Md. Serajul; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Nessa, Hurun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean ± SD and median (IQR) age of the participants were 32.5 ± 21.3 and 33 (27–38) years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior. PMID:25692067

  1. Prevalence of non-adherence among psychiatric patients in Jordan, a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mukattash, Tareq L; Alzoubi, Karem H; Abu El-Rub, Ejlal; Jarab, Anan S; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Khdour, Maher; Shara, Mohd; Al Hamarneh, Yazid N

    2016-05-01

    It has been estimated that up to 50% of any patient population is at least partially non-adherent to their prescribed treatment. Identifying barriers to adherence is required to develop effective interventions for psychiatric patients. To explore the prevalence and factors of non-adherence among psychiatric patients present at four psychiatric clinics. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. A sample of psychiatric patients attending outpatient psychiatric clinics was enrolled between March and April 2011. A total of 243 psychiatric patients took part in this study with the majority of patients (92.5%) being prescribed more than one psychiatric disorder. The majority (64.2%) of the patients was classified as non-adherent according to the Morisky adherence questionnaire and forgetfulness was the most prevalent reason for that. Non-adherence is a common and important issue among psychiatric patients. Polypharmacy, safety concerns and lack of insight towards the prescribed treatment were reported as the main reasons of non-adherence. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. [A Cross-sectional Study of School dropout in adolescents: National Mental Health Survey Colombia 2015].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Padilla Muñoz, Andrea; Rincón, Carlos Javier

    2016-12-01

    School dropout in adolescents can have negative consequences, not only for the individual and the family, but also for the society. To identify the characteristics associated with the occurrence of this event might contribute to the planning of a prevention strategy. To evaluate the relationship between the individual and home characteristics and school dropout in adolescents from 12 to 17 years old in Colombia. A cross sectional study was conducted from information taken from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. A study was made of the relationship between the individual and home characteristics and school dropout in adolescents from 12 to 17 years old RESULTS: A higher percentage of school dropouts was found in the older adolescents, females, and those who have children. Among the home characteristics, it was observed that those homes with more than two people, located in rural area, or that are classified as poor, have an increased percentage of school dropout adolescents. Strategies for which the main goal is to prevent school dropout should consider populations with higher prevalence of out-of-school adolescents (female, homes in rural area, or household poverty). Preventive actions of adolescent pregnancy might contribute to reduce the school dropout rate. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by the 49-item,Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire which was filled out through private interviews with the participants. Results: Mean score of elder abuse was 11.84 (SD: 12.70) of total 100. Of the participants,79.6% (95% CI: 74.5-84.6) experienced at least one type of abuse. Emotional neglect was the most reported abuse and physical abuse was the least reported. Abuse score was associated with age, education level, living status, and insurance status of elders. Further, those who reported history of gastrointestinal problems, dyslipidemia, respiratory diseases, sleep disorders, audiovisual problems, joints pain, hypertension, dental/oral problems, cardiovascular disease,urinary incontinence and disability, reported a statistically significant higher abuse score. Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types. PMID:27386426

  4. Severe maternal morbidity and near misses in tertiary hospitals, Kelantan, Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Nik Hazlina, Nik Hussain; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Azman, Mohd Yacob

    2016-03-05

    Severe maternal conditions have increasingly been used as alternative measurements of the quality of maternal care and as alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality. We aimed to study severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss among women in two tertiary hospitals in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study with record review was conducted in 2014. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss were classified using the new World Health Organization criteria. Health indicators for obstetric care were calculated and descriptive analyses were performed using SPSS version 22.0. In total, 21,579 live births, 395 women with severe maternal morbidity, 47 women with maternal near miss and two maternal deaths were analysed. The severe maternal morbidity incidence ratio was 18.3 per 1000 live births and the maternal near miss incidence ratio was 2.2 per 1000 live births. The maternal near miss mortality ratio was 23.5 and the mortality index was 4.1 %. The process indicators for essential interventions were almost 100.0 %. Haemorrhagic disorders were the most common event for severe maternal morbidity (68.6 %) and maternal near miss (80.9 %) and management-based criteria accounted for 85.1 %. Comprehensive emergency care and intensive care as well as overall improvements in the quality of maternal health care need to be achieved to substantial reduce maternal death.

  5. Reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Navaratnarajah, Ramesan

    2015-02-01

    The reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research was assessed through a cross-sectional analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2010 and 2011. A systematic search identified 325 abstracts; 122 RCTs were included in the study. Embryo transfer methods were described in 42 out of 122 articles (34%). Catheters (32/42 [76%]) or ultrasound guidance (31/42 [74%]) were most frequently mentioned. Performer 'blinding' (12%) or technique standardization (7%) were seldom reported. The description of embryo transfer methods was significantly more common in trials published by journals with lower impact factor (less than 3, 39.6%; 3 or greater, 21.5%; P = 0.037). Embryo transfer methods were reported more often in trials with pregnancy as the main end-point (33% versus 16%) or with positive outcomes (37.8% versus 25.0%), albeit not significantly. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that RCTs published in higher impact factor journals are less likely to describe embryo transfer methods (OR 0.371; 95% CI 0.143 to 0.964). Registered trials, trials conducted in an academic setting, multi-centric studies or full-length articles were not positively associated with embryo transfer methods reporting rate. Recent reports of randomized IVF trials rarely describe embryo transfer methods. The under-reporting of research methods might compromise reproducibility and suitability for meta-analysis. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Health-seeking behaviour of elderly individuals: A community-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Patle, Rupali A; Khakse, Gautam M

    2015-01-01

    The health-seeking behaviour of elderly individuals can help in ascertaining the determinants and in developing appropriate policies for their healthcare. In this community-based cross-sectional study, we included 250 elderly persons above 60 years of age living in the urban field practice area of Shri Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College, Yavatmal, Maharashtra. We used a structured proforma to collect information about their health-seeking behaviour. Overall, 48% of the study subjects chose an allopathic practitioner. The difference in the health-seeking behaviour for self-treatment, treatment from traditional healers and paraprofessionals as one group and allopathic treatment as another group was significant for the determinants of age (p<0.001), educational level (p<0.0001) and poverty status (p=0.0007) and registration under any government scheme (p=0.0446). The average expenditure on health was significantly more among those who were above 75 years of age, employed, educated and above the poverty line, irrespective of gender. Elderly persons who prefer allopathic treatment are likely to be above 75 years of age, those having some education and those above poverty line. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  7. Peri-implantitis and late implant failures in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Gabriella; Arnhart, Christoph; Heuberer, Simone; Huber, Christian D; Watzek, Georg; Gruber, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Systemic bone loss is a major cause of fractures in postmenopausal women and may also affect the jawbone; however, its consequences on the success of dental implants remain poorly understood. In this cross-sectional study, the relation between self-reported osteoporosis and the success rate of dental implants in an adult female population was evaluated. The primary outcome parameters were the occurrence of peri-implantitis and late implant failures. Women with unknown bone status were excluded from the study. The potential confounders age, recipient site, smoking, periodontal disease and time of loading were recorded. Data from 203 women with a mean age of 63 ± 9 years and 967 dental implants were investigated. The patients were classified according to their medical history into one of three groups: osteoporosis (47 women), osteopenia (16 women) and healthy controls (140 women). Patients with unknown bone status (n=26) were excluded. The multi-level statistical analysis showed no association between peri-implantitis [odds ratio (OR) 2.1; p=0.6] or implant failure [hazards ratio (HR) 2.5; p=0.2] and systemic bone loss. No relation was found between osteoporosis and peri-implantitis in an adult female population. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Tobacco Smoking Habits Among First Year Medical Students, University of Prishtina, Kosovo: Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Çuperjani, Frederik; Elezi, Shkëlzen; Lila, Albert; Daka, Qëndresë; Dakaj, Qëndrim; Gashi, Sanije

    2015-06-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world, requiring intensified national and international public health response. World Health Organization (WHO) has urged health professional organizations to encourage and support their members to be models for not using tobacco products and promote tobacco-free culture. Healthcare students are the future authority of the health society, they are in a position to play a vital role and have impact on social norms related to smoking. To determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo, so that recommendations can be made for its cessation among healthcare providers and thereafter the community. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administrated questionnaire prepared for this purpose. A total of 284 first year healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo were enrolled in the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22. All respondents completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 100% (general medicine=180, dentistry = 104). The prevalence of students who have ever smoked was 53.2%. However, only 8.9% (9.1% M vs. 8.7% F) of the general medicine students and 5.8% (4.8% M vs. 6.5% F) of dentistry students declared that smoke tobacco every day. Overall, the research shows that the prevalence of occasional smokers among medical students in Kosova is quite high.

  9. Users' Attitudes Towards Personal Health Records: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Khaneghah, Peyman Azad; Miguel-Cruz, Antonio; Bentley, Pamela; Liu, Lili; Stroulia, Eleni; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and management of chronic conditions is a priority for many healthcare systems. Personal health records have been suggested to facilitate implementation of chronic care programs. However, patients' attitude towards personal health records (PHRs) can significantly affect the adoption rates and use of PHRs. to evaluate the attitude of patients with Type II diabetes towards using a PHR to manage their condition. We used a cross-sectional exploratory pilot study. Fifty-four (54) patients used a PHR to monitor and record their blood glucose levels, diet, and activities for 30 days, and to communicate with their clinicians. At the end of the study, patients responded to a survey based on three constructs borrowed from different technology acceptance frameworks: relative advantage, job fit, and perceived usefulness. A multivariate predictive model was formed using partial least squaring technique (PLS) and the effect of each construct on the patients' attitude towards system use was evaluated. Patients also participated in a semi-structured interview. We found a significant positive correlation between job fit and attitude (JF → ATT = +0.318, p<0.01). There was no statistical evidence of any moderating or mediating effect of other main constructs or any of the confounding factors (i.e., age, gender, time after diagnosed) on attitude. The attitude of patients towards using PHR in management of their diabetes was positive. Their attitude was mainly influenced by the extent to which the system helped them better perform activities and self-manage their condition.

  10. Public support for tobacco control policy extensions in Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Policy makers seeking to introduce new tobacco control measures need to anticipate community support to assist them in planning appropriate implementation strategies. This study assessed community support for plain packaging and smoking bans in outdoor locations in Australia. Design Analytical cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants 2005 Western Australian adults participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Random household telephone numbers were used to obtain a representative sample. Outcome measures Support for plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking bans at outdoor venues by demographic characteristics. Results Around half of the survey respondents supported plain packaging and almost a further quarter reported being neutral on the issue. Only one in three smokers disagreed with the introduction of a plain packaging policy. A majority of respondents supported smoking bans at five of the six nominated venues, with support being strongest among those with children under the age of 15 years. The venues with the highest levels of support were those where smoke-free policies had already been voluntarily introduced by the venue managers, where children were most likely to be in attendance, and that were more limited in size. Conclusions The study results demonstrate community support for new tobacco control policies. This evidence can be used by public policy makers in their deliberations relating to the introduction of more extensive tobacco control regulations. PMID:22382124

  11. Discharge education for older people and family members in emergency department: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Palonen, Mira; Kaunonen, Marja; Helminen, Mika; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2015-10-01

    Older patients are a major patient group in emergency settings in Finland. Family members have a crucial part to play when older people are discharged home. Discharge education is common practice within discharge planning in emergency department (ED). Discharge planning is associated with patient outcomes, but little is known about discharge education as such. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of discharge education with discharge readiness among older patients and their family members in an emergency setting in Finland. This cross-sectional study was performed in two EDs. Questionnaire data were collected from patients over 75 (N = 135) and their family members (N = 128) to examine the level of discharge education, and to see how discharge education was associated with discharge readiness. Descriptive and non-parametric methods were used. One in four older patients and 40 per cent of family members received no discharge education. Nevertheless, discharge education was associated with a higher level of discharge readiness, both among patients and family members. ED personnel should give more focus to discharge education when planning the discharge of older patients in order to facilitate better discharge readiness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyponatremia and risk of seizures: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Halawa, Imad; Andersson, Tomas; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2011-02-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out to study the association between different levels of hyponatremia and the occurrence of epileptic seizures in patients without a prior epilepsy diagnosis. We identified from the hospital database, 363 inpatients of a Swedish County hospital who between March 2003 and August 2006 were found to have serum sodium levels <125 mM. Medical records were reviewed and we identified 11 patients with seizures in conjunction with their hyponatremia. Seizures were the only neurologic manifestation of hyponatremia in patients with serum sodium levels >115 mM. Of 150 patients reviewed with serum sodium levels of 120-124 mM, one had a seizure. Using 120-124 mM as reference, odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for having seizures at serum sodium levels of 115-119 mM was 3.85 (0.40-37.53), 8.43 (0.859-82.85) at 110-114 mM, and 18.06 (1.96-166.86) at <110 mM. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Abstinence in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study of Quitting Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Tomoyasu; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Nakahara, Rika; Kunugita, Naoki; Mochizuki-Kobayashi, Yumiko

    2017-01-01

    The benefit of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in smoking cessation remains controversial. Recently, e-cigarettes have been gaining popularity in Japan, without evidence of efficacy on quitting cigarettes. We conducted an online survey to collect information on tobacco use, difficulties in smoking cessation, socio-demographic factors, and health-related factors in Japan. Among the total participants (n = 9055), 798 eligible persons aged 20–69 years who smoked within the previous five years were analyzed to assess the relationship between the outcome of smoking cessation and quitting methods used, including e-cigarettes, smoking cessation therapy, and unassisted. E-cigarette use was negatively associated with smoking cessation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.632; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.414–0.964) after adjusting for gender, age, health-related factors, and other quitting methods. Conversely, smoking cessation therapy (i.e., varenicline) was significantly associated with smoking cessation (OR = 1.885; 95% CI = 1.018–3.492) in the same model. For effective smoking cessation, e-cigarette use appears to have low efficacy among smokers in Japan. Allowing for the fact that this study is limited by its cross-sectional design, follow-up studies are needed to assess the prospective association between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. PMID:28218695

  14. Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Abstinence in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study of Quitting Methods.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Tomoyasu; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Nakahara, Rika; Kunugita, Naoki; Mochizuki-Kobayashi, Yumiko

    2017-02-17

    The benefit of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in smoking cessation remains controversial. Recently, e-cigarettes have been gaining popularity in Japan, without evidence of efficacy on quitting cigarettes. We conducted an online survey to collect information on tobacco use, difficulties in smoking cessation, socio-demographic factors, and health-related factors in Japan. Among the total participants (n = 9055), 798 eligible persons aged 20-69 years who smoked within the previous five years were analyzed to assess the relationship between the outcome of smoking cessation and quitting methods used, including e-cigarettes, smoking cessation therapy, and unassisted. E-cigarette use was negatively associated with smoking cessation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.632; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.414-0.964) after adjusting for gender, age, health-related factors, and other quitting methods. Conversely, smoking cessation therapy (i.e., varenicline) was significantly associated with smoking cessation (OR = 1.885; 95% CI = 1.018-3.492) in the same model. For effective smoking cessation, e-cigarette use appears to have low efficacy among smokers in Japan. Allowing for the fact that this study is limited by its cross-sectional design, follow-up studies are needed to assess the prospective association between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation.

  15. Cardiac conduction system abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac conduction disturbances are common in spondyloarthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Whether their occurrence can be linked to signs and symptoms of rheumatic disease activity is an unsettled issue addressed in this study. Methods In this cross-sectional study patients with AS according to modified New York criteria but without psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, dementia, pregnancy, other severe diseases such as malignancy and difficulties in answering questionnaires were invited; and 210 participated (120 men), mean age 49 years (SD 13; range: 16–77). Questionnaires, physical examination, ECG, and laboratory tests were performed at the same visit. Results Cardiac conduction disturbances were common and diagnosed in 10-33%, depending on if conservative or less conservative predefined criteria were applied. They consisted mostly of 1st degree atrio-ventricular block and prolonged QRS duration, but one patient had a pacemaker and 7 more had complete bundle branch blocks. Conduction abnormalities were associated mainly with age, male gender and body weight, and not with laboratory measures of inflammation or with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index. Neither were they associated with the presence of HLA B27, which was found in 87% of all patients; the subtype B270502 dominated in all patients. Conclusions Cardiac conduction abnormalities are common in AS, but not associated with markers of disease activity or specific B27 subtypes. Even relatively mild conduction system abnormalities might, however, indirectly affect morbidity and mortality. PMID:23937715

  16. Prevalence of Iron deficiency anemia in children with liver cirrhosis: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zareifar, Soheila; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Rahanjam, Najmeh; Farahmand Far, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the many complications reported for cirrhosis, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has attracted much attention. This type of anemia, in contrast to other types of anemia, is easy to treat prophylactically, but if left untreated can lead to a poor quality of life. The aim of this study was to estimate the hemoglobin and serum iron levels among patients with liver cirrhosis for the early diagnosis of IDA and to avoid unnecessary testing and iron supplementation. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 88 children diagnosed with cirrhosis were included, and the values of hemoglobin, serum iron levels and relationship between serum iron (SI), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), prothrombine time (PT), international normalization ratio (INR), total and direct bilirubin and hepatic enzymes were estimated using paired t test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Forty-six (52.3%) of 88 children were girls and 42 (47.7%) were boys. Forty-eight (54.5%) patients had anemia and 8 (9%) had iron deficiency anemia (5 boys, 5.6%, and 3 girls, 3.4%). No relationships were observed between iron deficiency anemia and the patient’s age or gender, whereas there was a relationship between iron deficiency and severity and duration of the disease, although the correlation was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The high frequency of iron deficiency anemia in children with cirrhosis (9%) suggests that timely screening should be used for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26261697

  17. Noise Annoyance in Urban Children: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Grelat, Natacha; Houot, Hélène; Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Defrance, Jérôme; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Mauny, Frédéric

    2016-10-28

    Acoustical and non-acoustical factors influencing noise annoyance in adults have been well-documented in recent years; however, similar knowledge is lacking in children. The aim of this study was to quantify the annoyance caused by chronic ambient noise at home in children and to assess the relationship between these children's noise annoyance level and individual and contextual factors in the surrounding urban area. A cross sectional population-based study was conducted including 517 children attending primary school in a European city. Noise annoyance was measured using a self-report questionnaire adapted for children. Six noise exposure level indicators were built at different locations at increasing distances from the child's bedroom window using a validated strategic noise map. Multilevel logistic models were constructed to investigate factors associated with noise annoyance in children. Noise indicators in front of the child's bedroom (p ≤ 0.01), family residential satisfaction (p ≤ 0.03) and socioeconomic characteristics of the individuals and their neighbourhood (p ≤ 0.05) remained associated with child annoyance. These findings illustrate the complex relationships between our environment, how we may perceive it, social factors and health. Better understanding of these relationships will undoubtedly allow us to more effectively quantify the actual effect of noise on human health.

  18. Job satisfaction of nurses in a Saudi Arabian university teaching hospital: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Dossary, R; Vail, J; Macfarlane, F

    2012-09-01

    Saudi Arabia is developing very fast in all disciplines, especially in nursing and health. Only about five studies between 1990 and 2010 have been undertaken in Saudi Arabia concerning factors influencing job satisfaction of nurses, although a body of knowledge exists globally. The purpose of this research was to measure nurses' job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia in a university teaching hospital and to determine the influencing factors. A quantitative, cross sectional method, self-administered questionnaire was used for this study. A systematic sample of N=189 nurses was used to collect data. The SPSS version 16.0. was used to analyze the data. An independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to test hypotheses concerning different groups, and correlation tests (the Pearson's and Spearman's rank tests) were used to examine relationships between variables. Overall, nurses were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with their jobs. However, nurses indicated satisfaction with supervision, co-workers and nature of work. The sources of dissatisfaction were with subscales such as pay, fringe benefits, contingent rewards and operating conditions. These findings indicate that there is a need to increase nurses' salaries and bonuses for extra duties. More training programmes and further education also should be encouraged for all nurses. Therefore, it is imperative that nursing managers and policy makers in Saudi Arabia consider these findings to improve nurses' job satisfaction. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Factors influencing the satisfaction of rural physician assistants: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Filipova, Anna A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors that attract physician assistants (PAs) to rural settings, and what they found satisfying about their practice and community. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All PAs who were practicing in both nonmetropolitan counties and rural communities in metropolitan counties, in a single midwestern US state, served as the population for the study. A total of 414 usable questionnaires were returned of the 1,072 distributed, a 39% response rate. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and robust regression analyses were used. Statistical models were tested to identify antecedents of four job satisfaction factors (satisfaction with professional respect, satisfaction with supervising physician, satisfaction with authority/ autonomy, and satisfaction with workload/salary). The strongest predictor of all four job satisfaction factors was community satisfaction, followed by importance of job practice. Additionally, the four job satisfaction factors had some significant associations with importance of socialization, community importance, practice attributes (years of practice, years in current location, specialty, and facility type), job responsibilities (percentage of patient load not discussed with physician, weekly hours as PA, inpatient visits), and demographics (marital status, race, age, education).

  20. Exploring Health Literacy in Medical University Students of Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Lu, Lu; Bai, Ruixue; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is important in public health and healthcare, particularly in effective communication between patients and health professionals. Although most medical students will eventually work as health professionals after graduation, research on health literacy of medical students is scarce. This study aimed to assess the health literacy level of medical students in Chongqing, China, and its influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 1,275 participants (250 males and 1,022 females) who majored in five different disciplines were involved. The Health Literacy Questionnaire was used as the survey tool. The junior students obtained the highest scores, whereas the freshman students had the lowest scores on each scale. The average score of males was higher than that of females except in “feeling understood and supported by healthcare providers,” and the average score of students who reside in urban areas was higher than that of students in rural areas. Moreover, the average score of engineering students was higher than that of medical or health sciences students. Multiple linear regression models (Radj2 = 0.435, P = 0.000) showed that the grade, socioeconomic status, and parent’s highest level of education were positively correlated with health literacy. In conclusion, the health literacy levels of the medical students are insufficient and need improvement. PMID:27050169

  1. Burn Injury-Specific Home Safety Assessment: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arshi, Shahnam; Bazargani, Homayoun Sadeghi; Mohammadi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of injury specific home safety investigation and to examine the home safety status focused on burn related safety in a rural population in the North-West of Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 265 rural households of rural Meshkinshahr, Iran. Cluster sampling method was used in 38 clusters with 7 households in each cluster. Clusters were selected on a probability proportional to size (PPS) basis using the available health census database called D-Tarh. Data were analyzed using the statistical software package STATA 8. Results Possible risks were explored in fields of house structure; cooking and eating attitudes and behaviors; cooking appliances, specific appliances such as picnic gas burners, valors (traditional heaters), samovars (traditional water boilers), and air-heating appliances. Many safety concerns were explored needing to draw the attention of researchers and public health policy makers. Conclusion Injury specific home safety surveys are useful and may provide useful information for safety promotion interventions. PMID:23209574

  2. Distress among caregivers of phase I trial participants: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Angela; Eckhardt, S. Gail; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Kilbourn, Kristin; Mauss, Iris B.; Bowles, Daniel W.; Hecker, Sharon; Fairclough, Diane L.; Kutner, Jean S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The number of patients with cancer enrolling in phase I trials is expected to increase as these trials incorporate patient selection and exhibit greater efficacy in the era of targeted therapies. Despite the fact that people with advanced cancer often require a caregiver, little is known about the experience of caregivers of people enrolling in oncology phase I clinical trials. We conducted a cross-sectional study assessing the distress and emotion regulation of caregivers of phase I trial participants to inform the design of future interventions targeting the unique needs of this population. Methods Caregivers of oncology patients were approached at the patient’s phase I clinical trial screening visit. Caregiver participants completed a one-time survey incorporating validated instruments to comprehensively assess distress and emotion regulation. Basic demographic information about both the caregiver and patient was collected. Results Caregivers exhibited greater distress than population norms. Emotion regulation was also moderately impaired. Respondents identified positive aspects of caregiving despite exhibiting moderate distress. Conclusion Enrollment of a patient in a phase I clinical trial is a time of stress for their caregivers. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of engaging caregivers of phase I trial participants and the need to better support them through this component of their caregiving experience. PMID:25120010

  3. Unfavourable family characteristics and their associations with childhood obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Rosseel, Yves

    2009-07-01

    This cross-sectional study explores the influence of multiple familial factors on children's weight status and the interaction between parenting stress and unfavourable family characteristics. A total of 197 families with children between 6 and 14 years participated in this study. Of this group, 97 families had a child with normal weight and 100 families had a child with overweight. Parents reported on seven family factors (maternal BMI, number of children, family structure, socioeconomic position, life events, parental psychopathology and parenting stress). Families with overweight children experience more parenting stress. A regression analysis revealed that familial factors explain 27% in the variance in child's weight status. The hypothesis that a combination of familial factors will be more able to explain child's adiposity could not be confirmed. Familial factors have moderate ability to predict children's weight status. There is a need to identify other familial mechanisms taking into account developmental and temporal evolutions over the past decade. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  4. Sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among Brazilian dental students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Tirsa-Costa, Débora; Guimarães, Flávia Helena; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among dental students of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed including 183 Brazilian dental students aged from 17 to 46 years old. The complete course curriculum consists of 9 semesters. Students enrolled in the first semester, the middle semester and the final semester of the course participated in the survey. The PSQI-BR (the Brazilian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) was used for data collection. The PSQI-BR was distributed during lecture classes. Sleep bruxism and awake bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. Descriptive analysis, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression with robust estimator were the statistical tests used. Sleep bruxism prevalence was 21.5% and awake bruxism prevalence was 36.5%. Sleep duration components were associated with sleep bruxism (PR=1.540; 95% CI: 1.00-2.37) and awake bruxism (PR=1.344; 95% CI: 1,008-1,790). There was an association between awake bruxism and habitual sleep efficiency component (PR=1.323; 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). Sleep disturbance component and awake bruxism were associated (PR=1.533; 95% CI: 1.03-2.27). Poor sleep quality was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism as well as among those who presented awake bruxism.

  5. Determinants of alcohol use and khat chewing among Hawassa University students, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Andargachew; Wakgari, Negash; Taddesse, Fiker

    2016-09-01

    Students' alcohol and khat use have been associated with various health related problems. However, its magnitude and associated factors among Ethiopian students are not yet well documented. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol use, khat chewing and its associated factors among Hawassa University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to July 2011. Multistage stratified sampling technique was employed to select 590 students. Self administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Data was entered and analysed by SPSS version 20.0. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the association of different variables. The current prevalence of student's alcohol and khat use were 29.5% (95% CI: 25.8-33.3) and 16.3% (95% CI: 13.7-20.0) respectively. Being male (AOR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0) and living alone (AOR 20.1; 95% CI 2.5-166.7) had a higher odds of alcohol use. Similarly, family substance use history (AOR 4.8; 95% CI 2.5-9.3) and peer influence (AOR 4.6; 95% CI 2.3-9.0) had also higher odds of khat use. The proportion of student's khat chewing and alcohol use was significant. Hence, higher education in collaboration with other stakeholders should work on convincing students about the ill effects of these substances.

  6. Antibiotic prescribing in general practice--the rhythm of the week: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kuehlein, Thomas; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Gutscher, Andreas; Laux, Gunter

    2010-12-01

    Overprescribing of antibiotics in primary care is a worldwide phenomenon. Prescriptions can be used to reduce the uncertainty inherent in general practice. We assumed a heightened prescribing rate on Fridays because of more uncertainty before the pending weekend. Cross-sectional study from a general practice research database with 102 140 patients of 32 practices in Germany. Prescribing rates of antibiotics on different days of the week were analysed. In order to evaluate the influence of the weekday within a multivariate setting, we used SAS PROC GENMOD. This procedure was parameterized accordingly to account for the cluster design of the study. The prescribing rate of antibiotics on Fridays was 23.3% higher than the average of the other days of the working week (6.04% versus 4.90%, P < 0.0001). The significance of this finding was confirmed by the multivariate analysis. There is periodic fluctuation of antibiotic prescribing rates over the week. This cannot be explained by morbidity itself. Factors beyond biomedical indication are well known to influence prescribing patterns. These factors should not only be further explored, but also acknowledged when trying to reduce overprescribing.

  7. Hypertension and associated factors among university students in Gondar, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Takele; Alemu, Henok

    2014-09-09

    Hypertension causes considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, evidences on the burden of hypertension and associated factors are lacking among college students in resource-poor settings. This study measured the prevalence of hypertension and associated factors among university students in Gondar, Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected college students in Gondar, Ethiopia. Trained data collectors administered a pre-tested and structured WHO STEPS questionnaire for data collection. Data were entered using the EPI INFO version 2002 a statistical soft ware. Stata version 11.0 was also employed for descriptive and logistics regression analysis. A total of 610 college students were screened for hypertension of which 453 (74.4%) were male and 157(25.6%) female with the male to female sex ratio of 2.9:1. The prevalence of hypertension was 7.7%. Higher rates of hypertension were observed among male [AOR: 3.12, 95% CI (1.16- 8.36)], overweight [AOR: 6.92, 95% CI; (2.65-18.07)] and participants who had sleep duration of ≤ 5 hours [AOR: 3.48, 95% CI (1.69-7.15)]. A high burden of hypertension was observed among college students in Gondar, Ethiopia. Male sex, overweight and sleep duration of ≤ 5 hours were identified as independent risk factors for the disease. Preventive measures, such as increasing awareness and early screening for the disease in young adults warranted.

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection is not correlated with subclinical thrombocytopenia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Samson, Annette D; Schipperus, Martin R; Langers, Alexandra M J; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2014-01-01

    In a small percentage of patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), H. pylori eradication has a positive effect on platelet counts. Whether H. pylori infection is associated with a lower thrombocyte count in persons without clinical ITP is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study to compare thrombocyte count between H. pylori infected (n=108) and H. pylori non-infected patients (n=600) who underwent a diagnostic gastroscopy. The mean thrombocyte count in H. pylori negative patients was 257 × 10(9)/l, in H. pylori positive patients 252 × 10(9)/l (mean difference 5 × 10(9)/l, 95% CI: -23 to 14). Subgroup analysis did not show significant differences either. In the patient group without apparent comorbidity, there were no subjects with thrombocyte counts <120. In 36 H. pylori positive patients in whom data post-eradication was available, platelet counts pre- and post-eradication were similar. In conclusion, this study could not demonstrate a lower thrombocyte count in H. pylori infected patients or in subgroups of H. pylori infected patients compared to non-infected subjects.

  9. Cardiovascular evaluation, including resting and exercise electrocardiography, before participation in competitive sports: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Capalbo, Andrea; Pucci, Nicola; Giuliattini, Jacopo; Condino, Francesca; Alessandri, Flavio; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Califano, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical usefulness of complete preparticipation cardiovascular screening in a large cohort of sports participants. Design Cross sectional study of data over a five year period. Setting Institute of Sports Medicine in Florence, Italy. Participants 30 065 (23 570 men) people seeking to obtain clinical eligibility for competitive sports. Main outcome measures Results of resting and exercise 12 lead electrocardiography. Results Resting 12 lead ECG patterns showed abnormalities in 1812 (6%) participants, with the most common abnormalities (>80%) concerning innocent ECG changes. Exercise ECG showed an abnormal pattern in 1459 (4.9%) participants. Exercise ECG showed cardiac anomalies in 1227 athletes with normal findings on resting ECG. At the end of screening, 196 (0.6%) participants were considered ineligible for competitive sports. Among the 159 participants who were disqualified at the end of the screening for cardiac reasons, a consistent proportion (n=126, 79.2%) had shown innocent or negative findings on resting 12 lead ECG but clear pathological alterations during the exercise test. After adjustment for possible confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that age >30 years was significantly associated with an increased risk of being disqualified for cardiac findings during exercise testing. Conclusions Among people seeking to take part in competitive sports, exercise ECG can identify those with cardiac abnormalities. Follow-up studies would show if disqualification of such people would reduce the incidence of CV events among athletes. PMID:18599474

  10. Nativity and serum concentrations of antioxidants in Mexican American children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eldeirawi, Kamal; Koenig, Mary Dawn; Persky, Victoria; Chavez, Noel

    2014-04-16

    There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988-1994), on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4-16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants.

  11. The learning style preferences of chiropractic students: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P; Abi-Arrage, David; McPhie, Christopher; Johnston, Samara; Williams, Christopher; Rice, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective : The aims of our study were to measure the learning style preferences of chiropractic students and to assess whether they differ across the 5 years of chiropractic study. Methods : A total of 407 (41.4% females) full-degree, undergraduate, and postgraduate students enrolled in an Australian chiropractic program agreed to participate in a cross-sectional survey comprised of basic demographic information and the Visual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire, which identifies learning preferences on four different subscales: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. Multivariate analysis of variance and the χ(2) test were used to check for differences in continuous (VARK scores) and categorical (VARK category preference) outcome variables. Results : The majority of chiropractic students (56.0%) were found to be multimodal learners. Compared to the other learning styles preferences, kinesthetic learning was preferred by a significantly greater proportion of students (65.4%, p < .001) and received a significantly greater mean VARK score (5.66 ± 2.47, p < .001). Conclusions : To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time chiropractic students have been shown to be largely multimodal learners with a preference for kinesthetic learning. While this knowledge may be beneficial in the structuring of future curricula, more thorough research must be conducted to show any beneficial relationship between learning style preferences and teaching methods.

  12. The learning style preferences of chiropractic students: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P.; Abi-Arrage, David; McPhie, Christopher; Johnston, Samara; Williams, Christopher; Rice, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of our study were to measure the learning style preferences of chiropractic students and to assess whether they differ across the 5 years of chiropractic study. Methods A total of 407 (41.4% females) full-degree, undergraduate, and postgraduate students enrolled in an Australian chiropractic program agreed to participate in a cross-sectional survey comprised of basic demographic information and the Visual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire, which identifies learning preferences on four different subscales: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. Multivariate analysis of variance and the χ2 test were used to check for differences in continuous (VARK scores) and categorical (VARK category preference) outcome variables. Results The majority of chiropractic students (56.0%) were found to be multimodal learners. Compared to the other learning styles preferences, kinesthetic learning was preferred by a significantly greater proportion of students (65.4%, p < .001) and received a significantly greater mean VARK score (5.66 ± 2.47, p < .001). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time chiropractic students have been shown to be largely multimodal learners with a preference for kinesthetic learning. While this knowledge may be beneficial in the structuring of future curricula, more thorough research must be conducted to show any beneficial relationship between learning style preferences and teaching methods. PMID:24350945

  13. MALOCCLUSIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in children.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of malocclusions and possible self-correction of malocclusions during the development of the dentition. Early intervention might be unnecessary if self-correction of the malocclusion occurs during the transition from the primary to the permanent dentition. Most studies are cross-sectional and in those of longitudinal design, the results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Malocclusions may or may not influence the quality of life in children and adolescents. Thus, evaluations of the influence of different malocclusions on quality of life will certainly underpin a broader understanding and knowledge about how malocclusions affect the daily life of young patients. This information may also be important when it comes to assessing the most appropriate time for starting orthodontic treatment, not only from a professional point of view, but also, most importantly, from the patients' perspective. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusions, and to document changes occurring during the development of the dentition, from the primary dentition stage at age 3, through the mixed dentition at age 7, to the early permanent dentition at age 11.5 years. Further aims were to review the current state of knowledge about the impact of malocclusions on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to investigate how malocclusions affect the quality of life in a cohort of children, aged 11.5 years, whose dental care is provided by the Swedish Public Dental Service.

  14. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Del Prado-Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2007-09-18

    This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102) randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52%) and most belonged to the 20-35 age group (45%). Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%), easy fatigability (46.1%) and cough (40.2%). Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02), and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008). number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022), use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033), incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041), sex (p = 0.002) and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005) were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037) and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029). The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers.

  15. Age-related differences in emotion recognition ability: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mill, Aire; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Valk, Raivo

    2009-10-01

    Experimental studies indicate that recognition of emotions, particularly negative emotions, decreases with age. However, there is no consensus at which age the decrease in emotion recognition begins, how selective this is to negative emotions, and whether this applies to both facial and vocal expression. In the current cross-sectional study, 607 participants ranging in age from 18 to 84 years (mean age = 32.6 +/- 14.9 years) were asked to recognize emotions expressed either facially or vocally. In general, older participants were found to be less accurate at recognizing emotions, with the most distinctive age difference pertaining to a certain group of negative emotions. Both modalities revealed an age-related decline in the recognition of sadness and -- to a lesser degree -- anger, starting at about 30 years of age. Although age-related differences in the recognition of expression of emotion were not mediated by personality traits, 2 of the Big 5 traits, openness and conscientiousness, made an independent contribution to emotion-recognition performance. Implications of age-related differences in facial and vocal emotion expression and early onset of the selective decrease in emotion recognition are discussed in terms of previous findings and relevant theoretical models.

  16. Low back pain in adolescent and associated factors: A cross sectional study with schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mônica R. O. G. C. M.; Badaró, Ana Fátima V.; Dall'Agnol, Marinel M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of low back pain nonspecific and associated factors in schoolchildren. Method: This cross-sectional study investigated 343 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, of both sexes of public schools. The questionnaire included questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, type of school transportation, body mass index and low back pain. The outcome was defined as discomfort localized below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds in the last 12 months. Results : The prevalence of low back pain in the last year was 57% (n=195) among participants, with no significant difference between the sexes (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.37). Advancing age and body mass index were associated with the presence of low back pain in the bivariate analysis. The remaining seated at school in usual days was considered one of the main activities that trigger symptoms that lasted up to seven days for the majority (80%) of adolescents. Conclusions: The high prevalence of low back pain presented, indicating that it is a common condition among these adolescents. There was no difference between the sexes, but had influence of age and body mass index. Our results point to the need for the development epidemiological studies of low back pain among children and adolescents. PMID:25372002

  17. Hypercobalaminaemia is associated with hepatic and neoplastic disease in cats: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When increased serum cobalamin concentrations are encountered clinically they are usually attributed to parenteral supplementation, dietary factors, or otherwise ignored. However, recently, hypercobalaminaemia has been associated with numerous diseases in humans, most notably neoplastic and hepatic disorders. The aim of this retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was to determine the significance of increased cobalamin in cats. Results In total, 237 records were retrieved and 174 cats, of various ages and sexes met the inclusion criteria. A total of 42 cats had increased serum cobalamin concentration, and had not received prior supplementation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased serum cobalamin concentration was positively related to pedigree breed (pedigree breeds more likely to have increased cobalamin concentration, odds ratio [OR] 4.24, 95% CI 1.78-10.15, P = 0.001), to having liver disease (OR 9.91, 95% CI 3.54-27.68), and to having a solid neoplasm (OR 8.54, 95% CI 1.10-66.45). Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that increased serum cobalamin concentrations should not be ignored in cats with no history of supplementation, and investigation for underlying hepatic or neoplastic disease is warranted. PMID:25103858

  18. Plantar pressure distribution among asymptomatic individuals: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Syed, Nafeez; Karvannan, H; Maiya, Arun G; Binukumar, B; Prem, V; Chakravarty, Raj Devashish

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish normative data on pressure distribution under the feet (plantar pressure) in standing using a free-mapping device and to find out the association of arch type to that of the plantar pressures. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 628 participants aged between 6 and 81 years with no known foot problems or other ailments such as type 2 diabetes or neuropathy, which are known to have an impact on plantar pressures. Plantar pressure measurements were quantitatively recorded using a baropodometric platform (i-Step). In both males and females of the specified age-group, metatarsal heads were overloaded in terms of magnitude. Increased overload noted in the static plantar pressure measurement is associated with type of the foot arch and gender. A statistically significant relationship between the pressures of left and right feet, pressures under 2 different areas of foot (forefoot and heel), and the average pressures of both feet was also observed. These data could be used to establish age-based normative plantar pressures in the Indian population and provide a basis to assess feet with planus and cavus deformities.

  19. The relationship between blood pressure, anthropometric indices and metabolic profile in adolescents: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dalili, Setila; Mohammadi, Hamid; Rezvany, Seyed Mahmood; Dadashi, Arsalan; Novin, Mohammad Hassan; Gholaminejad, Hajar; Medghalchi, Abdolreza; Mohtasham Amiri, Zahra; Dalili, Hossein; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood pressure, anthropometric indices and metabolic profile in adolescents. The present cross sectional study was conducted in 1005, 12-y-old junior students referred to 15 urban health centers of Rasht. Samples were recruited randomly and data were collected in a form which consisted of demographic characteristics, history of disease in samples and their immediate families, birth weight, physical examination and clinical examination including height, weight, blood pressure and body mass index. Also, metabolic profiles including fasting blood sugar (FBS), blood sugar (BS), cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and insulin levels were measured. Data were analyzed in SPSS software, by descriptive and analytic statistics and p value 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Eight hundred fifty nine adolescents consisting of 550 (64 %) boys and 309 (34 %) girls participated in this study; 11.4 % (84/739 cases) of the participants had hypertension. The strongest correlation was seen between systolic blood pressure and weight, waist or hip circumferences and insulin levels. Also, FBS had very weak correlation with blood pressure. Thus, weight, waist and hip circumferences, insulin levels, high TG and low HDL have been indicated as the strongest correlating factors for high blood pressure.Thus, these factors should be investigated in high risk children and followed in hypertensive child to monitor cardiometabolic risk factors.

  20. Mental health status and its predictors among call center employees: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyunjin; Park, Heyeon; Boo, Sunjoo

    2017-03-15

    In this study, we assessed the mental health of Korean call center employees and investigated the potential predictors of their mental health status. A cross-sectional study using self-completing questionnaire was conducted for employees working for a credit card call center. A total of 306 call center employees completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Emotion Labor Scale, and the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. The results showed that more than half of the participants reported high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the total scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were predicted by perceived health, job satisfaction, job demands, organizational injustice, and emotional dissonance suggesting that, in the interest of improving the mental health of call center employees, their job demands and emotional dissonance should be reduced and the work environment be improved. Consideration should be given to providing routine assessments of mental health, including depression, anxiety, and stress, and the corresponding need for the development of an intervention program and other work-related policies that would protect employees from the risk of poor mental health outcomes.

  1. Studying total proton-proton cross section collision at large hadron collider using gene expression programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radi, A.

    2017-06-01

    New technique is presented for modeling total cross section of proton-proton (p-p) collision from low to ultra-high energy regions using gene expression programming (GEP). GEP, as a machine learning technique is usually used for modeling physical phenomena by discovering a new function {{{σ }}}{{T}}(\\sqrt{s}). In case of modeling the p-p interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), GEP is used to simulate and predict the total cross-section which is a function of total center-of-mass from low to high energy √s. The discovered function shows a good match as compared with the other models. The predicted values of total cross section are in good agreement with Particle Data Group (PDG).

  2. Falls and fear of falling in vertigo and balance disorders: A controlled cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Schlick, Cornelia; Schniepp, Roman; Loidl, Verena; Wuehr, Max; Hesselbarth, Kristin; Jahn, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are among the most prevalent symptoms in neurologic disorders. Although many of these patients suffer from postural instability and gait disturbances, there is only limited data on their risk of falling. We conducted a controlled cross-sectional study at the tertiary care outpatient clinic of the German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders using a self-administered questionnaire to assess falls, fall-related injuries, and fear of falling. The recruitment period was 6 months. A total of 569 patients (mean age 59.6 ± 17.1 years, 55% females) and 100 healthy participants were included (response rate > 90%). Dizzy patients with central balance disorders (Parkinsonian, cerebellar, and brainstem oculomotor syndromes) had the highest fall rates (> 50% recurrent fallers, odds ratio > 10). The rate of recurrent fallers was 30% in bilateral vestibular failure and peripheral neuropathy (odds ratio > 5). Patients with functional dizziness (somatoform or phobic vertigo) were concerned about falling but did not fall more often than healthy controls (odds ratio 0.87). Falls are common in patients presenting to a dizziness unit. Those with central syndromes are at risk of recurrent and injurious falling. Fall rates and fear of falling should be assessed in balance disorders and used to guide the regimen of rehabilitation therapy. The identification of risk factors would help provide protective measures to these groups of patients.

  3. Mahjong playing and eye-hand coordination in older adults—a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William W.N.; Wong, Gloria C.K.; Gao, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Eye-hand coordination declines with age, but physical activity is known to slow down the degeneration. Playing mahjong involves lots of eye-hand coordination. The objective was to investigate the relationship between playing mahjong and eye-hand coordination in older adults using a fast finger-pointing paradigm. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-one community dwelling older adults aged sixty or above were recruited by convenience sampling in this cross-sectional study. They were tested on their ability to point quickly and accurately 1) toward a stationary visual target and 2) toward a moving visual target. [Results] The mahjong players demonstrated significantly better end-point accuracy when pointing with their non-dominant hand toward a stationary target. They also demonstrated significantly faster movement of their dominant hands; shorter reaction times and better end-point accuracy when pointing with their non-dominant hands toward a moving target. [Conclusion] Mahjong players have better eye-hand coordination than non-players. Playing mahjong could usefully be introduced to older adults as a leisure time activity. PMID:27821969

  4. Nomophobia: A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Mobile Phone Usage Among Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Saha, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Malhi, Ravneet; Pandita, Venisha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mobile phones were originally seen as a gadget for communication but currently, the internet enabled mobile phones have become an integral part of our daily life. Their benefits are incomparable but at the same time, they have some negative effects too. Aim To assess the pattern of usage of mobile phones and its effects on the academic performance of students. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 554 students of D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research through a self-administered questionnaire to collect the data regarding the usage and associated anxiety with mobile phone. Results About 39.5% students agreed that they score low marks in professional exams if they spend more time on phone. The number of students who frequently checked their cell phone during their classes or while doing clinical work were 24.7% . A total of 24.12% of the students were found to be nomophobic and at risk of being nomophobes were 40.97%. A statistically significant difference was found among preclinical, clinical, interns and postgraduates regarding the usage and effect of mobile phone on them. Conclusion The pattern of usage of mobile phone among dental students showed alarming indication that students have been addicted to mobile phone which in turn affect their academic performance in a negative way. It would be useful to advise the students about the controlled as well as proper usage of mobile phone. PMID:28384977

  5. Nomophobia: A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Mobile Phone Usage Among Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Monika; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Saha, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Malhi, Ravneet; Pandita, Venisha

    2017-02-01

    Mobile phones were originally seen as a gadget for communication but currently, the internet enabled mobile phones have become an integral part of our daily life. Their benefits are incomparable but at the same time, they have some negative effects too. To assess the pattern of usage of mobile phones and its effects on the academic performance of students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 554 students of D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research through a self-administered questionnaire to collect the data regarding the usage and associated anxiety with mobile phone. About 39.5% students agreed that they score low marks in professional exams if they spend more time on phone. The number of students who frequently checked their cell phone during their classes or while doing clinical work were 24.7% . A total of 24.12% of the students were found to be nomophobic and at risk of being nomophobes were 40.97%. A statistically significant difference was found among preclinical, clinical, interns and postgraduates regarding the usage and effect of mobile phone on them. The pattern of usage of mobile phone among dental students showed alarming indication that students have been addicted to mobile phone which in turn affect their academic performance in a negative way. It would be useful to advise the students about the controlled as well as proper usage of mobile phone.

  6. Low back pain among taxi drivers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Yu, J; Liu, N; Liu, Z; Wei, X; Yan, F; Yu, S

    2017-06-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common occupational problem for drivers all over the world. However, few epidemiological studies have investigated LBP among taxi drivers. To investigate the prevalence of LBP and associated work-related factors among Chinese taxi drivers. A cross-sectional survey was administered to all participants. Using cluster sampling, questionnaires were collected from taxi drivers of three major taxi companies in Jinan, China. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among participants. A total of 800 taxi drivers were invited to take part, with a participation rate of 90%. The 1-year period prevalence of LBP was 54%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that longer daily driving duration (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.9-5.9), night shifts (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1) and increasing work years as a taxi driver (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5) were associated with increased risk of reporting LBP; while increased rest days per month (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9), longer sleep duration (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and more physical activity (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8) were significantly associated with decreased risk of reporting LBP. The prevalence of LBP among professional taxi drivers in China was associated with a number of occupational features.

  7. How Informed is the Decision about Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy? A Prospective, Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Clara Nan-hi; Ubel, Peter Anthony; Deal, Allison M; Blizard, Lillian Burdick; Sepucha, Karen R; Ollila, David W.; Pignone, Michael Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Objective to assess how informed patients are about breast reconstruction, and how involved they are in decision making. Summary Background Data Breast reconstruction is an important treatment option for patients undergoing mastectomy. Wide variations in who gets reconstruction, however, have led to concerns about decision making. Methods We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of patients planning mastectomy at a single site, over 20 months. Before surgery, patients completed a survey with validated scales to assess knowledge about breast reconstruction and involvement in decision making. Factors associated with knowledge were examined in a multivariable linear regression model. Results 145 patients enrolled (77% enrollment rate), and 126 remained eligible. The overall knowledge score was 58.5% (out of 100%). Knowledge about risk of complications was especially low at 14.3%. Knowledge did not differ by treatment (reconstruction or not). On multivariable analysis, non-white race was independently associated with lower knowledge. Most patients (92.1%) reported some discussion with a provider about reconstruction, and most (90.4%) reported being asked their preference. More patients reported discussing the advantages of reconstruction (57.9%) than the disadvantages (27.8%). Conclusions Women undergoing mastectomy in this sample were highly involved in decision making but had major deficits in knowledge about the procedure. Knowledge about the risk of complications was particularly low. Providers appeared to have discussed the advantages of reconstruction more than its disadvantages. PMID:26727092

  8. Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Massad, Salwa G; Nieto, F J; Palta, Mari; Smith, Maureen; Clark, Roseanne; Thabet, Abdel-Aziz

    2012-01-11

    The authors examined factors associated with nutritional resilience/vulnerability among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip in 2007, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using random sampling of kindergartens in order to select 350 preschoolers. Binary logistic regression was used to compare resilient (adequate nutrition) and vulnerable (stunted) groups with those with moderate nutrition. Approximately 37% of the subjects demonstrated nutritional resilience and 15% were vulnerable. Factors associated with nutritional resilience were child younger age, normal birth weight, actively hand- or spoon-feeding when the child was below two years, and residential stability in the past two years. The only factor associated with nutritional vulnerability was lower total score on the mother's General Health Questionnaire, which we interpret as a marker of maternal mental health. Children with low-birth weight and older children had worse nutritional resiliency outcomes. Further, poorer outcomes for children were associated with lower maternal mental health status, as well as increased family residential instability. Our results add to the large literature on the pervasive effects of violence and instability on children and underscore the need for resources for early intervention and for the urgent resolution of the Palestinian and other armed conflicts. © 2012 Massad et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. Relative deprivation, poverty, and subjective health: JAGES cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Abe, Aya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between relative deprivation (lacking daily necessities) and subjective health in older Japanese adults, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). The data were obtained from functionally independent residents aged ≥65 years from 24 municipalities in Japan (n = 24,742). Thirteen items in three dimensions were used to evaluate relative deprivation of material conditions. Approximately 28% of older Japanese people indicated that they lacked some daily necessities (non-monetary poverty). A two-level Poisson regression analysis revealed that relative deprivation was associated with poor self-rated health (PR = 1.3-1.5) and depressive symptoms (PR = 1.5-1.8) in both men and women, and these relationships were stronger than those observed in people living in relative poverty (monetary poverty). The interaction effect between relative deprivation and relative poverty was not associated with poor health. As a dimension of the social determinants of health, poverty should be evaluated from a multidimensional approach, capturing not only monetary conditions but also material-based, non-monetary conditions.

  10. Relative Deprivation, Poverty, and Subjective Health: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Abe, Aya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between relative deprivation (lacking daily necessities) and subjective health in older Japanese adults, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). The data were obtained from functionally independent residents aged ≥65 years from 24 municipalities in Japan (n = 24,742). Thirteen items in three dimensions were used to evaluate relative deprivation of material conditions. Approximately 28% of older Japanese people indicated that they lacked some daily necessities (non-monetary poverty). A two-level Poisson regression analysis revealed that relative deprivation was associated with poor self-rated health (PR = 1.3–1.5) and depressive symptoms (PR = 1.5–1.8) in both men and women, and these relationships were stronger than those observed in people living in relative poverty (monetary poverty). The interaction effect between relative deprivation and relative poverty was not associated with poor health. As a dimension of the social determinants of health, poverty should be evaluated from a multidimensional approach, capturing not only monetary conditions but also material-based, non-monetary conditions. PMID:25350284

  11. Tobacco use and friendship networks: a cross-sectional study among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Cota, Luís Otavio; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; do Vale, Miriam Pimenta; Kawachi, Ichiro; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of tobacco use and its association with types of friendship networks, socioeconomic status and gender among Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a representative sample of 905 students aged 15 to 19 years. Information on social networks and tobacco use was collected by the self-administered questionnaire 'Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test" and the question "What is your most important group of close friends?'. Socioeconomic status was assessed using an area-based social vulnerability index and type of school. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was employed to test associations between tobacco use and the independent variables. The overall prevalence of tobacco use was 18.9%. Female adolescents had 3.80-fold greater odds of reporting weekly to daily tobacco use compared to male adolescents. Participants who reported that their most important groups of close friends were from church had a lower risk of reporting weekly to daily tobacco use in comparison to those who reported that their best friends were from school. The prevalence of tobacco use was high and was associated with school-based (as compared to church-based) friendship networks, female gender and higher area-level socioeconomic status.

  12. Croatian medical students see academic dishonesty as an acceptable behaviour: a cross-sectional multicampus study.

    PubMed

    Kukolja Taradi, Suncana; Taradi, Milan; Dogas, Zoran

    2012-06-01

    To provide insights into the students' attitude towards academic integrity and their perspective of academic honesty at Croatian medical schools. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire containing 29 questions on frequency of cheating, perceived seriousness of cheating, perceptions on integrity atmosphere, cheating behaviour of peers and on willingness to report misconduct. Participants were third-year (preclinical) and fifth-year (clinical) students from all four Croatian Schools of Medicine. Outcome measures were descriptive statistical correlates and differences in students' self-reported educational dishonesty, perceptions of cheating behaviour and medical school integrity atmosphere. Of the 1074 students enrolled in the third and fifth year, 662 (62%) completed the questionnaire. A large proportion of the students (97%) admitted using some method of cheating and 78% admitted engaging in at least one form of misconduct. About 50% had a lenient attitude towards six acts of academic dishonesty. Only 2% reported another student for cheating. Risk factors for cheating were strongly correlated with students' perceptions of peer cheating behaviour, peer approval of cheating, low perception of seriousness of cheating and inappropriate severity level of exams and teaching materials. Cheating is prevalent in Croatian medical schools and academic dishonesty is seen as acceptable behaviour among numerous future Croatian doctors.

  13. A cross-sectional study of emotional intelligence in baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Benson, Gerry; Ploeg, Jenny; Brown, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been identified as a set of competencies necessary for workplace success. EI is deemed essential for effective nursing practice, yet little research has been done in nursing. The purpose of this study was to describe the EI scores of baccalaureate nursing students and to determine if there was a difference among the students across the four years of the program. A cross-sectional design was used to examine the EI scores of 100 female nursing students (25 in each of the four years). Students completed the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory Short (EQ-i:S), a 51-item self-report questionnaire that includes scores for a total EQ and 5 subscales. Undergraduate nursing students in each of the four years of the program had EI scores within the emotionally and socially effective functioning capacity, identifying them as being able to establish satisfying interpersonal relationships, and work well under pressure. The difference in total EQ scores between students in Year 1 and Year 4 was statistically significant (p= or <.05) as were the scores in the interpersonal and the stress management subscales (p= or <.05) with students in Year 4 scoring higher than those in Year 1. Implications for nursing education are discussed.

  14. Cardiometabolic disease and features of depression and bipolar disorder: population-based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniel J; Ul-Haq, Zia; Nicholl, Barbara I; Cullen, Breda; Evans, Jonathan; Gill, Jason M R; Roberts, Beverly; Gallacher, John; Mackay, Daniel; McIntosh, Andrew; Hotopf, Matthew; Craddock, Nick; Deary, Ian J; Pell, Jill P; Smith, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    The relative contribution of demographic, lifestyle and medication factors to the association between affective disorders and cardiometabolic diseases is poorly understood. To assess the relationship between cardiometabolic disease and features of depresion and bipolar disorder within a large population sample. Cross-sectional study of 145 991 UK Biobank participants: multivariate analyses of associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and five cardiometabolic outcomes, adjusting for confounding factors. There were significant associations between mood disorder features and 'any cardiovascular disease' (depression odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI 1.12-1.19; bipolar OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.14-1.43) and with hypertension (depression OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.13-1.18; bipolar OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.12-1.42). Individuals with features of mood disorder taking psychotropic medication were significantly more likely than controls not on psychotropics to report myocardial infarction (depression OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.24-1.73; bipolar OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.53-3.57) and stroke (depression OR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.10-2.80; bipolar OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.39-3.85). Associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and cardiovascular disease outcomes were statistically independent of demographic, lifestyle and medication confounders. Psychotropic medication may also be a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease in individuals without a clear history of mood disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  15. How should complementary practitioners and physicians communicate? A cross-sectional study from Israel.

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Scharf, Moshe; Frenkel, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    The extensive use of complementary and alternative medicine for patients can complicate dialogue between physicians and complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, but not much data have been collected on the expectations and attitudes of physicians and complementary and alternative medicine practitioners concerning their communication and collaboration. In this study, we compared the results of a cross-sectional survey of both groups to elucidate the attitudes and expectations regarding communication and collaboration. Questionnaires were mailed electronically or through the mail to 2532 primary care physicians and 450 complementary and alternative medicine practitioners employed by Clalit Health Services, the largest health maintenance organization in Israel. Questionnaires were returned by 333 physicians (response rate of 13%) and 241 practitioners (response rate of 54%). According to our results, the majority of both groups expressed an interest in clinical practice collaboration (69% and 77% of physicians and practitioners, respectively; P = .043); preferred using a medical letter to communicate with each other; and expected to consult with each other about mutual patients to formulate treatment plans. However, the practitioners were more interested than the physicians in collaborative scientific research (15% vs 42%, respectively; P < .0001) and collaborative medical education (2% vs 27%, respectively; P < .0001). The physicians also supported a physician-guided model of teamwork in clinical practice, whereas the practitioners supported a more collaborative model. Educational programs for primary care physicians and complementary and alternative medicine practitioners should focus on aspects of communication between the groups and practical methods for writing referral or medical letters.

  16. Men's knowledge and attitude towards breast cancer in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Amoudi, Samia M; Abduljabbar, Hassan S

    2012-05-01

    To identify men's knowledge and attitude towards early detection of breast cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinics of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Five hundred and fifty participants were selected by systemic randomization. The distributed questionnaire included: demographics, knowledge and its source on breast cancer, beliefs and practice regarding breast self-examination (BSE), mammography, and difficulties that may prevent women from seeking medical help. The questionnaire was filled anonymously and in private. The response rate was 90.9%, and most were employees (63.2%). Physicians represented 43.4% of the source of knowledge, followed by the internet (40.4%), and last, the media (30.4%). Breast mass was the most common symptom (36.6%), followed by change of breast size (26%) and pain (20.2%), while 24% did not know the symptoms of breast cancer. Approximately 13% believed that all cases of breast cancer ended with mastectomy. Only 57.6% were aware of the importance of BSE in early detection of breast cancer, and approximately 90% did not know the importance of mammography. Awareness campaigns aimed at husbands and men in general are to be strongly considered. They should encourage their wives and families to enroll in awareness and screening campaigns.

  17. Russian child mental health--a cross-sectional study of prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Robert; Slobodskaya, Helena; Knyazev, Gennadij

    2005-02-01

    The fall of communism and subsequent economic crises have been followed by major social and health problems. High rates of child mental health problems are frequently cited by the Russian media, though there is little relevant evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associations of child mental health problems in Russia using internationally recognised measures and diagnostic systems. A two-stage, two-phase cross-sectional survey of the mental health of 7- to 14-year-olds involved random sampling of schools, followed by random sampling of pupils from school lists. A sample of 448 children was obtained, representing an 83% participation rate. In the first phase, screening measures of psychopathology and risk were administered to parents, teachers and 11- to 14-year-olds. In the second phase, more detailed psychiatric assessments were carried out for subgroups of screen-positive and screen-negative children (N=172). The prevalence of psychiatric disorder was about 70% higher than that recently found in Britain with comparable measures, but there were few differences between Britain and Russia in type of disorder or key risk factors. There is a pressing need for evidence-based mental health treatments to be made widely available to Russian children and adolescents.

  18. Assessment of medical students' attitudes on social media use in medicine: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çelikden, Sevda Gerek; Eren, Semih; Aydenizöz, Doğukan

    2015-02-15

    Social media has created a revolution in health services. Information available on the Internet and via social media is now being used as reference guides for sensitive health issues by nonprofessionals, physicians, and medical students. When used by physicians and medical students, social media has the potential to raise issues such as the blurring of the line between professional and private lives, patient relations, and medical ethics. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the use of social media and attitudes toward its use in medicine among medical students. Medical students from Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Medicine (Afyonkarahisar, Turkey) were asked to participate in a survey consisting of two sections, the first containing questions assessing the frequency of social media use and the second regarding attitudes toward the use of social media in medicine. Survey responses indicated that 93.4% of medical students used social media and 89.3% used social media for professional purposes. Factor analysis showed that attitudes toward social media are based on five factors: professional usefulness, popularity, ethics, barriers, and innovativeness. A structural equation model revealed the highest positive correlation between usefulness and innovativeness; ethics had a low but positive correlation with other factors. Although social media is being used extensively by medical students, they appear unaware of possible ethical issues. Therefore, social media guidelines should be developed.

  19. [Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Fontana, Silvia Alicia; Raimondi, Waldina; Rizzo, María Laura

    2014-09-05

    Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adventista del Plata. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test were applied. The main results indicate that students sleep an average of 6.48 hours. Generally half of the population tested had a good quality of sleep. However, the dispersion seen in some components demonstrates the heterogeneity of the sample in these variables. It was observed that the evaluated attention processes yielded different levels of alteration in the total sample: major variability in the process of process and in the divided-attention processes were detected. A lower percentage of alteration was observed in the process of attention support. Poor quality of sleep has more impact in the sub processes with greater participation of corticocortical circuits (selective and divided attention) and greater involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Fewer difficulties were found in the attention-support processes that rely on subcortical regions and have less frontal involvement.

  20. Assessment of sleep disturbances in patients with cancer: Cross-sectional study in a radiotherapy department.

    PubMed

    López, Escarlata; de la Torre-Luque, Alejandro; Lazo, Antonio; Álvarez, Julia; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2016-02-01

    To explore sleep-related problems reported by patients with cancer prior to undergoing radiotherapy, and to analyse the effect of cancer severity, history of treatment and psychosomatic symptomatology on these problems. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and five patients with cancer were evaluated prior to radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was the sleep problem score measured by a self-rated version of the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire. Secondary variables were impact of pain on sleep, anxiety and asthenia. Patients reported important levels of insomnia and hypersomnia. Insomnia-related problems were significantly higher in patients with more-severe disease (P < 0.05), and led to higher levels of hypnotic drug intake. Prior chemotherapy was significantly associated with hypersomnia-related problems (P < 0.05). Anxiety was significantly associated with both sleep-related problems. Sleep problems are significant among patients with cancer prior to undergoing radiotherapy, and were found to be associated with progression of cancer, prior treatments and other psychosomatic symptoms (e.g. anxiety). Sleep problems within this context must be explored to provide adequate guidelines to palliate their effects on quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  2. Lower socioeconomic status, adiposity and negative health behaviours in youth: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah; Manlhiot, Cedric; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Dobbin, Stafford; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding obesity and its modifiable risk factors in youth is key to addressing the burden of cardiovascular disease later in life. Our aim was to examine the associations among adiposity, negative health behaviours and socioeconomic status in youth from the Niagara Region. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional observational study of 3467 grade 9 students during their mandatory health and physical education class to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (postal code), self-reported health behaviour and adiposity in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. Results Median household income was $63 696 and overall percentage below the after-tax low-income cut-off was 4.2%. Negative health behaviours (especially skipped meals, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, higher screen time) were associated with lower income neighbourhoods, however, the absolute effect was small. Those participants in the lowest income quintile had a significantly greater body mass index z-score than those in the highest (0.72±1.19 vs 0.53±1.12), but the overall trend across quintiles was not statistically significant. A similar trend was noted for waist-to-height ratio. The lowest income neighbourhoods according to after-tax low-income cut-off had small but statistically significant associations with higher adiposity compared with the middle or highest income neighbourhoods. Conclusions Obesity prevention efforts should target modifiable behaviours, with particular attention to adolescents from lower income families and neighbourhoods. PMID:25986642

  3. Psychological distress amongst immigration detainees: a cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Robjant, Katy; Robbins, Ian; Senior, Victoria

    2009-09-01

    To compare levels of depression, anxiety, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst immigration detainees with a comparison group of asylum seekers living within the community. A cross-sectional questionnaire study. Sixty-seven detained asylum seekers, 30 detainees who had previously been imprisoned within the UK for criminal offences, and 49 asylum seekers living in the community completed the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and the impact of event scale-revised (IES-R). Demographic information was collected. High levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms were reported by all three groups. Detained asylum seekers had higher scores than asylum seekers living within the community for depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. There was an interaction between length of detention period and prior exposure to interpersonal trauma (IP trauma) on depression scores. Immigration detainees are highly vulnerable to psychological distress. A review of detention policies is recommended in light of this. Immigration detention may have an independent adverse effect on mental health. It is also possible that individuals with mental health problems may be more likely to be detained. Further research is required to investigate this.

  4. Mental health effects from urban bed bug infestation (Cimex lectularius L.): a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Susser, Stephanie Rebecca; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Jacques, Louis; Denis, Geoffroy; Tessier, François; Roberge, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether bed bug infestation was linked to sleep disturbances and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Exploratory cross-sectional study. Convenience sample of tenants recruited in apartment complexes from Montreal, Canada. 39 bed bug-exposed tenants were compared with 52 unexposed tenants. The effect of bed bug-exposed tenants on sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression symptoms measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, 5th subscale, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale and Patient Health Questionnaire, 9-item, respectively. In adjusted models, bed bug infestation was strongly associated with measured anxiety symptoms (OR (95% CI)=4.8 (1.5 to 14.7)) and sleep disturbance (OR (95% CI)=5.0 (1.3-18.8)). There was a trend to report more symptoms of depression in the bed bug-infested group, although this finding was not statistically significant ((OR (95% CI)=2.5(0.8 to 7.3)). These results suggest that individuals exposed to bed bug infestations are at risk of experiencing sleep disturbance and of developing symptoms of anxiety and possibly depression. Greater clinical awareness of this problem is needed in order for patients to receive appropriate mental healthcare. These findings highlight the need for undertaking of deeper inquiry, as well as greater collaboration between medical professionals, public health and community stakeholders.

  5. Changes in patient safety culture after restructuring of intensive care units: Two cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Vifladt, Anne; Simonsen, Bjoerg O; Lydersen, Stian; Farup, Per G

    2016-02-01

    Compare changes in registered nurses' perception of the patient safety culture in restructured and not restructured intensive care units during a four-year period. Two cross-sectional surveys were performed, in 2008/2009 (time 1) and 2012/2013 (time 2). During a period of 0-3 years after time 1, three of six hospitals merged their general and medical intensive care units (restructured). The other hospitals maintained their structure of the intensive care units (not restructured). Intensive care units in hospitals at one Norwegian hospital trust. The safety culture was measured with Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. At times 1 and 2, 217/302 (72%) and 145/289 (50%) registered nurses participated. Restructuring was negatively associated with change in the safety culture, in particular, the dimensions of the safety culture within the unit level. The dimensions most vulnerable for restructuring were manager expectations and actions promoting safety, teamwork within hospital units and staffing. In this study, the restructuring of intensive care units was associated with a negative impact on the safety culture. When restructuring, the management should be particularly aware of changes in the safety culture dimensions manager expectations and actions promoting safety, teamwork within hospital units and staffing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Greater Cortical Thickness in Elderly Female Yoga Practitioners-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Rui F; Balardin, Joana B; Lazar, Sara; Sato, João R; Igarashi, Nadja; Santaella, Danilo F; Lacerda, Shirley S; Amaro, Edson; Kozasa, Elisa H

    2017-01-01

    Yoga, a mind-body activity that requires attentional engagement, has been associated with positive changes in brain structure and function, especially in areas related to awareness, attention, executive functions and memory. Normal aging, on the other hand, has also been associated with structural and functional brain changes, but these generally involve decreased cognitive functions. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare brain cortical thickness (CT) in elderly yoga practitioners and a group of age-matched healthy non-practitioners. We tested 21 older women who had practiced hatha yoga for at least 8 years and 21 women naive to yoga, meditation or any mind-body interventions who were matched to the first group in age, years of formal education and physical activity level. A T1-weighted MPRAGE sequence was acquired for each participant. Yoga practitioners showed significantly greater CT in a left prefrontal lobe cluster, which included portions of the lateral middle frontal gyrus, anterior superior frontal gyrus and dorsal superior frontal gyrus. We found greater CT in the left prefrontal cortex of healthy elderly women who trained yoga for a minimum of 8 years compared with women in the control group.

  7. Psychosomatic symptoms and stressful working conditions among Palestinian nurses: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jaradat, Yousef; Nijem, Khaldoun; Lien, Lars; Stigum, Hein; Bjertness, Espen; Bast-Pettersen, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background: High levels of perceived stressful working conditions have been found to have an adverse effect on physical and mental health. Objectives: To examine the associations between self-reported stressful working conditions and Psychosomatic Symptoms (PSS), and to investigate possible gender differences. Methods: The present cross-sectional study comprises 430 nurses employed in Hebron district, Palestine. Self-reported stressful working conditions were recorded, and a Psychosomatic Symptoms Check list was used to assess prevalence of PSS. Findings: Median score on the psychosomatic symptom checklist for the group was 11, (range 1–21). Women reported more symptoms than men, with medians 11.6 and 10.0, respectively (p = .0001). PSS were associated with more self-reported stressful working conditions for both men (p < .0001) and women (p < .0001). The association was strongest among men. Conclusions: PSS were associated with high self-reported stressful working conditions, and this association was strongest among the men. PMID:27160155

  8. Is Nurses' Professional Competence Related to Their Personality and Emotional Intelligence? A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Kareshki, Hossein; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses' professional competence is a crucial factor in clinical practice. Systematic evaluation of nurses’ competence and its related factors are essential for enhancing the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to assess the nurses’ competence level and its possible relationship with their personality and emotional intelligence. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey design, three instruments including Nurse Competence Scale, short form of Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test, and the short 10-item version of Big Five Factor Inventory, were administered simultaneously to a randomized stratified sample of 220 nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Majority of nurses rated themselves as "good" and "very good", with the highest scores in "managing situations" and "work role" dimensions of nurse competence. A relatively similar pattern of scores was seen in competence dimensions, personality and emotional intelligence, among male and female nurses. Emotional intelligence and personality scores showed a significant relationship with nurses’ competence, explaining almost 20% of variations in nurse competence scores. Conclusion: Iranian nurses evaluated their overall professional competence at similar level of the nurses in other countries. Knowledge about the nurses’ competence level and its related factors, including personality and emotional intelligence, may help nurse managers in enhancing nurses' professional competence through appropriate task assignments and conducting in-service educational programs, thus improving the health status of patients. PMID:27354976

  9. Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly in Burkina Faso: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hien, Hervé; Berthé, Abdramane; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Meda, Nicolas; Konaté, Blahima; Tou, Fatoumata; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2014-11-01

    To assess the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among urban older adults in Burkina Faso. Cross-sectional study among community-dwelling elderly people aged ≥60 in Bobo-Dioulasso. We performed interviews, clinical examination and medical record review. Multimorbidity was defined as co-occurrence of at least two chronic diseases in one person whether as a coincidence or not. The overall prevalence of multimorbidity among older adults was 65%. Age ≥70 was associated with multimorbidity in multivariate analysis: adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI (1.01-2.68, P = 0.04). The most common chronic diseases were hypertension (82%) 95% CI (78; 86), malnutrition (39%) 95% CI (34; 44), visual impairments (28%) 95% CI (24; 33) and diabetes mellitus (27%) 95% CI (22; 31). Those aged ≥70 had significantly more malnutrition (50% vs. 31%, P = 0.0003) and osteoarthritis (8% vs. 3%, P = 0.01) than those aged 60-69. The high prevalence of multimorbidity requires a reorganization of healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Burkina Faso. Interventions and care guidelines usually focused on individual diseases should be improved to better reflect this reality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A pilot cross-sectional study of patients presenting with cellulitis to emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Quirke, M; Saunders, J; O'Sullivan, R; Milenkovski, H; Wakai, A

    2014-01-01

    To characterise the Emergency Department (ED) prevalence of cellulitis, factors predicting oral antibiotic therapy and the utility of the Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team (CREST) guideline in predicting patient management in the ED setting, a prospective, cross-sectional study of consecutive adult patients presenting to 3 Irish EDs was performed. The overall prevalence of cellulitis was 12 per 1,000 ED visits. Of 59 patients enrolled, 45.8% were discharged. Predictors of treatment with oral antibiotics were: CREST, Class 1 allocation (odds ratio (OR) 6.81, 95% Cl =1.5-30.1, p=0.012), patient self-referral (OR= 6.2, 95% Cl 1.9- 20.0, p=0.03) and symptom duration longer than 48 hours (OR 1.2, 95% Cl = 1.0-1.5,p=0.049). In conflict with guideline recommendation, 43% of patients in CREST Class 1 received IV therapy. Treatment with oral antibiotics was predicted by CREST Class 1 allocation, self-referral, symptom duration of more than 48 hours and absence of pre-EO antibiotic therapy.

  11. A cross sectional study of leptospirosis and fetal death in Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vado-Solis, Ignacio; Pérez-Osorio, Carlos; Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Segura-Correa, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly to low income human population. Acute leptospiral infection during pregnancy has been associated with spontaneous abortion and fetal death during the first trimester and the abortion may occur as consequence of systemic failure. Objective: To estimate the frequency of Leptospira interrogans infection in women with spontaneous abortion in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Methods: A cross sectional study on women with spontaneous abortion was conducted. Serum samples were tested for Leptospirosis by the microaglutination test, to estimate the frequency of the infecting serovar. The indirect ELISA IgM was used to detect recent infection by L. interrogans. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue of placenta for PCR detection of L. interrogans. Results: Overall frequency of infection with L. interrogans in the 81 women with abortion was 13.6%. Five of the 12 serovars evaluated were found and included. Two of the 11 women with abortion and positive to microaglutination test were also positive to the ELISA IgM test. None samples were positive for PCR Leptospira diagnosis. Conclusion: two women could be associated with spontaneous abortion due to leptospirosis, because they showed antibodies against L. interrogans in the microaglutination test and ELISA IgM assays. Differences between regions were found with respect to the prevalences of lesptospirosis. PMID:27226658

  12. Restless Legs Syndrome among Pakistani Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Khalid; Farhan, Rabeea; Surani, Asif; Surani, Arif Anwer; Surani, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a chronic distressing disease characterized by an urge to move the legs with an unpleasantsensation during periods of rest. The global prevalence estimates of RLS range from 2.5% to 15%. Method. This cross-sectional study was conducted at various hospitals in Karachi during August 13 to March 14. The visitors who had accompanied patients to Outpatient Department or had come to visit admitted patients were approached conveniently. Subjects were interviewed regarding the essential criteria of RLS and its attributes. Results. The sample size was 390 with 56% being females. The point prevalence of RLS was estimated to be 23.6%. The prevalence in females was twice as high as compared to males. Smoking and low level of education were associated with RLS (P < 0.001). Among RLS positive individuals, 50.1% reported frequency of their symptoms to be greater than 16 days per month and 64.1% graded their symptom severity as mild to moderate. About 37% of RLS positive individuals consulted a general physician for their symptoms. Conclusion. RLS is highly prevalent and underdiagnosed condition among Pakistani population. Efforts must be directed to raise the awareness of this condition among physicians and general population.

  13. Consumers' estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Block, Jason P; Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-05-23

    To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's, KFC, Dunkin' Donuts. 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald's diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation.

  14. HIV Testing and Tolerance to Gender Based Violence: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Sara; Malungo, Jacob R. S.; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Musheke, Maurice; Schindler, Christian; Merten, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64%) and 268 women (56%) had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00–6.19); tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05–4.32) and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23–1.80). In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families. PMID:23991005

  15. How Informed Is the Decision About Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy?: A Prospective, Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Clara Nan-Hi; Ubel, Peter Anthony; Deal, Allison M; Blizard, Lillian Burdick; Sepucha, Karen R; Ollila, David W; Pignone, Michael Patrick

    2016-12-01

    To assess how informed patients are about breast reconstruction, and how involved they are in decision making. Breast reconstruction is an important treatment option for patients undergoing mastectomy. Wide variations in who gets reconstruction, however, have led to concerns about decision making. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of patients planning mastectomy at a single site, over 20 months. Before surgery, patients completed a survey with validated scales to assess knowledge about breast reconstruction and involvement in decision making. Factors associated with knowledge were examined in a multivariable linear regression model. A total of 145 patients enrolled (77% enrollment rate), and 126 remained eligible. The overall knowledge score was 58.5% (out of 100%). Knowledge about risk of complications was especially low at 14.3%. Knowledge did not differ by treatment (reconstruction or not). On multivariable analysis, non-white race was independently associated with lower knowledge. Most patients (92.1%) reported some discussion with a provider about reconstruction, and most (90.4%) reported being asked their preference. More patients reported discussing the advantages of reconstruction (57.9%) than the disadvantages (27.8%). Women undergoing mastectomy in this sample were highly involved in decision making, but had major deficits in knowledge about the procedure. Knowledge about the risk of complications was particularly low. Providers seemed to have discussed the advantages of reconstruction more than its disadvantages.

  16. Sleep disturbances among pregnant women with history of migraines: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Sorensen, Tanya; Aurora, Sheena K; Gelaye, Bizu; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-10-01

    Migraine is associated with sleep disturbances in men and non-pregnant women. However, relatively little is known about sleep disturbances among pregnant migraineurs. We investigated sleep disturbances among pregnant women with and without history of migraine. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1324 women who were recruited during early pregnancy. Migraine diagnoses were based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was used to evaluate sleep-related characteristics including sleep duration, sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and other sleep traits. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Migraineurs were more likely than non-migraineurs to report short sleep duration (<6.5 hours) (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.07-2.02), poor sleep quality (PSQI>5) (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.35-2.23), and daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.12-2.02). Migraineurs were also more likely than non-migraineurs to report taking sleep medication during pregnancy (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.20-2.42). Associations were generally similar for migraine with or without aura. The odds of sleep disturbances were particularly elevated among pre-pregnancy overweight migraineurs. Migraine headache and sleep disturbances are common comorbid conditions among pregnant women. © International Headache Society 2015.

  17. Sleep Disturbances among Pregnant Women with History of Migraines: a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chunfang; Frederick, Ihunnaya O.; Sorensen, Tanya; Aurora, Sheena K.; Gelaye, Bizu; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Migraine is associated with sleep disturbances in men and non-pregnant women. However, relatively little is known about sleep disturbances among pregnant migraineurs. We investigated sleep disturbances among pregnant women with and without history of migraine. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,324 women who were recruited during early pregnancy. Migraine diagnoses were based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was used to evaluate sleep-related characteristics including sleep duration, sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and other sleep traits. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Migraineurs were more likely than non-migraineurs to report short sleep duration (≤6 hours) (AOR=1.47, 95% CI 1.07–2.02), poor sleep quality (PSQI>5) (AOR=1.73, 95% CI 1.35–2.23), and daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness (AOR=1.51, 95% CI 1.12–2.02). Migraineurs were also more likely than non-migraineurs to report taking sleep medication during pregnancy (AOR=1.71, 95% CI 1.20–2.42). Associations were generally similar for migraine with or without aura. The odds of sleep disturbances were particularly elevated among pre-pregnancy overweight migraineurs. Conclusion Migraine headache and sleep disturbances are common co-morbid conditions among pregnant women. PMID:25633375

  18. A cross-sectional study of medical students' knowledge of patient safety and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Blasiak, Rachel C; Stokes, Claire L; Meyerhoff, Karen L; Hines, Rachel E; Wilson, Lindsay A; Viera, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges and the World Health Organization have endorsed formal patient safety and quality improvement (QI) education for medical students. We surveyed medical students to assess their current level of patient safety and QI knowledge and to identify factors associated with increased knowledge. A literature review, focus groups with medical students, and local expert interviews were used to develop an electronic survey, which was distributed to all medical students at a single medical school in the spring of 2012. Fifty-seven percent of the medical school student body (N = 790) participated in the survey. A greater proportion of students reported previous exposure to patient safety education than to QI education (79% vs 47%). Students scored an average of 56% and 58% on the patient safety and QI knowledge tests, respectively. Having or pursuing an advanced degree (P = .02) and previous exposure to patient safety education (P = .02) were associated with higher knowledge scores. After adjusting for confounding variables, only previous exposure to QI education (P = .02) was associated with higher QI knowledge scores. There is a risk of measurement bias due to the use of an unvalidated instrument. Students who have greater knowledge of patient safety or QI might recall exposure at a greater frequency, inflating the association between exposure and knowledge. Also, this is a cross-sectional study, so we cannot draw conclusions about causality. Medical students' knowledge of patient safety and QI is low. Previous formal or informal education about these topics is associated with increased knowledge.

  19. Phonological recoding in error detection: a cross-sectional study in beginning readers of Dutch.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated the development of phonological recoding in beginning readers of Dutch, using a proofreading task with pseudohomophones and control misspellings. In Experiment 1, children in grades 1 to 3 rejected fewer pseudohomophones (e.g., wein, sounding like wijn 'wine') as spelling errors than control misspellings (e.g., wijg). The size of this pseudohomophone effect was larger in grade 1 than in grade 2 and did not differ between grades 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, we replicated the pseudohomophone effect in beginning readers and we tested how orthographic knowledge may modulate this effect. Children in grades 2 to 4 again detected fewer pseudohomophones than control misspellings and this effect decreased between grades 2 and 3 and between grades 3 and 4. The magnitude of the pseudohomophone effect was modulated by the development of orthographic knowledge: its magnitude decreased much more between grades 2 and 3 for more advanced spellers, than for less advanced spellers. The persistence of the pseudohomophone effect across all grades illustrates the importance of phonological recoding in Dutch readers. At the same time, the decreasing pseudohomophone effect across grades indicates the increasing influence of orthographic knowledge as reading develops.

  20. Job Demands, Job Resources, and Job Performance in Japanese Workers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    NAKAGAWA, Yuko; INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; TSUNO, Kanami; TOMIOKA, Kimiko; NAKANISHI, Mayuko; MAFUNE, Kosuke; HIRO, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, and demographic survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, decision latitude (β=0.107, p=0.001) and extrinsic reward (β=0.158, p<0.001) were positively and significantly associated with job performance while supervisor support (β=−0.102, p=0.002) was negatively and significantly associated with job performance. On the other hand, psychological demands or co-worker support was not significantly associated with job performance. These findings suggest that higher decision latitude and extrinsic reward enhance job performance among Japanese employees. PMID:25016948

  1. Job demands, job resources, and job performance in japanese workers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, and demographic survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, decision latitude (β=0.107, p=0.001) and extrinsic reward (β=0.158, p<0.001) were positively and significantly associated with job performance while supervisor support (β=-0.102, p=0.002) was negatively and significantly associated with job performance. On the other hand, psychological demands or co-worker support was not significantly associated with job performance. These findings suggest that higher decision latitude and extrinsic reward enhance job performance among Japanese employees.

  2. Cross-sectional study of glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Amarasekara Appuhamillage Thamara Dilhani; Fongkaew, Warunee; Wimalasekera, Savithri Wasundara; Turale, Sue; Chanprasit, Chawapornpan

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition, a global concern, and a serious issue in Sri Lanka, where there is little data regarding the influence of dietary control, exercise, and adherence to medication behaviors among adults diabetes. In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we identified current factors influencing glycemic control and glycemic control behavior among adults with diabetes. A total of 230 people attending diabetes clinics in a tertiary hospital and a primary care institute were administered the self-report Diabetes Information Form, assessing their socioeconomic and medical information and glycemic control behaviors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution, percentages, mean scores, and standard deviation. The results indicated that most participants had not achieved the recommended fasting blood glucose level (< 126 mg/dL). Although dietary control was practised by 72%, regular exercise was not practised by 85%, and while 77% reported adhering to regular medication, they still had poor glycemic control. The findings highlight the need for health professionals to adopt new strategies for diabetes education to overcome issues related to misconceptions and barriers in providing diabetes care in Sri Lanka.

  3. Mental capacity to make decisions on treatment in people admitted to psychiatric hospitals: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of mental capacity to make decisions on treatment in people from different diagnostic and legal groups admitted to psychiatric hospital. Design Cross sectional study. Setting General adult acute psychiatric inpatient units. Participants 350 consecutive people admitted to psychiatric wards from the community over 16 months. Main outcome measure Mental capacity assessed by clinical interview and the MacArthur competence assessment tool for treatment. Results Estimates of mental capacity were obtained on 97% (n=338) of the 350 people admitted. Of those an estimated 60% (95% confidence interval 55% to 65%) lacked mental capacity to make decisions on treatment. This proportion varied according to diagnosis, ranging from 97% (n=36) in people with mania to 4% (n=24) in people with personality disorder. Mental incapacity was common in patients admitted informally to the psychiatric wards (n=188; 39%, 32% to 46%). Incapacity and detention are closely associated under non-capacity based mental health law. Conclusions Mental incapacity to make decisions on treatment is common in people admitted to psychiatric wards from the community but cannot be presumed. It is usual in those detained under the Mental Health Act and common in those admitted voluntarily. PMID:18595931

  4. Mental capacity, diagnosis and insight in psychiatric in-patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Owen, G S; David, A S; Richardson, G; Szmukler, G; Hayward, P; Hotopf, M

    2009-08-01

    Mental capacity is now a core part of UK mental health law and clinicians will increasingly be expected to assess it. Because it is a legal concept there is a need to clarify associations with variables that clinicians are more familiar with, especially insight. In this cross-sectional study we recruited consecutive psychiatric admissions to the Maudsley Hospital, London. We carried out structured assessments of decision making using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T), resulting in a clinical judgement about capacity status. We analysed associations with a range of sociodemographic and clinical variables, including insight score on the Expanded Schedule for the Assessment of Insight (SAI-E). The same variables were compared in an analysis stratified according to diagnostic group: psychotic disorders/bipolar affective disorder (BPAD)/non-psychotic disorders. Psychotic disorders and manic episodes of BPAD are most strongly associated with incapacity. In such patients, insight is the best discriminator of capacity status. In patients with non-psychotic disorders, insight is less strongly associated with capacity; in this group depressed mood discriminates capacity status whereas it does not in psychotic disorders. Cognitive performance does not discriminate capacity status in patients with psychotic disorders. Mental capacity has complex relationships with psychopathological variables, and these relationships are different according to diagnostic group. Insight is the best discriminator of capacity status in psychotic disorders and BPAD but not in non-psychotic disorders.

  5. The acceptance of hearing disability among adults experiencing hearing difficulties: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    C Manchaiah, Vinaya K; Molander, Peter; Rönnberg, Jerker; Andersson, Gerhard; Lunner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study developed the Hearing Disability Acceptance Questionnaire (HDAQ) and tested its construct and concurrent validities. Design Cross-sectional. Participants A total of 90 participants who were experiencing hearing difficulties were recruited in the UK. Outcome measures The HDAQ was developed based on the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ). Participants completed self-report measures regarding hearing disability acceptance, hearing disability, symptoms of anxiety and depression and a measure of stages of change. Results The HDAQ has a two-factor structure that explains 75.69% of its variance. The factors identified were activity engagement and avoidance and suppression. The scale showed a sufficient internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.86). The HDAQ also had acceptable concurrent validity with regard to self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression and readiness to change measures. Conclusions Acceptance is likely an important aspect of coping with chronic health conditions. To our knowledge, no previously published and validated scale measures the acceptance of hearing disability; therefore, the HDAQ might be useful in future research. However, the role of acceptance in adjusting to hearing disability must be further investigated. PMID:24401726

  6. Prenatal care and pregnancy outcomes: A cross-sectional study in Luanda, Angola.

    PubMed

    Nimi, Tazi; Fraga, Sílvia; Costa, Diogo; Campos, Paulo; Barros, Henrique

    2016-11-01

    To describe prenatal care in Angolan women delivered at a large tertiary care unit, and to explore the association between prenatal care and selected perinatal outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study between December 2012 and February 2013, involving 995 women aged 13-46years, delivered at Lucrécia Paím Maternity, Luanda. Trained interviewers collected information on timing, frequency, place, and satisfaction with prenatal care; sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; birth weight; and gestational age. Logistic regression models were fitted, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95%CI) estimated. Quantitatively inadequate prenatal care (<4 visits) was more common in younger, less educated, poorer women, followed in public institutions, and those who felt more dissatisfied with care. More visits, both in primiparas and multiparas, were independently associated with more cesarean deliveries. After adjustment, having fewer than four visits was significantly associated with low birth weight (OR 2.00; 95% CI, 1.15-3.50) and preterm delivery (OR 2.74; 95% CI, 1.69-4.44 for 2-4 visits); similar associations were found regarding late entrance into care. Early entrance into prenatal care and the recommended number of visits are major determinants of mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes, constituting targets to improve perinatal health. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ICU fire evacuation preparedness in London: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G R F; Foot, C

    2011-05-01

    Hospital fires present a sporadic but significant threat to patients and staff. This is especially so within an intensive care unit (ICU) setting, due to the complexity of moving acutely unwell patients reliant on invasive monitoring and organ support. Despite an average of 500 in-hospital fires reported to the UK department of health per annum, causing 65 injuries and 1-2 fatalities, the readiness of ICUs for urgent evacuation has not been assessed. A cross-sectional survey of all 50 adult and paediatric ICUs within the London Postgraduate Deanery was conducted; neonatal units were excluded. The senior nurse at each unit was asked to complete a 90-question structured questionnaire, covering unit patient characteristics, design, equipment, training, and their evacuation plan. Thirty-five of 50 (70%) responded within 2 months of the study. Significant weaknesses were reported in unit design, equipment, and planning. Unit design was compromised by inadequate fire doors (20%), ventilation cut-outs (17%), and escape routes (up to 60%). The ability to evacuate multiple patients simultaneously may be limited by a lack of portable monitoring equipment (49% of beds) and emergency drug supplies (20% of beds). Evacuation plans were often limited in their scope (96% expected to remain on their floor; 14% had plans to obtain medications after evacuation), and not rehearsed (60%). Staff training, while well provided for permanent staff, is less so for temporary staff (34%). Forward planning for an urgent evacuation can be improved.

  8. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ignacio, Caroline Ferraz; Silva, Milena Enderson Chagas da; Handam, Natasha Berendonk; Alencar, Maria de Fatima Leal; Sotero-Martins, Adriana; Barata, Martha Macedo de Lima; Moraes, Antonio Henrique Almeida de

    2017-08-07

    A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595) searching for intestinal parasites. Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0%) and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9%) were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0%) and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%). Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA) 1. Children (0-19 years) had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001) which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  9. Cross-sectional study of social support and psychological distress among displaced earthquake survivors in Japan.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Chie; Matsunaga, Atsushi; Nagata, Satoko

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to explore the relationship between different types and sources of social support and psychological distress by age and sex among survivors living in temporary housing 10 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Self-reported questionnaires/structured interviews administered from January to March 2012 recorded demographic characteristics, damage involving participants' families, social support, and psychological distress. Data on 296 participants aged 20 years or more from nine temporary housing complexes in Otsuchi were analyzed; K6 scores indicating psychological distress averaged 5.1 (standard deviation, 5.9; range, 0-24). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated differences among types and sources of social support with regard to psychological distress by age and sex among disaster survivors. For men aged less than 65 years, social support by family was related to lower psychological distress. For women aged 65 years or more, emotional support from family, informational and instrumental support, and social companionship from friends in their own temporary housing complexes were related to less psychological distress. Differences in age and sex were related to different sources of social support in relation to psychological distress. It is necessary to pay more attention to those who lost family members in the disaster, especially men aged less than 65 years. It may also be necessary to support survivors in making friends when they relocate to temporary housing, especially women aged 65 years or more. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  10. Leadership effectiveness and recorded sickness absence among nursing staff: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Jolanda A H; Roelen, Corné A M; Van Zweeden, Nely F; Jongsma, Dianne; Van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W

    2011-07-01

    To investigate nurse managers' leadership behaviour in relation to the sickness absence records of nursing staff. Sickness absence is high in healthcare and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. Nurse managers' leadership behaviour may be associated with nursing staff sickness absence. Six nurse managers completed the Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD) questionnaire, which assesses leadership behaviour in terms of leadership flexibility (i.e. the range of leadership styles) and effectiveness (i.e. using the leadership style that is appropriate for a given situation). LEAD scores were linked to the number of recorded days of sickness absence and both short (1-7 days) and long (>7 days) episodes of sickness absence in the nursing teams. Leadership flexibility of nurse managers was not associated with sickness absence among nurses. High leadership effectiveness was associated with fewer days and fewer short episodes of sickness absence. Leadership effectiveness was unrelated to the number of long episodes of sickness absence. Effective nurse managers had less short-term sickness absence in their nursing teams. If these tentative cross-sectional associations are confirmed in longitudinal studies including more departments, then training effective leadership may improve the management of short-term sickness absence. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Hypoxia and oxidative stress markers in pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis: cross section study.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Enas A; El-Abaseri, Taghrid B; Mohamed, Amany O; Ahmed, Ahmed R; El-Metwally, Tarek H

    2012-10-13

    Tissue injury due to hypoxia and/or free radicals is common in a variety of disease processes. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effect of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) on hypoxia and oxidative stress biomarkers. Forty pediatric patients with CKD on HD and 20 healthy children were recruited. Plasma hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured by specific ELISA kits while, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total peroxide (TPX), pyruvate and lactate by enzymatic/chemical colorimetric methods. Oxidative stress index (OSI) and lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio were calculated. TAC was significantly lower while TPX, OSI and VEGF were higher in patients at before- and after-dialysis session than controls. Lactate and HIF-1α levels were significantly higher at before-dialysis session than controls. Before dialysis, TAC and L/P ratio were lower than after-dialysis. In before-dialysis session, VEGF correlated positively with pyruvate, HIF-1α and OSI correlated positively with TPX, but, negatively with TAC. In after-dialysis session, HIF-1α correlated negatively with TPX and OSI; while, OSI correlated positively with TPX. CKD patients succumb considerable tissue hypoxia with oxidative stress. Hemodialysis ameliorated hypoxia but lowered antioxidants as evidenced by decreased levels of HIF-1α and TAC at before- compared to after-dialysis levels.

  12. Neuroticism and Fatigue 3 Months After Ischemic Stroke: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chieh Grace; Tang, Wai Kwong; Liu, Xiang Xin; Liang, Hua Jun; Liang, Yan; Mok, Vincent; Wong, Adrian; Ungvari, Gabor S; Kutlubaev, Mansur A; Wong, Ka Sing

    2017-04-01

    To examine the relation between neuroticism and fatigue in Chinese patients with stroke. Cross-sectional study. Acute stroke unit. Survivors of ischemic stroke (N=191) recruited from the acute stroke unit between May 1, 2010, and September 1, 2011. Not applicable. The personality trait of neuroticism was measured with the neuroticism subscale of the Chinese version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The level of fatigue was measured with the Fatigue Assessment Scale. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Barthel Index, and Mini-Mental State Examination were administered to obtain demographic and clinical information. Fatigue severity 3 months after stroke positively correlated with Geriatric Depression Scale and NEO Five-Factor Inventory neuroticism scores and negatively correlated with the Barthel Index score. Neuroticism, independent of depressive symptoms, is a predictor of fatigue severity 3 months after stroke. Interventions such as psychological screening programs are warranted for early detection of patients at high risk of poststroke depression. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Voluntary Blood Donation among Students - A Cross-Sectional Study on Knowledge and Practice vs. Attitude.

    PubMed

    Raghuwanshi, Babita; Pehlajani, Nand K; Sinha, Mithilesh K

    2016-10-01

    The factors influencing blood donation decisions are varied and complex and one's attitude can influence this decision. To find the factors affecting the knowledge and practice of blood donation among college students and their attitude towards the same. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 399 college going students using convenience sampling from medical, nursing and engineering colleges in Bhubaneswar city, where blood donation camps were to be held. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires and, analysed in SPSS Version 20.0. Knowledge regarding blood donation was adequate among 228 (57.1%) of the students and, 221 (55.4%) students had donated blood. Knowledge was significantly better among female students, medical stream and in those whose parents were in non-medical jobs; whereas blood donation had been done significantly more by male, non-medical stream students and by those whose parents were in medical field. Most common reason for donating blood was a sense of social responsibility and most common reason of non-donation was fear of the procedure. An 85% of the students were of the view that they would donate blood if asked. Students suggested that small incentives like certificates and arranging transport for blood donation would make it easier to donate. Just over half of the students had adequate knowledge about blood donation and similar percentage had donated blood. There is this large pool of safe blood in college going students who are willing, but not tapped as source of blood donation.

  14. Reporting of conflicts of interest from drug trials in Cochrane reviews: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Michelle; Turner, Erick H; Lexchin, Joel; Coyne, James C; Bero, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the degree to which Cochrane reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 reported conflicts of interest from included trials and, among reviews that reported this information, where it was located in the review documents. Design Cross sectional study. Data sources Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Selection criteria Systematic reviews of drug interventions published in 2010 in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, with review content classified as up to date in 2008 or later and with results from one or more randomised controlled trials. Results Of 151 included Cochrane reviews, 46 (30%, 95% confidence interval 24% to 38%) reported information on the funding sources of included trials, including 30 (20%, 14% to 27%) that reported information on trial funding for all included trials and 16 (11%, 7% to 17%) that reported for some, but not all, trials. Only 16 of the 151 Cochrane reviews (11%, 7% to 17%) provided any information on trial author-industry financial ties or trial author-industry employment. Information on trial funding and trial author-industry ties was reported in one to seven locations within each review, with no consistent reporting location observed. Conclusions Most Cochrane reviews of drug trials published in 2010 did not provide information on trial funding sources or trial author-industry financial ties or employment. When this information was reported, location of reporting was inconsistent across reviews. PMID:22906823

  15. Short daily versus conventional hemodialysis quality of life: a cross-sectional multicentric study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Puñal Rioboó, J; Sánchez-Iriso, E; Ruano-Ravina, A; Varela Lema, M L; Sánchez-Guisande, D; González-Rodríguez, L; Herrero, J A; Barril, G; Maduell, F; Hernández, J; Otero, A; Bajo, M A; Sánchez, R

    2009-01-01

    End-stage renal disease is a major health problem worldwide nowadays. Although conventional hemodialysis is the most widely used modality, short daily hemodialysis has been proposed as a more physiologic treatment. The objective of this article is to compare the quality of life of patients on each hemodialysis modality. A multicentric cross-sectional study was performed in 9 Spanish hospitals. Patients treated for at least 3 months with conventional or short daily hemodialysis were included and quality of life measured using the Euroqol-5D quality of life questionnaire. Bayesian models were used for analyzing quality of life results. Ninety-three patients were included, 27 were on daily hemodialysis and 66 on conventional hemodialysis. All models demonstrated a better quality of life for daily hemodialysis versus conventional hemodialysis. Only 14% of the patients on conventional hemodialysis were willing to change to a daily schedule. Short daily hemodialysis shows a better quality of life than conventional hemodialysis with all Bayesian approaches considered. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Determination of sexual problems of Turkish patients receiving gynecologic cancer treatment: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Demirtas, Basak; Pinar, Gul

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and types of sexual problems of Turkish patients receiving gynecologic cancer treatment. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 168 women completed the Index of Female Sexual Function (IFSF) and a Patient Identification Form in a hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Mean IFSF scores of the patients were low (15.7±5.72, out of a possible 45), indicating high rates of sexual problems. Women frequently reported problems with dyspareunia (97.1%), vaginal dryness (97.6%), decreased sexual desire (91.1%), and difficulties of sexual arousal (92.9%) related with the cancer treatment process. They reported increased sexual problems following the period of treatment as compared to before treatment (p<0.05). Sexual dysfunction was associated with low educational and income levels, advanced age, TAH-BSO-LND surgery (total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salphingoopherectomy- lymph node dissection), experiencing side effects of chemotherapy, receiving chemotherapy in addition to surgery and radiotherapy (CT+RT+Surgery), and having a large number of chemotherapy cycles (p<0.05). Patients hoped for and expected counseling from healthcare professionals about their sexual functioning in relation to cancer treatments. Nurses and physicians can help to improve the overall quality of life for gynecologic cancer patients through sexual counseling.

  17. Retaining vets in farm animal practice: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Adam, K; Baillie, S; Rushton, J

    2015-06-20

    Concerns have been raised about a potential shortage of farm animal vets in the UK. There is no apparent lack of new graduates willing to work with farm animals, but practices report difficulties in recruiting and retaining experienced farm animal vets. Retention of vets in farm animal practice has been identified as a key issue for the sustainability of veterinary businesses and livestock health. A cross-sectional study design was used to identify factors associated with vets remaining in farm animal practice. Data were collected via an online questionnaire covering employment, education, personal background and future plans. The target population was vets with experience of farm animal work in the UK. 380 responses were included in the analysis. Working in a practice where accommodation was provided and an increasing number of years since graduation were associated with significantly lower odds of remaining in farm animal practice, while working in a practice where staff appraisals were carried out; coming from a family with a commercial farm; spending more time on farm work and being on call with an experienced vet in the first job after graduation increased the odds of remaining in farm work. Gender was not significantly associated with retention.

  18. Is Nurses' Professional Competence Related to Their Personality and Emotional Intelligence? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Abbas; Kareshki, Hossein; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Nurses' professional competence is a crucial factor in clinical practice. Systematic evaluation of nurses' competence and its related factors are essential for enhancing the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to assess the nurses' competence level and its possible relationship with their personality and emotional intelligence. Using a cross-sectional survey design, three instruments including Nurse Competence Scale, short form of Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test, and the short 10-item version of Big Five Factor Inventory, were administered simultaneously to a randomized stratified sample of 220 nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5. Majority of nurses rated themselves as "good" and "very good", with the highest scores in "managing situations" and "work role" dimensions of nurse competence. A relatively similar pattern of scores was seen in competence dimensions, personality and emotional intelligence, among male and female nurses. Emotional intelligence and personality scores showed a significant relationship with nurses' competence, explaining almost 20% of variations in nurse competence scores. Iranian nurses evaluated their overall professional competence at similar level of the nurses in other countries. Knowledge about the nurses' competence level and its related factors, including personality and emotional intelligence, may help nurse managers in enhancing nurses' professional competence through appropriate task assignments and conducting in-service educational programs, thus improving the health status of patients.

  19. Subgingival Microbiota in White Patients With Desquamative Gingivitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Paolo G; Romano, Federica; Sasia, Danilo; Broccoletti, Roberto; Ricceri, Fulvio; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Cipriani, Raffaella; Cricenti, Luca; Cabras, Marco; Aimetti, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Presence of epithelial desquamation, erythema, and erosions on gingival tissue is usually described in the literature as desquamative gingivitis (DG). A wide range of autoimmune/dermatologic disorders can manifest as DG, although the two more common are oral lichen planus and mucous membrane pemphigoid. The aim of this study is to investigate prevalence of 11 periodontopathogenic microorganisms in patients with DG and to compare it with the microbiologic status of individuals affected by plaque-induced gingivitis (pGI). Cross-sectional clinical and microbiologic data were obtained from 66 patients (33 in each group). Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed using semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Statistically significant difference, but with little clinical significance, was observed in gingival conditions between the two groups, probably due to the worse home control hygiene of patients with DG. Prevalence and levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, and Fusobacterium nucleatum/periodonticum were statistically higher in samples from patients with DG than in those with pGI. In multivariate regression models, subgingival colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum/periodonticum was not statistically associated with DG, whereas, high levels of E. corrodens were associated with 13-fold increased odds for DG. Microbiologic differences were found in subgingival plaque for patients with DG and pGI. This may suggest possible association between periodontal pathogens and DG.

  20. Occupational factors and low back pain: a cross-sectional study of Bangladeshi female nurses.

    PubMed

    Sanjoy, Shubrandu S; Ahsan, Gias U; Nabi, Hayatun; Joy, Ziaul F; Hossain, Ahmed

    2017-04-28

    The suffering from low back pain (LBP) is very common among nurses. The high prevalence rates of LBP are observed in many countries. Many back injuries are due to individual and work-related factors. Our aim is to investigate whether there is an association of occupational factors with LBP among the female nurses who are currently working in tertiary hospitals of Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 229 female nurses from two selected tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a standard structured questionnaire on four different measures of LBP along with questions on socio-demographic, occupational factors, physical and psychological factors. Prevalence rates of LBP that lasted for at least 1 day, chronic LBP, intense pain and sought medical care because of LBP during the last 12 months were 72.9, 31.8, 24.4 and 36.2%, respectively. The multiple logistic regression analyses indicates that insufficient supporting staffs, overtime working hours and manual lifting in a working environment are associated with LBP. Besides, age and parity are found positively associated with chronic LBP. The prevalence of LBP among nurses in Bangladesh is high and should be actively addressed. Certain occupational factors play a key role in developing LBP among nurses. Nurses to patients ratio should be taken into consideration to reduce the occurrence of LBP among nurses employed in hospitals.

  1. A cross sectional study of leptospirosis and fetal death in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Marrufo, María Fidelia; Vado-Solis, Ignacio; Pérez-Osorio, Carlos; Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Segura-Correa, José

    2016-03-30

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly to low income human population. Acute leptospiral infection during pregnancy has been associated with spontaneous abortion and fetal death during the first trimester and the abortion may occur as consequence of systemic failure. To estimate the frequency of Leptospira interrogans infection in women with spontaneous abortion in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. A cross sectional study on women with spontaneous abortion was conducted. Serum samples were tested for Leptospirosis by the microaglutination test, to estimate the frequency of the infecting serovar. The indirect ELISA IgM was used to detect recent infection by L. interrogans. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue of placenta for PCR detection of L. interrogans. Overall frequency of infection with L. interrogans in the 81 women with abortion was 13.6%. Five of the 12 serovars evaluated were found and included. Two of the 11 women with abortion and positive to microaglutination test were also positive to the ELISA IgM test. None samples were positive for PCR Leptospira diagnosis. two women could be associated with spontaneous abortion due to leptospirosis, because they showed antibodies against L. interrogans in the microaglutination test and ELISA IgM assays. Differences between regions were found with respect to the prevalences of lesptospirosis.

  2. Determinants of Skilled Birth Attendant Utilization in Afghanistan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Peter M.; Peters, David H.; Edward, Anbrasi; Singh, Lakhwinder P.; Dwivedi, Vikas; Mashkoor, Ashraf; Burnham, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify characteristics associated with use of skilled birth attendants where health services exist in Afghanistan. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study in all 33 provinces in 2004, yielding data from 617 health facilities and 9917 women who lived near the facilities and had given birth in the past 2 years. Results. Only 13% of respondents had used skilled birth attendants. Women from the wealthiest quintile (vs the poorest quintile) had higher odds of use (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4, 8.9). Literacy was strongly associated with use (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 2.0, 3.2), as was living less than 60 minutes from the facility (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.0) and residing near a facility with a female midwife or doctor (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8). Women living near facilities that charged user fees (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 1.0) and that had male community health workers (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.5, 0.9) had lower odds of use. Conclusions. In Afghanistan, the rate of use of safe delivery care must be improved. The financial barriers of poor and uneducated women should be reduced and culturally acceptable alternatives must be considered. PMID:18703445

  3. Suicidal ideation among medical students of Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Osama, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammad Yousuful; Hussain, Syed Ather; Masroor, Syed Muhammad Zia; Burney, Muhammad Usman; Masood, Muhammad Atif; Menezes, Ritesh G; Rehman, Razaur

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have investigated suicidal ideation among medical students in the developing world. We found only one report on suicidal ideation among medical students in Pakistan published in the year 2005. The present cross-sectional survey on suicidal ideation conducted in July 2013 involved 331 medical students of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. In the past one year, suicidal ideation was found in 118 (35.6%) students. Forty-six (13.9%) of all the students had made a plan in their life time to commit suicide while 16 (4.8%) of the 331 students tried to commit suicide at some point of time in their life. More females than males pondered suicide while first year medical students formed the majority of those with suicidal ideation. The single greatest risk factor predisposing to suicidal ideation was substance abuse. This was followed jointly by parental neglect and previous psychiatric disorder. Campaigns against substance abuse and counseling of vulnerable students will help in eradicating suicidal intent.

  4. Ethical principles in the work of nurse educator-A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Leena; Stolt, Minna; Metsämäki, Riikka; Rinne, Jenni; Kasen, Anne; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The application of ethical principles within the teaching profession and nursing practice forms the core of the nurse educator's professional ethics. However, research focusing on the professional ethics of nurse educators is scarce. To describe ethical principles and issues relating to the work of nurse educators from the perspectives of both nurse educators themselves and nursing students. A descriptive study using cross-sectional data and content analysis. Nursing education program involving students from nine polytechnics in Finland. Nursing students (n=202) and nurse educators (n=342). Data were derived from an online survey, with two open-ended questions: Nursing students and nurse educators were asked to name the three main ethical principles that guide the work of nurse educators and also to describe ethical issues involved in the work. Students most often named professionalism, justice, and equality as the main ethical principles for a nurse educator. Nurse educators considered justice, equality, and honesty as the main ethical principles. The content analysis showed that professionalism and the relationship between educator and student were the key categories for ethical issues as perceived by nursing students. Nursing students most often identified inequality between the nurse educator and nursing student as the ethical issue faced by the nurse educator. Nursing students and nurse educators differed somewhat both in their views of the ethical principles guiding an educator's work and in the ethical issues arising in the work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Job satisfaction among radiology assistants: a multicentre cross-sectional study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Gili, Renata; Bert, Fabrizio; Scaioli, Giacomo; Cerutti, Stefano; Gatti, Giovanni; Siliquini, Roberta

    2016-01-20

    Job satisfaction among physicians is an important occupational health issue since it is related to different factors such as work motivation or career decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate  job satisfaction among radiology assistants for the first time in Italy. In 2012, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among a convenience sample of radiology assistants drawn from all Italian regions who submitted an electronic o