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Sample records for average friction coefficient

  1. Influence of tube-entrance configuration on average heat-transfer coefficients and friction factors for air flowing in an Inconel tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowdermilk, Warren H; Grele, Milton D

    1950-01-01

    A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with air flowing through an electrically heated Inconel tube having either a long-approach or a right-angle-edge entrance, an inside diameter of 0.402 inch, and a length of 24 inches over a range of Reynolds numbers up to 375,000 and average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 2000 degrees R. Good correlation of heat-transfer data was obtained for both entrances, which substantiates work previously reported. A fair correlation of friction data was obtained for both entrances. The entrance configuration had little effect on the average heat-transfer and friction coefficients.

  2. Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…

  3. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    PubMed Central

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  4. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging.

    PubMed

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  5. Brownian friction coefficient of Kr/graphite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutchko, R.

    1998-03-01

    Calculations of the Brownian friction coefficient of fluid Kr/graphite are described. The phonon frequencies and polarization vectors are calculated for a thick graphite slab using the Benedek-Onida bond charge model(G. Benedek and G. Onida, Phys. Rev. B 47), 16471 (1993). The fluctuating forces on the adatom from the substrate are expressed in terms of the graphite fluctuation spectrum. The friction coefficient is expressed in terms of a spectral density to be derived from the slab calculations. The relation of the results to diffusive processes in monolayer fluids(F. Y. Hansen, L. W. Bruch, and H. Taub, Phys. Rev. B 54), 14077 (1996). is discussed.

  6. Friction coefficient of faults inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Ranalli, Giorgio; Andreis, Daniele; Martin, Silvana; Rigon, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    In earthquake mechanics and structural geology the static friction coefficient is usually assumed to have the laboratory value (μ = 0.6-0.8) according to the Coulomb-Byerlee's law. Estimates from deep boreholes and/or natural faults generally confirm this hypothesis but in some cases friction coefficients can be significantly lower, suggesting the existence of weak faults able to be activated by lower effective stress than theoretically expected. We apply a modified version of the method proposed by Yin and Ranalli (1995, Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 17, pp. 1327-1335), where the average friction coefficient of a set of n faults is estimated. This method is based on minimization of the sum of squares of the misfit ratios, where the misfit ratio of each fault is given dividing the misfit stress difference (i.e. the misfit between normalized stress difference and average normalized stress difference) by the average normalized stress difference. The normalized stress difference is defined as the critical stress difference divided by the effective overburden pressure, while the average stress difference is obtained considering the entire fault dataset. Input data are (i) the orientation of faults, (ii) the stress field orientation, and (iii) the stress ratio. The latter two must be independently estimated. A uniform stress field and a similar normalized critical stress difference for the fault dataset are assumed. The procedure has been extended to apply to fault plane solutions by considering both nodal planes of a set of n focal mechanisms and estimating the range of acceptable average friction coefficients from all possible combination of planes (2n number of combinations). The amount of calculation can be considerably reduced if independent information makes it possible to select which one of the nodal planes of each focal mechanism is the true fault plane (for example when aftershocks delineate the fault geometry at depth), resulting in only n combinations

  7. Micro- and macroscale coefficients of friction of cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lomboy, Gilson; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang, Kejin

    2013-12-15

    Millions of metric tons of cementitious materials are produced, transported and used in construction each year. The ease or difficulty of handling cementitious materials is greatly influenced by the material friction properties. In the present study, the coefficients of friction of cementitious materials were measured at the microscale and macroscale. The materials tested were commercially-available Portland cement, Class C fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag. At the microscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from the interaction forces between cementitious particles using an Atomic Force Microscope. At the macroscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from stresses on bulk cementitious materials under direct shear. The study indicated that the microscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.020 to 0.059, and the macroscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.56 to 0.75. The fly ash studied had the highest microscale coefficient of friction and the lowest macroscale coefficient of friction. -- Highlights: •Microscale (interparticle) coefficient of friction (COF) was determined with AFM. •Macroscale (bulk) COF was measured under direct shear. •Fly ash had the highest microscale COF and the lowest macroscale COF. •Portland cement against GGBFS had the lowest microscale COF. •Portland cement against Portland cement had the highest macroscale COF.

  8. A Simple Measurement of the Sliding Friction Coefficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratton, Luigi M.; Defrancesco, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple computer-aided experiment for investigating Coulomb's law of sliding friction in a classroom. It provides a way of testing the possible dependence of the friction coefficient on various parameters, such as types of materials, normal force, apparent area of contact and sliding velocity.

  9. Using Plasticine (TM) to Measure the Rolling Friction Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellvi, Francesc; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment that makes manifest the energy lost to friction of an iron ball moving along an inclined iron rail, which allows students to compute the rolling friction coefficient. Uses a method based on measurement of deformation produced in a piece of Plasticine by an inelastic collision with the ball and combines mechanical concepts…

  10. Determination of the static friction coefficient from circular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a physics laboratory exercise for determining the coefficient of static friction between two surfaces. The circular motion of a coin placed on the surface of a rotating turntable has been studied. For this purpose, the motion is recorded with a high-speed digital video camera recording at 240 frames s-1, and the videos are analyzed using Tracker video-analysis software, allowing the students to dynamically model the motion of the coin. The students have to obtain the static friction coefficient by comparing the centripetal and maximum static friction forces. The experiment only requires simple and inexpensive materials. The dynamics of circular motion and static friction forces are difficult for many students to understand. The proposed laboratory exercise addresses these topics, which are relevant to the physics curriculum.

  11. Nanotribology fundamentals: Predicting the viscous coefficient of friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Tonya S.

    In this work, I have used the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) to study nanoscale friction of monolayer adsorbates on (111) metals. The friction of these systems is viscous friction, defined as Ff = etanu = ( mt )nu. Here, eta is the viscous coefficient of friction, nu is the velocity of the adsorbate, m is adsorbate mass, and tau is the slip time, which is the time required for the film's speed to fall to 1/e of its original value. The main focus of this dissertation is to determine the factors that control eta, the viscous coefficient of friction. I have examined three different parameters in order to determine their effect on eta. An equation for predicting the viscous coefficient of friction has been proposed: eta = etasubs + aU2o . Here, etasubs is the damping of adsorbate sliding energy within the substrate, a is a constant depending on mainly temperature and adsorbate film coverage, and Uo is the atomic-scale surface corrugation. I have examined the sliding friction of n-octane on Cu(111) vs. Pb(11I) surfaces, which have gamma = 0.45 meV and gamma = 0.26 meV, respectively. I have observed that the slip time for a monolayer of n-octane/Cu(111) is 0.94 ns +/- 0.36 ns, and the slip time of noctane/Pb(111) is 0.59 ns +/- 0.13 ns. I therefore observe no direct evidence of a link between the damping of perpendicular FT modes and sliding friction. It is still possible, however, that the damping of the parallel FT phonon mode affects sliding friction. Finally, I studied the slippage of monolayer methanol films at room temperature on rotating, rigid, and slowly ratcheting C60 substrates, to examine the effect that the molecular rotation of the substrate surface has on the sliding friction of an adsorbate. I found that at all coverages, the slip time for methanol on rigid and slowly ratcheting C60 was longer (hence lower friction) than the slip time for methanol on rotating C 60, defying the ball bearing analogy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  12. Determination of the coefficient of friction using spinning motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaci, S.; Ciornei, F. C.; Filote, C.; Romanu, I. C.; Nastaca, C. P.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a method for accurate determination of the coefficient of dynamic friction between two different materials. The principle of the method consists in evaluation of angular deceleration of a body of revolution that rotates positioned on another revolution body. The main advantages of the approach consist in high precision and reduced dimensions of the involved bodies.

  13. Determination of the Static Friction Coefficient from Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a physics laboratory exercise for determining the coefficient of static friction between two surfaces. The circular motion of a coin placed on the surface of a rotating turntable has been studied. For this purpose, the motion is recorded with a high-speed digital video camera recording at 240 frames s[superscript-1], and the…

  14. Friction coefficients for mechanically damaged bovine articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liu; Brunski, Daniel B; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I; Johnson, Matthew B; Striolo, Alberto

    2012-07-01

    We used a pin-on-disc tribometer to measure the friction coefficient of both pristine and mechanically damaged cartilage samples in the presence of different lubricant solutions. The experimental set up maximizes the lubrication mechanism due to interstitial fluid pressurization. In phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the measured friction coefficient increases with the level of damage. The main result is that when poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) or hyaluronic acid (HA) are dissolved in PBS, or when synovial fluid (SF) is used as lubricant, the friction coefficients measured for damaged cartilage samples are only slightly larger than those obtained for pristine cartilage samples, indicating that the surface damage is in part alleviated by the presence of the various lubricants. Among the lubricants considered, 100 mg/mL of 100,000 Da MW PEO in PBS appears to be as effective as SF. We attempted to discriminate the lubrication mechanism enhanced by the various compounds. The lubricants viscosity was measured at shear rates comparable to those employed in the friction experiments, and a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring was used to study the adsorption of PEO, HA, and SF components on collagen type II adlayers pre-formed on hydroxyapatite. Under the shear rates considered the viscosity of SF is slightly larger than that of PBS, but lower than that of lubricant formulations containing HA or PEO. Neither PEO nor HA showed strong adsorption on collagen adlayers, while evidence of adsorption was found for SF. Combined, these results suggest that synovial fluid is likely to enhance boundary lubrication. It is possible that all three formulations enhance lubrication via the interstitial fluid pressurization mechanism, maximized by the experimental set up adopted in our friction tests.

  15. Numerical study of vertical pneumatic conveying: Effect of friction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Kuang, S. B.; Zou, R. P.; Pan, R. H.; Yu, A. B.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of vertical pneumatic conveying by a combined approach of computational fluid dynamics for gas phase and discrete element method for solid phase. The effects of friction coefficient on the flows in regard with particle flow patterns and their transition, reverse flow, and gas pressure behavior are qualified. The forces acting on particles are analyzed in detail to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Sedimentation Coefficient, Frictional Coefficient, and Molecular Weight: A Preparative Ultracentrifuge Experiment for the Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsall, H. B.; Wermeling, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a high-speed preparative centrifuge and calculator to demonstrate effects of the frictional coefficient of a macromolecule on its rate of transport in a force field and to estimate molecular weight of the macromolecule using an empirical relationship. Background information, procedures, and discussion of results are…

  17. Determination of friction coefficient in unconfined compression of brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Badar; Destrade, Michel; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2012-10-01

    Unconfined compression tests are more convenient to perform on cylindrical samples of brain tissue than tensile tests in order to estimate mechanical properties of the brain tissue because they allow homogeneous deformations. The reliability of these tests depends significantly on the amount of friction generated at the specimen/platen interface. Thus, there is a crucial need to find an approximate value of the friction coefficient in order to predict a possible overestimation of stresses during unconfined compression tests. In this study, a combined experimental-computational approach was adopted to estimate the dynamic friction coefficient μ of porcine brain matter against metal platens in compressive tests. Cylindrical samples of porcine brain tissue were tested up to 30% strain at variable strain rates, both under bonded and lubricated conditions in the same controlled environment. It was established that μ was equal to 0.09±0.03, 0.18±0.04, 0.18±0.04 and 0.20±0.02 at strain rates of 1, 30, 60 and 90/s, respectively. Additional tests were also performed to analyze brain tissue under lubricated and bonded conditions, with and without initial contact of the top platen with the brain tissue, with different specimen aspect ratios and with different lubricants (Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Silicone). The test conditions (lubricant used, biological tissue, loading velocity) adopted in this study were similar to the studies conducted by other research groups. This study will help to understand the amount of friction generated during unconfined compression of brain tissue for strain rates of up to 90/s.

  18. Averaged particle dose conversion coefficients in air crew dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Mares, V; Roesler, S; Schraube, H

    2004-01-01

    The MCNPX Monte Carlo code was used to calculate energy-dependent fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients for neutrons, protons, electrons, photons, charged pions and muons. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the spectral particle fluences of secondary cosmic rays for different altitudes, and for different combinations of solar modulation and vertical cut-off rigidity parameters. The energy-averaged fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients were obtained by folding the particle fluence spectra with the conversion coefficients for effective dose and ambient dose equivalent. They show a slight dependence on altitude, solar activity and location in the geomagnetic field.

  19. Averaged particle dose conversion coefficients in air crew dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Mares, V; Roesler, S; Schraube, H

    2004-01-01

    The MCNPX Monte Carlo code was used to calculate energy-dependent fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients for neutrons, protons, electrons, photons, charged pions and muons. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the spectral particle fluences of secondary cosmic rays for different altitudes, and for different combinations of solar modulation and vertical cut-off rigidity parameters. The energy-averaged fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients were obtained by folding the particle fluence spectra with the conversion coefficients for effective dose and ambient dose equivalent. They show a slight dependence on altitude, solar activity and location in the geomagnetic field. PMID:15353676

  20. The coefficient of friction of chrysotile gouge at seismogenic depths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.; Tanaka, H.; Iwata, K.

    2004-01-01

    We report new strength data for the serpentine mineral chrysotile at effective normal stresses, ??sn between 40 and 200 MPa in the temperature range 25??-280??C. Overall, the coefficient of friction, ?? (= shear stress/effective normal stress) of water-saturated chrysotile gouge increases both with increasing temperature and ??sn, but the rates vary and the temperature-related increases begin at ???100??C. As a result, a frictional strength minimum (?? = 0.1) occurs at low ??sn at about 100??C. Maximum strength (?? = 0.55) results from a combination of high normal stress and high temperature. The low-strength region is characterized by velocity strengthening and the high-strength region by velocity-weakening behavior. Thoroughly dried chrysotile has ?? = 0.7 and is velocity-weakening. The frictional properties of chrysolite can be explained in its tendency to adsorb large amounts of water that acts as a lubricant during shear. The water is progressively driven off the fiber surfaces with increasing temperature and pressure, causing chrysotile to approach its dry strength. Depth profiles for a chrysotile-lined fault constructed from these data would pass through a strength minimum at ???3 km depth, where sliding should be stable. Below that depth, strength increases rapidly as does the tendency for unstable (seismic) slip. Such a trend would not have been predicted from the room-temperature data. These results therefore illustrate the potential hazards of extrapolating room-temperature friction data to predict fault zone behavior at depth. This depth profile for chrysotile is consistent with the pattern of slip on the Hayward fault, which creeps aseismically at shallow depths but which may be locked below 5 km depth. ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston and Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pendulum mass affects the measurement of articular friction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Akelman, Matthew R; Teeple, Erin; Machan, Jason T; Crisco, Joseph J; Jay, Gregory D; Fleming, Braden C

    2013-02-01

    Friction measurements of articular cartilage are important to determine the relative tribologic contributions made by synovial fluid or cartilage, and to assess the efficacy of therapies for preventing the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Stanton's equation is the most frequently used formula for estimating the whole joint friction coefficient (μ) of an articular pendulum, and assumes pendulum energy loss through a mass-independent mechanism. This study examines if articular pendulum energy loss is indeed mass independent, and compares Stanton's model to an alternative model, which incorporates viscous damping, for calculating μ. Ten loads (25-100% body weight) were applied in a random order to an articular pendulum using the knees of adult male Hartley guinea pigs (n=4) as the fulcrum. Motion of the decaying pendulum was recorded and μ was estimated using two models: Stanton's equation, and an exponential decay function incorporating a viscous damping coefficient. μ estimates decreased as mass increased for both models. Exponential decay model fit error values were 82% less than the Stanton model. These results indicate that μ decreases with increasing mass, and that an exponential decay model provides a better fit for articular pendulum data at all mass values. In conclusion, inter-study comparisons of articular pendulum μ values should not be made without recognizing the loads used, as μ values are mass dependent. PMID:23122223

  2. Pendulum mass affects the measurement of articular friction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Akelman, Matthew R; Teeple, Erin; Machan, Jason T; Crisco, Joseph J; Jay, Gregory D; Fleming, Braden C

    2013-02-01

    Friction measurements of articular cartilage are important to determine the relative tribologic contributions made by synovial fluid or cartilage, and to assess the efficacy of therapies for preventing the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Stanton's equation is the most frequently used formula for estimating the whole joint friction coefficient (μ) of an articular pendulum, and assumes pendulum energy loss through a mass-independent mechanism. This study examines if articular pendulum energy loss is indeed mass independent, and compares Stanton's model to an alternative model, which incorporates viscous damping, for calculating μ. Ten loads (25-100% body weight) were applied in a random order to an articular pendulum using the knees of adult male Hartley guinea pigs (n=4) as the fulcrum. Motion of the decaying pendulum was recorded and μ was estimated using two models: Stanton's equation, and an exponential decay function incorporating a viscous damping coefficient. μ estimates decreased as mass increased for both models. Exponential decay model fit error values were 82% less than the Stanton model. These results indicate that μ decreases with increasing mass, and that an exponential decay model provides a better fit for articular pendulum data at all mass values. In conclusion, inter-study comparisons of articular pendulum μ values should not be made without recognizing the loads used, as μ values are mass dependent.

  3. Accurately measuring dynamic coefficient of friction in ultraform finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Dennis; Echaves, Samantha; Pidgeon, Brendan; Travis, Nathan; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a deterministic sub-aperture computer numerically controlled grinding and polishing platform designed by OptiPro Systems. UFF is used to grind and polish a variety of optics from simple spherical to fully freeform, and numerous materials from glasses to optical ceramics. The UFF system consists of an abrasive belt around a compliant wheel that rotates and contacts the part to remove material. This work aims to accurately measure the dynamic coefficient of friction (μ), how it changes as a function of belt wear, and how this ultimately affects material removal rates. The coefficient of friction has been examined in terms of contact mechanics and Preston's equation to determine accurate material removal rates. By accurately predicting changes in μ, polishing iterations can be more accurately predicted, reducing the total number of iterations required to meet specifications. We have established an experimental apparatus that can accurately measure μ by measuring triaxial forces during translating loading conditions or while manufacturing the removal spots used to calculate material removal rates. Using this system, we will demonstrate μ measurements for UFF belts during different states of their lifecycle and assess the material removal function from spot diagrams as a function of wear. Ultimately, we will use this system for qualifying belt-wheel-material combinations to develop a spot-morphing model to better predict instantaneous material removal functions.

  4. Required coefficient of friction during turning at self-selected slow, normal, and fast walking speeds.

    PubMed

    Fino, Peter; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2014-04-11

    This study investigated the relationship of required coefficient of friction to gait speed, obstacle height, and turning strategy as participants walked around obstacles of various heights. Ten healthy, young adults performed 90° turns around corner pylons of four different heights at their self selected normal, slow, and fast walking speeds using both step and spin turning strategies. Kinetic data was captured using force plates. Results showed peak required coefficient of friction (RCOF) at push off increased with increased speed (slow μ=0.38, normal μ=0.45, and fast μ=0.54). Obstacle height had no effect on RCOF values. The average peak RCOF for fast turning exceeded the OSHA safety guideline for static COF of μ>0.50, suggesting further research is needed into the minimum static COF to prevent slips and falls, especially around corners.

  5. Experimental rig to estimate the coefficient of friction between tire and surface in airplane touchdown simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengwei; Zhan, Liwei

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the coefficient of friction between tire and runway surface during airplane touchdowns, we designed an experimental rig to simulate such events and to record the impact and friction forces being executed. Because of noise in the measured signals, we developed a filtering method that is based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the bandwidth of probability density function of each intrinsic mode function to extract friction and impact force signals. We can quantify the coefficient of friction by calculating the maximum values of the filtered force signals. Signal measurements are recorded for different drop heights and tire rotational speeds, and the corresponding coefficient of friction is calculated. The result shows that the values of the coefficient of friction change only slightly. The random noise and experimental artifact are the major reason of the change.

  6. Dependence of the osmotic coefficients and average ionic activity coefficients on hydrophobic hydration in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergievskii, V. V.; Rudakov, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    The model that considers the nonideality of aqueous solutions of electrolytes with allowance for independent contributions of hydration of ions of various types and electrostatic interactions was substantiated using the cluster ion model. The empirical parameters in the model equations were found to be the hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydration numbers of ions in the standard state and the dispersion of their distribution over the stoichiometric coefficients. A mathematically adequate description of the concentration dependences of the osmotic coefficients and average ion activity coefficients of electrolytes was given for several systems. The difference in the rate of the decrease in the hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydration numbers of ions leads to extremum concentration dependences of the osmotic coefficients, which were determined by other authors from isopiestic data for many electrolytes and did not find explanation.

  7. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (p<0.0001). The value in LCMS was significantly lower than in hHCMS and bHCMS (p<0.01). No visual damage was observed in any of the specimens. These are the first results to demonstrate that the friction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction.

  8. A coefficient average approximation towards Gutzwiller wavefunction formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Yao, Yongxin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Gutzwiller wavefunction is a physically well-motivated trial wavefunction for describing correlated electron systems. In this work, a new approximation is introduced to facilitate the evaluation of the expectation value of any operator within the Gutzwiller wavefunction formalism. The basic idea is to make use of a specially designed average over Gutzwiller wavefunction coefficients expanded in the many-body Fock space to approximate the ratio of expectation values between a Gutzwiller wavefunction and its underlying noninteracting wavefunction. To check with the standard Gutzwiller approximation (GA), we test its performance on single band systems and find quite interesting properties. On finite systems, we noticed that it gives superior performance over GA, while on infinite systems it asymptotically approaches GA. Analytic analysis together with numerical tests are provided to support this claimed asymptotical behavior. Finally, possible improvements on the approximation and its generalization towards multiband systems are illustrated and discussed.

  9. A coefficient average approximation towards Gutzwiller wavefunction formalism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Yao, Yongxin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2015-06-24

    Gutzwiller wavefunction is a physically well-motivated trial wavefunction for describing correlated electron systems. In this work, a new approximation is introduced to facilitate the evaluation of the expectation value of any operator within the Gutzwiller wavefunction formalism. The basic idea is to make use of a specially designed average over Gutzwiller wavefunction coefficients expanded in the many-body Fock space to approximate the ratio of expectation values between a Gutzwiller wavefunction and its underlying noninteracting wavefunction. To check with the standard Gutzwiller approximation (GA), we test its performance on single band systems and find quite interesting properties. On finite systems, we noticed that it gives superior performance over GA, while on infinite systems it asymptotically approaches GA. Analytic analysis together with numerical tests are provided to support this claimed asymptotical behavior. Finally, possible improvements on the approximation and its generalization towards multiband systems are illustrated and discussed.

  10. Adhesion energy between mica surfaces: Implications for the frictional coefficient under dry and wet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    frictional strength of faults is a critical factor that contributes to continuous fault slip and earthquake occurrence. Frictional strength can be reduced by the presence of sheet-structured clay minerals. In this study, two important factors influencing the frictional coefficient of minerals were quantitatively analyzed by a newly developed computational method based on a combination of first-principles study and thermodynamics. One factor that helps reduce the frictional coefficient is the low adhesion energy between the layers under dry conditions. Potassium ions on mica surfaces are easily exchanged with sodium ions when brought into contact with highly concentrated sodium-halide solutions. We found that the surface ion exchange with sodium ions reduces the adhesion energy, indicating that the frictional coefficient can be reduced under dry conditions. Another factor is the lubrication caused by adsorbed water films on mineral surfaces under wet conditions. Potassium and sodium ions on mica surfaces have a strong affinity for water molecules. In order to remove the adsorbed water molecules confined between mica surfaces, a differential compressive stress of the order of tens of gigapascals was necessary at room temperature. These water molecules inhibit direct contact between mineral surfaces and reduce the frictional coefficient. Our results imply that the frictional coefficient can be modified through contact with fluids depending on their salt composition. The low adhesion energy between fault-forming minerals and the presence of an adsorbed water film is a possible reason for the low frictional coefficient observed at continuous fault slip zones.

  11. The effect of chalk on the finger-hold friction coefficient in rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Amca, Arif Mithat; Vigouroux, Laurent; Aritan, Serdar; Berton, Eric

    2012-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of chalk on the friction coefficient between climber's fingers and two different rock types (sandstone and limestone). The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of humidity and temperature on the friction coefficient and on the influence of chalk. Eleven experienced climbers took part in this study and 42 test sessions were performed. Participants hung from holds which were fixed on a specially designed hang board. The inclination of the hang board was progressively increased until the climber's hand slipped from the holds. The angle of the hang board was simultaneously recorded by using a gyroscopic sensor and the friction coefficient was calculated at the moment of slip. The results showed that there was a significant positive effect of chalk on the coefficient of friction (+18.7% on limestone and +21.6% on sandstone). Moreover sandstone had a higher coefficient of friction than limestone (+15.6% without chalk, +18.4% with chalk). These results confirmed climbers' belief that chalk enhances friction. However, no correlation with humidity/temperature and friction coefficient was noted which suggested that additional parameters should be considered in order to understand the effects of climate on finger friction in rock climbing.

  12. Effects of slip testing parameters on measured coefficient of friction.

    PubMed

    Beschorner, Kurt E; Redfern, Mark S; Porter, William L; Debski, Richard E

    2007-11-01

    Slips and falls are a major cause of injuries in the workplace. Devices that measure coefficient of friction (COF) of the shoe-floor-contaminant interface are used to evaluate slip resistance in various environments. Testing conditions (e.g. loading rate, timing, normal force, speed, shoe angle) are believed to affect COF measurements; however, the nature of that relationship is not well understood. This study examines the effects of normal force (NF), speed, and shoe angle on COF within physiologically relevant ranges. A polyvinyl chloride shoe was tested using a modified industrial robot that could attain high vertical loads and relatively high speeds. Ground reaction forces were measured with a loadcell to compute COF. Experiment #1 measured COF over a range of NF ( approximately 100-500 N) for two shoe angles (10 degrees and 20 degrees ), four speeds (0.05, 0.20, 0.35, and 0.50 m/s), and two contaminants (diluted detergent and diluted glycerol). Experiment #2 further explored speed effect by testing seven speeds (0.01, 0.05, 0.20, 0.35, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m/s) at a given NF (350 N) and shoe angle (20 degrees ) using the same two contaminants. Experiment #1 showed that faster speeds significantly decreased COF, and that a complex interaction existed between NF and shoe angle. Experiment #2 showed that increasing speed decreased COF asymptotically. The results imply that COF is dependent on film thickness separating the shoe and the heel, which is dependent on speed, shoe angle, and NF, consistent with tribological theory. PMID:17196925

  13. Effects of slip testing parameters on measured coefficient of friction.

    PubMed

    Beschorner, Kurt E; Redfern, Mark S; Porter, William L; Debski, Richard E

    2007-11-01

    Slips and falls are a major cause of injuries in the workplace. Devices that measure coefficient of friction (COF) of the shoe-floor-contaminant interface are used to evaluate slip resistance in various environments. Testing conditions (e.g. loading rate, timing, normal force, speed, shoe angle) are believed to affect COF measurements; however, the nature of that relationship is not well understood. This study examines the effects of normal force (NF), speed, and shoe angle on COF within physiologically relevant ranges. A polyvinyl chloride shoe was tested using a modified industrial robot that could attain high vertical loads and relatively high speeds. Ground reaction forces were measured with a loadcell to compute COF. Experiment #1 measured COF over a range of NF ( approximately 100-500 N) for two shoe angles (10 degrees and 20 degrees ), four speeds (0.05, 0.20, 0.35, and 0.50 m/s), and two contaminants (diluted detergent and diluted glycerol). Experiment #2 further explored speed effect by testing seven speeds (0.01, 0.05, 0.20, 0.35, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m/s) at a given NF (350 N) and shoe angle (20 degrees ) using the same two contaminants. Experiment #1 showed that faster speeds significantly decreased COF, and that a complex interaction existed between NF and shoe angle. Experiment #2 showed that increasing speed decreased COF asymptotically. The results imply that COF is dependent on film thickness separating the shoe and the heel, which is dependent on speed, shoe angle, and NF, consistent with tribological theory.

  14. Friction coefficient and effective interference at the implant-bone interface.

    PubMed

    Damm, Niklas B; Morlock, Michael M; Bishop, Nicholas E

    2015-09-18

    Although the contact pressure increases during implantation of a wedge-shaped implant, friction coefficients tend to be measured under constant contact pressure, as endorsed in standard procedures. Abrasion and plastic deformation of the bone during implantation are rarely reported, although they define the effective interference, by reducing the nominal interference between implant and bone cavity. In this study radial forces were analysed during simulated implantation and explantation of angled porous and polished implant surfaces against trabecular bone specimens, to determine the corresponding friction coefficients. Permanent deformation was also analysed to determine the effective interference after implantation. For the most porous surface tested, the friction coefficient initially increased with increasing normal contact stress during implantation and then decreased at higher contact stresses. For a less porous surface, the friction coefficient increased continually with normal contact stress during implantation but did not reach the peak magnitude measured for the rougher surface. Friction coefficients for the polished surface were independent of normal contact stress and much lower than for the porous surfaces. Friction coefficients were slightly lower for pull-out than for push-in for the porous surfaces but not for the polished surface. The effective interference was as little as 30% of the nominal interference for the porous surfaces. The determined variation in friction coefficient with radial contact force, as well as the loss of interference during implantation will enable a more accurate representation of implant press-fitting for simulations.

  15. The effect of shoe sole tread groove depth on the friction coefficient with different tread groove widths, floors and contaminants.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Way; Wu, Horng Huei; Lin, Yu-Chang

    2006-11-01

    Slipping and falling are common phenomena in both workplaces and our daily activities. The risks associated with slipping and falling are related to the materials of footwear/floor, contamination condition, and geometric design of the sole. Shoe soles of various tread design are very common. Tread pattern of the shoe affects friction especially under liquid-contaminated conditions. Verification of the effects of tread groove depth is significant in assisting designers in designing proper footwear for workers exposed to slippery floor conditions. In this study, we measured the friction coefficients using the Neolite footwear pads on the terrazzo, steel, and vinyl floors under three liquid-contaminated conditions. A Brungraber Mark II slipmeter was used. The footwear pads had tread grooves with a width of either 3 or 9mm. The depth of the tread grooves ranged from 1 to 5mm. The results showed that tread groove depth affected the friction coefficients significantly. Higher friction values were recorded for footwear pads with deeper tread grooves on wet and water-detergent-contaminated floors. The averaged coefficient of friction (COF) gain per tread groove depth increase in millimeter under these two surface conditions ranged from 0.018 to 0.108, depending on the tread groove width, floor, and contaminant. PMID:16427022

  16. The effect of shoe sole tread groove depth on the friction coefficient with different tread groove widths, floors and contaminants.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Way; Wu, Horng Huei; Lin, Yu-Chang

    2006-11-01

    Slipping and falling are common phenomena in both workplaces and our daily activities. The risks associated with slipping and falling are related to the materials of footwear/floor, contamination condition, and geometric design of the sole. Shoe soles of various tread design are very common. Tread pattern of the shoe affects friction especially under liquid-contaminated conditions. Verification of the effects of tread groove depth is significant in assisting designers in designing proper footwear for workers exposed to slippery floor conditions. In this study, we measured the friction coefficients using the Neolite footwear pads on the terrazzo, steel, and vinyl floors under three liquid-contaminated conditions. A Brungraber Mark II slipmeter was used. The footwear pads had tread grooves with a width of either 3 or 9mm. The depth of the tread grooves ranged from 1 to 5mm. The results showed that tread groove depth affected the friction coefficients significantly. Higher friction values were recorded for footwear pads with deeper tread grooves on wet and water-detergent-contaminated floors. The averaged coefficient of friction (COF) gain per tread groove depth increase in millimeter under these two surface conditions ranged from 0.018 to 0.108, depending on the tread groove width, floor, and contaminant.

  17. Rouse-Bueche Theory and The Calculation of The Monomeric Friction Coefficient in a Filled System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinetti, Luca; Macosko, Christopher; Bates, Frank

    According to flexible chain theories of viscoelasticity, all relaxation and retardation times of a polymer melt (hence, any dynamic property such as the diffusion coefficient) depend on the monomeric friction coefficient, ζ0, i.e. the average drag force per monomer per unit velocity encountered by a Gaussian submolecule moving through its free-draining surroundings. Direct experimental access to ζ0 relies on the availability of a suitable polymer dynamics model. Thus far, no method has been suggested that is applicable to filled systems, such as filled rubbers or microphase-segregated A-B-A thermoplastic elastomers at temperatures where one of the blocks is glassy. Building upon the procedure proposed by Ferry for entangled and unfilled polymer melts, the Rouse-Bueche theory is applied to an undiluted triblock copolymer to extract ζ0 from the linear viscoelastic behavior in the rubber-glass transition region, and to estimate the size of Gaussian submolecules. At iso-free volume conditions, the so-obtained matrix monomeric friction factor is consistent with the corresponding value for the homopolymer melt. In addition, the characteristic Rouse dimensions are in good agreement with independent estimates based on the Kratky-Porod worm-like chain model. These results seem to validate the proposed approach for estimating ζ0 in a filled system. Although preliminary tested on a thermoplastic elastomer of the A-B-A type, the method may be extended and applied to filled homopolymers as well.

  18. Techniques for the determination of the static and dynamics internal friction of coefficients of ceramic powder

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.A.; Cortes, R.; Sanchez-Galvez, V.; Navarro, C. . Dept. of Materials Science)

    1993-11-01

    This paper discusses different techniques for the experimental estimation of the static and dynamic internal friction coefficients of fragmented ceramics. These were applied to the powders of two ballistic ceramics, SiC and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. The relationship between the fragment size and the internal friction coefficients of the powders was determined. The results obtained with the different techniques are compared.

  19. The effect of elastic modulus and friction coefficient on rubber tube sealing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhimiao; Xu, Siyuan; Ren, Fushen; Liu, Jubao

    2015-03-01

    The packer is the key element in separating geosphere layers of water injection, water plugging and fracturing operations in the oilfield. The sealing ability of the packer is depending on the contact pressure between rubber tube and the casing. The circumferential strain of casing wall was tested by the strain gauge to get the contact pressure distribution along axial direction of the tube. The friction force between the casing and the rubber tube was taken by the pressure sensor in compression process. Under the 20,60 and 100 degrees Celsius conditions, the friction forces and the contact pressure distribution were taken in work condition of single rubber tube, double rubber tubes and combination rubber tubes after oil immersion .The result shows that elastic modulus of rubber tube has little effect on the friction force and contact pressure. With elastic modulus decreasing, the friction forces has gradually decreasing trend; The friction coefficient has much impact on friction force: the friction forces under the condition of dry friction and wet friction are respectively equivalent to 48.27% and 5.38% axial compression forces. At wet friction condition, the contact pressure distribution is more uniform and the sealing effect is better.

  20. Evaluation of the friction coefficient, the radial stress, and the damage work during needle insertions into agarose gels.

    PubMed

    Urrea, Fabián A; Casanova, Fernando; Orozco, Gustavo A; García, José J

    2016-03-01

    Agarose hydrogels have been extensively used as a phantom material to mimic the mechanical behavior of soft biological tissues, e.g. in studies aimed to analyze needle insertions into the organs producing tissue damage. To better predict the radial stress and damage during needle insertions, this study was aimed to determine the friction coefficient between the material of commercial catheters and hydrogels. The friction coefficient, the tissue damage and the radial stress were evaluated at 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s velocities for 28, 30, and 32 gauge needles of outer diameters equal to 0.36, 0.31, and 0.23mm, respectively. Force measurements during needle insertions and retractions on agarose gel samples were used to analyze damage and radial stress. The static friction coefficient (0.295±0.056) was significantly higher than the dynamic (0.255±0.086). The static and dynamic friction coefficients were significantly smaller for the 0.2mm/s velocity compared to those for the other two velocities, and there was no significant difference between the friction coefficients for 1.8 and 10mm/s. Radial stress averages were 131.2±54.1, 248.3±64.2, and 804.9±164.3Pa for the insertion velocity of 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s, respectively. The radial stress presented a tendency to increase at higher insertion velocities and needle size, which is consistent with other studies. However, the damage work did not show to be a good predictor of tissue damage, which appears to be due to simplifications in the analytical model. Differently to other approaches, the method proposed here based on radial stress may be extended in future studies to quantity tissue damage in vivo along the entire needle track.

  1. Evaluation of the friction coefficient, the radial stress, and the damage work during needle insertions into agarose gels.

    PubMed

    Urrea, Fabián A; Casanova, Fernando; Orozco, Gustavo A; García, José J

    2016-03-01

    Agarose hydrogels have been extensively used as a phantom material to mimic the mechanical behavior of soft biological tissues, e.g. in studies aimed to analyze needle insertions into the organs producing tissue damage. To better predict the radial stress and damage during needle insertions, this study was aimed to determine the friction coefficient between the material of commercial catheters and hydrogels. The friction coefficient, the tissue damage and the radial stress were evaluated at 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s velocities for 28, 30, and 32 gauge needles of outer diameters equal to 0.36, 0.31, and 0.23mm, respectively. Force measurements during needle insertions and retractions on agarose gel samples were used to analyze damage and radial stress. The static friction coefficient (0.295±0.056) was significantly higher than the dynamic (0.255±0.086). The static and dynamic friction coefficients were significantly smaller for the 0.2mm/s velocity compared to those for the other two velocities, and there was no significant difference between the friction coefficients for 1.8 and 10mm/s. Radial stress averages were 131.2±54.1, 248.3±64.2, and 804.9±164.3Pa for the insertion velocity of 0.2, 1.8, and 10mm/s, respectively. The radial stress presented a tendency to increase at higher insertion velocities and needle size, which is consistent with other studies. However, the damage work did not show to be a good predictor of tissue damage, which appears to be due to simplifications in the analytical model. Differently to other approaches, the method proposed here based on radial stress may be extended in future studies to quantity tissue damage in vivo along the entire needle track. PMID:26700572

  2. Development and assessment of atomistic models for predicting static friction coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangiri, Soran; Heverly-Coulson, Gavin S.; Mosey, Nicholas J.

    2016-08-01

    The friction coefficient relates friction forces to normal loads and plays a key role in fundamental and applied areas of science and technology. Despite its importance, the relationship between the friction coefficient and the properties of the materials forming a sliding contact is poorly understood. We illustrate how simple relationships regarding the changes in energy that occur during slip can be used to develop a quantitative model relating the friction coefficient to atomic-level features of the contact. The slip event is considered as an activated process and the load dependence of the slip energy barrier is approximated with a Taylor series expansion of the corresponding energies with respect to load. The resulting expression for the load-dependent slip energy barrier is incorporated in the Prandtl-Tomlinson (PT) model and a shear-based model to obtain expressions for friction coefficient. The results indicate that the shear-based model reproduces the static friction coefficients μs obtained from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations more accurately than the PT model. The ability of the model to provide atomistic explanations for differences in μs amongst different contacts is also illustrated. As a whole, the model is able to account for fundamental atomic-level features of μs, explain the differences in μs for different materials based on their properties, and might be also used in guiding the development of contacts with desired values of μs.

  3. A computerized method to estimate friction coefficient from orientation distribution of meso-scale faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsushi

    2016-08-01

    The friction coefficient controls the brittle strength of the Earth's crust for deformation recorded by faults. This study proposes a computerized method to determine the friction coefficient of meso-scale faults. The method is based on the analysis of orientation distribution of faults, and the principal stress axes and the stress ratio calculated by a stress tensor inversion technique. The method assumes that faults are activated according to the cohesionless Coulomb's failure criterion, where the fluctuations of fluid pressure and the magnitude of differential stress are assumed to induce faulting. In this case, the orientation distribution of fault planes is described by a probability density function that is visualized as linear contours on a Mohr diagram. The parametric optimization of the function for an observed fault population yields the friction coefficient. A test using an artificial fault-slip dataset successfully determines the internal friction angle (the arctangent of the friction coefficient) with its confidence interval of several degrees estimated by the bootstrap resampling technique. An application to natural faults cutting a Pleistocene forearc basin fill yields a friction coefficient around 0.7 which is experimentally predicted by the Byerlee's law.

  4. Clinical assessment of dynamic coefficient of friction effects in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

    PubMed

    Nima, Jamshidi; Firooz, Salami

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was examining the effect of human factors such as plantar friction, contact period time, and impulse on shoe-sole trituration of drop foot patients. Twenty-five patients with drop foot and twenty normal subjects were recruited in the study. The force plate and its related software's recorded human factor (coefficient of friction, ground reaction force, time of stance phase) as time dependent parameters. Dynamic coefficient of friction patterns were categorized based on their magnitude versus time when the longitudinal axis of the sole was plotted as the Y-axis and the transverse axis of the sole as X-axis during stance phase. The result of this research indicated that the average coefficient of friction among drop foot patients is 77.53 % (p value <0.05) lower than the normal subjects. Also the time of stance phase among drop foot patients is 7.56 % (p value <0.05) greater than normal subjects. There is no difference in the peaks, of vertical ground reaction force between normal and control group. The findings of this research revealed that the time of stance phase has a key role in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

  5. Interpreting Bivariate Regression Coefficients: Going beyond the Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Statistics, econometrics, investment analysis, and data analysis classes often review the calculation of several types of averages, including the arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, and various weighted averages. This note shows how each of these can be computed using a basic regression framework. By recognizing when a regression model…

  6. A Tactile Sensor Using Piezoresistive Beams for Detection of the Coefficient of Static Friction.

    PubMed

    Okatani, Taiyu; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Noda, Kentaro; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2016-05-18

    This paper reports on a tactile sensor using piezoresistive beams for detection of the coefficient of static friction merely by pressing the sensor against an object. The sensor chip is composed of three pairs of piezoresistive beams arranged in parallel and embedded in an elastomer; this sensor is able to measure the vertical and lateral strains of the elastomer. The coefficient of static friction is estimated from the ratio of the fractional resistance changes corresponding to the sensing elements of vertical and lateral strains when the sensor is in contact with an object surface. We applied a normal force on the sensor surface through objects with coefficients of static friction ranging from 0.2 to 1.1. The fractional resistance changes corresponding to vertical and lateral strains were proportional to the applied force. Furthermore, the relationship between these responses changed according to the coefficients of static friction. The experimental result indicated the proposed sensor could determine the coefficient of static friction before a global slip occurs.

  7. A Tactile Sensor Using Piezoresistive Beams for Detection of the Coefficient of Static Friction

    PubMed Central

    Okatani, Taiyu; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Noda, Kentaro; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a tactile sensor using piezoresistive beams for detection of the coefficient of static friction merely by pressing the sensor against an object. The sensor chip is composed of three pairs of piezoresistive beams arranged in parallel and embedded in an elastomer; this sensor is able to measure the vertical and lateral strains of the elastomer. The coefficient of static friction is estimated from the ratio of the fractional resistance changes corresponding to the sensing elements of vertical and lateral strains when the sensor is in contact with an object surface. We applied a normal force on the sensor surface through objects with coefficients of static friction ranging from 0.2 to 1.1. The fractional resistance changes corresponding to vertical and lateral strains were proportional to the applied force. Furthermore, the relationship between these responses changed according to the coefficients of static friction. The experimental result indicated the proposed sensor could determine the coefficient of static friction before a global slip occurs. PMID:27213374

  8. A Tactile Sensor Using Piezoresistive Beams for Detection of the Coefficient of Static Friction.

    PubMed

    Okatani, Taiyu; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Noda, Kentaro; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a tactile sensor using piezoresistive beams for detection of the coefficient of static friction merely by pressing the sensor against an object. The sensor chip is composed of three pairs of piezoresistive beams arranged in parallel and embedded in an elastomer; this sensor is able to measure the vertical and lateral strains of the elastomer. The coefficient of static friction is estimated from the ratio of the fractional resistance changes corresponding to the sensing elements of vertical and lateral strains when the sensor is in contact with an object surface. We applied a normal force on the sensor surface through objects with coefficients of static friction ranging from 0.2 to 1.1. The fractional resistance changes corresponding to vertical and lateral strains were proportional to the applied force. Furthermore, the relationship between these responses changed according to the coefficients of static friction. The experimental result indicated the proposed sensor could determine the coefficient of static friction before a global slip occurs. PMID:27213374

  9. Experimental, numerical and analytical studies of abrasive wear: correlation between wear mechanisms and friction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezlini, Salah; Zidi, M.; Arfa, H.; Ben Tkaya, Mohamed; Kapsa, Philippe

    2005-11-01

    The transport of granular material often generates severe damage. Understanding the correlation between the friction coefficient, particle geometry and wear mechanisms is of primary importance for materials undergoing abrasive wear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of particle geometry on wear mechanisms and the friction coefficient. Numerical and analytical simulations and experimental results have been compared. The process to be studied is the scratch made by a rigid cone with different attack angles on a 5xxx aluminium alloy (Al-Mg) flat surface. A scratch test was used and the wear mechanisms were observed for different attack angles. A numerical study with a finite element code was made in order to understand the effect of attack angle on the friction coefficient. The contact surface and the friction coefficient were also studied, and the results compared to the Bowden and Tabor model. The superposition of the numerical, analytical and experimental results showed a better correlation between the wear mechanisms and the friction coefficient. It also showed the importance of the model hypothesis used to simulate the scratch phenomenon. To cite this article: S. Mezlini et al., C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  10. Non-monotonic dependence of the friction coefficient on heterogeneous stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Giacco, F.; Ciamarra, M. Pica; Saggese, L.; de Arcangelis, L.; Lippiello, E.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the frictional dynamics at the microscopic scale makes difficult to identify all of its controlling parameters. Indeed, experiments on sheared elastic bodies have shown that the static friction coefficient depends on loading conditions, the real area of contact along the interfaces and the confining pressure. Here we show, by means of numerical simulations of a 2D Burridge-Knopoff model with a simple local friction law, that the macroscopic friction coefficient depends non-monotonically on the bulk elasticity of the system. This occurs because elastic constants control the geometrical features of the rupture fronts during the stick-slip dynamics, leading to four different ordering regimes characterized by different orientations of the rupture fronts with respect to the external shear direction. We rationalize these results by means of an energetic balance argument. PMID:25345800

  11. Friction coefficient of diamond under conditions compatible with microelectromechanical systems applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobet, J.; Volpe, P.-N.; Dubois, M.-A.

    2016-03-01

    Because of its good tribological properties, diamond has been suggested to solve the known reliability issues in silicon MEMS components submitted to frictional contacts. An evaluation of self-mating diamond friction under a low load, representative of a number of MEMS applications, was undertaken. Results have shown that initial friction coefficients of 0.02-0.05 can be achieved, as reported in the literature. However, continuation of the test for an extended period of time invariably led to a strong increase of the friction coefficient. This phenomenon has been observed with different types of diamonds (mono-, micro-, or nano-crystalline), suggesting that it is a general behavior for diamond under our experimental conditions. A micro structuration of the surface prevented this phenomenon by limiting the increase of the contact area resulting from wear.

  12. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-03-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests.

  13. Tire-to-Surface Friction-Coefficient Measurements with a C-123B Airplane on Various Runway Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Richard H.; Kolnick, Joseph J.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain information on the tire-to-surface friction coefficients available in aircraft braking during the landing run. The tests were made with a C-123B airplane on both wet and dry concrete and bituminous pavements and on snow-covered and ice surfaces at speeds from 12 to 115 knots. Measurements were made of the maximum (incipient skidding) friction coefficient, the full-skidding (locked wheel) friction coefficient, and the wheel slip ratio during braking.

  14. Comprehensive tire-road friction coefficient estimation based on signal fusion method under complex maneuvering operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Yang, K.; Jia, G.; Ran, X.; Song, J.; Han, Z.-Q.

    2015-05-01

    The accurate estimation of the tire-road friction coefficient plays a significant role in the vehicle dynamics control. The estimation method should be timely and reliable for the controlling requirements, which means the contact friction characteristics between the tire and the road should be recognized before the interference to ensure the safety of the driver and passengers from drifting and losing control. In addition, the estimation method should be stable and feasible for complex maneuvering operations to guarantee the control performance as well. A signal fusion method combining the available signals to estimate the road friction is suggested in this paper on the basis of the estimated ones of braking, driving and steering conditions individually. Through the input characteristics and the states of the vehicle and tires from sensors the maneuvering condition may be recognized, by which the certainty factors of the friction of the three conditions mentioned above may be obtained correspondingly, and then the comprehensive road friction may be calculated. Experimental vehicle tests validate the effectiveness of the proposed method through complex maneuvering operations; the estimated road friction coefficient based on the signal fusion method is relatively timely and accurate to satisfy the control demands.

  15. Temperature and water vapor pressure effects on the friction coefficient of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon films.

    SciTech Connect

    Dickrell, P. L.; Sawyer, W. G.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Florida

    2009-07-01

    Microtribological measurements of a hydrogenated diamondlike carbon film in controlled gaseous environments show that water vapor plays a significant role in the friction coefficient. These experiments reveal an initial high friction transient behavior that does not reoccur even after extended periods of exposure to low partial pressures of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. Experiments varying both water vapor pressure and sample temperature show trends of a decreasing friction coefficient as a function of both the decreasing water vapor pressure and the increasing substrate temperature. Theses trends are examined with regard to first order gas-surface interactions. Model fits give activation energies on the order of 40 kJ/mol, which is consistent with water vapor desorption.

  16. The stochastic distribution of available coefficient of friction on quarry tiles for human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2012-01-01

    The available coefficient of friction (ACOF) for human locomotion is the maximum coefficient of friction that can be supported without a slip at the shoe and floor interface. A statistical model was introduced to estimate the probability of slip by comparing the ACOF with the required coefficient of friction, assuming that both coefficients have stochastic distributions. This paper presents an investigation of the stochastic distributions of the ACOF of quarry tiles under dry, water and glycerol conditions. One hundred friction measurements were performed on a walkway under the surface conditions of dry, water and 45% glycerol concentration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if the distribution of the ACOF was a good fit with the normal, log-normal and Weibull distributions. The results indicated that the ACOF appears to fit the normal and log-normal distributions better than the Weibull distribution for the water and glycerol conditions. However, no match was found between the distribution of ACOF under the dry condition and any of the three continuous distributions evaluated. Based on limited data, a normal distribution might be more appropriate due to its simplicity, practicality and familiarity among the three distributions evaluated.

  17. Influence of molecular weight on friction force microscopy of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) films: correlation between coefficient of friction and chain entanglement.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Tracie J; Leggett, Graham J

    2009-02-17

    The frictional properties of spun-cast films of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) have been characterized using friction force microscopy (FFM). In air, the friction-load relationship was found to obey Johnson-Kendall-Roberts mechanics, but under ethanol, it was found to fit Amontons' Law. The coefficient of friction measured under ethanol was found to increase with increasing molecular weight, up to a molecular weight close to the bulk critical molecular weight for entanglement. At greater values than this, the coefficient of friction changed comparatively little with molecular weight. It is suggested that at molecular weights below Mc, the frictional interaction is dominated by plowing of the tip between polymer molecules; as molecular weight increases, so the viscosity of the film increases and the coefficient of friction increases. After the onset of entanglement, the mechanism of energy dissipation changes to one in which the tip sticks in loops of polymer between entanglements, extending the chains until at a critical stress, the contact is broken. The frictional interaction is thus comparatively invariant with molecular weight. FFM was also used to investigate the kinetics of the UV-induced modification of PMMA. A progressive decrease in the coefficient of friction was observed as a function of the time that the film was exposed to UV light, a result which was correlated to a gradual reduction in the molecular weight of the polymer and, hence, the entanglement density of the system.

  18. Local convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of CuO/water nanofluid in a microchannel heat sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabi, A. R.; Zarrinabadi, S.; Peyghambarzadeh, S. M.; Hashemabadi, S. H.; Salimi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Forced convective heat transfer in a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) using CuO/water nanofluids with 0.1 and 0.2 vol% as coolant was investigated. The experiments were focused on the heat transfer enhancement in the channel entrance region at Re < 1800. Hydraulic performance of the MCHS was also estimated by measuring friction factor and pressure drop. Results showed that higher convective heat transfer coefficient was obtained at the microchannel entrance. Maximum enhancement of the average heat transfer coefficient compared with deionized water was about 40 % for 0.2 vol% nanofluid at Re = 1150. Enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid decreased with further increasing of Reynolds number.

  19. Adhesion-dependent negative friction coefficient on chemically modified graphite at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhao; Smolyanitsky, Alex; Li, Qunyang; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Cannara, Rachel J.

    2012-12-01

    From the early tribological studies of Leonardo da Vinci to Amontons’ law, friction has been shown to increase with increasing normal load. This trend continues to hold at the nanoscale, where friction can vary nonlinearly with normal load. Here we present nanoscale friction force microscopy (FFM) experiments for a nanoscale probe tip sliding on a chemically modified graphite surface in an atomic force microscope (AFM). Our results demonstrate that, when adhesion between the AFM tip and surface is enhanced relative to the exfoliation energy of graphite, friction can increase as the load decreases under tip retraction. This leads to the emergence of an effectively negative coefficient of friction in the low-load regime. We show that the magnitude of this coefficient depends on the ratio of tip-sample adhesion to the exfoliation energy of graphite. Through both atomistic- and continuum-based simulations, we attribute this unusual phenomenon to a reversible partial delamination of the topmost atomic layers, which then mimic few- to single-layer graphene. Lifting of these layers with the AFM tip leads to greater deformability of the surface with decreasing applied load. This discovery suggests that the lamellar nature of graphite yields nanoscale tribological properties outside the predictive capacity of existing continuum mechanical models.

  20. The Effect of a Variable Disc Pad Friction Coefficient for the Mechanical Brake System of a Railway Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2015-01-01

    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) system for a railway vehicle is widely applied to estimate and validate braking performance in research studies and field tests. When we develop a simulation model for a full vehicle system, the characteristics of all components are generally properly simplified based on the understanding of each component’s purpose and interaction with other components. The friction coefficient between the brake disc and the pad used in simulations has been conventionally considered constant, and the effect of a variable friction coefficient is ignored with the assumption that the variability affects the performance of the vehicle braking very little. However, the friction coefficient of a disc pad changes significantly within a range due to environmental conditions, and thus, the friction coefficient can affect the performance of the brakes considerably, especially on the wheel slide. In this paper, we apply a variable friction coefficient and analyzed the effects of the variable friction coefficient on a mechanical brake system of a railway vehicle. We introduce a mathematical formula for the variable friction coefficient in which the variable friction is represented by two variables and five parameters. The proposed formula is applied to real-time simulations using a brake HILS system, and the effectiveness of the formula is verified experimentally by testing the mechanical braking performance of the brake HILS system. PMID:26267883

  1. The Effect of a Variable Disc Pad Friction Coefficient for the Mechanical Brake System of a Railway Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2015-01-01

    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) system for a railway vehicle is widely applied to estimate and validate braking performance in research studies and field tests. When we develop a simulation model for a full vehicle system, the characteristics of all components are generally properly simplified based on the understanding of each component's purpose and interaction with other components. The friction coefficient between the brake disc and the pad used in simulations has been conventionally considered constant, and the effect of a variable friction coefficient is ignored with the assumption that the variability affects the performance of the vehicle braking very little. However, the friction coefficient of a disc pad changes significantly within a range due to environmental conditions, and thus, the friction coefficient can affect the performance of the brakes considerably, especially on the wheel slide. In this paper, we apply a variable friction coefficient and analyzed the effects of the variable friction coefficient on a mechanical brake system of a railway vehicle. We introduce a mathematical formula for the variable friction coefficient in which the variable friction is represented by two variables and five parameters. The proposed formula is applied to real-time simulations using a brake HILS system, and the effectiveness of the formula is verified experimentally by testing the mechanical braking performance of the brake HILS system.

  2. The Effect of a Variable Disc Pad Friction Coefficient for the Mechanical Brake System of a Railway Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2015-01-01

    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) system for a railway vehicle is widely applied to estimate and validate braking performance in research studies and field tests. When we develop a simulation model for a full vehicle system, the characteristics of all components are generally properly simplified based on the understanding of each component's purpose and interaction with other components. The friction coefficient between the brake disc and the pad used in simulations has been conventionally considered constant, and the effect of a variable friction coefficient is ignored with the assumption that the variability affects the performance of the vehicle braking very little. However, the friction coefficient of a disc pad changes significantly within a range due to environmental conditions, and thus, the friction coefficient can affect the performance of the brakes considerably, especially on the wheel slide. In this paper, we apply a variable friction coefficient and analyzed the effects of the variable friction coefficient on a mechanical brake system of a railway vehicle. We introduce a mathematical formula for the variable friction coefficient in which the variable friction is represented by two variables and five parameters. The proposed formula is applied to real-time simulations using a brake HILS system, and the effectiveness of the formula is verified experimentally by testing the mechanical braking performance of the brake HILS system. PMID:26267883

  3. Unrealistic statistics: how average constitutive coefficients can produce non-physical results.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Daniel; Cook, Douglas

    2014-12-01

    The coefficients of constitutive models are frequently averaged in order to concisely summarize the complex, nonlinear, material properties of biomedical materials. However, when dealing with nonlinear systems, average inputs (e.g. average constitutive coefficients) often fail to generate average behavior. This raises an important issue because average nonlinear constitutive coefficients of biomedical materials are commonly reported in the literature. This paper provides examples which demonstrate that average constitutive coefficients applied to nonlinear constitutive laws in the field of biomedical material characterization can fail to produce average stress-strain responses and in some cases produce non-physical responses. Results are presented from a literature survey which indicates that approximately 90% of tissue measurement studies that employ a nonlinear constitutive model report average nonlinear constitutive coefficients. We suggest that reviewers and editors of future measurement studies discourage the reporting of average nonlinear constitutive coefficients. Reporting of individual coefficient sets for each test sample should be considered and discussed as designation for a "best practice" in the field of biomedical material characterization.

  4. Contribution of gait parameters and available coefficient of friction to perceptions of slipperiness.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Lesch, Mary F; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Perceived slipperiness rating (PSR) has been widely used to assess walkway safety. In this experiment, 29 participants were exposed to 5 floor types under dry, wet and glycerol conditions. The relationship between their PSR and objective measurements, including utilized coefficient of friction (UCOF), gait kinematics and available coefficient of friction (ACOF), was explored with a regression analysis using step-wise backward elimination. The results showed that UCOF and ACOF, as well as their difference, were the major predictors of the PSR under wet and glycerol conditions. Under wet conditions, the participants appeared to rely on the potential for foot slip to form their PSR. Under glycerol conditions, some kinematic variables also became major predictors of PSR. The results show how different proprioceptive responses and ACOF contributed to the prediction of PSR under different surface conditions.

  5. Pleural liquid and kinetic friction coefficient of mesothelium after mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bodega, Francesca; Sironi, Chiara; Porta, Cristina; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2015-01-15

    Volume and protein concentration of pleural liquid in anesthetized rabbits after 1 or 3h of mechanical ventilation, with alveolar pressure equal to atmospheric at end expiration, were compared to those occurring after spontaneous breathing. Moreover, coefficient of kinetic friction between samples of visceral and parietal pleura, obtained after spontaneous or mechanical ventilation, sliding in vitro at physiological velocity under physiological load, was determined. Volume of pleural liquid after mechanical ventilation was similar to that previously found during spontaneous ventilation. This finding is contrary to expectation of Moriondo et al. (2005), based on measurement of lymphatic and interstitial pressure. Protein concentration of pleural liquid after mechanical ventilation was also similar to that occurring after spontaneous ventilation. Coefficient of kinetic friction after mechanical ventilation was 0.023±0.001, similar to that obtained after spontaneous breathing.

  6. The stochastic distribution of available coefficient of friction for human locomotion of five different floor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2014-05-01

    The maximum coefficient of friction that can be supported at the shoe and floor interface without a slip is usually called the available coefficient of friction (ACOF) for human locomotion. The probability of a slip could be estimated using a statistical model by comparing the ACOF with the required coefficient of friction (RCOF), assuming that both coefficients have stochastic distributions. An investigation of the stochastic distributions of the ACOF of five different floor surfaces under dry, water and glycerol conditions is presented in this paper. One hundred friction measurements were performed on each floor surface under each surface condition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if the distribution of the ACOF was a good fit with the normal, log-normal and Weibull distributions. The results indicated that the ACOF distributions had a slightly better match with the normal and log-normal distributions than with the Weibull in only three out of 15 cases with a statistical significance. The results are far more complex than what had heretofore been published and different scenarios could emerge. Since the ACOF is compared with the RCOF for the estimate of slip probability, the distribution of the ACOF in seven cases could be considered a constant for this purpose when the ACOF is much lower or higher than the RCOF. A few cases could be represented by a normal distribution for practical reasons based on their skewness and kurtosis values without a statistical significance. No representation could be found in three cases out of 15.

  7. Friction Coefficient and Superficial Zone Protein are Increased in Patients with Advanced Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Neu, C.P.; Reddi, A.H.; Komvopoulos, K.; Schmid, T.M.; Di Cesare, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To quantify the concentration of superficial zone protein (SZP) in articular cartilage and synovial fluid of patients with advanced osteoarthritis (OA), and to further correlate the SZP content with the friction coefficient, OA severity, and levels of inflammatory cytokines. Methods Samples of articular cartilage and synovial fluid were obtained from patients undergoing elective total knee replacement surgery. Additional normal samples were obtained from donated body program and tissue bank sources. Regional SZP expression in cartilage obtained from the femoral condyles was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and visualized by immunohistochemistry. Friction coefficient measurements were obtained from cartilage plugs slid in the boundary lubrication regime. OA severity was graded using histochemical analyses. The concentration of SZP and inflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays. Results A pattern of SZP localization in knee cartilage was identified, with load-bearing regions exhibiting high SZP expression. SZP patterns correlated to friction coefficient and OA severity; however SZP expression was observed in all samples at the articular surface, regardless of OA severity. SZP expression and aspirate volume of synovial fluid were higher in OA patients compared to normal controls. Expressions of cytokines were elevated in the synovial fluid of some patients. Conclusion The results reveal a mechano-chemical coupling in which physical forces regulate OA severity and joint lubrication. The findings of this study also suggest that SZP may be ineffective in reducing joint friction in the boundary lubrication regime at an advanced OA stage where other mechanisms may dominate the observed tribological behavior. PMID:20499384

  8. Measurement and prediction of the effects of nonuniform surface roughness on turbulent flow friction coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert P.; Scaggs, W. F.; Coleman, Hugh W.

    The status of prediction methods for friction coefficients in turbulent flows over nonuniform or random rough surfaces is reviewed. Experimental data for friction factors in fully developed pipe flows with Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 600,000 are presented for two nonuniform rough surfaces. One surface was roughened with a mixture of cones and hemispheres which had the same height and base diameter and were arranged in a uniform array. The other surface was roughened with a mixture of two sizes of cones and two sizes of hemispheres. These data are compared with predictions made using the previously published discrete element prediction approach of Taylor, Coleman and Hodge. The agreement between the data and the predictions is excellent.

  9. NGA-West 2 GMPE average site coefficients for use in earthquake-resistant design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Site coefficients corresponding to those in tables 11.4–1 and 11.4–2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (Standard ASCE/SEI 7-10) are derived from four of the Next Generation Attenuation West2 (NGA-W2) Ground-Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). The resulting coefficients are compared with those derived by other researchers and those derived from the NGA-West1 database. The derivation of the NGA-W2 average site coefficients provides a simple procedure to update site coefficients with each update in the Maximum Considered Earthquake Response MCER maps. The simple procedure yields average site coefficients consistent with those derived for site-specific design purposes. The NGA-W2 GMPEs provide simple scale factors to reduce conservatism in current simplified design procedures.

  10. Exploring factors affecting measurements of the static coefficient of friction: An application of fractional factorial experiment design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkerts, Timothy J.

    2004-10-01

    The common undergraduate experiment for determining the static coefficient of friction between a wooden block and a horizontal tabletop often produces inconsistent results. We show how several factors influence the measured magnitude and consistency of the coefficient of friction. We utilize a fractional factorial experimental design, which is a method that has been specifically developed to effectively and efficiently uncover key factors that most strongly influence experimental results.

  11. Experimental friction coefficients for bovine cartilage measured with a pin-on-disk tribometer: testing configuration and lubricant effects.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liu; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I; Striolo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The friction coefficient between wet articular cartilage surfaces was measured using a pin-on-disk tribometer adopting different testing configurations: cartilage-on-pin vs. alumina-on-disk (CA); cartilage-on-pin vs. cartilage-on-disk (CC); and alumina-on-pin vs. cartilage-on-disk (AC). Several substances were dissolved in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution to act as lubricants: 10,000 molecular weight (MW) polyethylene glycol (PEG), 100,000 MW PEG, and chondroitin sulfate (CS), all at 100 mg/mL concentration. Scanning electron microscopy photographs of the cartilage specimens revealed limited wear due to the experiment. Conducting the experiments in PBS solutions we provide evidence according to which a commercial pin-on-disk tribometer allows us to assess different lubrication mechanisms active in cartilage. Specifically, we find that the measured friction coefficient strongly depends on the testing configuration. Our results show that the friction coefficient measured under CC and AC testing configurations remains very low as the sliding distance increases, probably because during the pin displacement the pores present in the cartilage replenish with PBS solution. Under such conditions the fluid phase supports a large load fraction for long times. By systematically altering the composition of the PBS solution we demonstrate the importance of solution viscosity in determining the measured friction coefficient. Although the friction coefficient remains low under the AC testing configuration in PBS, 100 mg/mL solutions of both CS and 100,000 MW PEG in PBS further reduce the friction coefficient by ~40%. Relating the measured friction coefficient to the Hersey number, our results are consistent with a Stribeck curve, confirming that the friction coefficient of cartilage under the AC testing configuration depends on a combination of hydrodynamic, boundary, and weep bearing lubrication mechanisms.

  12. Description of new dry granular materials of variable cohesion and friction coefficient: Implications for laboratory modeling of the brittle crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmalak, M. M.; Bulois, C.; Mourgues, R.; Galland, O.; Legland, J.-B.; Gruber, C.

    2016-08-01

    Cohesion and friction coefficient are fundamental parameters for scaling brittle deformation in laboratory models of geological processes. However, they are commonly not experimental variable, whereas (1) rocks range from cohesion-less to strongly cohesive and from low friction to high friction and (2) strata exhibit substantial cohesion and friction contrasts. This brittle paradox implies that the effects of brittle properties on processes involving brittle deformation cannot be tested in laboratory models. Solving this paradox requires the use of dry granular materials of tunable and controllable brittle properties. In this paper, we describe dry mixtures of fine-grained cohesive, high friction silica powder (SP) and low-cohesion, low friction glass microspheres (GM) that fulfill this requirement. We systematically estimated the cohesions and friction coefficients of mixtures of variable proportions using two independent methods: (1) a classic Hubbert-type shear box to determine the extrapolated cohesion (C) and friction coefficient (μ), and (2) direct measurements of the tensile strength (T0) and the height (H) of open fractures to calculate the true cohesion (C0). The measured values of cohesion increase from 100 Pa for pure GM to 600 Pa for pure SP, with a sub-linear trend of the cohesion with the mixture GM content. The two independent cohesion measurement methods, from shear tests and tension/extensional tests, yield very similar results of extrapolated cohesion (C) and show that both are robust and can be used independently. The measured values of friction coefficients increase from 0.5 for pure GM to 1.05 for pure SP. The use of these granular material mixtures now allows testing (1) the effects of cohesion and friction coefficient in homogeneous laboratory models and (2) testing the effect of brittle layering on brittle deformation, as demonstrated by preliminary experiments. Therefore, the brittle properties become, at last, experimental variables.

  13. Experimental Measurement of the Static Coefficient of Friction at the Ti-Ti Taper Connection in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bitter, T; Khan, I; Marriott, T; Schreurs, B W; Verdonschot, N; Janssen, D

    2016-03-01

    The modular taper junction in total hip replacements has been implicated as a possible source of wear. The finite-element (FE) method can be used to study the wear potential at the taper junction. For such simulations it is important to implement representative contact parameters, in order to achieve accurate results. One of the main parameters in FE simulations is the coefficient of friction. However, in current literature, there is quite a wide spread in coefficient of friction values (0.15 - 0.8), which has a significant effect on the outcome of the FE simulations. Therefore, to obtain more accurate results, one should use a coefficient of friction that is determined for the specific material couple being analyzed. In this study, the static coefficient of friction was determined for two types of titanium-on-titanium stem-adaptor couples, using actual cut-outs of the final implants, to ensure that the coefficient of friction was determined consistently for the actual implant material and surface finish characteristics. Two types of tapers were examined, Biomet type-1 and 12/14, where type-1 has a polished surface finish and the 12/14 is a microgrooved system. We found static coefficients of friction of 0.19 and 0.29 for the 12/14 and type-1 stem-adaptor couples, respectively. PMID:26747129

  14. Experimental Measurement of the Static Coefficient of Friction at the Ti-Ti Taper Connection in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bitter, T; Khan, I; Marriott, T; Schreurs, B W; Verdonschot, N; Janssen, D

    2016-03-01

    The modular taper junction in total hip replacements has been implicated as a possible source of wear. The finite-element (FE) method can be used to study the wear potential at the taper junction. For such simulations it is important to implement representative contact parameters, in order to achieve accurate results. One of the main parameters in FE simulations is the coefficient of friction. However, in current literature, there is quite a wide spread in coefficient of friction values (0.15 - 0.8), which has a significant effect on the outcome of the FE simulations. Therefore, to obtain more accurate results, one should use a coefficient of friction that is determined for the specific material couple being analyzed. In this study, the static coefficient of friction was determined for two types of titanium-on-titanium stem-adaptor couples, using actual cut-outs of the final implants, to ensure that the coefficient of friction was determined consistently for the actual implant material and surface finish characteristics. Two types of tapers were examined, Biomet type-1 and 12/14, where type-1 has a polished surface finish and the 12/14 is a microgrooved system. We found static coefficients of friction of 0.19 and 0.29 for the 12/14 and type-1 stem-adaptor couples, respectively.

  15. Optimization of method a load cell calibration for the measurement of coefficient of friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, R. M.; Pereira, M.; Sousa, A. R.; Curi, E. I. M.; Izidoro, C. L.; Correa, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    The instrumentation of equipment for mechanical testing is used to optimize the time to deliver a result, besides minimizing errors associated with manual measurements. Given this context, this work aims to present a calibration method for a load cell to determine the measurement results of force and friction coefficient, developed from on rotary pin-on-disk tribometer. The results indicate that the procedure provides measurements reliable for the tribological phenomena, resulting in with proximity the values provided by the ASTM G99-04.

  16. Method for producing ceramic composition having low friction coefficient at high operating temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Lankford, Jr., James

    1988-01-01

    A method for producing a stable ceramic composition having a surface with a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance at high operating temperatures. A first deposition of a thin film of a metal ion is made upon the surface of the ceramic composition and then a first ion implantation of at least a portion of the metal ion is made into the near surface region of the composition. The implantation mixes the metal ion and the ceramic composition to form a near surface composite. The near surface composite is then oxidized sufficiently at high oxidizing temperatures to form an oxide gradient layer in the surface of the ceramic composition.

  17. Regulation of the friction coefficient of articular cartilage by TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta.

    PubMed

    DuRaine, Grayson; Neu, Corey P; Chan, Stephanie M T; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; June, Ronald K; Reddi, A Hari

    2009-02-01

    Articular cartilage functions to provide a low-friction surface for joint movement for many decades of life. Superficial zone protein (SZP) is a glycoprotein secreted by chondrocytes in the superficial layer of articular cartilage that contributes to effective boundary lubrication. In both cell and explant cultures, TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta have been demonstrated to, respectively, upregulate and downregulate SZP protein levels. It was hypothesized that the friction coefficient of articular cartilage could also be modulated by these cytokines through SZP regulation. The friction coefficient between cartilage explants (both untreated and treated with TGF-beta1 or IL-1beta) and a smooth glass surface due to sliding in the boundary lubrication regime was measured with a pin-on-disk tribometer. SZP was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and localized by immunohistochemistry. Both TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta treatments resulted in the decrease of the friction coefficient of articular cartilage in a location- and time-dependent manner. Changes in the friction coefficient due to the TGF-beta1 treatment corresponded to increased depth of SZP staining within the superficial zone, while friction coefficient changes due to the IL-1beta treatment were independent of SZP depth of staining. However, the changes induced by the IL-1beta treatment corresponded to changes in surface roughness, determined from the analysis of surface images obtained with an atomic force microscope. These findings demonstrate that the low friction of articular cartilage can be modified by TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta treatment and that the friction coefficient depends on multiple factors, including SZP localization and surface roughness.

  18. Precise measurement of spring constant and friction coefficient of nano-confined T4 DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüscher, Christopher; Pedersen, Jonas; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    A simple method for accurate detection of dynamic parameters for DNA confined in nano fluidic channels is presented. T4 DNA is stained with YOYO-1 fluorescent dye and studied by epifluorescense under confinement in nanofluidic capillaries with cross-section less than 250 nm. A DNA molecule confined in a nanochannel of width below the molecule's radius of gyration is stretched to fill a length, L0 of the channel. In equilibrium, the DNA will be subject to thermal fluctuations, which are governed by the drag force of the surrounding fluid and by the entropic spring constant of the DNA conformation in the channel. The power spectrum of the end-to-end length is described by a superposition of vibrational modes. The observed power spectrum reveals a shoulder at the lower frequencies, from which both the entropic spring constant and the friction coefficient of the nano-confined DNA can be determined. With this method, the spring constant and friction coefficient of nano-confined, YOYO-1 stained T4 DNA has been measured with a relative error below 15%.

  19. Effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on sprint time in a sled-towing exercise.

    PubMed

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Cooper, James E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise. The coefficients of friction of four common sports surfaces (a synthetic athletics track, a natural grass rugby pitch, a 3G football pitch, and an artificial grass hockey pitch) were determined from the force required to tow a weighted sled across the surface. Timing gates were then used to measure the 30-m sprint time for six rugby players when towing a sled of varied weight across the surfaces. There were substantial differences between the coefficients of friction for the four surfaces (micro = 0.21-0.58), and in the sled-towing exercise the athlete's 30-m sprint time increased linearly with increasing sled weight. The hockey pitch (which had the lowest coefficient of friction) produced a substantially lower rate of increase in 30-m sprint time, but there were no significant differences between the other surfaces. The results indicate that although an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise is affected by the coefficient offriction of the surface, the relationship relationship between the athlete's rate of increase in 30-m sprint time and the coefficient of friction is more complex than expected.

  20. Proton friction and diffusion coefficients in hydrated polymer electrolyte membranes: Computations with a non-equilibrium statistical mechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paddison, Stephen J.; Paul, Reginald; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2001-10-01

    A recently derived mathematical model to compute the effective friction and diffusion coefficients of hydronium ions in hydrated polymer electrolyte membranes is described and tested for dependence on membrane-specific parameters. Contributions to the friction coefficient due to water-polymer, water-hydronium, and hydronium-polymer interactions are determined through computation of force-force correlation functions. The conventional Stokes law friction coefficient of the hydronium ion in bulk water is then "corrected" with these statistically derived contributions and the corresponding diffusion coefficient calculated. For a Nafion® membrane pore with an hydration level of six water molecules per sulfonic acid functional, the model was used to compute friction coefficients for various distributions of the fixed sites, and for different side chain lengths. The model showed substantial sensitivity to these parameters and predicted that for pores of fixed volume and a constant total number of sulfonate groups, the friction on the hydrated proton is the greatest for distributions with high local anionic charge density. In a second series of computations where the radius and length of the pore were varied, the model demonstrated that the proton diffusion increases with increasing channel diameter. These calculations, therefore, demonstrate the important predictive capability of this molecular-based, nonequilibrium statistical mechanical model.

  1. Evaluation of soft x-ray average recombination coefficient and average charge for metallic impurities in beam-heated plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sesnic, S.S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Hiroe, S.; Hulse, R.; Shimada, M.; Stratton, B.; von Goeler, S.

    1986-05-01

    The soft x-ray continuum radiation in TFTR low density neutral beam discharges can be much lower than its theoretical value obtained by assuming a corona equilibrium. This reduced continuum radiation is caused by an ionization equilibrium shift toward lower states, which strongly changes the value of the average recombination coefficient of metallic impurities anti ..gamma.., even for only slight changes in the average charge, anti Z. The primary agent for this shift is the charge exchange between the highly ionized impurity ions and the neutral hydrogen, rather than impurity transport, because the central density of the neutral hydrogen is strongly enhanced at lower plasma densities with intense beam injection. In the extreme case of low density, high neutral beam power TFTR operation (energetic ion mode) the reduction in anti ..gamma.. can be as much as one-half to two-thirds. We calculate the parametric dependence of anti ..gamma.. and anti Z for Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni impurities on neutral density (equivalent to beam power), electron temperature, and electron density. These values are obtained by using either a one-dimensional impurity transport code (MIST) or a zero-dimensional code with a finite particle confinement time. As an example, we show the variation of anti ..gamma.. and anti Z in different TFTR discharges.

  2. [Tribological assessment of articular cartilage. A system for the analysis of the friction coefficient of cartilage, regenerates and tissue engineering constructs; initial results].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, M L R; Schneider-Wald, B; Krase, A; Richter, W; Reisig, G; Kreinest, M; Heute, S; Pott, P P; Brade, J; Schütte, A

    2012-10-01

    Values for the friction coefficient of articular cartilage are given in ranges of percentage and lower and are calculated as a quotient of the friction force and the perpendicular loading force acting on it. Thus, a sophisticated system has to be provided for analysing the friction coefficient under different conditions in particular when cartilage should be coupled as friction partner. It is possible to deep-freeze articular cartilage before measuring the friction coefficient as the procedure has no influence on the results. The presented tribological system was able to distinguish between altered and native cartilage. Furthermore, tissue engineered constructs for cartilage repair were differentiated from native cartilage probes by their friction coefficient. In conclusion a tribological equipment is presented to analyze the friction coefficient of articular cartilage, in vivo generated cartilage regenerates and in vitro tissue engineered constructs regarding their biomechanical properties for quality assessment.

  3. Coefficient of Friction Patterns Can Identify Damage in Native and Engineered Cartilage Subjected to Frictional-Shear Stress.

    PubMed

    Whitney, G A; Mansour, J M; Dennis, J E

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical loading environment encountered by articular cartilage in situ makes frictional-shear testing an invaluable technique for assessing engineered cartilage. Despite the important information that is gained from this testing, it remains under-utilized, especially for determining damage behavior. Currently, extensive visual inspection is required to assess damage; this is cumbersome and subjective. Tools to simplify, automate, and remove subjectivity from the analysis may increase the accessibility and usefulness of frictional-shear testing as an evaluation method. The objective of this study was to determine if the friction signal could be used to detect damage that occurred during the testing. This study proceeded in two phases: first, a simplified model of biphasic lubrication that does not require knowledge of interstitial fluid pressure was developed. In the second phase, frictional-shear tests were performed on 74 cartilage samples, and the simplified model was used to extract characteristic features from the friction signals. Using support vector machine classifiers, the extracted features were able to detect damage with a median accuracy of approximately 90%. The accuracy remained high even in samples with minimal damage. In conclusion, the friction signal acquired during frictional-shear testing can be used to detect resultant damage to a high level of accuracy.

  4. Coefficient of Friction Patterns Can Identify Damage in Native and Engineered Cartilage Subjected to Frictional-Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, G. A.; Mansour, J. M.; Dennis, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical loading environment encountered by articular cartilage in situ makes frictional-shear testing an invaluable technique for assessing engineered cartilage. Despite the important information that is gained from this testing, it remains under-utilized, especially for determining damage behavior. Currently, extensive visual inspection is required to assess damage; this is cumbersome and subjective. Tools to simplify, automate, and remove subjectivity from the analysis may increase the accessibility and usefulness of frictional-shear testing as an evaluation method. The objective of this study was to determine if the friction signal could be used to detect damage that occurred during the testing. This study proceeded in two phases: first, a simplified model of biphasic lubrication that does not require knowledge of interstitial fluid pressure was developed. In the second phase, frictional-shear tests were performed on 74 cartilage samples, and the simplified model was used to extract characteristic features from the friction signals. Using support vector machine classifiers, the extracted features were able to detect damage with a median accuracy of approximately 90%. The accuracy remained high even in samples with minimal damage. In conclusion, the friction signal acquired during frictional-shear testing can be used to detect resultant damage to a high level of accuracy. PMID:25691395

  5. PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS, AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K

    2005-09-28

    The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear and isothermal heating, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, was used to monitor CP decomposition at linear heating rates of 1-7 C min{sup -1} in perforated pans and of 0.1-1.0 C min{sup -1} in sealed pans. The kinetic triplet was calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05, and predictions for 210 and 240 C are compared to isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

  6. Choosing the best index for the average score intraclass correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2016-09-01

    The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)(2) index from a one-way random effects model is widely used to describe the reliability of mean ratings in behavioral, educational, and psychological research. Despite its apparent utility, the essential property of ICC(2) as a point estimator of the average score intraclass correlation coefficient is seldom mentioned. This article considers several potential measures and compares their performance with ICC(2). Analytical derivations and numerical examinations are presented to assess the bias and mean square error of the alternative estimators. The results suggest that more advantageous indices can be recommended over ICC(2) for their theoretical implication and computational ease. PMID:26182855

  7. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke

    2015-02-01

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests.

  8. Topology of calculating pressure and friction coefficients for time-dependent human hip joint lubrication.

    PubMed

    Wierzcholski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the calculations of the unsteady, impulsive pressure distributions, carrying capacities and friction forces under unsteady conditions in a super-thin layer of biological synovial fluid inside the slide biobearing gap limited by a spherical bone head. Unsteady and random flow conditions for the biobearing lubrication are given. Moreover, the numerical topology of pressure calculation for a difference method is applied. From a mathematical viewpoint the present method for the solution of the modified Reynolds equation allows this problem to be resolved by the partial recurrence nonhomogeneous equation of the second order with variable coefficients. To the best of the author knowledge, an adaptation of the known numerical difference method to the spherical boundary conditions applied during the pressure calculations for a human hip bonehead seems to be decisive.

  9. Surface contact and design of fibrillar 'friction pads' in stick insects (Carausius morosus): mechanisms for large friction coefficients and negligible adhesion.

    PubMed

    Labonte, David; Williams, John A; Federle, Walter

    2014-05-01

    Many stick insects and mantophasmids possess tarsal 'heel pads' (euplantulae) covered by arrays of conical, micrometre-sized hairs (acanthae). These pads are used mainly under compression; they respond to load with increasing shear resistance, and show negligible adhesion. Reflected-light microscopy in stick insects (Carausius morosus) revealed that the contact area of 'heel pads' changes with normal load on three hierarchical levels. First, loading brought larger areas of the convex pads into contact. Second, loading increased the density of acanthae in contact. Third, higher loads changed the shape of individual hair contacts gradually from circular (tip contact) to elongated (side contact). The resulting increase in real contact area can explain the load dependence of friction, indicating a constant shear stress between acanthae and substrate. As the euplantula contact area is negligible for small loads (similar to hard materials), but increases sharply with load (resembling soft materials), these pads show high friction coefficients despite little adhesion. This property appears essential for the pads' use in locomotion. Several morphological characteristics of hairy friction pads are in apparent contrast to hairy pads used for adhesion, highlighting key adaptations for both pad types. Our results are relevant for the design of fibrillar structures with high friction coefficients but small adhesion.

  10. The friction coefficient evolution of a MoS2/WC multi-layer coating system during sliding wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. Y.; Hu, Y.; Gharbi, Mohammad M.; Politis, D. J.; Wang, L.

    2016-08-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of friction coefficient for the multi-layered Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS2) and WC coated substrate during sliding against Aluminium AA 6082 material. A soft MoS2 coating was prepared over a hard WC coated G3500 cast iron tool substrate and underwent friction test using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The lifetime of the coating was reduced with increasing load while the Aluminium debris accumulated on the WC hard coating surfaces, accelerated the breakdown of the coatings. The lifetime of the coating was represented by the friction coefficient and the sliding distance before MoS2 coating breakdown and was found to be affected by the load applied and the wear mechanism.

  11. Estimation of coefficient of friction for a mechanical system with combined rolling-sliding contact using vibration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Sriram; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2015-06-01

    A new dynamic experiment is proposed to estimate the coefficient of friction for a mechanical system with a combined rolling-sliding contact under a mixed lubrication regime. The experiment is designed and instrumented based on an analogous contact mechanics model, taking into consideration the constraints to ensure no impact and no sliding velocity reversal. The system consists of a cam (rotating with a constant speed) having a point contact with a follower that oscillates about a frictionless pivot, while maintaining contact with the cam with the help of a well-designed translational spring. The viscous damping elements for contact are identified for two different lubricants from an impulse test using the half-power bandwidth method. Dynamic responses (with the cam providing an input to the system) are measured in terms of the follower acceleration and the reaction forces at the follower pivot. A frequency domain based signal processing technique is proposed to estimate the coefficient of friction using the complex-valued Fourier amplitudes of the measured forces and acceleration. The coefficient of friction is estimated for the mechanical system with different surface roughnesses using two lubricants; these are also compared with similar values for both dry and lubricated cases as reported in the literature. An empirical relationship for the coefficient of friction is suggested based on a prior model under a mixed lubrication regime. Possible sources of errors in the estimation procedure are identified and quantified.

  12. Using a Geophysical Model to Estimate the Static Coefficient of Friction and Cohesion on a Central Portion of the North Anatolian Fault East of the Marmara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, B.; McQuarrie, N.

    2012-12-01

    On August 17th, 1999, a magnitude 7.4 earthquake shook Kocaeli (Izmit), Turkey killing over 17,000 people. The epicenter was 100-km east of Turkey's largest city, Istanbul, along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) system. This 1600-km long, strike-slip boundary divides the Anatolian plate and the Eurasian plate. The NAF slips at an average rate of 2-3-cm/y, and has an estimated earthquake recurrence interval of approximately 300 years. To further understand the NAF system and its dynamics, a simplified 2-D mesh model was developed to evaluate the fault friction coefficient for various low cohesion values along an ~85-km stretch of the NAF system east of the Marmara Sea containing the Mudurnu valley between the cities of Izmit and Bolu (where the NAF splits). The NAF, in the region of interest, exhibits shorter recurrence intervals of 100-150 years over the last four centuries. In this region, two sets of faults within the NAF system converge and then diverge; one set diverges to the NW to bound the northern rim of the Marmara Sea, while the second set continues to the SW along the southern rim of the Marmara Sea. A 100 year seismic record of earthquakes between M3.0 and M9.0 supports the claim that the two sets of strike-slip faults near one another in the center of the region of interest, but do not intersect, thus defining three distinct geology provinces. A representational 2-D mesh separates the study area into three geologic provinces separated by these faults. The mesh was processed using PyLith, a finite element code tectonic deformation software. The PyLith software allows us to assign rock physics parameters of the surface geology, and relative plate motions as velocity boundary conditions. Surface geology was simplified into the three rock types, and rock physics parameters were assigned using general physical parameters for each rock type and extrapolating further data from the Canadian Rock Physics Database. An average value for density and P-wave velocity

  13. Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yoshihiro; Clarke, Daryl D.; Ozeki, Shinichi

    Friction materials such as disk pads, brake linings, and clutch facings are widely used for automotive applications. Friction materials function during braking due to frictional resistance that transforms kinetic energy into thermal energy. There has been a rudimentary evolution, from materials like leather or wood to asbestos fabric or asbestos fabric saturated with various resins such as asphalt or resin combined with pitch. These efforts were further developed by the use of woven asbestos material saturated by either rubber solution or liquid resin binder and functioned as an internal expanding brake, similar to brake lining system. The role of asbestos continued through the use of chopped asbestos saturated by rubber, but none was entirely successful due to the poor rubber heat resistance required for increased speeds and heavy gearing demands of the automobile industry. The use of phenolic resins as binder for asbestos friction materials provided the necessary thermal resistance and performance characteristics. Thus, the utility of asbestos as the main friction component, for over 100 years, has been significantly reduced in friction materials due to asbestos identity as a carcinogen. Steel and other fibrous components have displaced asbestos in disk pads. Currently, non-asbestos organics are the predominate friction material. Phenolic resins continue to be the preferred binder, and increased amounts are necessary to meet the requirements of highly functional asbestos-free disk pads for the automotive industry. With annual automobile production exceeding 70 million vehicles and additional automobile production occurring in developing countries worldwide and increasing yearly, the amount of phenolic resin for friction material is also increasing (Fig. 14.1). Fig. 14.1 Worldwide commercial vehicle production Use of the quartz crystal microbalance to determine the monomeric friction coefficient of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtold, Mary M.

    1995-01-01

    When a thin film of polymer is coated on to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the QCM can be used to detect the rate of increase in weight of the polymer film as the volatile penetrant diffuses into the polymer. From this rate information the diffusion coefficient of the penetrant into the polymer can be computed. Calculations requiring this diffusion coefficient lead to values which approximate the monomeric friction coefficient of the polymer. This project has been concerned with the trial of crystal oscillating circuits suitable for driving polymer coated crystals in an atmosphere of penetrant. For these studies done at room temperature, natural rubber was used as an easily applied polymer that is readily penetrated by toluene vapors, qualities anticipated with polyimides when they are tested at T(g) in the presence of toluene. Three quartz crystal oscillator circuits were tested. The simplest circuit used +/- 5 volt dc and had a transistor to transistor logic (TTL) inverter chip that provides a 180 deg phase shift via a feed back loop. This oscillator circuit was stable but would not drive the crystal when the crystal was coated with polymer and subjected to toluene vapors. Removal of a variable resistor from this circuit increased stability but did not otherwise increase performance. Another driver circuit tested contained a two stage differential input, differential output, wide band video amplifier and also contain a feed back loop. The circuit voltage could not be varied and operated at +/- 5 volts dc; this circuit was also stable but failed to oscillate the polymer coated crystal in an atmosphere saturated with toluene vapors. The third oscillator circuit was of similar construction and relied on the same video amplifier but allowed operation with variable voltage. This circuit would drive the crystal when the crystal was submerged in liquid toluene and when the crystal was coated with polymer and immersed in toluene vapors. The frequency readings

  14. Efficiencies and coefficients of performance of heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps with friction: a universal limiting behavior.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, João P S; Rodrigues, Paulo

    2012-11-01

    For work-producing heat engines, or work-consuming refrigerators and heat pumps, the percentage decrease caused by friction in their efficiencies, or coefficients of performance (COP's), is approximately given by the ratio W(fric)/W between the work spent against friction forces and the work performed by, or delivered to, the working fluid. This universal scaling, which applies in the limit of small friction (W(fric)/W friction losses can have on the FOM's of thermal engines and plants, or of the level of those losses from the observed and predicted FOM's. In the case of refrigerators and heat pumps, if W(fric)/W friction approaches asymptotically (W(fric)/W)/(1+W(fric)/W) instead of W(fric)/W. Estimates for the level of frictional losses using the Carnot (or, for heat engines and power plants only, the Curzon-Ahlborn) predictions and observed FOM's of real power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps show that they usually operate in domains where these behaviors are valid. PMID:23214740

  15. Efficiencies and coefficients of performance of heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps with friction: a universal limiting behavior.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, João P S; Rodrigues, Paulo

    2012-11-01

    For work-producing heat engines, or work-consuming refrigerators and heat pumps, the percentage decrease caused by friction in their efficiencies, or coefficients of performance (COP's), is approximately given by the ratio W(fric)/W between the work spent against friction forces and the work performed by, or delivered to, the working fluid. This universal scaling, which applies in the limit of small friction (W(fric)/W friction losses can have on the FOM's of thermal engines and plants, or of the level of those losses from the observed and predicted FOM's. In the case of refrigerators and heat pumps, if W(fric)/W friction approaches asymptotically (W(fric)/W)/(1+W(fric)/W) instead of W(fric)/W. Estimates for the level of frictional losses using the Carnot (or, for heat engines and power plants only, the Curzon-Ahlborn) predictions and observed FOM's of real power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps show that they usually operate in domains where these behaviors are valid.

  16. Correlation of subjective slipperiness judgements with quantitative COF (Coefficient Of Friction) measurements for structural steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purswell, Jerry L.; Schlegel, Robert E.

    1988-06-01

    When there is no simple or accurate procedure for measuring the coefficient of friction (COF) at a job site, workers and/or supervisors involved must make subjective judgments about the slipperiness of the walking and climbing surfaces and in turn decide whether the surface presents a safe or an unsafe condition for work. This project was designed to determine whether these subjective judgment calls did in fact agree with the COF measurements obtained using a mechanical device. It was noted that the coatings chosen for study were subject to a polishing factor by the boot soles during the trials, causing the COF values to become lower as the trials continued. Poor correlation was obtained between subjective ratings of slipperiness and the COF values measured before the trials began. A relatively high correlation was obtained between subjective ratings and the COF values measured after the trials had been completed. A difference was noted in the subjective ratings for the effects of water on a coating for column climbing, but not for walking a beam, suggesting the effects of water on a coating are related to the type of task being performed in steel erection. An increase in the measured COF was noted for all of the coatings when they were wet as compared to the dry condition. The importance of clean shoe soles was clearly demonstrated.

  17. Micromachined strain gauges for the determination of liquid flow friction coefficients in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baviere, R.; Ayela, F.

    2004-02-01

    In this research program, we have performed and tested cupro-nickel (Cu-Ni) strain gauges micromachined on different sorts of silicon nitride (Si3N4) membranes. The design of the gauges obeys an electrical Wheatstone bridge configuration. We have found a good agreement between the expected electromechanical response of the bridge and the experimental signals. The results have displayed sensitivity to static pressure ranging from 50 to 100 µV V-1 bar-1 as a function of the thickness and of the diameter of the membranes. This is part of a study devoted to determining liquid flow friction coefficients in silicon-Pyrex microchannels. Preliminary attempts (Reynolds number up to 300) made using global pressure measurements and with very simple local pressure probes are discussed. Further experiments using Cu-Ni strain gauges are described. Their micromachining, characterization and integration along silicon microchannels are presented. These sensors permitted us to perform the first local and reliable pressure drop measurements in a 7.5 µm deep microchannel. The results are in good agreement with the classical laminar theory for a Reynolds number ranging from 0.2 to 3.

  18. Interaction of wrestling shoe and competition surface: effects on coefficient of friction with implications for injury.

    PubMed

    Newton, Robert; Doan, Brandon; Meese, Michael; Conroy, Brian; Black, Kevin; Sebstianelli, Wayne; Kramer, William

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference in the co-efficient of friction (Fc) between old versus new wrestling shoes and mats and to investigate the effect of perspiration. Fc was measured by dragging a weighted shoe over a wrestling mat surface and measuring the vertical and horizontal forces produced. Three different shoe conditions were assessed over two mat types for both wet and dry conditions for a total of 12 conditions. To simulate the wet condition, saline solution was smeared over the surface of the mat. There was a significant effect of shoe, mat, and wet/dry conditions. In addition, significant interactions of shoe by mat, shoe by dry/wet, and mat by dry/wet were observed. Overall, Fc was 36% higher for the new wrestling mat compared to the old wrestling mat. Application of the saline solution reduced Fc by 14% compared to the dry condition. Comparison of the mean Fc for all three shoe types revealed the Fc for the older design shoe was 23% to 28% lower than the brand new shoe and the worn newer design, respectively. A high Fc, such as in the new mat/new shoe combination, has the potential to increase the risk of knee and ankle injuries by fixing the foot more securely to the ground. PMID:14658373

  19. Laser texturing of Hastelloy C276 alloy surface for improved hydrophobicity and friction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.

    2016-03-01

    Laser treatment of Hastelloy C276 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas environment. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools including, scanning electron and atomic force microscopes, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Microhardness is measured and the residual stress formed in the laser treated surface is determined from the X-ray data. The hydrophibicity of the laser treated surface is assessed using the sessile drop method. Friction coefficient of the laser treated layer is obtained incorporating the micro-tribometer. It is found that closely spaced laser canning tracks create a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer and lowers the thermal stress levels through modifying the cooling rates at the surface. A dense structure, consisting of fine size grains, enhances the microhardness of the surface. The residual stress formed at the surface is compressive and it is in the order of -800 MPa. Laser treatment improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly because of the formation of surface texture composing of micro/nano-pillars.

  1. Correlation equations for average deposition rate coefficients of nanoparticles in a cylindrical pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetha, N.; Majid Hassanizadeh, S.; Mohan Kumar, M. S.; Raoof, Amir

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticle deposition behavior observed at the Darcy scale represents an average of the processes occurring at the pore scale. Hence, the effect of various pore-scale parameters on nanoparticle deposition can be understood by studying nanoparticle transport at pore scale and upscaling the results to the Darcy scale. In this work, correlation equations for the deposition rate coefficients of nanoparticles in a cylindrical pore are developed as a function of nine pore-scale parameters: the pore radius, nanoparticle radius, mean flow velocity, solution ionic strength, viscosity, temperature, solution dielectric constant, and nanoparticle and collector surface potentials. Based on dominant processes, the pore space is divided into three different regions, namely, bulk, diffusion, and potential regions. Advection-diffusion equations for nanoparticle transport are prescribed for the bulk and diffusion regions, while the interaction between the diffusion and potential regions is included as a boundary condition. This interaction is modeled as a first-order reversible kinetic adsorption. The expressions for the mass transfer rate coefficients between the diffusion and the potential regions are derived in terms of the interaction energy profile. Among other effects, we account for nanoparticle-collector interaction forces on nanoparticle deposition. The resulting equations are solved numerically for a range of values of pore-scale parameters. The nanoparticle concentration profile obtained for the cylindrical pore is averaged over a moving averaging volume within the pore in order to get the 1-D concentration field. The latter is fitted to the 1-D advection-dispersion equation with an equilibrium or kinetic adsorption model to determine the values of the average deposition rate coefficients. In this study, pore-scale simulations are performed for three values of Péclet number, Pe = 0.05, 5, and 50. We find that under unfavorable conditions, the nanoparticle deposition at

  2. A Method to Estimate Friction Coefficient from Orientation Distribution of Meso-scale Faults: Applications to Faults in Forearc Sediment and Underplated Tectonic Mélange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.

    2015-12-01

    Friction coefficients along faults control the brittle strength of the earth's upper crust, although it is difficult to estimate them especially of ancient geological faults. Several previous studies tried to determine the friction coefficient of meso-scale faults from their orientation distribution as follows. Fault-slip analysis through stress tensor inversion techniques gives principal stress axes and a stress ratio, which allows us to draw a normalized Mohr's circle. Assuming that a faulting occurs when the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on it, i.e., the slip tendency, exceeds the friction coefficient, one can find a linear boundary of distribution of points corresponding to faults on Mohr diagram. The slope of the boundary (friction envelope) provides the friction coefficient. This method has a difficulty in graphically and manually recognizing the linear boundary of distribution on the Mohr diagram. This study automated the determination of friction coefficient by considering the fluctuations of fluid pressure and differential stress. These unknown factors are expected to make difference in density of points representing faults on the Mohr diagram. Since the density is controlled by the friction coefficient, we can optimize the friction coefficient so as to explain the density distribution. The method was applied to two examples of natural meso-scale faults. The first example is from the Pleistocene Kazusa Group, central Japan, which filled a forearc basin of the Sagami Trough. Stress inversion analysis showed WNW-ENE trending tensional stress with a low stress ratio. The friction coefficient was determined to be around 0.66, which is typical value for sandstone. The Second example is from an underplated tectonic mélange in the Cretaceous to Paleogene Shimanto accretionary complex in southwest Japan along the Nankai Trough. The stress condition was determined to be an axial compression perpendicular to the foliation of shale matrix. The friction

  3. A parameterization of eddy transfer coefficients for two-level seasonal statistical dynamical zonally averaged models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines a parameterization of a quasi-geostrophic eddy transport that takes into account the time variation of eddy transfer coefficients according to Green's (1970) theory. It was found that, in the original eddy transfer relationship of Green, connecting the integral of the northward eddy entropy flux through midlatitudes with the second power of the difference in 500-mb entropy across the region of baroclinic activity, a value of 4 for the exponent is obtained when the temperature gradients at 500 mb are used. When the gradients at 1000 mb are used, an exponent of 1.5 is obtained. The differences in the powers in the eddy transfer relation were explored in a two-level zonally averaged model. It was found that an appropriate choice of power may be of special importance if the model is devised to simulate the seasonal climate cycle or to test astronomical changes inducing different seasonalities.

  4. Physical properties of elongated magnetic particles: magnetization and friction coefficient anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Vereda, Fernando; de Vicente, Juan; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2009-06-01

    Anisotropy counts: A brief review of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs) is presented. The most important characteristic of an EMP is the additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle, when compared to spherical magnetic particles. The electron micrograph shows Ni-ferrite microrods fabricated by the authors.We present an overview of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs), including some of their more relevant properties in suspension. When compared to a spherical magnetic particle, the most important characteristic of an EMP is an additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle. Increasing aspect ratios also lead to an increase in both the critical single-domain size of a magnetic particle and its resistance to thermally activated spontaneous reversal of the magnetization. For single-domain EMPs, magnetization reversal occurs primarily by one of two modes, coherent rotation or curling, the latter being facilitated by larger aspect ratios. When EMPs are used to prepare colloidal suspensions, other physical properties come into play, such as their anisotropic friction coefficient and the consequent enhanced torque they experience in a shear flow, their tendency to align in the direction of an external field, to form less dense sediments and to entangle into more intricate aggregates. From a more practical point of view, EMPs are discussed in connection with two interesting types of magnetic colloids: magnetorheological fluids and suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia. Advances reported in the literature regarding the use of EMPs in these two systems are included. In the final section, we present a summary of the most relevant methods documented in the literature for the fabrication of EMPs, together with a list of the most common ferromagnetic materials that have been synthesized in the form of EMPs. PMID:19434654

  5. Physical properties of elongated magnetic particles: magnetization and friction coefficient anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Vereda, Fernando; de Vicente, Juan; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque

    2009-06-01

    Anisotropy counts: A brief review of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs) is presented. The most important characteristic of an EMP is the additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle, when compared to spherical magnetic particles. The electron micrograph shows Ni-ferrite microrods fabricated by the authors.We present an overview of the main physical properties of elongated magnetic particles (EMPs), including some of their more relevant properties in suspension. When compared to a spherical magnetic particle, the most important characteristic of an EMP is an additional contribution of shape anisotropy to the total anisotropy energy of the particle. Increasing aspect ratios also lead to an increase in both the critical single-domain size of a magnetic particle and its resistance to thermally activated spontaneous reversal of the magnetization. For single-domain EMPs, magnetization reversal occurs primarily by one of two modes, coherent rotation or curling, the latter being facilitated by larger aspect ratios. When EMPs are used to prepare colloidal suspensions, other physical properties come into play, such as their anisotropic friction coefficient and the consequent enhanced torque they experience in a shear flow, their tendency to align in the direction of an external field, to form less dense sediments and to entangle into more intricate aggregates. From a more practical point of view, EMPs are discussed in connection with two interesting types of magnetic colloids: magnetorheological fluids and suspensions for magnetic hyperthermia. Advances reported in the literature regarding the use of EMPs in these two systems are included. In the final section, we present a summary of the most relevant methods documented in the literature for the fabrication of EMPs, together with a list of the most common ferromagnetic materials that have been synthesized in the form of EMPs.

  6. Determination of oral mucosal Poisson's ratio and coefficient of friction from in-vivo contact pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Suenaga, Hanako; Hogg, Michael; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Despite their considerable importance to biomechanics, there are no existing methods available to directly measure apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient of oral mucosa. This study aimed to develop an inverse procedure to determine these two biomechanical parameters by utilizing in vivo experiment of contact pressure between partial denture and beneath mucosa through nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis and surrogate response surface (RS) modelling technique. First, the in vivo denture-mucosa contact pressure was measured by a tactile electronic sensing sheet. Second, a 3D FE model was constructed based on the patient CT images. Third, a range of apparent Poisson's ratios and the coefficients of friction from literature was considered as the design variables in a series of FE runs for constructing a RS surrogate model. Finally, the discrepancy between computed in silico and measured in vivo results was minimized to identify the best matching Poisson's ratio and coefficient of friction. The established non-invasive methodology was demonstrated effective to identify such biomechanical parameters of oral mucosa and can be potentially used for determining the biomaterial properties of other soft biological tissues.

  7. Vibrationally Averaged Long-Range Molecule-Molecule Dispersion Coefficients from Coupled-Cluster Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Matthew; Nooijen, Marcel

    2011-06-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in the structure and dynamics of molecular clusters formed when a chromophore molecule such as CO_2, OCS or N_2O is solvated by number of He atoms and/or para-H_2 molecules. A key experimental probe of their behaviour is the shift of a chromophore's vibrational transition frequency which occurs when the solvent species are attached to it. Such shifts are driven by the changes in the solvent-chromophore interaction potential upon vibrational excitation of the probe molecule. While `conventional' supermolecule calculations can often provide realistic predictions of such changes in the potential well and repulsive wall region, they become increasingly unreliable for describing the weak interactions at long range where most of the solvent species in a large cluster are located. It is therefore important to have accurate relative-orientation and monomer-stretching dependent long-range C_6, C_8 and C10 dispersion coefficients to incorporate into the models for the interaction potential and for its dependence on the chromophore's vibrational state. This paper describes how those coefficients can be obtained from calculated monomer dipole, quadrupole, and octupole polarizabilities for imaginary frequencies, and by making use of the Casimir-Polder relation and angular momentum coupling to extract orientation-dependent quantities. The calculations are performed using a modified version of the ACES2 program system which allows the calculation of dipole, quadrupole and octupole polarizabilities at the EOM-CCSD level, and of static multipole moments using CCSD(T) calculations and adequate basis sets. For each relevant level of the chromophore, vibrational averaging is performed by calculating the imaginary frequency polarizabilities at judiciously chosen geometries and performing a numerical integration using the free-molecule vibrational wavefunction. Subsequent work will involve merging this long-range part of the potential with a

  8. Impact of higher-order flows in the moment equations on Pfirsch-Schlüter friction coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, M.

    2014-09-15

    The impact of the higher-order flows in the moment approach on an estimate of the friction coefficients is numerically examined. The higher-order flows are described by the lower-order hydrodynamic flows using the collisional plasma assumption. Their effects have not been consistently taken into account thus far in the widely used neoclassical transport codes based on the moment equations in terms of the Pfirsch-Schlüter flux. Due to numerically solving the friction-flow matrix without using the small-mass ratio expansion, it is clearly revealed that incorporating the higher-order flow effects is of importance especially for plasmas including multiple hydrogenic ions and other lighter species with similar masses.

  9. A STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES OF CP: COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION, DECOMPOSITION KINETICS AND REACTION TO SPARK, FRICTION AND IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K; Fontes, A T

    2005-03-30

    The properties of pentaamine (5-cyano-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (CP), which was first synthesized in 1968, continues to be of interest for predicting behavior in handling, shipping, aging, and thermal cook-off situations. We report coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values over four specific temperature ranges, decomposition kinetics using linear heating rates, and the reaction to three different types of stimuli: impact, spark, and friction. The CTE was measured using a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA) for samples that were uniaxially compressed at 10,000 psi and analyzed over a dynamic temperature range of -20 C to 70 C. Using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, CP was decomposed at linear heating rates of 1, 3, and 7 C/min and the kinetic triplet calculated using the LLNL code Kinetics05. Values are also reported for spark, friction, and impact sensitivity.

  10. Statistics of Frictional Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tianqi; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; O'Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.

    2014-09-01

    We develop a theoretical description for mechanically stable frictional packings in terms of the difference between the total number of contacts required for isostatic packings of frictionless disks and the number of contacts in frictional packings, m=Nc0-Nc. The saddle order m represents the number of unconstrained degrees of freedom that a static packing would possess if friction were removed. Using a novel numerical method that allows us to enumerate disk packings for each m, we show that the probability to obtain a packing with saddle order m at a given static friction coefficient μ, Pm(μ), can be expressed as a power series in μ. Using this form for Pm(μ), we quantitatively describe the dependence of the average contact number on the friction coefficient for static disk packings obtained from direct simulations of the Cundall-Strack model for all μ and N.

  11. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  12. An Inequality between the Weighted Average and the Rowwise Correlation Coefficient for Proximity Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krijnen, Wim P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess association between rows of proximity matrices, H. de Vries (1993) introduces weighted average and row-wise average variants for Pearson's product-moment correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and Kendall's rank correlation. For all three, the absolute value of the first variant is greater than or equal to the second. (SLD)

  13. The Small-Mass Limit for Langevin Dynamics with Unbounded Coefficients and Positive Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, David P.; Hottovy, Scott; Volpe, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    A class of Langevin stochastic differential equations is shown to converge in the small-mass limit under very weak assumptions on the coefficients defining the equation. The convergence result is applied to three physically realizable examples where the coefficients defining the Langevin equation for these examples grow unboundedly either at a boundary, such as a wall, and/or at the point at infinity. This unboundedness violates the assumptions of previous limit theorems in the literature. The main result of this paper proves convergence for such examples.

  14. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  15. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait. PMID:25959329

  16. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait.

  17. Integrated optimal dynamics control of 4WD4WS electric ground vehicle with tire-road frictional coefficient estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongrong; Hu, Chuan; Wang, Zejiang; Yan, Fengjun; Chen, Nan

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an integrated optimal dynamics control of four-wheel driving and four-wheel steering (4WD4WS) electric ground vehicles via hierarchical control methodology. In the higher-level design, an LQR controller is proposed to obtain the integrated lateral force and yaw moment, according to their respective reference values. The lower-level controller is designed to ensure all the tires work in the stable region while realizing the tracking control of the vehicle dynamics. The tire-road friction coefficient is estimated through the integrated longitudinal force and lateral force, respectively, using a brush tire model. To reduce the estimation error, a novel data fusion function is employed to generate the final estimation value. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control and estimation strategies is validated via CarSim-Simulink joint simulation.

  18. Tire-road friction coefficient estimation based on the resonance frequency of in-wheel motor drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Bian, Mingyuan; Luo, Yugong; Qin, Zhaobo; Li, Keqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a resonance frequency-based tire-road friction coefficient (TRFC) estimation method is proposed by considering the dynamics performance of the in-wheel motor drive system under small slip ratio conditions. A frequency response function (FRF) is deduced for the drive system that is composed of a dynamic tire model and a simplified motor model. A linear relationship between the squared system resonance frequency and the TFRC is described with the FRF. Furthermore, the resonance frequency is identified by the Auto-Regressive eXogenous model using the information of the motor torque and the wheel speed, and the TRFC is estimated thereafter by a recursive least squares filter with the identified resonance frequency. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through simulations and experimental tests on different road surfaces.

  19. Influence of pellet shape on the external coefficient of friction of polypropylene and on the mass flow rate of a single screw extruder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Zitzenbacher, G.; Laengauer, M.; Kneidinger, C.

    2014-05-01

    The influence of the pellet shape on the external coefficient of friction of polypropylene and on the mass flow rate of a single screw extruder is presented in this conference paper. The external coefficient of friction describes the friction between the polymeric bulk material and the screw or the barrel surface. In general, the external coefficient of friction should be rather low at the screw surface and high at the barrel surface in order to achieve a high mass flow rate and sufficient pressure build-up in the conveying zone of a single screw extruder. The measurements of the external coefficient of friction of polypropylene pellets, which are dependent on the shape and the dimensions of the pellets at processing conditions (pressure and velocity), are carried out using a previously developed tribometer. The tests were performed at room temperature on a polished hardened shaft made of screw steel. The effect of the shape of the polypropylene pellets on the mass flow rate is studied using a single screw extruder (Measuring extruder type Dr. Collin E20M). Two different temperature profiles were used for the extrusion experiments. When using the long cylindrical polypropylene pellets a higher extruder output can be achieved compared to the virgin material.

  20. Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes near Parkfield, California Indicates a High Coefficient of Friction on the Shallow San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorey, A. A.; Johnson, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Investigators have searched for evidence of tidal triggering of earthquakes for decades because triggering behavior provides potentially valuable information about the stress conditions on faults and how earthquake nucleate. Earth tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon which induce periodic stresses with two important components related to the rotation of the Earth relative to the sun and moon (semi-diurnal 12 and ~12.4 hours) and the orbit of the moon around the Earth (fortnightly, ~14.7 days). Semi-diurnal tidal stresses have previously been shown to trigger low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) and non-volcanic tremors (NVTs) on the San Andreas Fault. LFEs and NVTs occur within the brittle-ductile transition of the Earth's crust, deeper than where regular earthquakes occur. Here we show that tidal stresses trigger earthquakes in the brittle upper crust, which is caused by and detectable due to interactions between the semi-diurnal and fortnightly stress cycles. The triggering of LFEs and NVTs are correlated with tidal shear stresses indicating a low coefficient of friction on the deep San Andreas Fault. In contrast, we find that regular earthquakes are correlated with tidal normal stresses indicating a high coefficient of friction in the shallow San Andreas Fault. That earthquakes are triggered during peak normal (extensional) tidal stresses suggests that pore pressures are below lithostatic pressure in the upper crust. These findings suggests tidal triggering can be applied to infer crustal stress state and pore pressure conditions, two properties of faults that are difficult to measure but are important for understanding earthquake physics and seismic hazards.

  1. Analysis of the estimators of the average coefficient of dominance of deleterious mutations.

    PubMed

    Fernández, B; García-Dorado, A; Caballero, A

    2004-10-01

    We investigate the sources of bias that affect the most commonly used methods of estimation of the average degree of dominance (h) of deleterious mutations, focusing on estimates from segregating populations. The main emphasis is on the effect of the finite size of the populations, but other sources of bias are also considered. Using diffusion approximations to the distribution of gene frequencies in finite populations as well as stochastic simulations, we assess the behavior of the estimators obtained from populations at mutation-selection-drift balance under different mutational scenarios and compare averages of h for newly arisen and segregating mutations. Because of genetic drift, the inferences concerning newly arisen mutations based on the mutation-selection balance theory can have substantial upward bias depending upon the distribution of h. In addition, estimates usually refer to h weighted by the homozygous deleterious effect in different ways, so that inferences are complicated when these two variables are negatively correlated. Due to both sources of bias, the widely used regression of heterozygous on homozygous means underestimates the arithmetic mean of h for segregating mutations, in contrast to their repeatedly assumed equality in the literature. We conclude that none of the estimators from segregating populations provides, under general conditions, a useful tool to ascertain the properties of the degree of dominance, either for segregating or for newly arisen deleterious mutations. Direct estimates of the average h from mutation-accumulation experiments are shown to suffer some bias caused by purging selection but, because they do not require assumptions on the causes maintaining segregating variation, they appear to give a more reliable average dominance for newly arisen mutations.

  2. Investigation of the Maximum Spin-Up Coefficients of Friction Obtained During Tests of a Landing Gear Having a Static-Load Rating of 20,000 Pounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, Sidney A.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made at the Langley landing loads track to obtain data on the maximum spin-up coefficients of friction developed by a landing gear having a static-load rating of 20,000 pounds. The forward speeds ranged from 0 to approximately 180 feet per second and the sinking speeds, from 2.7 feet per second to 9.4 feet per second. The results indicated the variation of the maximum spin-up coefficient of friction with forward speed and vertical load. Data obtained during this investigation are also compared with some results previously obtained for nonrolling tires to show the effect of forward speed.

  3. Experimental determination of average turbulent heat transfer and friction factor in stator internal rib-roughened cooling channels.

    PubMed

    Battisti, L; Baggio, P

    2001-05-01

    In gas turbine cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to the hot stream are based on the increase of the inner heat transfer areas and on the promotion of the turbulence of the cooling flow. This is currently obtained by casting periodic ribs on one or more sides of the serpentine passages into the core of the blade. Fluid dynamic and thermal behaviour of the cooling flow have been extensively investigated by means of experimental facilities and many papers dealing with this subject have appeared in the latest years. The evaluation of the average value of the heat transfer coefficient most of the time is inferred from local measurements obtained by various experimental techniques. Moreover the great majority of these studies are not concerned with the overall average heat transfer coefficient for the combined ribs and region between them, but do focus just on one of them. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the average Nusselt number inside a straight ribbed duct. Series of measurements have been performed in steady state eliminating the error sources inherently connected with transient methods. A low speed wind tunnel, operating in steady state flow, has been built to simulate the actual flow condition occurring in a rectilinear blade cooling channel. A straight square channel with 20 transverse ribs on two sides has been tested for Re of about 3 x 10(4), 4.5 x 10(4) and 6 x 10(4). The ribbed wall test section is electrically heated and the heat removed by a stationary flow of known thermal and fluid dynamic characteristics.

  4. Relationship between the Averaged Deposition Rate Coefficients for Colloids in a Single Pore and Various Pore-scale Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, S.; Mohan Kumar, M.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Raoof, A.

    2014-12-01

    The colloid deposition behavior observed at the Darcy scale represents an average of the processes occurring at the pore scale. Hence, a better understanding of the processes occurring at the Darcy scale can be obtained by studying colloid transport at the pore-scale and then upscaling the results. In this study, we have developed a mathematical model to simulate the transport of colloids in a cylindrical pore by considering various processes such as advection, diffusion, colloid-soil surface interactions and hydrodynamic wall effects. The pore space is divided into three different regions, namely, the bulk, diffusion and potential regions, based on the dominant processes acting in each of these regions. In the bulk region, colloid transport is governed by advection and diffusion; whereas in the diffusion region, colloid mobility due to diffusion is retarded by hydrodynamic wall effects. Colloid-solid interaction forces dominate the transport in the potential region where colloid deposition occurs and are calculated using DLVO theory. The expressions for mass transfer rate coefficients between the diffusion and potential regions have been derived for different DLVO energy profiles. These are incorporated in the pore-scale equations in the form of a boundary condition at the diffusion-potential region interface. The model results are used to obtain the colloid breakthrough curve at the end of a long pore, and then it is fitted with 1D advection-dispersion-adsorption model so as to determine the averaged attachment and detachment rate coefficients at the scale of a single pore. A sensitivity analysis of the model to six pore-scale parameters (colloid and wall surface potentials, solution ionic strength, average pore-water velocity, colloid radius, and pore radius) is carried out so as to find the relation between the averaged deposition rate coefficients at pore scale vs the pore-scale parameters. We found an hyper exponential relation between the colloid attachment

  5. A vehicle ABS adaptive sliding-mode control algorithm based on the vehicle velocity estimation and tyre/road friction coefficient estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangwen; Xu, Yong; Pan, Ming; Ren, Fenghua

    2014-04-01

    A sliding-mode observer is designed to estimate the vehicle velocity with the measured vehicle acceleration, the wheel speeds and the braking torques. Based on the Burckhardt tyre model, the extended Kalman filter is designed to estimate the parameters of the Burckhardt model with the estimated vehicle velocity, the measured wheel speeds and the vehicle acceleration. According to the estimated parameters of the Burckhardt tyre model, the tyre/road friction coefficients and the optimal slip ratios are calculated. A vehicle adaptive sliding-mode control (SMC) algorithm is presented with the estimated vehicle velocity, the tyre/road friction coefficients and the optimal slip ratios. And the adjustment method of the sliding-mode gain factors is discussed. Based on the adaptive SMC algorithm, a vehicle's antilock braking system (ABS) control system model is built with the Simulink Toolbox. Under the single-road condition as well as the different road conditions, the performance of the vehicle ABS system is simulated with the vehicle velocity observer, the tyre/road friction coefficient estimator and the adaptive SMC algorithm. The results indicate that the estimated errors of the vehicle velocity and the tyre/road friction coefficients are acceptable and the vehicle ABS adaptive SMC algorithm is effective. So the proposed adaptive SMC algorithm can be used to control the vehicle ABS without the information of the vehicle velocity and the road conditions.

  6. Assuming exponential decay by incorporating viscous damping improves the prediction of the coefficient of friction in pendulum tests of whole articular joints.

    PubMed

    Crisco, J J; Blume, J; Teeple, E; Fleming, B C; Jay, G D

    2007-04-01

    A pendulum test with a whole articular joint serving as the fulcrum is commonly used to measure the bulk coefficient of friction (COF). In such tests it is universally assumed that energy loss is due to frictional damping only, and accordingly the decay of pendulum amplitude is linear with time. The purpose of this work was to determine whether the measurement of the COF is improved when viscous damping and exponential decay of pendulum amplitude are incorporated into a lumped-parameter model. Various pendulum models with a range of values for COF and for viscous damping were constructed. The resulting decay was fitted with an exponential function (including both frictional and viscous damping) and with a linear decay function (frictional damping only). The values predicted from the fit of each function were then compared to the known values. It was found that the exponential decay function was able to predict the COF values within 2 per cent error. This error increased for models in which the damping coefficient was relatively small and the COF was relatively large. On the other hand, the linear decay function resulted in large errors in the prediction of the COF, even for small values of viscous damping. The exponential decay function including both frictional and constant viscous damping presented herein dramatically increased the accuracy of measuring the COF in a pendulum test of modelled whole articular joints. PMID:17539587

  7. Analytical solutions for the coefficient of variation of the volume-averaged solute concentration in heterogeneous aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabala, Z. J.

    1997-08-01

    Under the assumption that local solute dispersion is negligible, a new general formula (in the form of a convolution integral) is found for the arbitrary k-point ensemble moment of the local concentration of a solute convected in arbitrary m spatial dimensions with general sure initial conditions. From this general formula new closed-form solutions in m=2 spatial dimensions are derived for 2-point ensemble moments of the local solute concentration for the impulse (Dirac delta) and Gaussian initial conditions. When integrated over an averaging window, these solutions lead to new closed-form expressions for the first two ensemble moments of the volume-averaged solute concentration and to the corresponding concentration coefficients of variation (CV). Also, for the impulse (Dirac delta) solute concentration initial condition, the second ensemble moment of the solute point concentration in two spatial dimensions and the corresponding CV are demonstrated to be unbound. For impulse initial conditions the CVs for volume-averaged concentrations axe compared with each other for a tracer from the Borden aquifer experiment. The point-concentration CV is unacceptably large in the whole domain, implying that the ensemble mean concentration is inappropriate for predicting the actual concentration values. The volume-averaged concentration CV decreases significantly with an increasing averaging volume. Since local dispersion is neglected, the new solutions should be interpreted as upper limits for the yet to be derived solutions that account for local dispersion; and so should the presented CVs for Borden tracers. The new analytical solutions may be used to test the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations or other numerical algorithms that deal with the stochastic solute transport. They may also be used to determine the size of the averaging volume needed to make a quasi-sure statement about the solute mass contained in it.

  8. Numerical study on spatially varying bottom friction coefficient of a 2D tidal model with adjoint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xianqing; Zhang, Jicai

    2006-10-01

    Based on the simulation of M2 tide in the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data are assimilated into a 2D tidal model to study the spatially varying bottom friction coefficient (BFC) by using the adjoint method. In this study, the BFC at some grid points are selected as the independent BFC, while the BFC at other grid points can be obtained through linear interpolation with the independent BFC. Two strategies for selecting the independent BFC are discussed. In the first strategy, one independent BFC is uniformly selected from each 1°×1° area. In the second one, the independent BFC are selected based on the spatial distribution of water depth. Twin and practical experiments are carried out to compare the two strategies. In the twin experiments, the adjoint method has a strong ability of inverting the prescribed BFC distributions combined with the spatially varying BFC. In the practical experiments, reasonable simulation results can be obtained by optimizing the spatially varying independent BFC. In both twin and practical experiments, the simulation results with the second strategy are better than those with the first one. The BFC distribution obtained from the practical experiment indicates that the BFC in shallow water are larger than those in deep water in the Bohai Sea, the North Yellow Sea, the South Yellow Sea and the East China Sea individually. However, the BFC in the East China Sea are larger than those in the other areas perhaps because of the large difference of water depth or bottom roughness. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the model results are more sensitive to the independent BFC near the land.

  9. Coefficients of Friction, Lubricin, and Cartilage Damage in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Guinea Pig Knee

    PubMed Central

    Teeple, Erin; Elsaid, Khaled A.; Fleming, Braden C.; Jay, Gregory D.; Aslani, Koosha; Crisco, Joseph J.; Mechrefe, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    The coefficient of friction (COF) of articular cartilage is thought to increase with osteoarthritis (OA) progression, and this increase may occur due to a decrease in lubricin concentration. The objectives of this study were to measure the COF of guinea pig tibiofemoral joints with different stages of OA, and to establish relationships between COF, lubricin concentrations in synovial fluid, and degradation status using the Hartley guinea pig model. Both hind limbs from 24 animals were harvested: seven 3-month-old (no OA), seven 12-month-old (mild OA), and ten that were euthanized at 12-months of age after undergoing unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection at 3-months of age (moderate OA). Contralateral knees served as age matched controls. COFs of the tibiofemoral joints were measured using a pendulum apparatus. Synovial fluid lavages were analyzed to determine the concentration and integrity of lubricin using ELISA and western blot, and the overall articular cartilage status was evaluated by histology. The results showed that the mean COF in the ACL-deficient knees was significantly greater than that of the 3-month knees (p<0.01) and the 12-month knees (p<0.01). Lubricin concentrations in the ACL-deficient knees were significantly lower than that of the 3-month knees (p<0.01) and 12-month knees (p<0.01). No significant differences in COF or lubricin concentration were found between the 3-month and the 12-month knees. Histology verified the extent of cartilage damage in each group. Conclusion COF values increased and lubricin levels decreased with cartilage damage following ACL transection. PMID:17868097

  10. Calculation of skin-friction coefficients for low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer flows. M.S. Thesis - California Univ. at Davis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, P. K.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the reliability of various generally accepted empirical expressions for the prediction of the skin-friction coefficient C/sub f/ of turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers in zero-pressure-gradient flows on a smooth flat plate. The skin-friction coefficients predicted from these expressions were compared to the skin-friction coefficients of experimental profiles that were determined from a graphical method formulated from the law of the wall. These expressions are found to predict values that are consistently different than those obtained from the graphical method over the range 600 Re/sub theta 2000. A curve-fitted empirical relationship was developed from the present data and yields a better estimated value of C/sub f/ in this range. The data, covering the range 200 Re/sub theta 7000, provide insight into the nature of transitional flows. They show that fully developed turbulent boundary layers occur at Reynolds numbers Re/sub theta/ down to 425. Below this level there appears to be a well-ordered evolutionary process from the laminar to the turbulent profiles. These profiles clearly display the development of the turbulent core region and the shrinking of the laminar sublayer with increasing values of Re/sub theta/.

  11. Charts Adapted from Van Driest's Turbulent Flat-plate Theory for Determining Values of Turbulent Aerodynamic Friction and Heat-transfer Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dorothy B; Faget, Maxime A

    1956-01-01

    A modified method of Van Driest's flat-plate theory for turbulent boundary layer has been found to simplify the calculation of local skin-friction coefficients which, in turn, have made it possible to obtain through Reynolds analogy theoretical turbulent heat-transfer coefficients in the form of Stanton number. A general formula is given and charts are presented from which the modified method can be solved for Mach numbers 1.0 to 12.0, temperature ratios 0.2 to 6.0, and Reynolds numbers 0.2 times 10 to the 6th power to 200 times 10 to the 6th power.

  12. Experimental assessment of blade tip immersion depth from free surface on average power and thrust coefficients of marine current turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lust, Ethan; Flack, Karen; Luznik, Luksa

    2014-11-01

    Results from an experimental study on the effects of marine current turbine immersion depth from the free surface are presented. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D = 0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy. Thrust and torque are measured using a dynamometer, mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using a shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Two optical wave height sensors are used to measure the free surface elevation. The turbine is towed at 1.68 m/s, resulting in a 70% chord based Rec = 4 × 105. An Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) is installed one turbine diameter upstream of the turbine rotation plane to characterize the inflow turbulence. Measurements are obtained at four relative blade tip immersion depths of z/D = 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, and 0.2 at a TSR value of 7 to identify the depth where free surface effects impact overall turbine performance. The overall average power and thrust coefficient are presented and compared to previously conducted baseline tests. The influence of wake expansion blockage on the turbine performance due to presence of the free surface at these immersion depths will also be discussed.

  13. Effect of spectral time-lag correlation coefficient and signal averaging on airborne CO2 DIAL measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-David, Avishai; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Gotoff, Steven W.; D'Amico, Francis M.

    1997-10-01

    The effects of flight geometry, signal averaging and time- lag correlation coefficient on airborne CO2 dial lidar measurements are shown in simulations and field measurements. These factors have implications for multi- vapor measurements and also for measuring a shingle vapor with a wide absorption spectra for which one would like to make DIAL measurements at many wavelengths across the absorption spectra of the gas. Thus it is of interest to know how many wavelengths and how many groups of wavelengths can be used effectively in DIAL measurements. Our data indicate that for our lidar about 80 wavelengths can be used for DIAL measurements of a stationary vapor. The lidar signal is composed of fluctuations with three time scales: a very short time scale due to system noise which is faster than the data acquisition sampling rate of the receiver, a medium time scale due to atmospheric turbulence, and a long time scale due to slow atmospheric transmission drift from aerosol in homogeneities. The decorrelation time scale of fluctuations for airborne lidar measurements depends on the flight geometry.

  14. Bounce-averaged advection and diffusion coefficients for monochromatic electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave: Comparison between test-particle and quasi-linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Shen, Chao; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2012-09-01

    The electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave has long been suggested to be responsible for the rapid loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons. The test-particle simulations are performed to calculate the bounce-averaged pitch angle advection and diffusion coefficients for parallel-propagating monochromatic EMIC waves. The comparison between test-particle (TP) and quasi-linear (QL) transport coefficients is further made to quantify the influence of nonlinear processes. For typical EMIC waves, four nonlinear physical processes, i.e., the boundary reflection effect, finite perturbation effect, phase bunching and phase trapping, are found to occur sequentially from small to large equatorial pitch angles. The pitch angle averaged finite perturbation effect yields slight differences between the transport coefficients of TP and QL models. The boundary reflection effect and phase bunching produce an average reduction of >80% in the diffusion coefficients but a small change in the corresponding average advection coefficients, tending to lower the loss rate predicted by QL theory. In contrast, the phase trapping causes continuous negative advection toward the loss cone and a minor change in the corresponding diffusion coefficients, tending to increase the loss rate predicted by QL theory. For small amplitude EMIC waves, the transport coefficients grow linearly with the square of wave amplitude. As the amplitude increases, the boundary reflection effect, phase bunching and phase trapping start to occur. Consequently, the TP advection coefficients deviate from the linear growth with the square of wave amplitude, and the TP diffusion coefficients become saturated with the amplitude approaching 1 nT or above. The current results suggest that these nonlinear processes can cause significant deviation of transport coefficients from the prediction of QL theory, which should be taken into account in the future simulations of radiation belt dynamics driven by the EMIC waves.

  15. Bounce-averaged advection and diffusion coefficients for monochromatic electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave: Comparison between test-particle and quasi-linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Zhu, H.; Xiao, F.; Zheng, H.; Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.

    2012-12-01

    The electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave has been long suggested to be responsible for the rapid loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons. The test-particle simulations are performed to calculate the bounce-averaged pitch-angle advection and diffusion coefficients for parallel-propagating monochromatic EMIC waves. The comparison between test-particle (TP) and quasi-linear (QL) transport coefficients is further made to quantify the influence of nonlinear processes. For typical EMIC waves, four nonlinear physical processes, i.e., the boundary reflection effect, finite perturbation effect, phase bunching and phase trapping, are found to occur sequentially from small to large equatorial pitch angles. The pitch-angle averaged finite perturbation effect yields slight differences between the transport coefficients of TP and QL models. The boundary reflection effect and phase bunching produce an average reduction of >80% in the diffusion coefficients but a small change in the corresponding average advection coefficients, tending to lower the loss rate predicted by QL theory. In contrast, the phase trapping causes continuous negative advection toward the loss cone and a minor change in the corresponding diffusion coefficients, tending to increase the loss rate predicted by QL theory. For small amplitude EMIC waves, the transport coefficients grow linearly with the square of wave amplitude. As the amplitude increases, the boundary reflection effect, phase bunching and phase trapping start to occur. Consequently, the TP advection coefficients deviate from the linear growth with the square of wave amplitude, and the TP diffusion coefficients become saturated with the amplitude approaching 1nT or above. The current results suggest that these nonlinear processes can cause significant deviation of transport coefficients from the prediction of QL theory, which should be taken into account in the future simulations of radiation belt dynamics driven by the EMIC waves.

  16. Synthetic modeling of a fluid injection-induced fault rupture with slip-rate dependent friction coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urpi, Luca; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Rutqvist, Jonny; Cappa, Frédéric; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Poro-elastic stress and effective stress reduction associated with deep underground fluid injection can potentially trigger shear rupture along pre-existing faults. We modeled an idealized CO2 injection scenario, to assess the effects on faults of the first phase of a generic CO2 aquifer storage operation. We used coupled multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to evaluate the stress and pressure perturbations induced by fluid injection and the response of a nearby normal fault. Slip-rate dependent friction and inertial effects have been aken into account during rupture. Contact elements have been used to take into account the frictional behavior of the rupture plane. We investigated different scenarios of injection rate to induce rupture on the fault, employing various fault rheologies. Published laboratory data on CO2-saturated intact and crushed rock samples, representative of a potential target aquifer, sealing formation and fault gouge, have been used to define a scenario where different fault rheologies apply at different depths. Nucleation of fault rupture takes place at the bottom of the reservoir, in agreement with analytical poro-elastic stress calculations, considering injection-induced reservoir inflation and the tectonic scenario. For the stress state here considered, the first triggered rupture always produces the largest rupture length and slip magnitude, correlated with the fault rheology. Velocity weakening produces larger ruptures and generates larger magnitude seismic events. Heterogeneous faults have been considered including velocity-weakening or velocity strengthening sections inside and below the aquifer, while upper sections being velocity-neutral. Nucleation of rupture in a velocity strengthening section results in a limited rupture extension, both in terms of maximum slip and rupture length. For a heterogeneous fault with nucleation in a velocity-weakening section, the rupture may propagate into the overlying velocity

  17. Experimental Validation of Strategy for the Inverse Estimation of Mechanical Properties and Coefficient of Friction in Flat Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vinod; Singh, Arbind Kumar; Dixit, Uday Shanker

    2016-06-01

    Flat rolling is one of the most widely used metal forming processes. For proper control and optimization of the process, modelling of the process is essential. Modelling of the process requires input data about material properties and friction. In batch production mode of rolling with newer materials, it may be difficult to determine the input parameters offline. In view of it, in the present work, a methodology to determine these parameters online by the measurement of exit temperature and slip is verified experimentally. It is observed that the inverse prediction of input parameters could be done with a reasonable accuracy. It was also assessed experimentally that there is a correlation between micro-hardness and flow stress of the material; however the correlation between surface roughness and reduction is not that obvious.

  18. Friction phenomena and their impact on the shear behaviour of granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhr, Bettina; Six, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    In the discrete element simulation of granular materials, the modelling of contacts is crucial for the prediction of the macroscopic material behaviour. From the tribological point of view, friction at contacts needs to be modelled carefully, as it depends on several factors, e.g. contact normal load or temperature to name only two. In discrete element method (DEM) simulations the usage of Coulomb's law of friction is state of the art in modelling particle-particle contacts. Usually in Coulomb's law, for all contacts only one constant coefficient of friction is used, which needs to reflect all tribological effects. Thus, whenever one of the influence factors of friction varies over a wide range, it can be expected that the usage of only one constant coefficient of friction in Coulomb's law is an oversimplification of reality. For certain materials, e.g. steel, it is known that a dependency of the coefficient of friction on the contact normal load exists. A more tribological tangential contact law is implemented in DEM, where the interparticle friction coefficient depends on the averaged normal stress in the contact. Simulations of direct shear tests are conducted, using steel spheres of different size distributions. The strong influence of interparticle friction on the bulk friction is shown via a variation of the constant interparticle friction coefficient. Simulations with constant and stress-dependent interparticle friction are compared. For the stress-dependent interparticle friction, a normal stress dependency of the bulk friction is seen. In the literature, measurements of different granular materials and small normal loads also show a stress dependency of the bulk friction coefficient. With increasing applied normal stress, the bulk friction coefficient reduces both in the experiments and in the simulations.

  19. Surface structure and frictional properties of the skin of the Amazon tree boa Corallus hortulanus (Squamata, Boidae).

    PubMed

    Berthé, R A; Westhoff, G; Bleckmann, H; Gorb, S N

    2009-03-01

    The legless locomotion of snakes requires specific adaptations of their ventral scales to maintain friction force in different directions. The skin microornamentation of the snake Corallus hortulanus was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and the friction properties of the skin were tested on substrates of different roughness. Skin samples from various parts of the body (dorsal, lateral, ventral) were compared. Dorsal and lateral scales showed similar, net-like microornamentation and similar friction coefficients. Average friction coefficients for dorsal and lateral scales on the epoxy resin surfaces were 0.331 and 0.323, respectively. In contrast, ventral scales possess ridges running parallel to the longitudinal body axis. They demonstrated a significantly lower friction coefficient compared to both dorsal and lateral scales (0.191 on average). In addition, ventral scales showed frictional anisotropy comparing longitudinal and perpendicular direction of the ridges. This study clearly demonstrates that different skin microstructure is responsible for different frictional properties in different body regions.

  20. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  1. Friction in total hip joint prosthesis measured in vivo during walking.

    PubMed

    Damm, Philipp; Dymke, Joern; Ackermann, Robert; Bender, Alwina; Graichen, Friedmar; Halder, Andreas; Beier, Alexander; Bergmann, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Friction-induced moments and subsequent cup loosening can be the reason for total hip joint replacement failure. The aim of this study was to measure the in vivo contact forces and friction moments during walking. Instrumented hip implants with Al2O3 ceramic head and an XPE inlay were used. In vivo measurements were taken 3 months post operatively in 8 subjects. The coefficient of friction was calculated in 3D throughout the whole gait cycle, and average values of the friction-induced power dissipation in the joint were determined. On average, peak contact forces of 248% of the bodyweight and peak friction moments of 0.26% bodyweight times meter were determined. However, contact forces and friction moments varied greatly between individuals. The friction moment increased during the extension phase of the joint. The average coefficient of friction also increased during this period, from 0.04 (0.03 to 0.06) at contralateral toe off to 0.06 (0.04 to 0.08) at contralateral heel strike. During the flexion phase, the coefficient of friction increased further to 0.14 (0.09 to 0.23) at toe off. The average friction-induced power throughout the whole gait cycle was 2.3 W (1.4 W to 3.8 W). Although more parameters than only the synovia determine the friction, the wide ranges of friction coefficients and power dissipation indicate that the lubricating properties of synovia are individually very different. However, such differences may also exist in natural joints and may influence the progression of arthrosis. Furthermore, subjects with very high power dissipation may be at risk of thermally induced implant loosening. The large increase of the friction coefficient during each step could be caused by the synovia being squeezed out under load.

  2. Predictability of tracer dilution in large open channel flows: Analytical solution for the coefficient of variation of the depth-averaged concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannone, Marilena

    2014-03-01

    A large-time analytical solution is proposed for the spatial variance and coefficient of variation of the depth-averaged concentration due to instantaneous, cross sectionally uniform solute sources in pseudorectangular open channel flows. The mathematical approach is based on the use of the Green functions and on the Fourier decomposition of the depth-averaged velocities, coupled with the method of the images. The variance spatial trend is characterized by a minimum at the center of the mass and two mobile, decaying symmetrical peaks which, at very large times, are located at the inflexion points of the average Gaussian distribution. The coefficient of variation, which provides an estimate of the expected percentage deviation of the depth-averaged point concentrations about the section-average, exhibits a minimum at the center which decays like t-1 and only depends on the river diffusive time scale. The defect of cross-sectional mixing quickly increases with the distance from the center, and almost linearly at large times. Accurate numerical Lagrangian simulations were performed to validate the analytical results in preasymptotic and asymptotic conditions, referring to a particularly representative sample case for which cross-sectional depth and velocity measurements were known from a field survey. In addition, in order to discuss the practical usefulness of computing large-time concentration spatial moments in river flows, and resorting to directly measured input data, the order of magnitude of section-averaged concentrations and corresponding coefficients of variation was estimated in field conditions and for hypothetical contamination scenarios, considering a unit normalized mass impulsively injected across the transverse section of 81 U.S. rivers.

  3. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field.more » By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.« less

  4. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  5. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the 17 March 2013 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyroresonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the 17 March 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against nondipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field (RAM-SCB), a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and Magnetic Local Time (MLT)-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed-term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (˜1 MeV) and ring current (˜100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyroresonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L=4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the 17 March 2013 storm and for L≲4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  6. Friction Characteristic of Steel Skids Equipped with Skegs on a Lakebed Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sefic, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The coefficient of friction was determined for steel skids with and without skegs. The addition of a 1.27 centimeter deep skeg caused the coefficient of friction to increase from an average value of .36 to .53, a 47 percent increase over the flat skid. The addition of a .64 centimeter deep skeg increased the friction coefficient from .36 to .46, a 16 percent increase over the flat skid. Comparisons are made with data for similar test conditions obtained during the X-15 program.

  7. Measurements of average heat-transfer and friction coefficients for subsonic flow of air in smooth tubes at high surface and fluid temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humble, Leroy V; Lowdermilk, Warren H; Desmon, Leland G

    1951-01-01

    An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through smooth tubes for an over-all range of surface temperature from 535 degrees to 3050 degrees r, inlet-air temperature from 535 degrees to 1500 degrees r, Reynolds number up to 500,000, exit Mach number up to 1, heat flux up to 150,000 btu per hour per square foot, length-diameter ratio from 30 to 120, and three entrance configurations. Most of the data are for heat addition to the air; a few results are included for cooling of the air. The over-all range of surface-to-air temperature ratio was from 0.46 to 3.5.

  8. Frictional anisotropy under boundary lubrication: effect of surface texture.

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Erck, R. A.; Lorenzo-Martin, C.; Fenske, G. R.; Energy Systems

    2009-06-15

    The friction coefficient was measured under boundary lubrication with a ball-on-flat contact configuration in unidirectional sliding. The ball was smooth and hardened 52100 steel. Discs were made from case-carburized and hardened 4620, annealed 1080, and 1018 steels with directionally ground surfaces. A synthetic lubricant of stock polyalphaolefin was used for testing. During testing with each material, a frictional spike was observed whenever the ball slid parallel to the grinding ridge on the disc surface. The average friction coefficient for all tests was about 0.1, which is typical for the boundary lubrication regime. The magnitude of the frictional spikes, which reached as high as a friction coefficient of 0.25, and their persistence depended on the hardness of the disc surface. On the basis of elastohydrodynamic theory, coupled with the observation of severe plastic deformation on the ridges parallel to the sliding direction, the frictional spike could be due to localized plastic deformation on the disc surface at locations of minimal thickness for the lubricant fluid film. This hypothesis was further supported by lack of frictional spikes in tests using discs coated with a thin film of diamond-like carbon, in which plastic deformation is minimal.

  9. Friction Properties of Bio-mimetic Nano-fibrillar Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Hua; Mi, Chun-Hui

    2009-10-01

    Nano-fibrillar arrays are fabricated using polystyrene materials. The average diameter of each fiber is about 300nm. Experiments show that such a fibrillar surface possesses a relatively hydrophobic feature with a water contact angle of 142°. Nanoscale friction properties are mainly focused on. It is found that the friction force of polystyrene nano-fibrillar surfaces is obviously enhanced in contrast to polystyrene smooth surfaces. The apparent coefficient of friction increases with the applied load, but is independent of the scanning speed. An interesting observation is that the friction force increases almost linearly with the real contact area, which abides by the fundamental Bowden-Tabor law of nano-scale friction.

  10. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    deBoer, Maarten P.; Redmond, James M.; Michalske, Terry A.

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  11. The Friction of Piston Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischbein, Hans W

    1945-01-01

    The coefficient of friction between piston ring and cylinder liner was measured in relation to gliding acceleration, pressure, temperature, quantity of oil and quality of oil. Comparing former lubrication-technical tests, conclusions were drawn as to the state of friction. The coefficients of friction as figured out according to the hydrodynamic theory were compared with those measured by tests. Special tests were made on "oiliness." The highest permissible pressure was measured and the ratio of pressure discussed.

  12. Three-dimensional finite-element models on the deformation of forearcs caused by aseismic ridge subduction: The role of ridge shape, friction coefficient of the plate interface and mechanical properties of the forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeumann, Stefanie; Hampel, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Geological and geophysical data show that the forearc of subduction zones experiences strong deformation during the subduction of aseismic oceanic ridges. In order to better understand ridge-related forearc deformation patterns, we performed a series of three-dimensional finite-element models, in which we varied the ridge shape, the friction coefficient of the plate interface and the mechanical strength of the forearc. Experiments were carried out for migrating/non-migrating ridges and accretive/erosive margins, respectively. Our results show that the subducting ridge uplifts the forearc and induces horizontal displacements that alter the strain regime of both erosive and accretive forearcs. Generally, shortening prevails in front of the ridge, while domains of shortening and extension exist above the ridge. Models with stationary ridges show high uplift rates only above the ridge tip, whereas the forearc above migrating ridges experiences uplift above the leading ridge flank and subsequent subsidence above the trailing flank. The height and width of the ridge as well as the friction coefficient of the plate interface have the largest effect on the forearc deformation patterns, whereas the mechanical strength of the forearc plays a lesser role. Forearc indentation at the trench is largest for high and broad ridges, high friction coefficients and/or weak forearc material. Shortening and extension of the forearc above the ridge are more intense for high and narrow ridges. Our model results provide information about the distribution of ridge-induced displacements and strain fields and hence help to identify deformation patterns caused by subducting aseismic ridges in nature.

  13. Friction behavior of a microstructured polymer surface inspired by snake skin

    PubMed Central

    Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to understand the influence of microstructures found on ventral scales of the biological model, Lampropeltis getula californiae, the California King Snake, on the friction behavior. For this purpose, we compared snake-inspired anisotropic microstructured surfaces to other microstructured surfaces with isotropic and anisotropic geometry. To exclude that the friction measurements were influenced by physico-chemical variations, all friction measurements were performed on the same epoxy polymer. For frictional measurements a microtribometer was used. Original data were processed by fast Fourier transformation (FFT) with a zero frequency related to the average friction and other peaks resulting from periodic stick-slip behavior. The data showed that the specific ventral surface ornamentation of snakes does not only reduce the frictional coefficient and generate anisotropic frictional properties, but also reduces stick-slip vibrations during sliding, which might be an adaptation to reduce wear. Based on this extensive comparative study of different microstructured polymer samples, it was experimentally demonstrated that the friction-induced stick-slip behavior does not solely depend on the frictional coefficient of the contact pair. PMID:24611129

  14. PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

  15. Frictional and morphological characteristics of ion plated soft, metallic films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.; Buzek, B.

    1981-01-01

    Ion plated metallic films in contrast to films applied by other deposition techniques offer a lower friction coefficient, longer endurance lives and exhibit a gradual increase in friction coefficient after the film has been worn off. The friction coefficients of metallic films are affected by the degree of adherence, thickness and nucleation and growth characteristics during ion plating lead to a fine, continuous crystalline structure, which contributes to a lower friction coefficient.

  16. Advanced friction simulation of standardized friction tests: a numerical and experimental demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J. H.; Hörning, M.; Dietrich, F.; Dane, C.

    2016-08-01

    For the characterization of friction conditions under sheet metal forming process conditions, different friction test set-ups are being used in industry. However, different friction tests and test set-ups are known to result in scattering friction results. In this work, the TriboForm software is utilized to numerically model the frictional behavior. The simulated coefficients of friction are experimentally validated using friction results from a standardized strip drawing friction test set-up. The experimental and simulation results of the friction behavior show a good overall agreement. This demonstrates that the TriboForm software enables simulating friction conditions for varying tribology conditions, i.e. resulting in a generally applicable approach for friction characterization under industrial sheet metal forming process conditions.

  17. Postoperative changes in in vivo measured friction in total hip joint prosthesis during walking.

    PubMed

    Damm, Philipp; Bender, Alwina; Bergmann, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Loosening of the artificial cup and inlay is the most common reasons for total hip replacement failures. Polyethylene wear and aseptic loosening are frequent reasons. Furthermore, over the past few decades, the population of patients receiving total hip replacements has become younger and more active. Hence, a higher level of activity may include an increased risk of implant loosening as a result of friction-induced wear. In this study, an instrumented hip implant was used to measure the contact forces and friction moments in vivo during walking. Subsequently, the three-dimensional coefficient of friction in vivo was calculated over the whole gait cycle. Measurements were collected from ten subjects at several time points between three and twelve months postoperative. No significant change in the average resultant contact force was observed between three and twelve months postoperative. In contrast, a significant decrease of up to 47% was observed in the friction moment. The coefficient of friction also decreased over postoperative time on average. These changes may be caused by 'running-in' effects of the gliding components or by the improved lubricating properties of the synovia. Because the walking velocity and contact forces were found to be nearly constant during the observed period, the decrease in friction moment suggests an increase in fluid viscosity. The peak values of the contact force individually varied by 32%-44%. The friction moment individually differed much more, by 110%-129% at three and up to 451% at twelve months postoperative. The maximum coefficient of friction showed the highest individual variability, about 100% at three and up to 914% at twelve months after surgery. These individual variations in the friction parameters were most likely due to different 'running-in' effects that were influenced by the individual activity levels and synovia properties. PMID:25806805

  18. Postoperative changes in in vivo measured friction in total hip joint prosthesis during walking.

    PubMed

    Damm, Philipp; Bender, Alwina; Bergmann, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Loosening of the artificial cup and inlay is the most common reasons for total hip replacement failures. Polyethylene wear and aseptic loosening are frequent reasons. Furthermore, over the past few decades, the population of patients receiving total hip replacements has become younger and more active. Hence, a higher level of activity may include an increased risk of implant loosening as a result of friction-induced wear. In this study, an instrumented hip implant was used to measure the contact forces and friction moments in vivo during walking. Subsequently, the three-dimensional coefficient of friction in vivo was calculated over the whole gait cycle. Measurements were collected from ten subjects at several time points between three and twelve months postoperative. No significant change in the average resultant contact force was observed between three and twelve months postoperative. In contrast, a significant decrease of up to 47% was observed in the friction moment. The coefficient of friction also decreased over postoperative time on average. These changes may be caused by 'running-in' effects of the gliding components or by the improved lubricating properties of the synovia. Because the walking velocity and contact forces were found to be nearly constant during the observed period, the decrease in friction moment suggests an increase in fluid viscosity. The peak values of the contact force individually varied by 32%-44%. The friction moment individually differed much more, by 110%-129% at three and up to 451% at twelve months postoperative. The maximum coefficient of friction showed the highest individual variability, about 100% at three and up to 914% at twelve months after surgery. These individual variations in the friction parameters were most likely due to different 'running-in' effects that were influenced by the individual activity levels and synovia properties.

  19. Friction laws for lubricated nanocontacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzio, R.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.

    2006-09-01

    We have used friction force microscopy to probe friction laws for nanoasperities sliding on atomically flat substrates under controlled atmosphere and liquid environment, respectively. A power law relates friction force and normal load in dry air, whereas a linear relationship, i.e., Amontons' law, is observed for junctions fully immersed in model lubricants, namely, octamethylciclotetrasiloxane and squalane. Lubricated contacts display a remarkable friction reduction, with liquid and substrate specific friction coefficients. Comparison with molecular dynamics simulations suggests that load-bearing boundary layers at junction entrance cause the appearance of Amontons' law and impart atomic-scale character to the sliding process; continuum friction models are on the contrary of limited predictive power when applied to lubrication effects. An attempt is done to define general working conditions leading to the manifestation of nanoscale lubricity due to adsorbed boundary layers.

  20. Mass energy-absorption coefficients and average atomic energy-absorption cross-sections for amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    More, Chaitali V.; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina. P.

    2016-05-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σa,en) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μen/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.

  1. Showing Area Matters: A Work of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Domelen, David

    2010-01-01

    Typically, we teach the simplified friction equation of the form F[subscript s] = [mu][subscript s]N for static friction, where F[subscript s] is the maximum static friction, [mu][subscript s] is the coefficient of static friction, and "N" is the normal force pressing the surfaces together. However, this is a bit too simplified, and doesn't work…

  2. Scale effects in sliding friction: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1991-07-24

    Solid friction is considered by some to be a fundamental property of two contacting materials, while others consider it to be a property of the larger tribosystem in which the materials are contained. A set of sliding friction experiments were designed to investigate the hypothesis that the unlubricated sliding friction between two materials is indeed a tribosystems-related property and that the relative influence of the materials properties or those of the machine on friction varies from one situation to another. Three tribometers were used: a friction microprobe (FMP), a typical laboratory-scale reciprocating pin-on-flat device, and a heavy-duty commercial wear tester. The slider material was stainless steel (AISI 440C) and the flat specimen material was an ordered alloy of Ni{sub 3}Al (IC-50). Sphere-on-flat geometry was used at ambient conditions and at normal forces ranging from 0.01 N to 100 N and average sliding velocities of 0.01 to 100.0 mm/s. The nominal, steady-state sliding friction coefficient tended to decrease with increases in normal force for each of the three tribometers, and the steady state value of sliding friction tended to increase as the mass of the machine increased. The variation of the friction force during sliding was also a characteristic of the test system. These studies provide further support to the idea that the friction of both laboratory-scale and engineering tribosystems should be treated as a parameter which may take on a range of characteristic values and not conceived as having a single, unique value for each material pair.

  3. Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of dynamic friction forces at the gear tooth contact were undertaken using strain gages at the root fillets of two successive teeth. Results are presented from two gear sets over a range of speeds and loads. The results demonstrate that the friction coefficient does not appear to be significantly influenced by the sliding reversal at the pitch point, and that the friction coefficient values found are in accord with those in general use. The friction coefficient was found to increase at low sliding speeds. This agrees with the results of disc machine testing.

  4. Friction and lubrication of pleural tissues.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Edgardo; Loring, Stephen H; Gioia, Magda E; Pecchiari, Matteo; Moscheni, Claudia

    2004-08-20

    The frictional behaviour of rabbit's visceral pleura sliding against parietal pleura was assessed in vitro while oscillating at physiological velocities and amplitudes under physiological normal forces. For sliding velocities up to 3 cm s(-1) and normal compressive loads up to 12 cm H2O, the average value of the coefficient of kinetic friction (mu) was constant at 0.019 +/- 0.002 (S.E.) with pleural liquid as lubricant. With Ringer-bicarbonate solution, mu was still constant, but significantly increased (Deltamu = 0.008 +/- 0.001; P < 0.001). Under these conditions, no damage of the sliding pleural surfaces was found on light and electron microscopy. Additional measurements, performed also on peritoneum, showed that changes in nominal contact area or strain of the mesothelia, temperature in the range 19-39 degrees C, and prolonged sliding did not affect mu. Gentle application of filter paper increased mu approximately 10-fold and irreversibly, suggesting alteration of the mesothelia. With packed the red blood cells (RBC) between the sliding mesothelia, mu increased appreciably but reversibly on removal of RBC suspension, whilst no ruptures of RBC occurred. In conclusion, the results indicate a low value of sliding friction in pleural tissues, partly related to the characteristics of the pleural liquid, and show that friction is independent of velocity, normal load, and nominal contact area, consistent with boundary lubrication.

  5. Granular self-organization by autotuning of friction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Nitsure, Nitin; Bhattacharya, S.; Ghosh, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    A monolayer of granular spheres in a cylindrical vial, driven continuously by an orbital shaker and subjected to a symmetric confining centrifugal potential, self-organizes to form a distinctively asymmetric structure which occupies only the rear half-space. It is marked by a sharp leading edge at the potential minimum and a curved rear. The area of the structure obeys a power-law scaling with the number of spheres. Imaging shows that the regulation of motion of individual spheres occurs via toggling between two types of motion, namely, rolling and sliding. A low density of weakly frictional rollers congregates near the sharp leading edge whereas a denser rear comprises highly frictional sliders. Experiments further suggest that because the rolling and sliding friction coefficients differ substantially, the spheres acquire a local time-averaged coefficient of friction within a large range of intermediate values in the system. The various sets of spatial and temporal configurations of the rollers and sliders constitute the internal states of the system. Experiments demonstrate and simulations confirm that the global features of the structure are maintained robustly by autotuning of friction through these internal states, providing a previously unidentified route to self-organization of a many-body system. PMID:26324918

  6. A vacuum (10 exp -9 torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoS(x) films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    An ultrahigh-vacuum tribometer for use in a ball-on-disk configuration was specially designed for measuring the friction and endurance life of magnetron-sputtered solid lubricating MoS(x) films deposited on sputter-cleaned 400 C stainless-steel disks, when slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel ball. The results of tests showed that the tribometer performs satisfactorily in unidirectional rotation in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa, 10 exp -9 torr. Similarities are observed in the life cycle friction behavior and the coefficient of friction as a function of the number of disk revolutions, for MoS(x) films at average Hertzian contact from 0.33 to 0.69 GPa.

  7. Internal rotor friction instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  8. Increasing ‘ease of sliding’ also increases friction: when is a lubricant effective?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziata, M. A.; Baldassarri, A.; Dalton, F.; Petri, A.; Pontuale, G.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate experimentally the effective Coulomb friction exerted by a granular medium on a shearing plate, varying the medium depth. The plate is driven by a spring connected to a motor turning at a constant speed and, depending on the system configuration, performs continuous sliding or stick and slip in different proportions. We introduce an order parameter which discriminates between the different regimes expressing the fraction of time spent in slipping. At low driving speed, starting from zero layers of interstitial granular material, the average friction coefficient decreases when a few layers are added, while the order parameter stays close to zero. By further increasing the granular depth, the friction undergoes a sudden increase but the order parameter does not change notably. At an intermediate driving speed, however, both the friction and the order parameter undergo a sudden increase, which for the order parameter amounts to several orders of magnitude, indicating that the plate is more braked but nevertheless keeps sliding more easily. For medium-high driving speeds, full sliding is obtained for only one layer of interstitial matter, where friction has a minimum, and is maintained for all increasing depths while friction increases. These observations show that the ease of slipping is not determined by friction alone, rather by the highly complex interplay between driving velocity, friction, and the depth of the medium.

  9. Frictional Strength of Hayward Fault Gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C.; Moore, D.; Lockner, D.

    2007-12-01

    A recent 3-D geologic model of the Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay Region shows that a number of different rock units are juxtaposed across the fault surface as a result of lateral displacement. The fault gouge formed therein is likely a mixture of these various rock types. To better model the mechanical behavior of the Hayward fault, which is known to both creep and have large earthquakes, frictional properties of mixtures of the principal rock types were determined in the laboratory. Room temperature triaxial shearing tests were conducted on binary and ternary mixtures of Great Valley Sequence graywacke, Franciscan jadeite-bearing metagraywacke, Franciscan pumpellyite-bearing metasandstone, Franciscan melange matrix, serpentinite and two-pyroxene gabbro. The gouge samples were crushed and sieved (<150 μm grains), then applied in a 1-mm layer between saw-cut sliding blocks. Each sample assemblage was saturated and sheared at constant pore water pressure of 1 MPa and normal stress of 51 MPa. Coefficients of friction, μ, ranged from a low of 0.38 for the serpentinite to a maximum of 0.85 for the gabbro. While the serpentinite and the Franciscan melange matrix were relatively weak, all other rock types obeyed Byerlee's Law. The friction coefficient of mixtures could be reliably predicted by a simple average based on dry weight percent of the end member strengths. This behavior is in contrast to some mixtures of common gouge materials such as montmorillonite+quartz, which exhibit non- linear frictional strength trends with varying weight percent of constituents. All materials tested except serpentinite were velocity strengthening, therefore promoting creeping behavior. The addition of serpentinite decreased a-b values of the gouge and increased the characteristic displacement, dc, of strength evolution. Because temperature strongly influences the mechanical properties of fault gouge as well as speeding chemical reactions between the constituents, elevated

  10. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Furno, A.; Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s-1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci ‘laws’ of friction.

  11. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, G; Ciaravola, V; Furno, A; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J

    2015-05-01

    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s(-1). We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci 'laws' of friction.

  12. Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751

  13. Friction anisotropy with respect to topographic orientation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q Jane

    2012-01-01

    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties.

  14. Interfacial friction based quasi-continuum hydrodynamical model for nanofluidic transport of water.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Ravi; Sanghi, Tarun; Aluru, N R

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we formulate a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamic transport model for water, which is an extension to our recently proposed hydrodynamic model for Lennard-Jones type fluid [R. Bhadauria and N. R. Aluru, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074109 (2013)]. Viscosity variations in confinement are incorporated by the local average density method. Dirichlet boundary conditions are provided in the form of slip velocity that depends upon the macroscopic interfacial friction coefficient. The value of this friction coefficient is computed using a novel generalized Langevin equation formulation that eliminates the use of equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Gravity driven flows of SPC/E water confined between graphene and silicon slit shaped nanochannels are considered as examples for low and high friction cases. The proposed model yields good quantitative agreement with the velocity profiles obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:26547177

  15. Interfacial friction based quasi-continuum hydrodynamical model for nanofluidic transport of water.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Ravi; Sanghi, Tarun; Aluru, N R

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we formulate a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamic transport model for water, which is an extension to our recently proposed hydrodynamic model for Lennard-Jones type fluid [R. Bhadauria and N. R. Aluru, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074109 (2013)]. Viscosity variations in confinement are incorporated by the local average density method. Dirichlet boundary conditions are provided in the form of slip velocity that depends upon the macroscopic interfacial friction coefficient. The value of this friction coefficient is computed using a novel generalized Langevin equation formulation that eliminates the use of equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Gravity driven flows of SPC/E water confined between graphene and silicon slit shaped nanochannels are considered as examples for low and high friction cases. The proposed model yields good quantitative agreement with the velocity profiles obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. Interfacial friction based quasi-continuum hydrodynamical model for nanofluidic transport of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadauria, Ravi; Sanghi, Tarun; Aluru, N. R.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we formulate a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamic transport model for water, which is an extension to our recently proposed hydrodynamic model for Lennard-Jones type fluid [R. Bhadauria and N. R. Aluru, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074109 (2013)]. Viscosity variations in confinement are incorporated by the local average density method. Dirichlet boundary conditions are provided in the form of slip velocity that depends upon the macroscopic interfacial friction coefficient. The value of this friction coefficient is computed using a novel generalized Langevin equation formulation that eliminates the use of equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Gravity driven flows of SPC/E water confined between graphene and silicon slit shaped nanochannels are considered as examples for low and high friction cases. The proposed model yields good quantitative agreement with the velocity profiles obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Effect of friction on shear jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Bares, Jonathan; Dijksman, Joshua; Ren, Jie; Zheng, Hu; Behringer, Robert

    Shear jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficient μ ~ 0 . 6 (Bi et al. Nature (2011)). Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ϕ between ϕJ (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ϕS for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of force chains, which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. Whether shear jamming occurs for frictionless particles is under debate. The issue we address experimentally is how changing friction affects shear jamming. By applying a homogeneous simple shear, we study the effect of friction by using photoelastic disks either wrapped with Teflon to reduce friction or with fine teeth on the edge to increase friction. Shear jamming is still observed; however, the difference ϕJ -ϕS is smaller with lower friction. We also observe larger fluctuations due to initial configurations both at the lowest and the highest friction systems studied. Ongoing work is to use particles made of gelatin to reduce the friction coefficient to the order of 0.01. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant DMR1206351, NASA Grant NNX15AD38G and the William M. Keck Foundation.

  18. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  19. On a model of frictional sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrin, Y.; Bréchet, Y.

    1996-10-01

    A model of frictional sliding with an N-shaped curve for the sliding velocity dependence of the coefficient of friction is considered. This type of friction law is shown to be related to dynamic i.e., velocity dependent ‘ageing’ of asperity junctions. Mechanisms of ‘ageing’ for ductile (Bowden-Tabor) and brittle (Byerlee) materials, though different in nature, lead to qualitatively similar N-shaped velocity dependencies of the coefficient of friction. Estimates for the velocities limiting the range of negative velocity sensitivity of the coefficient of friction are obtained for the ductile case and—albeit with a lesser degree of reliability—for the brittle one. It is shown by linear stability analysis that discontinuous sliding (stick-slip) is associated with the descending portion of the N-shaped curve. An instability criterion is obtained. An expression for the period of the attendant relaxation oscillations of the sliding velocity is given in terms of the calculated velocity dependence of the coefficient of friction. It is suggested that the micromechanically motivated friction law proposed should be used in models of earthquakes due to discontinuous frictional sliding on a crustal fault.

  20. Radiation friction versus ponderomotive effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, A. M.; Elkina, N. V.; Gelfer, E. G.; Narozhny, N. B.; Ruhl, H.

    2014-11-01

    The concept of ponderomotive potential is upgraded to a regime in which radiation friction becomes dominant. The radiation friction manifests itself in long-term capturing of the particles released at the focus and impenetrability of the focus from the exterior. We apply time scale separation to the Landau-Lifshitz equation splitting the particle motion into quivering and slow drift of a guiding center. The drift equation is deduced by averaging over fast motion.

  1. Direct Measurements of Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Satish

    1953-01-01

    A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.

  2. Friction of ice on ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulson, Erland M.; Fortt, Andrew L.

    2012-12-01

    New measurements have been made of the friction coefficient of freshwater polycrystalline ice sliding slowly (5 × 10-8 to 1 × 10-3 m s-1) upon itself at temperatures from 98 to 263 K under low normal stresses (≤98 kPa). Sliding obeys Coulomb's law: the shear stress is directly proportional to the normal stress across the interface, while cohesion offers little contribution to frictional resistance. The coefficient of kinetic friction of smooth surfaces varies from μk = 0.15 to 0.76 and, at elevated temperatures (≥223 K), exhibits both velocity strengthening at lower velocities (<10-5 to 10-4 m s-1) and velocity weakening at higher velocities. Strengthening and weakening are attributed to creep deformation of asperities and localized melting, respectively. At intermediate temperatures of 173 and 133 K, the kinetic coefficient appears to not exhibit significant dependence upon velocity. However, at the low temperature of 98 K the coefficient of kinetic friction exhibits moderate velocity strengthening at both the lowest and the highest velocities but velocity independence over the range of intermediate velocities. No effect was detected of either grain size or texture. Over the range of roughness 0.4 × 10-6 m ≤ Ra ≤ 12 × 10-6 m, a moderate effect was detected, where μk ∝ Ra0.08. Slide-hold-slide experiments revealed that the coefficient of static friction increases by an amount that scales logarithmically with holding time. Implications of the results are discussed in relation to shearing across "tiger stripe" faults within the icy crust of Saturn's Enceladus, sliding of the arctic sea ice cover and brittle compressive failure of cold ice.

  3. Frictional microscopy of polymers and nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotomin, S. V.; Ezhov, A. A.; Sollogoub, C.; Yarikov, D.

    2014-05-01

    The mechanical and frictional properties of polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate and nanocomposites with montmorillonite were studied by using the microindentation technique and frictional microscopy. The micromechanical tests revealed a decrease in the modulus and microhardness of the composite compared with those of a neat polystyrene, with a minimum of their values at 1-3 wt.% of the filler, but a local maximum of the tensile modulus of the filled polymer arose and increased at the same filler concentration. The frictional microscopy revealed anisotropy of the friction coefficient of the nanocomposite and to its noticeable dependence on the content of the filler. The maximum value of the friction coefficient was also reached at 1-3 wt.% of the filler and corresponds to the greatest degree of interplanar distance in the layered silicate and to minimum microhardness and elastic modulus of the composite surface.

  4. Friction Tests in Magnesium Tube Hydroforming at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yeong-Maw; Wang, Kuo-Hsing; Kuo, Tsung-Yu

    2011-05-04

    In metal forming, lubricants have a variety of functions. The top priority is usually reduction of friction in order to increase the formability of the materials and reduce tool wear. Because magnesium alloys have very poor formability at room temperature, it is essential to manufacture a part from Magnesium alloys at elevated temperatures. The aim of this paper is to present a friction test method to evaluate the performance of different kinds of lubricants and determine their coefficients of friction at elevated temperatures in tube hydroforming of magnesium alloys. A self-designed experimental apparatus is used to carry out the experiments of friction tests. The coefficient of friction between the tube and die at guiding zone is determined. The effects of the internal pressure, the axial feeding velocity and temperatures on the friction forces and coefficients of friction for different lubricants are discussed.

  5. High Speed Ice Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  6. Mechanism of fault friction variations associated with rolling of non-spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Friction resisting the fault sliding is known to be rate and path-dependent, which is often related to the movement of the gouge particles. This movement includes particle rotation which can be modelled either using the Cosserat-type models or by direct computer simulation using a discrete element method. These models are however based on the notion that the gouge particles are spherical (circular in 2D) tacitly assuming that the real non-spherical shapes of the particles create quantities effects, which can be accounted for by introducing proper correction factors. We show that non-spherical particles behave qualitatively different. This is a result of the fact that the normal force applied to the non-spherical particle can create a moment whose resistance to the particle rolling changes with the angle - a phenomenon not possible in a spherical (circular) particle due to symmetry. If rolling of a particle is caused by macroscopic shear stress, the normal stress will resist or assist the rolling depending on the angle. As a result the effective friction coefficient associated with a single particle can be reduced to zero in the process of its rolling and then restore its initial value. This leads to the oscillatory behaviour of the friction coefficient as a function of displacement. When sliding involves the rolling of (very) many particles the random variations in their sizes and initial positions cause the friction coefficient to oscillate with decreasing amplitude; the characteristic displacement of this decrease can be an order of magnitude greater than the average particle size. If the gouge layer is sufficiently thick, the friction variations can be associated with rotating clusters of particles. The size of the clusters exceeds the particle size by a factor of the order of the ratio of the effective modulus of the particulate material to the acting shear stress. Thus the clusters may be significantly larger than the original particles and hence the

  7. Sea Ice Friction: The Effect of Ice Rubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scourfield, S.; Sammonds, P. R.; Lishman, B.; Riska, K.; Marchenko, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Ice deformation processes in the Arctic often generate ice rubble, and situations arise where ice fragments of varying size separate sea ice floes. While the shear forces between sea ice floes in direct contact with each other are controlled by ice-ice friction, what is not known is how the slip of the floes is affected by the presence of rubble between the sliding surfaces. We present the result of field experiments undertaken on fjord ice in Svea, Svalbard, which investigated the velocity and hold time dependence of sea ice friction involving ice gouge. Average air temperature for the duration of time in which experiments were run was -12.4°C, and the thickness of the level fjord ice was 70 cm. A double-direct-shear experiment was done on floating sea ice in the field, with the addition of rubble ice between the sliding surfaces. This was achieved by moving a floating ice block through a channel of open water whilst subjected to normal loading, which was transferred through regions of ice rubble on both sides of the mobile block. The ice rubble regions were 30 cm deep and 50 cm wide. The displacement of the block and the force needed to move the block were measured. The rate dependence of friction was investigated for speeds of 10-3 to 10-2 ms-1. To investigate the state dependence of friction, slide-hold-slide (SHS) tests were conducted for hold times ranging from 1 second to 18 hours. When comparing the results from these experiments with a model for ice friction presented by Schulson and Fortt (2013), similar behaviour is seen at low hold times, where the peak coefficient of friction has a linear relationship with the logarithm of hold time. This is not the case for long hold times, however, and we attribute this to thermal consolidation of the ice rubble region.

  8. Quaternion Averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  9. Effect of friction on shear jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Bares, Jonathan; Dijksman, Joshua; Ren, Jie; Zheng, Hu; Behringer, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Shear jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficient μ ~ 0 . 6. Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ϕ between ϕJ (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ϕS for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of force chains, which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. Whether shear jamming occurs for frictionless particles is under debate. The issue we address experimentally is how changing friction affects shear jamming. By applying a homogeneous simple shear, we study the effect of friction by using photoelastic disks either wrapped with Teflon to reduce friction or with fine teeth on the edge to increase friction. Shear jamming is still observed; however, the difference ϕJ -ϕS is smaller with lower friction. We also observe larger fluctuations due to initial configurations both at the lowest and the highest friction systems studied. Ongoing work is to characterize response from different friction systems under shear with information at local scale. We acknowledge support from NSF-DMR1206351, NASA NNX15AD38G and W.M. Keck Foundation.

  10. Sliding friction on wet and dry sand.

    PubMed

    Fall, A; Weber, B; Pakpour, M; Lenoir, N; Shahidzadeh, N; Fiscina, J; Wagner, C; Bonn, D

    2014-05-01

    We show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some-but not too much-water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding. Too much water, on the other hand, makes the capillary bridges coalesce, resulting in a decrease of the modulus; in this case, we observe that the friction coefficient increases again. Our results, therefore, show that the friction coefficient is directly related to the shear modulus; this has important repercussions for the transport of granular materials. In addition, the polydispersity of the sand is shown to also have a large effect on the friction coefficient. PMID:24836256

  11. A Real-Time Method for Estimating Viscous Forebody Drag Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Hurtado, Marco; Rivera, Jose; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a real-time method based on the law of the wake for estimating forebody skin-friction coefficients. The incompressible law-of-the-wake equations are numerically integrated across the boundary layer depth to develop an engineering model that relates longitudinally averaged skin-friction coefficients to local boundary layer thickness. Solutions applicable to smooth surfaces with pressure gradients and rough surfaces with negligible pressure gradients are presented. Model accuracy is evaluated by comparing model predictions with previously measured flight data. This integral law procedure is beneficial in that skin-friction coefficients can be indirectly evaluated in real-time using a single boundary layer height measurement. In this concept a reference pitot probe is inserted into the flow, well above the anticipated maximum thickness of the local boundary layer. Another probe is servomechanism-driven and floats within the boundary layer. A controller regulates the position of the floating probe. The measured servomechanism position of this second probe provides an indirect measurement of both local and longitudinally averaged skin friction. Simulation results showing the performance of the control law for a noisy boundary layer are then presented.

  12. Structure and friction-reducing property of the sulfide layer produced by ion sulfuration

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Z.; Da-Ming, Z.; Yan-Hua, W.; Jia-Jun, L.; Xiao-Dong, F.; Ming-Xi, G.

    2000-04-01

    Sulfide layers with a certain thickness were made on the surface of 1045 and 52100 steels by means of the low-temperature ion sulfuration technique. Metallography, scanning electron microscope (SEM) + energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were adopted to analyze the structure of sulfide layers; the tribological properties of the layers lubricated by paraffin oil were also investigated on a reciprocating tester. The results showed that sulfide layer is porous, and its structure is mainly composed of FeS, FeS{sub 2}, and substrate phases. The sulfide layer possessed a remarkable friction-reducing effect; its friction coefficient was lower on average, by about 50%, than that of the surface without layer. With the increase of layer thickness, its friction coefficient was unchanged, and under low load conditions, its operational period was prolonged. Under the same experimental conditions, the operational period of sulfide layer on 52100 steel was longer than that on 1045 steel, and its friction coefficient was lower as well.

  13. Theoretical studies on the role of transition in determining friction and heat transfer in smooth and rough passages

    SciTech Connect

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B. . Fluid Mechanics, Heat and Mass Transfer Lab.); Rabas, T.J. )

    1990-04-01

    It has been established that transition determines the attainable friction and heat transfer in smooth and rough passages. According to the proposed law of corresponding states for friction, different types of roughness exhibit the same general behavior for friction at the same reduced conditions. This is also true of different types of smooth passages. It has been fully demonstrated that, in rough passages, the marked increases in friction factor are intimately associated with early transition and that, under reduced similarity conditions, the friction factors are considerably lower than those deduced from the familiar f vs. Re plots. For all smooth or rough passages, the simple rule for heat transfer amounts to this: the lower the critical Reynolds number for transition, the greater the value for the average heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, for a given Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter, triangular passages can be expected to give heat transfer coefficients that are significantly higher than for circular, rectangular or annular tubes. For smooth and enhanced passages of complex shapes, it appears that heat transfer coefficients can be calculated accurately from the smooth circular tube relations, provided the critical Reynolds number is known. 61 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Laser surface texturing for high friction contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, A.; Wlodarczyk, K. L.; Carstensen, J. V.; Hansen, E. B.; Gabzdyl, J.; Harrison, P. M.; Shephard, J. D.; Hand, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    A pulsed, nanosecond fibre laser with wavelength of 1064 nm was used to texture grade 316 stainless steel and 'low alloy' carbon steel in order to generate contacts with high static friction coefficients. High friction contacts have applications in reducing the tightening force required in joints or to easily secure precision fittings, particularly for larger components where standard methods are difficult and expensive. Friction tests performed at normal pressures of 100 MPa and 50 MPa have shown that very high static friction coefficients greater than 1.25, an increase of 346% over untextured samples at 100 MPa, can be easily achieved by single pass laser texturing of both contacting surfaces with the use of low pulse separations. The high static friction coefficients, obtained at 100 MPa normal pressure with textures with up to 62.5 μm pulse separation (processing speed ∼0.67 cm2/s), were found to be associated with a significant amount of plastic deformation caused by the high normal pressures. As a result, higher normal pressures were found to result in higher friction coefficients.

  15. On the dependency of friction on load: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, O. M.; Steenwyk, B.; Warhadpande, A.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2016-03-01

    In rubber friction studies it is often observed that the kinetic friction coefficient depends on the nominal contact pressure. This is usually due to frictional heating, which softens the rubber, increases the area of contact, and (in most cases) reduces the viscoelastic contribution to the friction. In this paper we present experimental results showing that the rubber friction also depends on the nominal contact pressure at such low sliding speed that frictional heating is negligible. This effect has important implications for rubber sliding dynamics, e.g., in the context of the tire-road grip. We attribute this effect to the viscoelastic coupling between the macroasperity contact regions, and present a simple earthquakelike model and numerical simulations supporting this picture. The mechanism for the dependency of the friction coefficient on the load considered is very general, and is relevant for non-rubber materials as well.

  16. Friction and wear behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) hydrogels for articular cartilage replacement.

    PubMed

    Katta, Jayanth K; Marcolongo, Michele; Lowman, Anthony; Mansmann, Kevin A

    2007-11-01

    Many hydrogels have been proposed as articular cartilage replacements as an alternative to partial or total joint replacements. In the current study, poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVA/PVP) hydrogels were investigated as potential cartilage replacements by investigating their in vitro wear and friction characteristics in a pin-on-disk setup. A three-factor variable-level experiment was designed to study the wear and friction characteristics of PVA/PVP hydrogels. The three different factors studied were (a) polymer content of PVA/PVP hydrogels, (b) load, and (c) effect of lubricant. Twelve tests were conducted, with each lasting 100,000 cycles against Co-Cr pins. The average coefficient of friction for synovial fluid lubrication was a low 0.035 compared with 0.1 for bovine serum lubrication. Frictional behavior of PVA/PVP hydrogels did not follow Amonton's law of friction. Wear of the hydrogels was quantified by measuring their dry masses before and after the tests. Higher polymer content significantly reduced the wear of hydrogel samples with 15% PVA/PVP samples, showing an average dry polymer loss of 4.74% compared with 6.05% for 10% PVA/PVP samples. A trend change was observed in both the friction and wear characteristics of PVA/PVP hydrogels at 125 N load, suggesting a transition in the lubricating mechanism at the pin-hydrogel interface at the critical 125 N load.

  17. Mesh Size Control of Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitenis, Angela; Uruena, Juan Manuel; Schulze, Kyle D.; Cooper, Andrew C.; Angelini, Thomas E.; Sawyer, W. Gregory

    Soft, permeable sliding interfaces in aqueous environments are ubiquitous in nature but their ability to maintain high lubricity in a poor lubricant (water) has not been well understood. Hydrogels are excellent materials for fundamental soft matter and biotribology studies due to their high water content. While mesh size controls the material and transport properties of a hydrogel, its effects on friction were only recently explored. Polyacrylamide hydrogels slid in a Gemini (self-mated) interface produced low friction under low speeds, low pressures, macroscopic contact areas, and room temperature aqueous environments. The friction coefficients at these interfaces are lowest at low speeds and are speed-independent. This behavior is due to thermal fluctuations at the interface separating the surfaces, with water shearing in this region being the main source of dissipation. We found that mesh size had an inverse correlation with friction. We further investigated a transition from this behavior at higher speeds, and found that the transition speed correlated with the mesh size and relaxation time of the polymer network. Very soft and correspondingly large mesh size Gemini hydrogels show superlubricity under specific conditions with friction being less than 0.005.

  18. Status of Stellite 6 friction testing

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1998-06-01

    For the past several years, researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, have been investigating the performance of motor-operated valves subjected to design basis flow and pressure loads. Part of this research addresses the friction that occurs at the interface between the valve disc and the valve body seats during operation of a gate valve. In most gate valves, these surfaces are hardfaced with Stellite 6, a cobalt-based alloy. Analytical methods exist for predicting the thrust needed to operate these valves at specific pressure conditions. To produce accurate valve thrust predictions, the analyst must have a reasonably accurate, though conservative, estimate of the coefficient of friction at the disc-to-seat interface. One of the questions that remains to be answered is whether, and to what extent, aging of the disc and seat surfaces effects the disc-to-seat coefficient of friction. Specifically, does the environment in a nuclear plants piping system cause the accumulation of an oxide film on these surfaces that increases the coefficient of friction; and if so, how great is the increase? This paper presents results of specimen tests addressing this issue, with emphasis on the following: (1) the characteristics and thickness of the oxide film that develops on Stellite 6 as it ages; (2) the change in the friction coefficient of Stellite 6 as it ages, including the question of whether the friction coefficient eventually reaches a plateau; and (3) the effect in-service cycling has on the characteristics and thickness of the oxide film and on the friction coefficient.

  19. Integrated friction measurements in hip wear simulations: short-term results.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, M; Affatato, S; Tiberi, L; Carmignato, S; Viceconti, M

    2010-01-01

    Hip joint wear simulators are used extensively to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the human hip joint and, through the wear rate, gain a concrete indicator about the overall wear performance of different coupled bearings. Present knowledge of the dynamic behaviour of important concurrent indicators, such as the coefficient of friction, could prove helpful for the continuing improvement in applied biomaterials. A limited number of commercial or custom-made simulators have been designed specifically for friction studies but always separately from wear tests; thus, analysis of these two important parameters has remained unconnected. As a result, a new friction sensor has been designed, built, and integrated in a commercial biaxial rocking motion hip simulator. The aim of this study is to verify the feasibility of an experimental set-up in which the dynamic measurement of the friction factor could effectively be implemented in a standard wear test without compromising its general accuracy and repeatability. A short wear test was run with the new set-up for 1 x 10(6) cycles. In particular, three soft-bearings (metal-on-polyethylene, phi = 28 mm) were tested; during the whole test, axial load and frictional torque about the vertical loading axis were synchronously recorded in order to calculate the friction factor. Additional analyses were performed on the specimens, before and after the test, in order to verify the accuracy of the wear test. The average friction factor was 0.110 +/- 0.025. The friction sensors showed good accuracy and repeatability throughout. This innovative set-up was able to reproduce stable and reliable measurements. The results obtained encourage further investigations of this set-up for long-term assessment and using different combinations of materials.

  20. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Mégevand, Ariel

    2013-07-01

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  1. Rheological effects on friction in elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trachman, E. G.; Cheng, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation is presented of the friction in a rolling and sliding elastohydrodynamic lubricated contact. The rheological behavior of the lubricant is described in terms of two viscoelastic models. These models represent the separate effects of non-Newtonian behavior and the transient response of the fluid. A unified description of the non-Newtonian shear rate dependence of the viscosity is presented as a new hyperbolic liquid model. The transient response of viscosity, following the rapid pressure rise encountered in the contact, is described by a compressional viscoelastic model of the volume response of a liquid to an applied pressure step. The resulting momentum and energy equations are solved by an iterative numerical technique, and a friction coefficient is calculated. The experimental study was performed, with two synthetic paraffinic lubricants, to verify the friction predictions of the analysis. The values of friction coefficient from theory and experiment are in close agreement.

  2. Dependence of frictional strength on compositional variations of Hayward fault rock gouges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, Carolyn A.; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The northern termination of the locked portion of the Hayward Fault near Berkeley, California, is found to coincide with the transition from strong Franciscan metagraywacke to melange on the western side of the fault. Both of these units are juxtaposed with various serpentinite, gabbro and graywacke units to the east, suggesting that the gouges formed within the Hayward Fault zone may vary widely due to the mixing of adjacent rock units and that the mechanical behavior of the fault would be best modeled by determining the frictional properties of mixtures of the principal rock types. To this end, room temperature, water-saturated, triaxial shearing tests were conducted on binary and ternary mixtures of fine-grained gouges prepared from serpentinite and gabbro from the Coast Range Ophiolite, a Great Valley Sequence graywacke, and three different Franciscan Complex metasedimentary rocks. Friction coefficients ranged from 0.36 for the serpentinite to 0.84 for the gabbro, with four of the rock types having coefficients of friction ranging from 0.67-0.84. The friction coefficients of the mixtures can be predicted reliably by a simple weighted average of the end-member dry-weight percentages and strengths for all samples except those containing serpentinite. For the serpentinite mixtures, a linear trend between end-member values slightly overestimates the coefficients of friction in the midcomposition ranges. The range in strength for these rock admixtures suggests that both theoretical and numerical modeling of the fault should attempt to account for variations in rock and gouge properties.

  3. Friction and wear behavior of a centrifugally cast lead-free copper alloy containing graphite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestursatya, M.; Kim, J. K.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    2001-08-01

    The tribological properties of a centrifugally cast lead-free copper alloy (C90300), containing an average of 13 vol pct graphite particles (5 µm), have been studied. Friction tests were carried out at three different loads of 44, 88, and 176 N using a pin-on-disk testing method for the base copper alloy and the copper-graphite composite against a 1045 steel disk counterface. The friction coefficient, temperature rise, and weight loss of the pin and disk were measured. To understand the wear mechanism, the wear debris and the surfaces of the pin and the disk were analyzed before and after the tests, using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The friction coefficient of the copper-graphite pins was lower than that of the base-alloy pins for all applied loads, which was attributed to the presence of the graphite in the matrix. It was also observed that the presence of graphite in the matrix reduces the transfer of iron from the counterface to the pins, but enhances the transfer of materials from the pins to the counterface. The temperature rise in the counterface running against the base-alloy pins was larger than the temperature rise in the counterface running against the copper-graphite pins, both tested under similar conditions. In addition, the effect of element transfer on the friction coefficient, variations in the weight of the pins and the counterface, as well as the surface roughness, are attributed to the formation of a graphitic tribolayer on the surface of the copper-graphite pins. An isostrain model predicting the friction coefficient of the composites is proposed, which agrees well with the measurements in the present article as well as with measurements made by other investigators.[10

  4. Solvent friction effects propagate over the entire protein molecule through low-frequency collective modes.

    PubMed

    Moritsugu, Kei; Kidera, Akinori; Smith, Jeremy C

    2014-07-24

    Protein solvation dynamics has been investigated using atom-dependent Langevin friction coefficients derived directly from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To determine the effect of solvation on the atomic friction coefficients, solution and vacuum MD simulations were performed for lysozyme and staphylococcal nuclease and analyzed by Langevin mode analysis. The coefficients thus derived are roughly correlated with the atomic solvent-accessible surface area (ASA), as expected from the fact that friction occurs as the result of collisions with solvent molecules. However, a considerable number of atoms with higher friction coefficients are found inside the core region. Hence, the influence of solvent friction propagates into the protein core. The internal coefficients have large contributions from the low-frequency modes, yielding a simple picture of the surface-to-core long-range damping via solvation governed by collective low-frequency modes. To make use of these findings in implicit-solvent modeling, we compare the all-atom friction results with those obtained using Langevin dynamics (LD) with two empirical representations: the constant-friction and the ASA-dependent (Pastor-Karplus) friction models. The constant-friction model overestimates the core and underestimates the surface damping whereas the ASA-dependent friction model, which damps protein atoms only on the solvent-accessible surface, reproduces well the friction coefficients for both the surface and core regions observed in the explicit-solvent MD simulations. Therefore, in LD simulation, the solvent friction coefficients should be imposed only on the protein surface. PMID:24999844

  5. Solvent friction effects propagate over the entire protein molecule through low-frequency collective modes.

    PubMed

    Moritsugu, Kei; Kidera, Akinori; Smith, Jeremy C

    2014-07-24

    Protein solvation dynamics has been investigated using atom-dependent Langevin friction coefficients derived directly from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To determine the effect of solvation on the atomic friction coefficients, solution and vacuum MD simulations were performed for lysozyme and staphylococcal nuclease and analyzed by Langevin mode analysis. The coefficients thus derived are roughly correlated with the atomic solvent-accessible surface area (ASA), as expected from the fact that friction occurs as the result of collisions with solvent molecules. However, a considerable number of atoms with higher friction coefficients are found inside the core region. Hence, the influence of solvent friction propagates into the protein core. The internal coefficients have large contributions from the low-frequency modes, yielding a simple picture of the surface-to-core long-range damping via solvation governed by collective low-frequency modes. To make use of these findings in implicit-solvent modeling, we compare the all-atom friction results with those obtained using Langevin dynamics (LD) with two empirical representations: the constant-friction and the ASA-dependent (Pastor-Karplus) friction models. The constant-friction model overestimates the core and underestimates the surface damping whereas the ASA-dependent friction model, which damps protein atoms only on the solvent-accessible surface, reproduces well the friction coefficients for both the surface and core regions observed in the explicit-solvent MD simulations. Therefore, in LD simulation, the solvent friction coefficients should be imposed only on the protein surface.

  6. The Friction Factor in the Forchheimer Equation for Rock Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jia-Qing; Hu, Shao-Hua; Chen, Yi-Feng; Wang, Min; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2016-08-01

    The friction factor is an important dimensionless parameter for fluid flow through rock fractures that relates pressure head loss to average flow velocity; it can be affected by both fracture geometry and flow regime. In this study, a theoretical formula form of the friction factor containing both viscous and inertial terms is formulated by incorporating the Forchheimer equation, and a new friction factor model is proposed based on a recent phenomenological relation for the Forchheimer coefficient. The viscous term in the proposed formula is inversely proportional to Reynolds number and represents the limiting case in Darcy flow regime when the inertial effects diminish, whereas the inertial term is a power function of the relative roughness and represents a limiting case in fully turbulent flow regime when the fracture roughness plays a dominant role. The proposed model is compared with existing friction factor models for fractures through parametric sensitivity analyses and using experimental data on granite fractures, showing that the proposed model has not only clearer physical significance, but also better predictive performance. By accepting proper percentages of nonlinear pressure drop to quantify the onset of Forchheimer flow and fully turbulent flow, a Moody-type diagram with explicitly defined flow regimes is created for rock fractures of varying roughness, indicating that rougher fractures have a large friction factor and are more prone to the Forchheimer flow and fully turbulent flow. These findings may prove useful in better understanding of the flow behaviors in rock fractures and improving the numerical modeling of non-Darcy flow in fractured aquifers.

  7. Friction and Surface Damage of Several Corrosion-resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Marshall B; Johnson, Robert L

    1952-01-01

    Friction and surface damage of several materials that are resistant to corrosion due to liquid metals was studied in air. The values of kinetic friction coefficient at low sliding velocities and photomicrographs of surface damage were obtained. Appreciable surface damage was evident for all materials tested. The friction coefficients for the combinations of steel, stainless steel, and monel sliding against steel, stainless steel, nickel, Iconel, and Nichrome ranged from 0.55 for the monel-Inconel combination to 0.97 for the stainless-steel-nickel combination; for steel, stainless steel, monel, and tungsten carbide against zirconium, the friction coefficient was approximately 0.47. Lower coefficients of friction (0.20 to 0.60) and negligible surface failure at light loads were obtained with tungsten carbide when used in combination with various plate materials.

  8. Interfacial Friction of PDMS Network Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landherr, Lucas J. T.; Cohen, Claude; Archer, Lynden A.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on developing a surface-attached lubricant that would significantly decrease friction and wear. Vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane chains are spincoated with a crosslinking agent and platinum catalyst onto silicon wafers covered with a self-assembling monolayer. Atomic force microscopy is used to analyze the coefficient of friction (COF) of the PDMS-SAM surface tethered network. Model networks with microscale thicknesses have COFs approximately three times larger than the thinner networks.

  9. Friction and plasticity between self-affine surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Binquan; Robbins, Mark; Harrison, Judith

    2006-03-01

    Simulations are used to study the contact area and adhesion between two amorphous solids with self-affine fractal surfaces, and the results are compared to continuum calculations. The friction between non-adhesive surfaces is proportional to load, but the coefficient of friction increases with roughness. The friction is much higher than expected for elasticallly deforming surfaces,^* and substantial plastic deformation is observed. Indeed, friction forces for different surface roughness collapse when plotted against the number of plastic rearrangements per unit sliding distance. Including adhesion leads to an increase in both friction and plasticity. ^* M. H. Müser, L. Wenning, and M. O. Robbins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1295 (2001).

  10. Tactile texture and friction of soft sponge surfaces.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira; Suzuki, Makoto; Imai, Yumi; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the tactile texture and frictional properties of five soft sponges with various cell sizes. The frictional forces were measured by a friction meter containing a contact probe with human-finger-like geometry and mechanical properties. When the subjects touched these sponges with their fingers, hard-textured sponges were deemed unpleasant. This tactile feeling changed with friction factors including friction coefficients, their temporal patterns, as well as mechanical and shape factors. These findings provide useful information on how to control the tactile textures of various sponges.

  11. Effect of time derivative of contact area on dynamic friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Kazuo

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated dynamic friction during oblique impact of a golf ball by evaluating the ball's angular velocity, contact force, and the contact area between the ball and target. The effect of the contact area on the angular velocities was evaluated, and the results indicated that the contact area plays an important role in dynamic friction. In this study, the dynamic friction force F was given by F = μN + μη dA/dt, where μ is the coefficient of friction, N is the contact force, dA/dt is the time derivative of the contact area A, and η is a coefficient associated with the contact area.

  12. Internal Friction And Instabilities Of Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of effects of internal friction on dynamics of rotors prompted by concern over instabilities in rotors of turbomachines. Theoretical and experimental studies described. Theoretical involved development of nonlinear mathematical models of internal friction in three joints found in turbomachinery - axial splines, Curvic(TM) splines, and interference fits between smooth cylindrical surfaces. Experimental included traction tests to determine the coefficients of friction of rotor alloys at various temperatures, bending-mode-vibration tests of shafts equipped with various joints and rotordynamic tests of shafts with axial-spline and interference-fit joints.

  13. Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander M; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan

    2013-10-01

    Ionic liquids - salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions - are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition. PMID:23942943

  14. Coordinated Water Under Confinement Eases Sliding Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defante, Adrian; Dhopotkar, Nishad; Dhinojwala, Ali

    Water is essential to a number of interfacial phenomena such as the lubrication of knee joints, protein folding, mass transport, and adsorption processes. We have used a biaxial friction cell to quantify underwater friction between a hydrophobic elastomeric lens and a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer in the presence of surfactant solutions. To gain an understanding of the role of water in these processes we have coupled this measurement with surface sensitive sum frequency generation to directly probe the molecular constitution of the confined contact interface. We observe that role of confined coordinated water between two hydrophobic substrates covered with surfactants is the key to obtaining a low coefficient of friction.

  15. Multiscale physics of rubber-ice friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuononen, Ari J.; Kriston, András; Persson, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Ice friction plays an important role in many engineering applications, e.g., tires on icy roads, ice breaker ship motion, or winter sports equipment. Although numerous experiments have already been performed to understand the effect of various conditions on ice friction, to reveal the fundamental frictional mechanisms is still a challenging task. This study uses in situ white light interferometry to analyze ice surface topography during linear friction testing with a rubber slider. The method helps to provide an understanding of the link between changes in the surface topography and the friction coefficient through direct visualization and quantitative measurement of the morphologies of the ice surface at different length scales. Besides surface polishing and scratching, it was found that ice melts locally even after one sweep showing the refrozen droplets. A multi-scale rubber friction theory was also applied to study the contribution of viscoelasticity to the total friction coefficient, which showed a significant level with respect to the smoothness of the ice; furthermore, the theory also confirmed the possibility of local ice melting.

  16. Frictional behavior of large displacement experimental faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Blanpied, M.L.; Weeks, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The coefficient of friction and velocity dependence of friction of initially bare surfaces and 1-mm-thick simulated fault gouges (400 mm at 25??C and 25 MPa normal stress. Steady state negative friction velocity dependence and a steady state fault zone microstructure are achieved after ???18 mm displacement, and an approximately constant strength is reached after a few tens of millimeters of sliding on initially bare surfaces. Simulated fault gouges show a large but systematic variation of friction, velocity dependence of friction, dilatancy, and degree of localization with displacement. At short displacement (<10 mm), simulated gouge is strong, velocity strengthening and changes in sliding velocity are accompanied by relatively large changes in dilatancy rate. With continued displacement, simulated gouges become progressively weaker and less velocity strengthening, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate decreases, and deformation becomes localized into a narrow basal shear which at its most localized is observed to be velocity weakening. With subsequent displacement, the fault restrengthens, returns to velocity strengthening, or to velocity neutral, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate becomes larger, and deformation becomes distributed. Correlation of friction, velocity dependence of friction and of dilatancy rate, and degree of localization at all displacements in simulated gouge suggest that all quantities are interrelated. The observations do not distinguish the independent variables but suggest that the degree of localization is controlled by the fault strength, not by the friction velocity dependence. The friction velocity dependence and velocity dependence of dilatancy rate can be used as qualitative measures of the degree of localization in simulated gouge, in agreement with previous studies. Theory equating the friction velocity dependence of simulated gouge to the sum of the friction velocity dependence of bare surfaces and the velocity

  17. Internally architectured materials with directionally asymmetric friction

    PubMed Central

    Bafekrpour, Ehsan; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Molotnikov, Andrey; Estrin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Internally Architectured Materials (IAMs) that exhibit different friction forces for sliding in the opposite directions are proposed. This is achieved by translating deformation normal to the sliding plane into a tangential force in a manner that is akin to a toothbrush with inclined bristles. Friction asymmetry is attained by employing a layered material or a structure with parallel ‘ribs’ inclined to the direction of sliding. A theory of directionally asymmetric friction is presented, along with prototype IAMs designed, fabricated and tested. The friction anisotropy (the ξ-coefficient) is characterised by the ratio of the friction forces for two opposite directions of sliding. It is further demonstrated that IAM can possess very high levels of friction anisotropy, with ξ of the order of 10. Further increase in ξ is attained by modifying the shape of the ribs to provide them with directionally dependent bending stiffness. Prototype IAMs produced by 3D printing exhibit truly giant friction asymmetry, with ξ in excess of 20. A novel mechanical rectifier, which can convert oscillatory movement into unidirectional movement by virtue of directionally asymmetric friction, is proposed. Possible applications include locomotion in a constrained environment and energy harvesting from oscillatory noise and vibrations. PMID:26040634

  18. Kalker's algorithm Fastsim solves tangential contact problems with slip-dependent friction and friction anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, J.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents two extensions of Kalker's algorithm Fastsim of the simplified theory of rolling contact. The first extension is for solving tangential contact problems with the coefficient of friction depending on slip velocity. Two friction laws have been considered: with and without recuperation of the static friction. According to the tribological hypothesis for metallic bodies shear failure, the friction law without recuperation of static friction is more suitable for wheel and rail than the other one. Sample results present local quantities inside the contact area (division to slip and adhesion, traction) as well as global ones (creep forces as functions of creepages and rolling velocity). For the coefficient of friction diminishing with slip, the creep forces decay after reaching the maximum and they depend on the rolling velocity. The second extension is for solving tangential contact problems with friction anisotropy characterised by a convex set of the permissible tangential tractions. The effect of the anisotropy has been shown on examples of rolling without spin and in the presence of pure spin for the elliptical set. The friction anisotropy influences tangential tractions and creep forces. Sample results present local and global quantities. Both extensions have been described with the same language of formulation and they may be merged into one, joint algorithm.

  19. Estimation of Dynamic Friction Process of the Akatani Landslide Based on the Waveform Inversion and Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Mangeney, A.; Moretti, L.; Matsushi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding physical parameters, such as frictional coefficients, velocity change, and dynamic history, is important issue for assessing and managing the risks posed by deep-seated catastrophic landslides. Previously, landslide motion has been inferred qualitatively from topographic changes caused by the event, and occasionally from eyewitness reports. However, these conventional approaches are unable to evaluate source processes and dynamic parameters. In this study, we use broadband seismic recordings to trace the dynamic process of the deep-seated Akatani landslide that occurred on the Kii Peninsula, Japan, which is one of the best recorded large slope failures. Based on the previous results of waveform inversions and precise topographic surveys done before and after the event, we applied numerical simulations using the SHALTOP numerical model (Mangeney et al., 2007). This model describes homogeneous continuous granular flows on a 3D topography based on a depth averaged thin layer approximation. We assume a Coulomb's friction law with a constant friction coefficient, i. e. the friction is independent of the sliding velocity. We varied the friction coefficients in the simulation so that the resulting force acting on the surface agrees with the single force estimated from the seismic waveform inversion. Figure shows the force history of the east-west components after the band-pass filtering between 10-100 seconds. The force history of the simulation with frictional coefficient 0.27 (thin red line) the best agrees with the result of seismic waveform inversion (thick gray line). Although the amplitude is slightly different, phases are coherent for the main three pulses. This is an evidence that the point-source approximation works reasonably well for this particular event. The friction coefficient during the sliding was estimated to be 0.38 based on the seismic waveform inversion performed by the previous study and on the sliding block model (Yamada et al., 2013

  20. The role of adsorbed water on the friction of a layer of submicron particles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sammis, Charles G.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Ze’ev

    2011-01-01

    Anomalously low values of friction observed in layers of submicron particles deformed in simple shear at high slip velocities are explained as the consequence of a one nanometer thick layer of water adsorbed on the particles. The observed transition from normal friction with an apparent coefficient near μ = 0.6 at low slip speeds to a coefficient near μ = 0.3 at higher slip speeds is attributed to competition between the time required to extrude the water layer from between neighboring particles in a force chain and the average lifetime of the chain. At low slip speeds the time required for extrusion is less than the average lifetime of a chain so the particles make contact and lock. As slip speed increases, the average lifetime of a chain decreases until it is less than the extrusion time and the particles in a force chain never come into direct contact. If the adsorbed water layer enables the otherwise rough particles to rotate, the coefficient of friction will drop to μ = 0.3, appropriate for rotating spheres. At the highest slip speeds particle temperatures rise above 100°C, the water layer vaporizes, the particles contact and lock, and the coefficient of friction rises to μ = 0.6. The observed onset of weakening at slip speeds near 0.001 m/s is consistent with the measured viscosity of a 1 nm thick layer of adsorbed water, with a minimum particle radius of approximately 20 nm, and with reasonable assumptions about the distribution of force chains guided by experimental observation. The reduction of friction and the range of velocities over which it occurs decrease with increasing normal stress, as predicted by the model. Moreover, the analysis predicts that this high-speed weakening mechanism should operate only for particles with radii smaller than approximately 1 μm. For larger particles the slip speed required for weakening is so large that frictional heating will evaporate the adsorbed water and weakening will not occur.

  1. Frictional Heating Recoded in Vitrinite Reflectance Within Coal Material Concentrated Layer: the Cretaceous Shimanto Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyohiko, M.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hirose, T.; Kitamura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Frictional heating by faulting is related to effective friction coefficient, displacement, and thickness of fault. Geological records of frictional heating have been measured from some faults by various methods and applied to reconstructions of the fault slip behaviors (i.e., Fulton et al., 2012). Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) is one of the methods to detect the geological records of frictional heating. Vitrinite is a kind of coal maceral. Degree of coalification is related to Ro. In the previous studies, using Ro, frictional heating was identified along some faults including shallow deocollement and mega-splay fault in Nankai trough (Sakaguchi et al., 2011). The similar geological evidence can be observed in exhumed accretionary complexes. In this study, we tried to detect the evidence of frictional heating along minor faults developed in an exhumed accretionary complex using Ro. A coal concentrated layer was found in an exhumed accretionary complex, Shimanto Belt, SW Japan. The thickness of the coal concentrated layer is about 80 cm. Some faults are developed within the coal concentrated layer. Thickness of the faults is about a few mm to 1 cm. The coal concentrated layer is appropriate to examine the distribution of Ro. I measured Ro from samples collected around and outside of the layer. Ro of the sample more than 3cm away from the fault was about 1.0% in average. This value is corresponds the background value in this area. On the other hand, Ro of the samples within 3 cm from the fault shows bimodal distribution in histogram representing 1.0% and 1.2% at the peaks. This higher peak can indicate the frictional heating by faulting. Temperature by frictional heating was estimated from Ro following methods of O'Hara (2004), Fulton et al (2012) and Kitamura et al (2013). O'Hara (2004) set cooling rates as 100c/Ma and 0.035, 1.0c/s. Fulton et al. (2012) calculated temperature evolution at and around a fault on the basis of frictional heating and heat diffusion. Both

  2. A multiscale transport model for Lennard-Jones binary mixtures based on interfacial friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadauria, Ravi; Aluru, N. R.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamic transport model for non-reacting binary mixtures in slit shaped nanochannels. The coupled species momentum equations contain viscous dissipation and interspecies friction term of Maxwell-Stefan form. Species partial viscosity variations in the confinement are modeled using the van der Waals one fluid approximation and the local average density method. Species specific macroscopic friction coefficient based Robin boundary conditions are provided to capture the species wall slip effects. The value of this friction coefficient is computed using a species specific generalized Langevin formulation. Gravity driven flow of methane-hydrogen and methane-argon mixtures confined between graphene slit shaped nanochannels are considered as examples. The proposed model yields good quantitative agreement with the velocity profiles obtained from the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The mixtures considered are observed to behave as single species pseudo fluid, with the interfacial friction displaying linear dependence on molar composition of the mixture. The results also indicate that the different species have different slip lengths, which remain unchanged with the channel width.

  3. A multiscale transport model for Lennard-Jones binary mixtures based on interfacial friction.

    PubMed

    Bhadauria, Ravi; Aluru, N R

    2016-08-21

    We propose a one-dimensional isothermal hydrodynamic transport model for non-reacting binary mixtures in slit shaped nanochannels. The coupled species momentum equations contain viscous dissipation and interspecies friction term of Maxwell-Stefan form. Species partial viscosity variations in the confinement are modeled using the van der Waals one fluid approximation and the local average density method. Species specific macroscopic friction coefficient based Robin boundary conditions are provided to capture the species wall slip effects. The value of this friction coefficient is computed using a species specific generalized Langevin formulation. Gravity driven flow of methane-hydrogen and methane-argon mixtures confined between graphene slit shaped nanochannels are considered as examples. The proposed model yields good quantitative agreement with the velocity profiles obtained from the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The mixtures considered are observed to behave as single species pseudo fluid, with the interfacial friction displaying linear dependence on molar composition of the mixture. The results also indicate that the different species have different slip lengths, which remain unchanged with the channel width. PMID:27544095

  4. Evaluating the Dynamic Character of Friction During Metal Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Stoudt, M.R.; Mates, S.P.; Hubbard, J.B.; Pitchure, D.J.

    2005-08-05

    The inhomogeneous distribution of surface asperities generated by deformation induces variability in the friction and initiates strain localizations during metal forming. The friction literature generally does not account for the strong influence localized variations in material properties have on the friction behavior. A prototype apparatus was developed that measures the friction behavior under simulated forming conditions and enables detailed characterization of the influences of the microstructure and the topographical conditions that occur under those conditions. The results demonstrate that the measurement system can resolve subtle real-time changes in the dynamic friction coefficient, and that a correlation could exist between the largest surface asperities and the largest variations in the measured friction coefficient.

  5. Prediction of Very High Reynolds Number Compressible Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, John R.

    1998-01-01

    Flat plate skin friction calculations over a range of Mach numbers from 0.4 to 3.5 at Reynolds numbers from 16 million to 492 million using a Navier Stokes method with advanced turbulence modeling are compared with incompressible skin friction coefficient correlations. The semi-empirical correlation theories of van Driest; Cope; Winkler and Cha; and Sommer and Short T' are used to transform the predicted skin friction coefficients of solutions using two algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence models in the Navier-Stokes method PAB3D. In general, the predicted skin friction coefficients scaled well with each reference temperature theory though, overall the theory by Sommer and Short appeared to best collapse the predicted coefficients. At the lower Reynolds number 3 to 30 million, both the Girimaji and Shih, Zhu and Lumley turbulence models predicted skin-friction coefficients within 2% of the semi-empirical correlation skin friction coefficients. At the higher Reynolds numbers of 100 to 500 million, the turbulence models by Shih, Zhu and Lumley and Girimaji predicted coefficients that were 6% less and 10% greater, respectively, than the semi-empirical coefficients.

  6. Turbine blade friction damping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominic, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A lumped parameter method, implemented on a VAX 11/780 computer shows that the primary parameters affecting the performance of the friction damper of the first stage turbine of the SSME high pressure fuel pump are: the damper-blade coefficient of friction; the normal force applied to the friction interface; the amplitude of the periodic forcing function; the relative phase angle of the forcing functions for adjacent blades bridged by a damper (effectively, the engine order of the forcing function); and the amount of hysteretic damping that acts to limit the vibration amplitude of the blade in its resonance modes. The low order flexural resonance vibration modes of HPFTP blades without dampers, with production dampers, and with two types of lightweight experimental dampers were evaluated in high speed spin pit tests. Results agree with those of the analytical study in that blades fitted with production friction dampers experienced the airfoil-alone flexural resonance mode, while those without dampers or with lighter weight dampers did not. No blades fitted with dampers experienced the whole blade flexural resonance mode during high speed tests, while those without dampers did.

  7. A vacuum (10(exp -9) Torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoSx films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this paper describes an ultrahigh vacuum friction apparatus (tribometer). The tribometer can be used in a ball-on-disk configuration and is specifically designed to measure the friction and endurance life of solid lubricating films such as MoS(x) in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa. The sliding mode is typically unidirectional at a constant rotating speed. The second part of this paper presents some representative friction and endurance life data for magnetron sputtered MoS(x) films (110 nm thick) deposited on sputter-cleaned 440 C stainless-steel disk substrates, which were slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel bearing ball. All experiments were conducted with loads of 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact pressure, 0.33 to 0.69 GPa), at a constant rotating speed of 120 rpm (sliding velocity ranging from 31 to 107 mm/s due to the range of wear track radii involved in the experiments), in a vacuum of 7 x 10 exp -7 Pa and at room temperature. The results indicate that there are similarities in friction behavior of MoS(x) films overs their life cycles regardless of load applied. The coefficient of friction (mu) decreases as load W increases according to mu = kW exp -1/3. The endurance life E of MoS(x) films decreases as the load W increases according to E = KW exp -1.4 for the load range. The load- (or contract-pressure-) dependent endurance life allows us to reduce the time for wear experiments and to accelerate endurance life testing of MoS(x) films. For the magnetron-sputtered MoS(x) films deposited on 440 C stainless-steel disks: the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the number of revolutions was 3 x 10 exp -8 mm exp 3/N-revolution; the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the total sliding distance was 8 x 10 exp -7 mm exp 3/N-m; and the nondimensional wear coefficient of was approximately 5 x 10 exp -6. The values are almost independent of load in the range 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact

  8. Measuring anisotropic friction on WTe2 using atomic force microscopy in the force-distance and friction modes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gregory S; Myhra, Sverre; Watson, Jolanta A

    2010-04-01

    Layered materials which can be easily cleaved have proved to be excellent samples for the study of atomic scale friction. The layered transition metal dichalcogenides have been particularly popular. These materials exhibit a number of interesting properties ranging from superconductivity to low frictional coefficients. In this paper we have investigated the tribology of the dichalcogenide-WTe2. The coefficient of friction is less than 0.040 along the Te rows and increases to over 0.045 across the rows. The frictional forces almost doubled at normal loads of 5000 nN when scanning in the [010] direction in comparison to the [100] direction. The frictional responses of the AFM probe have been monitored in the frictional force and force-versus-distance (f-d) mode. A comparison between the outcomes using the two different modes demonstrates the factors which need to be considered for accurate measurements. PMID:20355449

  9. Measuring anisotropic friction on WTe2 using atomic force microscopy in the force-distance and friction modes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gregory S; Myhra, Sverre; Watson, Jolanta A

    2010-04-01

    Layered materials which can be easily cleaved have proved to be excellent samples for the study of atomic scale friction. The layered transition metal dichalcogenides have been particularly popular. These materials exhibit a number of interesting properties ranging from superconductivity to low frictional coefficients. In this paper we have investigated the tribology of the dichalcogenide-WTe2. The coefficient of friction is less than 0.040 along the Te rows and increases to over 0.045 across the rows. The frictional forces almost doubled at normal loads of 5000 nN when scanning in the [010] direction in comparison to the [100] direction. The frictional responses of the AFM probe have been monitored in the frictional force and force-versus-distance (f-d) mode. A comparison between the outcomes using the two different modes demonstrates the factors which need to be considered for accurate measurements.

  10. Investigation of Friction-induced Damage to the Pig Cornea.

    PubMed

    Barros, Raquel C; Van Kooten, Theo G; Veeregowda, Deepak Halenahally

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical friction causes damage to the cornea. A friction measurement device with minimal intervention with the pig cornea tear film revealed a low friction coefficient of 0.011 in glycerine solution. Glycerine molecules presumably bind to water, mucins, and epithelial cells and therewith improve both squeeze film and boundary lubrication. Using confocal microscopy, we determined that glycerine solution reduced damage to epithelial cells by 50% compared with the phosphate buffer saline.

  11. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin.

    PubMed

    Veijgen, N K; Masen, M A; van der Heide, E

    2013-12-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on the human skin, subject characteristics and environmental conditions on skin friction. The data are obtained on 50 subjects (34 males and 16 females). Friction measurements represent the friction between in vivo human skin and an aluminium sample, assessed on three anatomical locations. The coefficient of friction increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing age, increasing ambient temperature and increasing relative air humidity. A significant inversely proportional relationship was found between friction and both the amount of hair present on the skin and the height of the subject. Other outcome variables in this study were the hydration of the skin and the skin temperature.

  12. Contact Hysteresis and Friction of Alkanethiol SAMs on Au

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J.E.; Kiely, J.D.

    1998-10-14

    Nanoindentation has been combhed with nanometer-scale friction measurements to identi~ dissipative mechanisms responsible for friction in hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayer on Au. We have demonstrated that friction is primarily due to viscoelastic relaxations within the films, which give rise to contact hysteresis when deformation rates are within the ranges of 5 and 200 k. We observe that this contact hysteresis increases with exposure to air such that the friction coefficient increases from 0.004 to 0.075 when films are exposed to air for 40 days. Both hysteresis and friction increase with probe speed, and we present a model of friction that characterizes this speed dependence and which also predicts a linear dependence of friction on normal force in thin organic films. Finally, we identify several short-term wear regimes and identify that wear changes dramatically when fdms age.

  13. On surface structure and friction regulation in reptilian limbless locomotion.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, Hisham A

    2013-06-01

    One way of controlling friction and associated energy losses is to engineer a deterministic structural pattern on the surface of the rubbing parts (i.e., texture engineering). Custom texturing enhances the quality of lubrication, reduces friction, and allows the use of lubricants of lower viscosity. To date, a standardized procedure to generate deterministic texture constructs is virtually non-existent. Many engineers, therefore, study natural species to explore surface construction and to probe the role that surface topography assumes in friction control. Snakes offer rich examples of surfaces where topological features allow the optimization and control of frictional behavior. In this paper, we investigate the frictional behavior of a constrictor type reptile, Python regius. The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakeskin. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the converse direction. Detailed analysis of the surface metrological feature reveals that tuning frictional response in snakes originates from the hierarchical nature of surface topology combined to the profile asymmetry of the surface micro-features, and the variation of the curvature of the contacting scales at different body regions. Such a combination affords the reptile the ability to optimize the frictional response.

  14. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  15. The asymptotics of the solutions of the Signorini problem without friction or with small friction

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, S.A.

    1994-12-25

    We find the first few terms of the asymptotic expansion of a regular solution of the two-dimensional Signorini problem with a small coefficient of friction. As the fundamental approximation we take the solution of the limiting problem without friction. This solution is assumed to be known, and it is assumed that the region of contact consists of a finite number of arcs, on each of which one boundary condition or another is realized. We study the asymptotics of the solution of the Signorini problem without friction under small load variation.

  16. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  17. Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Qu, Zhihua; Braiman, Yehuda; Zhang, Zhenyu; Barhen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

  18. Ice friction: Role of non-uniform frictional heating and ice premelting.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2015-12-14

    The low friction of ice is usually attributed to the formation of a thin water film due to melting of ice by frictional heating. Melting of ice is a first order phase transition where physical quantities like mass density, the elastic modulus or the shear strength changes abruptly at the transition temperature. Thus, one may expect the friction coefficient to change abruptly at some characteristic sliding speed, when the melt water film is produced. We show that taking into account that, due to non-uniform frictional heating, melting does not occur simultaneously in all the ice contact regions, the transition is not abrupt but still more rapid (as a function of sliding speed) than observed experimentally. The slower than expected drop in the friction with increasing sliding speed may be a consequence of the following paradoxical phenomena: before the melt-water film is formed, the friction of ice is high and a large frictional heating occur which may result in the melting of the ice. If a thin (nanometer) water film would form, the friction becomes low which results in small frictional heating and the freezing of the water film. This suggests a region in sliding speed where a thin (nanometer) surface layer of the ice may be in a mixed state with small ice-like and water-like domains, which fluctuate rapidly in space and time. Alternatively, and more likely, heat-softening of the ice may occur resulting in a thin, statistically homogeneous (in the lateral direction) layer of disordered ice, with a shear strength which decreases continuously as the ice surface temperature approaches the bulk melting temperature. This layer could be related to surface premelting of ice. Using a phenomenological expression for the frictional shear stress, I show that the calculated ice friction is in good agreement with experimental observations.

  19. Interfacial slip friction at a fluid-solid cylindrical boundary.

    PubMed

    Kannam, Sridhar Kumar; Todd, B D; Hansen, J S; Daivis, Peter J

    2012-06-28

    Recently we proposed a method to calculate the interfacial friction coefficient between fluid and solid at a planar interface. In this work we extend the method to cylindrical systems where the friction coefficient is curvature dependent. We apply the method to methane flow in carbon nanotubes, and find good agreement with non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The proposed method is robust, general, and can be used to predict the slip for cylindrical nanofluidic systems.

  20. Effect of Nanoclay Reinforcement on the Friction Braking Performance of Hybrid Phenolic Friction Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tej; Patnaik, Amar; Satapathy, Bhabani K.; Kumar, Mukesh; Tomar, Bharat S.

    2013-03-01

    Friction composite formulation consisting of decreasing nanoclay/lapinus fibres content, increasing graphite/aramid fibres content, and master batch of phenolic/barite is designed, fabricated, and characterized for their mechanical, thermo-mechanical, and tribological studies in braking situations. A standard test protocol is adopted for evaluating braking performance. The nanoclay content (≤2.25 wt.%) enhances hardness, impact strength, storage, and loss modulus characteristics of the friction composites. Such composites exhibit higher friction stability as well as variability coefficient. However, composites with higher content of nanoclay (~2.75 wt.%) exhibit moderate level of stability coefficient and minimum variability coefficient. Fade performance improves with nanoclay content whereas friction fluctuations increase continuously with increasing nanoclay content. The disc temperature continuously rises with nanoclay contents, it becomes maximum for nanoclay content 2.75 wt.%. The same composition found to be effective in arresting temperature rise, arrests fading, improves recovery, moderate stability with minimum variability coefficient, and higher level of μ-performance hence recommended. The wear performance deteriorates with lapinus/nanoclay content and improves with the amount of aramid/graphite in the friction composites. Worn surface morphology study (using SEM) reveals the associated wear mechanisms responsible for wear of investigated composites. XRD study confirms the presence and dispersion of nanoclay with other composite ingredients.

  1. Influence of low temperatures of friction and wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udovenko, V. F.; Presnyakova, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    A brief review of studies on low-temperature friction are briefly reviewed. A facility and technique for studying friction both in air and in vacuum at temperatures of +20 and -190 C is described. Results of a wear study of structural steels operating together with chromium steel are presented. It is shown that reduction of the test temperature in vacuum leads in certain cases to marked increase of the wear magnitude and friction coefficient. This is associated not only with the general change of the mechanical properties of the materials but also with the influence of temperature reduction on the hardening and structural formation taking place in the surface layers during friction.

  2. Major and minor slip-events in frictional stick-slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekenis, Georgios; Tatar, Demet; Rubinstein, Shmuel; Weitz, David; Aziz, Michael; Spaepen, Frans

    Several universal phenomena characterize friction that are independent of the materials involved such as the logarithmic aging of the static friction coefficient and the logarithmic velocity weakening of the dynamic friction coefficient. We study dry friction between rough surfaces with programmed statistical profiles. By measuring the displacement field at the frictional interface we observe stick-slip behavior which reveals two kinds of slip: major events that tend to grow large and unbounded and minor events that usually stay small and bounded. Research supported by Harvard MRSEC Program under NSF contracts DMR-0820484, DMR-1420570.

  3. Frictional properties of single crystals HMX, RDX and PETN explosives.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y Q; Huang, F L

    2010-11-15

    The frictional properties of single crystals of cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) secondary explosives are examined using a sensitive friction machine. The explosive crystals used for the measurements are at least 3.5 mm wide. The friction coefficients between crystals of the same explosive (i.e., HMX on HMX, etc.), crystals of different explosives (i.e., HMX on RDX, etc.), and each explosive and a well-polished gauge steel surface are determined. The frictional surfaces are also studied under an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) to analyze surface microstructural changes under increasing loading forces. The friction coefficients vary considerably with increasing normal loading forces and are particularly sensitive to slider shapes, crystal roughness and the mechanical properties of both the slider and the sample. With increasing loading forces, most friction experiments show surface damage, consisting of grooves, debris, and nano-particles, on both the slider and sample. In some cases, a strong evidence of a localized molten state is found in the central region of the friction track. Possible mechanisms that affect the friction coefficient are discussed based on microscopic observations.

  4. Investigation of High Speed Friction Test for Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, K.; Takahashi, S.

    2016-08-01

    To shorten the development stage of automobiles, FEM simulation has been applied. It was important to increase the accuracy of the sheet metal simulation results. The friction coefficient between the sheet metal and dies the greatly affected the simulation results. Therefore, apparatus for measuring the friction coefficient with a specific press forming speed (300 mm/s) has been developed. The materials of the sheet metals and dies were aluminum alloys and die steel respectively. It was found that the friction was affected by the difference between the velocity of the sheet metal and that of the dies.

  5. Study on the friction of κ-carrageenan hydrogels in air and aqueous environments.

    PubMed

    Kozbial, Andrew; Li, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the friction mechanism of polysaccharide hydrogels, which is the key component of human cartilage that has very low friction coefficient, is critical to develop next generation artificial joint replacement materials. In this study, the friction of the polysaccharide κ-carrageenan hydrogel was investigated to elucidate the effect of external load, cross-linking density, velocity, and environment on friction. Our experimental results show that (1) coefficient of friction (COF) decreases with normal load in air and remains constant in water, (2) increasing cross-linking density concurrently increases friction and is proportional to Young's modulus, (3) COF increases with testing velocity in both air and water, and (4) friction is reduced in aqueous environment due to the lubricating effect of water. The underlying frictional mechanism is discussed on the basis of water transport from bulk to surface and a previously proposed "repulsion-adsorption" model.

  6. Friction and deformation behavior of single-crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and deformation studies were conducted with single-crystal silicon carbide in sliding contact with diamond. When the radius of curvature of the spherical diamond rider was large (0.3), deformation of silicon carbide was primarily elastic. Under these conditions the friction coefficient was low and did not show a dependence on the silicon carbide orientation. Further, there was no detectable cracking of the silicon carbide surfaces. When smaller radii of curvature of the spherical diamond riders (0.15 and 0.02 mm) or a conical diamond rider was used, plastic grooving occured and the silicon carbide exhibited anisotropic friction and deformation behavior. Under these conditions the friction coefficient depended on load. Anisotropic friction and deformation of the basal plane of silicon carbide was controlled by the slip system. 10101120and cleavage of1010.

  7. Temperature dependence of nanoscale friction for Fe on YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altfeder, Igor; Krim, Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    A magnetic probe microscopy study of levitation and atomic-scale friction is reported for Fe on YBCO (Tc = 92.5 K) in the temperature range 65-293 K. Below Tc, the friction coefficient is constant and exhibits no correlation with the strength of superconducting levitation forces. Above Tc, the friction coefficient increases progressively, and nearly doubles between Tc and room temperature. The results are discussed within the context of the underlying atomic-scale electronic and phononic mechanisms that give rise to friction, and it is concluded that contact electrification and static electricity may play a significant role in the non-superconducting phase. Given that the properties of YBCO can be finely tuned, the results point the way to a variety of interesting studies of friction and superconductors.

  8. Friction and wear of plasma-deposited diamond films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Garscadden, Alan; Barnes, Paul N.; Jackson, Howard E.

    1993-01-01

    Reciprocating sliding friction experiments in humid air and in dry nitrogen and unidirectional sliding friction experiments in ultrahigh vacuum were conducted with a natural diamond pin in contact with microwave-plasma-deposited diamond films. Diamond films with a surface roughness (R rms) ranging from 15 to 160 nm were produced by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. In humid air and in dry nitrogen, abrasion occurred when the diamond pin made grooves in the surfaces of diamond films, and thus the initial coefficients of friction increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. In vacuum the friction for diamond films contacting a diamond pin arose primarily from adhesion between the sliding surfaces. In these cases, the initial and equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were 0.02 to 0.04 in humid air and in dry nitrogen, but 1.5 to 1.8 in vacuum. The wear factor of the diamond films depended on the initial surface roughness, regardless of environment; it increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The wear factors were considerably higher in vacuum than in humid air and in dry nitrogen.

  9. Theory of noncontact friction for atom-surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentschura, U. D.; Janke, M.; DeKieviet, M.

    2016-08-01

    The noncontact (van der Waals) friction is an interesting physical effect, which has been the subject of controversial scientific discussion. The direct friction term due to the thermal fluctuations of the electromagnetic field leads to a friction force proportional to 1 /Z5 (where Z is the atom-wall distance). The backaction friction term takes into account the feedback of thermal fluctuations of the atomic dipole moment onto the motion of the atom and scales as 1 /Z8 . We investigate noncontact friction effects for the interactions of hydrogen, ground-state helium, and metastable helium atoms with α -quartz (SiO2), gold (Au), and calcium difluorite (CaF2). We find that the backaction term dominates over the direct term induced by the thermal electromagnetic fluctuations inside the material, over wide distance ranges. The friction coefficients obtained for gold are smaller than those for SiO2 and CaF2 by several orders of magnitude.

  10. Surface defects and temperature on atomic friction.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, O Y; Mazo, J J

    2011-09-01

    We present a theoretical study of the effect of surface defects on atomic friction in the stick-slip dynamical regime of a minimalistic model. We focus on how the presence of defects and temperature change the average properties of the system. We have identified two main mechanisms which modify the mean friction force of the system when defects are considered. As expected, defects change the potential profile locally and thus affect the friction force. But the presence of defects also changes the probability distribution function of the tip slip length and thus the mean friction force. We corroborated both effects for different values of temperature, external load, dragging velocity and damping. We also show a comparison of the effects of surface defects and surface disorder on the dynamics of the system. PMID:21846940

  11. Friction in Forming of UD Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, U.; Haanappel, S. P.; Akkerman, R.; Thije, R. H. W. ten; Rooij, M. B. de

    2011-05-04

    Inter-ply and tool/ply friction play a dominant role in hot stamp forming of UD fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates. This research treats friction measurements of a PEEK-AS4 composite system. To this end, an in-house developed friction tester is utilized to pull a laminate through two heat controlled clamping platens. The friction coefficient is determined by relating the clamp force to the pull force. The geometry of the gap between the clamping platens is monitored with micrometer accuracy. A first approach to describe the relation between the geometry and frictional behavior is undertaken by applying a standard thin-film theory for hydrodynamic lubrication. Experimental measurements showed that the thin-film theory does not entirely cover the underlying physics. Thus a second model is utilized, which employs a Leonov-model to describe the shear deformation of the matrix material, while its viscosity is described with a multi-mode Maxwell model. The combination of both models shows the potential to capture the complete frictional behavior.

  12. Friction in Forming of UD Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, U.; Akkerman, R.; Haanappel, S. P.; ten Thije, R. H. W.; de Rooij, M. B.

    2011-05-01

    Inter-ply and tool/ply friction play a dominant role in hot stamp forming of UD fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates. This research treats friction measurements of a PEEK-AS4 composite system. To this end, an in-house developed friction tester is utilized to pull a laminate through two heat controlled clamping platens. The friction coefficient is determined by relating the clamp force to the pull force. The geometry of the gap between the clamping platens is monitored with micrometer accuracy. A first approach to describe the relation between the geometry and frictional behavior is undertaken by applying a standard thin-film theory for hydrodynamic lubrication. Experimental measurements showed that the thin-film theory does not entirely cover the underlying physics. Thus a second model is utilized, which employs a Leonov-model to describe the shear deformation of the matrix material, while its viscosity is described with a multi-mode Maxwell model. The combination of both models shows the potential to capture the complete frictional behavior.

  13. Friction and wear of single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with itself and with transition metals. Results indicate mating highest atomic density directions (110 line type) on matched crystallographic planes exhibit the lowest coefficient of friction indicating that direction is important in the friction behavior of ferrite. Matched parallel high atomic density planes and crystallographic directions at the interface exhibit low coefficients of friction. The coefficients of friction for ferrite in contact with various metals are related to the relative chemical activity of these metals. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. Cracking and the formation of hexagon- and rectangular-shaped platelet wear debris due to cleavages are observed on the ferrite surfaces as a result of sliding.

  14. Friction and wear of single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single crystal manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with itself and with transition metals. Results indicate mating highest atomic density directions (110) on matched crystallographic planes exhibit the lowest coefficient of friction, indicating that direction is important in the friction behavior of ferrite. Matched parallel high atomic density planes and crystallographic directions at the interface exhibit low coefficients of friction. The coefficients of friction for ferrite in contact with various metals are related to the relative chemical activity of these metals. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. Cracking and the formation of hexagon- and rectangular-shaped platelet wear debris due to cleavages of (110) planes are observed on the ferrite surfaces as a result of sliding.

  15. Large-scale landslide simulations: Global deformation, velocities and basal friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles S.; Cleary, Paul W.; Hopkins, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The cause of the apparent small friction exhibited by long runout landslides has long been speculated upon. In an attempt to provide some insight into the matter, this paper describes results obtained from a discrete particle computer simulation of landslides composed of up to 1,000,000 two-dimensional discs. While simplified, the results show many of the characteristics of field data (the volumetric effect on runout, preserved strata, etc.) and with allowances made for the two-dimensional nature of the simulation, the runouts compare well with those of actual landslides. The results challenge the current view that landslides travel as a nearly solid block riding atop a low friction basal layer. Instead, they show that the mass is completely shearing and indicate that the apparent friction coefficient is an increasing function of shear rate. The volumetric effect can then be understood. With all other conditions being equal, different size slides appear to travel with nearly the same average velocity; however, as the larger landslides are thicker, they experience smaller shear rates and correspondingly smaller frictional resistance.

  16. Smart damper using the combination of magnetic friction and pre-compressed rubber springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Choi, Gyuchan; Kim, Hong-Taek; Youn, Heejung

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a new concept of a smart damper using the combination of magnetic friction and rubber springs. The magnet provides energy dissipation, and the rubber springs with precompression contribute to increasing the recentering capacity of the damper. To verify their performance, dynamic tests of magnet frictional dampers and precompressed rubber springs were conducted. For this purpose, hexahedron neodymium (NdFeB) magnets and polyurethane rubber cylinders were used. In the dynamic tests, the loading frequency was varied from 0.1 to 2.0 Hz. The magnets showed almost perfect rectangular behavior in the force-deformation curve, and the frictional coefficient of the magnets was estimated through averaging and regression. The rubber springs were tested with and without precompression. The rubber springs showed different loading path from the second cycle and residual deformation that was not recovered immediately. The rubber springs showed greater rigid force with increasing precompression. Finally, this paper discusses the combination of rigid-elastic behavior and friction to generate 'flag-shaped' behavior for a smart damper and suggests how to combine magnets and rubber springs to obtain flag-shaped behavior. The performance of the magnets and precompressed rubber springs was verified through analytical models.

  17. Friction and wear in threaded surfaces of rotary drill collars

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, H.R. ); Bailey, E.I. ); Williamson, J.S. )

    1993-03-01

    Two surfaces, under high normal stress, in sliding contact provide the basis for friction and wear studies within rotary drill collars. Flat and ring specimens, considering three different contact areas, were rotated to determine the effect of surface finish, coatings, lubricants and normal stress on friction and wear. The 4145 steel specimens were heat-treated to a yield strength of 124,000 lb/in[sup 2] (855 MPa) and a R[sub c] hardness of 28. The torque required to rotate the ring specimen was measured as a function of the rotation angle. The friction coefficient was calculated. Seizure and galling were common for metal-to-metal contact. Rust and phosphate coatings break down under the high normal stress. Metal-filled lubricants produce static coefficients of friction between 0.03 and 0.25 and dynamic coefficients between 0.04 and 0.26. Seizure and galling were not observed.

  18. Micro Surface Texturing for Friction Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashwan, Ola

    Recently, surface texturing has gained momentum as a way to control the friction which is involved in various applications and systems, such as components of internal combustion engines, dies and punches of the metal forming processes and Micro-electrical-mechanical Systems (MEMS). This dissertation demonstrates that under dry sliding, there is a specific significant surface texturing parameter at which the coefficient of friction should be at a minimum. This dissertation met this objective through an extensive study of the relevant literature on surface texturing and friction, analysing the friction mechanisms involved in dry sliding, and highlighting the key factors that control friction as the real area of contact and material properties. An analytical proof is derived demonstrating that a minimum friction force exists if the two components of the friction force, adhesion and mechanical deformation, are differentiated with respect to the real contact area. In addition, numerical simulations and experimental work were performed to test this hypothesis. In the two and three dimensional finite element models, normal and sliding contact between a rigid indenter and elastic-plastic surfaces, which are textured by circular and hexagonal dimples of different sizes and densities, are simulated and analysed. Circular craters of different sizes and densities, are fabricated using laser ablation on hardened tool steel samples, while the hexagonal dimples are fabricated using photo-lithography. The dimples are arranged in adjacent equilateral triangles layout. Coefficients of friction were measured using a scratch tester under dry sliding conditions and constant load. In addition, adhesion forces were estimated using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The adhesion force is found to be exponentially decreasing with the increase of the spatial texture density. The dimensionless quantity, spatial texture density (D/L) was identified as the most significant texturing parameter

  19. Influence of friction on granular segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Stephan; Schröter, Matthias; Swinney, Harry L.

    2007-10-01

    Vertical shaking of a mixture of small and large beads can lead to segregation where the large beads either accumulate at the top of the sample, the so-called Brazil nut effect (BNE), or at the bottom, the reverse Brazil nut effect (RBNE). Here we demonstrate experimentally a sharp transition from the RBNE to the BNE when the particle coefficient of friction increases due to aging of the particles. This result can be explained by the two competing mechanisms of buoyancy and sidewall-driven convection, where the latter is assumed to grow in strength with increasing friction.

  20. Increase in friction force with sliding speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2005-09-01

    A block sliding down an inclined plane normally accelerates. However, if the friction force increases with speed, then the block can slide at a constant terminal speed in a manner similar to the fall of an object through a fluid. Measurements of the increase in the coefficient of friction for tennis ball cloth sliding on a smooth surface are described over speeds varying by a factor of 9000. For the low speed measurements, the ball cloth was attached to the bottom of a weighted box and pulled along a horizontal surface by a constant horizontal force. Results at higher speeds were obtained by bouncing a tennis ball off the surface.

  1. Evidence for Friction Between Crack Surfaces during Deformation of Composite Plastic Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, Donald A.; Redingius, Brett; Ellis, Kevin; Leppard, Claire

    2009-12-01

    The compressive strength has been found to increase linearly with hydrostatic pressure in a low pressure range in which work softening due to crack damage is observed. Analysis indicates that this linear increase can be attributed to friction between the surfaces of closed cracks and a friction coefficient is obtained from the linear slope and the measured angle of the failure plane. Analysis also indicates that the plane of maximum shear stress, the failure plane, is at an angle greater than 45 degrees when friction is present and a friction coefficient is also calculated directly from this angle. In addition, a relationship between the ratio of compressive to tensile strength and the friction coefficient has been given by Zuo and Dienes. The observed ratio is greater than the predicted value without friction and a friction coefficient is obtained from this relationship which is in agreement with the two values obtained as discussed above. This agreement of three independent measures of the friction coefficient is taken a strong evidence for the presence of friction. This friction can be the source of hot spots and ignition during deformation.

  2. Ice Friction in the Sport of Bobsleigh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Louis

    The primary objective of this work is to examine the effect of the bobsleigh runner profile on ice / runner friction. The work is centered on a computational model (F.A.S.T. 3.2b) which calculates the coefficient of friction between a steel blade and ice. The first step was to analyze runners used in the sport of bobsleigh. This analysis was performed using a handheld rocker gauge, a device used in speed skating. The size of the device was optimized for hockey, short and long track speed skating, and bobsleigh. A number of runners were measured using the gauge and it was found that the portion of the runner contacting the ice generally has a rocker value of (20--50) m. Next, the hardness of athletic ice surfaces was analyzed. The ice hardness was determined by dropping steel balls varying in mass from (8--540) g onto the ice surface, from a height of (0.3--1.2) m, and measuring the diameter of the indentation craters. The ice hardness was found to be P¯(T) = ((--0.6 +/- 0.4) T + 14.7 +/- 2.1) MPa and the elastic recovery of the ice surface was found to be negligible. The F.A.S.T. model was adapted from a speed skate model to calculate the coefficient of friction between a bobsleigh runner and a flat ice surface. The model predicts that maximum velocities are obtained for temperatures between --10 and --20°C, in agreement with observations on the Calgary bobsleigh track. The model for flat ice suggests that the flattest runners produce the lowest coefficient of friction and that the rocker affects friction more than the cross-sectional radius. The coefficient of friction between runners and ice and the drag performance of 2-men bobsleighs were determined from radar speed measurements taken at the Calgary Olympic Oval and at Canada Olympic Park: at the Ice House and on the bobsleigh track during a World Cup competition. The mean coefficient of friction was found to be mu = (5.3 +/- 2.0) x 10--3 and the mean drag performance was CdA = (0.18 +/- 0.02) m2.

  3. Friction and nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manini, N.; Braun, O. M.; Tosatti, E.; Guerra, R.; Vanossi, A.

    2016-07-01

    The nonlinear dynamics associated with sliding friction forms a broad interdisciplinary research field that involves complex dynamical processes and patterns covering a broad range of time and length scales. Progress in experimental techniques and computational resources has stimulated the development of more refined and accurate mathematical and numerical models, capable of capturing many of the essentially nonlinear phenomena involved in friction.

  4. Frictional sliding of biotite gouge under hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; He, C.

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the origin of compositionally-weak fault and the mechanical behavior of fault zone composed of biotite-rich rocks in general, this work investigated the frictional sliding behavior of biotite gouge under hydrothermal conditions by shearing 1-mm-thick biotite gouge layers sandwiched between saw-cut driver blocks, using a triaxial testing system with argon gas as confining medium. Experiments were conducted under effective normal stress of 200MPa, with pore pressure of 30MPa, temperatures from room temperature to 600°C, and shear displacement rate were stepped with our standard (0.0001-0.001mm/s) and slow velocity steps (0.00004-0.0002mm/s). The results show that the coefficient of friction of biotite is on the order of 0.29 in the low temperature range (25 to 100°C), and varies around 0.35 for temperatures over 200°C. The overall average of friction coefficient from room temperature up to 600°C is ca. 0.33, evidently weaker than framework minerals such as quartz and feldspar and also weaker than muscovite in the mica group. Within the sliding displacement up to 4mm in our experiments, velocity strengthening occurred at temperatures of 25-200°C, with steady-state rate dependence ranging from 0.001 to 0.006. Weak velocity weakening was found at 300°C, with steady-state rate dependence similar to neutral. At 400°C, the deformation behavior changed radically and very strong velocity strengthening occurred, with steady-state rate dependence ranging from 0.012 to 0.112. At 500 and 600°C, the experiments show strong velocity dependence in the early stage of sliding, but the sliding behavior gradually evolves to stick-slip as the shearing deformation proceeds, indicating strong velocity-weakening behavior. The strongest velocity dependence occurred at 400°C in the early stage of sliding, with stress exponent similar to that of power-law creep, but the confining pressure dependence of shear strength suggests that such a behavior is semi

  5. Friction in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Prashant, P. S.; Nandan, Hemant; Gopalakrishnan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that resistance to sliding (RS) generated at the wire-bracket interface has a bearing on the force transmitted to the teeth. The relative importance of static and kinetic friction and also the effect of friction on anchorage has been a topic of debate. Lot of research work has been done to evaluate the various factors that affect friction and thus purportedly retards the rate of tooth movement. However, relevancy of these studies is questionable as the methodology used hardly simulates the oral conditions. Lately studies have concluded that more emphasis should be laid on binding and notching of archwires as these are considered to be the primary factors involved in retarding the tooth movement. This article reviews the various components involved in RS and the factors affecting friction. Further, research work should be carried out to provide cost effective alternatives aimed at reducing friction. PMID:26538873

  6. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes.

    PubMed

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L

    2012-11-01

    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability.

  7. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.

    2009-06-01

    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient μ when μ<1.

  8. Friction of soft elastomeric wrinkled surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, Charles J.; Crosby, Alfred J.

    2009-09-01

    We evaluate the sliding of a rigid spherical lens over a surface-wrinkled, elastomeric substrate. Sliding is conducted both parallel and perpendicular to the aligned surface wrinkles, and the sliding force is compared to the required sliding forces on nonwrinkled surfaces. We evaluate the effects of wrinkle dimensions and applied normal force on the sliding resistance. A simple Bowden-Tabor friction model can describe the dependence of the sliding force on normal load, with different coefficients of friction associated with the nonwrinkled and wrinkled surfaces both perpendicular and parallel. The aspect ratio of the wrinkles has a secondary effect on the sliding force. We associate the changes in friction to changes in the tangential stiffness and fracture angle caused by the surface wrinkles.

  9. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes

    PubMed Central

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability. PMID:22728386

  10. Frictional strength of wet- and dry- talc gouge in high-velocity shear experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Reches, Z.; Elwood Madden, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The strength of the creeping segment of the San Andres fault may be controlled by the distinct weakness and stability of talc (Moore & Rymer, 2007). We analyze talc frictional strength at high slip-velocity of 0.002 - 0.66 m/s, long slip-distances of 0.01 m to 33 m, and normal stresses up to 4.1 MPa. This analysis bridges the gap between nucleation stage of low velocity/distance, and the frictional behavior during large earthquakes. We tested wet and dry samples of pure talc gouge in a confined rotary cell, and continuously monitored the slip-velocity, stresses, dilation and temperature. We run 29 experiments of single and stepped velocities to obtain 243 values of quasi-static frictional coefficients. Dry talc gouge showed distinct slip-strengthening: friction coefficient of µ ~0.4 at short slip-distances of D < 0.1 m, and it increased systematically to µ ~0.8 at slip-distances of D = 0.1- 1 m; at D > 1 m, the frictional strength saturated at µ= 0.8 - 1 level. Wet talc gouge (16-20% water) displayed low frictional strength of µ= 0.1-0.3, in agreement with published triaxial tests. The stepped-velocity runs revealed a consistent velocity-strengthening trend. For a velocity jump from V1 to V2, we used VD = (µ2 -µ1)/ln (V2/V1), and found that on average VD = 0.06 and 0.03 for dry and wet talc, respectively, and for slip distances shorter than 1 m. Microstructural analysis of post-shearing wet talc gouge revealed extreme slip localization to a principal-slip-zone of a few microns, and significant shear compaction of 10-30%. In contrast, dry talc gouge exhibited distributed shear in a wide zone and systematic shear dilation (10-50%). We propose slip along weak interlayer talc plates and thermal-pressurization as the possible weakening mechanisms for wet talc. The development of distributed secondary fault network along with substantial grain crushing is responsible for slip-strengthening in dry condition. Fig. 1. Friction maps of talc gouge as function of slip

  11. Fractional trajectories: Decorrelation versus friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenkeson, A.; Beig, M. T.; Turalska, M.; West, B. J.; Grigolini, P.

    2013-11-01

    The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation of a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. Heretofore what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction, a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. We apply the general theory developed herein to the Lotka-Volterra ecological model, providing new insight into the final equilibrium state. The relaxation time to achieve this state is also considered.

  12. Bulk-friction modeling of afterslip and the modified Omori law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wennerberg, L.; Sharp, R.V.

    1997-01-01

    Afterslip data from the Superstition Hills fault in southern California, a creep event on the same fault, the modified Omori law, and cumulative moments from aftershocks of the 1957 Aleutian Islands earthquake all indicate that the original formulation by Dieterich (1981) [Constitutive properties of faults with simulated gouge. AGU, Geophys. Monogr. 24, 103-120] for friction evolution is more appropriate for systems far from instability than the commonly used approximation developed by Ruina (1983) [Slip instability and state variable friction laws. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10359-10370] to study instability. The mathematical framework we use to test the friction models is a one-dimensional, massless spring-slider under the simplifying assumption, proposed by Scholz (1990) [The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting. Cambridge University Press] and used by Marone et al. (1991) [On the mechanics of earthquake afterslip. J. Geophys. Res., 96: 8441-8452], that the state variable takes on its velocity-dependent steady-state value throughout motion in response to a step in stress. This assumption removes explicit state-variable dependence from the model, obviating the need to consider state-variable evolution equations. Anti-derivatives of the modified Omori law fit our data very well and are very good approximate solutions to our model equations. A plausible friction model with Omori-law solutions used by Wesson (1988) [Dynamics of fault creep. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 8929-8951] to model fault creep and generalized by Rice (1983) [Constitutive relations for fault slip and earthquake instabilities. Pure Appl. Geophys. 121, 443-475] to a rate-and-state-variable friction model yields exactly Omori's law with exponents greater than 1, but yields unstable solutions for Omori exponents less than 1. We estimate from the Dieterich formulation the dimensionless parameter a* which is equal to the product of the nominal coefficient of friction and the more commonly reported friction

  13. Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (μ = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584

  14. Friction of iron lubricated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of oxygen and various organic molecules on the reduction of the friction of an iron (011) single crystal surface was investigated. A comparison was made between aliphatic and aromatic structures, all of which contained six carbon atoms, and among various halogen atoms. Results of the investigation indicate that hexane and benzene give similar friction coefficients over a range of loads except at very light loads. At light loads, the friction decreased with an increase in the load where the halogens fluorine and chlorine are incorporated into the benzene molecular structure; however, over the same load range when bromine and iodine were present, the friction was relatively unchanged. The aliphatic compound chlorohexane exhibited lower friction coefficients than the aromatic structure chlorobenzene at very light loads. With the brominated benzene structures, however, friction was essentially the same. Oxygen was more effective in reducing friction than were the simple hydrocarbons.

  15. Water-vapor effects on friction of magnetic tape in contact with nickel-zinc ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of humidity of moist nitrogen on the friction and deformation behavior of magnetic tape in contact with a nickel-zinc ferrite spherical pin were studied. The results indicate that the coefficient of friction is markedly dependent on the ambient relative humidity. Although the coefficient of friction remains low below 40-percent relative humidity, it increases rapidly with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent. The general ambient environment of the tape does not have any effect on the friction behavior if the area where the tape is in sliding contact with the ferrite pin is flooded with controlled nitrogen. The response time for the friction of the tape to humidity changes is about 10 sec. The effect of friction as a function of relative humidity on dehumidifying is very similar to that on humidifying. A surface softening of the tape due to water vapor increases the friction of the tape.

  16. Friction of different monolayer lubricants in MEMs interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Street, Mark D.; Ashurst, William Robert; Corwin, Alex David

    2006-01-01

    This report details results from our last year of work (FY2005) on friction in MEMS as funded by the Campaign 6 program for the Microscale Friction project. We have applied different monolayers to a sensitive MEMS friction tester called the nanotractor. The nanotractor is also a useful actuator that can travel {+-}100 {micro}m in 40 nm steps, and is being considered for several MEMS applications. With this tester, we can find static and dynamic coefficients of friction. We can also quantify deviations from Amontons' and Coulomb's friction laws. Because of the huge surface-to-volume ratio at the microscale, surface properties such as adhesion and friction can dominate device performance, and therefore such deviations are important to quantify and understand. We find that static and dynamic friction depend on the monolayer lubricant applied. The friction data can be modeled with a non-zero adhesion force, which represents a deviation from Amontons' Law. Further, we show preliminary data indicating that the adhesion force depends not only on the monolayer, but also on the normal load applied. Finally, we also observe slip deflections before the transition from static to dynamic friction, and find that they depend on the monolayer.

  17. Association between friction and wear in diarthrodial joints lacking lubricin

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Gregory D; Torres, Jahn R; Rhee, David K; Helminen, Heikki J; Hytinnen, Mika M; Cha, Chung-Ja; Elsaid, Khaled; Kim, Kyung-Suk; Cui, Yajun; Warman, Matthew L

    2007-01-01

    Objective The glycoprotein lubricin (encoded by the gene Prg4) is secreted by surface chondrocytes and synovial cells, and has been shown to reduce friction in vitro. In contrast to man-made bearings, mammalian diarthrodial joints must endogenously produce friction-reducing agents. This study was undertaken to investigate whether friction is associated with wear. Methods The lubricating ability of synovial fluid (SF) samples from humans with genetic lubricin deficiency was tested in vitro. The coefficient of friction in the knee joints of normal and lubricin-null mice was measured ex vivo; these joints were also studied by light and electron microscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to image and measure how lubricin reduces friction in vitro. Results SF lacking lubricin failed to reduce friction in the boundary mode. Joints of lubricin-null mice showed early wear and higher friction than joints from their wild-type counterparts. Lubricin self-organized and reduced the work of adhesion between apposing asperities. Conclusion These data show that friction is coupled with wear at the cartilage surface in vivo. They imply that acquired lubricin degradation occurring in inflammatory joint diseases predisposes the cartilage to damage. Lastly, they suggest that lubricin, or similar biomolecules, will have applications in man-made devices in which reducing friction is essential. PMID:17968947

  18. Chirality-dependent friction of bulk molecular solids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dian; Cohen, Adam E

    2014-08-26

    We show that the solid-solid friction between bulk chiral molecular solids can depend on the relative chirality of the two materials. In menthol and 1-phenyl-1-butanol, heterochiral friction is smaller than homochiral friction, while in ibuprofen, heterochiral friction is larger. Chiral asymmetries in the coefficient of sliding friction vary with temperature and can be as large as 30%. In the three compounds tested, the sign of the difference between heterochiral and homochiral friction correlated with the sign of the difference in melting point between racemate (compound or conglomerate) and pure enantiomer. Menthol and ibuprofen each form a stable racemic compound, while 1-phenyl-1-butanol forms a racemic conglomerate. Thus, a difference between heterochiral and homochiral friction does not require the formation of a stable interfacial racemic compound. Measurements of chirality-dependent friction provide a unique means to distinguish the role of short-range intermolecular forces from all other sources of dissipation in the friction of bulk molecular solids.

  19. Mechanisms of friction in diamondlike nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, T. W.; Ohlhausen, J. A.; Tallant, D. R.; Prasad, S. V.

    2007-03-01

    Diamondlike nanocomposite (DLN) coatings (C:H:Si:O) processed from siloxane precursors by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition are well known for their low friction and wear behaviors. In the current study, we have investigated the fundamental mechanisms of friction and interfacial shear strength in DLN coatings and the roles of contact stress and environment on their tribological behavior. Friction and wear measurements were performed from 0.25to0.6GPa contact pressures in three environments: dry (<1% RH) nitrogen, dry (<1% RH) air, and humid (50% RH) air, with precise control of dew point and oxygen content. At 0.3GPa contact stress, the coefficient of friction (COF) in dry nitrogen was extremely low, ˜0.02, whereas in humid air it increased to ˜0.2, with minimal amount of wear in both environments. The coatings also exhibited non-Amontonian friction behavior, with COF decreasing with an increase in Hertzian contact stress. The main mechanism responsible for low friction and wear under varying contact stresses and environments is governed by the interfacial sliding between the DLN coating and the friction-induced transfer film adhered to the ball counterface. This interfacial shear strength, computed from COF-inverse Hertzian contact stress plots, was found to be 9MPa in dry nitrogen and 78MPa in humid air. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis of the interfaces (wear tracks and transfer films) was used to explain the tribochemical effects in both environments. The transfer films generated in humid air were found to be enriched with SiO2 containing fragments, whereas those formed in dry nitrogen had hydrogenated and long range ordered carbons with practically no SiO2 fragments, ultimately resulting in much lower interfacial shear strength and COF.

  20. Mechanisms of friction in diamondlike nanocomposite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, T. W.; Ohlhausen, J. A.; Tallant, D. R.; Prasad, S. V.

    2007-03-15

    Diamondlike nanocomposite (DLN) coatings (C:H:Si:O) processed from siloxane precursors by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition are well known for their low friction and wear behaviors. In the current study, we have investigated the fundamental mechanisms of friction and interfacial shear strength in DLN coatings and the roles of contact stress and environment on their tribological behavior. Friction and wear measurements were performed from 0.25 to 0.6 GPa contact pressures in three environments: dry (<1% RH) nitrogen, dry (<1% RH) air, and humid (50% RH) air, with precise control of dew point and oxygen content. At 0.3 GPa contact stress, the coefficient of friction (COF) in dry nitrogen was extremely low, {approx}0.02, whereas in humid air it increased to {approx}0.2, with minimal amount of wear in both environments. The coatings also exhibited non-Amontonian friction behavior, with COF decreasing with an increase in Hertzian contact stress. The main mechanism responsible for low friction and wear under varying contact stresses and environments is governed by the interfacial sliding between the DLN coating and the friction-induced transfer film adhered to the ball counterface. This interfacial shear strength, computed from COF-inverse Hertzian contact stress plots, was found to be 9 MPa in dry nitrogen and 78 MPa in humid air. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis of the interfaces (wear tracks and transfer films) was used to explain the tribochemical effects in both environments. The transfer films generated in humid air were found to be enriched with SiO{sub 2} containing fragments, whereas those formed in dry nitrogen had hydrogenated and long range ordered carbons with practically no SiO{sub 2} fragments, ultimately resulting in much lower interfacial shear strength and COF.

  1. Ultralow Friction in a Superconducting Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornemann, Hans J.; Siegel, Michael; Zaitsev, Oleg; Bareiss, Martin; Laschuetza, Helmut

    1996-01-01

    Passive levitation by superconducting magnetic bearings can be utilized in flywheels for energy storage. Basic design criteria of such a bearing are high levitation force, sufficient vertical and horizontal stability and low friction. A test facility was built for the measurement and evaluation of friction in a superconducting magnetic bearing as a function of operating temperature and pressure in the vacuum vessel. The bearing consists of a commercial disk shaped magnet levitated above single grain, melt-textured YBCO high-temperature superconductor material. The superconductor was conduction cooled by an integrated AEG tactical cryocooler. The temperature could be varied from 50 K to 80 K. The pressure in the vacuum chamber was varied from 1 bar to 10(exp -5) mbar. At the lowest pressure setting, the drag torque shows a linear frequency dependence over the entire range investigated (0 less than f less than 40 Hz). Magnetic friction, the frequency independent contribution, is very low. The frequency dependent drag torque is generated by molecular friction from molecule-surface collisions and by eddy currents. Given the specific geometry of the set-up and gas pressure, the molecular drag torque can be estimated. At a speed of 40 Hz, the coefficient of friction (drag-to-lift ratio) was measured to be mu = 1.6 x 10(exp -7) at 10(exp -5) mbar and T = 60 K. This is equivalent to a drag torque of 7.6 x 10(exp -10) Nm. Magnetic friction causes approx. 1% of the total losses. Molecular friction accounts for about 13% of the frequency dependent drag torque, the remaining 87% being due to eddy currents and losses from rotor unbalance. The specific energy loss is only 0.3% per hour.

  2. Frictional velocity-weakening in landslides on Earth and on other planetary bodies.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Antoine; Mangeney, Anne; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2014-03-04

    One of the ultimate goals in landslide hazard assessment is to predict maximum landslide extension and velocity. Despite much work, the physical processes governing energy dissipation during these natural granular flows remain uncertain. Field observations show that large landslides travel over unexpectedly long distances, suggesting low dissipation. Numerical simulations of landslides require a small friction coefficient to reproduce the extension of their deposits. Here, based on analytical and numerical solutions for granular flows constrained by remote-sensing observations, we develop a consistent method to estimate the effective friction coefficient of landslides. This method uses a constant basal friction coefficient that reproduces the first-order landslide properties. We show that friction decreases with increasing volume or, more fundamentally, with increasing sliding velocity. Inspired by frictional weakening mechanisms thought to operate during earthquakes, we propose an empirical velocity-weakening friction law under a unifying phenomenological framework applicable to small and large landslides observed on Earth and beyond.

  3. Frictional velocity-weakening in landslides on Earth and on other planetary bodies.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Antoine; Mangeney, Anne; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2014-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals in landslide hazard assessment is to predict maximum landslide extension and velocity. Despite much work, the physical processes governing energy dissipation during these natural granular flows remain uncertain. Field observations show that large landslides travel over unexpectedly long distances, suggesting low dissipation. Numerical simulations of landslides require a small friction coefficient to reproduce the extension of their deposits. Here, based on analytical and numerical solutions for granular flows constrained by remote-sensing observations, we develop a consistent method to estimate the effective friction coefficient of landslides. This method uses a constant basal friction coefficient that reproduces the first-order landslide properties. We show that friction decreases with increasing volume or, more fundamentally, with increasing sliding velocity. Inspired by frictional weakening mechanisms thought to operate during earthquakes, we propose an empirical velocity-weakening friction law under a unifying phenomenological framework applicable to small and large landslides observed on Earth and beyond. PMID:24595169

  4. Volume dependence of landslide effective friction on Earth and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangeney, A.; Lucas, A.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    One of the ultimate goals in landslides hazard assessment is to predict their maximum extension along the slope (runout distance) and their velocity. Despite the great amount of work already devoted to this issue, main questions are still open on the physical processes at work in these granular flows at the natural scale. In particular, field observations show that some landslides may travel over unexpectedly long distances, suggesting a very low mean dissipation during their flow. On the other hand, numerical simulation of real landslides often necessitates the assumption of very small friction coefficient to reproduce the extension of their deposits. Field observations show that the so-called Heim coefficient (i. e. the ratio between the difference of the height of the initial mass and that of the deposit, and the traveling distance) decreases with increasing volume, for landslides observed on Earth and on other planets. Whether this coefficient represents an estimate of the mean effective friction during the flow is still a controversial issue. We show here, using analytical and numerical solutions of granular flows over sloping beds and field observations, that the Heim ratio does not represent the effective friction coefficient. We propose another way to estimate this coefficient from field data. Using this new method, we show that the friction coefficient indeed decreases with increasing volume, but in a different way than that predicted by the Heim coefficient. Numerical simulation of natural landslides on real topography corroborates the volume dependence of the effective friction coefficient. These simulations are used to investigate different processes that may be at the origin of this mean friction weakening with increasing volume.

  5. Confinement-dependent friction in peptide bundles.

    PubMed

    Erbaş, Aykut; Netz, Roland R

    2013-03-19

    Friction within globular proteins or between adhering macromolecules crucially determines the kinetics of protein folding, the formation, and the relaxation of self-assembled molecular systems. One fundamental question is how these friction effects depend on the local environment and in particular on the presence of water. In this model study, we use fully atomistic MD simulations with explicit water to obtain friction forces as a single polyglycine peptide chain is pulled out of a bundle of k adhering parallel polyglycine peptide chains. The whole system is periodically replicated along the peptide axes, so a stationary state at prescribed mean sliding velocity V is achieved. The aggregation number is varied between k = 2 (two peptide chains adhering to each other with plenty of water present at the adhesion sites) and k = 7 (one peptide chain pulled out from a close-packed cylindrical array of six neighboring peptide chains with no water inside the bundle). The friction coefficient per hydrogen bond, extrapolated to the viscous limit of vanishing pulling velocity V → 0, exhibits an increase by five orders of magnitude when going from k = 2 to k = 7. This dramatic confinement-induced friction enhancement we argue to be due to a combination of water depletion and increased hydrogen-bond cooperativity.

  6. Frictional Force Behavior in the Elastic Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, P. J.; Hammerberg, J. E.

    2005-07-01

    The friction force between materials in explosively driven events is an important constitutive relationship, even though defining the friction coefficient in the presence of large bulk deformations is difficult. Measuring the force at an interface near deformations, without significantly modifying the interface in the process, proves difficult as well. Few studies (the pressure-shear plate experiments originally performed by Clifton et al. being one) have investigated the nature of the friction force at the small time-scales and the very high sliding speeds and pressures involved in explosive events. In order to approach the study of such combinations, we have developed a novel experimental apparatus (the rotating barrel gas gun, or RBGG) that gives us independent control of sliding speed and pressure at the interface while keeping the impact elastic, allowing us to make measurements away from the interface and to interpret the results without resorting to a simulation. We measure the axial and torsional strain in an annular target rod produced by the impact of a spinning, translating annular projectile. Experiments performed using Cu/Cu, Cu/Stainless and Cu/Al tribopairs provide some insight into the kinetic coefficient of friction behavior at various sliding speeds and loads.

  7. Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...

  8. An investigation into the kinetic (sliding) friction of some tablets and capsules.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Bruno C; Mojica, Nestor; St John-Green, Kimberley; Elliott, James A; Bharadwaj, Rahul

    2010-01-15

    The kinetic (or sliding) friction of pharmaceutical tablets and capsules influences how they will behave during the conveying, coating, and packaging operations that are used for drug product manufacturing. In order to logically design equipment for manufacturing and packaging operations, and to simulate manufacturing and packaging performance (for example, using discrete or finite element modeling approaches), it is necessary to quantify the magnitude of the kinetic friction. In this work, the coefficient of kinetic friction of a range of pharmaceutical tablets and capsules has been measured for the first time using a pin-on-disk tribometer. Binary tablet-tablet contacts and the contacts between tablets or capsules and common equipment surfaces were studied. The range of the friction coefficients was large (between 0.00 and 0.74), and the values depended strongly on the identity of both contacting materials. Tablet-tablet contacts generally exhibited lower friction coefficients than tablet-polymer or tablet-metal contacts. Polymeric surfaces were generally less frictional than metal surfaces, even those that were highly polished. Tablet coatings appeared to have a marked effect on the kinetic friction coefficient between tablets and equipment surfaces, with the hardest coatings tending to be the least frictional. The surface roughness of the tablets and contacting surfaces did not contribute to the coefficient of kinetic friction in a consistent manner. The implications of the results for the design of conveying, processing and packaging operations are discussed.

  9. Rotordynamic coefficients and leakage flow of parallel grooved seals and smooth seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordmann, R.; Dietzen, F. J.; Janson, W.; Frei, A.; Florjancic, S.

    1987-01-01

    Based on Childs finite length solution for annular plain seals an extension of the bulk flow theory is derived to calculate the rotordynamic coefficients and the leakage flow of seals with parallel grooves in the stator. Hirs turbulent lubricant equations are modified to account for the different friction factors in circumferential and axial direction. Furthermore an average groove depth is introduced to consider the additional circumferential flow in the grooves. Theoretical and experimental results are compared for the smooth constant clearance seal and the corresponding seal with parallel grooves. Compared to the smooth seal the direct and cross-coupled stiffness coefficients as well as the direct damping coefficients are lower in the grooved seal configuration. Leakage is reduced by the grooving pattern.

  10. Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Ronald

    2010-07-20

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy.

  11. Iliotibial band friction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy. PMID:21063495

  12. Ice friction: The effects of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kietzig, Anne-Marie; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.; Englezos, Peter

    2009-07-15

    The effect of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity on ice friction is studied systematically over a wide range of temperature and sliding speeds using several metallic interfaces. Hydrophobicity in combination with controlled roughness at the nanoscale is achieved by femtosecond laser irradiation to mimic the lotus effect on the slider's surface. The controlled roughness significantly increases the coefficient of friction at low sliding speeds and temperatures well below the ice melting point. However, at temperatures close to the melting point and relatively higher speeds, roughness and hydrophobicity significantly decrease ice friction. This decrease in friction is mainly due to the suppression of capillary bridges in spite of the presence of surface asperities that facilitate their formation. Finally, grooves oriented in the sliding direction also significantly decrease friction in the low velocity range compared to scratches and grooves randomly distributed over a surface.

  13. Artificial tribotactic microscopic walkers: walking based on friction gradients.

    PubMed

    Steimel, Joshua P; Aragones, Juan L; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2014-10-24

    Friction, the resistive force between two surfaces sliding past each other, is at the core of a wide diversity of locomotion schemes. While such schemes are well described for homogeneous environments, locomotion based on friction in inhomogeneous environments has not received much attention. Here we introduce and demonstrate the concept of tribotaxis, a motion that is guided by gradients in the friction coefficient. Our system is composed of microwalkers that undergo an effective frictional interaction with biological receptors on the substrate, which is regulated by the density of such receptors. When actuated stochastically, microwalkers migrate to regions of higher friction, much like a chemotactic cell migrates to regions of higher chemoattractant concentration. Simulations and theory based on biased random walks are in excellent agreement with experiments. We foresee important implications for tribotaxis in artificial and natural locomotion in biological environments.

  14. Ice friction: The effects of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietzig, Anne-Marie; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.; Englezos, Peter

    2009-07-01

    The effect of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity on ice friction is studied systematically over a wide range of temperature and sliding speeds using several metallic interfaces. Hydrophobicity in combination with controlled roughness at the nanoscale is achieved by femtosecond laser irradiation to mimic the lotus effect on the slider's surface. The controlled roughness significantly increases the coefficient of friction at low sliding speeds and temperatures well below the ice melting point. However, at temperatures close to the melting point and relatively higher speeds, roughness and hydrophobicity significantly decrease ice friction. This decrease in friction is mainly due to the suppression of capillary bridges in spite of the presence of surface asperities that facilitate their formation. Finally, grooves oriented in the sliding direction also significantly decrease friction in the low velocity range compared to scratches and grooves randomly distributed over a surface.

  15. TBM tunnel friction values for the Grizzly Powerhouse Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stutsman, R.D.; Rothfuss, B.D.

    1995-12-31

    Tunnel boring machine (TBM) driven water conveyance tunnels are becoming increasingly more common. Despite advances in tunnel engineering and construction technology, hydraulic performance data for TBM driven tunnels remains relatively unavailable. At the Grizzly Powerhouse Project, the TBM driven water conveyance tunnel was designed using friction coefficients developed from a previous PG&E project. A range of coefficients were selected to bound the possible hydraulic performance variations of the water conveyance system. These friction coefficients, along with the water conveyance systems characteristics, and expected turbine characteristics, were used in a hydraulic transient analysis to determine the expected system pressure fluctuations, and surge chamber performance. During startup test data, these performance characteristics were measured to allow comparison to the original design assumptions. During construction of the tunnel, plaster casts were made of the actual excavated tunnel unlined and fiber reinforced shotcrete lined surfaces. These castings were used to measure absolute roughness of the surfaces so that a friction coefficient could be developed using the Moody diagram and compare them against the design values. This paper compares the assumed frictional coefficient with computed coefficients from headlosses measured during startup testing, and plaster cast measurement calculations. In addition, a comparison of coefficients will be presented for an other TBM driven water conveyance tunnel constructed in the 1980`s.

  16. Fragility and hysteretic creep in frictional granular jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandi, M. M.; Rivera, M. K.; Krzakala, F.; Ecke, R. E.

    2013-04-01

    The granular jamming transition is experimentally investigated in a two-dimensional system of frictional, bidispersed disks subject to quasistatic, uniaxial compression without vibrational disturbances (zero granular temperature). Three primary results are presented in this experimental study. First, using disks with different static friction coefficients (μ), we experimentally verify numerical results that predict jamming onset at progressively lower packing fractions with increasing friction. Second, we show that the first compression cycle measurably differs from subsequent cycles. The first cycle is fragile—a metastable configuration with simultaneous jammed and unjammed clusters—over a small packing fraction interval (ϕ1<ϕ<ϕ2) and exhibits simultaneous exponential rise in pressure and exponential decrease in disk displacements over the same packing fraction interval. This fragile behavior is explained through a percolation mechanism of stressed contacts where cluster growth exhibits spatial correlation with disk displacements and contributes to recent results emphasizing fragility in frictional jamming. Control experiments show that the fragile state results from the experimental incompatibility between the requirements for zero friction and zero granular temperature. Measurements with several disk materials of varying elastic moduli E and friction coefficients μ show that friction directly controls the start of the fragile state but indirectly controls the exponential pressure rise. Finally, under repetitive loading (compression) and unloading (decompression), we find the system exhibits pressure hysteresis, and the critical packing fraction ϕc increases slowly with repetition number. This friction-induced hysteretic creep is interpreted as the granular pack's evolution from a metastable to an eventual structurally stable configuration. It is shown to depend on the quasistatic step size Δϕ, which provides the only perturbative mechanism in the

  17. Friction- and wear-reducing coating

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Dong; Milner, Robert; Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim

    2011-10-18

    A coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12. A method of coating a substrate includes cleaning the substrate, forming the first layer on the substrate, and depositing the second layer onto the first layer to thereby coat the substrate.

  18. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  19. Friction and wear of polyethylene oxide polymer having a range of molecular weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction and wear experiments were conducted at light loads (25 to 250 g) with various molecular weights of the polyethylene oxide polymer sliding on itself and iron. Results of the experimental investigation indicate that: (1) the coefficient of friction for the polymer decreases with increasing molecular weight; (2) friction coefficient is higher for the polymer sliding on itself than it is for the polymer sliding on iron; (3) at sufficiently high loads localized surface melting occurs and the friction coefficient is the same for the polymer sliding on itself and iron; (4) fracture cracks develop in the sliding wear track at higher but not lower sliding velocities, reflecting a strain rate sensitivity to crack initiation, and (5) the friction coefficient for the polymer sliding on iron increases with the formation of a polymer film on the iron surface.

  20. Friction stir welding tool

    DOEpatents

    Tolle; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy A.

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  1. Effective Wall Friction in Wall-Bounded 3D Dense Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    We report numerical simulations on granular shear flows confined between two flat but frictional sidewalls. Novel regimes differing by their strain localization features are observed. They originate from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the flow. The effective friction at sidewalls is characterized (effective friction coefficient and orientation of the friction force) for each regime, and its interdependence with slip and force fluctuations is pointed out. We propose a simple scaling law linking the slip velocity to the granular temperature in the main flow direction which leads naturally to another scaling law for the effective friction.

  2. Friction differences between aliphatic and aromatic structures in lubrication of titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a titanium (0001) single crystal surface with various adsorbed aliphatic and aromatic compounds containing the same number of carbon atoms. An Auger emission spectroscopy analysis was used to monitor the presence of the organic lubricating compounds. Results of the investigation indicate that hexane and benzene give the same friction coefficients over a range of loads. At light loads the friction decreased with an increase in the halogen atom size where the halogens chlorine, bromine, and iodine are incorporated into the benzene molecular structure. The aliphatic compounds chlorohexane and bromohexane exhibited lower friction coefficients than the aromatic structures chlorobenzene and bromobenzene.

  3. Anisotropic friction and wear of single-crystal manganese-zinc ferrite in contact with itself

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with manganese-zinc ferrite (100), (110), (111), and (211) planes in contact with themselves. Mating the highest-atomic-density directions, (110), of matched crystallographic planes resulted in the lowest coefficients of friction. Mating matched (same) high-atomic-density planes and matched (same)crystallographic directions resulted in low coefficients of friction. Mating dissimilar crystallographic planes, however, did not give significantly different friction results from those with matched planes. Sliding caused cracking and the formation of hexagonal- and rectangular-platelet wear debris on ferrite surfaces, primarily from cleavage of the (110) planes.

  4. Transport coefficients of a quantum system interacting with a squeezed heat bath

    SciTech Connect

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Kanokov, Z.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2006-07-15

    The analytical expressions for the time-dependent friction and diffusion coefficients are presented for the case of coupling in coordinates between the collective subsystem and a squeezed heat bath. The effects of initial phase-sensitive and -insensitive correlations of the heat bath on the diffusion coefficients, fluctuations, and decoherence are studied. The interplay between friction and decoherence is discussed.

  5. Friction Stir Weld Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  6. Friction stir weld tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  7. Friction and wear in surface micromachined tribological test devices

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.C.; Dugger, M.T.

    1997-08-01

    We report on the design, construction, and initial testing of surface micromachined devices for measuring friction and wear. The devices measure friction coefficients on both horizontal deposited polysilicon surfaces and vertical etched polysilicon surfaces. The contact geometry of the rubbing surfaces is well-defined, and a method is presented for the determination of the normal and frictional forces. Initial observations on test devices which have been dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and devices coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane suggest that the coatings increase the lifetime of the devices and the repeatability of the results.

  8. Improving friction performance of cast iron by laser shock peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Huang, Shu; Sheng, Jie; Mei, Yufen; Zhou, Hongda

    2015-05-01

    According to different purpose, some high or low friction coefficient of the material surface is required. In this study, micro-dent texture was fabricated on cast iron specimens by a set of laser shock peening (LSP) experiments under different laser energy, with different patterns of micro dimples in terms of the depth over diameter. The mechanism of LSP was discussed and surface morphology of the micro dimples were investigated by utilizing a Keyence KS-1100 3D optical surface profilometer. The tests under the conditions of dry and lubricating sliding friction were accomplished on the UMT-2 apparatus. The performance of treated samples during friction and wear tests were characterized and analyzed. Based on theoretical analysis and experimental study, friction performance of textured and untextured samples were studied and compared. Morphological characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared after friction tests under dry condition. The results showed that friction coefficient of textured samples were obvious changed than smooth samples. It can be seen that LSP is an effective way to improve the friction performance of cast iron by fabricating high quality micro dimples on its surface, no matter what kind of engineering application mentioned in this paper.

  9. [Evaluation of orthodontic friction using a tribometer with alternating movement].

    PubMed

    Pernier, C M; Jablonska-Mazanek, E D; Ponsonnet, L; Grosgogeat, B

    2005-12-01

    It is essential for orthodontists to control the complex phenomenon of friction. The in vitro techniques, usually dynamometers or tensile testing machines, used to measure the frictional resistance between arch wires and brackets are linear and unidirectional and can be criticised because tooth movements, such as tipping and uprighting, as well everyday oral activities, primarily chewing, are not uni-dimensional but more closely resemble the small amplitude oscillatory phenomena known as fretting. We therefore decided to develop a fretting machine not with linear but with alternating movements better suited to evaluate the frictional behaviour of orthodontic bracket-wire combinations. Once we had completed construction of this device, we proceeded to measure the frictional resistance between one stainless steel bracket (MicroArch GAC) and five wires currently used in orthodontics (Two nickel-titanium shape memory alloys: Neo Sentalloy and Neo Sentalloy with Ionguard GAC--Three titanium-molybdenum alloys: TMA and Low Friction TMA Ormco and Resolve GAC). We were able to set up a classification of the wires according to their coefficient of friction, demonstrating the inefficacy of ion implantation and quantifying the increase in the coefficient of friction which occurs when Resolve wires are placed in the oral environment for approximately one year.

  10. Dry friction of microstructured polymer surfaces inspired by snake skin

    PubMed Central

    Heepe, Lars; Fadeeva, Elena; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    Summary The microstructure investigated in this study was inspired by the anisotropic microornamentation of scales from the ventral body side of the California King Snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae). Frictional properties of snake-inspired microstructured polymer surface (SIMPS) made of epoxy resin were characterised in contact with a smooth glass ball by a microtribometer in two perpendicular directions. The SIMPS exhibited a considerable frictional anisotropy: Frictional coefficients measured along the microstructure were about 33% lower than those measured in the opposite direction. Frictional coefficients were compared to those obtained on other types of surface microstructure: (i) smooth ones, (ii) rough ones, and (iii) ones with periodic groove-like microstructures of different dimensions. The results demonstrate the existence of a common pattern of interaction between two general effects that influence friction: (1) molecular interaction depending on real contact area and (2) the mechanical interlocking of both contacting surfaces. The strongest reduction of the frictional coefficient, compared to the smooth reference surface, was observed at a medium range of surface structure dimensions suggesting a trade-off between these two effects. PMID:25161844

  11. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.

  12. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contributionmore » to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.« less

  13. Estimation of Sedimentation Coefficients and Frictional Ratios of Globular Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program to support lectures on analytical centrifugation, and to illustrate the manner in which useful analytical data about macromolecules can be obtained from simple centrifugation studies without the need for mathematical expertise. Discusses the background, methods, calculations, and results involved in this activity. (CW)

  14. Observation of the Birefringence in the Friction Interface with Polarizing Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Naoya; Gong, Jin; Wada, Masato; Makino, Masato; Hasnat Kabir, M.; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    Gels have some unique characteristics such as low frictional properties [1][2], high water content and materials permeability. Double Network (DN) gels having a mechanical strength of 30 MPa for the maximum breaking stress in compression was developed [3] in the last decade. Their frictional coefficient and mechanical strength are comparable to human cartilages. Gels are prospective materials that could be used for the parts of the human body. In this study, we focus on the dynamic frictional interface of the friction of polymer gels and aim to develop a new apparatus with a polarized microscope for in-situ observation and frictional measurement. We first rubbed hydrogel and glass plate sandwiching hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) solution on the stage of a polarization microscope. The birefringence flow of HPC polymer solution enabled the observation of the dynamical interface. After the experiment, we designed an observation instrument that included an inverted microscope and a friction-measuring machine. This new instrument can observe the frictional interface and measure the frictional coefficient at the same time. We hope the comparison between direct observation with this instrument and the measurement of friction coefficient will become a foothold to elucidate distinctive frictional phenomena that can be seen in soft and wet materials.

  15. Friction in volcanic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  16. Friction of drill bits under Martian pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K. A.; Cooper, G. A.

    2007-03-01

    Frictional behavior was investigated for two materials that are good candidates for Mars drill bits: Diamond Impregnated Segments and Polycrystalline Diamond Compacts (PDC). The bits were sliding against dry sandstone and basalt rocks under both Earth and Mars atmospheric pressures and also at temperatures ranging from subzero to over 400 °C. It was found that the friction coefficient dropped from approximately 0.16 to 0.1 as the pressure was lowered from the Earth's pressure to Mars' pressure, at room temperature. This is thought to be a result of the loss of weakly bound water on the sliding surfaces. Holding the pressure at 5 torr and increasing the temperature to approximately 200°C caused a sudden increase in the friction coefficient by approximately 50%. This is attributed to the loss of surface oxides. If no indication of the bit temperature is available, an increase in drilling torque could be misinterpreted as being caused by an increase in auger torque (due to accumulation of cuttings) rather than being the result of a loss of oxide layers due to elevated bit temperatures. An increase in rotational speed (to allow for clearing of cuttings) would then cause greater frictional heating and would increase the drilling torque further. Therefore it would be advisable to monitor the bit temperature or, if that is not possible, to include pauses in drilling to allow the heat to dissipate. Higher friction would also accelerate the wear of the drill bit and in turn reduce the depth of the hole.

  17. Friction and wear behaviour of ion beam modified ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lankford, J.; Wei, W.; Kossowsky, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the present study, the sliding friction coefficients and wear rates of carbide, oxide, and nitride materials for potential use as sliding seals (ring/liner) were measured under temperature, environmental, velocity, and loading conditions representative of a diesel engine. In addition, silicon nitride and partially stabilized zirconia discs were modified by ion mixing with TiNi, nickel, cobalt and chromium, and subsequently run against carbide pins, with the objective of producing reduced friction via solid lubrication at elevated temperature. Unmodified ceramic sliding couples were characterized at all temperatures by friction coefficients of 0.24 and above. However, the coefficient at 800 C in an oxidizing environment was reduced to below 0.1, for certain material combinations, by the ion implantation of TiNi or cobalt. This beneficial effect was found to derive from lubricious titanium, nickel, and cobalt oxides.

  18. Intermonolayer Friction and Surface Shear Viscosity of Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    den Otter, W. K.; Shkulipa, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    The flow behavior of lipid bilayer membranes is characterized by a surface viscosity for in-plane shear deformations, and an intermonolayer friction coefficient for slip between the two leaflets of the bilayer. Both properties have been studied for a variety of coarse-grained double-tailed model lipids, using equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. For lipids with two identical tails, the surface shear viscosity rises rapidly with tail length, while the intermonolayer friction coefficient is less sensitive to the tail length. Interdigitation of lipid tails across the bilayer midsurface, as observed for lipids with two distinct tails, strongly enhances the intermonolayer friction coefficient, but hardly affects the surface shear viscosity. The simulation results are compared against the available experimental data. PMID:17468168

  19. Cyclic loading increases friction and changes cartilage surface integrity in lubricin-mutant mouse knees

    PubMed Central

    Drewniak, Elizabeth I; Jay, Gregory D; Fleming, Braden C; Zhang, Ling; Warman, Matthew L; Crisco, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of lubricin gene dosage and cyclic loading on whole joint coefficient of friction and articular cartilage surface integrity in mouse knee joints. Methods Joints from mice with 2 (Prg4+/+), 1 (Prg4+/−), or no (Prg4−/−) functioning lubricin alleles were subjected to 26 hours of cyclic loading using a custom-built pendulum. Coefficient of friction values were measured at multiple time points. Contralateral control joints were left unloaded. Following testing, joints were examined for histologic evidence of damage and cell viability. Results At baseline, the coefficient of friction values in Prg4−/− mice were significantly higher than those in Prg4+/+ and Prg4+/− mice (P < 0.001). Cyclic loading continuously increased the coefficient of friction in Prg4−/− mouse joints. In contrast, Prg4+/− and Prg4+/+ mouse joints had no coefficient of friction increases during the first 4 hours of loading. After 26 hours of loading, joints from all genotypes had increased coefficient of friction values compared to baseline and unloaded controls. Significantly greater increases occurred in Prg4−/− and Prg4+/− mouse joints compared to Prg4+/+ mouse joints. The coefficient of friction values were not significantly associated with histologic evidence of damage or loss of cell viability. Conclusion Our findings indicate that mice lacking lubricin have increased baseline coefficient of friction values and are not protected against further increases caused by loading. Prg4+/− mice are indistinguishable from Prg4+/+ mice at baseline, but have significantly greater coefficient of friction values following 26 hours of loading. Lubricin dosage affects joint properties during loading, and may have clinical implications in patients for whom injury or illness alters lubricin abundance. PMID:21905020

  20. How brucite may affect the frictional properties of serpentinite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.; Iwata, K.; Tanaka, H.; Byerlee, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The frictional strength of brucite gouge has been measured at hydrothermal conditions to 450°C. At room temperature, brucite has a coefficient of friction, μ ≈ 0.30, making it one of the weakest minerals identified to date. With increasing temperature at a constant effective normal stress, the coefficient of friction of brucite decreases to a minimum of μ ≈ 0.20 near 300°C, and μ ≈ 0.22–0.24 in the temperature range 350–450°C. Brucite has a sheeted crystal structure, and its low frictional strength may be attributed to the relatively weak bonds between the layers. In addition, the temperature dependence of μ to ≈300°C can be explained in terms of the anomalously large coefficient of thermal expansion of brucite, which will further weaken the interlayer bonds. Brucite is a common constituent of serpentinite, and at ≈300°C, where brucite is weakest, all the major serpentine minerals have μ ≥ 0.5. The maximum expected brucite content of a serpentinite is close to 20% by weight or volume. That amount of disseminated brucite will lower the coefficient of friction of serpentinite by ≤10–15% in the deeper parts of the seismogenic zone. However, the effect will be much greater if shear can be concentrated along brucite-lined slip surfaces in the serpentinite body.

  1. Effects of Melting on the Dynamic Fault Friction: Theoretical and Experimental Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialko, Y.; Khazan, Y.; Brown, K.

    2006-12-01

    did not produce macroscopic melting reveal significant decreases in the effective coefficient of friction that have been attributed (at least in some cases) to thermal weakening and melting of the asperity contacts (flash melting). We conducted a series of experiments at low (sub-millimeter per second) slip velocities, but high (up to 500 deg. C) ambient temperatures on a variety of rock types to separate the effects of slip rate from those due to temperature alone. The experimental data did not reveal any significant temperature dependence of the effective coefficient of friction over the temperature range of several hundred degrees. This implies that the thermal weakening of the asperities (if any) at low slip rates must be accompanied by proportional increases in the asperity contact area. Flash melting at high slip rates implies that the asperity contacts thermally weaken without changing the average contact area. The flash melting hypothesis can be experimentally tested by observing the dependence of the critical weakening velocity on ambient temperature.

  2. Analysis of Wear Mechanisms in Low Friction, Nanocomposite AlMgB14-TiB2 Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Bruce A; Harringa, J; Anderegg, A; Russell, A M; Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Higdon, Clifton; Elmoursi, Alaa A

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in coating science and technology offer new opportunities to enhance the energy-efficiency and performance of industrial machinery such as hydraulic fluid pumps and motors. The lubricated friction and wear characteristics of two wear-resistant coatings, diamond-like carbon and a nanocomposite material based on AlMgB{sub 14}-50 vol.% TiB{sub 2}, were compared in pin-on-disk tribotests using Mobil DTE-24{trademark} oil as the lubricant. In each case, the pins were fixed 9.53 mm diameter spheres of AISI 52100 steel, the load was 10 N, and the speed 0.5 m/s in all tests. Average steady-state friction coefficient values of 0.10 and 0.08 were measured for the DLC and nanocomposite, respectively. The coatings and their 52100 steel counterfaces were analyzed after the tests by X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy for evidence of material transfer or tribo-chemical reactions. The low-friction behavior of the boride nanocomposite coating is due to the formation of lubricative boric acid, B(OH){sub 3}. In contrast, the low-friction behavior of the DLC coating is related to the relatively low dielectric constant of the oil-based lubricant, leading to desorption of surface hydrogen from the coating.

  3. Surface modification of Monel K-500 as a means of reducing friction and wear in high-pressure oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunaji, Mohan; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Schoenman, Leonard; Kazaroff, John

    1989-01-01

    A study is conducted of the tribological characteristics of Monel K-500 during rubbing in a high pressure oxygen atmosphere, upon surface treatment by ion-implanted oxygen, chromium, lead, and silver, as well as electrolyzed chromium and an electroless nickel/SiC composite. The electrolyzed chromium dramatically increased total sample wear, while other surface treatments affected sample wear only moderately. Although the ion-implant treatments reduced the average coefficient of friction at low contact pressure, higher contact pressures eliminated this improvement.

  4. Friction of Aviation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W; Thorne, M A

    1928-01-01

    The first portion of this report discusses measurements of friction made in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards between 1920 and 1926 under research authorization of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. These are discussed with reference to the influence of speed, barometric pressure, jacket-water temperature, and throttle opening upon the friction of aviation engines. The second section of the report deals with measurements of the friction of a group of pistons differing from each other in a single respect, such as length, clearance, area of thrust face, location of thrust face, etc. Results obtained with each type of piston are discussed and attention is directed particularly to the fact that the friction chargeable to piston rings depends upon piston design as well as upon ring design. This is attributed to the effect of the rings upon the thickness and distribution of the oil film which in turn affects the friction of the piston to an extent which depends upon its design.

  5. A study on the frictional response of reptilian shed skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aal, H. A.; Vargiolu, R.; Zahouani, H.; El Mansori, M.

    2011-08-01

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined tribological response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its tribological behaviour according to the evolution of sliding conditions. In seeking inspirations for such designs, many engineers are turning toward the biological world to study the construction and behaviour of bio-analogues, and to probe the role surface topography assumes in conditioning of frictional response. That is how a bio-analogue can self-adjust its tribological response to adapt to habitat constraints. From a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a snake (Python regius). The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakes. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the backward direction. Diagonal and side winding motion induces a different value of the friction coefficient. We discuss the origin of such a phenomenon in relation to surface texturing and study the energy constraints, implied by anisotropic friction, on the motion of the reptile.

  6. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  7. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function.

  8. Effects of Stone-Wales and vacancy defects in atomic-scale friction on defective graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wu, RunNi; Xia, Re; Chu, Xi-Hua; Xu, Yuan-Jie

    2014-05-05

    Graphite is an excellent solid lubricant for surface coating, but its performance is significantly weakened by the vacancy or Stone-Wales (SW) defect. This study uses molecular dynamics simulations to explore the frictional behavior of a diamond tip sliding over a graphite which contains a single defect or stacked defects. Our results suggest that the friction on defective graphite shows a strong dependence on defect location and type. The 5-7-7-5 structure of SW defect results in an effectively negative slope of friction. For defective graphite containing a defect in the surface, adding a single vacancy in the interior layer will decrease the friction coefficients, while setting a SW defect in the interior layer may increase the friction coefficients. Our obtained results may provide useful information for understanding the atomic-scale friction properties of defective graphite.

  9. Friction between footwear and floor covered with solid particles under dry and wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Way; Meng, Fanxing; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Solid particles on the floor, both dry and wet, are common but their effects on the friction on the floor were seldom discussed in the literature. In this study, friction measurements were conducted to test the effects of particle size of solid contaminants on the friction coefficient on the floor under footwear, floor, and surface conditions. The results supported the hypothesis that particle size of solids affected the friction coefficient and the effects depended on footwear, floor, and surface conditions. On dry surfaces, solid particles resulted in friction loss when the Neolite footwear pad was used. On the other hand, solid particles provided additional friction when measured with the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) footwear pad. On wet surfaces, introducing solid particles made the floors more slip-resistant and such effects depended on particle size. This study provides information for better understanding of the mechanism of slipping when solid contaminants are present. PMID:24629869

  10. Friction behavior of 304 stainless steel of varying hardness lubricated with benzene and some benzyl structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    The lubricating properties of some benzyl and benzene structures were determined by using 304 stainless steel surfaces strained to various hardness. Friction coefficients and wear track widths were measured with a Bowden-Leben type friction apparatus by using a pin-on-disk specimen configuration. Results obtained indicate that benzyl monosulfide, dibenzyl disulfide, and benzyl alcohol resulted in the lowest friction coefficients for 304 stainless steel, while benzyl ether provided the least surface protection and gave the highest friction. Strainhardening of the 304 stainless steel prior to sliding resulted in reduced friction in dry sliding. With benzyl monosulfide, dibenzyl disulfide, and benzyl alcohol changes in 304 stainless steel hardness had no effect upon friction behavior.

  11. Systematic breakdown of Amontons' law of friction for an elastic object locally obeying Amontons' law.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In many sliding systems consisting of solid object on a solid substrate under dry condition, the friction force does not depend on the apparent contact area and is proportional to the loading force. This behaviour is called Amontons' law and indicates that the friction coefficient, or the ratio of the friction force to the loading force, is constant. Here, however, using numerical and analytical methods, we show that Amontons' law breaks down systematically under certain conditions for an elastic object experiencing a friction force that locally obeys Amontons' law. The macroscopic static friction coefficient, which corresponds to the onset of bulk sliding of the object, decreases as pressure or system length increases. This decrease results from precursor slips before the onset of bulk sliding, and is consistent with the results of certain previous experiments. The mechanisms for these behaviours are clarified. These results will provide new insight into controlling friction.

  12. Friction between footwear and floor covered with solid particles under dry and wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Way; Meng, Fanxing; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Solid particles on the floor, both dry and wet, are common but their effects on the friction on the floor were seldom discussed in the literature. In this study, friction measurements were conducted to test the effects of particle size of solid contaminants on the friction coefficient on the floor under footwear, floor, and surface conditions. The results supported the hypothesis that particle size of solids affected the friction coefficient and the effects depended on footwear, floor, and surface conditions. On dry surfaces, solid particles resulted in friction loss when the Neolite footwear pad was used. On the other hand, solid particles provided additional friction when measured with the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) footwear pad. On wet surfaces, introducing solid particles made the floors more slip-resistant and such effects depended on particle size. This study provides information for better understanding of the mechanism of slipping when solid contaminants are present.

  13. Air friction and rolling resistance during cycling.

    PubMed

    de Groot, G; Sargeant, A; Geysel, J

    1995-07-01

    To calculate the power output during actual cycling, the air friction force Fa and rolling resistance Fr have to be known. Instead of wind tunnel experiments or towing experiments at steady speed, in this study these friction forces were measured by coasting down experiments. Towing experiments at constant acceleration (increasing velocity) were also done for comparison. From the equation of motion, the velocity-time curve v(t) was obtained. Curve-fitting procedures on experimental data of the velocity v yielded values of the rolling resistance force Fr and of the air friction coefficient k = Fa/v2. For the coasting down experiments, the group mean values per body mass m (N = 7) were km = k/m = (2.15 +/- 0.32) x 10(-3)m-1 and ar = Fr/m = (3.76 +/- 0.18) x 10(-2)ms-2, close to other values from the literature. The curves in the phase plane (velocity vs acceleration) and the small residual sum of squares indicated the validity of the theory. The towing experiments were not congruent with the coasting down experiments. Higher values of the air friction were found, probably due to turbulence of the air.

  14. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  15. Temperature-Dependent Friction and Wear Behavior of PTFE and MoS2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Babuska, T. F.; Pitenis, A. A.; Jones, M. R.; Nation, B. L.; Sawyer, W. G.; Argibay, N.

    2016-06-16

    We present an investigation of the temperature-dependent friction behavior of PTFE, MoS2, and PTFE-on- MoS2. Friction behavior was measured while continuously varying contact temperature in the range -150 to 175°C while sliding in dry nitrogen, as well as for self-mated PTFE immersed in liquid nitrogen. These results contrast with previous reports of monotonic inverse temperature dependent friction behavior, as well as reported high-friction transitions and plateaus at temperatures below about -20°C that were not observed, providing new insights about the molecular mechanisms of macro-scale friction. The temperature-dependent friction behavior characteristic of self-mated PTFE was found also on the PTFE-on-MoS2 slidingmore » contact, suggesting that PTFE friction was defined by sub-surface deformation mechanisms and internal friction even when sliding against a lamellar lubricant with extremely low friction coefficient (μ ~ 0.02). The various relaxation temperatures of PTFE were found in the temperature-dependent friction behavior, showing excellent agreement with reported values acquired using torsional techniques measuring internal friction. Additionally, hysteresis in friction behavior suggests an increase in near-surface crystallinity at upon exceeding the high temperature relaxation, Tα~ 116°C.« less

  16. High fidelity frictional models for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Carpick, Robert W.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Bitsie, Fernando; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David; Ashurst, William Robert; Jones, Reese E.; Subhash, Ghatu S.; Street, Mark D.; Sumali, Anton Hartono; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Starr, Michael James; Redmond, James Michael; Flater, Erin E.

    2004-10-01

    The primary goals of the present study are to: (1) determine how and why MEMS-scale friction differs from friction on the macro-scale, and (2) to begin to develop a capability to perform finite element simulations of MEMS materials and components that accurately predicts response in the presence of adhesion and friction. Regarding the first goal, a newly developed nanotractor actuator was used to measure friction between molecular monolayer-coated, polysilicon surfaces. Amontons law does indeed apply over a wide range of forces. However, at low loads, which are of relevance to MEMS, there is an important adhesive contribution to the normal load that cannot be neglected. More importantly, we found that at short sliding distances, the concept of a coefficient of friction is not relevant; rather, one must invoke the notion of 'pre-sliding tangential deflections' (PSTD). Results of a simple 2-D model suggests that PSTD is a cascade of small-scale slips with a roughly constant number of contacts equilibrating the applied normal load. Regarding the second goal, an Adhesion Model and a Junction Model have been implemented in PRESTO, Sandia's transient dynamics, finite element code to enable asperity-level simulations. The Junction Model includes a tangential shear traction that opposes the relative tangential motion of contacting surfaces. An atomic force microscope (AFM)-based method was used to measure nano-scale, single asperity friction forces as a function of normal force. This data is used to determine Junction Model parameters. An illustrative simulation demonstrates the use of the Junction Model in conjunction with a mesh generated directly from an atomic force microscope (AFM) image to directly predict frictional response of a sliding asperity. Also with regards to the second goal, grid-level, homogenized models were studied. One would like to perform a finite element analysis of a MEMS component assuming nominally flat surfaces and to include the effect of

  17. A robust control scheme for flexible arms with friction in the joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rattan, Kuldip S.; Feliu, Vicente; Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A general control scheme to control flexible arms with friction in the joints is proposed in this paper. This scheme presents the advantage of being robust in the sense that it minimizes the effects of the Coulomb friction existing in the motor and the effects of changes in the dynamic friction coefficient. A justification of the robustness properties of the scheme is given in terms of the sensitivity analysis.

  18. Friction and wear characteristics of iron-chromium alloys in contact with themselves and silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron-chromium alloys in contact with (1) themselves, (2) single crystal silicon carbide disks, and (3) single crystal abrasive grit of silicon carbide. Results indicate the coefficients of friction for the alloys sliding against themselves are between those for pure iron and pure chromium, and are only slightly different with 1, 5, 9, 14, and 19 weight percent chromium in iron. The wear is due, primarily, to shearing, or tearing fracture, of the cohesive bonds in the bulk metal and plowing of the bulk by lumps of wear debris. There are only slight differences in the coefficients of friction for the various alloys when sliding on silicon carbide. The coefficient of friction for the alloys are higher than those for pure iron and pure chromium. Alloy hardening observed in the alloys plays a dominant role in controlling the abrasive friction and wear behavior of the alloys.

  19. Friction and wear of human hair fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, James; Johnson, Simon A.; Avery, Andrew R.; Adams, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    An experimental study of the tribological properties of hair fibres is reported, and the effect of surface treatment on the evolution of friction and wear during sliding. Specifically, orthogonally crossed fibre/fibre contacts under a compressive normal load over a series of 10 000 cycle studies are investigated. Reciprocating sliding at a velocity of 0.4 mm s‑1, over a track length of 0.8 mm, was performed at 18 °C and 40%–50% relative humidity. Hair fibres retaining their natural sebum were studied, as well as those stripped of their sebum via hexane cleaning, and hair fibres conditioned using a commercially available product. Surface topography modifications resulting from wear were imaged using scanning electron microscopy and quantified using white light interferometry. Hair fibres that presented sebum or conditioned product at the fibre/fibre junction exhibited initial coefficients of friction at least 25% lower than those that were cleaned with hexane. Coefficients of friction were observed to depend on the directionality of sliding for hexane cleaned hair fibres after sufficient wear cycles that cuticle lifting was present, typically on the order 1000 cycles. Cuticle flattening was observed for fibre/fibre junctions exposed to 10 mN compressive normal loads, whereas loads of 100 mN introduced substantial cuticle wear and fibre damage.

  20. Friction and wear of human hair fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, James; Johnson, Simon A.; Avery, Andrew R.; Adams, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    An experimental study of the tribological properties of hair fibres is reported, and the effect of surface treatment on the evolution of friction and wear during sliding. Specifically, orthogonally crossed fibre/fibre contacts under a compressive normal load over a series of 10 000 cycle studies are investigated. Reciprocating sliding at a velocity of 0.4 mm s-1, over a track length of 0.8 mm, was performed at 18 °C and 40%-50% relative humidity. Hair fibres retaining their natural sebum were studied, as well as those stripped of their sebum via hexane cleaning, and hair fibres conditioned using a commercially available product. Surface topography modifications resulting from wear were imaged using scanning electron microscopy and quantified using white light interferometry. Hair fibres that presented sebum or conditioned product at the fibre/fibre junction exhibited initial coefficients of friction at least 25% lower than those that were cleaned with hexane. Coefficients of friction were observed to depend on the directionality of sliding for hexane cleaned hair fibres after sufficient wear cycles that cuticle lifting was present, typically on the order 1000 cycles. Cuticle flattening was observed for fibre/fibre junctions exposed to 10 mN compressive normal loads, whereas loads of 100 mN introduced substantial cuticle wear and fibre damage.

  1. Friction between a surrogate skin (Lorica Soft) and nonwoven fabrics used in hygiene products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falloon, Sabrina S.; Cottenden, Alan

    2016-09-01

    Incontinence pad wearers often suffer from sore skin, and a better understanding of friction between pads and skin is needed to inform the development of less damaging materials. This work investigated friction between a skin surrogate (Lorica Soft) and 13 nonwoven fabrics representing those currently used against the skin in commercial pads. All fabrics were found to behave consistently with Amontons’ law: coefficients of friction did not differ systematically when measured under two different loads. Although the 13 fabrics varied considerably in composition and structure, their coefficients of friction (static and dynamic) against Lorica Soft were remarkably similar, especially for the ten fabrics comprising just polypropylene (PP) fibres. The coefficients of friction for one PP fabric never differed by more than 15.7% from those of any other, suggesting that the ranges of fibre decitex (2.0-6.5), fabric area density (13-30 g m-2) and bonding area (11%-25%) they exhibited had only limited impact on their friction properties. It is likely that differences were largely attributable to variability in properties between multiple samples of a given fabric. Of the remaining fabrics, the one comprising polyester fibres had significantly higher coefficients of friction than the highest friction PP fabric (p < 0.005), while the one comprising PP fibres with a polyethylene sheath had significantly lower coefficients of friction than the lowest friction PP fabric (p < 10-8). However, fabrics differed in too many other ways to confidently attribute these differences in friction properties just to the choice of base polymer.

  2. Friction and wear of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted with ferrous base metallic glasses (amorphous alloys) in contact with aluminum oxide at temperatures to 750 C in a vacuum. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted in argon and air atmospheres. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction increases with increasing temperature to 350 C in vacuum. The increase in friction is due to an increase in adhesion resulting from surface segregation of boric oxide and/or silicon oxide to the surface of the foil. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The decrease correlates with the segregation of boron nitride to the surface. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and/or silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The segregation of contaminants is responsible for the friction behavior. The amorphous alloys have superior wear resistance to crystalline 304 stainless steel. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surfaces of the amorphous alloys are very different from the nominal bulk compositions.

  3. Friction and wear of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted with ferrous base metallic glasses (amorphous alloys) in contact with aluminium oxide at temperatures to 750 C in a vacuum. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted in argon and air atmospheres. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction increases with increasing temperature to 350 C in vacuum. The increase in friction is due to an increase in adhesion resulting from surface segregation of boric oxide and/or silicon oxide to the surface of the foil. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The decrease correlates with the segregation of boron nitride to the surface. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and/or silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The segregation of contaminants is responsible for the friction behavior. The amorphous alloys have superior wear resistance to crystalline 304 stainless steel. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surfaces of the amorphous alloys are very different from the nominal bulk compositions.

  4. Biomechanics of iliotibial band friction syndrome in runners.

    PubMed

    Orchard, J W; Fricker, P A; Abud, A T; Mason, B R

    1996-01-01

    We propose a biomechanical model to explain the pathogenesis of iliotibial band friction syndrome in distance runners. The model is based on a kinematic study of nine runners with iliotibial band friction syndrome, a cadaveric study of 11 normal knees, and a literature review. Friction (or impingement) occurs near footstrike, predominantly in the foot contact phase, between the posterior edge of the iliotibial band and the underlying lateral femoral epicondyle. The study subjects had an average knee flexion angle of 21.4 degrees +/- 4.3 degrees at footstrike, with friction occurring at, or slightly below, the 30 degrees of flexion traditionally described in the literature. In the cadavers we examined, there was substantial variation in the width of the iliotibial bands. This variation may affect individual predisposition to iliotibial band friction syndrome. Downhill running predisposes the runner to iliotibial band friction syndrome because the knee flexion angle at footstrike is reduced. Sprinting and faster running on level ground are less likely to cause or aggravate iliotibial band friction syndrome because, at footstrike, the knee is flexed beyond the angles at which friction occurs.

  5. What causes frictional behavior in fluid-mediated sediment transport?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pähtz, Thomas; Duran, Orencio

    2016-04-01

    Bagnoldian analytical models of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid (e.g., air or water) are based on Bagnold's assumption of a constant friction coefficient (particle-shear-pressure ratio, μ) at the interface (z = zb) between sediment bed and transport layer. In fact, this assumption is the main reason why these models predict the sediment load (which is the ratio between sediment transport rate and average particle velocity) to be proportional to the excess shear stress (τ ‑ τt), a scaling that has been confirmed in many wind-tunnel and flume experiments. Here, using numerical simulations with the coupled DEM/RANS model of sediment transport in Newtonian fluid by Duran et al. (POF, 103306, 2012), we investigate the physical reasons for this frictional behavior. In the case of subaqueous transport, we find that a local rheology μ(I), where I is the viscous number, can explain most of the simulation data. However, this rheology breaks down for aeolian transport. In an attempt to unify these transport regimes, we propose a novel characterization of frictional behavior through the dimensionless parameter ζ = ⟨Fxcvx ‑ Fzcvz⟩/⟨Fzcvx ‑ Fxcvz⟩, where Fc is the contact force, v the particle velocity, and ⟨ṡ⟩ a local ensemble average. We analytically derive ζ ≈√3 ‑ 1 for locations within the transport layer and slightly within the particle bed, where each derivation step and the final result are consistent with our numerical simulations throughout all simulated conditions. Our derivation is mainly based on the assumption that the conversion of horizontal kinetic particle energy into vertical kinetic particle energy in low-angle particle-bed impacts is the predominant collisional energy transformation process occurring in sediment transport. We then show that ζ(zs) ≈ μ(zs), where zs is the location at which the local production rate of particle fluctuation energy is maximal, and thus μ(zs) ≈√3- ‑ 1. This final result, which

  6. Magnetic Low-Friction Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetkau, Mark; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Gamblen, James

    2008-05-01

    The standard low-friction tracks used to test Newton's laws are the air track and the low-friction cart track. Both are commercially available and provide low-friction environments to test various physics concepts. At a recent science fair, one of the authors (JG) presented a magnetically levitated cart and track. A literature search found no previous testing of magnetically levitated carts. This paper compares a magnetically levitated cart against the two standard low-friction tracks.

  7. Contact Pressure Effect on Frictional Characteristics of Steel Sheet for Autobody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S. S.; Kim, D. J.

    2011-08-01

    The high strength steel (HSS) is widely used in auto body part due to its advantage of weight reduction. The usage of HSS extends the range of contact pressure than that of mild steel's and makes it is not disregardable fact that the effect of contact pressure on frictional characteristics of steel sheet. To investigate the influence of contact pressure on frictional behavior of steel sheet, the flat type friction test with high strength bare steel sheet was conducted under various contact pressures. According to the test result, the relationship between contact pressure and friction coefficient shows U shape. When the contact pressure is lower than 10 MPa, the friction coefficient was slightly decreased as contact pressure was increased. However the amount of decrement was very small. Above 10 MPa contact pressure the friction coefficient was increased as the contact pressure was increased and the amount of increment of friction coefficient was not negligible. This study shows that the effect of contact pressure on frictional behavior of steel sheet is very big, especially on HSS stamping which has the wide range of contact pressure.

  8. Quantum theory of friction

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Cresser, James D.

    2005-08-15

    We present a Markovian quantum theory of friction. Our approach is based on the idea that collisions between a Brownian particle and single molecules of the surrounding medium constitute, as far as the particle is concerned, instantaneous simultaneous measurements of its position and momentum.

  9. Intelligent Flow Friction Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Brkić, Dejan; Ćojbašić, Žarko

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the Colebrook equation is used as a mostly accepted relation for the calculation of fluid flow friction factor. However, the Colebrook equation is implicit with respect to the friction factor (λ). In the present study, a noniterative approach using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to calculate the friction factor. To configure the ANN model, the input parameters of the Reynolds Number (Re) and the relative roughness of pipe (ε/D) were transformed to logarithmic scales. The 90,000 sets of data were fed to the ANN model involving three layers: input, hidden, and output layers with, 2, 50, and 1 neurons, respectively. This configuration was capable of predicting the values of friction factor in the Colebrook equation for any given values of the Reynolds number (Re) and the relative roughness (ε/D) ranging between 5000 and 108 and between 10−7 and 0.1, respectively. The proposed ANN demonstrates the relative error up to 0.07% which had the high accuracy compared with the vast majority of the precise explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation. PMID:27127498

  10. Intelligent Flow Friction Estimation.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Dejan; Ćojbašić, Žarko

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the Colebrook equation is used as a mostly accepted relation for the calculation of fluid flow friction factor. However, the Colebrook equation is implicit with respect to the friction factor (λ). In the present study, a noniterative approach using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to calculate the friction factor. To configure the ANN model, the input parameters of the Reynolds Number (Re) and the relative roughness of pipe (ε/D) were transformed to logarithmic scales. The 90,000 sets of data were fed to the ANN model involving three layers: input, hidden, and output layers with, 2, 50, and 1 neurons, respectively. This configuration was capable of predicting the values of friction factor in the Colebrook equation for any given values of the Reynolds number (Re) and the relative roughness (ε/D) ranging between 5000 and 10(8) and between 10(-7) and 0.1, respectively. The proposed ANN demonstrates the relative error up to 0.07% which had the high accuracy compared with the vast majority of the precise explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation.

  11. Intelligent Flow Friction Estimation.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Dejan; Ćojbašić, Žarko

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the Colebrook equation is used as a mostly accepted relation for the calculation of fluid flow friction factor. However, the Colebrook equation is implicit with respect to the friction factor (λ). In the present study, a noniterative approach using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to calculate the friction factor. To configure the ANN model, the input parameters of the Reynolds Number (Re) and the relative roughness of pipe (ε/D) were transformed to logarithmic scales. The 90,000 sets of data were fed to the ANN model involving three layers: input, hidden, and output layers with, 2, 50, and 1 neurons, respectively. This configuration was capable of predicting the values of friction factor in the Colebrook equation for any given values of the Reynolds number (Re) and the relative roughness (ε/D) ranging between 5000 and 10(8) and between 10(-7) and 0.1, respectively. The proposed ANN demonstrates the relative error up to 0.07% which had the high accuracy compared with the vast majority of the precise explicit approximations of the Colebrook equation. PMID:27127498

  12. Determining Spacecraft Reaction Wheel Friction Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarani, Siamak

    2009-01-01

    Software was developed to characterize the drag in each of the Cassini spacecraft's Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWAs) to determine the RWA friction parameters. This tool measures the drag torque of RWAs for not only the high spin rates (greater than 250 RPM), but also the low spin rates (less than 250 RPM) where there is a lack of an elastohydrodynamic boundary layer in the bearings. RWA rate and drag torque profiles as functions of time are collected via telemetry once every 4 seconds and once every 8 seconds, respectively. Intermediate processing steps single-out the coast-down regions. A nonlinear model for the drag torque as a function of RWA spin rate is incorporated in order to characterize the low spin rate regime. The tool then uses a nonlinear parameter optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method to determine the viscous coefficient, the Dahl friction, and the two parameters that account for the low spin-rate behavior.

  13. Friction and morphology of pleural mesothelia.

    PubMed

    Pecchiari, Matteo; Sartori, Patrizia; Conte, Vincenzo; D'Angelo, Edgardo; Moscheni, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    To verify the hypothesis that by enmeshing lubricants, microvilli reduce the coefficient of kinetic friction (μ) of pleural mesothelium, μ was measured during reciprocating sliding of rabbit's visceral against parietal pleura before and after addition of hyaluronan, and related to the morphological features of the microvillar network. Because no relation was found between μ or μ changes after hyaluronan and microvillar characteristics, the latter are not determinants of the frictional forces which oppose sliding of normal mesothelial surfaces under physiological conditions, nor of the effects of hyaluronan. Addition of hyaluronan increased μ slightly but significantly in normal specimens, probably by altering the physiological mix of lubricants, but decreased μ of damaged mesothelia, suggesting protective, anti-abrasion properties. Indeed, while sliding of an injured against a normal pleura heavily damaged the latter and increased μ when Ringer was interposed between the surfaces, both effects were limited or prevented when hyaluronan was interposed between the injured and normal pleura before onset of sliding.

  14. Velocity dependence of serpentinite friction promotes aseismic slip on faults

    SciTech Connect

    Reinen, L.A.; Weeks, J.D.; Tullis, T.E. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Serpentinite is common on many crustal faults and it has been suggested that the presence of serpentine on these faults may promote aseismic slip. Consequently, the authors have experimentally measured the frictional constitutive response of both antigorite and lizardite polymorphs of serpentine to step changes in velocity. This was done at room temperature in rotary direct shear; normal stress was 25 MPa, and velocities ranged from 32 mm/yr to 3.2 [times] 10[sup 5] mm/yr. The frictional behavior of both serpentine polymorphs indicates that the presence of either one on a fault would result in aseismic creep in the shallow crust at typical plate motion rates. In contrast to other rock types, such as granite, both serpentinites display velocity-strengthening behavior at slow sliding velocities: below some transitional velocity, the frictional resistance increases with velocity, thus promoting stable aseismic slip. At faster velocities, however, frictional strength has a negative dependence on velocity (velocity weakening), which provides the potential for unstable sliding, leading to earthquakes. The coefficient of friction of the antigorite serpentinite is similar to that of other silicates, while that of the lizardite is much lower. The low frictional strength of lizardite may help explain some geologic observations that serpentine appears quite mobile during deformation in the crust. However, it is the velocity-strengthening behavior observed in both serpentinites at low sliding velocities, and not the frictional strength, that will promote aseismic slip on serpentine-bearing faults at typical rates of plate motion.

  15. A systems based experimental approach to tactile friction.

    PubMed

    Masen, M A

    2011-11-01

    This work focuses on the friction in contacts where the human finger pad is one of the interacting surfaces. This 'tactile friction' requires a full understanding of the contact mechanics and the behaviour of human skin. The coefficient of friction cannot be considered as a property of the skin alone, but depends on the entire tribo-system. In this work, frictional forces were measured using a commercially available load cell. Parameters such as the hydration of the skin, the normal load on the contact and the roughness of the contacting surfaces were varied, whilst keeping the other parameters constant. The tests were performed under controlled environmental conditions. The total friction force is a combination of forces related to adhesion and to deformation. A commonly made assumption is that, to describe the friction of human skin, the deformation component can be ignored and only the adhesive behaviour has to be taken into account. However, in this study it was found that the forces related to the (micro-scale) deformation of skin can have a significant contribution to the total friction force; this is valid both for dry conditions and in the presence of water, when hydration of the skin causes softening.

  16. Crossover from creep to inertial motion in friction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumberger, T.; Heslot, F.; Perrin, B.

    1994-02-01

    FRICTION between dry surfaces plays a role in solid dynamics over a wide range of length scales, from the mechanics of micromachines to earthquakes. Some common features of frictional dynamics have been observed for rather different materials, such as rock sliding on rock or metal on metal1,2. But there is still relatively little understanding of the way in which frictional motion varies generically with mechanical parameters. Here we present the results of experiments on frictional sliding of Bristol board, which show how the characteristics of frictional sliding depend on mass, driving velocity and stiffness of the driving spring constant. In general, there is a bifurcation from stick-slip to steady sliding with increasing velocity. The character of the frictional motion and of the associated bifurcation changes with velocity: at low speeds creep is dominant, which can be ascribed a characteristic length, whereas at high speeds the motion can be described as inertial, with a characteristic timescale. The kinetic friction coefficient decreases with increasing velocity in the former case, and increases with velocity in the latter. We anticipate that these results are likely to be generic.

  17. Use of robotics technology to measure friction in animal joints.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Fujie, H

    1996-04-01

    A new system to measure friction in animal joints has been designed. The system utilizes a robotic arm. Force control of the robotic arm was used to survey the geometry of a sliding surface before the friction of the joint is measured. This enables the precise measurement of friction in joints of complex shape. To test the reliability of the new system we took friction measurements from 10 rabbit stifles. The experimental conditions were: (i) intact joints, (ii) joints after the surfaces were washed. The mean values of the frictional coefficients were 0.008 in the intact joints and 0.015 in the washed joints. These mean values were similar to some previous results obtained from canine hip joints under the same experimental conditions. Furthermore, the standard deviations in this study were smaller than in the previous study. These facts suggest that the new system is reliable. RELEVANCE:--The pathology of osteoarthritis is related to the lubrication mechanisms of joints. In any study of the lubrication mechanisms, an accurate friction measurement is important. In this study we used robotics technology to measure friction in joints.

  18. Frictional action at lower limb/prosthetic socket interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Turner-Smith, A R; Roberts, V C; Tanner, A

    1996-04-01

    The frictional action at stump/socket interface is discussed by a simplified model and finite element model analyses and clinical pressure measurements. The friction applied to the stump skin produces stresses within tissue and these stresses may damage the tissues and affect their normal functions. The combination of normal and shear stresses is considered to be a critical factor leading to amputee's discomfort and tissue damage. However, friction at the stump/socket interface has a beneficial action. A simplified residual limb model and a finite element model using real geometry have been developed to analyse the support action of friction. Both results show that the friction plays a critical role both in supporting the load of the amputee's body during the support phase of the gait cycle and in preventing the prosthesis from slipping off the limb during swing phase. Pressure at the below-knee socket during walking were measured with conditions of different friction. The results reveal that a larger pressures was produced at the lubricated interface than at the normal interface. A proper choice of coefficient of friction will balance the requirements of relief of load stress and reduction of slip with the general ability to support loads.

  19. Boltzmann's H theorem for systems with frictional dissipation.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, João P S

    2011-03-01

    By use of Boltzmann's equation to describe an ensemble of particles under the influence of a friction force, Boltzmann's H theorem is refined to explicitly include frictional dissipation, the accompanying fluctuations being modeled via an added diffusive, Fokker-Planck term. If the friction force per particle mass is proportional to velocity, as is the case with viscous drag with a friction coefficient γ, Boltzmann's H theorem for the time rate of change of the quantity H reads dH/dt ≤ γ. The classical formulation stating that H can never increase is thus replaced by the statement that H cannot increase at a rate higher than γ, a general result but of particular relevance when fluctuations are negligible and the system is far from equilibrium. When the particles are not far from thermal equilibrium, an alternative, more suitable expression emerges which can be written in the form of a Clausius inequality. PMID:21517545

  20. Friction Properties of Surface-Fluorinated Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wal, R. L. Vander; Miyoshi, K.; Street, K. W.; Tomasek, A. J.; Peng, H.; Liu, Y.; Margrave, J. L.; Khabashesku, V. N.

    2005-01-01

    Surface modification of the tubular or sphere-shaped carbon nanoparticles through chemical treatment, e.g., fluorination, is expected to significantly affect their friction properties. In this study, a direct fluorination of the graphene-built tubular (single-walled carbon nanotubes) structures has been carried out to obtain a series of fluorinated nanotubes (fluoronanotubes) with variable C(n)F (n =2-20) stoichiometries. The friction coefficients for fluoronanotubes, as well as pristine and chemically cut nanotubes, were found to reach values as low as 0.002-0.07, according to evaluation tests run in contact with sapphire in air of about 40% relative humidity on a ball-on-disk tribometer which provided an unidirectional sliding friction motion. These preliminary results demonstrate ultra-low friction properties and show a promise in applications of surface modified nanocarbons as a solid lubricant.

  1. Fabrication and test of experimental automotive friction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halberstadt, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    Three classes of experimental ingredients having good high temperature stability were substituted, singly and in combination, for corresponding ingredients in a standard friction material. The effects of substitution were evaluated by physical and chemical analysis, and principally by determination of friction and wear properties as a function of temperature on a sample drag dynamometer. The major finding was the demonstration of the potential of potassium titanate fiber for the improvement of a friction material of the secondary lining type. For example, the maintenance of a mean friction coefficient of 0.35 between 232 and 343 C (450 and 650 F) was achieved in the presence of the titanate fiber, as opposed to a value of 0.30 in its absence. Wear improvement of the order of 30 to 40% also becomes possible by proper adjustment of resin content and potassium titanate fiber-to-asbestos ratio.

  2. Developing A New Predictive Dispersion Equation Based on Tidal Average (TA) Condition in Alluvial Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anak Gisen, Jacqueline Isabella; Nijzink, Remko C.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2014-05-01

    Dispersion mathematical representation of tidal mixing between sea water and fresh water in The definition of dispersion somehow remains unclear as it is not directly measurable. The role of dispersion is only meaningful if it is related to the appropriate temporal and spatial scale of mixing, which are identified as the tidal period, tidal excursion (longitudinal), width of estuary (lateral) and mixing depth (vertical). Moreover, the mixing pattern determines the salt intrusion length in an estuary. If a physically based description of the dispersion is defined, this would allow the analytical solution of the salt intrusion problem. The objective of this study is to develop a predictive equation for estimating the dispersion coefficient at tidal average (TA) condition, which can be applied in the salt intrusion model to predict the salinity profile for any estuary during different events. Utilizing available data of 72 measurements in 27 estuaries (including 6 recently studied estuaries in Malaysia), regressions analysis has been performed with various combinations of dimensionless parameters . The predictive dispersion equations have been developed for two different locations, at the mouth D0TA and at the inflection point D1TA (where the convergence length changes). Regressions have been carried out with two separated datasets: 1) more reliable data for calibration; and 2) less reliable data for validation. The combination of dimensionless ratios that give the best performance is selected as the final outcome which indicates that the dispersion coefficient is depending on the tidal excursion, tidal range, tidal velocity amplitude, friction and the Richardson Number. A limitation of the newly developed equation is that the friction is generally unknown. In order to compensate this problem, further analysis has been performed adopting the hydraulic model of Cai et. al. (2012) to estimate the friction and depth. Keywords: dispersion, alluvial estuaries, mixing, salt

  3. Effects of water-vapor on friction and deformation of polymeric magnetic media in contact with a ceramic oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of humidity (water-vapor) in nitrogen on the friction and deformation behavior of magnetic tape in contact with a Ni-Zn ferrite spherical pin were studied. The coefficient of friction is markedly dependent on the ambient relative humidity. In elastic contacts the coefficient of friction increased linearly with increasing humidity; it decreased linearly when humidity was lowered. This effect is the result of changes in the chemistry and interaction of tape materials such as degradation of the lubricant. In plastic contacts there was no effect of humidity on friction below 40 percent relative humidity. There is no effect on friction associated with the breakthrough of the adsorbed water-vapor film at the interface of the tape and Ni-Zn ferrite. The coefficient of friction, however, increased rapidly with increasing relative humidity above 40 percent in plastic contacts.

  4. Fault Wear and Friction Evolution: Experimental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boneh, Y.; Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Wear is an inevitable product of frictional sliding of brittle rocks as evidenced by the ubiquitous occurrence of fault gouge and slickenside striations. We present here experimental observations designed to demonstrate the relationship between wear and friction and their governing mechanisms. The experiments were conducted with a rotary shear apparatus on solid, ring-shaped rock samples that slipped for displacements up to tens of meters. Stresses, wear and temperature were continuously monitored. We analyzed 86 experiments of Kasota dolomite, Sierra White granite, Pennsylvania quartzite, Karoo gabbro, and Tennessee sandstone at slip velocities ranging from 0.002 to 0.97 m/s, and normal stress from 0.25 to 6.9 MPa. We conducted two types of runs: short slip experiments (slip distance < 25 mm) primarily on fresh, surface-ground samples, designed to analyze initial wear mechanisms; and long slip experiments (slip distance > 3 m) designed to achieve mature wear conditions and to observe the evolution of wear and friction as the fault surfaces evolved. The experiments reveal three wear stages: initial, running-in, and steady-state. The initial stage is characterized by (1) discrete damage striations, the length of which is comparable to total slip , and local pits or plow features; (2) timing and magnitude of fault-normal dilation corresponds to transient changes of normal and shear stresses; and (3) surface roughness increasing with the applied normal stress. We interpret these observations as wear mechanisms of (a) plowing into the fresh rock surfaces; (b) asperity breakage; and (c) asperity climb. The running-in stage is characterized by (1) intense wear-rate over a critical wear distance of Rd = 0.3-2 m; (2) drop of friction coefficient over a weakening distance of Dc = 0.2-4 m; (3) Rd and Dc display positive, quasi-linear relation with each other. We interpret these observations as indicating the organizing of newly-created wear particles into a 'three

  5. Study Friction Distribution during the Cold Rolling of Material by Matroll Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, H.; Dehghani, K.

    2007-04-01

    Rolling process is one of the most important ways of metal forming. Since the results of this process are almost finished product, therefore controlling the parameters affecting this process is very important in order to have cold rolling products with high quality. Among the parameters knowing the coefficient of friction within the roll gap is known as the most significant one. That is because other rolling parameters such as rolling force, pressure in the roll gap, forward slip, surface quality of sheet, and the life of work rolls are directly influenced by friction. On the other hand, in rolling calculation due to lake of a true amount for coefficient of friction a supposed value is considered for it. In this study, a new software (Matroll), is introduced which can determine the coefficient of friction (COF) and plot the friction hills for an industrial mill. Besides, based on rolling equations, it offers about 30 rolling parameters as outputs. Having the rolling characteristics as inputs, the software is able to calculate the coefficient of friction. Many rolling passes were performed on real industrial aluminum mill. The coefficient of friction was obtained for all passes. The results are in good agreement with the findings of the other researchers.

  6. Study Friction Distribution during the Cold Rolling of Material by Matroll Software

    SciTech Connect

    Abdollahi, H.; Dehghani, K.

    2007-04-07

    Rolling process is one of the most important ways of metal forming. Since the results of this process are almost finished product, therefore controlling the parameters affecting this process is very important in order to have cold rolling products with high quality. Among the parameters knowing the coefficient of friction within the roll gap is known as the most significant one. That is because other rolling parameters such as rolling force, pressure in the roll gap, forward slip, surface quality of sheet, and the life of work rolls are directly influenced by friction. On the other hand, in rolling calculation due to lake of a true amount for coefficient of friction a supposed value is considered for it. In this study, a new software (Matroll), is introduced which can determine the coefficient of friction (COF) and plot the friction hills for an industrial mill. Besides, based on rolling equations, it offers about 30 rolling parameters as outputs. Having the rolling characteristics as inputs, the software is able to calculate the coefficient of friction. Many rolling passes were performed on real industrial aluminum mill. The coefficient of friction was obtained for all passes. The results are in good agreement with the findings of the other researchers.

  7. Transduction channels' gating can control friction on vibrating hair-cell bundles in the ear.

    PubMed

    Bormuth, Volker; Barral, Jérémie; Joanny, Jean-François; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal

    2014-05-20

    Hearing starts when sound-evoked mechanical vibrations of the hair-cell bundle activate mechanosensitive ion channels, giving birth to an electrical signal. As for any mechanical system, friction impedes movements of the hair bundle and thus constrains the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of auditory transduction. Friction is generally thought to result mainly from viscous drag by the surrounding fluid. We demonstrate here that the opening and closing of the transduction channels produce internal frictional forces that can dominate viscous drag on the micrometer-sized hair bundle. We characterized friction by analyzing hysteresis in the force-displacement relation of single hair-cell bundles in response to periodic triangular stimuli. For bundle velocities high enough to outrun adaptation, we found that frictional forces were maximal within the narrow region of deflections that elicited significant channel gating, plummeted upon application of a channel blocker, and displayed a sublinear growth for increasing bundle velocity. At low velocity, the slope of the relation between the frictional force and velocity was nearly fivefold larger than the hydrodynamic friction coefficient that was measured when the transduction machinery was decoupled from bundle motion by severing tip links. A theoretical analysis reveals that channel friction arises from coupling the dynamics of the conformational change associated with channel gating to tip-link tension. Varying channel properties affects friction, with faster channels producing smaller friction. We propose that this intrinsic source of friction may contribute to the process that sets the hair cell's characteristic frequency of responsiveness.

  8. Transduction channels’ gating can control friction on vibrating hair-cell bundles in the ear

    PubMed Central

    Bormuth, Volker; Barral, Jérémie; Joanny, Jean-François; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Hearing starts when sound-evoked mechanical vibrations of the hair-cell bundle activate mechanosensitive ion channels, giving birth to an electrical signal. As for any mechanical system, friction impedes movements of the hair bundle and thus constrains the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of auditory transduction. Friction is generally thought to result mainly from viscous drag by the surrounding fluid. We demonstrate here that the opening and closing of the transduction channels produce internal frictional forces that can dominate viscous drag on the micrometer-sized hair bundle. We characterized friction by analyzing hysteresis in the force–displacement relation of single hair-cell bundles in response to periodic triangular stimuli. For bundle velocities high enough to outrun adaptation, we found that frictional forces were maximal within the narrow region of deflections that elicited significant channel gating, plummeted upon application of a channel blocker, and displayed a sublinear growth for increasing bundle velocity. At low velocity, the slope of the relation between the frictional force and velocity was nearly fivefold larger than the hydrodynamic friction coefficient that was measured when the transduction machinery was decoupled from bundle motion by severing tip links. A theoretical analysis reveals that channel friction arises from coupling the dynamics of the conformational change associated with channel gating to tip-link tension. Varying channel properties affects friction, with faster channels producing smaller friction. We propose that this intrinsic source of friction may contribute to the process that sets the hair cell’s characteristic frequency of responsiveness. PMID:24799674

  9. AFM friction and adhesion mapping of the substructures of human hair cuticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James R.; Tsibouklis, John; Nevell, Thomas G.; Breakspear, Steven

    2013-11-01

    Using atomic force microscopy, values of the microscale friction coefficient, the tip (silicon nitride) - surface adhesion force and the corresponding adhesion energy, for the substructures that constitute the surface of human hair (European brown hair) have been determined from Amonton plots. The values, mapped for comparison with surface topography, corresponded qualitatively with the substructures' plane surface characteristics. Localised maps and values of the frictional coefficient, extracted avoiding scale edge effects, are likely to inform the formulation of hair-care products and treatments.

  10. Laboratory Study of the Frictional Properties of Simulated Basal ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, L.; Rempel, A.

    2006-12-01

    Sediment entrained in ice modifies the shear traction beneath warm-based glaciers. In an attempt to understand how entrained sediment affects the frictional behavior of melting ice against hard, impermeable substrates, we conducted a series of constant-velocity sliding experiments. We simulate basal ice by freezing sediment particles with controlled size distributions and concentrations into ice disks. Our sliding apparatus is driven by a motor coupled to a lead ball screw which displaces a carriage secured by two additional bearing rods. This design increases apparatus stiffness. The normal force was applied with a series of dead weights and the shear force was recorded with a gauge linked to the sliding carriage. The ratio of the measured shear force to the applied normal force produces an effective friction coefficient. Two regimes of frictional behavior are observed. The first, we call slippery, exhibits effective friction coefficients approaching zero and is indistinguishable from the debris free ice used as a control. The second, we call sandy, is indistinguishable from a sand block used as a control, has friction coefficients near 0.3, and high variability. Our results demonstrate that at higher particle loadings, the transition between these regimes occurs when the particle diameter approaches the thickness of the water layer between the ice and sliding surface. The thickness of the water layer is inferred from lubrication theory as a function of the melt rate and normal force, both measured experimental parameters. A similar transition from sandy to slippery with larger particle sizes is observed at low particle concentrations. This effect is likely related to the inability of the fluid above the particle to maintain a pressure gradient sufficient to transmit the imposed normal load to the particles and thus produce high effective friction coefficients.

  11. Slipping and Tipping: Measuring Static Friction with a Straightedge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Eric; Aguilar, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    Following a discussion of forces, torques, and the conditions for static equilibrium, I tell my introductory mechanics class that I will show them how to measure the coefficient of static friction, us, between the surfaces of a block and the front bench using "nothing but a straightedge". After a few seconds of hushed anticipation, I nudge the…

  12. The Possibilities to Decrease the Coefficient of Friciton Between Head and Socket of the Endoprosthesis of Hip Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haringová, Andrea; Stračár, Karol; Prikkel, Karol

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with the question of physical parameters that could positively influence the overall lifetime of hip joint endoprosthesis. As the important physical parameter it was selected the coefficient of friction. The contribution offers possibilities how to decrease the coefficient of friction and experimentally test these assumptions

  13. Frictional strength and heat flow of southern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P. P.

    2016-01-01

    Frictional strength and heat flow of faults are two related subjects in geophysics and seismology. To date, the investigation on regional frictional strength and heat flow still stays at the stage of qualitative estimation. This paper is concentrated on the regional frictional strength and heat flow of the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF). Based on the in situ borehole measured stress data, using the method of 3D dynamic faulting analysis, we quantitatively determine the regional normal stress, shear stress, and friction coefficient at various seismogenic depths. These new data indicate that the southern SAF is a weak fault within the depth of 15 km. As depth increases, all the regional normal and shear stresses and friction coefficient increase. The former two increase faster than the latter. Regional shear stress increment per kilometer equals 5.75 ± 0.05 MPa/km for depth ≤15 km; regional normal stress increment per kilometer is equal to 25.3 ± 0.1 MPa/km for depth ≤15 km. As depth increases, regional friction coefficient increment per kilometer decreases rapidly from 0.08 to 0.01/km at depths less than ~3 km. As depth increases from ~3 to ~5 km, it is 0.01/km and then from ~5 to 15 km, and it is 0.002/km. Previously, frictional strength could be qualitatively determined by heat flow measurements. It is difficult to obtain the quantitative heat flow data for the SAF because the measured heat flow data exhibit large scatter. However, our quantitative results of frictional strength can be employed to investigate the heat flow in the southern SAF. We use a physical quantity P f to describe heat flow. It represents the dissipative friction heat power per unit area generated by the relative motion of two tectonic plates accommodated by off-fault deformation. P f is called "fault friction heat." On the basis of our determined frictional strength data, utilizing the method of 3D dynamic faulting analysis, we quantitatively determine the regional long-term fault

  14. Parametric study of turbine blade platform friction damping using the lumped parameter analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominic, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The hardware configuration used in the present study of turbine blade planform friction damping, by means of the lumped parameter analysis, is the first turbine stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. The analysis procedure solves the nonlinear equations of motion for a turbine blade that is acted on by a platform friction damper, using an iterative matrix method. Attention is given to the effects on blade deflection response of variations in friction coefficient, the normal force on the friction surface interface, blade hysteretic damping, the blade-to-blade phase angle of the harmonic forcing function, and the amplitude of the forcing function.

  15. Effect of strain hardening on friction behavior of iron lubricated with benzyl structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Brainard, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with iron, copper, and aluminum in contact with iron in various states of strain. The surfaces were examined in dry sliding and with various benzyl compounds applied as lubricants. Friction experiments were conducted with a hemispherical rider contacting a flat disk at loads of from 50 to 600 grams with a sliding speed of 0.15 cm/min. Results indicate that straining increases friction for dry sliding and for surfaces lubricated with certain benzyl structures such as dibenzyl disulfide. With other benzyl compounds (e.g., benzyl formate), friction coefficients are lower for strained than for annealed iron.

  16. Contribution of velocity-vorticity correlations to the frictional drag in wall-bounded turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Min; Ahn, Junsun; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between the frictional drag and the velocity-vorticity correlations in wall-bounded turbulent flows is derived from the mean vorticity equation. A formula for the skin friction coefficient is proposed and evaluated with regards to three canonical wall-bounded flows: turbulent boundary layer, turbulent channel flow, and turbulent pipe flow. The frictional drag encompasses four terms: advective vorticity transport, vortex stretching, viscous, and inhomogeneous terms. Drag-reduced channel flow with the slip condition is used to test the reliability of the formula. The advective vorticity transport and vortex stretching terms are found to dominate the contributions to the frictional drag.

  17. A technique to determine friction at the finger tips

    PubMed Central

    Savescu, Adriana V.; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique to calculate the coefficient of friction for fingertip-object interface. Twelve subjects (6 males and 6 females) participated in two experiments. During the first experiment (the “imposed displacement” method) a 3D force sensor was moved horizontally while the subjects applied a specified normal force (4N, 8N, 12N) on the surface of a sensor covered with different materials (sandpaper, cotton, rayon, polyester, and silk).The normal force and the tangential force (i.e. the force due to the sensor motion) were recorded. The coefficient of friction (µd) was calculated as the ratio between the tangential force and the normal force. In the second experiment (the “beginning slip” method), a small instrumented object was gripped between the index finger and the thumb, held stationary in the air and then allowed to drop. The weight (200g, 500g and 1000g) and the surface (sandpaper, cotton, rayon, polyester and silk) in contact with the digits varied across trials. The same sensor as in the first experiment was used to record the normal force (in a horizontal direction) and the tangential force (in the vertical direction). The slip force (i.e. the minimal normal force or grip force necessary to prevent slipping) was estimated as the force at the moment when the object just began to slip. The coefficient of friction was calculated as the ratio between the tangential force and the slip force. The results show that: (1) the “imposed displacement” method is reliable; (2) except sandpaper, for all other materials the coefficient of friction did not depend of the normal force; (3) the skin-sandpaper coefficient of friction was the highest µd = 0.96±0.09 (for 4N normal force) and the skin-rayon rayon coefficient of friction was the smallest µd = 0.36±0.10; (4) no significant difference between the coefficients of friction determined with the “imposed displacement” method and the “beginning slip” method was observed. We view

  18. A technique to determine friction at the fingertips.

    PubMed

    Savescu, Adriana V; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2008-02-01

    This article proposes a technique to calculate the coefficient of friction for the fingertip- object interface. Twelve subjects (6 males and 6 females) participated in two experiments. During the first experiment (the imposed displacement method), a 3-D force sensor was moved horizontally while the subjects applied a specified normal force (4 N, 8 N, 12 N) on the surface of a sensor covered with different materials (sandpaper, cotton, rayon, polyester, and silk). The normal force and the tangential force (i.e., the force due to the sensor motion) were recorded. The coefficient of friction (mu(d)) was calculated as the ratio between the tangential force and the normal force. In the second experiment (the beginning slip method), a small instrumented object was gripped between the index finger and the thumb, held stationary in the air, and then allowed to drop. The weight (200 g, 500 g, and 1,000 g) and the surface (sandpaper, cotton, rayon, polyester, and silk) in contact with the digits varied across trials. The same sensor as in the first experiment was used to record the normal force (in a horizontal direction) and the tangential force (in the vertical direction). The slip force (i.e., the minimal normal force or grip force necessary to prevent slipping) was estimated as the force at the moment when the object just began to slip. The coefficient of friction was calculated as the ratio between the tangential force and the slip force. The results show that (1) the imposed displacement method is reliable; (2) except sandpaper, for all other materials the coefficient of friction did not depend on the normal force; (3) the skin-sandpaper coefficient of friction was the highest mu(d) =0.96+/-0.09 (for 4-N normal force) and the skin-rayon rayon coefficient of friction was the smallest mu(d) =0.36+/-0.10; (4) no significant difference between the coefficients of friction determined with the imposed displacement method and the beginning slip method was observed. We view

  19. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Paradoxes in Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchem, John

    1989-01-01

    Examples used to illustrate Simpson's paradox for secondary students include probabilities, university admissions, batting averages, student-faculty ratios, and average and expected class sizes. Each result is explained. (DC)

  1. Friction at small displacement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. E.; Aronstein, J.

    1972-01-01

    Low contact resistance between metal surfaces is often observed in spite of interposed lubricant and/or oxide films. To study this effect an apparatus is used with which normal force and tangential microdisplacement are applied between a small lead rider and a gold flat with various surface film conditions. Under nonoxidized and nonlubricated conditions, and with either oxide or stearic acid lubricant film alone, friction is high and contact resistance is low. With oxide and lubricant together, friction is much lower and slide is smooth, but contact resistance remains low and Ohm's law is obeyed. The results are consistent with Greenwood's theory of contact resistance for a cluster of minute metallic contact spots within the load-supporting area. The contact resistance of such a cluster is indistinguishable, for practical purposes, from that given by complete metallic contact.

  2. Friction-reducing device

    SciTech Connect

    Dollison, W.W.

    1990-04-24

    This patent describes a sucker rod coupling adapted to reduce friction within production tubing in a well bore. It comprises: a substantially cylindrical body member and roller assemblies; the body member comprising means at each end thereof for attaching the coupling to a sucker rod, and axially and circumferentially spaced recesses, each recess containing a roller guide connected to the body, and each recess being further adapted to receive and support a roller assembly around the roller guide in such manner that the roller assembly can revolve around the roller guide; the roller assemblies each comprising rollers rotatably mounted on and linked by a chain, the rollers being adapted to reduce frictional contact between the body member and the tubing by rotating between the roller guide and the tubing while the chain revolves around the roller guide.

  3. Friction and Wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomey, Jacques

    1952-01-01

    From the practical point of view, this analysis shows that each problem of friction or wear requires its particular solution. There is no universal solution; one or other of the factors predominates and defines the choice of the solution. In certain cases, copper alloys of great thermal conductivity are preferred; in others, plastics abundantly supplied with water. Sometimes, soft antifriction metals are desirable to distribute the load; at other times, hard metals with high resistance to abrasion or heat.

  4. Friction in rail guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  5. Frictional Properties of Single Crystalline and Quasicrystalline Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellman, Andrew

    2000-03-01

    The use of ultra-high vacuum surface science methods has been aplied to the problem of studying friction between single srystalline and quasicrystalline metal surfaces. A experimental apparatus has been developed that combines the ability to perform surface preparation and analysis with the ability to make measurements of macroscopic friction forces between surfaces in sliding contact. This UHV chamber allows simultaneous preparation and characterization of two sample surfaces. These are usually single crystalline samples of the same metal and can be either perfectly clean or modified by adsorbed species such as atoms or molecules. Once prepared these two surfaces can be brought into contact under an applied normal load (Fn = 0.001 0.1 N) and sheared relative to one another at constant velocity (vs = 1 100 mm/s). Both normal and shear forces are measured simultaneously enabling one to determine a coefficient of friction. This unique apparatus has been used to study a number of problems in tribology. Adsorbed species on metal surfaces serve as a lubricants and prevent direct metal-metal contact. We have addressed the issue of surface coverage effects on interfacial friction. Surfaces have been prepared with adsorbed species ranging continuously in coverage from zero monolayers to many ( 100) monolayers. These experiments have been performed with pairs of both Ni(100) and Cu(111) surfaces. The interesting observation has been that adsorbed layers of atoms have little or no influence on friction coefficients between the two surfaces at coverages below one monolayer. Adsorbed molecules such as ethanol or trifluoroethanol are more interesting in this regard. They also have little influence on friction when adsorbed at coverages of < 1 monolayer, however, once the coverage exceeds 1 monolayer the coefficient of friction drops substantially. Friction reaches its limit at coverages of 5 10 monolayer. It is quite interesting to note that these metal single crystal surface

  6. Frictional weakening of Landslides in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Antoine; Mangeney, Anne; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

    2014-05-01

    Landslides are an important phenomenon that shapes the surface morphology of solid planetary bodies, including planets and small bodies. In addition, landslide science aims to predict the maximum distance travelled and the maximum velocity reached by a potential landslide in order to quantify the damage it may cause. On the one hand, observations show that the so-called Heim's ratio (i.e. the ratio between the difference of the height of the initial mass and that of the deposit, and the traveling distance) decreases with increasing volume for landslides observed on Earth [1] and other planets like Mars and icy moons like Iapetus [2], but whether this quantity is a good representation of the effective friction during the flow is still a controversial issue. On the other hand, numerical simulations (either continuous or discrete) of real landslides commonly require the assumption of very small friction coefficient to reproduce the extension of deposits [2-5]. We investigate if a common origin can explain the characteristics of landslides in such variety of planetary environments. Based on analytical and numerical solutions for granular flows constrained by remote-sensing observations [3, 7], we developed a consistent method to estimate the effective friction coefficient of landslides, i.e., the constant basal friction coefficient that reproduces their first-order properties. We show that: i) the Heim's ratio is not equivalent to the effective friction coefficient; ii) the friction coefficient decreases with increasing volume or, more fundamentally, with increasing sliding velocity. Inspired by frictional weakening mechanisms thought to operate during earthquakes [8], we propose an empirical velocity-weakening friction law under an unifying phenomenological framework applicable to small to large landslides observed on Earth and beyond (including icy moons of giant planets) whatever the environment and material involved. References: [1] Legros, Eng. Geol. 2002; [2

  7. The influence of imposed normal vibrations on the frictional sliding along the fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, Iuliia; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Sliding over discontinuities (faults, fractures) in the stable state is prevented by friction. However, the faults are continuously subjected to variations in normal stress and can produce sliding over initially stable fractures/interfaces. In the Earth's crust the normal oscillations can be produced by tidal stresses or by the seismic waves generated by other seismic events. This is associated with the earthquake triggering and leading to a stick-slip sliding. It is conventionally assumed that the mechanism of stick-slip over geomaterials lies in intermittent change between static and kinetic friction and the rate dependence of the friction coefficient. The formulation of the friction law on geological faults is the key element in the modelling of earthquakes. We investigate the effects of imposed normal vibrations on steady sliding and stick-slip regimes and analyse the dynamics of system with different friction modelling. For this purpose we consider a simple spring-block model introduced by Burridge and Knopoff. The results show that a model exhibits different behaviour in the frictional sliding with constant and nonlinear friction. It is important to note, that a block-spring model can produce oscillations in the velocity of sliding that is the stick-slip like behaviour even when the friction coefficient is constant. The effect of force reduction is observed under the influence of harmonic vertical vibrations. The rate-dependent friction creates more complex pattern of oscillations.

  8. Correlation of ideal and actual shear strengths of metals with their friction properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The relation between the ideal and actual shear strengths and friction properties of clean metals in contact with clean diamond, boron nitride, silicon carbide, manganese-zinc ferrite, and the metals themselves in vacuum is discussed. An estimate of the ideal shear strength for metals is obtained from the shear modulus, the repeat distance of atoms in the direction of shear of the metal, and the interplanar spacing of the shearing planes. The coefficient of friction for metals is shown to be correlated with both the ideal and actual shear strength of metals. The higher the strength of the metal, the lower the coefficient of friction occurs.

  9. Ultra low friction carbon/carbon composites for extreme temperature applications

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Busch, Donald E.; Fenske, George R.; Lee, Sam; Shepherd, Gary; Pruett, Gary J.

    2001-01-01

    A carbon/carbon composite in which a carbon matrix containing a controlled amount of boron or a boron compound is reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits a low coefficient of friction, i.e., on the order of 0.04 to 0.1 at temperatures up to 600.degree. C., which is one of the lowest frictional coefficients for any type of carbonaceous material, including graphite, glassy carbon, diamond, diamond-like carbon and other forms of carbon material. The high degree of slipperiness of the carbon composite renders it particularly adapted for limiting friction and wear at elevated temperatures such as in seals, bearings, shafts, and flexible joints

  10. Bioinspired orientation-dependent friction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Longjian; Iturri, Jagoba; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; del Campo, Aránzazu

    2014-09-23

    Spatular terminals on the toe pads of a gecko play an important role in directional adhesion and friction required for reversible attachment. Inspired by the toe pad design of a gecko, we study friction of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars terminated with asymmetric (spatular-shaped) overhangs. Friction forces in the direction of and against the spatular end were evaluated and compared to friction forces on symmetric T-shaped pillars and pillars without overhangs. The shape of friction curves and the values of friction forces on spatula-terminated pillars were orientation-dependent. Kinetic friction forces were enhanced when shearing against the spatular end, while static friction was stronger in the direction toward the spatular end. The overall friction force was higher in the direction against the spatula end. The maximum value was limited by the mechanical stability of the overhangs during shear. The aspect ratio of the pillar had a strong influence on the magnitude of the friction force, and its contribution surpassed and masked that of the spatular tip for aspect ratios of >2.

  11. Effects of Anti-Oxidant Migration on Friction and Wear of C/C Aircraft Brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Don, Jarlen; Wang, Zhe

    2009-04-01

    The surfaces of carbon-carbon (C/C) aircraft brakes are usually coated with anti-oxidant to protect them from oxidation. These surfaces do not include the friction surfaces since it is known that when anti-oxidant get onto the friction surface, the friction coefficient decreases. The anti-oxidant migration (AOM), however, happens during processing, heat treatment and application. In this study, phosphorus based anti-oxidants inhibited 3-D C/C aircraft brake system was investigated. The effects of their migration on friction and wear in the 3-D C/C brakes were revealed by sub-scale dynamometer tests and microscopic analysis. Dynamometer results showed that when AOM occurred, both landing and taxi coefficients decreased in humid environment and the wear was slightly lowered. Microscopic study showed that under high humidity conditions there was no formation of the friction film.

  12. Adhesion and friction of iron-base binary alloys in contact with silicon carbide in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Single pass sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron base binary alloys (alloying elements were Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rh, and W) in contact with a single crystal silicon carbide /0001/ surface in vacuum. Results indicate that atomic size and concentration of alloying elements play an important role in controlling adhesion and friction properties of iron base binary alloys. The coefficient of friction generally increases with an increase in solute concentration. The coefficient of friction increases linearly as the solute to iron atomic radius ratio increases or decreases from unity. The chemical activity of the alloying elements was also an important parameter in controlling adhesion and friction of alloys, as these latter properties are highly dependent upon the d bond character of the elements.

  13. Four great challenges confronting our understanding and modeling of sliding friction

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    This paper addresses four challenges whose solutions may together enable significant progress in the predication and control of friction for energy conservation. Posed as questions these are: (1) how can materials with greatly different properties and compositions produce similar kinetic friction coefficients when tested under comparable conditions; (2) how is it possible that the kinetic friction coefficient for the same materials pair can differ greatly when it is slid in different tribosystems; (3) how can frictional phenomena at different size scales be reconciled; and (4) how can the effects of the machine, the materials (including lubricants) and the environment be successfully incorporated into quantitative and predictive friction models? Examples related to these four challenges are provided, as are possible approaches for attacking them in future research efforts.

  14. Electronic friction at the atomic scale: Conduction, electrostatic and magnetic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krim, Jacqueline; Altfeder, Igor

    2013-03-01

    We have performed a magnetic probe microscopy study of levitation and atomic-scale friction for Fe on YBCO (Tc = 92.5K) in the temperature range 65 - 293 K, to explore electronic contributions to friction at the atomic scale. The samples were prepared with oxygen-depleted surfaces, with thin semiconducting surface layers present atop the bulk. Below Tc, the friction coefficient was observed to be constant at 0.19 and exhibited no correlation with the strength of superconducting levitation forces observed below Tc. The friction coefficient exhibited a change in slope within experimental error of Tc that increased progressively above Tc and reached 0.33 by room temperature. The results were analyzed within the context of underlying atomic-scale electronic and phononic mechanisms that give rise to friction we conclude that contact electrification and static electricity play a significant role above Tc. Supported by NSF and AFOSR.

  15. Theory of friction based on brittle fracture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.

    1967-01-01

    A theory of friction is presented that may be more applicable to geologic materials than the classic Bowden and Tabor theory. In the model, surfaces touch at the peaks of asperities and sliding occurs when the asperities fail by brittle fracture. The coefficient of friction, ??, was calculated from the strength of asperities of certain ideal shapes; for cone-shaped asperities, ?? is about 0.1 and for wedge-shaped asperities, ?? is about 0.15. For actual situations which seem close to the ideal model, observed ?? was found to be very close to 0.1, even for materials such as quartz and calcite with widely differing strengths. If surface forces are present, the theory predicts that ?? should decrease with load and that it should be higher in a vacuum than in air. In the presence of a fluid film between sliding surfaces, ?? should depend on the area of the surfaces in contact. Both effects are observed. The character of wear particles produced during sliding and the way in which ?? depends on normal load, roughness, and environment lend further support to the model of friction presented here. ?? 1967 The American Institute of Physics.

  16. Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanpied, M.L.; Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge) were slid. The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845?? and wet granite below 250??C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (?? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above ~350??C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. The results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing. -from Authors

  17. Properties of ferrites important to their friction and wear behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Environmental, chemical and crystallographical effects on the fundamental nature on friction and wear of the ferrites in contact with metals, magnetic tapes and themselves are reviewed. The removal of adsorbed films from the surfaces of ferrites results in very strong interfacial adhesion and high friction in ferrite to metal and ferrite to magnetic tape contacts. The metal ferrite bond at the interface is primarily a chemical bond between the metal atoms and the large oxygen anions in the ferrite surface, and the strength of these bonds is related to the oxygen to metal bond strength in the metal oxide. The more active the metal, the higher is the coefficient of friction. Not only under adhesive conditions, but also under abrasive conditions the friction and wear properties of ferrites are related to the crystallographic orientation. With ferrite to ferrite contact the mating of highest atomic density (most closely packed) direction on matched crystallographic planes, that is, 110 directions on /110/planes, results in the lowest coefficient of friction.

  18. Steady-state wear and friction in boundary lubrication studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A friction and wear study was made at 20 C to obtain improved reproducibility and reliability in boundary lubrication testing. Ester-base and C-ether-base fluids were used to lubricate a pure iron rider in sliding contact with a rotating M-50 steel disk in a friction and wear apparatus. Conditions included loads of 1/2 and 1 kg and sliding velocities of 3.6 to 18.2 m/min in a dry air atmosphere and stepwise time intervals from 1 to 250 min for wear measurements. The wear rate results were compared with those from previous studies where a single 25 min test period was used. Satisfactory test conditions for studying friction and wear in boundary lubrication for this apparatus were found to be 1 kg load; sliding velocities of 7.1 to 9.1 m/min (50 rpm disk speed); and use of a time stepwise test procedure. Highly reproducible steady-state wear rates and steady-state friction coefficients were determined under boundary conditions. Wear rates and coefficients of friction were constant following initially high values during run-in periods.

  19. Rotational friction of dipolar colloids measured by driven torsional oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Gabi; Gemming, Sibylle; Erbe, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Despite its prominent role in the dynamics of soft materials, rotational friction remains a quantity that is difficult to determine for many micron-sized objects. Here, we demonstrate how the Stokes coefficient of rotational friction can be obtained from the driven torsional oscillations of single particles in a highly viscous environment. The idea is that the oscillation amplitude of a dipolar particle under combined static and oscillating fields provides a measure for the Stokes friction. From numerical studies we derive a semi-empirical analytic expression for the amplitude of the oscillation, which cannot be calculated analytically from the equation of motion. We additionally demonstrate that this expression can be used to experimentally determine the rotational friction coefficient of single particles. Here, we record the amplitudes of a field-driven dipolar Janus microsphere with optical microscopy. The presented method distinguishes itself in its experimental and conceptual simplicity. The magnetic torque leaves the local environment unchanged, which contrasts with other approaches where, for example, additional mechanical (frictional) or thermal contributions have to be regarded. PMID:27680399

  20. Investigation of Dynamic Friction Induced by Shock Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanicotena, A.; Szarzynski, S.

    2006-07-01

    Modeling the frictional sliding of one surface against another under high pressure is often required to correctly describe the response of complex systems to shock loading. In order to provide data for direct code and model comparison, a new friction experiment investigating dry sliding characteristics of metal on metal at normal pressures up to 10 GPa and sliding velocities up to 400 m/s has been developed. The test consists of a specifically designed target made of two materials. A plane shock wave generated by plate impact results in one material sliding against the other. The material velocity of the rear surface of the target is recorded versus time by Doppler Laser Interferometry. The dynamic friction coefficient μ is then indirectly determined by comparison with results of numerical simulations involving the conventional Coulomb law. Using this new experimental configuration, three dynamic friction experiments were performed on AA 5083-Al (H111) / AISI 321 stainless steel tribo-pair. Results suggest a decrease in the friction coefficient with increasing sliding velocity.

  1. Investigation of dynamic friction induced by shock loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanicotena, Antoine

    2005-07-01

    Modelling the frictional sliding of one surface against another under high pressure is often required to correctly describe the response of complex systems to shock loading. In order to provide data for direct code and model comparison, a new dynamic friction experiment investigating dry sliding characteristics of metal on metal at normal pressures up to 10 GPa and sliding velocities up to 400 m/s has been developed. The test consists of a specifically designed target made of two materials. A plane shock wave generated by plate impact results in one material sliding against the other. The material velocity of the rear surface of the target is recorded versus time by Doppler Laser Interferometry. The dynamic friction coefficient μ is then indirectly determined by comparison with results of numerical simulations involving the conventional Coulomb law. Samples can also be recovered in order to carry out metallographic analyses of sub-surface deformation at the interface. Using this new experimental configuration, three dynamic friction experiments with various impact speeds were performed on AA 5083-Al (H111) / AISI 321 stainless steel tribo-pair. Results suggest a decrease in the friction coefficient with increasing sliding velocity, a classic experimentally observed phenomenon.

  2. Investigation of Dynamic Friction Induced by Shock Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Juanicotena, A.; Szarzynski, S.

    2006-07-28

    Modeling the frictional sliding of one surface against another under high pressure is often required to correctly describe the response of complex systems to shock loading. In order to provide data for direct code and model comparison, a new friction experiment investigating dry sliding characteristics of metal on metal at normal pressures up to 10 GPa and sliding velocities up to 400 m/s has been developed. The test consists of a specifically designed target made of two materials. A plane shock wave generated by plate impact results in one material sliding against the other. The material velocity of the rear surface of the target is recorded versus time by Doppler Laser Interferometry. The dynamic friction coefficient {mu} is then indirectly determined by comparison with results of numerical simulations involving the conventional Coulomb law. Using this new experimental configuration, three dynamic friction experiments were performed on AA 5083-Al (H111) / AISI 321 stainless steel tribo-pair. Results suggest a decrease in the friction coefficient with increasing sliding velocity.

  3. Rotational friction of dipolar colloids measured by driven torsional oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, Gabi; Gemming, Sibylle; Erbe, Artur

    2016-09-01

    Despite its prominent role in the dynamics of soft materials, rotational friction remains a quantity that is difficult to determine for many micron-sized objects. Here, we demonstrate how the Stokes coefficient of rotational friction can be obtained from the driven torsional oscillations of single particles in a highly viscous environment. The idea is that the oscillation amplitude of a dipolar particle under combined static and oscillating fields provides a measure for the Stokes friction. From numerical studies we derive a semi-empirical analytic expression for the amplitude of the oscillation, which cannot be calculated analytically from the equation of motion. We additionally demonstrate that this expression can be used to experimentally determine the rotational friction coefficient of single particles. Here, we record the amplitudes of a field-driven dipolar Janus microsphere with optical microscopy. The presented method distinguishes itself in its experimental and conceptual simplicity. The magnetic torque leaves the local environment unchanged, which contrasts with other approaches where, for example, additional mechanical (frictional) or thermal contributions have to be regarded.

  4. Sliding friction and wear behaviors of surface-coated natural serpentine mineral powders as lubricant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baosen; Xu, Yi; Gao, Fei; Shi, Peijing; Xu, Binshi; Wu, Yixiong

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the friction and wear properties of surface-coated natural serpentine powders (SP) suspended in diesel engine oil using an Optimal SRV oscillating friction and wear tester. The worn surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Results indicated that the additives can improve the wear resistance and decrease friction coefficient of carbon steel friction couples. The 0.5 wt% content of serpentine powders is found most efficient in reducing friction and wear at the load of 50 N. The SEM and XPS analysis results demonstrate that a tribofilm forms on the worn surface, which is responsible for the decrease in friction and wear, mainly with iron oxides, silicon oxides, graphite and organic compounds.

  5. The role of crystallography and nanostructures on metallic friction.

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Joseph Richard; Prasad, Somuri V.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Majumdar, Bhaskar Sinha; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    In ductile metals, sliding contact is often accompanied by severe plastic deformation localized to a small volume of material adjacent to the wear surface. During the initial run-in period, hardness, grain structure and crystallographic texture of the surfaces that come into sliding contact undergo significant changes, culminating in the evolution of subsurface layers with their own characteristic features. Here, a brief overview of our ongoing research on the fundamental phenomena governing the friction-induced recrystallization in single crystal metals, and how these recrystallized structures with nanometer-size grains would in turn influence metallic friction will be presented. We have employed a novel combination of experimental tools (FIB, EBSD and TEM) and an analysis of the critical resolved shear stress (RSS) on the twelve slip systems of the FCC lattice to understand the evolution of these friction-induced structures in single crystal nickel. The later part of the talk deals with the mechanisms of friction in nanocrystalline Ni films. Analyses of friction-induced subsurfaces seem to confirm that the formation of stable ultrafine nanocrystalline layers with 2-10 nm grains changes the deformation mechanism from the traditional dislocation mediated one to that is predominantly controlled by grain boundaries, resulting in significant reductions in the coefficient friction.

  6. High velocity friction, melting and weakening of silicatic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. B.

    2008-12-01

    It is well-known that the large heat generated by fast sliding alters the frictional behavior of rocks. One well-documented example is that of melt lubrication, both observed in laboratory experiments and attested on exhumed faults by the presence of solidified melt (pseudotachylite). Melting dynamics implies heat diffusion, melt migration and inhomogeneous frictional shear inside a melt layer of varying thickness: prediction of the frictional evolution under variable conditions of slip-rate, normal stress or rock composition is not trivial. The range of conditions nowadays replicated in the laboratory is limited by technical challenges (in particular, it is difficult to apply a normal stress in excess of 20MPa in combination with slip-rates of the order of 1 m/s). As a consequence, it is interesting to use a realistic model that allows to interpret the physics of the process, to reproduce the laboratory results and, finally, to extrapolate the frictional behavior at ranges not considered by experimental tests. I will illustrate the behavior of both transient and steady-state friction from the model perspective and compare the results to laboratory data when available. I will discuss the variation of the apparent weakening distance (Dc) and dynamic friction coefficient as a function of the applied conditions (slip-rate, normal stress, silica content, presence of heat loss through radiation, size of laboratory sample or runaway length of the melt).

  7. Solid friction between soft filaments.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-06-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes's drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

  8. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  9. A novel polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel functionalized with organic boundary lubricant for use as low-friction cartilage substitute: synthesis, physical/chemical, mechanical, and friction characterization.

    PubMed

    Blum, Michelle M; Ovaert, Timothy C

    2012-10-01

    A novel material design was developed by functionalizing polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel with an organic low-friction boundary lubricant (molar ratios of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 moles of lauroyl chloride). The hydrogels were fabricated using two different techniques. First, the boundary lubricant was initially functionalized to the polymer, then the hydrogels were created by physically crosslinking the reacted polymer. Second, hydrogels were initially created by crosslinking pure polyvinyl alcohol, with the functionalization reaction performed on the fully formed gel. After the reaction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance spectra revealed a clear ester peak, the diminishment of the alcohol peak, and the amplification of the alkyl peaks, which confirmed attachment of the hydrocarbon chains to the polymer. Additional chemical characterization occurred through elemental analysis where an average increase of 22% carbon and 40% hydrogen provided further confirmation of attachment. Physical characterization of the boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogels was performed by water content and contact angle measurements. Water content dependency showed that method 1 had a direct relationship with boundary lubricant concentration, and method 2 displayed an inverse relationship. The contact angle increased as boundary lubricant concentration increased for the pure matrix material for both processing methods, suggesting that the hydrocarbons produced surface properties that mimic natural cartilage, and contact behavior of the biphasic system was dependent on processing method. Friction tests demonstrated a significant decrease in friction coefficient, with a maximum decrease of 70% and a minimum decrease of 24% for boundary lubricant functionalized hydrogels compared with nonfunctionalized polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels.

  10. Friction-induced Resonance of a Stochastic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Laas, K.; Mankin, R.

    2009-10-29

    The influence of the friction coefficient on the long-time behavior of the output signal of a harmonic oscillator with fluctuating frequency subjected to an external periodic force and an additive thermal noise is considered. The colored fluctuations of the oscillator frequency are modeled as a three-level Markovian telegraph noise. The main purpose of this work is to demonstrate, based on exact expressions, that the resonance is manifested in the dependence of the response function and the complex susceptibility of the oscillator upon the friction coefficient. The advantage of the latter effect is that the control parameter is the damping coefficient, which can easily be varied in possible experiments as well as potential technological applications.

  11. Determination of basic friction angle using various laboratory tests.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The basic friction angle of rock is an important factor of joint shear strength and is included within most shear strength criteria. It can be measured by direct shear test, triaxial compression test and tilt test. Tilt test is mostly used because it is the simplest method. However, basic friction angles measured using tilt test for same rock type or for one sample are widely distributed and often do not show normal distribution. In this research, the basic friction angles for the Hangdeung granite form Korea and Berea sandstone from USA are measured accurately using direct shear test and triaxial compression test. Then basic friction angles are again measured using tilt tests with various conditions and are compared with those measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test to determine the optimum condition of tilt test. Three types of sliding planes, such as planes cut by saw and planes polished by #100 and #600 grinding powders, are prepared. When planes are polished by #100 grinding powder, the basic friction angles measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test are very consistent and show narrow ranges. However, basic friction angles show wide ranges when planes are cut by saw and are polished by #600 grinding powder. The basic friction angle measured using tilt test are very close to those measured using direct shear test and triaxial compression test when plane is polished by #100 grinding powder. When planes are cut by saw and are polished by #600 grinding powder, basic friction angles measured using tilt test are slightly different. This indicates that tilt test with plane polished by #100 grinding powder can yield an accurate basic friction angle. In addition, the accurate values are obtained not only when planes are polished again after 10 times of tilt test, but values are averaged by more 30 times of tests.

  12. Friction and hardness of gold films deposited by ion plating and evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Spalvins, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with ion-plated and vapor-deposited gold films on various substrates in contact with a 0.025-mm-radius spherical silicon carbide rider in mineral oil. Hardness measurements were also made to examine the hardness depth profile of the coated gold on the substrate. The results indicate that the hardness is influenced by the depth of the gold coating from the surface. The hardness increases with an increase in the depth. The hardness is also related to the composition gradient in the graded interface between the gold coating and the substrate. The graded interface exhibited the highest hardness resulting from an alloy hardening effect. The coefficient of friction is inversely related to the hardness, namely, the load carrying capacity of the surface. The greater the hardness that the metal surface possesses, the lower is the coefficient of friction. The graded interface exhibited the lowest coefficient of friction.

  13. The effect of friction on simulated containment of underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, A.V.

    1990-11-01

    The strength of the residual stress field is used as an important indicator in assessing the containment of underground nuclear explosions. Containment analysis using the COTTAGE geology shows considerable cracking in the hard Paleozoic layer, just below the cavity. The coefficient of friction is the ratio of total shear stress applied to a closed fracture surface to normal applied compressive total stress. Without any friction, the Paleozoic residual stress field is weakest. As the friction coefficient is increased from 0 to 0.5, the Paleozoic residual stress field is strengthened. A further increase of the friction coefficient from 0.5 to 0.8 shows strengthened where cracks are closed and weakening where cracks remain open. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Effective stress, friction and deep crustal faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Hirth, Greg; Thomas, Amanda M.; Burgmann, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Studies of crustal faulting and rock friction invariably assume the effective normal stress that determines fault shear resistance during frictional sliding is the applied normal stress minus the pore pressure. Here we propose an expression for the effective stress coefficient αf at temperatures and stresses near the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) that depends on the percentage of solid-solid contact area across the fault. αf varies with depth and is only near 1 when the yield strength of asperity contacts greatly exceeds the applied normal stress. For a vertical strike-slip quartz fault zone at hydrostatic pore pressure and assuming 1 mm and 1 km shear zone widths for friction and ductile shear, respectively, the BDT is at ~13 km. αf near 1 is restricted to depths where the shear zone is narrow. Below the BDT αf = 0 is due to a dramatically decreased strain rate. Under these circumstances friction cannot be reactivated below the BDT by increasing the pore pressure alone and requires localization. If pore pressure increases and the fault localizes back to 1 mm, then brittle behavior can occur to a depth of around 35 km. The interdependencies among effective stress, contact-scale strain rate, and pore pressure allow estimates of the conditions necessary for deep low-frequency seismicity seen on the San Andreas near Parkfield and in some subduction zones. Among the implications are that shear in the region separating shallow earthquakes and deep low-frequency seismicity is distributed and that the deeper zone involves both elevated pore fluid pressure and localization.

  15. Microscale surface friction of articular cartilage in early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Jane; Amrein, Matthias W; Matyas, John R

    2013-09-01

    Articular cartilage forms the articulating surface of long bones and facilitates energy dissipation upon loading as well as joint lubrication and wear resistance. In normal cartilage, boundary lubrication between thin films at the cartilage surface reduces friction in the absence of interstitial fluid pressurization and fluid film lubrication by synovial fluid. Inadequate boundary lubrication is associated with degenerative joint conditions such as osteoarthritis (OA), but relations between OA and surface friction, lubrication and wear in boundary lubrication are not well defined. The purpose of the present study was to measure microscale boundary mode friction of the articular cartilage surface in an in vivo experimental model to better understand changes in cartilage surface friction in early OA. Cartilage friction was measured on the articular surface by atomic force microscopy (AFM) under applied loads ranging from 0.5 to 5 μN. Microscale AFM friction analyses revealed depth dependent changes within the top-most few microns of the cartilage surface in this model of early OA. A significant increase of nearly 50% was observed in the mean engineering friction coefficient for OA cartilage at the 0.5 μN load level; no significant differences in friction coefficients were found under higher applied loads. Changes in cartilage surface morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy included cracking and roughening of the surface indicative of disruption and wear accompanied by an apparent disintegration of the thin surface lamina from the underlying matrix. Immunohistochemical staining of lubricin - an important cartilage surface boundary lubricant - did not reveal differences in spatial distribution near the cartilage surface in OA compared to controls. The increase in friction at the 0.5 μN force level is interpreted to reflect changes in the interfacial mechanics of the thin surface lamina of articular cartilage: increased friction implies reduced

  16. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N.R.; Hooyer, T.S.; Fischer, U.H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n < 2) is likely because stresses in ice are small and flow is transient. Numerical calculations of the bed-normal drag force on a sphere in contact with a flat bed using n = 1 show that this force can reach values several hundred times that on a sphere isolated from the bed, thus drastically increasing frictional resistance. Various estimates of basal friction are obtained from this model. For example, the shear traction at the bed of a glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Experimental Study of Sliding Friction for PET Track Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippova, E. O.; Filippov, A. V.; Shulepov, I. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article is presented results of a study of the process for a dry friction metal-polymer couple on scheme disc-finger. Track membrane from polyethylene terephthalate was a research material. Membrane had pores with 0.4 and 0.8 μm diameters. The effect of the sliding velocity for membranes with pores of 0.8 microns was determined. Research was shown that increasing pore’s diameter caused a reduction of the friction coefficient and downturn its magnitude vibrations. The study showed that track membrane have adequate resistance to wear and can be successfully used in surgical procedures in the layers of the cornea.

  18. Moisture-dependent frictional and aerodynamic properties of safflower seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, M.; Bastaban, S.; Öztürk, I.; Kalkan, F.; Yildiz, C.

    2012-04-01

    The seeds of two safflower cultivars were investigated in order to determine their frictional and aerodynamic properties as a function of moisture content. The coefficients of dynamic friction of cultivars on aluminium, plywood, fibreglass and steel surfaces increased by 87, 56, 78, and 129% for cv. Remzibey-05 seed, and by 91, 31, 71, and 131% for cv. Dinçer seed, respectively, between the initial and final moisture content levels. The terminal velocities of the Remzibey-05 and Dinçer seeds increased by 15 and 11%, respectively, with increase in moisture content between the initial and final levels.

  19. Low friction in mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Hilton, E. F.; Mulcahy, T. M.; Yang, Z. J.; Lockwood, A.; Strasik, M.

    1995-12-01

    Individual magnetic steel rotors were levitated by combining the attractive force between permanent magnets and the steel with the repulsive force between high-temperature superconductors and the steel. The free spindown of several rotors was observed, and the effective coefficient of friction for the bearing was calculated as a function of geometry. Low-speed coefficients of <10-8 were observed, and the velocity dependence of MnZn ferrite rotors suggest that coefficients of <10-6 are attainable at bearing rim velocities of 100 m/s.

  20. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  1. Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kirk, K L; Kuklo, T; Klemme, W

    2000-11-01

    Overuse knee injuries are common, but ITBFS is often overlooked as a cause of lateral knee pain in an active population. Iliotibial band friction syndrome is an overuse injury usually seen in long distance runners, cyclists, and military personnel. The exact incidence of the syndrome has been estimated to range from 1.6%-52% depending on the population studied. The diagnosis is often made from a thorough history and clinical examination with an infrequent need for additional studies. Treatment is mostly conservative consisting of rest and anti-inflammatory agents, with only the refractory cases requiring surgical resection of the impinging portion of the ITB.

  2. Spatio-temporal evolution of aseismic slip along the Haiyuan fault, China: Implications for fault frictional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, R.; Lasserre, C.; Doin, M.-P.; Peltzer, G.; Avouac, J.-P.; Sun, J.; Dailu, R.

    2013-09-01

    We use 20 years of Synthetic Aperture Radar acquisitions by the ERS and Envisat satellites to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of strain rates along the 35-km long creeping section of the Haiyuan fault, at the north eastern boundary of the Tibetan plateau. We then use the derived displacements to infer the fault's frictional properties and discuss the relationship between creep and the seismic behavior of the fault. Located in between a millennial seismic gap and the 1920 M8 surface rupture trace, this section has an average creep rate of 5±1 mm/yr, about the interseismic loading rate. The comparison of average surface velocity profiles derived from SAR interferometry across the creeping section reveals a creep rate increase and/or a creep migration to shallower depth between the 1990s and the 2000s. We apply a smoothed time series analysis scheme on Envisat InSAR data to investigate the creep rate variations during the 2004-2009 time period. Our analysis reveals that the creep rate accelerated in 2007, although data resolution does not allow to better constrain the onset of creep acceleration and its amplitude. Both decadal and short term transient behaviors are coeval with the largest earthquakes (M˜4-5) along the fault segment in recent years. From the precise mapping of the surface fault trace, we use the fault strike variations and the Mohr circle construction to compute the along-strike distribution of the friction coefficient along the creeping segment and compare it with the observed distribution of the creep rate. We find that the creep rate scales logarithmically with the friction coefficient, in agreement with the rate-and-state friction law in a rate strengthening regime. The estimated value of δμ/δlogV˜2×10-3 indicates that the earthquakes occurring along the creeping section cannot be the cause for a significant change in the overall segment's creep rate and that the recorded micro seismicity is most likely creep-driven. Finally

  3. Influence of the electrical sliding speed on friction and wear processes in an electrical contact copper stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchoucha, A.; Chekroud, S.; Paulmier, D.

    2004-02-01

    Among the various parameters that influence the friction and wear behaviour of a copper-stainless steel couple crossed by an electrical current and in a dry contact is the sliding speed. The tests were carried out under ambient environment and the sliding speed was in the range of 0.2-8 ms -1. The electrical current intensity was varied from 0 to 40 A and held constant during each experiment. The normal load was maintained constant corresponding to an average Hertzian stress of 10 7 Pa. It appears that the friction coefficient and the wear rate increase at first with the speed, reach their maximums, then slowly decrease and tend to constant values. Over the entire range of sliding speeds two types of wear are observed. These latters are essentially mild wear as long as hard debris do not appear at the interface and severe wear when debris consisting of oxides or oxide metal mixture become big enough, they are removed from the surface and have abrasive effect. The results are discussed in terms of observations of wear debris size and composition, wear track study, metallographic study of worn surfaces and friction and electrical contact resistance records.

  4. Heat Transfer Through Turbulent Friction Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, H.

    1943-01-01

    The "general Prandtl number" Pr(exp 1) - A(sub q)/A Pr, aside from the Reynolds number determines the ratio of turbulent to molecular heat transfer, and the temperature distribution in turbulent friction layers. A(sub q) = exchange coefficient for heat; A = exchange coefficient for momentum transfer. A formula is derived from the equation defining the general Prandtl number which describes the temperature as a function of the velocity. For fully developed thermal boundary layers all questions relating to heat transfer to and from incompressible fluids can be treated in a simple manner if the ratio of the turbulent shear stress to the total stress T(sub t)/T in the layers near the wall is known, and if the A(sub q)/A can be regarded as independent of the distance from the wall. The velocity distribution across a flat smooth channel and deep into the laminar sublayer was measured for isothermal flow to establish the shear stress ratio T(sub t)/T and to extend the universal wall friction law. The values of T(sub t)/T which resulted from these measurements can be approximately represented by a linear function of the velocity in the laminar-turbulent transition zone. The effect of the temperature relationship of the material values on the flow near the wall is briefly analyzed. It was found that the velocity at the laminar boundary (in contrast to the thickness of the laminar layer) is approximately independent of the temperature distribution. The temperature gradient at the wall and the distribution of temperature and heat flow in the turbulent friction layers were calculated on the basis of the data under two equations. The derived formulas and the figures reveal the effects of the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number, the exchange quantities and the temperature relationship of the material values.

  5. Observed drag coefficients in high winds in the near offshore of the South China Sea

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bi, Xueyan; Liu, Yangan; Gao, Zhiqiu; Liu, Feng; Song, Qingtao; Huang, Jian; Huang, Huijun; Mao, Weikang; Liu, Chunxia

    2015-07-14

    This paper investigates the relationships between friction velocity, 10 m drag coefficient, and 10 m wind speed using data collected at two offshore observation towers (one over the sea and the other on an island) from seven typhoon episodes in the South China Sea from 2008 to 2014. The two towers were placed in areas with different water depths along a shore-normal line. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m, and the depth of water near the island is about 10 m. The observed maximum 10 min average wind speed at a heightmore » of 10 m is about 32 m s⁻¹. Momentum fluxes derived from three methods (eddy covariance, inertial dissipation, and flux profile) are compared. The momentum fluxes derived from the flux profile method are larger (smaller) over the sea (on the island) than those from the other two methods. The relationship between the 10 m drag coefficient and the 10 m wind speed is examined by use of the data obtained by the eddy covariance method. The drag coefficient first decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when the wind speeds are 5–10 m s⁻¹, then increases and reaches a peak value of 0.002 around a wind speed of 18 m s⁻¹. The drag coefficient decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when 10 m wind speeds are 18–27 m s⁻¹. A comparison of the measurements from the two towers shows that the 10 m drag coefficient from the tower in 10 m water depth is about 40% larger than that from the tower in 15 m water depth when the 10 m wind speed is less than 10 m s⁻¹. Above this, the difference in the 10 m drag coefficients of the two towers disappears.« less

  6. Observed drag coefficients in high winds in the near offshore of the South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Xueyan; Liu, Yangan; Gao, Zhiqiu; Liu, Feng; Song, Qingtao; Huang, Jian; Huang, Huijun; Mao, Weikang; Liu, Chunxia

    2015-07-14

    This paper investigates the relationships between friction velocity, 10 m drag coefficient, and 10 m wind speed using data collected at two offshore observation towers (one over the sea and the other on an island) from seven typhoon episodes in the South China Sea from 2008 to 2014. The two towers were placed in areas with different water depths along a shore-normal line. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m, and the depth of water near the island is about 10 m. The observed maximum 10 min average wind speed at a height of 10 m is about 32 m s⁻¹. Momentum fluxes derived from three methods (eddy covariance, inertial dissipation, and flux profile) are compared. The momentum fluxes derived from the flux profile method are larger (smaller) over the sea (on the island) than those from the other two methods. The relationship between the 10 m drag coefficient and the 10 m wind speed is examined by use of the data obtained by the eddy covariance method. The drag coefficient first decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when the wind speeds are 5–10 m s⁻¹, then increases and reaches a peak value of 0.002 around a wind speed of 18 m s⁻¹. The drag coefficient decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when 10 m wind speeds are 18–27 m s⁻¹. A comparison of the measurements from the two towers shows that the 10 m drag coefficient from the tower in 10 m water depth is about 40% larger than that from the tower in 15 m water depth when the 10 m wind speed is less than 10 m s⁻¹. Above this, the difference in the 10 m drag coefficients of the two towers disappears.

  7. Friction, lubrication, and polymer transfer between UHMWPE and CoCrMo hip-implant materials: a fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Rowena; Roba, Marcella; Naka, Marco; Gasser, Beat; Delfosse, Daniel; Frauchiger, Vinzenz; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2009-06-15

    The friction coefficients of CoCrMo sliding against UHMWPE and CoCrMo were measured in solutions of albumin and synovial fluid containing fluorescently labeled albumin. No fluorescence could be observed on the CoCrMo disc following incubation in labeled albumin or after sliding against CoCrMo. This was due to quenching of the fluorophore by the metal and indicated that a protein film thicker than 10 nm was not formed on the surface. A more complicated behavior was observed for UHMWPE sliding against CoCrMo. For each lubricating solution and at each load, a bimodal distribution of steady-state friction values was observed, the friction coefficient either remaining constant or decreasing during the early stages of the measurement. As no quenching of the fluorophores occurred on the UHMWPE surface, the fluorescence labeling method could be used to reveal polyethylene (PE) transfer and to show that it correlates with the friction coefficient: Low friction coefficients corresponded to a low density of PE spots on the CoCrMo surface. In addition, it was found that the friction coefficients for UHMWPE sliding against CoCrMo in synovial fluid were not significantly different from those in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), but that the addition of albumin to PBS did cause a significant increase in the friction coefficient.

  8. Slow frictional waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    Stick-slip, manifest as intermittent tangential motion between two dry solid surfaces, is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from automobile brake squeals to earthquakes. We show, using high-speed in situ imaging of an adhesive polymer interface, that low velocity stick-slip is fundamentally of three kinds, corresponding to passage of three different surface waves -- separation pulses, slip pulses and the well-known Schallamach waves. These waves, traveling much slower than elastic waves, have clear distinguishing properties. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves involve local interface separation, and propagate in opposite directions while slip pulses are characterized by a sharp stress front and do not display any interface detachment. A change in the stick-slip mode from separation to slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Together, these three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in adhesive friction and are shown to have direct analogues in muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied invertebrates. A theory for slow wave propagation is also presented which is capable of explaining the attendant interface displacements, velocities and stresses.

  9. Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

  10. The influence of high temperatures on the tribological properties of automotive friction materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Luke

    Temperatures of over 800C can be generated at the frictional interface within the brake systems of large vehicles, such high temperatures result in severe wear at the frictional interface, and can also lead to a very dangerous condition known as brake fade, characterised by a sharp fall in the coefficient of friction between the pad and disc, resulting in a catastrophic loss of braking efficiency. Common friction materials are very specialised composites often containing up to 15 components bound together within a phenolic resin matrix. The high temperature behaviour of the various constituents of friction materials were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, focusing in particular on the thermal decomposition of the phenolic resin matrix material, where it has been firmly established that the thermal decomposition products of phenolic resin are the primary cause of brake fade. This has lead to the development of a novel approach for reducing fade in conventional resin based friction materials, involving a partial carbonisation to 400C. The high temperature wear characteristics of both modified and conventional friction materials were examined using standard dynamometer tests, as well as a 'continuous drag' type test machine, equipped with a heating facility. During this study a number of factors were identified as the main influences on the overall wear behaviour of friction materials. These included test temperature, sample test history, and the various effects of friction films, which were the subject of a detailed analysis. The formation of friction films was found to be an important facet of a successful friction material, producing a reduction in wear at the frictional interface. Films were examined and analysed using EDX, SEM, and X-ray diffraction techniques, which revealed the presence of a high proportion of magnetite (Fe3O4), containing iron which originated from the disc surface. It was established that the incorporation of iron in friction

  11. Elastic model of dry friction

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, A. I.; Khmelnitskii, D. E.

    2013-09-15

    Friction of elastic bodies is connected with the passing through the metastable states that arise at the contact of surfaces rubbing against each other. Three models are considered that give rise to the metastable states. Friction forces and their dependence on the pressure are calculated. In Appendix A, the contact problem of elasticity theory is solved with adhesion taken into account.

  12. Corrosion effects on friction factors

    SciTech Connect

    Magleby, H.L.; Shaffer, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents the results of NRC-sponsored material specimen tests that were performed to determine if corrosion increases the friction factors of sliding surfaces of motor-operated gate valves, which could require higher forces to close and open safety-related valves when subjected to their design basis differential pressures. Friction tests were performed with uncorroded specimens and specimens subjected to accelerated corrosion. Preliminary tests at ambient conditions showed that corrosion increased the friction factors, indicating the need for additional tests duplicating valve operating parameters at hot conditions. The additional tests showed friction factors of corroded specimens were 0.1 to 0.2 higher than for uncorroded specimens, and that the friction factors of the corroded specimens were not very dependent on contact stress or corrosion film thickness. The measured values of friction factors for the three corrosion films tested (simulating three operating times) were in the range of 0.3 to 0.4. The friction factor for even the shortest simulated operating time was essentially the same as the others, indicating that the friction factors appear to reach a plateau and that the plateau is reached quickly.

  13. Interfacial bonding and friction in silicon carbide (filament)-reinforced ceramic- and glass-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, J.D.; Shetty, D.K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Griffin, C.W.; Limaye, S.Y. )

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports interfacial shear strength and interfacial sliding friction stress assessed in unidirectional SiC-filament-reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) and borosilicate glass composites and 0/90 cross-ply reinforced borosilicate glass composite using a fiber pushout test technique. The interface debonding load and the maximum sliding friction load were measured for varying lengths of the embedded fibers by continuously monitoring the load during debonding and pushout of single fibers in finite-thickness specimens. The dependences of the debonding load and the maximum sliding friction load on the initial embedded lengths of the fibers were in agreement with nonlinear shear-lag models. An iterative regression procedure was used to evaluate the interfacial properties, shear debond strength ({tau}{sub d}), and sliding friction stress ({tau}{sub f}), from the embedded fiber length dependences of the debonding load and the maximum frictional sliding load, respectively. The shear-lag model and the analysis of sliding friction permit explicit evaluation of a coefficient of sliding friction ({mu}) and a residual compressive stress on the interface ({sigma}{sub 0}). The cross-ply composite showed a significantly higher coefficient of interfacial friction as compared to the unidirectional composites.

  14. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  15. Estimation of dynamic friction of the Akatani landslide from seismic waveform inversion and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masumi; Mangeney, Anne; Matsushi, Yuki; Moretti, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    We performed numerical simulations of the 2011 deep-seated Akatani landslide in central Japan to understand the dynamic evolution of friction of the landslide. By comparing the forces obtained from numerical simulation to those resolved from seismic waveform inversion, the coefficient of the friction during sliding was investigated in the range of 0.1-0.4. The simulation assuming standard Coulomb friction shows that the forces obtained by the seismic waveform inversion are well explained using a constant friction of μ = 0.3. A small difference between the residuals of Coulomb simulation and a velocity-dependent simulation suggests that the coefficient of friction over the volume is well constrained as 0.3 most of time during sliding. It suggests the sudden loss of shearing resistance at the onset of sliding, that is, sudden drop of the initial coefficient of friction in our model, which accelerates the deep-seated landslide. Our numerical simulation calibrated by seismic data provides the evolution of dynamic friction with a reasonable resolution in time, which is difficult to obtain from a conventional runout simulation, or seismic waveform inversion alone.

  16. Estimation of dynamic friction of the Akatani landslide from seismic waveform inversion and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masumi; Mangeney, Anne; Matsushi, Yuki; Moretti, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    We performed numerical simulations of the 2011 deep-seated Akatani landslide in central Japan to understand the dynamic evolution of friction of the landslide. By comparing the forces obtained from numerical simulation to those resolved from seismic waveform inversion, the coefficient of the friction during sliding was investigated in the range of 0.1 to 0.4. The simulation assuming standard Coulomb friction shows that the forces obtained by the seismic waveform inversion are well explained using a constant friction of μ = 0.3. A small difference between the residuals of Coulomb simulation and a velocity-dependent simulation suggests that the coefficient of friction over the volume is well constrained as 0.3 most of time during sliding. It suggests the sudden loss of shearing resistance at the onset of sliding, i.e., sudden drop of the initial coefficient of friction in our model, which accelerates the deep-seated landslide. Our numerical simulation calibrated by seismic data provides the evolution of dynamic friction with a reasonable resolution in time, which is difficult to obtain from a conventional runout simulation, or seismic waveform inversion alone.

  17. Transitions from nanoscale to microscale dynamic friction mechanisms on polyethylene and silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederberger, S.; Gracias, D. H.; Komvopoulos, K.; Somorjai, G. A.

    2000-03-01

    The dynamic friction mechanisms of polyethylene and silicon were investigated for apparent contact pressures and contact areas in the ranges of 8 MPa-18 GPa and 17 nm2-9500 μm2, respectively. Friction force measurements were obtained with a friction force microscope, scanning force microscope, and pin-on-disk tribometer. Silicon and diamond tips with a nominal radius of curvature between 100 nm and 1.2 mm were slid against low- and high-density polyethylene and Si(100) substrates under contact loads in the range of 5 nN-0.27 N. The low friction coefficients obtained with all material systems at low contact pressures indicated that deformation at the sliding interface was primarily elastic. Alternatively, the significantly higher friction coefficients at higher contact pressures suggested that plastic deformation was the principal mode of deformation. The high friction coefficients of polyethylene observed with large apparent contact areas are interpreted in terms of the microstructure evolution involving the rearrangement of crystalline regions (lamellae) nearly parallel to the sliding direction, which reduces the surface resistance to plastic shearing. Such differences in the friction behavior of polyethylene resulting from stress-induced microstructural changes were found to occur over a relatively large range of the apparent contact area. The friction behavior of silicon was strongly affected by the presence of a native oxide film. Results are presented to demonstrate the effect of the scale of deformation at the contact interface on the dynamic friction behavior and the significance of contact parameters on the friction measurements obtained with different instruments.

  18. Partial squeeze film levitation modulates fingertip friction.

    PubMed

    Wiertlewski, Michaël; Fenton Friesen, Rebecca; Colgate, J Edward

    2016-08-16

    When touched, a glass plate excited with ultrasonic transverse waves feels notably more slippery than it does at rest. To study this phenomenon, we use frustrated total internal reflection to image the asperities of the skin that are in intimate contact with a glass plate. We observed that the load at the interface is shared between the elastic compression of the asperities of the skin and a squeeze film of air. Stroboscopic investigation reveals that the time evolution of the interfacial gap is partially out of phase with the plate vibration. Taken together, these results suggest that the skin bounces against the vibrating plate but that the bounces are cushioned by a squeeze film of air that does not have time to escape the interfacial separation. This behavior results in dynamic levitation, in which the average number of asperities in intimate contact is reduced, thereby reducing friction. This improved understanding of the physics of friction reduction provides key guidelines for designing interfaces that can dynamically modulate friction with soft materials and biological tissues, such as human fingertips. PMID:27482117

  19. The obliquity of Mars and 'climate friction'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1993-06-01

    A mathematical theory is presented which explains the increase of the mean obliquity of Mars over geologic time due to the so called 'climate friction' (i.e., the climatic changes associated with obliquity oscillations of Mars). The theory is compared with a 10 m.y. numerical integration of the equations performed for a hypothetically large amount of climate friction for two cases of the obliquity oscillations: (1) a single sinusoid and (2) a sum of three sinusoids. The theory and numerics agree for both cases within about 12 percent on the size of the secular increase in obliquity. One possible mechanism of climate friction investigated is 'postglacial rebound' on Mars. According to this theory, giant polar caps form when the obliquity is low, and slowly squeeze out an equatorial bulge. When the obliquity is high, the caps disappear, but the bulge takes some time to collapse, due to mantle viscosity, causing it to oscillate out of phase with the obliquity oscillations. This causes a secular increase in the average obliquity.

  20. Development and validation of a new method for measuring friction between skin and nonwoven materials.

    PubMed

    Cottenden, A M; Wong, W K; Cottenden, D J; Farbrot, A

    2008-07-01

    A new method for measuring the coefficient of friction between nonwoven materials and the curved surface of the volar forearm has been developed and validated. The method was used to measure the coefficient of static friction for three different nonwoven materials on the normal (dry) and over-hydrated volar forearms of five female volunteers (ages 18-44). The method proved simple to run and had good repeatability: the coefficient of variation (standard deviation expressed as a percentage of the mean) for triplets of repeat measurements was usually (80 per cent of the time) less than 10 per cent. Measurements involving the geometrically simpler configuration of pulling a weighted fabric sample horizontally across a quasi-planar area of volar forearm skin proved experimentally more difficult and had poorer repeatability. However, correlations between values of coefficient of static friction derived using the two methods were good (R = 0.81 for normal (dry) skin, and 0.91 for over-hydrated skin). Measurements of the coefficient of static friction for the three nonwovens for normal (dry) and for over-hydrated skin varied in the ranges of about 0.3-0.5 and 0.9-1.3, respectively. In agreement with Amontons' law, coefficients of friction were invariant with normal pressure over the entire experimental range (0.1-8.2 kPa).

  1. Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Organic Friction Modifiers Adsorbed on Iron Oxide Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ewen, James P; Gattinoni, Chiara; Morgan, Neal; Spikes, Hugh A; Dini, Daniele

    2016-05-10

    For the successful development and application of lubricants, a full understanding of the nanoscale behavior of complex tribological systems is required, but this is difficult to obtain experimentally. In this study, we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations to examine the atomistic structure and friction properties of commercially relevant organic friction modifier (OFM) monolayers adsorbed on iron oxide surfaces and lubricated by a thin, separating layer of hexadecane. Specifically, acid, amide, and glyceride OFMs, with saturated and Z-unsaturated hydrocarbon tail groups, are simulated at various surface coverages and sliding velocities. At low and medium coverage, the OFMs form liquidlike and amorphous monolayers, respectively, which are significantly interdigitated with the hexadecane lubricant, resulting in relatively high friction coefficients. At high coverage, solidlike monolayers are formed for all of the OFMs, which, during sliding, results in slip planes between well-defined OFM and hexadecane layers, yielding a marked reduction in the friction coefficient. When present at equal surface coverage, OFMs with saturated and Z-unsaturated tail groups are found to yield similar structure and friction behavior. OFMs with glyceride head groups yield significantly lower friction coefficients than amide and particularly carboxylic acid head groups. For all of the OFMs and coverages simulated, the friction coefficient is found to increase linearly with the logarithm of sliding velocity; however, the gradient of this increase depends on the coverage. The structure and friction details obtained from these simulations agree well with experimental results and also shed light on the relative tribological performance of these OFMs through nanoscale structural variations. This has important implications in terms of the applicability of NEMD to aid the development of new formulations to control friction.

  2. Wear and Friction Behavior of Metal Impregnated Microporous Carbon Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goller, Gultekin; Koty, D. P.; Tewari, S. N.; Singh, M.; Tekin, A.

    1996-01-01

    Metal-matrix composites have been prepared by pressure-infiltration casting of copper-base alloy melts into microporous carbon preforms. The carbon preforms contained varying proportions of amorphous carbon and graphite. Load dependence of the wear and friction behavior of the composite pins has been examined under ambient conditions against cast-iron plates, using a pin-on-plate reciprocating wear tester. The wear resistance of the composite is significantly improved, as compared with the base alloy. Contrary to the normally expected behavior, the addition of graphite to the amorphous carbon does not reduce the friction coefficient, especially at high loads. The wear and friction behavior of the composites is very sensitive to the size and distribution of the microstructural constituents.

  3. Friction and Wear of Carbonate Rocks Under High Velocity Sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boneh, Y.; Sagy, A.; Reches, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We experimentally investigated the relations between friction and wear-rate during steady-state, high-velocity slip along carbonate faults. Our observations demonstrate a systematic reduction of both friction coefficient and wear-rate with increase of both slip-velocity and normal stress. The experiments were conducted with a rotary shear apparatus on solid, ring-shaped rock samples that slipped for displacements up to tens of meters, with continuous monitoring of stresses, wear and temperature. We performed 107 experiments on experimental faults made of Kasota dolomite, Dover limestone and a fault made of rock-pair Kasota dolomite and Blue quartzite. The friction/wear analysis is focused on the steady-state stage under slip velocity range of 0.002 to 0.96 m/s, and normal stress from 0.25 to 6.9 MPa. The experiments reveal a combined effect of slip-velocity and normal stress on the wear-rate. Under relatively low velocities (V < 0.5 m/s for limestone and V < 0.12 m/s for dolomite-quartzite pair), the wear-rate is proportional to the normal stress, in agreement with Archard (1953) model. On the other hand, in the higher velocity range of V ~ 0.5 - 1 m/s, the wear-rate is not proportional to the normal stress and it reduces with increasing slip-velocity. Further, the velocity effect on the wear-rate becomes stronger with increasing normal stress approaching negligible wear production. The experiments indicate that the steady-state frictional strength of these carbonate samples is best correlated with the power-density (= shear stress * slip-velocity, MW/m2). The observed friction/power-density relation show three regimes: (1) high (μ ~ 0.9), quasi-constant friction coefficient under low power-density of < 0.05 MW/m2; (2) low (μ ~ 0.3), quasi-constant friction coefficient under high power-density > 0.4 MW/m2; and (3) transition zone of friction coefficient dropping from ~ 0.9 to ~ 0.3 for intermediated power density ranging 0.05 - 0.4 MW/m2. During experiments with

  4. Tidal friction in rotating turbulent convectivestellar and planetary regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, S.; Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Guenel, M.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2014-12-01

    Turbulent friction in stellar and planetary convection zones is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the dissipation of the kinetic energy of tidal flows in stars and planets hosting companions. This friction acting both on the equilibrium tide and on tidal inertial waves thus deeply impacts the dynamics of the spin of the host star/planet and the orbital architecture of the surrounding system. It is thus very important to obtain robust prescription for this friction. In the current state-of-the-art, it is modeled by a turbulent viscosity coefficient using mixing-length theory. However, none of the existing prescriptions take into account the action of the possibly rapid rotation that strongly affects convective flows. In this work, we propose such a new prescription that takes into account rotation and discuss the possible implication for tidal dissipation in rotating stars and planets.

  5. Reducing Sliding Friction with Liquid-Impregnated Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad; Collier, C. Patrick; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team; CenterNanophase Materials Sciences Team

    2015-11-01

    Liquid-impregnated surfaces are fabricated by infusing a lubricating liquid into the micro/nano roughness of a textured substrate, such that the surface is slippery for any deposited liquid immiscible with the lubricant. To date, liquid-impregnated surfaces have almost exclusively focused on repelling liquids by minimizing the contact angle hysteresis. Here, we demonstrate that liquid-impregnated surfaces are also capable of reducing sliding friction for solid objects. Ordered arrays of silicon micropillars were infused with lubricating liquids varying in viscosity by two orders of magnitude. Five test surfaces were used: two different micropillared surfaces with and without liquid infusion and a smooth, dry control surface. The static and kinetic coefficients of friction were measured using a polished aluminum cube as the sliding object. Compared to the smooth control surface, the sliding friction was reduced by at least a factor of two on the liquid-impregnated surfaces.

  6. Fault Frictional Stability in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, Felipe; Violay, Marie; Scuderi, Marco; Collettini, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    Exploitation of underground resources induces hydro-mechanical and chemical perturbations in the rock mass. In response to such disturbances, seismic events might occur, affecting the safety of the whole engineering system. The Mont Terri Rock Laboratory is an underground infrastructure devoted to the study of geological disposal of nuclear waste in Switzerland. At the site, it is intersected by large fault zones of about 0.8 - 3 m in thickness and the host rock formation is a shale rock named Opalinus Clay (OPA). The mineralogy of OPA includes a high content of phyllosilicates (50%), quartz (25%), calcite (15%), and smaller proportions of siderite and pyrite. OPA is a stiff, low permeable rock (2×10-18 m2), and its mechanical behaviour is strongly affected by the anisotropy induced by bedding planes. The evaluation of fault stability and associated fault slip behaviour (i.e. seismic vs. aseismic) is a major issue in order to ensure the long-term safety and operation of the repository. Consequently, experiments devoted to understand the frictional behaviour of OPA have been performed in the biaxial apparatus "BRAVA", recently developed at INGV. Simulated fault gouge obtained from intact OPA samples, were deformed at different normal stresses (from 4 to 30 MPa), under dry and fluid-saturated conditions. To estimate the frictional stability, the velocity-dependence of friction was evaluated during velocity steps tests (1-300 μm/s). Slide-hold-slide tests were performed (1-3000 s) to measure the amount of frictional healing. The collected data were subsequently modelled with the Ruina's slip dependent formulation of the rate and state friction constitutive equations. To understand the deformation mechanism, the microstructures of the sheared gouge were analysed. At 7 MPa normal stress and under dry conditions, the friction coefficient decreased from a peak value of μpeak,dry = 0.57 to μss,dry = 0.50. Under fluid-saturated conditions and same normal stress, the

  7. Effects of high-temperature hydrogenation treatment on sliding friction and wear behavior of carbide-derived carbon films.

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.; Kovalchenko, A.; McNallan, M. J.; Welz, S.; Lee, A.; Gogotsi, Y.; Carroll, B.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Illinois; Drexel Univ.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a high-temperature hydrogenation treatment on the sliding friction and wear behavior of nanostructured carbide-derived carbon (CDC) films in dry nitrogen and humid air environments. These films are produced on the surfaces of silicon carbide substrates by reacting the carbide phase with chlorine or chlorine-hydrogen gas mixtures at 1000 to 1100 C in a sealed tube furnace. The typical friction coefficients of CDC films in open air are in the range of 0.2 to 0.25, but in dry nitrogen, the friction coefficients are 0.15. In an effort to achieve lower friction on CDC films, we developed and used a special hydrogenation process that was proven to be very effective in lowering friction of CDC films produced on SiC substrates. Specifically, the films that were post-hydrogen-treated exhibited friction coefficients as low as 0.03 in dry nitrogen, while the friction coefficients in humid air were 0.2. The wear of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} counterface balls was hard to measure after the tests, while shallow wear tracks had formed on CDC films on SiC disks. Detailed mechanical and structural characterizations of the CDC films and sliding contact surfaces were done using a series of analytical techniques and these findings were correlated with the friction and wear behaviors of as-produced and hydrogen-treated CDC films.

  8. Quantum Drude friction for time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Lopata, Kenneth

    2008-10-01

    Friction is a desired property in quantum dynamics as it allows for localization, prevents backscattering, and is essential in the description of multistage transfer. Practical approaches for friction generally involve memory functionals or interactions with system baths. Here, we start by requiring that a friction term will always reduce the energy of the system; we show that this is automatically true once the Hamiltonian is augmented by a term of the form integral a(q;n(0)) x [partial differential j(q,t)/partial differential t] x J(q)dq, which includes the current operator times the derivative of its expectation value with respect to time, times a local coefficient; the local coefficient will be fitted to experiment, to more sophisticated theories of electron-electron interaction and interaction with nuclear vibrations and the nuclear background, or alternately, will be artificially constructed to prevent backscattering of energy. We relate this term to previous results and to optimal control studies, and generalize it to further operators, i.e., any operator of the form integral a(q;n(0))[partial differential c(q,t)/partial differential t] x C(q)dq (or a discrete sum) will yield friction. Simulations of a small jellium cluster, both in the linear and highly nonlinear excitation regime, demonstrate that the friction always reduces energy. The energy damping is essentially double exponential; the long-time decay is almost an order of magnitude slower than the rapid short-time decay. The friction term stabilizes the propagation (split-operator propagator here), therefore increasing the time-step needed for convergence, i.e., reducing the overall computational cost. The local friction also allows the simulation of a metal cluster in a uniform jellium as the energy loss in the excitation due to the underlying corrugation is accounted for by the friction. We also relate the friction to models of coupling to damped harmonic oscillators, which can be used for a more

  9. Environmental effects on friction and wear of diamond and diamondlike carbon coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Garscadden, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Reciprocating sliding friction experiments were conducted with a natural diamond flat, diamond film, and low and high density diamondlike carbon (DLC) films in contact with pin specimens of natural diamond and silicon nitride (Si3N4) both in humid air and dry air nitrogen. The results indicated that for natural diamond pin contacts the diamond films and the natural diamond flat were not susceptible to moisture but that moisture could increase both the coefficient of friction and the wear factors of the DLC films. The coefficients of friction and wear factors of the diamond films were generally similar to those of the natural diamond flat both in humid air and dry air nitrogen. In dry nitrogen the coefficients of friction of the high density DLC films in contact with pin specimens of both diamond and Si3N4 were generally low (about 0.02) and similar to those of the natural diamond flat and the diamond films. The wear factors of the materials in contact with both natural diamond and Si3N4 were generally in the ascending order of natural diamond flat, diamond film, high density DLC film, and low density DLC film. The moisture in the environment increased the coefficients of friction for Si3N4 pins in contact with all the materials. This increase in friction is due to the silicon oxide film produced on the surface of Si3N4 pins in humid air.

  10. Rolling friction robot fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.

  11. Eliminating friction with friction: 2D Janssen effect in a friction-driven system.

    PubMed

    Karim, M Yasinul; Corwin, Eric I

    2014-05-01

    The Janssen effect is a unique property of confined granular materials experiencing gravitational compaction in which the pressure at the bottom saturates with an increasing filling height due to frictional interactions with side walls. In this Letter, we replace gravitational compaction with frictional compaction. We study friction-compacted 2D granular materials confined within fixed boundaries on a horizontal conveyor belt. We find that even with high-friction side walls the Janssen effect completely vanishes. Our results demonstrate that gravity-compacted granular systems are inherently different from friction-compacted systems in at least one important way: vibrations induced by sliding friction with the driving surface relax away tangential forces on the walls. Remarkably, we find that the Janssen effect can be recovered by replacing the straight side walls with a sawtooth pattern. The mechanical force introduced by varying the sawtooth angle θ can be viewed as equivalent to a tunable friction force. By construction, this mechanical friction force cannot be relaxed away by vibrations in the system. PMID:24856724

  12. Friction and Wear Properties of Selected Solid Lubricating Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Iwaki, Masanori; Gotoh, Kenichi; Obara, Shingo; Imagawa, Kichiro

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate commercially developed solid film lubricants for aerospace bearing applications, we investigated the friction and wear behavior of bonded molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), magnetron-sputtered MoS2 and ion-plated silver films in sliding contact with 6-mm-diameter American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 440 C stainless steel balls. Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a load of 5.9 N (600 g), a mean Herizian contact pressure of 0.79 GPa maximum 1.19 GPa), and a sliding velocity of 0.2 m/s at room temperature in three environments: ultrahigh vacuum (7x10 (exp -7Pa)), humid air (approx. 20 percent humidity), and dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent humidity). The resultant films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and surface profilometry. Marked differences in friction and wear resulted front the environmental conditions and the film materials. The main criteria for judging the performance were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.3 and on the order of 10 (exp -6mm exp 3/Nm or less), respectively. The bonded MoS2 and magnetron-sputtered MoS2 films met the criteria in all three environments. Also, the wear rates of the counterpart AISI 440 C stainless steel balls met that criterion in all three environments. The ion-plated silver films met the criteria only in ultrahigh vacuum. In ultrahigh vacuum the bonded MoS2 films were superior. In humid air the bonded MoS2 films had higher coefficient of friction and shorter wear life than did the magnetron-sputtered MoS2 films. The ion-plated silver films had a high coefficient of friction in humid air but relatively low coefficients of friction in the nonoxidative environments. Adhesion and plastic deformation played important roles in all three environments. All sliding involved adhesive transfer of materials.

  13. The average enzyme principle.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Ed; Chaudhary, Osman; Segrè, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The Michaelis-Menten equation for an irreversible enzymatic reaction depends linearly on the enzyme concentration. Even if the enzyme concentration changes in time, this linearity implies that the amount of substrate depleted during a given time interval depends only on the average enzyme concentration. Here, we use a time re-scaling approach to generalize this result to a broad category of multi-reaction systems, whose constituent enzymes have the same dependence on time, e.g. they belong to the same regulon. This "average enzyme principle" provides a natural methodology for jointly studying metabolism and its regulation.

  14. Heterogeneity in friction strength of an active fault by incorporation of fragments of the surrounding host rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Naoki; Hirono, Tetsuro

    2016-07-01

    To understand the correlation between the mesoscale structure and the frictional strength of an active fault, we performed a field investigation of the Atera fault at Tase, central Japan, and made laboratory-based determinations of its mineral assemblages and friction coefficients. The fault zone contains a light gray fault gouge, a brown fault gouge, and a black fault breccia. Samples of the two gouges contained large amounts of clay minerals such as smectite and had low friction coefficients of approximately 0.2-0.4 under the condition of 0.01 m s-1 slip velocity and 0.5-2.5 MP confining pressure, whereas the breccia contained large amounts of angular quartz and feldspar and had a friction coefficient of 0.7 under the same condition. Because the fault breccia closely resembles the granitic rock of the hangingwall in composition, texture, and friction coefficient, we interpret the breccia as having originated from this protolith. If the mechanical incorporation of wall rocks of high friction coefficient into fault zones is widespread at the mesoscale, it causes the heterogeneity in friction strength of fault zones and might contribute to the evolution of fault-zone architectures.

  15. Noncontact friction and relaxational dynamics of surface defects.

    PubMed

    She, Jian-Huang; Balatsky, Alexander V

    2012-03-30

    The motion of a cantilever near sample surfaces exhibits additional friction even before two bodies come into mechanical contact. Called noncontact friction (NCF), this friction is of great practical importance to the ultrasensitive force detection measurements. The observed large NCF of a micron-scale cantilever found an anomalously large damping that exceeds theoretical predictions by 8-11 orders of magnitude. This finding points to a contribution beyond fluctuating electromagnetic fields within the van der Waals approach. Recent experiments reported by Saitoh et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 236103 (2010)] also found a nontrivial distance dependence of NCF. Motivated by these observations, we propose a mechanism based on the coupling of a cantilever to the relaxation dynamics of surface defects. We assume that the surface defects couple to the cantilever tip via spin-spin coupling and their spin relaxation dynamics gives rise to the backaction terms and modifies both the friction coefficient and the spring constant. We explain the magnitude, as well as the distance dependence of the friction due to these backaction terms. Reasonable agreement is found with the experiments. PMID:22540716

  16. Frictional work in double-sided tablet compression.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Ruiz, A; Wihervaara, M; Hakkinen, M; Juslin, M; Paronen, P

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the friction during double-sided tablet compression. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and lactose were tabletted with a compaction simulator with symmetrical and asymmetrical double-sided sawtooth punch displacement profiles. The estimation of force transmission in a powder column was based on an exponential equation, including the material parameter consisting of both the friction coefficient and Poisson's ratio. This parameter was predetermined from a single-sided compression. A novel equation was derived from a previously presented equation for friction work in single-sided tablet compression. The basic assumption was drawn from the linearly decreasing movement of infinitely thin particle layers, which are produced as the compressing punch surface approaches the other punch. This calculation was also based on the assumption that the equilibrium point, where the particles do not move, is halfway between the punches in the symmetrical profile and at a distance proportional to the amplitudes of the asymmetrical upper and lower sawtooth profiles. The tensile strength of tablets compressed with single-double-sided profiles was identical, and thus the behavior of the materials studied under compression was independent of the compression profiles. The friction work values that were calculated with the proposed expression for double-sided profiles were close to the theoretical values, as estimated by calculations based on compressions with single-sided profiles. In conclusion, the novel mathematical expression opens new possibilities for the evaluation of friction in double-sided compression; for example, in rotary press tabletting. PMID:9109053

  17. Friction and Shear Strength at the Nanowire–Substrate Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The friction and shear strength of nanowire (NW)–substrate interfaces critically influences the electrical/mechanical performance and life time of NW-based nanodevices. Yet, very few reports on this subject are available in the literature because of the experimental challenges involved and, more specifically no studies have been reported to investigate the configuration of individual NW tip in contact with a substrate. In this letter, using a new experimental method, we report the friction measurement between a NW tip and a substrate for the first time. The measurement was based on NW buckling in situ inside a scanning electron microscope. The coefficients of friction between silver NW and gold substrate and between ZnO NW and gold substrate were found to be 0.09–0.12 and 0.10–0.15, respectively. The adhesion between a NW and the substrate modified the true contact area, which affected the interfacial shear strength. Continuum mechanics calculation found that interfacial shear strengths between silver NW and gold substrate and between ZnO NW and gold substrate were 134–139 MPa and 78.9–95.3 MPa, respectively. This method can be applied to measure friction parameters of other NW–substrate systems. Our results on interfacial friction and shear strength could have implication on the AFM three-point bending tests used for nanomechanical characterisation. PMID:20672129

  18. Friction and anchorage loading revisited.

    PubMed

    Dholakia, Kartik D

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided..

  19. Circuit racing, track texture, temperature and rubber friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, R. S.; Gruber, P.; Fina, E.

    2016-04-01

    Some general observations relating to tyre shear forces and road surfaces are followed by more specific considerations from circuit racing. The discussion then focuses on the mechanics of rubber friction. The classical experiments of Grosch are outlined and the interpretations that can be put on them are discussed. The interpretations involve rubber viscoelasticity, so that the vibration properties of rubber need to be considered. Adhesion and deformation mechanisms for energy dissipation at the interface between rubber and road and in the rubber itself are highlighted. The enquiry is concentrated on energy loss by deformation or hysteresis subsequently. Persson's deformation theory is outlined and the material properties necessary to apply the theory to Grosch's experiments are discussed. Predictions of the friction coefficient relating to one particular rubber compound and a rough surface are made using the theory and these are compared with the appropriate results from Grosch. Predictions from Persson's theory of the influence of nominal contact pressure on the friction coefficient are also examined. The extent of the agreement between theory and experiment is discussed. It is concluded that there is value in the theory but that it is far from complete. There is considerable scope for further research on the mechanics of rubber friction.

  20. Evolution of wear and friction along experimental faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boneh, Yeval; Chang, Jefferson C.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of wear and friction along experimental faults composed of solid rock blocks. This evolution is analyzed through shear experiments along five rock types, and the experiments were conducted in a rotary apparatus at slip velocities of 0.002–0.97 m/s, slip distances from a few millimeters to tens of meters, and normal stress of 0.25–6.9 MPa. The wear and friction measurements and fault surface observations revealed three evolution phases: A) An initial stage (slip distances <50 mm) of wear by failure of isolated asperities associated with roughening of the fault surface; B) a running-in stage of slip distances of 1–3 m with intense wear-rate, failure of many asperities, and simultaneous reduction of the friction coefficient and wear-rate; and C) a steady-state stage that initiates when the fault surface is covered by a gouge layer, and during which both wear-rate and friction coefficient maintain quasi-constant, low levels. While these evolution stages are clearly recognizable for experimental faults made from bare rock blocks, our analysis suggests that natural faults “bypass” the first two stages and slip at gouge-controlled steady-state conditions.

  1. In-flight and laboratory vacuum-friction test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devine, E. J.; Evans, H. E.; Leasure, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Coefficient of friction measurements were made for six unlubricated metal couples exposed to the space environment aboard the OV-1-13 spacecraft and exposed to laboratory vacuum. Materials studied included mutually soluble, partially soluble, and insoluble metal combinations. Two samples of each material couple were tested in space and in the laboratory using the disk and rider technique. Linear velocity was 0.10 cm/s (2.5 in/min) and rider normal load was 4.45 N (1 lb) for the gold versus silver couples and 8.90 N (2lb) for the other combinations. Results showed that friction data obtained in a clean ion-pumped laboratory vacuum of 10 to the minus 10 power materials with low mutual solubility can be correlated to operation in the vicinity of a typical scientific spacecraft that is exposed to an ambient pressure as low as 10 to the minus 12 power torr. The expected increase in coefficient of friction with solubility was shown. Material couples with high mutual solubility present the hazard of unpredictable drastic friction increase in orbit which may not be evident in laboratory testing at levels down to 10 to the minus 10 power torr. It was also shown that gross cold welding of unlubricated metals exposed to a satellite environment does not occur.

  2. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  3. REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Matthews

    2005-05-01

    This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston

  4. On laminar and turbulent friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Karman, TH

    1946-01-01

    Report deals, first with the theory of the laminar friction flow, where the basic concepts of Prandtl's boundary layer theory are represented from mathematical and physical points of view, and a method is indicated by means of which even more complicated cases can be treated with simple mathematical means, at least approximately. An attempt is also made to secure a basis for the computation of the turbulent friction by means of formulas through which the empirical laws of the turbulent pipe resistance can be applied to other problems on friction drag. (author)

  5. Wear and friction behavior of Zr implanted D3 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Akbas, N.; Saklakoglu, I.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

    2001-08-23

    Multicharged, pure, high current and pulsed ion beams of Zr have been extracted from a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source and implanted into AISI D3 (C: 2-2,35%, Mn: 0,60%, Si: 0,60%, Cr: 11-13,50%, Ni: 0,30%, W: 1%, V: 1%) tool steel samples at the 3,6.1016, 5.1016 and 1.1017 ions/cm2 doses. The wear resistance and friction coefficient have been estimated using pin-on-disc wear tests. Implantation of Zr decreased the wear loss and friction coefficient. RBS, AES and SEM Microprobe analyses were used as a guide for explanation of implantation's effects.

  6. Friction and Wear Behavior of Selected Dental Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongee; Pekkan, Gurel; Ozturk, Abdullah

    The purpose of this study was to determine the friction coefficients and wear rates of six commercially available dental ceramics including IPS Empress 2 (E2), Cergo Pressable Ceramic (CPC), Cercon Ceram (CCS) and Super porcelain EX-3 (SPE). Bovine enamel (BE) was also tested as a reference material for comparison purposes. Samples of the dental ceramics were prepared according to the instructions described by the manufacturers in disk-shape with nominal dimensions of 12 mm × 2 mm. The wear tests were performed by means of a pin-on-disk type tribometer. The friction coefficients and specific wear rates of the materials were determined at a load of 10 N and rotating speed of 0.25 cm/s without lubrication. Surface morphology of the wear tracks was examined using a scanning electron microscope. Statistical analyses were made using one-way ANOVA and Turkey's HSD (P < 0.05).

  7. Direct Measurement of Friction of a Fluctuating Contact Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuo; Gao, Min; Xiong, Xiaomin; Wang, Yong Jian; Wang, Xiaoping; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2013-07-01

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient of a fluctuating (and slipping) contact line using a thin vertical glass fiber of diameter d with one end glued onto a cantilever beam and the other end touching a liquid-air interface. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the cantilever system with varying liquid viscosity η, we find the friction coefficient of the contact line has a universal form, ξc≃0.8πdη, independent of the liquid-solid contact angle. The obtained scaling law is further supported by the numerical simulation based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  8. Direct measurement of friction of a fluctuating contact line.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuo; Gao, Min; Xiong, Xiaomin; Wang, Yong Jian; Wang, Xiaoping; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2013-07-12

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient of a fluctuating (and slipping) contact line using a thin vertical glass fiber of diameter d with one end glued onto a cantilever beam and the other end touching a liquid-air interface. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the cantilever system with varying liquid viscosity η, we find the friction coefficient of the contact line has a universal form, ξ(c)≃0.8πdη, independent of the liquid-solid contact angle. The obtained scaling law is further supported by the numerical simulation based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions. PMID:23889421

  9. Refinement of the dependences of the contact friction stresses in the deformation zone during cold rolling on the technological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Yagudin, I. V.; Traino, A. I.

    2013-07-01

    The regression equation used to calculate the friction coefficient between a strip and rolls in the working stands of cold-rolling mills is refined using a database containing 580 friction coefficients. The reliability of this equation and the importance of the factors entering into it are proved by mathematical statistics methods. As compared to the calculations performed by alternative equations, the calculation of the rolling force by the refined formula decreases the difference between the calculated and experimental results more than twofold.

  10. Investigation of the Frictional Response of Osteoarthritic Human Tibiofemoral Joints and the Potential Beneficial Tribological Effect of Healthy Synovial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Caligaris, Matteo; Canal, Clare E.; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Gardner, Thomas R.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study tests the hypothesis that the natural progression of osteoarthritis (OA) in human joints leads to an increase in the friction coefficient. This hypothesis is based on the expectation that the wear observed in OA may be exacerbated by higher friction coefficients. A corollary hypothesis is that healthy synovial fluid (SF) may help mitigate the increase in the friction coefficient in diseased joints. Design The friction coefficient of human tibiofemoral joints with varying degrees of OA was measured in healthy bovine SF and physiological buffered saline (PBS). Two testing configurations were adopted, one that promotes sustained cartilage interstitial fluid pressurization to investigate the effectiveness of this mechanism with advancing OA, and another that allows interstitial fluid pressure to subside to investigate the effectiveness of boundary lubrication. Results Eight specimens were visually staged to be normal or mildly degenerated (stages ≤2 on a scale of 1 to 4) and eight others had progressive degeneration (stages > 2 and ≤ 3). No statistical differences were found in the friction coefficient with increasing OA, whether in migrating or stationary contact area configurations; however, the friction coefficient was significantly lower in SF than PBS in both configurations. Conclusions The friction coefficient of human tibiofemoral cartilage does not necessarily increase with naturally increasing OA, for visual stages ranging from 1 to 3. This outcome may be explained by the fact that interstitial fluid pressurization is not necessarily defeated by advancing degeneration. This study also demonstrates that healthy synovial fluid decreases the friction coefficient of OA joints relative to PBS. PMID:19410031

  11. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber–glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2016-01-01

    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons’ law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements. PMID:27291939

  12. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber–glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2016-06-01

    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons’ law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements.

  13. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber-glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Ari J

    2016-01-01

    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons' law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements. PMID:27291939

  14. Finite Element Analysis of the Amontons-Coulomb's Model using Local and Global Friction Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.; Ramalho, A.; Alves, J. L.

    2011-05-04

    In spite of the abundant number of experimental friction tests that have been reported, the contact with friction modeling persists to be one of the factors that determine the effectiveness of sheet metal forming simulation. This difficulty can be understood due to the nature of the friction phenomena, which comprises the interaction of different factors connected to both sheet and tools' surfaces. Although in finite element numerical simulations friction models are commonly applied at the local level, they normally rely on parameters identified based on global experimental tests results. The aim of this study is to analyze the applicability of the Amontons-Coulomb's friction coefficient identified using complementary tests: (i) load-scanning, at the local level and (ii) draw-bead, at the global level; to the numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes.

  15. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber-glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2016-06-01

    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons’ law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements.

  16. Frictional Properties of Nickel and Copper Implanted Low Carbon Steel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaki, Masaya; Hayashi, Hisashi; Kohno, Akio; Yoshida, Kiyota

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the frictional properties of nickel and copper implanted steel plates. Ion implantation was performed with doses of 1× 1015--3× 1017 ions/cm2 energies of 50-200 keV. The friction coefficients of Ni and Cu implanted specimens, measured at atmospheric room temperature with a Bowden-Leben type friction testing machine, had a tendency to increase as the total dose increased and the acceleration energy decreased. Concentration profiles were measured by secondary ion mass analysis in order to investigate the element concentration which contributes to the frictional properties. The results suggest that the amount of implanted ions remaining in the surface layer (0-400 Å) is of first importance in the frictional properties of Ni and Cu implanted steel plates.

  17. Correlation of tensile and shear strengths of metals with their friction properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The relation between the theoretical tensile and the shear strengths and the friction properties of metals in contact with diamond, boron nitride, silicon carbide, manganese-zinc ferrite, and the metals themselves in vacuum was investigated. The relationship between the actual shear strength and the friction properties of the metal was also investigated. An estimate of the theoretical uniaxial tensile strength was obtained in terms of the equilibrium surface energy, interplanar spacing of the planes perpendicular to the tensile axis, and the Young's modulus of elasticity. An estimate of the theoretical shear strength for metals was obtained from the shear modulus, the repeat distance of atoms in the direction of shear of the metal and the interplanar spacing of the shear planes. The coefficient of friction for metals was found to be related to the theoretical tensile, theoretical shear, and actual shear strengths of metals. The higher the strength of the metal, the lower the coefficient of friction.

  18. Simulation of granular packing of frictional cohesive particles with Gaussian size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Tao; Gao, Di

    2016-09-01

    The granular packing of frictional cohesive particles with Gaussian distribution is investigated based on distinct element method. Different sliding frictional coefficients are considered in the simulation. Due to the inelastic collision between the particles, the agglomeration of the particles occurs and the packing structure is formed finally. The range of the diameter of the particle is between 50 and 100 μm, and the distribution of the particle diameter is Gaussian. The inelastic interaction is caused by the viscoelastic force and the frictional force. The internal structure of the granular matter is quantified by the coordination number, packing density, and the force distribution. It is found that the increase in the sliding frictional coefficient looses the packing structure, and the distribution range of the contact force is larger than that of the van der Waals force.

  19. Simulation of rolling friction in the working stands of wide-strip mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, E. A.; Samarin, S. N.; Traino, A. I.; Ermilov, V. V.

    2007-04-01

    The energy consumed for rolling friction in the interroll contact area in the working stands of cold-rolling and pinch-pass mils intended for the production of wide steel strips has been analyzed. The coefficients and power of rolling friction are obtained for the first time using the databases of the process control systems of operating mills and simulating these quantities. A statistically reliable regression relation is obtained between the coefficient of rolling friction and the significant parameters of rolling and skin rolling (i.e., the interroll force, the roll speed, and the roll body roughness). The power fraction consumed for rolling friction is found to reach 60 80% of the total power of the main drive of working stands for skin rolling and 30 50% for cold rolling. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account these power losses in designing mills and developing technological cold-rolling conditions.

  20. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  1. Friction microprobe investigation of particle layer effects on sliding friction

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine- scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional, pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.

  2. Friction and wear of iron-base binary alloys in sliding contact with silicon carbide in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Multipass sliding friction experiments were conducted with various iron base binary alloys in contact with a single crystal silicon carbide surface in vacuum. Results indicate that the atomic size and concentration of alloy elements play important roles in controlling the transfer and friction properties of iron base binary alloys. Alloys having high solute concentration produce more transfer than do alloys having low solute concentration. The coefficient of friction during multipass sliding generally increases with an increase in the concentration of alloying element. The change of friction with succeeding passes after the initial pass also increases as the solute to iron, atomic radius ratio increases or decreases from unity.

  3. Using frictional power to model LSST removal with conventional abrasives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Richard G.; Hubler, William H.

    2015-08-01

    The stressed lap on the Large Polishing Machine (LPM) at the University of Arizona Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab has recently been used to polish the M1 and M3 surfaces of the 8.4-m mirror for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Loadcells in the three 4-bar links that connect this lap to the spindle of the machine allow the translational forces and torque on the lap to be measured once a second. These force readings and all other available machine parameters are recorded in history files that can be used to create a 2D removal map from one or more polishing runs. While the Preston equation has been used for many years to predict removal in a conventional polishing process, we have adopted a new equation that assumes that removal is proportional to the energy that is transferred from the lap to the substrate via friction. Specifically, the instantaneous removal rate at any point is defined to be the product of four parameters - an energy conversion factor which we call the Allen coefficient, the coefficient of friction, the lap pressure, and the speed of the lap. The Allen coefficient is the ratio of volumetric removal to frictional energy for a particular combination of pad material, abrasive, and substrate. Because our calculations take into account changes in the coefficient of friction between the lap and mirror, our 2D removal maps usually correlate well with optical data. Removal maps for future polishing strokes are created in simulations that track the position and speed of individual lap pads.

  4. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and friction studies of nickel-zinc and manganese-zinc ferrites in contact with metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and sliding friction experiments were conducted with hot-pressed, polycrystalline Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites in sliding contact with various transition metals at room temperature in a vacuum of 30 nPa. The results indicate that the coefficients of friction for Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrites in contact with metals are related to the relative chemical activity in these metals: the more active the metal, the higher is the coefficient of friction. The coefficients of friction for the ferrites correlate with the free energy of formation of the lowest metal oxide. The interfacial bond can be regarded as a chemical bond between the metal atoms and the oxygen anions in the ferrite surfaces. The adsorption of oxygen on clean metal and ferrite surfaces increases the coefficients of friction for the Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrite-metal interfaces.

  5. Average density in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnor, W.B.

    1987-05-01

    The Einstein-Straus (1945) vacuole is here used to represent a bound cluster of galaxies embedded in a standard pressure-free cosmological model, and the average density of the cluster is compared with the density of the surrounding cosmic fluid. The two are nearly but not quite equal, and the more condensed the cluster, the greater the difference. A theoretical consequence of the discrepancy between the two densities is discussed. 25 references.

  6. Size Scaling of Static Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, O. M.; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-01

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as fm+Δf/Aγ for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of fm, controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  7. Friction Properties of Polished Cvd Diamond Films Sliding against Different Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zichao; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Owing to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties, like the well-known extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction and high chemical inertness, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have found applications as a hard coating for drawing dies. The surface roughness of the diamond films is one of the most important attributes to the drawing dies. In this paper, the effects of different surface roughnesses on the friction properties of diamond films have been experimentally studied. Diamond films were fabricated using hot filament CVD. The WC-Co (Co 6wt.%) drawing dies were used as substrates. A gas mixture of acetone and hydrogen gas was used as the feedstock gas. The CVD diamond films were polished using mechanical polishing. Polished diamond films with three different surface roughnesses, as well as the unpolished diamond film, were fabricated in order to study the tribological performance between the CVD diamond films and different metals with oil lubrication. The unpolished and polished CVD diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface profilometer, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The friction examinations were carried out by using a ball-on-plate type reciprocating friction tester. Low carbide steel, stainless steel, copper and aluminum materials were used as counterpart balls. Based on this study, the results presented the friction coefficients between the polished CVD films and different metals. The friction tests demonstrate that the smooth surface finish of CVD diamond films is beneficial for reducing their friction coefficients. The diamond films exhibit low friction coefficients when slid against the stainless steel balls and low carbide steel ball, lower than that slid against copper ball and aluminum ball, attributed to the higher ductility of copper and aluminum causing larger amount of wear debris adhering to the sliding interface and higher adhesive

  8. Hard and low friction nitride coatings and methods for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Urgen, Mustafa; Cakir, Ali Fuat; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Kazmanli, Kursat; Keles, Ozgul

    2007-05-01

    An improved coating material possessing super-hard and low friction properties and a method for forming the same. The improved coating material includes the use of a noble metal or soft metal homogeneously distributed within a hard nitride material. The addition of small amounts of such metals into nitrides such as molybdenum nitride, titanium nitride, and chromium nitride results in as much as increasing of the hardness of the material as well as decreasing the friction coefficient and increasing the oxidation resistance.

  9. Stiction, friction, and wear reduction in silicon microelectromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantiziba, Fadziso Mabel

    Current reliability issues in silicon based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pose a challenge in the advancement of this pervasive technology. Silicon Microsystems are encumbered with adhesion induced catastrophic failures (stiction) during the final fabrication step where a wet chemical etch release is often conducted to produce functional, suspended microstructures. Irreversible adhesion of active device layer components to the substrate can drastically reduce yields of fully functional devices. Potential in-use problems of a tribological nature also limit the reliability and device lifetimes of these microstructures, particularly where intermittent or continuous contacting of surfaces occurs during a device's normal operation. Understanding the fundamental tribological properties such as friction coefficients and wear mechanisms that occur in the normal operation of these devices is a necessity in providing potential long term solutions to such reliability issues. A unique, simple, yet inexpensive solution to release related adhesion failures that utilizes a temporary physical barrier during the final rinsing stage of a typical silicon wet etch release process is presented. This temporary barrier is accomplished using polystyrene microspheres that prevent contact between the substrate and the components of the suspended device layer during drying. The microspheres are subsequently removed using a plasma etching process. Improvement of yields of stiction-free, functional devices >90% in comparison to <50% for air drying of water or isopropyl alcohol final rinse liquids have been demonstated using this process. To address tribological reliability issues for silicon MEMS, friction testing devices are utilized to measure the friction coefficients of silicon. Thin ceramic coatings of oxides of aluminum, zirconium, or titanium are applied to the silicon MEMS devices using the atomic layer deposition technique and tested for comparison to non-coated silicon

  10. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  11. Direct measurement of friction of a fluctuating contact line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuo; Gao, Min; Xiong, Xiaomin; Wang, Yong Jian; Wang, Xiaoping; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2013-03-01

    What happens at a moving contact line, where one fluid displaces another (immiscible) fluid over a solid surface, is a fundamental issue in fluid dynamics. In this presentation, we report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient in the immediate vicinity of a fluctuating contact line using a micron-sized vertical glass fiber with one end glued to an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever beam and the other end touching a liquid-air interface. By measuring the broadening of the resonance peak of the cantilever system with varying liquid viscosity η, we obtain the friction coefficient ξc associated with the contact line fluctuations on the glass fiber of diameter d and find it has the universal form, ξc = 0 . 8 πdη , independent of the contact angle. The result is further confirmed by using a soap film system whose bulk effect is negligibly small. This is the first time that the friction coefficient of a fluctuating contact line is measured. *Work supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong SAR.

  12. Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.

  13. Friction behavior of glass and metals in contact with glass in various environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments have been conducted for heat-resistant glass and metals in contact with glass. These experiments were conducted in various environments including vacuum, moist air, dry air, octane, and stearic acid in hexadecane. Glass exhibited a higher friction force in moist air than it did in vacuum when in sliding contact with itself. The metals, aluminum, iron, and gold, all exhibited the same friction coefficient when sliding on glass in vacuum as glass sliding on glass. Gold-to-glass contacts were extremely sensitive to the environment despite the relative chemical inertness of gold.

  14. The effects of crack surface friction and roughness on crack tip stress fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Plesha, Michael E.

    1987-01-01

    A model is presented which can be used to incorporate the effects of friction and tortuosity along crack surfaces through a constitutive law applied to the interface between opposing crack surfaces. The problem of a crack with a saw-tooth surface in an infinite medium subjected to a far-field shear stress is solved and the ratios of Mode-I stress intensity to Mode-II stress intensity are calculated for various coefficients of friction and material properties. The results show that tortuosity and friction lead to an increase in fracture loads and alter the direction of crack propagation.

  15. Friction properties of novel PVP/PVA blend hydrogels as artificial cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruyin; Xiong, Dangsheng; Miao, Feng; Zhang, Jinfeng; Peng, Yan

    2010-06-01

    In this work, novel polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/polyvinylalcohol (PVA) blend hydrogels were prepared by repeated freezing-thawing cycles. The factors that influenced friction properties of blend hydrogels, such as PVP content, contact load, sliding speed, and lubrication condition, were mainly studied by sliding with stainless steel ball. The results showed that friction coefficients of the PVP/PVA blend hydrogels were definitely dependent on such influence factors. The friction system consisting of blend hydrogel and stainless steel ball nearly exhibited a mixed lubrication regime especially under bovine serum lubrication, and it can be proposed as a promising method to reduce wear of the prosthesis.

  16. Friction behavior of silicon in contact with titanium, nickel, silver and copper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishina, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments are conducted with the semiconductor silicon in contact with the metals titanium, nickel, copper, and silver. Sliding is on the (111) plane of single-crystal silicon in the 112 crystallographic direction both in dry and lubricated (mineral oil) sliding. The friction coefficient in dry sliding is controlled by adhesion and the surface chemical activity of the metal. The more active the metal the stronger the adhesion and the higher the friction. In lubricated sliding the lubricant absorbs to the surfaces and reduces the importance of metal chemical effects. In lubricated sliding, silicon ceases to behave in a brittle manner and undergoes plastic deformation under load.

  17. Friction and surface chemistry of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The friction properties of some ferrous-base metallic glasses were measured both in argon and in vacuum to a temperature of 350 C. The alloy surfaces were also analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to identify the compounds and elements present on the surface. The results of the investigation indicate that even when the surfaces of the amorphous alloys, or metallic glasses, are atomically clean, bulk contaminants such as boric oxide and silicon dioxide diffuse to the surfaces. Friction measurements in both argon and vacuum indicate that the alloys exhibit higher coefficients of friction in the crystalline state than they do in the amorphous state.

  18. Departure of microscopic friction from macroscopic drag in molecular fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hanasaki, Itsuo; Fujiwara, Daiki; Kawano, Satoyuki

    2016-03-01

    Friction coefficient of the Langevin equation and drag of spherical macroscopic objects in steady flow at low Reynolds numbers are usually regarded as equivalent. We show that the microscopic friction can be different from the macroscopic drag when the mass is taken into account for particles with comparable scale to the surrounding fluid molecules. We illustrate it numerically by molecular dynamics simulation of chloride ion in water. Friction variation by the atomistic mass effect beyond the Langevin regime can be of use in the drag reduction technology as well as the electro or thermophoresis.

  19. Lamellar slippage of bilayers--a hypothesis on low friction of natural joints.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Zenon; Urbaniak, Wieslaw; Hagner-Derengowska, Magda; Hagner, Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    The cartilage's amphoteric surface behavior is a physical phenomenon in biological lubrication. However, there is a lack of knowledge on amphoteric phospholipids bilayers and in overcoming friction in cartilage joints. In this paper, friction experiments were conducted, and the cartilage's surface was characterized using pH and wettability, while the interfacial energy and coefficients were determined. The lamellar slippage of bilayers and a short-range repulsion between the interfaces of negatively charged (-PO4 (-)) cartilage surfaces resulted in low frictional properties of the joint.

  20. High-velocity frictional strength across the Tohoku-Oki megathrust determined from surface drilling torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujiie, Kohtaro; Inoue, Tomoya; Ishiwata, Junya

    2016-03-01

    High-velocity frictional strength is one of the primary factors controlling earthquake faulting. The Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project drilled through the shallow plate boundary fault, where displacement was ~50 m during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. To determine downhole frictional strength, we analyzed the surface drilling torque data acquired at rotation rates equivalent to seismic slip rates (0.8-1.3 m/s). The results show a clear contrast in high-velocity frictional strength across the plate boundary fault: the apparent friction coefficient of frontal prism sediments (hemipelagic mudstones) in the hanging wall is 0.1-0.3, while that of the underthrust sediments (mudstone, laminar pelagic claystone, and chert) in the footwall increases to 0.2-0.4. The apparent friction coefficient of the smectite-rich pelagic clay in the plate boundary fault is 0.08-0.19, which is consistent with that determined from high-velocity (1.1-1.3 m/s) friction experiments. This suggests that surface drilling torque is useful in obtaining downhole frictional strength.