Science.gov

Sample records for average treatment effect

  1. Evaluating Marginal Policy Changes and the Average Effect of Treatment for Individuals at the Margin.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Pedro; Heckman, James J; Vytlacil, Edward

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops methods for evaluating marginal policy changes. We characterize how the effects of marginal policy changes depend on the direction of the policy change, and show that marginal policy effects are fundamentally easier to identify and to estimate than conventional treatment parameters. We develop the connection between marginal policy effects and the average effect of treatment for persons on the margin of indifference between participation in treatment and nonparticipation, and use this connection to analyze both parameters. We apply our analysis to estimate the effect of marginal changes in tuition on the return to going to college.

  2. Evidence-Based Medicine, Heterogeneity of Treatment Effects, and the Trouble with Averages

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Richard L; Duan, Naihua; Braslow, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the application of scientific evidence to clinical practice. This article discusses the difficulties of applying global evidence (“average effects” measured as population means) to local problems (individual patients or groups who might depart from the population average). It argues that the benefit or harm of most treatments in clinical trials can be misleading and fail to reveal the potentially complex mixture of substantial benefits for some, little benefit for many, and harm for a few. Heterogeneity of treatment effects reflects patient diversity in risk of disease, responsiveness to treatment, vulnerability to adverse effects, and utility for different outcomes. Recognizing these factors, researchers can design studies that better characterize who will benefit from medical treatments, and clinicians and policymakers can make better use of the results. PMID:15595946

  3. Globally efficient non-parametric inference of average treatment effects by empirical balancing calibration weighting.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Yam, Sheung Chi Phillip; Zhang, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    The estimation of average treatment effects based on observational data is extremely important in practice and has been studied by generations of statisticians under different frameworks. Existing globally efficient estimators require non-parametric estimation of a propensity score function, an outcome regression function or both, but their performance can be poor in practical sample sizes. Without explicitly estimating either functions, we consider a wide class calibration weights constructed to attain an exact three-way balance of the moments of observed covariates among the treated, the control, and the combined group. The wide class includes exponential tilting, empirical likelihood and generalized regression as important special cases, and extends survey calibration estimators to different statistical problems and with important distinctions. Global semiparametric efficiency for the estimation of average treatment effects is established for this general class of calibration estimators. The results show that efficiency can be achieved by solely balancing the covariate distributions without resorting to direct estimation of propensity score or outcome regression function. We also propose a consistent estimator for the efficient asymptotic variance, which does not involve additional functional estimation of either the propensity score or the outcome regression functions. The proposed variance estimator outperforms existing estimators that require a direct approximation of the efficient influence function.

  4. Estimation of treatment efficacy with complier average causal effects (CACE) in a randomized stepped wedge trial.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Joshua S; Arnold, Benjamin F; Reygadas, Fermin; Hubbard, Alan E; Colford, John M

    2014-05-01

    Complier average causal effects (CACE) estimate the impact of an intervention among treatment compliers in randomized trials. Methods used to estimate CACE have been outlined for parallel-arm trials (e.g., using an instrumental variables (IV) estimator) but not for other randomized study designs. Here, we propose a method for estimating CACE in randomized stepped wedge trials, where experimental units cross over from control conditions to intervention conditions in a randomized sequence. We illustrate the approach with a cluster-randomized drinking water trial conducted in rural Mexico from 2009 to 2011. Additionally, we evaluated the plausibility of assumptions required to estimate CACE using the IV approach, which are testable in stepped wedge trials but not in parallel-arm trials. We observed small increases in the magnitude of CACE risk differences compared with intention-to-treat estimates for drinking water contamination (risk difference (RD) = -22% (95% confidence interval (CI): -33, -11) vs. RD = -19% (95% CI: -26, -12)) and diarrhea (RD = -0.8% (95% CI: -2.1, 0.4) vs. RD = -0.1% (95% CI: -1.1, 0.9)). Assumptions required for IV analysis were probably violated. Stepped wedge trials allow investigators to estimate CACE with an approach that avoids the stronger assumptions required for CACE estimation in parallel-arm trials. Inclusion of CACE estimates in stepped wedge trials with imperfect compliance could enhance reporting and interpretation of the results of such trials.

  5. Effect of average flow and capacity utilization on effluent water quality from US municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Scott R; Silverstein, Joann; Rajagopalan, Balaji

    2011-08-01

    There is increasing interest in decentralization of wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, there have been no systematic studies of the performance of small treatment facilities compared with larger plants. A statistical analysis of 4 years of discharge monthly report (DMR) data from 210 operating wastewater treatment facilities was conducted to determine the effect of average flow rate and capacity utilization on effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia, and fecal coliforms relative to permitted values. Relationships were quantified using generalized linear models (GLMs). Small facilities (40 m³/d) had violation rates greater than 10 times that of the largest facilities (400,000 m³/d) for BOD, TSS, and ammonia. For facilities with average flows less than 40,000 m³/d, increasing capacity utilization was correlated with increased effluent levels of BOD and TSS. Larger facilities tended to operate at flows closer to their design capacity while maintaining treatment suggesting greater efficiency.

  6. What Is the Minimum Information Needed to Estimate Average Treatment Effects in Education RCTs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the "gold standard" for evaluating an intervention's effectiveness. Recently, the federal government has placed increased emphasis on the use of opportunistic experiments. A key criterion for conducting opportunistic experiments, however, is that there is relatively easy access to data…

  7. Examining the Average and Local Effects of a Standardized Treatment for Fourth Graders with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Haynes, Martha; Rivas, Brenna K.; Jones, Francesca G.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used a randomized control trial to examine the effects of a widely used multicomponent Tier 2-type intervention, Passport to Literacy, on the reading ability of 221 fourth graders who initially scored at or below the 30th percentile in reading comprehension. Intervention was provided by research staff to groups of 4-7 students…

  8. Targeted estimation and inference for the sample average treatment effect in trials with and without pair-matching.

    PubMed

    Balzer, Laura B; Petersen, Maya L; van der Laan, Mark J

    2016-09-20

    In cluster randomized trials, the study units usually are not a simple random sample from some clearly defined target population. Instead, the target population tends to be hypothetical or ill-defined, and the selection of study units tends to be systematic, driven by logistical and practical considerations. As a result, the population average treatment effect (PATE) may be neither well defined nor easily interpretable. In contrast, the sample average treatment effect (SATE) is the mean difference in the counterfactual outcomes for the study units. The sample parameter is easily interpretable and arguably the most relevant when the study units are not sampled from some specific super-population of interest. Furthermore, in most settings, the sample parameter will be estimated more efficiently than the population parameter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to propose using targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) for estimation and inference of the sample effect in trials with and without pair-matching. We study the asymptotic and finite sample properties of the TMLE for the sample effect and provide a conservative variance estimator. Finite sample simulations illustrate the potential gains in precision and power from selecting the sample effect as the target of inference. This work is motivated by the Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health (SEARCH) study, a pair-matched, community randomized trial to estimate the effect of population-based HIV testing and streamlined ART on the 5-year cumulative HIV incidence (NCT01864603). The proposed methodology will be used in the primary analysis for the SEARCH trial. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A novel convolution-based approach to address ionization chamber volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraclough, Brendan; Li, Jonathan G.; Lebron, Sharon; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, Chihray; Yan, Guanghua

    2015-08-01

    The ionization chamber volume averaging effect is a well-known issue without an elegant solution. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel convolution-based approach to address the volume averaging effect in model-based treatment planning systems (TPSs). Ionization chamber-measured beam profiles can be regarded as the convolution between the detector response function and the implicit real profiles. Existing approaches address the issue by trying to remove the volume averaging effect from the measurement. In contrast, our proposed method imports the measured profiles directly into the TPS and addresses the problem by reoptimizing pertinent parameters of the TPS beam model. In the iterative beam modeling process, the TPS-calculated beam profiles are convolved with the same detector response function. Beam model parameters responsible for the penumbra are optimized to drive the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. Since the convolved and the measured profiles are subject to identical volume averaging effect, the calculated profiles match the real profiles when the optimization converges. The method was applied to reoptimize a CC13 beam model commissioned with profiles measured with a standard ionization chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Bartlett, TN). The reoptimized beam model was validated by comparing the TPS-calculated profiles with diode-measured profiles. Its performance in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA) for ten head-and-neck patients was compared with the CC13 beam model and a clinical beam model (manually optimized, clinically proven) using standard Gamma comparisons. The beam profiles calculated with the reoptimized beam model showed excellent agreement with diode measurement at all measured geometries. Performance of the reoptimized beam model was comparable with that of the clinical beam model in IMRT QA. The average passing rates using the reoptimized beam model increased substantially from 92.1% to

  10. Identifying the Average Causal Mediation Effects with Multiple Mediators in the Presence of Treatment Non-Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soojin

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the causal mechanisms is becoming more essential in social and medical sciences. In the presence of treatment non-compliance, the Intent-To-Treated effect (hereafter, ITT effect) is identified as long as the treatment is randomized (Angrist et al., 1996). However, the mediated portion of effect is not identified without additional…

  11. Technical Methods Report: The Estimation of Average Treatment Effects for Clustered RCTs of Education Interventions. NCEE 2009-0061 rev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the estimation of two-stage clustered RCT designs in education research using the Neyman causal inference framework that underlies experiments. The key distinction between the considered causal models is whether potential treatment and control group outcomes are considered to be fixed for the study population (the…

  12. TH-E-BRE-03: A Novel Method to Account for Ion Chamber Volume Averaging Effect in a Commercial Treatment Planning System Through Convolution

    SciTech Connect

    Barraclough, B; Li, J; Liu, C; Yan, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Fourier-based deconvolution approaches used to eliminate ion chamber volume averaging effect (VAE) suffer from measurement noise. This work aims to investigate a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE through convolution in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Beam profiles of various field sizes and depths of an Elekta Synergy were collected with a finite size ion chamber (CC13) to derive a clinically acceptable beam model for a commercial TPS (Pinnacle{sup 3}), following the vendor-recommended modeling process. The TPS-calculated profiles were then externally convolved with a Gaussian function representing the chamber (σ = chamber radius). The agreement between the convolved profiles and measured profiles was evaluated with a one dimensional Gamma analysis (1%/1mm) as an objective function for optimization. TPS beam model parameters for focal and extra-focal sources were optimized and loaded back into the TPS for new calculation. This process was repeated until the objective function converged using a Simplex optimization method. Planar dose of 30 IMRT beams were calculated with both the clinical and the re-optimized beam models and compared with MapCHEC™ measurements to evaluate the new beam model. Results: After re-optimization, the two orthogonal source sizes for the focal source reduced from 0.20/0.16 cm to 0.01/0.01 cm, which were the minimal allowed values in Pinnacle. No significant change in the parameters for the extra-focal source was observed. With the re-optimized beam model, average Gamma passing rate for the 30 IMRT beams increased from 92.1% to 99.5% with a 3%/3mm criterion and from 82.6% to 97.2% with a 2%/2mm criterion. Conclusion: We proposed a novel method to account for ion chamber VAE in a commercial TPS through convolution. The reoptimized beam model, with VAE accounted for through a reliable and easy-to-implement convolution and optimization approach, outperforms the original beam model in standard IMRT QA

  13. The Balance Super Learner: A robust adaptation of the Super Learner to improve estimation of the average treatment effect in the treated based on propensity score matching.

    PubMed

    Pirracchio, Romain; Carone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Consistency of the propensity score estimators rely on correct specification of the propensity score model. The propensity score is frequently estimated using a main effect logistic regression. It has recently been shown that the use of ensemble machine learning algorithms, such as the Super Learner, could improve covariate balance and reduce bias in a meaningful manner in the case of serious model misspecification for treatment assignment. However, the loss functions normally used by the Super Learner may not be appropriate for propensity score estimation since the goal in this problem is not to optimize propensity score prediction but rather to achieve the best possible balance in the covariate distribution between treatment groups. In a simulation study, we evaluated the benefit of a modification of the Super Learner by propensity score estimation geared toward achieving covariate balance between the treated and untreated after matching on the propensity score. Our simulation study included six different scenarios characterized by various degrees of deviation from the usual main term logistic model for the true propensity score and outcome as well as the presence (or not) of instrumental variables. Our results suggest that the use of this adapted Super Learner to estimate the propensity score can further improve the robustness of propensity score matching estimators.

  14. The EffectLiteR Approach for Analyzing Average and Conditional Effects.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Axel; Dietzfelbinger, Lisa; Rosseel, Yves; Steyer, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework for estimating average and conditional effects of a discrete treatment variable on a continuous outcome variable, conditioning on categorical and continuous covariates. Using the new approach, termed the EffectLiteR approach, researchers can consider conditional treatment effects given values of all covariates in the analysis and various aggregates of these conditional treatment effects such as average effects, effects on the treated, or aggregated conditional effects given values of a subset of covariates. Building on structural equation modeling, key advantages of the new approach are (1) It allows for latent covariates and outcome variables; (2) it permits (higher order) interactions between the treatment variable and categorical and (latent) continuous covariates; and (3) covariates can be treated as stochastic or fixed. The approach is illustrated by an example, and open source software EffectLiteR is provided, which makes a detailed analysis of effects conveniently accessible for applied researchers.

  15. Identification and estimation of survivor average causal effects

    PubMed Central

    Tchetgen, Eric J Tchetgen

    2014-01-01

    In longitudinal studies, outcomes ascertained at follow-up are typically undefined for individuals who die prior to the follow-up visit. In such settings, outcomes are said to be truncated by death and inference about the effects of a point treatment or exposure, restricted to individuals alive at the follow-up visit, could be biased even if as in experimental studies, treatment assignment were randomized. To account for truncation by death, the survivor average causal effect (SACE) defines the effect of treatment on the outcome for the subset of individuals who would have survived regardless of exposure status. In this paper, the author nonparametrically identifies SACE by leveraging post-exposure longitudinal correlates of survival and outcome that may also mediate the exposure effects on survival and outcome. Nonparametric identification is achieved by supposing that the longitudinal data arise from a certain nonparametric structural equations model and by making the monotonicity assumption that the effect of exposure on survival agrees in its direction across individuals. A novel weighted analysis involving a consistent estimate of the survival process is shown to produce consistent estimates of SACE. A data illustration is given, and the methods are extended to the context of time-varying exposures. We discuss a sensitivity analysis framework that relaxes assumptions about independent errors in the nonparametric structural equations model and may be used to assess the extent to which inference may be altered by a violation of key identifying assumptions. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24889022

  16. Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.

  17. 27 CFR 19.249 - Average effective tax rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Average effective tax rate. 19.249 Section 19.249 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits Taxes Effective Tax Rates §...

  18. Collision and average velocity effects on the ratchet pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Vlad, M.; Benkadda, S.

    2008-03-15

    A ratchet-type average velocity V{sup R} appears for test particles moving in a stochastic potential and a magnetic field that is space dependent. This model is developed by including particle collisions and an average velocity. We show that these components of the motion can destroy the ratchet velocity but they also can produce significant increase of V{sup R}, depending on the parameters. The amplification of the ratchet pinch is a nonlinear effect that appears in the presence of trajectory eddying.

  19. Effects of velocity averaging on the shapes of absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The velocity averaging of collision cross sections produces non-Lorentz line shapes, even at densities where Doppler broadening is not apparent. The magnitude of the effects will be described using a model in which the collision broadening depends on a simple velocity power law. The effect of the modified profile on experimental measures of linewidth, shift and amplitude will be examined and an improved approximate line shape will be derived.

  20. The Lake Wobegon Effect: Are All Cancer Patients above Average?

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jacqueline H; Wolf, Kevin S

    2013-01-01

    Context When elderly patients face a terminal illness such as lung cancer, most are unaware that what we term in this article “the Lake Wobegon effect” taints the treatment advice imparted to them by their oncologists. In framing treatment plans, cancer specialists tend to intimate that elderly patients are like the children living in Garrison Keillor's mythical Lake Wobegon: above average and thus likely to exceed expectations. In this article, we use the story of our mother's death from lung cancer to investigate the consequences of elderly people's inability to reconcile the grave reality of their illness with the overly optimistic predictions of their physicians. Methods In this narrative analysis, we examine the routine treatment of elderly, terminally ill cancer patients through alternating lenses: the lens of a historian of medicine who also teaches ethics to medical students and the lens of an actuary who is able to assess physicians’ claims for the outcome of medical treatments. Findings We recognize that a desire to instill hope in patients shapes physicians’ messages. We argue, however, that the automatic optimism conveyed to elderly, dying patients by cancer specialists prompts those patients to choose treatment that is ineffective and debilitating. Rather than primarily prolong life, treatments most notably diminish patients’ quality of life, weaken the ability of patients and their families to prepare for their deaths, and contribute significantly to the unsustainable costs of the U.S. health care system. Conclusions The case described in this article suggests how physicians can better help elderly, terminally ill patients make medical decisions that are less damaging to them and less costly to the health care system. PMID:24320166

  1. Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given.

  2. Estimation and Identification of the Complier Average Causal Effect Parameter in Education RCTs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.

    2011-01-01

    In randomized control trials (RCTs) in the education field, the complier average causal effect (CACE) parameter is often of policy interest, because it pertains to intervention effects for students who receive a meaningful dose of treatment services. This article uses a causal inference and instrumental variables framework to examine the…

  3. Microstructural effects on the average properties in porous battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, Ramiro; García, R. Edwin

    2016-03-01

    A theoretical framework is formulated to analytically quantify the effects of the microstructure on the average properties of porous electrodes, including reactive area density and the through-thickness tortuosity as observed in experimentally-determined tomographic sections. The proposed formulation includes the microstructural non-idealities but also captures the well-known perfectly spherical limit. Results demonstrate that in the absence of any particle alignment, the through-thickness Bruggeman exponent α, reaches an asymptotic value of α ∼ 2 / 3 as the shape of the particles become increasingly prolate (needle- or fiber-like). In contrast, the Bruggeman exponent diverges as the shape of the particles become increasingly oblate, regardless of the degree of particle alignment. For aligned particles, tortuosity can be dramatically suppressed, e.g., α → 1 / 10 for ra → 1 / 10 and MRD ∼ 40 . Particle size polydispersity impacts the porosity-tortuosity relation when the average particle size is comparable to the thickness of the electrode layers. Electrode reactivity density can be arbitrarily increased as the particles become increasingly oblate, but asymptotically reach a minimum value as the particles become increasingly prolate. In the limit of a porous electrode comprised of fiber-like particles, the area density decreases by 24% , with respect to a distribution of perfectly spherical particles.

  4. Effects of Polynomial Trends on Detrending Moving Average Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Ying-Hui; Gu, Gao-Feng; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-07-01

    The detrending moving average (DMA) algorithm is one of the best performing methods to quantify the long-term correlations in nonstationary time series. As many long-term correlated time series in real systems contain various trends, we investigate the effects of polynomial trends on the scaling behaviors and the performances of three widely used DMA methods including backward algorithm (BDMA), centered algorithm (CDMA) and forward algorithm (FDMA). We derive a general framework for polynomial trends and obtain analytical results for constant shifts and linear trends. We find that the behavior of the CDMA method is not influenced by constant shifts. In contrast, linear trends cause a crossover in the CDMA fluctuation functions. We also find that constant shifts and linear trends cause crossovers in the fluctuation functions obtained from the BDMA and FDMA methods. When a crossover exists, the scaling behavior at small scales comes from the intrinsic time series while that at large scales is dominated by the constant shifts or linear trends. We also derive analytically the expressions of crossover scales and show that the crossover scale depends on the strength of the polynomial trends, the Hurst index, and in some cases (linear trends for BDMA and FDMA) the length of the time series. In all cases, the BDMA and the FDMA behave almost the same under the influence of constant shifts or linear trends. Extensive numerical experiments confirm excellently the analytical derivations. We conclude that the CDMA method outperforms the BDMA and FDMA methods in the presence of polynomial trends.

  5. Uncertainty in Propensity Score Estimation: Bayesian Methods for Variable Selection and Model Averaged Causal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Zigler, Corwin Matthew; Dominici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Causal inference with observational data frequently relies on the notion of the propensity score (PS) to adjust treatment comparisons for observed confounding factors. As decisions in the era of “big data” are increasingly reliant on large and complex collections of digital data, researchers are frequently confronted with decisions regarding which of a high-dimensional covariate set to include in the PS model in order to satisfy the assumptions necessary for estimating average causal effects. Typically, simple or ad-hoc methods are employed to arrive at a single PS model, without acknowledging the uncertainty associated with the model selection. We propose three Bayesian methods for PS variable selection and model averaging that 1) select relevant variables from a set of candidate variables to include in the PS model and 2) estimate causal treatment effects as weighted averages of estimates under different PS models. The associated weight for each PS model reflects the data-driven support for that model’s ability to adjust for the necessary variables. We illustrate features of our proposed approaches with a simulation study, and ultimately use our methods to compare the effectiveness of surgical vs. nonsurgical treatment for brain tumors among 2,606 Medicare beneficiaries. Supplementary materials are available online. PMID:24696528

  6. Effect of brotizolam on the averaged photopalpebral reflex in man

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, M.; Isozaki, H.; Mizuki, Y.; Inanaga, K.

    1983-01-01

    1 The photopalpebral reflex (PPR) is a useful method to assess level of arousal. Healthy males were given either brotizolam (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 mg) or placebo within a double-blind, crossover design. Changes in PPR and subjective assessments were observed for 5 h after medication. 2 Prolongation of the latencies of PPR were dose dependent, and the amplitude tended to be reduced. These effects appeared within 30 min, and lasted about 4 h. 3 The dose-response curve of the maximum prolongation of the latencies was linear. 4 Sleepiness and slight ataxia were observed after drug ingestion. Sleepiness was correlated with the prolongation of the PPR latencies. 5 Brotizolam could be a potent hypnotic, with rapid onset and moderate duration of action, and it has no severe side-effects. PMID:6661378

  7. Velocity Averaging, Kinetic Formulations and Regularizing Effects in Quasilinear PDEs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-31

    nonlinear conservation laws. In [LPT94a], Lions, Perthame & Tadmor have shown that entropy solutions of such laws admit a regularizing effect of a fractional...one augments (1.1) with additional conditions on the behavior of Φ(ρ) for a large enough family of entropies Φ’s. These additional entropy conditions...imply that g is in fact a positive distribution, g = m ∈ M+, measuring the entropy dissipation of the nonlinear equation. We arrive at the kinetic

  8. Effects of Spatial Variability on Annual Average Water Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milly, P. C. D.; Eagleson, P. S.

    1987-11-01

    Spatial variability of soil and vegetation causes spatial variability of the water balance. For an area in which the water balance is not affected by lateral water flow, the frequency distributions of storm surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and drainage to groundwater are derivable from distributions of soil hydraulic parameters by means of a point water balance model and local application of the vegetal equilibrium hypothesis. Means and variances of the components of the budget can be found by Monte Carlo simulation or by approximate local expansions. For a fixed set of mean soil parameters, soil spatial variability may induce significant changes in the areal mean water balance, particularly if storm surface runoff occurs. Variability of the pore size distribution index and permeability has a much larger effect than that of effective porosity on the means and variances of water balance variables. The importance of the pore size distribution index implies that the microscopic similarity assumption may underestimate the effects of soil spatial variability. In general, the presence of soil variability reduces the sensitivity of water balance to mean properties. For small levels of soil variability, there exists a unique equivalent homogeneous soil type that reproduces the budget components and the mean soil moisture saturation of an inhomogeneous area.

  9. Dosimetric comparison of lung stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment plans using averaged computed tomography and end-exhalation computed tomography images: Evaluation of the effect of different dose-calculation algorithms and prescription methods.

    PubMed

    Mitsuyoshi, Takamasa; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Ueki, Nami; Nakamura, Akira; Iizuka, Yusuke; Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantitatively evaluate differences in dose distributions calculated using various computed tomography (CT) datasets, dose-calculation algorithms, and prescription methods in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with early-stage lung cancer. Data on 29 patients with early-stage lung cancer treated with SBRT were retrospectively analyzed. Averaged CT (Ave-CT) and expiratory CT (Ex-CT) images were reconstructed for each patient using 4-dimensional CT data. Dose distributions were initially calculated using the Ave-CT images and recalculated (in the same monitor units [MUs]) by employing Ex-CT images with the same beam arrangements. The dose-volume parameters, including D95, D90, D50, and D2 of the planning target volume (PTV), were compared between the 2 image sets. To explore the influence of dose-calculation algorithms and prescription methods on the differences in dose distributions evident between Ave-CT and Ex-CT images, we calculated dose distributions using the following 3 different algorithms: x-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC), Acuros XB (AXB), and the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). We also used 2 different dose-prescription methods; the isocenter prescription and the PTV periphery prescription methods. All differences in PTV dose-volume parameters calculated using Ave-CT and Ex-CT data were within 3 percentage points (%pts) employing the isocenter prescription method, and within 1.5%pts using the PTV periphery prescription method, irrespective of which of the 3 algorithms (XVMC, AXB, and AAA) was employed. The frequencies of dose-volume parameters differing by >1%pt when the XVMC and AXB were used were greater than those associated with the use of the AAA, regardless of the dose-prescription method employed. All differences in PTV dose-volume parameters calculated using Ave-CT and Ex-CT data on patients who underwent lung SBRT were within 3%pts, regardless of the dose-calculation algorithm or the dose

  10. Digital filter suppresses effects of nonstatistical noise bursts on multichannel scaler digital averaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, L. S.; Salter, F. O.

    1968-01-01

    Digital filter suppresses the effects of nonstatistical noise bursts on data averaged over multichannel scaler. Interposed between the sampled channels and the digital averaging system, it uses binary logic circuitry to compare the number of counts per channel with the average number of counts per channel.

  11. Aperture averaging effects on the average spectral efficiency of FSO links over turbulence channel with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarthi, G.; Prabu, K.; Reddy, G. Ramachandra

    2017-02-01

    The average spectral efficiency (ASE) is investigated for the free space optical (FSO) communications employing On-Off keying (OOK), Polarization shift keying (POLSK), and Coherent optical wireless communication (Coherent OWC) systems with and without pointing errors over the Gamma-Gamma (GG) channels. Additionally, the impact of aperture averaging on the ASE is explored. The influence of different turbulence conditions along with varying receiver aperture has been studied and analyzed. For the considered system, the exact average channel capacity (ACC) expressions are derived using Meijer G function. Results reveal that when pointing errors are introduced, there is a significant reduction in the ASE performance. The enhancement in the ASE can be achieved with an increase in the receiver aperture across various turbulence regimes and reducing the beam radius in the presence of pointing errors, but the rate of increment of ASE reduces with a larger diameter and it is saturated finally. The coherent OWC system provides better ASE performance of 49 bits/s/Hz at the average transmitted optical power of 5 dBm with an aperture diameter of 10 cm and 34 bits/s/Hz without and with pointing errors under strong turbulence respectively.

  12. Beyond intent to treat (ITT): A complier average causal effect (CACE) estimation primer.

    PubMed

    Peugh, James L; Strotman, Daniel; McGrady, Meghan; Rausch, Joseph; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2017-02-01

    Randomized control trials (RCTs) have long been the gold standard for allowing causal inferences to be made regarding the efficacy of a treatment under investigation, but traditional RCT data analysis perspectives do not take into account a common reality: imperfect participant compliance to treatment. Recent advances in both maximum likelihood parameter estimation and mixture modeling methodology have enabled treatment effects to be estimated, in the presence of less than ideal levels of participant compliance, via a Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) structural equation mixture model. CACE is described in contrast to "intent to treat" (ITT), "per protocol", and "as treated" RCT data analysis perspectives. CACE model assumptions, specification, estimation, and interpretation will all be demonstrated with simulated data generated from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for Juvenile Fibromyalgia. CACE analysis model figures, linear model equations, and Mplus estimation syntax examples are all provided. Data needed to reproduce analyses in this article are available as supplemental materials (online only) in the Appendix of this article.

  13. GI Joe or Average Joe? The impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and advertisement effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2010-06-01

    Increasing body size and shape diversity in media imagery may promote positive body image. While research has largely focused on female models and women's body image, men may also be affected by unrealistic images. We examined the impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and perceived advertisement effectiveness. A sample of 330 men and 289 women viewed one of four advertisement conditions: no models, muscular, average-slim or average-large models. Men and women rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as muscular models. For men, exposure to average-size models was associated with more positive body image in comparison to viewing no models, but no difference was found in comparison to muscular models. Similar results were found for women. Internalisation of beauty ideals did not moderate these effects. These findings suggest that average-size male models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  14. Accounting for uncertainty in confounder and effect modifier selection when estimating average causal effects in generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Zigler, Corwin Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Confounder selection and adjustment are essential elements of assessing the causal effect of an exposure or treatment in observational studies. Building upon work by Wang et al. (2012, Biometrics 68, 661-671) and Lefebvre et al. (2014, Statistics in Medicine 33, 2797-2813), we propose and evaluate a Bayesian method to estimate average causal effects in studies with a large number of potential confounders, relatively few observations, likely interactions between confounders and the exposure of interest, and uncertainty on which confounders and interaction terms should be included. Our method is applicable across all exposures and outcomes that can be handled through generalized linear models. In this general setting, estimation of the average causal effect is different from estimation of the exposure coefficient in the outcome model due to noncollapsibility. We implement a Bayesian bootstrap procedure to integrate over the distribution of potential confounders and to estimate the causal effect. Our method permits estimation of both the overall population causal effect and effects in specified subpopulations, providing clear characterization of heterogeneous exposure effects that may vary considerably across different covariate profiles. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in small sample size situations with 100-150 observations and 50 covariates. The method is applied to data on 15,060 US Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with a malignant brain tumor between 2000 and 2009 to evaluate whether surgery reduces hospital readmissions within 30 days of diagnosis.

  15. Analysis of average density difference effect in a new two-lane lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Liu, Wei-Ning; Cheng, Sen-Lin

    2015-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking the average density difference effect into account for two-lane traffic system according to Transportation Cyber-physical Systems. The influence of average density difference effect on the stability of traffic flow is investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear analysis results reveal that the unstable region would be reduced by considering the average density difference effect. The nonlinear kink-antikink soliton solution derived from the mKdV equation is analyzed to describe the properties of traffic jamming transition near the critical point. Numerical simulations confirm the analytical results showing that traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the average density difference effect for two-lane traffic system.

  16. HIV Reactivation from Latency after Treatment Interruption Occurs on Average Every 5-8 Days--Implications for HIV Remission.

    PubMed

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin; Grimm, Andrew J; Cooper, David A; Lewin, Sharon R; Søgaard, Ole S; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Kent, Stephen J; Kelleher, Anthony D; Davenport, Miles P

    2015-07-01

    HIV infection can be effectively controlled by anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in most patients. However therapy must be continued for life, because interruption of ART leads to rapid recrudescence of infection from long-lived latently infected cells. A number of approaches are currently being developed to 'purge' the reservoir of latently infected cells in order to either eliminate infection completely, or significantly delay the time to viral recrudescence after therapy interruption. A fundamental question in HIV research is how frequently the virus reactivates from latency, and thus how much the reservoir might need to be reduced to produce a prolonged antiretroviral-free HIV remission. Here we provide the first direct estimates of the frequency of viral recrudescence after ART interruption, combining data from four independent cohorts of patients undergoing treatment interruption, comprising 100 patients in total. We estimate that viral replication is initiated on average once every ≈6 days (range 5.1- 7.6 days). This rate is around 24 times lower than previous thought, and is very similar across the cohorts. In addition, we analyse data on the ratios of different 'reactivation founder' viruses in a separate cohort of patients undergoing ART-interruption, and estimate the frequency of successful reactivation to be once every 3.6 days. This suggests that a reduction in the reservoir size of around 50-70-fold would be required to increase the average time-to-recrudescence to about one year, and thus achieve at least a short period of anti-retroviral free HIV remission. Our analyses suggests that time-to-recrudescence studies will need to be large in order to detect modest changes in the reservoir, and that macaque models of SIV latency may have much higher frequencies of viral recrudescence after ART interruption than seen in human HIV infection. Understanding the mean frequency of recrudescence from latency is an important first step in approaches to prolong

  17. The effect of sensor sheltering and averaging techniques on wind measurements at the Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis J.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents results of a field study of the effect of sheltering of wind sensors by nearby foliage on the validity of wind measurements at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). Standard measurements are made at one second intervals from 30-feet (9.1-m) towers located 500 feet (152 m) from the SLF centerline. The centerline winds are not exactly the same as those measured by the towers. A companion study, Merceret (1995), quantifies the differences as a function of statistics of the observed winds and distance between the measurements and points of interest. This work examines the effect of nearby foliage on the accuracy of the measurements made by any one sensor, and the effects of averaging on interpretation of the measurements. The field program used logarithmically spaced portable wind towers to measure wind speed and direction over a range of conditions as a function of distance from the obstructing foliage. Appropriate statistics were computed. The results suggest that accurate measurements require foliage be cut back to OFCM standards. Analysis of averaging techniques showed that there is no significant difference between vector and scalar averages. Longer averaging periods reduce measurement error but do not otherwise change the measurement in reasonably steady flow regimes. In rapidly changing conditions, shorter averaging periods may be required to capture trends.

  18. Effects of average speed enforcement on speed compliance and crashes: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Soole, David W; Watson, Barry C; Fleiter, Judy J

    2013-05-01

    Average speed enforcement is a relatively new approach gaining popularity throughout Europe and Australia. This paper reviews the evidence regarding the impact of this approach on vehicle speeds, crash rates and a number of additional road safety and public health outcomes. The economic and practical viability of the approach as a road safety countermeasure is also explored. A literature review, with an international scope, of both published and grey literature was conducted. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest a number of road safety benefits associated with average speed enforcement, including high rates of compliance with speed limits, reductions in average and 85th percentile speeds and reduced speed variability between vehicles. Moreover, the approach has been demonstrated to be particularly effective in reducing excessive speeding behaviour. Reductions in crash rates have also been reported in association with average speed enforcement, particularly in relation to fatal and serious injury crashes. In addition, the approach has been shown to improve traffic flow, reduce vehicle emissions and has also been associated with high levels of public acceptance. Average speed enforcement offers a greater network-wide approach to managing speeds that reduces the impact of time and distance halo effects associated with other automated speed enforcement approaches. Although comparatively expensive it represents a highly reliable approach to speed enforcement that produces considerable returns on investment through reduced social and economic costs associated with crashes.

  19. Estimation of genetic parameters for average daily gain using models with competition effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Components of variance for ADG with models including competition effects were estimated from data provided by Pig Improvement Company on 11,235 pigs from 4 selected lines of swine. Fifteen pigs with average age of 71 d were randomly assigned to a pen by line and sex and taken off test after approxi...

  20. The effect of surface roughness on the average film thickness between lubricated rollers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, L. S. H.; Cheng, H. S.

    1976-01-01

    The Christensen theory of stochastic models for hydrodynamic lubrication of rough surfaces is extended to elastohydrodynamic lubrication between two rollers. The Grubin-type equation including asperity effects in the inlet region is derived. Solutions for the reduced pressure at the entrance as a function of the ratio of the average nominal film thickness to the rms surface roughness (in terms of standard deviation), have been obtained numerically. Results were obtained for purely transverse and purely longitudinal surface roughness for cases with or without slip. The reduced pressure is shown to decrease slightly by considering longitudinal surface roughness. Transverse surface roughness has a slight beneficial effect on the average film thickness at the inlet. The same approach was used to study the effect of surface roughness on lubrication between rigid rollers and lubrication of an infinitely-wide slider bearing. The effects of surface roughness are shown to be similar to those found in elastohydrodynamic contacts.

  1. Visualization of Radial Peripapillary Capillaries Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: The Effect of Image Averaging

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Erika; Krawitz, Brian D.; Garg, Reena; Salim, Sarwat; Geyman, Lawrence S.; Efstathiadis, Eleni; Carroll, Joseph; Rosen, Richard B.; Chui, Toco Y. P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of image registration and averaging on the visualization and quantification of the radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods Twenty-two healthy controls were imaged with a commercial OCTA system (AngioVue, Optovue, Inc.). Ten 10x10° scans of the optic disc were obtained, and the most superficial layer (50-μm slab extending from the inner limiting membrane) was extracted for analysis. Rigid registration was achieved using ImageJ, and averaging of each 2 to 10 frames was performed in five ~2x2° regions of interest (ROI) located 1° from the optic disc margin. The ROI were automatically skeletonized. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), number of endpoints and mean capillary length from the skeleton, capillary density, and mean intercapillary distance (ICD) were measured for the reference and each averaged ROI. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess statistical significance. Three patients with primary open angle glaucoma were also imaged to compare RPC density to controls. Results Qualitatively, vessels appeared smoother and closer to histologic descriptions with increasing number of averaged frames. Quantitatively, number of endpoints decreased by 51%, and SNR, mean capillary length, capillary density, and ICD increased by 44%, 91%, 11%, and 4.5% from single frame to 10-frame averaged, respectively. The 10-frame averaged images from the glaucomatous eyes revealed decreased density correlating to visual field defects and retinal nerve fiber layer thinning. Conclusions OCTA image registration and averaging is a viable and accessible method to enhance the visualization of RPCs, with significant improvements in image quality and RPC quantitative parameters. With this technique, we will be able to non-invasively and reliably study RPC involvement in diseases such as glaucoma. PMID:28068370

  2. A second-order closure model for the effect of averaging time on turbulent plume dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, R.I.; Gabruk, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    Turbulent dispersion in the atmosphere is a result of chaotic advection by a wide spectrum of eddy motions. In genera, the larger scale motions behave like a time-dependent, spatially inhomogeneous mean wind and produce coherent meandering of a pollutant cloud or plume, while the smaller scale motions act to diffuse the pollutant and mix it with the ambient air. The distinction between the two types of motion is dependent on both the sampling procedure and the scale of the pollutant cloud. For the case of a continuous plume of material, the duration of the sampling time (the time average period) determines the effective size of the plume. The objective is the development of a practical scheme for representing the effect of time-averaging on plume width. The model must describe relative dispersion in the limit of short-term averages, and give the absolute, or ensemble, dispersion rate for long-term sampling. The authors shall generalize the second-order closure ensemble dispersion model of Sykes et al. to include the effect of time-averaging, so they first briefly review the basic model.

  3. An extended car-following model accounting for the average headway effect in intelligent transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Hua; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Xing-Li; Lo, Siu-Ming

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an extended car-following model is proposed to simulate traffic flow by considering average headway of preceding vehicles group in intelligent transportation systems environment. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability analysis. The phase diagram can be divided into three regions classified as the stable, the metastable and the unstable ones. The theoretical result shows that the average headway plays an important role in improving the stabilization of traffic system. The mKdV equation near the critical point is derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves by applying the reductive perturbation method. Furthermore, through the simulation of space-time evolution of the vehicle headway, it is shown that the traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently with taking into account the average headway effect, and the analytical result is consistent with the simulation one.

  4. On the Correlation of Effective Terahertz Refractive Index and Average Surface Roughness of Pharmaceutical Tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Ervasti, Tuomas; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Zeitler, J. Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have studied terahertz (THz) pulse time delay of porous pharmaceutical microcrystalline compacts and also pharmaceutical tablets that contain indomethacin (painkiller) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and microcrystalline cellulose as the matrix of the tablet. The porosity of a pharmaceutical tablet is important because it affects the release of drug substance. In addition, surface roughness of the tablet has much importance regarding dissolution of the tablet and hence the rate of drug release. Here, we show, using a training set of tablets containing API and with a priori known tablet's quality parameters, that the effective refractive index (obtained from THz time delay data) of such porous tablets correlates with the average surface roughness of a tablet. Hence, THz pulse time delay measurement in the transmission mode provides information on both porosity and the average surface roughness of a compact. This is demonstrated for two different sets of pharmaceutical tablets having different porosity and average surface roughness values.

  5. Is Scientifically Based Reading Instruction Effective for Students with Below-Average IQs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allor, Jill H.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Roberts, J. Kyle; Cheatham, Jennifer P.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal randomized-control trial investigated the effectiveness of scientifically based reading instruction for students with IQs ranging from 40 to 80, including students with intellectual disability (ID). Students were randomly assigned into treatment (n = 76) and contrast (n = 65) groups. Students in the treatment group received…

  6. Cognitive Capitalism: Economic Freedom Moderates the Effects of Intellectual and Average Classes on Economic Productivity.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Thomas R; Rindermann, Heiner; Hancock, Dale

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive ability stimulates economic productivity. However, the effects of cognitive ability may be stronger in free and open economies, where competition rewards merit and achievement. To test this hypothesis, ability levels of intellectual classes (top 5%) and average classes (country averages) were estimated using international student assessments (Programme for International Student Assessment; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study; and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) (N = 99 countries). The ability levels were correlated with indicators of economic freedom (Fraser Institute), scientific achievement (patent rates), innovation (Global Innovation Index), competitiveness (Global Competitiveness Index), and wealth (gross domestic product). Ability levels of intellectual and average classes strongly predicted all economic criteria. In addition, economic freedom moderated the effects of cognitive ability (for both classes), with stronger effects at higher levels of freedom. Effects were particularly robust for scientific achievements when the full range of freedom was analyzed. The results support cognitive capitalism theory: cognitive ability stimulates economic productivity, and its effects are enhanced by economic freedom.

  7. Spatial averaging effects of hydrophone on field characterization of planar transducer using Fresnel approximation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Guangzhen; Yang, Ping; He, Longbiao; Feng, Xiujuan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve the existing models that allow spatial averaging effects of piezoelectric hydrophones to be accounted for. The model derived in the present study is valid for a planar source and was verified using transducers operating at 5 and 20MHz. It is based on Fresnel approximation and enables corrections for both on-axis and off-axis measurements. A single-integral approximate formula for the axial acoustic pressure was derived, and the validity of the Fresnel approximation in the near field of the planar transducer was examined. The numerical results obtained using 5 and 20MHz planar transmitters with an effective diameter of 12.7mm showed that the derived model could account for spatial averaging effects to within 0.2% with Beissner's exact integral (Beissner, 1981), for k(a+b)2≫π (where k is the circular wavenumber, and a and b are the effective radii of the transmitter and hydrophone, respectively). The field distributions along the acoustic axis and the beam directivity patterns are also included in the model. The spatial averaging effects of the hydrophone were generally observed to cause underestimation of the absolute pressure amplitudes of the acoustic beam, and overestimation of the cross-sectional size of the beam directivity pattern. However, the cross-sectional size of the directivity pattern was also found to be underestimated in the "far zone" (beyond Y0=a(2)/λ) of the transmitter. The results of this study indicate that the spatial averaging effect on the beam directivity pattern is negligible for π(γ(2)+4γ)s≪1 (where γ=b/a, and s is the normalized distance to the planar transducer).

  8. Comparing effects in spike-triggered averages of rectified EMG across different behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Adam G.; O’Dell, Ryan; Chan, Vanessa; Schieber, Marc H.

    2007-01-01

    Effects in spike-triggered averages (SpikeTAs) of rectified electromyographic activity (EMG) compiled for the same neuron-muscle pair during various behaviors often appear different. Do these differences represent significant changes in the effect of the neuron on the muscle activity? Quantitative comparison of such differences has been limited by two methodological problems, which we address here. First, although the linear baseline trend of many SpikeTAs can be adjusted with ramp subtraction, the curvilinear baseline trend of other SpikeTAs can not. To address this problem, we estimated baseline trends using a form of moving average. Artificial triggers were created in 1 ms increments from 40 ms before to 40 ms after each spike used to compile the SpikeTA. These 81 triggers were used to compile another average of rectified EMG, which we call a single-spike increment shifted average (single-spike ISA). Single-spike ISAs were averaged to produce an overall ISA, which captured slow trends in the baseline EMG while distributing any spike-locked features evenly throughout the 80 ms analysis window. The overall ISA then was subtracted from the initial SpikeTA, removing any slow baseline trends for more accurate measurement of SpikeTA effects. Second, the measured amplitude and temporal characteristics of SpikeTA effects produced by the same neuron-muscle pair may vary during different behaviors. But whether or not such variation is significant has been difficult to ascertain. We therefore applied a multiple fragment approach to permit statistical comparison of the measured features of SpikeTA effects for the same neuron-muscle pair during different behavioral epochs. Spike trains recorded in each task were divided into non-overlapping fragments of 100 spikes each, and a separate, ISA-corrected, SpikeTA was compiled for each fragment. Measurements made on these fragment SpikeTAs then were used as test statistics for comparison of peak percent increase, mean percent

  9. Leading multiple teams: average and relative external leadership influences on team empowerment and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Margaret M; Mathieu, John E; Ruddy, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    External leaders continue to be an important source of influence even when teams are empowered, but it is not always clear how they do so. Extending research on structurally empowered teams, we recognize that teams' external leaders are often responsible for multiple teams. We adopt a multilevel approach to model external leader influences at both the team level and the external leader level of analysis. In doing so, we distinguish the influence of general external leader behaviors (i.e., average external leadership) from those that are directed differently toward the teams that they lead (i.e., relative external leadership). Analysis of data collected from 451 individuals, in 101 teams, reporting to 25 external leaders, revealed that both relative and average external leadership related positively to team empowerment. In turn, team empowerment related positively to team performance and member job satisfaction. However, while the indirect effects were all positive, we found that relative external leadership was not directly related to team performance, and average external leadership evidenced a significant negative direct influence. Additionally, relative external leadership exhibited a significant direct positive influence on member job satisfaction as anticipated, whereas average external leadership did not. These findings attest to the value in distinguishing external leaders' behaviors that are exhibited consistently versus differentially across empowered teams. Implications and future directions for the study and management of external leaders overseeing multiple teams are discussed.

  10. Effects of time-averaging climate parameters on predicted multicompartmental fate of pesticides and POPs.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    With the aim to investigate the justification of time-averaging of climate parameters in multicompartment modelling the effects of various climate parameters and different modes of entry on the predicted substances' total environmental burdens and the compartmental fractions were studied. A simple, non-steady state zero-dimensional (box) mass-balance model of intercompartmental mass exchange which comprises four compartments was used for this purpose. Each two runs were performed, one temporally unresolved (time-averaged conditions) and a time-resolved (hourly or higher) control run. In many cases significant discrepancies are predicted, depending on the substance and on the parameter. We find discrepancies exceeding 10% relative to the control run and up to an order of magnitude for prediction of the total environmental burden from neglecting seasonalities of the soil and ocean temperatures and the hydroxyl radical concentration in the atmosphere and diurnalities of atmospheric mixing depth and the hydroxyl radical concentration in the atmosphere. Under some conditions it was indicated that substance sensitivity could be explained by the magnitude of the sink terms in the compartment(s) with parameters varying. In general, however, any key for understanding substance sensitivity seems not be linked in an easy manner to the properties of the substance, to the fractions of its burden or to the sink terms in either of the compartments with parameters varying. Averaging of diurnal variability was found to cause errors of total environmental residence time of different sign for different substances. The effects of time-averaging of several parameters are in general not additive but synergistic as well as compensatory effects occur. An implication of these findings is that the ranking of substances according to persistence is sensitive to time resolution on the scale of hours to months. As a conclusion it is recommended to use high temporal resolution in multi

  11. Averaging period effects on the turbulent flux and transport efficiency during haze pollution in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Yang, Ting; Sun, Yele

    2015-08-01

    Based on observations at the heights of 140 and 280 m on the Beijing 325-m meteorological tower, this study presents an assessment of the averaging period effects on eddy-covariance measurements of the momentum/scalar flux and transport efficiency during wintertime haze pollution. The study period, namely from January 6 to February 28 2013, is divided into different episodes of particulate pollution, as featured by varied amounts of the turbulent exchange and conditions of the atmospheric stability. Overall, turbulent fluxes of the momentum and scalars (heat, water vapor, and CO2) increase with the averaging period, namely from 5, 15, and 30 up to 60 min, an outcome most evident during the `transient' episodes (each lasting for 2-3 days, i.e., preceded and followed by clean-air days with mean concentrations of PM1 less than 40 μg m-3). The conventional choice of 30 min is deemed to be appropriate for calculating the momentum flux and its transport efficiency. By comparison, scalar fluxes and their transport efficiencies appear more sensitive to the choice of an averaging period, particularly at the upper level (i.e., 280 m). It is presupposed that, for urban environments, calculating the momentum and scalar fluxes could invoke separate averaging periods, rather than relying on a single prescription (e.g., 30 min). Furthermore, certain characteristics of urban turbulence are found less sensitive to the choice of an averaging period, such as the relationship between the heat-to-momentum transport efficiency and the local stability parameter.

  12. Fractional averaging of repetitive waveforms induced by self-imaging effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Cortés, Luis; Maram, Reza; Azaña, José

    2015-10-01

    We report the theoretical prediction and experimental observation of averaging of stochastic events with an equivalent result of calculating the arithmetic mean (or sum) of a rational number of realizations of the process under test, not necessarily limited to an integer record of realizations, as discrete statistical theory dictates. This concept is enabled by a passive amplification process, induced by self-imaging (Talbot) effects. In the specific implementation reported here, a combined spectral-temporal Talbot operation is shown to achieve undistorted, lossless repetition-rate division of a periodic train of noisy waveforms by a rational factor, leading to local amplification, and the associated averaging process, by the fractional rate-division factor.

  13. Effect of low dose sotalol on the signal averaged P wave in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, P. J.; Cooper, J.; de Bono, D. P.; Vincent, R.; Garratt, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects of low dose sotalol on the signal averaged surface P wave in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. DESIGN--A longitudinal within patient crossover study. SETTING--Cardiac departments of a regional cardiothoracic centre and a district general hospital. PATIENTS--Sixteen patients with documented paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. The median (range) age of the patients was 65.5 (36-70) years; 11 were men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Analysis of the signal averaged P wave recorded from patients not receiving antiarrhythmic medication and after 4-6 weeks' treatment with sotalol. P wave limits were defined automatically by a computer algorithm. Filtered P wave duration and energies contained in frequency bands from 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 to 150 Hz of the P wave spectrum expressed as absolute values (P20, P30, etc) and as ratios of high to low frequency energy (PR20, PR30, etc) were measured. RESULTS--No difference in P wave duration was observed between the groups studied (mean (SEM) 149 (4) without medication and 152 (3) ms with sotalol). Significant decreases in high frequency P wave energy (for example P60: 4.3 (0.4) v 3.3 (0.3) microV2.s, P = 0.003) and energy ratio (PR60: 5.6 (0.5) v 4.7 (0.6), P = 0.03) were observed during sotalol treatment. These changes were independent of heart rate. CONCLUSIONS--Treatment with low dose sotalol reduces high frequency P wave energy but does not change P wave duration. These results are consistent with the class III effect of the drug and suggest that signal averaging of the surface P wave may be a useful non-invasive measure of drug induced changes in atrial electrophysiology. PMID:8541169

  14. Mental health care and average happiness: strong effect in developed nations.

    PubMed

    Touburg, Giorgio; Veenhoven, Ruut

    2015-07-01

    Mental disorder is a main cause of unhappiness in modern society and investment in mental health care is therefore likely to add to average happiness. This prediction was checked in a comparison of 143 nations around 2005. Absolute investment in mental health care was measured using the per capita number of psychiatrists and psychologists working in mental health care. Relative investment was measured using the share of mental health care in the total health budget. Average happiness in nations was measured with responses to survey questions about life-satisfaction. Average happiness appeared to be higher in countries that invest more in mental health care, both absolutely and relative to investment in somatic medicine. A data split by level of development shows that this difference exists only among developed nations. Among these nations the link between mental health care and happiness is quite strong, both in an absolute sense and compared to other known societal determinants of happiness. The correlation between happiness and share of mental health care in the total health budget is twice as strong as the correlation between happiness and size of the health budget. A causal effect is likely, but cannot be proved in this cross-sectional analysis.

  15. Effects of surface roughness on the average heat transfer of an impinging air jet

    SciTech Connect

    Beitelmal, A.H.; Saad, M.A.; Patel, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    Localized cooling by impinging flow has been used in many industrial applications such as in cooling of gas turbine blades and drying processes. Here, effect of surface roughness of a uniformly heated plate on the average heat transfer characteristics of an impinging air jet was experimentally investigated. Two aluminum plates, one with a flat surface and the second with some roughness added to the surface were fabricated. The roughness took the shape of a circular array of protrusions of 0.5mm base and 0.5mm height. A circular Kapton heater of the same diameter as the plates (70mm) supplied the necessary power. The surfaces of the plates were polished to reduce radiation heat losses and the back and sides insulated to reduce conduction heat losses. temperatures were measured over a Reynolds number ranging from 9,600 to 38,500 based on flow rate through a 6.85mm diameter nozzle. The temperature measurements were repeated for nozzle exit-to-plate spacing, z/d, ranging from 1 to 10. The average Nusselt number for both cases was plotted versus the Reynolds number and their functional correlation was determined. The results indicate an increase of up to 6.0% of the average Nusselt number due to surface roughness. This modest increase provides evidence to encourage further investigation and characterization of the surface roughness as a parameter for enhancing heat transfer.

  16. Time-averages for Plane Travelling Waves—The Effect of Attenuation: I, Adiabatic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, S. N.

    1993-05-01

    The analysis of the effect of attenuation on the time-averages for a plane travelling wave is presented. The barotropic equation of state is considered: i.e., acoustic heating is assumed to be negligible. The problem statement consists of calculating means in a finite region bounded by a transducer surface as well as by a perfectly absorbing surface, respectively. Although the simple wave approximation cannot be used throughout the field it is still valid near the perfect absorber. The result for radiation pressure is different from the conclusions given previously by Beyer and Livett, Emery and Leeman.

  17. Effects analysis of array geometry for resolving performance based on spatial average ambiguity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Guofeng; Wang, Hongqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Qin, Yuliang

    2016-03-01

    For analyzing the three dimension (3D) spatial resolving performance of Multi-Transmitter Single-Receiver (MTSR) array radar with stochastic signals, the spatial average ambiguity function (SAAF) was introduced. The analytic expression of SAAF of array radar with stochastic is derived. To analyze the effects of array geometry, comparisons are implemented for three typical array geometries including circular, decussate and planar configuration. Simulated results illustrate that the spatial resolving performance is better for the circular array than that of others. Furthermore, it is shown that the array aperture size and the target's radial range are the main factors impacting the resolving performance.

  18. The effect of three-dimensional fields on bounce averaged particle drifts in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Hegna, C. C.

    2015-07-15

    The impact of applied 3D magnetic fields on the bounce-averaged precessional drifts in a tokamak plasma are calculated. Local 3D MHD equilibrium theory is used to construct solutions to the equilibrium equations in the vicinity of a magnetic surface for a large aspect ratio circular tokamak perturbed by applied 3D fields. Due to modulations of the local shear caused by near-resonant Pfirsch-Schlüter currents, relatively weak applied 3D fields can have a large effect on trapped particle precessional drifts.

  19. Effective Block-Scale Dispersion and Its Self-Averaging Behavior in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, Felipe; Dentz, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Upscaled (effective) dispersion coefficients in spatially heterogeneous flow fields must (1) account for the sub-scale variability that is filtered out by homogenization and (2) be modeled as a random function to incorporate the uncertainty associated with non-ergodic solute bodies. In this study, we use the framework developed in de Barros and Rubin (2011) [de Barros F.P.J. and Rubin Y., Modelling of block-scale macrodispersion as a random function. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 676 (2011): 514-545] to develop novel semi-analytical expressions for the first two statistical moments of the block-effective dispersion coefficients in three-dimensional spatially random flow fields as a function of the key characteristic length scales defining the transport problem. The derived expressions are based on perturbation theory and limited to weak-to-mild heterogeneity and uniform-in-the-mean steady state flow fields. The semi-analytical solutions provide physical insights of the main controlling factors influencing the temporal scaling of the dispersion coefficient of the solute body and its self-averaging dispersion behavior. Our results illustrate the relevance of the joint influence of the block-scale and local-scale dispersion in diminishing the macrodispersion variance under non-ergodic conditions. The impact of the statistical anisotropy ratio in the block-effective macrodispersion self-averaging behavior is also investigated. The analysis performed in this work has implications in numerical modeling and grid design.

  20. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dongxu; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Chupeng; Yuan, Daocheng; Xi, Jianpu; Zhu, Xueliang; Ban, Xinxing; Dong, Longchao; Gu, Yawen; Jiang, Chunye

    2016-04-14

    A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method's theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m.

  1. Multi-Repeated Projection Lithography for High-Precision Linear Scale Based on Average Homogenization Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dongxu; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Chupeng; Yuan, Daocheng; Xi, Jianpu; Zhu, Xueliang; Ban, Xinxing; Dong, Longchao; Gu, Yawen; Jiang, Chunye

    2016-01-01

    A multi-repeated photolithography method for manufacturing an incremental linear scale using projection lithography is presented. The method is based on the average homogenization effect that periodically superposes the light intensity of different locations of pitches in the mask to make a consistent energy distribution at a specific wavelength, from which the accuracy of a linear scale can be improved precisely using the average pitch with different step distances. The method’s theoretical error is within 0.01 µm for a periodic mask with a 2-µm sine-wave error. The intensity error models in the focal plane include the rectangular grating error on the mask, static positioning error, and lithography lens focal plane alignment error, which affect pitch uniformity less than in the common linear scale projection lithography splicing process. It was analyzed and confirmed that increasing the repeat exposure number of a single stripe could improve accuracy, as could adjusting the exposure spacing to achieve a set proportion of black and white stripes. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of the multi-repeated photolithography method is confirmed to easily realize a pitch accuracy of 43 nm in any 10 locations of 1 m, and the whole length accuracy of the linear scale is less than 1 µm/m. PMID:27089348

  2. Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, V. D.; Bychkova, L. V.; Madej, J.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination of averaged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 main sequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of the stellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e, which were compiled from the existing literature. We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars in the catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, and all ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of all chemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength is described by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this type hold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemical peculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function can break down below about 100 G, the latter value representing approximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars. Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  3. The effect of aperture averaging upon tropospheric delay fluctuations seen with a DSN antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linfield, R.

    1996-01-01

    The spectrum of tropospheric delay fluctuations expected for a DSN antenna at time scales less than 100 s has been calculated. A new feature included in these calculations is the effect of aperture averaging, which causes a reduction in delay fluctuations on time scales less than the antenna wind speed crossing time, approximately equal to 5-10 s. On time scales less than a few seconds, the Allan deviation sigma(sub y)(Delta(t)) varies as (Delta(t))(sup +1), rather than sigma(sub y)(Delta(t)) varies as (Delta(t))(exp -1/6) without aperture averaging. Due to thermal radiometer noise, calibration of tropospheric delay fluctuations with water vapor radiometers will not be possible on time scales less than approximately 10 s. However, the tropospheric fluctuation level will be small enough that radio science measurements with a spacecraft on time scales less than a few seconds will be limited by the stability of frequency standards and/or other nontropospheric effects.

  4. Quaternion Averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  5. Effects of turbulence on average refraction angles in occultations by planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, V. R.; Haugstad, B. S.

    1978-01-01

    Four separable effects of atmospheric turbulence on average refraction angles in occultation experiments are derived from a simplified analysis, and related to more general formulations by B. S. Haugstad. The major contributors are shown to be due to gradients in height of the strength of the turbulence, and the sense of the resulting changes in refraction angles is explained in terms of Fermat's principle. Because the results of analyses of such gradient effects by W. B. Hubbard and J. R. Jokipii are expressed in other ways, a special effort is made to compare all of the predictions on a common basis. We conclude that there are fundamental differences, and use arguments based on energy conservation and Fermat's principle to help characterize the discrepancies.

  6. Spin interference controlled by electric field: Ensemble average effect on AAS and AB oscillation amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Junsaku; Bergsten, Tobias

    2008-03-01

    Time reversal symmetric Al’tshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) oscillations are measured in an array of InGaAs mesoscopic loops. We confirm that gate voltage dependence of h/2 e period oscillations is due to spin interference from the effect of ensemble average on the AAS and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) amplitudes. This spin interference is based on the time reversal Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect. The AC interference oscillations are controlled over several periods. This result shows evidence for electrical manipulation of the spin precession angle in an InGaAs two-dimensional electron gas channel. We control the precession rate in a precise and predictable way with an electrostatic gate.

  7. The role of size polydispersity in magnetic fluid hyperthermia: average vs. local infra/over-heating effects.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Menendez, Cristina; Conde-Leboran, Ivan; Baldomir, Daniel; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Serantes, David

    2015-11-07

    An efficient and safe hyperthermia cancer treatment requires the accurate control of the heating performance of magnetic nanoparticles, which is directly related to their size. However, in any particle system the existence of some size polydispersity is experimentally unavoidable, which results in a different local heating output and consequently a different hyperthermia performance depending on the size of each particle. With the aim to shed some light on this significant issue, we have used a Monte Carlo technique to study the role of size polydispersity in heat dissipation at both the local (single particle) and global (macroscopic average) levels. We have systematically varied size polydispersity, temperature and interparticle dipolar interaction conditions, and evaluated local heating as a function of these parameters. Our results provide a simple guide on how to choose, for a given polydispersity degree, the more adequate average particle size so that the local variation in the released heat is kept within some limits that correspond to safety boundaries for the average-system hyperthermia performance. All together we believe that our results may help in the design of more effective magnetic hyperthermia applications.

  8. Dynamic Treatment Effects

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; Humphries, John Eric; Veramendi, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops robust models for estimating and interpreting treatment effects arising from both ordered and unordered multistage decision problems. Identification is secured through instrumental variables and/or conditional independence (matching) assumptions. We decompose treatment effects into direct effects and continuation values associated with moving to the next stage of a decision problem. Using our framework, we decompose the IV estimator, showing that IV generally does not estimate economically interpretable or policy relevant parameters in prototypical dynamic discrete choice models, unless policy variables are instruments. Continuation values are an empirically important component of estimated total treatment effects of education. We use our analysis to estimate the components of what LATE estimates in a dynamic discrete choice model. PMID:27041793

  9. Dynamic Treatment Effects.

    PubMed

    Heckman, James J; Humphries, John Eric; Veramendi, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    This paper develops robust models for estimating and interpreting treatment effects arising from both ordered and unordered multistage decision problems. Identification is secured through instrumental variables and/or conditional independence (matching) assumptions. We decompose treatment effects into direct effects and continuation values associated with moving to the next stage of a decision problem. Using our framework, we decompose the IV estimator, showing that IV generally does not estimate economically interpretable or policy relevant parameters in prototypical dynamic discrete choice models, unless policy variables are instruments. Continuation values are an empirically important component of estimated total treatment effects of education. We use our analysis to estimate the components of what LATE estimates in a dynamic discrete choice model.

  10. Facial averageness and genetic quality: Testing heritability, genetic correlation with attractiveness, and the paternal age effect.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2016-01-01

    Popular theory suggests that facial averageness is preferred in a partner for genetic benefits to offspring. However, whether facial averageness is associated with genetic quality is yet to be established. Here, we computed an objective measure of facial averageness for a large sample (N = 1,823) of identical and nonidentical twins and their siblings to test two predictions from the theory that facial averageness reflects genetic quality. First, we use biometrical modelling to estimate the heritability of facial averageness, which is necessary if it reflects genetic quality. We also test for a genetic association between facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Second, we assess whether paternal age at conception (a proxy of mutation load) is associated with facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Our findings are mixed with respect to our hypotheses. While we found that facial averageness does have a genetic component, and a significant phenotypic correlation exists between facial averageness and attractiveness, we did not find a genetic correlation between facial averageness and attractiveness (therefore, we cannot say that the genes that affect facial averageness also affect facial attractiveness) and paternal age at conception was not negatively associated with facial averageness. These findings support some of the previously untested assumptions of the 'genetic benefits' account of facial averageness, but cast doubt on others.

  11. The effect of averaging cardiac Doppler spectrograms on the reduction of their amplitude variability.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, G; Allard, L; Guo, Z; Durand, L G

    1992-03-01

    The effect of averaging cardiac Doppler spectrograms on the reduction of their amplitude variability was investigated in 30 patients. Beat-to-beat variations in the amplitude of Doppler spectrograms were also analysed. The quantification of amplitude variability was based on the computation of the area under the absolute value of the derivative function of each spectrum composing mean spectrograms. Fast Fourier transform using a Hanning window was used to compute Doppler spectra. Results obtained over systolic and diastolic periods showed that the reduction of amplitude variability followed an exponentially decreasing curve characterised by the equation f (r) = 100 e-beta(r-1), where r is the number of cardiac cycles, beta the exponentially decreasing rate, and 100 the normalised variability for r = 1. In systole, the decreasing rate beta was 0.165, whereas in diastole it was 0.225. Reductions of the variability in systole for a number of cardiac cycles of 5, 10, 15, and 20 were 48, 77, 90 and 96 per cent, respectively. In diastole, reductions of the variability for the same numbers of cardiac cycles were 59, 87, 96 and 99 per cent, respectively. Based on these results, it can be concluded that no significant improvement in the reduction of amplitude variability may be obtained by averaging more than 20 cardiac cycles.

  12. The effect of temperature on the average volume of Barkhausen jump on Q235 carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Shu, Di; Yin, Liang; Chen, Juan; Qi, Xin

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the average volume of Barkhausen jump (AVBJ) vbar generated by irreversible displacement of magnetic domain wall under the effect of the incentive magnetic field on ferromagnetic materials, the functional relationship between saturation magnetization Ms and temperature T is employed in this paper to deduce the explicit mathematical expression among AVBJ vbar, stress σ, incentive magnetic field H and temperature T. Then the change law between AVBJ vbar and temperature T is researched according to the mathematical expression. Moreover, the tensile and compressive stress experiments are carried out on Q235 carbon steel specimens at different temperature to verify our theories. This paper offers a series of theoretical bases to solve the temperature compensation problem of Barkhausen testing method.

  13. Effect of filter on average glandular dose and image quality in digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songsaeng, C.; Krisanachinda, A.; Theerakul, K.

    2016-03-01

    To determine the average glandular dose and entrance surface air kerma in both phantoms and patients to assess image quality for different target-filters (W/Rh and W/Ag) in digital mammography system. The compressed breast thickness, compression force, average glandular dose, entrance surface air kerma, peak kilovoltage and tube current time were recorded and compared between W/Rh and W/Ag target filter. The CNR and the figure of merit were used to determine the effect of target filter on image quality. The mean AGD of the W/Rh target filter was 1.75 mGy, the mean ESAK was 6.67 mGy, the mean CBT was 54.1 mm, the mean CF was 14 1bs. The mean AGD of W/Ag target filter was 2.7 mGy, the mean ESAK was 12.6 mGy, the mean CBT was 75.5 mm, the mean CF was 15 1bs. In phantom study, the AGD was 1.2 mGy at 4 cm, 3.3 mGy at 6 cm and 3.83 mGy at 7 cm thickness. The FOM was 24.6, CNR was 9.02 at thickness 6 cm. The FOM was 18.4, CNR was 8.6 at thickness 7 cm. The AGD from Digital Mammogram system with W/Rh of thinner CBT was lower than the AGD from W/Ag target filter.

  14. Extracurricular Activities and Their Effect on the Student's Grade Point Average: Statistical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakoban, R. A.; Aljarallah, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracurricular activities (ECA) are part of students' everyday life; they play important roles in students' lives. Few studies have addressed the question of how student engagements to ECA affect student's grade point average (GPA). This research was conducted to know whether the students' grade point average in King Abdulaziz University,…

  15. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) on the mortality of individuals > 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure

  16. Effects of Averaging Mass on Predicted Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Values

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    lung, liver , muscle, cerebral spinal fluid, nerve spinal, heart) in relation to various frequencies and orientations. This parametric study...relatively low ratios between spatial peak SAR and whole body SAR average were found in heart, liver , lung outer and lung inner (between 3 and 7) (see...MASS ON PREDICTED SAR 38 Figure 19. Ratios between peak localized SAR and whole body SAR average for liver for various mass intervals (1g and 10 g

  17. Effects of error covariance structure on estimation of model averaging weights and predictive performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Meyer, Philip D.; Curtis, Gary P.; Shi, Xiaoqing; Niu, Xu-Feng; Yabusaki, Steve B.

    2013-01-01

    When conducting model averaging for assessing groundwater conceptual model uncertainty, the averaging weights are often evaluated using model selection criteria such as AIC, AICc, BIC, and KIC (Akaike Information Criterion, Corrected Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and Kashyap Information Criterion, respectively). However, this method often leads to an unrealistic situation in which the best model receives overwhelmingly large averaging weight (close to 100%), which cannot be justified by available data and knowledge. It was found in this study that this problem was caused by using the covariance matrix, CE, of measurement errors for estimating the negative log likelihood function common to all the model selection criteria. This problem can be resolved by using the covariance matrix, Cek, of total errors (including model errors and measurement errors) to account for the correlation between the total errors. An iterative two-stage method was developed in the context of maximum likelihood inverse modeling to iteratively infer the unknown Cek from the residuals during model calibration. The inferred Cek was then used in the evaluation of model selection criteria and model averaging weights. While this method was limited to serial data using time series techniques in this study, it can be extended to spatial data using geostatistical techniques. The method was first evaluated in a synthetic study and then applied to an experimental study, in which alternative surface complexation models were developed to simulate column experiments of uranium reactive transport. It was found that the total errors of the alternative models were temporally correlated due to the model errors. The iterative two-stage method using Cekresolved the problem that the best model receives 100% model averaging weight, and the resulting model averaging weights were supported by the calibration results and physical understanding of the alternative models. Using Cek

  18. Effect of ensemble averaging on amplitude and feature variabilities of Doppler spectrograms recorded in the lower limb arteries.

    PubMed

    Allard, L; Langlois, Y E; Durand, L G; Roederer, G O; Cloutier, G

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the effect of averaging Doppler blood flow signals in lower limb arteries on amplitude and feature variabilities. Doppler signals recorded in 41 iliac and 35 superficial femoral arteries having different categories of stenosis were averaged over 1-15 cardiac cycles. Based on the relative decreasing rate of an index of variability, results indicated that amplitude variability of the spectrograms was exponentially reduced to 30, 6 and 1 per cent when averaging five, ten and 15 cardiac cycles, respectively. Nine diagnostic features were extracted from Doppler spectrograms and their variations from one cardiac cycle to the next quantified. Based on the relative decreasing rate of these variations, results indicated that feature variability was exponentially reduced to 30, 4 and 1 per cent when averaging five, ten and 15 cardiac cycles, respectively. The effect of averaging on the discriminant power of the features to separate the different categories of stenosis was also investigated by performing t-test analyses. Results showed that averaging between five and ten cardiac cycles provided the better discriminant power for most cases, whereas averaging over more than ten cardiac cycles was of little benefit. Based on the spectral analysis technique used in the present study, we conclude that averaging over ten cardiac cycles is sufficient for the analysis of Doppler spectrograms recorded in the lower limbs.

  19. Estimating Heterogeneous Treatment Effects with Observational Data*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Brand, Jennie E.; Jann, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Individuals differ not only in their background characteristics, but also in how they respond to a particular treatment, intervention, or stimulation. In particular, treatment effects may vary systematically by the propensity for treatment. In this paper, we discuss a practical approach to studying heterogeneous treatment effects as a function of the treatment propensity, under the same assumption commonly underlying regression analysis: ignorability. We describe one parametric method and two non-parametric methods for estimating interactions between treatment and the propensity for treatment. For the first method, we begin by estimating propensity scores for the probability of treatment given a set of observed covariates for each unit and construct balanced propensity score strata; we then estimate propensity score stratum-specific average treatment effects and evaluate a trend across them. For the second method, we match control units to treated units based on the propensity score and transform the data into treatment-control comparisons at the most elementary level at which such comparisons can be constructed; we then estimate treatment effects as a function of the propensity score by fitting a non-parametric model as a smoothing device. For the third method, we first estimate non-parametric regressions of the outcome variable as a function of the propensity score separately for treated units and for control units and then take the difference between the two non-parametric regressions. We illustrate the application of these methods with an empirical example of the effects of college attendance on womens fertility. PMID:23482633

  20. Using National Data to Estimate Average Cost Effectiveness of EFNEP Outcomes by State/Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baral, Ranju; Davis, George C.; Blake, Stephanie; You, Wen; Serrano, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This report demonstrates how existing national data can be used to first calculate upper limits on the average cost per participant and per outcome per state/territory for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP). These upper limits can then be used by state EFNEP administrators to obtain more precise estimates for their states,…

  1. Effect of the initial excitation energy on the average fission lifetime of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gontchar, I. I. Ponomarenko, N. A. Litnevsky, A. L.

    2008-07-15

    The dependence of the fission time on the initial nuclear excitation energy E{sub tot0}* is studied on the basis of a refined combined dynamical and statistical model. It is shown that this dependence may be nonmonotonic, in which case it features a broad maximum. It turns out that the form of the average fission time as a function of E{sub tot0}* depends greatly on the orbital angular momentum L{sub n} carried away by prescission neutrons.

  2. Biases in Social Comparative Judgments: The Role of Nonmotivated Factors in Above-Average and Comparative-Optimism Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, John R.; Windschitl, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    Biases in social comparative judgments, such as those illustrated by above-average and comparative-optimism effects, are often regarded as products of motivated reasoning (e.g., self-enhancement). These effects, however, can also be produced by information-processing limitations or aspects of judgment processes that are not necessarily biased by…

  3. Distributions and averages of electron density parameters: Explaining the effects of gradient corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zupan, Ales; Burke, Kieron; Ernzerhof, Matthias; Perdew, John P.

    1997-06-01

    We analyze the electron densities n(r) of atoms, molecules, solids, and surfaces. The distributions of values of the Seitz radius rs=(3/4πn)1/3 and the reduced density gradient s=|∇n|/(2(3π2)1/3n4/3) in an electron density indicate which ranges of these variables are significant for physical processes. We also define energy-weighted averages of these variables, and , from which local spin density (LSD) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation energies may be estimated. The changes in these averages upon rearrangement of the nuclei (atomization of molecules or solids, stretching of bond lengths or lattice parameters, change of crystal structure, etc.) are used to explain why GGA corrects LSD in the way it does. A thermodynamic-like inequality (essentially d/>d/2) determines whether the gradient corrections drive a process forward. We use this analysis to explain why gradient corrections usually stretch bonds (but not for example H-H bonds), reduce atomization and surface energies, and raise energy barriers to formation at transition states.

  4. The latitude dependence of the variance of zonally averaged quantities. [in polar meteorology with attention to geometrical effects of earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Bell, T. L.; Cahalan, R. F.; Moeng, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Geometric characteristics of the spherical earth are shown to be responsible for the increase of variance with latitude of zonally averaged meteorological statistics. An analytic model is constructed to display the effect of a spherical geometry on zonal averages, employing a sphere labeled with radial unit vectors in a real, stochastic field expanded in complex spherical harmonics. The variance of a zonally averaged field is found to be expressible in terms of the spectrum of the vector field of the spherical harmonics. A maximum variance is then located at the poles, and the ratio of the variance to the zonally averaged grid-point variance, weighted by the cosine of the latitude, yields the zonal correlation typical of the latitude. An example is provided for the 500 mb level in the Northern Hemisphere compared to 15 years of data. Variance is determined to increase north of 60 deg latitude.

  5. Average Causal Effects from Nonrandomized Studies: A Practical Guide and Simulated Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Joseph L.; Kang, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In a well-designed experiment, random assignment of participants to treatments makes causal inference straightforward. However, if participants are not randomized (as in observational study, quasi-experiment, or nonequivalent control-group designs), group comparisons may be biased by confounders that influence both the outcome and the alleged…

  6. Average-atom treatment of relaxation time in x-ray Thomson scattering from warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. R.; Nilsen, J.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of finite relaxation times on Thomson scattering from warm dense plasmas is examined within the framework of the average-atom approximation. Presently most calculations use the collision-free Lindhard dielectric function to evaluate the free-electron contribution to the Thomson cross section. In this work, we use the Mermin dielectric function, which includes relaxation time explicitly. The relaxation time is evaluated by treating the average atom as an impurity in a uniform electron gas and depends critically on the transport cross section. The calculated relaxation rates agree well with values inferred from the Ziman formula for the static conductivity and also with rates inferred from a fit to the frequency-dependent conductivity. Transport cross sections determined by the phase-shift analysis in the average-atom potential are compared with those evaluated in the commonly used Born approximation. The Born approximation converges to the exact cross sections at high energies; however, differences that occur at low energies lead to corresponding differences in relaxation rates. The relative importance of including relaxation time when modeling x-ray Thomson scattering spectra is examined by comparing calculations of the free-electron dynamic structure function for Thomson scattering using Lindhard and Mermin dielectric functions. Applications are given to warm dense Be plasmas, with temperatures ranging from 2 to 32 eV and densities ranging from 2 to 64 g/cc.

  7. On the averaging of cardiac diffusion tensor MRI data: the effect of distance function selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakidis, Archontis; Melkus, Gerd; Yang, Guang; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) allows a unique insight into the microstructure of highly-directional tissues. The selection of the most proper distance function for the space of diffusion tensors is crucial in enhancing the clinical application of this imaging modality. Both linear and nonlinear metrics have been proposed in the literature over the years. The debate on the most appropriate DT-MRI distance function is still ongoing. In this paper, we presented a framework to compare the Euclidean, affine-invariant Riemannian and log-Euclidean metrics using actual high-resolution DT-MRI rat heart data. We employed temporal averaging at the diffusion tensor level of three consecutive and identically-acquired DT-MRI datasets from each of five rat hearts as a means to rectify the background noise-induced loss of myocyte directional regularity. This procedure is applied here for the first time in the context of tensor distance function selection. When compared with previous studies that used a different concrete application to juxtapose the various DT-MRI distance functions, this work is unique in that it combined the following: (i) metrics were judged by quantitative—rather than qualitative—criteria, (ii) the comparison tools were non-biased, (iii) a longitudinal comparison operation was used on a same-voxel basis. The statistical analyses of the comparison showed that the three DT-MRI distance functions tend to provide equivalent results. Hence, we came to the conclusion that the tensor manifold for cardiac DT-MRI studies is a curved space of almost zero curvature. The signal to noise ratio dependence of the operations was investigated through simulations. Finally, the ‘swelling effect’ occurrence following Euclidean averaging was found to be too unimportant to be worth consideration.

  8. Underestimating Calorie Content When Healthy Foods Are Present: An Averaging Effect or a Reference-Dependent Anchoring Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Ahern, Amy; Hollands, Gareth J.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown that estimations of the calorie content of an unhealthy main meal food tend to be lower when the food is shown alongside a healthy item (e.g. fruit or vegetables) than when shown alone. This effect has been called the negative calorie illusion and has been attributed to averaging the unhealthy (vice) and healthy (virtue) foods leading to increased perceived healthiness and reduced calorie estimates. The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings to test the hypothesized mediating effect of ratings of healthiness of foods on calorie estimates. Methods In three online studies, participants were invited to make calorie estimates of combinations of foods. Healthiness ratings of the food were also assessed. Results The first two studies failed to replicate the negative calorie illusion. In a final study, the use of a reference food, closely following a procedure from a previously published study, did elicit a negative calorie illusion. No evidence was found for a mediating role of healthiness estimates. Conclusion The negative calorie illusion appears to be a function of the contrast between a food being judged and a reference, supporting the hypothesis that the negative calorie illusion arises from the use of a reference-dependent anchoring and adjustment heuristic and not from an ‘averaging’ effect, as initially proposed. This finding is consistent with existing data on sequential calorie estimates, and highlights a significant impact of the order in which foods are viewed on how foods are evaluated. PMID:23967216

  9. The Averaged Face Growth Rates of lysozyme Crystals: The Effect of Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadarajah, Arunan; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the averaged or macroscopic face growth rates of lysozyme crystals are reported here for the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme, at three sets of pH and salt concentrations, with temperatures over a 4-22 C range for several protein concentrations. The growth rate trends with supersaturation were similar to previous microscopic growth rate measurements. However, it was found that at high super-saturations the growth rates attain a maximum and then start decreasing. No 'dead zone' was observed but the growth rates were found to approach zero asymptotically at very low super-saturations. The growth rate data also displayed a dependence on pH and salt concentration which could not be characterized solely by the super-saturation. A complete mechanism for lysozyme crystal growth, involving the formation of an aggregate growth unit, mass transport of the growth unit to the crystal interface and faceted crystal growth by growth unit addition, is suggested. Such a mechanism may provide a more consistent explanation for the observed growth rate trends than those suggested by other investigators. The nutrient solution interactions leading to the formation of the aggregate growth unit may, thus, be as important as those occurring at the crystal interface and may account for the differences between small molecule and protein crystal growth.

  10. Loop expansion of the average effective action in the functional renormalization group approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrov, Peter M.; Merzlikin, Boris S.

    2015-10-01

    We formulate a perturbation expansion for the effective action in a new approach to the functional renormalization group method based on the concept of composite fields for regulator functions being their most essential ingredients. We demonstrate explicitly the principal difference between the properties of effective actions in these two approaches existing already on the one-loop level in a simple gauge model.

  11. The effect of averaging adjacent planes for artifact reduction in matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Devon J.; Page McAdams, H.; Dobbins, James T. III

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses linear systems theory and knowledge of the imaging geometry to remove tomographic blur that is present in conventional backprojection tomosynthesis reconstructions, leaving in-plane detail rendered clearly. The use of partial-pixel interpolation during the backprojection process introduces imprecision in the MITS modeling of tomographic blur, and creates low-contrast artifacts in some MITS planes. This paper examines the use of MITS slabs, created by averaging several adjacent MITS planes, as a method for suppressing partial-pixel artifacts. Methods: Human chest tomosynthesis projection data, acquired as part of an IRB-approved pilot study, were used to generate MITS planes, three-plane MITS slabs (MITSa3), five-plane MITS slabs (MITSa5), and seven-plane MITS slabs (MITSa7). These were qualitatively examined for partial-pixel artifacts and the visibility of normal and abnormal anatomy. Additionally, small (5 mm) subtle pulmonary nodules were simulated and digitally superimposed upon human chest tomosynthesis projection images, and their visibility was qualitatively assessed in the different reconstruction techniques. Simulated images of a thin wire were used to generate modulation transfer function (MTF) and slice-sensitivity profile curves for the different MITS and MITS slab techniques, and these were examined for indications of partial-pixel artifacts and frequency response uniformity. Finally, mean-subtracted, exposure-normalized noise power spectra (ENNPS) estimates were computed and compared for MITS and MITS slab reconstructions, generated from 10 sets of tomosynthesis projection data of an acrylic slab. The simulated in-plane MTF response of each technique was also combined with the square root of the ENNPS estimate to yield stochastic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) information about the different reconstruction techniques. Results: For scan angles of 20 Degree-Sign and 5 mm plane separation, seven MITS

  12. Doppler broadening effect on collision cross section functions - Deconvolution of the thermal averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The surprising feature of the Doppler problem in threshold determination is the 'amplification effect' of the target's thermal energy spread. The small thermal energy spread of the target molecules results in a large dispersion in relative kinetic energy. The Doppler broadening effect in connection with thermal energy beam experiments is discussed, and a procedure is recommended for the deconvolution of molecular scattering cross-section functions whose dominant dependence upon relative velocity is approximately that of the standard low-energy form.

  13. The Effect of Computer Based Instructional Technique for the Learning of Elementary Level Mathematics among High, Average and Low Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Muhammad Tanveer; Gondal, Bashir; Fatima, Nuzhat

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of the study was to elicit the effect of three instructional methods for teaching of mathematics on low, average and high achiever elementary school students. Three methods: traditional instructional method, computer assisted instruction (CAI) and teacher facilitated mathematics learning software were employed for the teaching…

  14. The Effects of Part-Time Employment on High School Students' Grade Point Averages and Rate of School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffez, Jack

    To determine what effects employment will have on high school students' grade point averages and rate of school attendance, the author involved fifty-six students in an experiment. Twenty-eight students were employed part-time under the Youth Incentive Entitlement Project (YIEP). The twenty-eight students in the control group were eligible for…

  15. Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic temperature and average daily gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average Daily Gain (ADG) and Tympanic Temperature (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...

  16. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members: the group attractiveness effect.

    PubMed

    van Osch, Yvette; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H J; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-04-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of physical attractiveness are more positive than the average ratings of the group members. A meta-analysis on 33 comparisons reveals that the effect is medium to large (Cohen's d = 0.60) and moderated by group size. We explored two explanations for the GA-effect: (a) selective attention to attractive group members, and (b) the Gestalt principle of similarity. The results of our studies are in favor of the selective attention account: People selectively attend to the most attractive members of a group and their attractiveness has a greater influence on the evaluation of the group.

  17. Treatment and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... or relieve symptoms. These methods can include vitamins, herbs, and special diets, or other methods such as acupuncture or massage, to name a few. Complementary methods refer to treatments that are used along with your regular medical ...

  18. Effects of Social Interactions on Empirical Responses to Selection for Average Daily Gain of Boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of competition on responses to selection for ADG were examined with records of 9,720 boars from dam lines (1 and 2) and sire lines (3 and 4) provided by Pig Improvement Company. Each line was analyzed separately. Pens contained 15 boars. Gains (ADG) were measured from about 71 to 161 d of...

  19. Strategy Precedes Operational Effectiveness: Aligning High Graduation Rankings with Competitive Graduation Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apprey, Maurice; Bassett, Kimberley C.; Preston-Grimes, Patrice; Lewis, Dion W.; Wood, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Two pivotal and interconnected claims are addressed in this article. First, strategy precedes program effectiveness. Second, graduation rates and rankings are insufficient in any account of academic progress for African American students. In this article, graduation is regarded as the floor and not the ceiling, as it were. The ideal situation in…

  20. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Influence of a Combined Inpatient/Outpatient Methadone Treatment Regimen on the Average Length of Stay of a Medicaid NICU Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jerry; Hulman, Sonia; Musci, Michael; Stang, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Prescription opioid and heroin abuse have been increasing steadily year after year, and continue to be a serious national problem. A sequela of the increase in opioid abuse has been an increase in the number of infants born with opioid dependence. These infants often require costly, prolonged stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for drug withdrawal treatment. The authors studied a population of infants from a large Medicaid health plan who were born with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) secondary to in utero opioid exposure to assess the average length of stay in the NICU, and to determine the variables that may account for differences in interinstitutional lengths of stay. The overall average length of stay for NAS was 21.1 days for the 139 infants included in the study. Analysis of the medication used for treatment revealed that infants who were treated with a combined inpatient/outpatient regimen with methadone had an average length of stay of 11.4 days versus 25.1 days for infants who were treated entirely as inpatients (P<0.001), a 55% reduction in average length of stay. In 2009 there were an estimated 13,600 cases of NAS in the United States at a cost of $53,000 per case. A 55% reduction in length of stay corresponds to $396 million in annual savings for the treatment of NAS. Development of successful combined inpatient/outpatient management programs for NAS warrants further consideration.

  1. Covariant and background independent functional RG flow for the effective average action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Mahmoud; Vacca, Gian Paolo

    2016-11-01

    We extend our prescription for the construction of a covariant and background-independent effective action for scalar quantum field theories to the case where momentum modes below a certain scale are suppressed by the presence of an infrared regulator. The key step is an appropriate choice of the infrared cutoff for which the Ward identity, capturing the information from single-field dependence of the ultraviolet action, continues to be exactly solvable, and therefore, in addition to covariance, manifest background independence of the effective action is guaranteed at any scale. A practical consequence is that in this framework one can adopt truncations dependent on the single total field. Furthermore we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the preservation of symmetries along the renormalization group flow.

  2. Effects of Coordinate Rotation and Averaging Period on Energy Closure Characteristics of Eddy Covariance Measurements over Mountainous Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Chen, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Coordinate rotation is typically applied to align measured turbulence data along the stream wise direction before calculating turbulent fluxes. A standard averaging period (30 min) is commonly used when estimating these fluxes. Different rotation approaches with various averaging periods can cause systemic bias and significant variations in flux estimations. Thus, measuring surface fluxes over a non-flat terrain requires that an appropriate rotation technique and optimal averaging period are applied. In this study, two coordinate rotation approaches (double and planar-fit rotations) and no-rotation, in associated with averaging periods of 15-240 min, were applied to compute heat and water vapor fluxes over a mountainous terrain using the eddy covariance method. Measurements were conducted in an experimental watershed, the Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC) watershed, located in the central Taiwan. This watershed has considerable meso-scale circulation and mountainous terrain. Vegetation type is a mixture of natural deciduous forest and shrubs; canopy height is about 17 m. A 22 m tall observation tower was built inside the canopy. The prevailing wind direction is NW during daytime and ES during the night time at the LHC site in both the dry and wet seasons. Turbulence data above the canopy were measured with an eddy covariance system comprising a 3-D sonic anemometer (Young 81000) and a krypton hygrometer (Campbell KH20). Raw data of 10 Hz were recorded simultaneously with a data logger (CR1000) and a CF card. Air temperature/humidity profiles were measured to calculate the heat/moisture storage inside the canopy layer. Air pressure data were used to correct the effect of air density fluctuations on surface fluxes. The effects of coordinate rotation approaches with various averaging periods on the average daily energy closure fraction are presented. The criteria of the best energy closure fraction and minimum uncertainty indicate that planar-fit rotation with an averaging period

  3. Effective Obesity Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E., III; Calvin, James E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk-benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimed…

  4. Late potentials in the signal-averaged electrocardiogram in pre-pubertal children with ADHD, before and after methylphenidate treatment.

    PubMed

    Nahshoni, Eitan; Golubchik, Pavel; Glazer, Jonathan; Sever, Jonathan; Strasberg, Boris; Imbar, Shula; Shoval, Gal; Weizman, Abraham; Zalsman, Gil

    2012-02-01

    Reports on sudden cardiac death (SCD) of children and adolescents treated with stimulant agents have raised concerns regarding the need for cardiovascular monitoring and risk stratification schedules. Cardiac ventricular late potentials (LPs) represent delayed ventricular activation that might predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias and SCD in cardiac patients. LPs have not previously been measured in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). LPs were measured in 18 physically healthy ADHD children (5 girls and 13 boys, age 11.9 ± 2.5 years, treatment duration 2.6 ± 1.9 years) before and 2 h after oral methylphenidate administration. No significant changes were detected and LPs were found to be within normal ranges. In conclusion, this preliminary small-scale study suggests that methylphenidate in physically healthy children with ADHD was not associated with cardiac ventricular LPs, suggesting the safety of the agent in this age group.

  5. Antitumor effects of electrochemical treatment

    PubMed Central

    González, Maraelys Morales; Zamora, Lisset Ortíz; Cabrales, Luis Enrique Bergues; Sierra González, Gustavo Victoriano; de Oliveira, Luciana Oliveira; Zanella, Rodrigo; Buzaid, Antonio Carlos; Parise, Orlando; Brito, Luciana Macedo; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; Gomes, Marina das Neves; Moreno, Gleyce; Feo da Veiga, Venicio; Telló, Marcos; Holandino, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical treatment is an alternative modality for tumor treatment based on the application of a low intensity direct electric current to the tumor tissue through two or more platinum electrodes placed within the tumor zone or in the surrounding areas. This treatment is noted for its great effectiveness, minimal invasiveness and local effect. Several studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate the antitumoral effect of this therapy. In all these studies a variety of biochemical and physiological responses of tumors to the applied treatment have been obtained. By this reason, researchers have suggested various mechanisms to explain how direct electric current destroys tumor cells. Although, it is generally accepted this treatment induces electrolysis, electroosmosis and electroporation in tumoral tissues. However, action mechanism of this alternative modality on the tumor tissue is not well understood. Although the principle of Electrochemical treatment is simple, a standardized method is not yet available. The mechanism by which Electrochemical treatment affects tumor growth and survival may represent more complex process. The present work analyzes the latest and most important research done on the electrochemical treatment of tumors. We conclude with our point of view about the destruction mechanism features of this alternative therapy. Also, we suggest some mechanisms and strategies from the thermodynamic point of view for this therapy. In the area of Electrochemical treatment of cancer this tool has been exploited very little and much work remains to be done. Electrochemical treatment constitutes a good therapeutic option for patients that have failed the conventional oncology methods. PMID:23592904

  6. The Effect of Cumulus Cloud Field Anisotropy on Domain-Averaged Solar Fluxes and Atmospheric Heating Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkelman, Laura M.; Evans, K. Franklin; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2007-10-01

    Cumulus clouds can become tilted or elongated in the presence of wind shear. Nevertheless, most studies of the interaction of cumulus clouds and radiation have assumed these clouds to be isotropic. This paper describes an investigation of the effect of fair-weather cumulus cloud field anisotropy on domain-averaged solar fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles. A stochastic field generation algorithm was used to produce 20 three-dimensional liquid water content fields based on the statistical properties of cloud scenes from a large eddy simulation. Progressively greater degrees of x–z plane tilting and horizontal stretching were imposed on each of these scenes, so that an ensemble of scenes was produced for each level of distortion. The resulting scenes were used as input to a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. Domain-averaged transmission, reflection, and absorption of broadband solar radiation were computed for each scene along with the average heating rate profile. Both tilt and horizontal stretching were found to significantly affect calculated fluxes, with the amount and sign of flux differences depending strongly on sun position relative to cloud distortion geometry. The mechanisms by which anisotropy interacts with solar fluxes were investigated by comparisons to independent pixel approximation and tilted independent pixel approximation computations for the same scenes. Finally, cumulus anisotropy was found to most strongly impact solar radiative transfer by changing the effective cloud fraction (i.e., the cloud fraction with respect to the solar beam direction).

  7. The difference between laboratory and in-situ pixel-averaged emissivity: The effects on temperature-emissivity separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a Japanese future imaging sensor which has five channels in thermal infrared (TIR) region. To extract spectral emissivity information from ASTER and/or TIMS data, various temperature-emissivity (T-E) separation methods have been developed to date. Most of them require assumptions on surface emissivity, in which emissivity measured in a laboratory is often used instead of in-situ pixel-averaged emissivity. But if these two emissivities are different, accuracies of separated emissivity and surface temperature are reduced. In this study, the difference between laboratory and in-situ pixel-averaged emissivity and its effect on T-E separation are discussed. TIMS data of an area containing both rocks and vegetation were also processed to retrieve emissivity spectra using two T-E separation methods.

  8. Plantar Fasciitis: Prescribing Effective Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Michael; Fields, Karl B.

    2002-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is an extremely common, painful injury seen among people in running and jumping sports. While prognosis for recovery with conservative care is excellent, prolonged duration of symptoms affects sports participation. Studies on treatment options show mixed results, so finding effective treatments can be challenging. A logical…

  9. A statistical study of gyro-averaging effects in a reduced model of drift-wave transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, Julio; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B.; Sokolov, Igor M.; Caldas, Ibere L.

    2016-08-25

    Here, a statistical study of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on transport driven by electrostatic driftwaves is presented. The study is based on a reduced discrete Hamiltonian dynamical system known as the gyro-averaged standard map (GSM). In this system, FLR effects are incorporated through the gyro-averaging of a simplified weak-turbulence model of electrostatic fluctuations. Formally, the GSM is a modified version of the standard map in which the perturbation amplitude, K0, becomes K0J0($\\hat{p}$), where J0 is the zeroth-order Bessel function and $\\hat{p}$ s the Larmor radius. Assuming a Maxwellian probability density function (pdf) for $\\hat{p}$ , we compute analytically and numerically the pdf and the cumulative distribution function of the effective drift-wave perturba- tion amplitude K0J0($\\hat{p}$). Using these results, we compute the probability of loss of confinement (i.e., global chaos), Pc provides an upper bound for the escape rate, and that Pt rovides a good estimate of the particle trapping rate. Lastly. the analytical results are compared with direct numerical Monte-Carlo simulations of particle transport.

  10. A statistical study of gyro-averaging effects in a reduced model of drift-wave transport

    DOE PAGES

    Fonseca, Julio; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B.; Sokolov, Igor M.; ...

    2016-08-25

    Here, a statistical study of finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on transport driven by electrostatic driftwaves is presented. The study is based on a reduced discrete Hamiltonian dynamical system known as the gyro-averaged standard map (GSM). In this system, FLR effects are incorporated through the gyro-averaging of a simplified weak-turbulence model of electrostatic fluctuations. Formally, the GSM is a modified version of the standard map in which the perturbation amplitude, K0, becomes K0J0(more » $$\\hat{p}$$), where J0 is the zeroth-order Bessel function and $$\\hat{p}$$ s the Larmor radius. Assuming a Maxwellian probability density function (pdf) for $$\\hat{p}$$ , we compute analytically and numerically the pdf and the cumulative distribution function of the effective drift-wave perturba- tion amplitude K0J0($$\\hat{p}$$). Using these results, we compute the probability of loss of confinement (i.e., global chaos), Pc provides an upper bound for the escape rate, and that Pt rovides a good estimate of the particle trapping rate. Lastly. the analytical results are compared with direct numerical Monte-Carlo simulations of particle transport.« less

  11. Assessment of annual average effective dose status in the cohort of medical staff in Lithuania during 1991-2013.

    PubMed

    Samerdokiene, Vitalija; Mastauskas, Albinas; Atkocius, Vydmantas

    2015-12-01

    The use of radiation sources for various medical purposes is closely related to irradiation of the medical staff, which causes harmful effects to health and an increased risk of cancer. In total, 1463 medical staff who have been occupationally exposed to sources of ionising radiation (IR) had been monitored. Records with annual dose measurements (N = 19 157) were collected and regularly analysed for a 23-y period: from 01 January 1991 to 31 December 2013. The collected annual average effective dose (AAED) data have been analysed according to different socio-demographic parameters and will be used in future investigation in order to assess cancer risk among medical staff occupationally exposed to sources of IR. A thorough analysis of data extracted from medical staff's dose records allows one to conclude that the average annual effective dose of Lithuanian medical staff occupationally exposed to sources of IR was consistently decreased from 1991 (1.75 mSv) to 2013 (0.27 mSv) (p < 0.0001).

  12. The averaging effect of odorant mixing as determined by air dilution sensory tests: a case study on reduced sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    To learn more about the effects of mixing different odorants, a series of air dilution sensory (ADS) tests were conducted using four reduced sulfur compounds [RSC: hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methanethiol (CH(3)SH), dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS)] at varying concentration levels. The tests were initially conducted by analyzing samples containing single individual RSCs at a wide range of concentrations. The resulting data were then evaluated to define the empirical relationship for each RSC between the dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio and odor intensity (OI) scaling. Based on the relationships defined for each individual RSC, the D/T ratios were estimated for a synthetic mixture of four RSCs. The effect of mixing was then examined by assessing the relative contribution of each RSC to those estimates with the aid of the actually measured D/T values. This stepwise test confirmed that the odor intensity of the synthetic mixture is not governed by the common theoretical basis (e.g., rule of additivity, synergism, or a stronger component model) but is best represented by the averaged contribution of all RSC components. The overall results of this study thus suggest that the mixing phenomenon between odorants with similar chemical properties (like RSC family) can be characterized by the averaging effect of all participants.

  13. The Effect of Cumulus Cloud Field Anisotropy on Domain-Averaged Solar Fluxes and Atmospheric Heating Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkelman, Laura M.; Evans, K. Franklin; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Cumulus clouds can become tilted or elongated in the presence of wind shear. Nevertheless, most studies of the interaction of cumulus clouds and radiation have assumed these clouds to be isotropic. This paper describes an investigation of the effect of fair-weather cumulus cloud field anisotropy on domain-averaged solar fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles. A stochastic field generation algorithm was used to produce twenty three-dimensional liquid water content fields based on the statistical properties of cloud scenes from a large eddy simulation. Progressively greater degrees of x-z plane tilting and horizontal stretching were imposed on each of these scenes, so that an ensemble of scenes was produced for each level of distortion. The resulting scenes were used as input to a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. Domain-average transmission, reflection, and absorption of broadband solar radiation were computed for each scene along with the average heating rate profile. Both tilt and horizontal stretching were found to significantly affect calculated fluxes, with the amount and sign of flux differences depending strongly on sun position relative to cloud distortion geometry. The mechanisms by which anisotropy interacts with solar fluxes were investigated by comparisons to independent pixel approximation and tilted independent pixel approximation computations for the same scenes. Cumulus anisotropy was found to most strongly impact solar radiative transfer by changing the effective cloud fraction, i.e., the cloud fraction when the field is projected on a surface perpendicular to the direction of the incident solar beam.

  14. Climate Change Effects on Annual Average Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeman, M.; Mahmud, A.

    2008-12-01

    California has one of the worst particulate air pollution problems in the nation with some estimates predicting more than 5000 premature deaths each year attributed to air pollution. Climate change will modify weather patterns in California with unknown consequences for PM2.5. Previous down-scaling exercises carried out for the entire United States have typically not resolved the details associated with California's mountain-valley topography and mixture of urban-rural emissions characteristics. Detailed studies carried out for California have identified strong effects acting in opposite directions on PM2.5 concentrations making the net prediction for climate effects on PM2.5 somewhat uncertain. More research is needed to reduce this uncertainty so that we can truly understand climate impacts on PM2.5 and public health. The objective of this research is to predict climate change effects on annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) in California with sufficient resolution to capture the details of California's air basins. Business-as-usual scenarios generated by the Parallel Climate Model (PCM) will be down-scaled to 4km meteorology using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model. The CIT/UCD source-oriented photochemical air quality model will be employed to predict PM2.5 concentrations throughout the entire state of California. The modeled annual average total and speciated PM2.5 concentrations for the future (2047-2049) and the present-day (2004-2006) periods will be compared to determine climate change effects. The results from this study will improve our understanding of global climate change effects on PM2.5 concentrations in California.

  15. Identification of Average Treatment Effects in Social Experiments under Alternative Forms of Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Martin

    2012-01-01

    As any empirical method used for causal analysis, social experiments are prone to attrition which may flaw the validity of the results. This article considers the problem of partially missing outcomes in experiments. First, it systematically reveals under which forms of attrition--in terms of its relation to observable and/or unobservable…

  16. Biases in social comparative judgments: the role of nonmotivated factors in above-average and comparative-optimism effects.

    PubMed

    Chambers, John R; Windschitl, Paul D

    2004-09-01

    Biases in social comparative judgments, such as those illustrated by above-average and comparative-optimism effects, are often regarded as products of motivated reasoning (e.g., self-enhancement). These effects, however, can also be produced by information-processing limitations or aspects of judgment processes that are not necessarily biased by motivational factors. In this article, the authors briefly review motivational accounts of biased comparative judgments, introduce a 3-stage model for understanding how people make comparative judgments, and then describe how various nonmotivational factors can influence the 3 stages of the comparative judgment process. Finally, the authors discuss several unresolved issues highlighted by their analysis, such as the interrelation between motivated and nonmotivated sources of bias and the influence of nonmotivated sources of bias on behavior.

  17. Finite-size effect and the components of multifractality in transport economics volatility based on multifractal detrending moving average method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feier; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Miao, Yuqi; Lu, Chunxia

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of freight rate volatility characteristics attracts more attention after year 2008 due to the effect of credit crunch and slowdown in marine transportation. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis technique is employed to analyze the time series of Baltic Dry Bulk Freight Rate Index and the market trend of two bulk ship sizes, namely Capesize and Panamax for the period: March 1st 1999-February 26th 2015. In this paper, the degree of the multifractality with different fluctuation sizes is calculated. Besides, multifractal detrending moving average (MF-DMA) counting technique has been developed to quantify the components of multifractal spectrum with the finite-size effect taken into consideration. Numerical results show that both Capesize and Panamax freight rate index time series are of multifractal nature. The origin of multifractality for the bulk freight rate market series is found mostly due to nonlinear correlation.

  18. SU-D-213-04: Accounting for Volume Averaging and Material Composition Effects in An Ionization Chamber Array for Patient Specific QA

    SciTech Connect

    Fugal, M; McDonald, D; Jacqmin, D; Koch, N; Ellis, A; Peng, J; Ashenafi, M; Vanek, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study explores novel methods to address two significant challenges affecting measurement of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) with IBA’s Matrixx Evolution™ ionization chamber array. First, dose calculation algorithms often struggle to accurately determine dose to the chamber array due to CT artifact and algorithm limitations. Second, finite chamber size and volume averaging effects cause additional deviation from the calculated dose. Methods: QA measurements were taken with the Matrixx positioned on the treatment table in a solid-water Multi-Cube™ phantom. To reduce the effect of CT artifact, the Matrixx CT image set was masked with appropriate materials and densities. Individual ionization chambers were masked as air, while the high-z electronic backplane and remaining solid-water material were masked as aluminum and water, respectively. Dose calculation was done using Varian’s Acuros XB™ (V11) algorithm, which is capable of predicting dose more accurately in non-biologic materials due to its consideration of each material’s atomic properties. Finally, the exported TPS dose was processed using an in-house algorithm (MATLAB) to assign the volume averaged TPS dose to each element of a corresponding 2-D matrix. This matrix was used for comparison with the measured dose. Square fields at regularly-spaced gantry angles, as well as selected patient plans were analyzed. Results: Analyzed plans showed improved agreement, with the average gamma passing rate increasing from 94 to 98%. Correction factors necessary for chamber angular dependence were reduced by 67% compared to factors measured previously, indicating that previously measured factors corrected for dose calculation errors in addition to true chamber angular dependence. Conclusion: By comparing volume averaged dose, calculated with a capable dose engine, on a phantom masked with correct materials and densities, QA results obtained with the Matrixx Evolution™ can be significantly

  19. Intra-event isotope and raindrop size data of tropical rain reveal effects concealed by event averaged data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Managave, S. R.; Jani, R. A.; Narayana Rao, T.; Sunilkumar, K.; Satheeshkumar, S.; Ramesh, R.

    2016-08-01

    Evaporation of rain is known to contribute water vapor, a potent greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions (δ18O and, δD, respectively) of precipitation, usually measured/presented as values integrated over rain events or monthly mean values, are important tools for detecting evaporation effects. The slope ~8 of the linear relationship between such time-averaged values of δD and δ18O (called the meteoric water line) is widely accepted as a proof of condensation under isotopic equilibrium and absence of evaporation of rain during atmospheric fall. Here, through a simultaneous investigation of the isotopic and drop size distributions of seventeen rain events sampled on an intra-event scale at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), southern India, we demonstrate that the evaporation effects, not evident in the time-averaged data, are significantly manifested in the sub-samples of individual rain events. We detect this through (1) slopes significantly less than 8 for the δD-δ18O relation on intra-event scale and (2) significant positive correlations between deuterium excess ( d-excess = δD - 8*δ18O; lower values in rain indicate evaporation) and the mass-weighted mean diameter of the raindrops ( D m ). An estimated ~44 % of rain is influenced by evaporation. This study also reveals a signature of isotopic equilibration of rain with the cloud base vapor, the processes important for modeling isotopic composition of precipitation. d-excess values of rain are modified by the post-condensation processes and the present approach offers a way to identify the d-excess values least affected by such processes. Isotope-enabled global circulation models could be improved by incorporating intra-event isotopic data and raindrop size dependent isotopic effects.

  20. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  1. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2014-01-01

    This article considers Bayesian model averaging as a means of addressing uncertainty in the selection of variables in the propensity score equation. We investigate an approximate Bayesian model averaging approach based on the model-averaged propensity score estimates produced by the R package BMA but that ignores uncertainty in the propensity score. We also provide a fully Bayesian model averaging approach via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (MCMC) to account for uncertainty in both parameters and models. A detailed study of our approach examines the differences in the causal estimate when incorporating noninformative versus informative priors in the model averaging stage. We examine these approaches under common methods of propensity score implementation. In addition, we evaluate the impact of changing the size of Occam's window used to narrow down the range of possible models. We also assess the predictive performance of both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches and compare it with the case without Bayesian model averaging. Overall, results show that both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches recover the treatment effect estimates well and generally provide larger uncertainty estimates, as expected. Both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer slightly better prediction of the propensity score compared with the Bayesian approach with a single propensity score equation. Covariate balance checks for the case study show that both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer good balance. The fully Bayesian model averaging approach also provides posterior probability intervals of the balance indices.

  2. Effects of volume averaging on the line spectra of vertical velocity from multiple-Doppler radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Chen, T.; Wyngaard, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations of the ratio of the true one-dimensional spectrum of vertical velocity and that measured with multiple-Doppler radar beams are presented. It was assumed that the effects of pulse volume averaging and objective analysis routines is replacement of a point measurement with a volume integral. A u and v estimate was assumed to be feasible when orthogonal radars are not available. Also, the target fluid was configured as having an infinite vertical dimension, zero vertical velocity at the top and bottom, and having homogeneous and isotropic turbulence with a Kolmogorov energy spectrum. The ratio obtained indicated that equal resolutions among radars yields a monotonically decreasing, wavenumber-dependent response function. A gain of 0.95 was demonstrated in an experimental situation with 40 levels. Possible errors introduced when using unequal resolution radars were discussed. Finally, it was found that, for some flows, the extent of attenuation depends on the number of vertical levels resolvable by the radars.

  3. Migraine treatment and placebo effect.

    PubMed

    Speciali, José G; Peres, Mário; Bigal, Marcelo E

    2010-03-01

    Placebos are typically defined as physiologically inactive substances that elicit a therapeutic response. The antipode of the placebo effect is the nocebo effect, or the negative effects of placebo, where unpleasant symptoms (e.g., adverse events) emerge after the administration of placebo. Placebo analgesia is one of the most striking examples of the cognitive modulation of pain perception. Herein we focus on the importance of placebo in headache research. We first review the mechanisms of the placebo effect. We then focus on the importance of placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. We follow by discussing the importance of placebo on the preventive treatment of migraine and our perspectives for the 5 years to come regarding the study of the placebos.

  4. Big Fish in Little Ponds Aspire More: Mediation and Cross-Cultural Generalizability of School-Average Ability Effects on Self-Concept and Career Aspirations in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagengast, Benjamin; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2012-01-01

    Being schooled with other high-achieving peers has a detrimental influence on students' self-perceptions: School-average and class-average achievement have a negative effect on academic self-concept and career aspirations--the big-fish-little-pond effect. Individual achievement, on the other hand, predicts academic self-concept and career…

  5. How robust are the estimated effects of air pollution on health? Accounting for model uncertainty using Bayesian model averaging.

    PubMed

    Pannullo, Francesca; Lee, Duncan; Waclawski, Eugene; Leyland, Alastair H

    2016-08-01

    The long-term impact of air pollution on human health can be estimated from small-area ecological studies in which the health outcome is regressed against air pollution concentrations and other covariates, such as socio-economic deprivation. Socio-economic deprivation is multi-factorial and difficult to measure, and includes aspects of income, education, and housing as well as others. However, these variables are potentially highly correlated, meaning one can either create an overall deprivation index, or use the individual characteristics, which can result in a variety of pollution-health effects. Other aspects of model choice may affect the pollution-health estimate, such as the estimation of pollution, and spatial autocorrelation model. Therefore, we propose a Bayesian model averaging approach to combine the results from multiple statistical models to produce a more robust representation of the overall pollution-health effect. We investigate the relationship between nitrogen dioxide concentrations and cardio-respiratory mortality in West Central Scotland between 2006 and 2012.

  6. The effect of stress and incentive magnetic field on the average volume of magnetic Barkhausen jump in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Di; Guo, Lei; Yin, Liang; Chen, Zhaoyang; Chen, Juan; Qi, Xin

    2015-11-01

    The average volume of magnetic Barkhausen jump (AVMBJ) v bar generated by magnetic domain wall irreversible displacement under the effect of the incentive magnetic field H for ferromagnetic materials and the relationship between irreversible magnetic susceptibility χirr and stress σ are adopted in this paper to study the theoretical relationship among AVMBJ v bar(magneto-elasticity noise) and the incentive magnetic field H. Then the numerical relationship among AVMBJ v bar, stress σ and the incentive magnetic field H is deduced. Utilizing this numerical relationship, the displacement process of magnetic domain wall for single crystal is analyzed and the effect of the incentive magnetic field H and the stress σ on the AVMBJ v bar (magneto-elasticity noise) is explained from experimental and theoretical perspectives. The saturation velocity of Barkhausen jump characteristic value curve is different when tensile or compressive stress is applied on ferromagnetic materials, because the resistance of magnetic domain wall displacement is different. The idea of critical magnetic field in the process of magnetic domain wall displacement is introduced in this paper, which solves the supersaturated calibration problem of AVMBJ - σ calibration curve.

  7. Meta-analysis of average symptom change in inpatient treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in veteran and active duty U.S. military samples.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Justin S; Loeffler, George H; Pulos, Steven; Campbell, Annie W

    2016-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that inpatient/residential treatment for PTSD associated with military duty should result in significantly lower PTSD symptoms at patient discharge compared to patient intake. Meta-analysis of effects comparing intake and discharge PTSD symptoms from 26 samples, reported in 16 studies, supported this hypothesis (d = -.73; p < .00001). Moderator analysis indicated between-study variation in PTSD symptom changes was predominantly due to the type of measure used, with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale producing the largest effect (d = -1.60). Larger effects were also observed for more recently published studies and studies with larger percentages of females. These findings support the efficacy of inpatient treatment for military PTSD, although a causal factor for effectiveness could not be identified. Further, the results indicate between-program comparisons of symptom reduction require the same measure of PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Effect of dam weight and pregnancy nutrition on average lactation performance of ewe offspring over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Paten, A M; Pain, S J; Peterson, S W; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Kenyon, P R; Blair, H T

    2016-11-21

    The foetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal weight and nutrition during gestation, which could affect offspring milk production. It has previously been shown that ewes born to dams offered maintenance nutrition during pregnancy (day 21 to 140 of gestation) produced greater milk, lactose and CP yields in their first lactation when compared with ewes born to dams offered ad libitum nutrition. In addition, ewes born to heavier dams produced greater milk and lactose yields when compared with ewes born to lighter dams. The objective of this study was to analyse and compare the 5-year lactation performance of the previously mentioned ewes, born to heavy or light dams that were offered maintenance or ad libitum pregnancy nutrition. Ewes were milked once per week, for the first 6 weeks of their lactation, for 5 years. Using milk yield and composition data, accumulated yields were calculated over a 42-day period for each year for milk, milk fat, CP, true protein, casein and lactose using a Legendre orthogonal polynomial model. Over the 5-year period, ewes born to heavy dams produced greater average milk (P=0.04), lactose (P=0.01) and CP (P=0.04) yields than offspring born to light dams. In contrast, over the 5-year period dam nutrition during pregnancy did not affect average (P>0.05) offspring milk yields or composition, but did increase milk and lactose accumulated yield (P=0.03 and 0.01, respectively) in the first lactation. These results indicate that maternal gestational nutrition appears to only affect the first lactational performance of ewe offspring. Neither dam nutrition nor size affected grand-offspring live weight gain to, or live weight at weaning (P>0.05). Combined these data indicate that under the conditions of the present study, manipulating dam weight or nutrition in pregnancy can have some effects of offspring lactational performance, however, these effects are not large enough to alter grand-offspring growth to weaning. Therefore, such manipulations

  9. The Chicken Soup Effect: The Role of Recreation and Intramural Participation in Boosting Freshman Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbison, Godfrey A.; Henry, Tracyann L.; Perkins-Brown, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Freshman grade point average, in particular first semester grade point average, is an important predictor of survival and eventual student success in college. As many institutions of higher learning are searching for ways to improve student success, one would hope that policies geared towards the success of freshmen have long term benefits…

  10. On the wavelength dependence of the effects of turbulence on average refraction angles in occultations by planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haugstad, B. S.; Eshleman, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    The dependence of the effects of planetary atmospheric turbulence on radio or optical wavelength in occultation experiments is discussed, and the analysis of Hubbard and Jokipii (1977) is criticized. It is argued that in deriving a necessary condition for the applicability of their method, Hubbard and Jokipii neglect a factor proportional to the square of the ratio of atmospheric or local Fresnel zone radius and the inner scale of turbulence, and fail to establish sufficient conditions, thereby omitting the square of the ratio of atmospheric scale height and the local Fresnel zone radius. The total discrepancy is said to mean that the results correspond to geometrical optics instead of wave optics, as claimed, thus being inapplicable in a dicussion of wavelength dependence. Calculations based on geometrical optics show that the bias in the average bending angle depends on the wavelength in the same way as does the bias in phase path caused by turbulence in a homogeneous atmosphere. Hubbard and Jokipii comment that the criterion of Haugstad and Eshleman is incorrect and show that there is a large wave optical domain where the results are independent of wavelength.

  11. Effect of fringe-artifact correction on sub-tomogram averaging from Zernike phase-plate cryo-TEM

    PubMed Central

    Kishchenko, Gregory P.; Danev, Radostin; Fisher, Rebecca; He, Jie; Hsieh, Chyongere; Marko, Michael; Sui, Haixin

    2015-01-01

    Zernike phase-plate (ZPP) imaging greatly increases contrast in cryo-electron microscopy, however fringe artifacts appear in the images. A computational de-fringing method has been proposed, but it has not been widely employed, perhaps because the importance of de-fringing has not been clearly demonstrated. For testing purposes, we employed Zernike phase-plate imaging in a cryo-electron tomographic study of radial-spoke complexes attached to microtubule doublets. We found that the contrast enhancement by ZPP imaging made nonlinear denoising insensitive to the filtering parameters, such that simple low-frequency band-pass filtering made the same improvement in map quality. We employed sub-tomogram averaging, which compensates for the effect of the “missing wedge” and considerably improves map quality. We found that fringes (caused by the abrupt cut-on of the central hole in the phase plate) can lead to incorrect representation of a structure that is well-known from the literature. The expected structure was restored by amplitude scaling, as proposed in the literature. Our results show that de-fringing is an important part of image-processing for cryo-electron tomography of macromolecular complexes with ZPP imaging. PMID:26210582

  12. Effect of fringe-artifact correction on sub-tomogram averaging from Zernike phase-plate cryo-TEM.

    PubMed

    Kishchenko, Gregory P; Danev, Radostin; Fisher, Rebecca; He, Jie; Hsieh, Chyongere; Marko, Michael; Sui, Haixin

    2015-09-01

    Zernike phase-plate (ZPP) imaging greatly increases contrast in cryo-electron microscopy, however fringe artifacts appear in the images. A computational de-fringing method has been proposed, but it has not been widely employed, perhaps because the importance of de-fringing has not been clearly demonstrated. For testing purposes, we employed Zernike phase-plate imaging in a cryo-electron tomographic study of radial-spoke complexes attached to microtubule doublets. We found that the contrast enhancement by ZPP imaging made nonlinear denoising insensitive to the filtering parameters, such that simple low-frequency band-pass filtering made the same improvement in map quality. We employed sub-tomogram averaging, which compensates for the effect of the "missing wedge" and considerably improves map quality. We found that fringes (caused by the abrupt cut-on of the central hole in the phase plate) can lead to incorrect representation of a structure that is well-known from the literature. The expected structure was restored by amplitude scaling, as proposed in the literature. Our results show that de-fringing is an important part of image-processing for cryo-electron tomography of macromolecular complexes with ZPP imaging.

  13. The effect of New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) on average daily gain and mortality in 4 Danish pig herds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study evaluated the effect of New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) on average daily gain (ADG) and mortality and described the clinical manifestations in four herds suffering from the syndrome. NNPDS is a diarrhoeic syndrome affecting piglets within the first week of life, which is not caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) type A/C, Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), rotavirus A, coronavirus, Cystoisospora suis, Strongyloides ransomi, Giardia spp or Cryptosporidium spp. Results Piglets were estimated to have a negative ADG of 9 and 14 g when diarrhoeic for 1 day and >1 day respectively. However, if only diarrhoeic on the day of birth, no negative effect on ADG was seen. Piglets originating from severely affected litters were estimated to have a reduced ADG of 38 g. The study did not show an overall effect of diarrhoea on mortality, but herd of origin, sow parity, birth weight, and gender were significantly associated with mortality. In one of the herds, approximately 25% of the diarrhoeic piglets vs. 6% of the non-diarrhoeic piglets died, and 74% of necropsied piglets were diagnosed with enteritis. These findings indicate that the high mortality seen in this herd was due to diarrhoea. Conclusions NNPDS negatively affected ADG in piglets, and even piglets that were diarrhoeic for one day only experienced a reduction in ADG. However, the study showed that diarrhoea restricted to the day of birth did not affect ADG and suggested this phenomenon to be unrelated to the syndrome. Since the diarrhoeal status of the litter had important effects on ADG, future research on NNPDS probably ought to focus on piglets from severely affected litters. The study showed important dissimilarities in the course of diarrhoea between the herds, and one herd was considerably more affected than the others. Within this herd, NNPDS seemed to be associated with a higher mortality, whereas in general the

  14. An investigation of the effect of pore scale flow on average geochemical reaction rates using direct numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Steefel, Carl I.; Shen, Chaopeng

    2012-03-30

    The scale-dependence of geochemical reaction rates hinders their use in continuum scale models intended for the interpretation and prediction of chemical fate and transport in subsurface environments such as those considered for geologic sequestration of CO2. Processes that take place at the pore scale, especially those involving mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, may contribute to the discrepancy commonly observed between laboratory-determined and continuum-scale or field rates. In this study we investigate the dependence of mineral dissolution rates on the pore structure of the porous media by means of pore scale modeling of flow and multicomponent reactive transport. The pore scale model is composed of high-performance simulation tools and algorithms for incompressible flow and conservative transport combined with a general-purpose multicomponent geochemical reaction code. The model performs direct numerical simulation of reactive transport based on an operator-splitting approach to coupling transport and reactions. The approach is validated with a Poiseuille flow single-pore experiment and verified with an equivalent 1-D continuum-scale model of a capillary tube packed with calcite spheres. Using the case of calcite dissolution as an example, the high-resolution model is used to demonstrate that nonuniformity in the flow field at the pore scale has the effect of decreasing the overall reactivity of the system, even when systems with identical reactive surface area are considered. In conclusion, the effect becomes more pronounced as the heterogeneity of the reactive grain packing increases, particularly where the flow slows sufficiently such that the solution approaches equilibrium locally and the average rate becomes transport-limited.

  15. An investigation of the effect of pore scale flow on average geochemical reaction rates using direct numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Steefel, Carl; Shen, Chaopeng

    2012-03-30

    The scale-dependence of geochemical reaction rates hinders their use in continuum scale models intended for the interpretation and prediction of chemical fate and transport in subsurface environments such as those considered for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Processes that take place at the pore scale, especially those involving mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, may contribute to the discrepancy commonly observed between laboratory-determined and continuum-scale or field rates. Here, the dependence of mineral dissolution rates on the pore structure of the porous media is investigated by means of pore scale modeling of flow and multicomponent reactive transport. The pore scale model is composed of high-performance simulation tools and algorithms for incompressible flow and conservative transport combined with a general-purpose multicomponent geochemical reaction code. The model performs direct numerical simulation of reactive transport based on an operator-splitting approach to coupling transport and reactions. The approach is validated with a Poiseuille flow single-pore experiment and verified with an equivalent 1-D continuum-scale model of a capillary tube packed with calcite spheres. Using the case of calcite dissolution as an example, the high-resolution model is used to demonstrate that nonuniformity in the flow field at the pore scale has the effect of decreasing the overall reactivity of the system, even when systems with identical reactive surface area are considered. The effect becomes more pronounced as the heterogeneity of the reactive grain packing increases, particularly where the flow slows sufficiently such that the solution approaches equilibrium locally and the average rate becomes transport-limited.

  16. Decomposition-order effects of time integrator on ensemble averages for the Nosé-Hoover thermostat.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Satoru G; Morishita, Tetsuya; Okumura, Hisashi

    2013-08-14

    Decomposition-order dependence of time development integrator on ensemble averages for the Nosé-Hoover dynamics is discussed. Six integrators were employed for comparison, which were extensions of the velocity-Verlet or position-Verlet algorithm. Molecular dynamics simulations by these integrators were performed for liquid-argon systems with several different time steps and system sizes. The obtained ensemble averages of temperature and potential energy were shifted from correct values depending on the integrators. These shifts increased in proportion to the square of the time step. Furthermore, the shifts could not be removed by increasing the number of argon atoms. We show the origin of these ensemble-average shifts analytically. Our discussion can be applied not only to the liquid-argon system but also to all MD simulations with the Nosé-Hoover thermostat. Our recommended integrators among the six integrators are presented to obtain correct ensemble averages.

  17. The effect of spatial averaging and glacier melt on detecting a forced signal in regional sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Kristin; Marzeion, Ben; Riva, Riccardo

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the spatial scales that are necessary to detect an externally forced signal in regional sea level within a selected fixed time period. Detection on a regional scale is challenging due to the increasing magnitude of unforced variability in dynamic sea level on progressingly smaller spatial scales. Using unforced control simulations with no evolving forcing we quantify the magnitude of regional internal variability depending on the degree of spatial averaging. We test various averaging techniques such as zonal averaging and averaging grid points within selected radii. By comparing the results from the control simulations with historical and 21st-century simulations, the procedure allows to estimate to what degree the data has to be averaged spatially in order to detect a forced signal within certain periods (e.g. periods with good observational coverage). We find that zonal averaging over ocean basins is necessary to detect a forced signal in steric and dynamic sea level during the past 25 years, while a signal emerges in 63% of the ocean areas over the past 45 years when smoothing with a 2000 km filter or less is applied. We also demonstrate that the addition of the glacier contribution increases the signal-to-noise ratio of regional sea level changes, thus leading to an earlier emergence by 10–20 years away from the sources of the ice mass loss. With smoothing, this results in the detection of an external signal in 90% of the ocean areas over the past 45 years.

  18. Drawing Sound Inferences Concerning the Effects of Treatment on Dispersion in Outcomes: Bringing to Light Individual Differences in Response to Treatment. CSE Technical Report 710

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Michael; Kim, Jinok

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in response to a given treatment have been a longstanding interest in education. While many evaluation studies focus on average treatment effects (i.e., the effects of treatments on the levels of outcomes of interest), this paper additionally considers estimating the effects of treatments on the dispersion in outcomes.…

  19. The Baryon Cycle at High Redshifts: Effects of Galactic Winds on Galaxy Evolution in Overdense and Average Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoun, Raphael; Shlosman, Isaac; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Romano-Díaz, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    We employ high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations focusing on a high-sigma peak and an average cosmological field at z ˜ 6-12 in order to investigate the influence of environment and baryonic feedback on galaxy evolution in the reionization epoch. Strong feedback, e.g., galactic winds, caused by elevated star formation rates (SFRs) is expected to play an important role in this evolution. We compare different outflow prescriptions: (i) constant wind velocity (CW), (ii) variable wind scaling with galaxy properties (VW), and (iii) no outflows (NW). The overdensity leads to accelerated evolution of dark matter and baryonic structures, absent from the “normal” region, and to shallow galaxy stellar mass functions at the low-mass end. Although CW shows little dependence on the environment, the more physically motivated VW model does exhibit this effect. In addition, VW can reproduce the observed specific SFR (sSFR) and the sSFR-stellar mass relation, which CW and NW fail to satisfy simultaneously. Winds also differ substantially in affecting the state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). The difference lies in the volume-filling factor of hot, high-metallicity gas, which is near unity for CW, while such gas remains confined in massive filaments for VW, and locked up in galaxies for NW. Such gas is nearly absent from the normal region. Although all wind models suffer from deficiencies, the VW model seems to be promising in correlating the outflow properties with those of host galaxies. Further constraints on the state of the IGM at high z are needed to separate different wind models.

  20. Treatment Effect Heterogeneity in a Science Professional Development Initiative: The Case for School Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruch, Sarah; Grigg, Jeffrey; Hanselman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on how the treatment effects of a teacher professional development initiative in science differed by school capacity. In other words, the authors are primarily concerned with treatment effect heterogeneity. As such, this paper complements ongoing evaluation of the average treatment effects of the initiative over time. The…

  1. The prevalence of skeletal Class II patients found in a consecutive population presenting for TMD treatment compared to the national average.

    PubMed

    Simmons, H Clifton; Oxford, D Eric; Hill, Matthew D

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-six consecutive patients in a referral-based practice seeking treatment for a complex chronic painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) were enrolled in a retrospective study to evaluate the skeletal relationship of patients with TMD compared to the distribution of skeletal patterns found in the average population. During the standard clinical workup, lateral cephalometric radiographs were performed. Using Wits appraisal all of the fifty-six (56) cephalometric radiographs were analyzed. Based on the results of the Wits analysis, 34.6 percent of the patients were skeletal Class I, 63.6 percent were skeletal Class II, and 1.8 percent were skeletal Class III. These results were compared with the data published by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in Proffit's text Contemporary Orthodontics. This study states that in the general population occlusal diversity is eighty to eighty-five percent (80-85%) skeletal Class I, fifteen percent (15%) are skeletal Class II, and one percent (1%) are skeletal Class III. The conclusion can be drawn that the patient sampling analyzed shows that TMD patients have a higher prevalence for skeletal Class II than the general population.

  2. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  3. A new cementless total hip arthroplasty with bioactive titanium porous-coating by alkaline and heat treatment: average 4.8-year results.

    PubMed

    Kawanabe, Keiichi; Ise, Kentaro; Goto, Koji; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Takashi; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Sugimori, Tanzo; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2009-07-01

    A method has been developed for creating a bioactive coating on titanium by alkaline and heat treatment, and shown that it forms a thin layer of hydroxyapatite (HA) on the surface of implants when soaked in simulated body fluid. A series of 70 cementless primary total hip arthroplasties using this coating technique on a porous titanium surface was performed, and followed up the patients for a mean period of 4.8 years. There were no instances of loosening or revision, or formation of a reactive line on the porous coating. Although radiography just after operation showed a gap between the host bone and the socket in over 70% of cases, all the gaps disappeared within a year, indicating the good osteoconduction provided by the coating. Alkaline-heat treatment of titanium to provide a thin HA coating has several advantages over plasma-spraying, including no degeneration or absorption of the HA coating, simplicity of the manufacturing process, and cost effectiveness. In addition, this method allows homogeneous deposition of bone-like apatite within a porous implant. Although this was a relatively short-term study, treatment that creates a bioactive surface on titanium and titanium alloy implants has considerable promise for clinical application.

  4. Stabilizing effect of large average initial velocity in forced dissipative PDEs invariant with respect to Galilean transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyranka, Jacek; Zgliczyński, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    We describe a topological method to study the dynamics of dissipative PDEs on a torus with rapidly oscillating forcing terms. We show that a dissipative PDE, which is invariant with respect to the Galilean transformations, with a large average initial velocity can be reduced to a problem with rapidly oscillating forcing terms. We apply the technique to the viscous Burgers' equation, and the incompressible 2D Navier-Stokes equations with a time-dependent forcing. We prove that for a large initial average speed the equation admits a bounded eternal solution, which attracts all other solutions forward in time. For the incompressible 3D Navier-Stokes equations we establish the existence of a locally attracting solution.

  5. Nonlinear effects of team tenure on team psychological safety climate and climate strength: Implications for average team member performance.

    PubMed

    Koopmann, Jaclyn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Wang, Mo; Zhou, Le; Shi, Junqi

    2016-07-01

    The teams literature suggests that team tenure improves team psychological safety climate and climate strength in a linear fashion, but the empirical findings to date have been mixed. Alternatively, theories of group formation suggest that new and longer tenured teams experience greater team psychological safety climate than moderately tenured teams. Adopting this second perspective, we used a sample of 115 research and development teams and found that team tenure had a curvilinear relationship with team psychological safety climate and climate strength. Supporting group formation theories, team psychological safety climate and climate strength were higher in new and longer tenured teams compared with moderately tenured teams. Moreover, we found a curvilinear relationship between team tenure and average team member creative performance as partially mediated by team psychological safety climate. Team psychological safety climate improved average team member task performance only when team psychological safety climate was strong. Likewise, team tenure influenced average team member task performance in a curvilinear manner via team psychological safety climate only when team psychological safety climate was strong. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and offer several directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Effects of long-term averaging of quantitative blood pressure traits on the detection of genetic associations.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Santhi K; Chasman, Daniel I; Larson, Martin G; Guo, Xiuqing; Verwoert, Germain; Bis, Joshua C; Gu, Xiangjun; Smith, Albert V; Yang, Min-Lee; Zhang, Yan; Ehret, Georg; Rose, Lynda M; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Papanicolau, George J; Sijbrands, Eric J; Rice, Kenneth; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Pihur, Vasyl; Ridker, Paul M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Raffel, Leslie J; Amin, Najaf; Rotter, Jerome I; Liu, Kiang; Launer, Lenore J; Xu, Ming; Caulfield, Mark; Morrison, Alanna C; Johnson, Andrew D; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Dehghan, Abbas; Li, Guo; Bouchard, Claude; Harris, Tamara B; Zhang, He; Boerwinkle, Eric; Siscovick, David S; Gao, Wei; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Willer, Cristen J; Franco, Oscar H; Huo, Yong; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Munroe, Patricia B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Palmas, Walter; van Duijn, Cornelia; Fornage, Myriam; Levy, Daniel; Psaty, Bruce M; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2014-07-03

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable, quantitative trait with intraindividual variability and susceptibility to measurement error. Genetic studies of BP generally use single-visit measurements and thus cannot remove variability occurring over months or years. We leveraged the idea that averaging BP measured across time would improve phenotypic accuracy and thereby increase statistical power to detect genetic associations. We studied systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP) averaged over multiple years in 46,629 individuals of European ancestry. We identified 39 trait-variant associations across 19 independent loci (p < 5 × 10(-8)); five associations (in four loci) uniquely identified by our LTA analyses included those of SBP and MAP at 2p23 (rs1275988, near KCNK3), DBP at 2q11.2 (rs7599598, in FER1L5), and PP at 6p21 (rs10948071, near CRIP3) and 7p13 (rs2949837, near IGFBP3). Replication analyses conducted in cohorts with single-visit BP data showed positive replication of associations and a nominal association (p < 0.05). We estimated a 20% gain in statistical power with long-term average (LTA) as compared to single-visit BP association studies. Using LTA analysis, we identified genetic loci influencing BP. LTA might be one way of increasing the power of genetic associations for continuous traits in extant samples for other phenotypes that are measured serially over time.

  7. Effects of Long-Term Averaging of Quantitative Blood Pressure Traits on the Detection of Genetic Associations

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Santhi K.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Larson, Martin G.; Guo, Xiuqing; Verwoert, Germain; Bis, Joshua C.; Gu, Xiangjun; Smith, Albert V.; Yang, Min-Lee; Zhang, Yan; Ehret, Georg; Rose, Lynda M.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Papanicolau, George J.; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Rice, Kenneth; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Pihur, Vasyl; Ridker, Paul M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Johnson, Toby; Gateva, Vesela; Tobin, Martin D.; Bochud, Murielle; Coin, Lachlan; Najjar, Samer S.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heath, Simon C.; Eyheramendy, Susana; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Voight, Benjamin F.; Scott, Laura J.; Zhang, Feng; Farrall, Martin; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wallace, Chris; Chambers, John C.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Nilsson, Peter; van der Harst, Pim; Polidoro, Silvia; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Bots, Michiel L.; Wain, Louise V.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Teumer, Alexander; Luan, Jian’an; Lucas, Gavin; Kuusisto, Johanna; Burton, Paul R.; Hadley, David; McArdle, Wendy L.; Brown, Morris; Dominiczak, Anna; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Webster, John; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bergmann, Sven; Lim, Noha; Song, Kijoung; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Yuan, Xin; Groop, Leif; Orho-Melander, Marju; Allione, Alessandra; Di Gregorio, Alessandra; Guarrera, Simonetta; Panico, Salvatore; Ricceri, Fulvio; Romanazzi, Valeria; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Barroso, Inês; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Luben, Robert N.; Crawford, Gabriel J.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Perola, Markus; Boehnke, Michael; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Collins, Francis S.; Jackson, Anne U.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Stringham, Heather M.; Valle, Timo T.; Willer, Cristen J.; Bergman, Richard N.; Morken, Mario A.; Döring, Angela; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Org, Elin; Pfeufer, Arne; Wichmann, H. Erich; Kathiresan, Sekar; Marrugat, Jaume; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Siscovick, David S.; Subirana, Isaac; Freimer, Nelson B.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; McCarthy, Mark I.; O’Reilly, Paul F.; Peltonen, Leena; Pouta, Anneli; de Jong, Paul E.; Snieder, Harold; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Clarke, Robert; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Peden, John F.; Seedorf, Udo; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tognoni, Giovanni; Lakatta, Edward G.; Sanna, Serena; Scheet, Paul; Schlessinger, David; Scuteri, Angelo; Dörr, Marcus; Ernst, Florian; Felix, Stephan B.; Homuth, Georg; Lorbeer, Roberto; Reffelmann, Thorsten; Rettig, Rainer; Völker, Uwe; Galan, Pilar; Gut, Ivo G.; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, G. Mark; Zeleneka, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Soranzo, Nicole; Williams, Frances M.; Zhai, Guangju; Salomaa, Veikko; Laakso, Markku; Elosua, Roberto; Forouhi, Nita G.; Völzke, Henry; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Numans, Mattijs E.; Matullo, Giuseppe; Navis, Gerjan; Berglund, Göran; Bingham, Sheila A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Connell, John M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Watkins, Hugh; Spector, Tim D.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Altshuler, David; Strachan, David P.; Laan, Maris; Meneton, Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Uda, Manuela; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Mooser, Vincent; Melander, Olle; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Elliott, Paul; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Caulfield, Mark; Munroe, Patricia B.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Amin, Najaf; Rotter, Jerome I.; Liu, Kiang; Launer, Lenore J.; Xu, Ming; Caulfield, Mark; Morrison, Alanna C.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Dehghan, Abbas; Li, Guo; Bouchard, Claude; Harris, Tamara B.; Zhang, He; Boerwinkle, Eric; Siscovick, David S.; Gao, Wei; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Willer, Cristen J.; Franco, Oscar H.; Huo, Yong; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Palmas, Walter; van Duijn, Cornelia; Fornage, Myriam; Levy, Daniel; Psaty, Bruce M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable, quantitative trait with intraindividual variability and susceptibility to measurement error. Genetic studies of BP generally use single-visit measurements and thus cannot remove variability occurring over months or years. We leveraged the idea that averaging BP measured across time would improve phenotypic accuracy and thereby increase statistical power to detect genetic associations. We studied systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP) averaged over multiple years in 46,629 individuals of European ancestry. We identified 39 trait-variant associations across 19 independent loci (p < 5 × 10−8); five associations (in four loci) uniquely identified by our LTA analyses included those of SBP and MAP at 2p23 (rs1275988, near KCNK3), DBP at 2q11.2 (rs7599598, in FER1L5), and PP at 6p21 (rs10948071, near CRIP3) and 7p13 (rs2949837, near IGFBP3). Replication analyses conducted in cohorts with single-visit BP data showed positive replication of associations and a nominal association (p < 0.05). We estimated a 20% gain in statistical power with long-term average (LTA) as compared to single-visit BP association studies. Using LTA analysis, we identified genetic loci influencing BP. LTA might be one way of increasing the power of genetic associations for continuous traits in extant samples for other phenotypes that are measured serially over time. PMID:24975945

  8. Averaging Models: Parameters Estimation with the R-Average Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, G.; Massidda, D.; Noventa, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982), can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto &…

  9. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Local and average diffusion of nanosolutes in agarose gel: the effect of the gel/solution interface structure.

    PubMed

    Labille, Jérôme; Fatin-Rouge, Nicolas; Buffle, Jacques

    2007-02-13

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has been used to study the diffusion of nanometric solutes in agarose gel, at microscopic and macroscopic scales. Agarose gel was prepared and put in contact with aqueous solution. Several factors were studied: (i) the role of gel relaxation after its preparation, (ii) the specific structure of the interfacial zone and its role on the local diffusion coefficient of solutes, and (iii) the comparison between the local diffusion coefficient and the average diffusion coefficient in the gel. Fluorescent dyes and labeled biomolecules were used to cover a size range of solutes of 1.5 to 15 nm. Their transport through the interface from the solution toward the gel was modeled by the first Fick's law based on either average diffusion coefficients or the knowledge of local diffusion coefficients in the system. Experimental results have shown that, at the liquid/gel interface, a gel layer with a thickness of 120 microm is formed with characteristics significantly different from the bulk gel. In particular, in this layer, the porosity of agarose fiber network is significantly lower than in the bulk gel. The diffusion coefficient of solutes in this layer is consequently decreased for steric reasons. Modeling of solute transport shows that, in the bulk gel, macroscopic diffusion satisfactorily follows the classical Fick's diffusion laws. For the tested solutes, the local diffusion coefficients in the bulk gel, measured at microscopic scale by FCS, were equal, within experimental errors, to the average diffusion coefficients applicable at macroscopic scales (>or=mm). This confirms that anomalous diffusion applies only to solutes with sizes close to the gel pore size and at short time (

  11. Areal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Riihimaki, Laura; Marinovici, Cristina; Kassianov, Evgueni

    2008-01-01

    he Areal Averaged Albedo VAP yields areal averaged surface spectral albedo estimates from MFRSR measurements collected under fully overcast conditions via a simple one-line equation (Barnard et al., 2008), which links cloud optical depth, normalized cloud transmittance, asymmetry parameter, and areal averaged surface albedo under fully overcast conditions.

  12. An application of the Complier Average Causal Effect analysis to examine the effects of a family intervention in reducing illicit drug use among high-risk Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Estrada, Yannine; Brincks, Ahnalee M; Asfour, Lila S; Prado, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    The Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) method has been increasingly used in prevention research to provide more accurate causal intervention effect estimates in the presence of noncompliance. The purpose of this study was to provide an applied demonstration of the CACE analytic approach to evaluate the relative effects of a family-based prevention intervention, Familias Unidas, in preventing/reducing illicit drug use for those participants who received the intended dosage. This study is a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the relative efficacy of Familias Unidas with high-risk Hispanic youth. A total of 242 high-risk Hispanic youth aged 12-17 years and their primary caregivers were randomized to either Familias Unidas or Community Practice and assessed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months postbaseline. CACE models were estimated with a finite growth mixture model. Predictors of engagement were included in the CACE model. Findings indicate that, relative to the intent-to-treat (ITT) analytic approach, the CACE analytic approach yielded stronger intervention effects among both initially engaged and overall engaged participants. The CACE analytic approach may be particularly helpful for studies involving parent/family-centered interventions given that participants may not receive the intended dosage. Future studies should consider implementing the CACE analysis in addition to ITT analysis when examining the effects of family-based prevention programs to determine whether, and the extent to which, the CACE analysis has more power to uncover intervention effects.

  13. ESTIMATING PERSON-CENTERED TREATMENT (PeT) EFFECTS USING INSTRUMENTAL VARIABLES: AN APPLICATION TO EVALUATING PROSTATE CANCER TREATMENTS

    PubMed Central

    BASU, ANIRBAN

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper builds on the methods of local instrumental variables developed by Heckman and Vytlacil (1999, 2001, 2005) to estimate person-centered treatment (PeT) effects that are conditioned on the person’s observed characteristics and averaged over the potential conditional distribution of unobserved characteristics that lead them to their observed treatment choices. PeT effects are more individualized than conditional treatment effects from a randomized setting with the same observed characteristics. PeT effects can be easily aggregated to construct any of the mean treatment effect parameters and, more importantly, are well suited to comprehend individual-level treatment effect heterogeneity. The paper presents the theory behind PeT effects, and applies it to study the variation in individual-level comparative effects of prostate cancer treatments on overall survival and costs. PMID:25620844

  14. The effect of reducing spatial resolution by in-plane partial volume averaging on peak velocity measurements in phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Jonathan; Minhas, Kishore; Pieles, Guido; McAlindon, Elisa; Occleshaw, Christopher; Manghat, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to quantify the degree of the effect of in-plane partial volume averaging on recorded peak velocity in phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PCMRA). Methods Using cardiac optimized 1.5 Tesla MRI scanners (Siemens Symphony and Avanto), 145 flow measurements (14 anatomical locations; ventricular outlets, aortic valve (AorV), aorta (5 sites), pulmonary arteries (3 sites), pulmonary veins, superior and inferior vena cava)- in 37 subjects (consisting of healthy volunteers, congenital and acquired heart disease patients) were analyzed by Siemens Argus default voxel averaging technique (where peak velocity = mean of highest velocity voxel and four neighbouring voxels) and by single voxel technique (1.3×1.3×5 or 1.7×1.7×5.5 mm3) (where peak velocity = highest velocity voxel only). The effect of scan protocol (breath hold versus free breathing) and scanner type (Siemens Symphony versus Siemens Avanto) were also assessed. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05. Results There was a significant mean increase in peak velocity of 7.1% when single voxel technique was used compared to voxel averaging (P<0.0001). Significant increases in peak velocity were observed by single voxel technique compared to voxel averaging regardless of subject type, anatomical flow location, scanner type and breathing command. Disabling voxel averaging did not affect the volume of flow recorded. Conclusions Reducing spatial resolution by the use of voxel averaging produces a significant underestimation of peak velocity. While this is of itself not surprising this is the first report to quantify the size of the effect. When PCMRA is used to assess peak velocity recording pixel averaging should be disabled. PMID:27942477

  15. Improved interval estimation of comparative treatment effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Krevelen, Ryne Christian

    Comparative experiments, in which subjects are randomized to one of two treatments, are performed often. There is no shortage of papers testing whether a treatment effect exists and providing confidence intervals for the magnitude of this effect. While it is well understood that the object and scope of inference for an experiment will depend on what assumptions are made, these entities are not always clearly presented. We have proposed one possible method, which is based on the ideas of Jerzy Neyman, that can be used for constructing confidence intervals in a comparative experiment. The resulting intervals, referred to as Neyman-type confidence intervals, can be applied in a wide range of cases. Special care is taken to note which assumptions are made and what object and scope of inference are being investigated. We have presented a notation that highlights which parts of a problem are being treated as random. This helps ensure the focus on the appropriate scope of inference. The Neyman-type confidence intervals are compared to possible alternatives in two different inference settings: one in which inference is made about the units in the sample and one in which inference is made about units in a fixed population. A third inference setting, one in which inference is made about a process distribution, is also discussed. It is stressed that certain assumptions underlying this third type of inference are unverifiable. When these assumptions are not met, the resulting confidence intervals may cover their intended target well below the desired rate. Through simulation, we demonstrate that the Neyman-type intervals have good coverage properties when inference is being made about a sample or a population. In some cases the alternative intervals are much wider than necessary on average. Therefore, we recommend that researchers consider using our Neyman-type confidence intervals when carrying out inference about a sample or a population as it may provide them with more

  16. The effects of reward magnitude on reward processing: An averaged and single trial event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Caroline C; Gable, Philip A; Lohse, Keith R; Miller, Matthew W

    2016-07-01

    From a neurobiological and motivational perspective, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and reward positivity (RewP) event-related potential (ERP) components should increase with reward magnitude (reward associated with valence (success/failure) feedback). To test this hypothesis, we recorded participants' electroencephalograms while presenting them with potential monetary rewards ($0.00-$4.96) pre-trial for each trial of a reaction time task and presenting them with valence feedback post-trial. Averaged ERPs time-locked to valence feedback were extracted, and results revealed a valence by magnitude interaction for neural activity in the FRN/RewP time window. This interaction was driven by magnitude affecting RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Moreover, single trial ERP analyses revealed a reliable correlation between magnitude and RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Finally, P3b and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes were affected by magnitude. Results partly support the neurobiological (dopamine) account of the FRN/RewP and suggest motivation affects feedback processing, as indicated by multiple ERP components.

  17. Effects of dam parity and pre-weaning average daily gain of Holstein calves on future milk production.

    PubMed

    Hoseyni, Fatemeh; Mahjoubi, Ehsan; Zahmatkesh, Davood; Yazdi, Mehdi Hossein

    2016-11-01

    This research communication describes relationships between pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG) and dam parity with future productivity of dairy calves. Higher ADG before weaning has been shown to be related to greater milk production in the first lactation of Holstein calves fed milk replacer. However, data is limited on the relationship between pre-weaning ADG and first lactation performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk. Data of three hundred and thirty-two Holstein calves from 35 primiparous and 297 multiparous cows was investigated to evaluate the relationship between the dam parity and pre-weaning ADG with the first lactation performance. Results indicated that birth (P < 0·01), and weaning body weight (P < 0·001) were greater in calves born from multiparous cows. Neither 305 d milk production nor pre-weaning ADG differed significantly between calves born to primiparous or multiparous cows, although milk yield tended to be higher in the former and ADG higher in the latter. Correlations between 305 d milk yield and pre-weaning ADG, dam parity and birth body weight were low and non-significant, although there was a tendency for a positive correlation between ADG and milk yield.

  18. Quantifying the effects of different post-processing quality filters on regionally and temporally averaged ACOS XCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B.; O'Dell, C.; Mandrake, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space (ACOS) group has been producing and distributing total column CO2 (XCO2) products using JAXA/NIES/MOE Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) spectra and has accumulated almost 4 years of data with version 3.3. While the ACOS team strives to only process soundings that the retrieval algorithm can handle well, we are conservative in what we reject from processing. Consequently, some soundings get processed which do not yield reliable results. We have developed post-processing filters based on comparisons to a few truth proxies (model means, TCCON, and the southern hemisphere approximation) to flag the less reliable soundings. Here we compare regionally (using TRANSCOM spatial bins) and monthly averaged XCO2 that have been filtered by our normal method (described in the ACOS Level 2 Data User's Guide) and a newer method, which we have named warn levels. Mean XCO2 differences are quantified spatially and temporally to inform possible biases in carbon cycle studies that could potentially be introduced by the application of differing post-processing screening methodologies to the ACOS products.

  19. Effect of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) load in serum on average daily weight gain during the postweaning period.

    PubMed

    López-Soria, S; Sibila, M; Nofrarías, M; Calsamiglia, M; Manzanilla, E G; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Mínguez, A; Serrano, J M; Marín, O; Joisel, F; Charreyre, C; Segalés, J

    2014-12-05

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous virus that mainly affects nursery and fattening pigs causing systemic disease (PCV2-SD) or subclinical infection. A characteristic sign in both presentations is reduction of average daily weight gain (ADWG). The present study aimed to assess the relationship between PCV2 load in serum and ADWG from 3 (weaning) to 21 weeks of age (slaughter) (ADWG 3-21). Thus, three different boar lines were used to inseminate sows from two PCV2-SD affected farms. One or two pigs per sow were selected (60, 61 and 51 piglets from Pietrain, Pietrain×Large White and Duroc×Large White boar lines, respectively). Pigs were bled at 3, 9, 15 and 21 weeks of age and weighted at 3 and 21 weeks. Area under the curve of the viral load at all sampling times (AUCqPCR 3-21) was calculated for each animal according to standard and real time quantitative PCR results; this variable was categorized as "negative or low" (<10(4.3) PCV2 genome copies/ml of serum), "medium" (≥10(4.3) to ≤10(5.3)) and "high" (>10(5.3)). Data regarding sex, PCV2 antibody titre at weaning and sow parity was also collected. A generalized linear model was performed, obtaining that paternal genetic line and AUCqPCR 3-21 were related to ADWG 3-21. ADWG 3-21 (mean±typical error) for "negative or low", "medium" and "high" AUCqPCR 3-21 was 672±9, 650±12 and 603±16 g/day, respectively, showing significant differences among them. This study describes different ADWG performances in 3 pig populations that suffered from different degrees of PCV2 viraemia.

  20. What Happens to the Fish's Achievement in a Little Pond? A Simultaneous Analysis of Class-Average Achievement Effects on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…

  1. States' Average College Tuition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglin, Joseph J., Jr.; And Others

    This report presents statistical data on trends in tuition costs from 1980-81 through 1995-96. The average tuition for in-state undergraduate students of 4-year public colleges and universities for academic year 1995-96 was approximately 8.9 percent of median household income. This figure was obtained by dividing the students' average annual…

  2. SU-C-304-01: Investigation of Various Detector Response Functions and Their Geometry Dependence in a Novel Method to Address Ion Chamber Volume Averaging Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Barraclough, B; Lebron, S; Li, J; Fan, Qiyong; Liu, C; Yan, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A novel convolution-based approach has been proposed to address ion chamber (IC) volume averaging effect (VAE) for the commissioning of commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). We investigate the use of various convolution kernels and its impact on the accuracy of beam models. Methods: Our approach simulates the VAE by iteratively convolving the calculated beam profiles with a detector response function (DRF) while optimizing the beam model. At convergence, the convolved profiles match the measured profiles, indicating the calculated profiles match the “true” beam profiles. To validate the approach, beam profiles of an Elekta LINAC were repeatedly collected with ICs of various volumes (CC04, CC13 and SNC 125) to obtain clinically acceptable beam models. The TPS-calculated profiles were convolved externally with the DRF of respective IC. The beam model parameters were reoptimized using Nelder-Mead method by forcing the convolved profiles to match the measured profiles. We evaluated three types of DRFs (Gaussian, Lorentzian, and parabolic) and the impact of kernel dependence on field geometry (depth and field size). The profiles calculated with beam models were compared with SNC EDGE diode-measured profiles. Results: The method was successfully implemented with Pinnacle Scripting and Matlab. The reoptimization converged in ∼10 minutes. For all tested ICs and DRFs, penumbra widths of the TPS-calculated profiles and diode-measured profiles were within 1.0 mm. Gaussian function had the best performance with mean penumbra width difference within 0.5 mm. The use of geometry dependent DRFs showed marginal improvement, reducing the penumbra width differences to less than 0.3 mm. Significant increase in IMRT QA passing rates was achieved with the optimized beam model. Conclusion: The proposed approach significantly improved the accuracy of the TPS beam model. Gaussian functions as the convolution kernel performed consistently better than Lorentzian and

  3. Reading and Writing from Multiple Source Documents in History: Effects of Strategy Instruction with Low to Average High School Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Paz, Susan; Felton, Mark K.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of historical reasoning strategy instruction on 11th-grade students. Students learned historical inquiry strategies using 20th Century American history topics ranging from the Spanish-American war to the Gulf of Tonkin incident. In addition, students learned a pre-writing strategy for composing argumentative essays…

  4. Post-treatment Effects of Topiramate Treatment for Heavy Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Pond, Timothy; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined whether the effects of topiramate and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2832407) in GRIK1, which encodes a kainate receptor subunit, persisted following a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial in 138 heavy drinkers with a treatment goal of reduced drinking. During treatment, topiramate 200 mg/day significantly reduced heavy drinking days and increased the frequency of abstinent days (Kranzler et al. 2014a). In the European-American (EA) subsample (n=122), rs2832407 moderated the treatment effect on heavy drinking. Methods Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment. During treatment, we obtained 92.4% of drinking data, with 89.1% and 85.5% complete data at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits, respectively. We examined four outcomes over time in the overall sample and the EA subsample: percent heavy drinking days (PHDD), percent days abstinent (PDA), serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) concentration, and a measure of alcohol-related problems. Results In the full sample, the lower PHDD and higher PDA seen with topiramate treatment were no longer significant during follow-up. Nonetheless, the topiramate-treated patients had lower alcohol-related problem scores during treatment and both follow-up periods. Further, in the EA subsample, the greater reduction in PHDD seen during treatment in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes persisted throughout follow-up, with no significant effects in A-allele carriers. A reduction in GGTP concentration was consistent with the reduction in heavy drinking, but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion There are persistent therapeutic effects of topiramate in heavy drinkers, principally in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes. PMID:25581656

  5. Aggregation and Averaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  6. Quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics: an approach for computing dynamically averaged vibrational spectra including critical nuclear quantum effects.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2007-10-18

    We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.

  7. High average power pockels cell

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  8. The effect of average cycling current on total energy of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barai, Anup; Uddin, Kotub; Widanalage, W. D.; McGordon, Andrew; Jennings, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the remaining range of a battery reliably, accurately and simply is imperative for effective power management of electrified vehicles and reducing driver anxiety resulting from perceived low driving range. Techniques for predicting the remaining range of an electric vehicle exist; in the best cases they are scaled by factors that account for expected energy losses due to driving style, environmental conditions and the use of on-board energy consuming devices such as air-conditioning. In this work, experimental results that establish the dependence of remaining electrical energy on the vehicle battery immediate cycling history are presented. A method to estimate the remaining energy given short-term cycling history is presented. This method differs from the traditional state of charge methods typically used in battery management systems by considering energy throughput more directly.

  9. The Effect of Sensory Integration Treatment on Children with Multiple Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Feng S.; Lodato, Donna M.

    Six children with multiple disabilities (ages 5 to 8) participated in this evaluation of the effect of sensory integration treatment on sensorimotor function and academic learning. The children had cognitive abilities ranging from sub-average to significantly sub-average, three were non-ambulatory, one had severe behavioral problems, and each…

  10. Reconsidering Findings of "No Effects" in Randomized Control Trials: Modeling Differences in Treatment Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    The primary technique that many researchers use to analyze data from randomized control trials (RCTs)--detecting the average treatment effect (ATE)--imposes assumptions upon the data that often are not correct. Both theory and past research suggest that treatments may have significant impacts on subgroups even when showing no overall effect.…

  11. The effects of modified wall squat exercises on average adults' deep abdominal muscle thickness and lumbar stability.

    PubMed

    Cho, Misuk

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of bridge exercises applying the abdominal drawing-in method and modified wall squat exercises on deep abdominal muscle thickness and lumbar stability. [Subjects] A total of 30 subjects were equally divided into an experimental group and a control group. [Methods] The experimental group completed modified wall squat exercises, and the control group performed bridge exercises. Both did so for 30 minutes three times per week over a six-week period. Both groups' transversus abdominis (Tra), internal oblique (IO), and multifidus muscle thickness were measured using ultrasonography, while their static lumbar stability and dynamic lumbar stability were measured using a pressure biofeedback unit. [Results] A comparison of the pre-intervention and post-intervention measures of the experimental group and the control group was made; the Tra and IO thicknesses were significantly different in both groups. [Conclusion] The modified wall squat exercise and bridge exercise affected the thicknesses of the Tra and the IO muscles. While the bridge exercise requirs space and a mattress to lie on, the modified wall squat exercise can be conveniently performed anytime.

  12. Threaded average temperature thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Stanley W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is provided to measure the average temperature of a test situs of a test material 30. A ceramic insulator rod 15 with two parallel holes 17 and 18 through the length thereof is securely fitted in a cylinder 16, which is bored along the longitudinal axis of symmetry of threaded bolt 12. Threaded bolt 12 is composed of material having thermal properties similar to those of test material 30. Leads of a thermocouple wire 20 leading from a remotely situated temperature sensing device 35 are each fed through one of the holes 17 or 18, secured at head end 13 of ceramic insulator rod 15, and exit at tip end 14. Each lead of thermocouple wire 20 is bent into and secured in an opposite radial groove 25 in tip end 14 of threaded bolt 12. Resulting threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is ready to be inserted into cylindrical receptacle 32. The tip end 14 of the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 is in intimate contact with receptacle 32. A jam nut 36 secures the threaded average temperature thermocouple 11 to test material 30.

  13. Effectiveness of brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Effectiveness of brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was demonstrated by the BrAIST study in 2013. Objectives of this study were to confirm its effectiveness by analyzing our results and to clarify the factors affecting the results of the treatment. Materials and methods According to the Scoliosis Research Society AIS brace studies standardization criteria, patients with age 10 years or older, Risser 0 to II, less than 1 year post-menarche, curve magnitude 25 to 40 degrees before brace treatment and who received no prior treatment were included in the study. At skeletal maturity, the rate of the patients whose curve was stabilized, exceeded 45 degrees, and who were recommended or underwent surgery were investigated. Additionally, initial correction rate by the brace and factors affecting the results were investigated. Results A total of 33 patients (27 females and 6 males) could be followed-up until their skeletal maturity and included in the analysis. An average age was 11.9 years, average Cobb angle was 30.8°, and Risser sign was 0 in 13 patients, I in 5, and II in 15 patients before treatment. There were 13 thoracic curves, 14 thoracolumbar or lumbar curves, and 6 double curves. Initial correction rate by the brace was 53.8% for the total curves. In terms of curve pattern, 34.4% for thoracic curve, 73.9% for thoracolumbar or lumbar curve, and 48.8% for double curve. After an average follow-up period of 33 months, 8 patients improved in more than 6 degrees, change of 17 patients were within 6 degrees, and 8 progressed in more than 6 degrees. Therefore, totally, 76% (25/33) of the curves were stabilized by the treatment. Four curves (12%) exceeded 45 degrees and one patient (3%) underwent surgery. Our results were better than the reported natural history. Factors that affected the results were hump degree before treatment and initial correction rate by the brace. Conclusions 76% of the curve with AIS could be stabilized by brace

  14. The average enzyme principle

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Ed; Chaudhary, Osman; Segrè, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Michaelis-Menten equation for an irreversible enzymatic reaction depends linearly on the enzyme concentration. Even if the enzyme concentration changes in time, this linearity implies that the amount of substrate depleted during a given time interval depends only on the average enzyme concentration. Here, we use a time re-scaling approach to generalize this result to a broad category of multi-reaction systems, whose constituent enzymes have the same dependence on time, e.g. they belong to the same regulon. This “average enzyme principle” provides a natural methodology for jointly studying metabolism and its regulation. PMID:23892076

  15. Treatment Effects on Neonatal EEG.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rawad; Tsuchida, Tammy N

    2016-10-01

    Conventional EEG and amplitude-integrated electroencephalography are used in neonates to assess prognosis and significant changes in brain activity. Neuroactive medications and hypothermia can influence brain activity and therefore alter EEG interpretation. There are limited studies on the effect of these therapies on neonatal EEG background activity. Medication effects on the EEG or amplitude-integrated electroencephalography include increased interburst interval duration, voltage suppression, and sleep disruption. The effect is transient in term newborns but can be persistent in premature newborns. Although therapeutic hypothermia does not produce significant changes in EEG activity, it does change the time point at which EEG can accurately predict neurodevelopmental outcome. It is important to account for these effects on the EEG to avoid inaccurate interpretation that may affect prognostication.

  16. Averaging of TNTC counts.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, C N; Heller, B

    1988-01-01

    When plate count methods are used for microbial enumeration, if too-numerous-to-count results occur, they are commonly discarded. In this paper, a method for consideration of such results in computation of an average microbial density is developed, and its use is illustrated by example. PMID:3178211

  17. Using Complier Average Causal Effect Estimation to Determine the Impacts of the Good Behavior Game Preventive Intervention on Teacher Implementers.

    PubMed

    Berg, Juliette K; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Jo, Booil; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-05-20

    Complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis is a causal inference approach that accounts for levels of teacher implementation compliance. In the current study, CACE was used to examine one-year impacts of PAX good behavior game (PAX GBG) and promoting alternative thinking strategies (PATHS) on teacher efficacy and burnout. Teachers in 27 elementary schools were randomized to PAX GBG, an integration of PAX GBG and PATHS, or a control condition. There were positive overall effects on teachers' efficacy beliefs, but high implementing teachers also reported increases in burnout across the school year. The CACE approach may offer new information not captured using a traditional intent-to-treat approach.

  18. Cost-Effective Fuel Treatment Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitler, J.; Thompson, M.; Vaillant, N.

    2014-12-01

    The cost of fighting large wildland fires in the western United States has grown dramatically over the past decade. This trend will likely continue with growth of the WUI into fire prone ecosystems, dangerous fuel conditions from decades of fire suppression, and a potentially increasing effect from prolonged drought and climate change. Fuel treatments are often considered the primary pre-fire mechanism to reduce the exposure of values at risk to wildland fire, and a growing suite of fire models and tools are employed to prioritize where treatments could mitigate wildland fire damages. Assessments using the likelihood and consequence of fire are critical because funds are insufficient to reduce risk on all lands needing treatment, therefore prioritization is required to maximize the effectiveness of fuel treatment budgets. Cost-effectiveness, doing the most good per dollar, would seem to be an important fuel treatment metric, yet studies or plans that prioritize fuel treatments using costs or cost-effectiveness measures are absent from the literature. Therefore, to explore the effect of using costs in fuel treatment planning we test four prioritization algorithms designed to reduce risk in a case study examining fuel treatments on the Sisters Ranger District of central Oregon. For benefits we model sediment retention and standing biomass, and measure the effectiveness of each algorithm by comparing the differences among treatment and no treat alternative scenarios. Our objective is to maximize the averted loss of net benefits subject to a representative fuel treatment budget. We model costs across the study landscape using the My Fuel Treatment Planner software, tree list data, local mill prices, and GIS-measured site characteristics. We use fire simulations to generate burn probabilities, and estimate fire intensity as conditional flame length at each pixel. Two prioritization algorithms target treatments based on cost-effectiveness and show improvements over those

  19. Weighing the potential effectiveness of various treatments for sleep bruxism.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Nelly; Manzini, Christiane; Rompré, Pierre H; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2007-10-01

    Sleep bruxism may lead to a variety of problems, but its pathophysiology has not been completely elucidated. As such, there is no definitive treatment, but certain preventive measures and/or drugs may be used in acute cases, particularly those involving pain. This article is intended to guide clinician scientists to the treatment most appropriate for future clinical studies. To determine the best current treatment, 2 measures were used to compare the results of 10 clinical studies on sleep bruxism, 3 involving oral devices and 7 involving pharmacologic therapy. The first measure, the number needed to treat (NNT), allows several randomized clinical studies to be compared and a general conclusion to be drawn. The second measure, effect size, allows evaluation of the impact of treatment relative to a placebo using different studies of similar design. Taking into account the NNT, the effect size and the power of each study, it can be concluded that the following treatments reduce sleep bruxism: mandibular advancement device, clonidine and occlusal splint. However, the first 2 of these have been linked to adverse effects. The occlusal splint is therefore the treatment of choice, as it reduces grinding noise and protects the teeth from premature wear with no reported adverse effects. The NNT could not be calculated for an alternative pharmacologic treatment, short-term clonazepam therapy, which had a large effect size and reduced the average bruxism index. However, the risk of dependency limits its use over long periods. Assessment of efficacy and safety of the most promising treatments will require studies with larger sample sizes over longer periods.

  20. Impact of Treatment Integrity on Intervention Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…

  1. Three Essays on Estimating Causal Treatment Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Jonah

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is composed of three distinct chapters, each of which addresses issues of estimating treatment effects. The first chapter empirically tests the Value-Added (VA) model using school lotteries. The second chapter, co-authored with Michael Wood, considers properties of inverse probability weighting (IPW) in simple treatment effect…

  2. Herbal Treatment for Anxiety: Is It Effective?

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal pain. If you're considering taking any herbal supplement as a treatment for anxiety, talk to your ... you take other medications. The interaction of some herbal supplements and certain medications can cause serious side effects. ...

  3. The effective medium and the average field approximations vis-à-vis the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. I. The self-consistent scheme in matrix-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Y.; Milton, G. W.

    2010-07-01

    The effective medium approximation (EMA) and the average field approximation (AFA) are two classical micromechanics models for the determination of effective properties of heterogeneous media. They are also known in the literature as 'self-consistent' approximations. In the AFA, the basic idea is to estimate the actual average field existing in a phase through a configuration in which a typical particle of that phase is embedded in the homogenized medium. In the EMA, on the other hand, one or more representative microstructural elements of the composite is embedded in the homogenized effective medium subjected to a uniform field, and the demand is made that the dominant part of the far-field disturbance vanishes. Both parts of this study are concerned with two-phase, matrix-based, effectively isotropic composites with an inclusion phase consisting of randomly oriented particles of arbitrary shape in general, and ellipsoidal shape in particular. The constituent phases are assumed to be isotropic. It is shown that in those systems the AFA and EMA give different predictions, with the distinction between them becoming especially striking regarding their standing vis-à-vis the Hashin-Shtrikman (HS-bounds). While due to its realizability property the EMA will always obey the bounds, we show that there are circumstances in which the AFA may violate the bounds. In the AFA for two-phase matrix-based composites, the embedded inclusion is a particle of the inclusion phase. If the particle is directly embedded in the effective medium, the method is called here the self-consistent scheme-average field approximation (SCS-AFA), and will obey the HS-bounds for an inclusion shape that is simply connected. If the embedded entity is a matrix-coated particle, then the method is called the generalized self-consistent scheme-average field approximation (GSCS-AFA), and may violate the HS-bounds. On the other hand, in the EMA for matrix-based composites with well-separated inclusions, we

  4. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Tina R.; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette; Thorsen, Poul; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Landrø, Nils Inge; Bakketeig, Leiv S.; Grove, Jakob; Sværke, Claus; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT) and information processing time (IPT) in young children. Method Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60–64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R) was administered. Results Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1–4. Conclusion This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring. PMID:26382068

  5. Negative Effects from Psychological Treatments: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The author offers a 40-year perspective on the observation and study of negative effects from psychotherapy or psychological treatments. This perspective is placed in the context of the enormous progress in refining methodologies for psychotherapy research over that period of time, resulting in the clear demonstration of positive effects from…

  6. Pharmacological Treatment Effects on Eye Movement Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, James L.; Lencer, Rebekka; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Keedy, Sarah; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of eye movement paradigms to assess the functional integrity of brain systems involved in sensorimotor and cognitive processing in clinical disorders requires greater attention to effects of pharmacological treatments on these systems. This is needed to better differentiate disease and medication effects in clinical samples, to…

  7. Side Effects of Contingent Shock Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oorsouw, W. M. W. J.; Israel, M. L.; von Heyn, R. E.; Duker, P. C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the side effects of contingent shock (CS) treatment were addressed with a group of nine individuals, who showed severe forms of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and aggressive behavior. Side effects were assigned to one of the following four behavior categories; (a) positive verbal and nonverbal utterances, (b) negative verbal and…

  8. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Romeo B.; Baring, Rito V.; Sta. Maria, Madelene A.

    2016-01-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students. PMID:27247700

  9. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Romeo B; Baring, Rito V; Sta Maria, Madelene A

    2016-02-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.

  10. [Intensified insulin treatment is cost-effective].

    PubMed

    Reichard, P; Alm, C; Andersson, E; Wärn, I; Rosenqvist, U

    1999-01-20

    Both the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) in USA/Canada, and Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS) showed intensified insulin treatment and reduced glycaemia to prevent complications in patients with insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus. In the DCCT, the intensified treatment was considered cost-effective. In the SDIS, investigation of the direct increase in costs due to the intensified insulin treatment showed the saving in direct costs due to the reduction in photocoagulation requirements, and in the prevalence of renal insufficiency and of amputation, to correspond to 10 years' intensive insulin treatment. Thus, as intensified insulin treatment in type I diabetes reduces direct suffering at a low cost, it may be regarded as 'evidence-based' and mandatory.

  11. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Hardening of aluminium by YAG : Nd laser radiation with an average power of 0.8 kW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovsh, Ivan B.; Strekalova, M. S.

    1994-02-01

    An investigation is reported of the effects of a surface heat treatment of aluminium by a YAG : Nd laser beam with a power up to 0.8 kW. In particular, a study was made of the influence of the treatment conditions on the microhardness, as well as on the residual stresses and their sign in hardened surface layers of aluminium. The efficiency of aluminium hardening by radiation from a cw YAG : Nd laser was found to be considerably higher than in the case of a cw CO2 laser.

  12. Temperature averaging thermal probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

  13. Temperature averaging thermal probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V.

    1985-12-01

    A thermal probe to average temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.

  14. Obesity in Family Practice: Is Treatment Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret D.; Manske, Stephen R.; Schlegel, Ronald P.

    1983-01-01

    Obesity is a common condition which has important effects on health status and longevity. This review examines the efficacy of treatments for both moderate and severe obesity. A plan of treatment combining diet, exercise, and behavioral strategies is outlined. Surgery and its complications are reviewed. Eight management issues, including rate of weight loss, self-help groups, and fringe therapies, are presented. Management recommendations are based on a critical review of the weight loss literature. PMID:21283350

  15. Effective Treatments of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bingrong

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic scarring is often an unfortunate and permanent complication of acne vulgaris. It has high prevalence, significant impact on quality of life, and therapeutic challenge for dermatologists. The treatment of atrophic acne scars varies depending on the types of acne scars and the limitations of the treatment modalities in their ability to improve scars. Therefore, many options are available for the treatment of acne scarring, including chemical peeling, dermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, fat transplantation, other tissue augmenting agents, needling, subcision, and combined therapy. Various modalities have been used to treat scars, but limited efficacy and problematic side effects have restricted their application. In order to optimally treat a patient’s scar, we need to consider which treatment offers the most satisfactory result. There are also promising procedures in the future, such as stem cell therapy. In this article, the authors review the different treatment options of atrophic acne scars. This may be useful for selecting the best therapeutic strategy, whether it be single or combined therapy, in the treatment of atrophic acne scars while reducing or avoiding the side effects and complications. PMID:26029333

  16. Residual thermal stress of a mounted KDP crystal after cooling and its effects on second harmonic generation of a high-average-power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ruifeng; Liu, Haitao; Liang, Yingchun; Yu, Fuli

    2017-01-01

    Thermal problems are huge challenges for solid state lasers that are interested in high output power, cooling of the nonlinear optics is insufficient to completely solve the problem of thermally induced stress, as residual thermal stress remains after cooling, which is first proposed, to the best of our knowledge. In this paper a comprehensive model incorporating principles of thermodynamics, mechanics and optics is proposed, and it is used to study the residual thermal stress of a mounted KDP crystal after cooling process from mechanical perspective, along with the effects of the residual thermal stress on the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of a high-average-power laser. Effects of the structural parameters of the mounting configuration of the KDP crystal on the residual thermal stress are characterized, as well as the SHG efficiency. The numerical results demonstrate the feasibility of solving the problems of residual thermal stress from the perspective on structural design of mounting configuration.

  17. Validity analysis on merged and averaged data using within and between analysis: focus on effect of qualitative social capital on self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With an increasing number of studies highlighting regional social capital (SC) as a determinant of health, many studies are using multi-level analysis with merged and averaged scores of community residents’ survey responses calculated from community SC data. Sufficient examination is required to validate if the merged and averaged data can represent the community. Therefore, this study analyzes the validity of the selected indicators and their applicability in multi-level analysis. METHODS: Within and between analysis (WABA) was performed after creating community variables using merged and averaged data of community residents’ responses from the 2013 Community Health Survey in Korea, using subjective self-rated health assessment as a dependent variable. Further analysis was performed following the model suggested by WABA result. RESULTS: Both E-test results (1) and WABA results (2) revealed that single-level analysis needs to be performed using qualitative SC variable with cluster mean centering. Through single-level multivariate regression analysis, qualitative SC with cluster mean centering showed positive effect on self-rated health (0.054, p<0.001), although there was no substantial difference in comparison to analysis using SC variables without cluster mean centering or multi-level analysis. CONCLUSIONS: As modification in qualitative SC was larger within the community than between communities, we validate that relational analysis of individual self-rated health can be performed within the group, using cluster mean centering. Other tests besides the WABA can be performed in the future to confirm the validity of using community variables and their applicability in multi-level analysis. PMID:27292102

  18. Musical hallucinations: review of treatment effects

    PubMed Central

    Coebergh, Jan A. F.; Lauw, R. F.; Bots, R.; Sommer, I. E. C.; Blom, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations over the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare. Objective: To review the effects of published treatment methods for musical hallucinations. Methods: A literature search yielded 175 articles discussing a total number of 516 cases, of which 147 articles discussed treatment in 276 individuals. We analyzed the treatment results in relation to the etiological factor considered responsible for the mediation of the musical hallucinations, i.e., idiopathic/hypoacusis, psychiatric disorder, brain lesion, and other pathology, epilepsy or intoxication/pharmacology. Results: Musical hallucinations can disappear without intervention. When hallucinations are bearable, patients can be reassured without any other treatment. However, in other patients musical hallucinations are so disturbing that treatment is indicated. Distinct etiological groups appear to respond differently to treatment. In the hypoacusis group, treating the hearing impairment can yield significant improvement and coping strategies (e.g., more acoustic stimulation) are frequently helpful. Pharmacological treatment methods can also be successful, with antidepressants being possibly more helpful than antiepileptics (which are still better than antipsychotics). The limited use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors has looked promising. Musical hallucinations occurring as part of a psychiatric disorder tend to respond well to psychopharmacological treatments targeting the underlying disorder. Musical hallucinations experienced in the context of brain injuries and epilepsy tend to respond well to antiepileptics, but their natural course is often benign, irrespective of any pharmacological treatment. When intoxication/pharmacology is the main etiological factor, it is important to stop or switch the

  19. Effect of Nutritionally Relevant Doses of Long-Chain N-3 Pufa on Lipid Status, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in an Average Middle-Aged Serbian Population

    PubMed Central

    Đuričić, Ivana; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Miljković, Milica; Kerkez, Mirko; Đorđević, Vladimir; Đurašić, Ljubomir; Šobajić, Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background This study investigated the effects of a nutritionally relevant intake of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids derived from oily fish or a fish oil supplement on selected cardiovascular risk factors in average middle-aged individuals. Methods Thirty-three participants were randomized to receive salmon (oily fish) providing 274 mg EPA + 671 mg DHA/day or a commercial fish oil supplement providing 396 mg EPA + 250 mg DHA/day in a cross-over trial over an 8-week period separated by a 6-month washout period. Blood samples were collected before and after each intervention and lipids, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were determined. Results Plasma levels of EPA, DHA and total n-3 fatty acids significantly increased after both interventions. A decreasing trend in triglycerides was more pronounced with salmon than with the fish oil supplement, but the changes noticed were not significant. Although there were no relevant changes in inflammatory marker concentrations at the end of both interventions, significant negative correlations were noticed between total plasma n-3 fatty acids and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule and C-reactive protein throughout the whole intervention period (p<0.05). Among the oxidative stress parameters, intervention with salmon showed a prooxidative effect through a superoxide anion increase (p=0.025). A relevant positive correlation was also found between its concentration and total plasma n-3 fatty acids (p<0.05). Other oxidative stress markers were not significantly influenced by the dietary interventions applied. Conclusions Following two sets of recommendations for n-3 fatty acids intake aimed at the general public had only a moderate effect on the selected cardiovascular risk factors in average healthy middle-aged subjects over a short-term period. PMID:28356841

  20. Effectiveness of Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houts, Arthur C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assesses overall effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments, relative effectiveness of specific treatments, and moderators of treatment effectiveness for nocturnal enuretic children via quantitative integration of research. Findings confirm that more children benefit from psychological than from pharmacological interventions and…

  1. Effective treatment of head louse with pediculicides.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2006-05-01

    Of the pediculicides on the market, most are not 100% ovicidal and don't have a residual activity of more than 2 days. Therefore, at least 2 treatments are necessary to control the entire louse population. In order for a pediculicide to be effective it should kill all active stages of the louse after a single treatment. Otherwise remaining lice will continue laying eggs and the following treatments will not be fully effective, at least against the eggs. However, there is no general consensus as to when the second treatment should be conducted. Taking into consideration that head louse eggs hatch between 5 to 11 days, it is suggested that a second treatment should be administered 10 days after the beginning of the treatment. This might also explain why most of the clinical trials that were conducted by treating the patients twice with an interval of 6, 7, or 8 days showed a poor efficacy, and clinical trials where the pediculicide was applied with an interval of 10 days showed an efficacy level of more than 90%.

  2. Designing Digital Control Systems With Averaged Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Beale, Guy O.

    1990-01-01

    Rational criteria represent improvement over "cut-and-try" approach. Recent development in theory of control systems yields improvements in mathematical modeling and design of digital feedback controllers using time-averaged measurements. By using one of new formulations for systems with time-averaged measurements, designer takes averaging effect into account when modeling plant, eliminating need to iterate design and simulation phases.

  3. Effects of a dressed quark-gluon vertex in vector heavy-light mesons and theory average of the Bc* meson mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Rocha, M.; Hilger, T.; Krassnigg, A.

    2016-04-01

    We extend earlier investigations of heavy-light pseudoscalar mesons to the vector case, using a simple model in the context of the Dyson-Schwinger-Bethe-Salpeter approach. We investigate the effects of a dressed quark-gluon vertex in a systematic fashion and illustrate and attempt to quantify corrections beyond the phenomenologically very useful and successful rainbow-ladder truncation. In particular we investigate the dressed quark-photon vertex in such a setup and make a prediction for the experimentally as yet unknown mass of the Bc* , which we obtain at 6.334 GeV well in line with predictions from other approaches. Furthermore, we combine a comprehensive set of results from the theoretical literature. The theoretical average for the mass of the Bc* meson is 6.336 ±0.002 GeV .

  4. Neurocognitive Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Robert W.; Haser, Jennifer K.

    2006-01-01

    We review research on the neuropsychological effects that central nervous system (CNS) cancer treatments have on the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents. The authors focus on the two most common malignancies of childhood: leukemias and brain tumors. The literature review is structured so as to separate out earlier studies, generally…

  5. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, A James

    2010-07-05

    This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families) was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs) was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW) Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  6. Effects of outpatient treatment of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    van Daal, V H; Reitsma, P

    1999-01-01

    The effects of a Dutch intervention program for dyslexia are reported. The program was individually tailored, depending on the style of reading, the phase of the learning process, and the intermediate results of the treatment. Two groups of participants were involved: (a) a group of children with pure dyslexia (n = 109) and (b) a group that had reading problems but also suffered from cognitive deficits or psychiatric symptoms (n = 29). Scores of reading single words and text at intake and after the intervention were analyzed to assess the efficacy of the intervention program. Furthermore, the effects of pre-intervention variables such as intelligence, reported speech, and language problems and of intervention variables such as the initial level of performance and the duration of the treatment were examined. Both groups benefitted from the intervention, but the children with pure dyslexia profited most. Neither of the groups could catch up the reading deficit. Intelligence and reported speech and language problems did not affect the treatment outcomes. Individual differences in treatment outcome were related to the absolute level of word reading and age at intake. In the group with comorbidity, the intervention program was more successful in relatively younger children. Within this group, the cognitive deficits and types of psychiatric problems were not related to the treatment.

  7. Dissociating Averageness and Attractiveness: Attractive Faces Are Not Always Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Unger, Layla; Little, Anthony C.; Feinberg, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although the averageness hypothesis of facial attractiveness proposes that the attractiveness of faces is mostly a consequence of their averageness, 1 study has shown that caricaturing highly attractive faces makes them mathematically less average but more attractive. Here the authors systematically test the averageness hypothesis in 5 experiments…

  8. Symptoms in pediatric asthmatics and air pollution: differences in effects by symptom severity, anti-inflammatory medication use and particulate averaging time.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, R J; Zeiger, R S; Seltzer, J M; Street, D H

    1998-01-01

    Experimental research in humans and animals points to the importance of adverse respiratory effects from short-term particle exposures and to the importance of proinflammatory effects of air pollutants, particularly O(subscript)3. However, particle averaging time has not been subjected to direct scientific evaluation, and there is a lack of epidemiological research examining both this issue and whether modification of air pollutant effects occurs with differences in asthma severity and anti-inflammatory medication use. The present study examined the relationship of adverse asthma symptoms (bothersome or interfered with daily activities or sleep) to O(3) and particles (less than or equal to)10 micrometer (PM10) in a Southern California community in the air inversion zone (1200-2100 ft) with high O(3) and low PM (R = 0.3). A panel of 25 asthmatics 9-17 years of age were followed daily, August through October 1995 (n = 1,759 person-days excluding one subject without symptoms). Exposures included stationary outdoor hourly PM10 (highest 24-hr mean, 54 microgram/m(3), versus median of 1-hr maximums, 56 microgram/m(3) and O(3) (mean of 1-hr maximums, 90 ppb, 5 days (greater than or equal to)120 ppb). Longitudinal regression analyses utilized the generalized estimating equations (GEE) model controlling for autocorrelation, day of week, outdoor fungi, and weather. Asthma symptoms were significantly associated with both outdoor O(3) and PM(10) in single pollutant- and co-regressions, with 1-hr and 8-hr maximum PM(10) having larger effects than the 24-hr mean. Subgroup analyses showed effects of current day PM(10) maximums were strongest in 10 more frequently symptomatic (MS) children: the odds ratios (ORs) for adverse symptoms from 90th percentile increases were 2.24 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46-3.46] for 1-hr PM10 (47 microgram/m(3); 1.82 (CI, 1.18-2.81) for 8-hr PM10 (36 microgram/m(3); and 1.50 (CI, 0.80-2.80) for 24-hr PM10 (25 microgram/m(3). Subgroup analyses

  9. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Charlier, J; Levecke, B; Devleesschauwer, B; Vercruysse, J; Hogeveen, H

    2012-06-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to individual animals instead of the whole herd. However, such selective treatment strategies come with additional costs for labor and diagnostics and, so far, no studies have addressed whether they could be economically sustainable. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the economic effects at farm level of whole-herd versus more selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in adult dairy cows, and (2) determine how these economic effects depend on level of infection and herd size. A Monte Carlo simulation, fed by current epidemiological and economical knowledge, was used to estimate the expected economic effects and possible variation of different control strategies under Belgian conditions. Four treatment strategies were compared with a baseline situation in which no treatments were applied: whole herd at calving (S1), selective at calving with (S2) or without (S3) treatment of the first-calf cows, and whole-herd when animals are moved from grazing to the barn in the fall (housing treatment, S4). The benefit per lactation for an average dairy herd varied between -$2 and $131 (average $64) for S1, between -$2 and $127 (average $62) for S2, between -$17 and $104 (average $43) for S3, and between -$41 and $72 (average $15) for S4. The farmer's risk associated with any treatment strategy, as indicated by the width of the 95% credible intervals of economic benefit of anthelmintic treatment, decreased with increasing level of exposure, as assessed by bulk tank milk ELISA. The order of the different strategies when sorted by expected benefit was robust to changes in economic input parameters. We conclude that, on average, strategies applying anthelmintic

  10. Light-duty vehicle fuel economy improvements, 1979--1998: A consumer purchase model of corporate average fuel economy, fuel price, and income effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, David Michael

    2000-10-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, which created fuel economy standards for automobiles and light trucks, was passed by Congress in response to the rapid rise in world oil prices as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. The standards were first implemented in 1978 for automobiles and 1979 for light trucks, and began with initial standards of 18 MPG for automobiles and 17.2 MPG for light trucks. The current fuel economy standards for 1998 have been held constant at 27.5 MPG for automobiles and 20.5 MPG for light trucks since 1990--1991. While actual new automobile fuel economy has almost doubled from 14 MPG in 1974 to 27.2 MPG in 1994, it is reasonable to ask if the CAFE standards are still needed. Each year Congress attempts to pass another increase in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard and fails. Many have called for the abolition of CAFE standards citing the ineffectiveness of the standards in the past. In order to determine whether CAFE standards should be increased, held constant, or repealed, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the CAFE standards to date must be established. Because fuel prices were rising concurrently with the CAFE standards, many authors have attributed the rapid rise in new car fuel economy solely to fuel prices. The purpose of this dissertation is to re-examine the determinants of new car fuel economy via three effects: CAFE regulations, fuel price, and income effects. By measuring the marginal effects of the three fuel economy determinants upon consumers and manufacturers choices, for fuel economy, an estimate was made of the influence of each upon new fuel economy. The conclusions of this dissertation present some clear signals to policymakers: CAFE standards have been very effective in increasing fuel economy from 1979 to 1998. Furthermore, they have been the main cause of fuel economy improvement, with income being a much smaller component. Furthermore, this dissertation has suggested that fuel prices have

  11. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2009-04-15

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

  12. The Effect of High School Socioeconomic Status on the Predictive Validity of SAT Scores and High School Grade-Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Himelfarb, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Research has often found that, when high school grades and SAT scores are used to predict first-year college grade-point average (FGPA) via regression analysis, African-American and Latino students, are, on average, predicted to earn higher FGPAs than they actually do. Under various plausible models, this phenomenon can be explained in terms of…

  13. Multicomponent Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations of Reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability and Turbulent Mixing: Mach Number and Atwood Number Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran-Lopez, Tiberius; Schilling, Oleg

    2014-11-01

    Reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov turbulent mixing for various gas pairs and large shock Mach numbers is simulated using a third-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) implementation of a new K- ɛ multicomponent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model. Experiments previously performed at the University of Provence with gas pairs CO2 /He, CO2 /Ar, and CO2 /Kr (with At = - 0 . 73 , - 0 . 05 , and 0 . 3 , respectively) and incident shock Mach numbers Ma = 2 . 4 , 3 . 1 , 3 . 7 , 4 . 2 , and 4 . 5 are considered. The evolution of the mixing layer widths is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Budgets of the turbulent transport equations are used to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to turbulent mixing in large Mach number reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. These results are contrasted with those from previous modeling of smaller Mach number experiments to identify the physical effects which require accurate modeling, including mean and turbulent enthalpy diffusion, pressure-dilatation, and dilatation dissipation. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Effects of hole doping and chemical pressure on the average superconducting kinetic energy of YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, V. N.; Mendonça, A. P. A.; Dias, F. T.; da Silva, D. L.; Pureur, P.; Schaf, J.; Hneda, M. L.; Mesquita, F.

    2014-12-01

    We reported on MZFC(T) and MFCC(T) reversible dc magnetizations of YBa2Cu3O7-δ, Y0.99Ca0.01Ba2Cu3O7-δ and YBa1.75Sra0.25Cu3O7-δ single crystals with a strong focus on the effects of Ca and Sr doping on the average superconducting kinetic energy density, k(T) of the YBa2Cu3O7-δ The k(T) is used as a relevant tool to provide physical information about the HTSC paring mechanism. The determination of the k(T) from MZFC(T) and MFCC(T) data is supported by virial theorem of superconductivity [k(T) = - MB]. The MZFC(T) and MFCC(T) measurements were performed with a SQUID magnetometer to H <= 50kOe applied parallel to the c axis of the samples. The results show that the samples present a common k(T) behavior that is characterized by a maximum value for T <= Tc that gradually decreases as the temperature rises towards to the Tc, becoming null to T <= Tc. The magnetic field affects smoothly the k(T) data behavior. The k(T) results contrasting of our samples shows that the Ca and Sr doping promotes a reduction of its amplitude. A possible explanation to this feature could be associated to the fact that the hole doping character promoted by Ca doping and the chemical pressure effect motivated by Sr doping affects considerably the superconducting paring mechanism of the YBa2Cu3O7-δ.

  15. Evaluation of scatter-to-primary ratio, grid performance and normalized average glandular dose in mammography by Monte Carlo simulation including interference and energy broadening effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, D. M.; Tomal, A.; Poletti, M. E.

    2010-08-01

    In this work, a computational code for the study of imaging systems and dosimetry in conventional and digital mammography through Monte Carlo simulations is described. The developed code includes interference and Doppler energy broadening for simulation of elastic and inelastic photon scattering, respectively. The code estimates the contribution of scattered radiation to image quality through the spatial distribution of the scatter-to-primary ratio (S/P). It allows the inclusion of different designs of anti-scatter grids (linear or cellular), for evaluation of contrast improvement factor (CIF), Bucky factor (BF) and signal difference-to-noise ratio improvement factor (SIF). It also allows the computation of the normalized average glandular dose, \\bar{D}_{g,N} . These quantities were studied for different breast thicknesses and compositions, anode/filter combinations and tube potentials. Results showed that the S/P increases linearly with breast thickness, varying slightly with breast composition or the spectrum used. Evaluation of grid performance showed that the cellular grid provides the highest CIF with smaller BF. The SIF was also greater for the cellular grid, although both grids showed SIF < 1 for thin breasts. Results for \\bar{D}_{g,N} showed that it increases with the half-value layer (HVL) of the spectrum, decreases considerably with breast thickness and has a small dependence on the anode/filter combination. Inclusion of interference effects of breast tissues affected the values of S/P obtained with the grid up to 25%, while the energy broadening effect produced smaller variations on the evaluated quantities.

  16. Modeling psychiatric disorders for developing effective treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Tobias; Feng, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    The recent advance in identifying risk genes has provided an unprecedented opportunity for developing animal models for psychiatric disease research with the goal of attaining translational utility to ultimately develop novel treatments. However, at this early stage, successful translation has yet to be achieved. Here, we review recent advances in modeling psychiatric disease, discuss utility and limitations of animal models, and emphasize the importance of shifting from behavioral analysis to identifying neurophysiological defects, which are likely more conserved across species and thus increase translatability. Looking forward, we envision that preclinical research will align with clinical research to build a common framework of comparable neurobiological abnormalities and form subgroups of patients based on similar pathophysiology. Experimental neuroscience can then use animal models to discover mechanisms underlying distinct abnormalities and develop strategies for effective treatments. PMID:26340119

  17. Making and breaking the sediment record - characterising effects of tsunamis, storms and average conditions on dune erosion and recovery: a forward modelling exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelvink, Dano; Costas, Susana

    2015-04-01

    Geological records contain a wealth of information about accretionary episodes in the life of a coastal profile, such as age and type of the deposits and circumstances during which the accretion took place; of erosional events mainly the final limit of the erosion and circumstances under which the erosion took place can be estimated. To obtain a more complete picture of the events shaping the sedimentary record and transport processes involved, process-based modelling can be a useful tool (e.g. Apotsos et al., 2011). However, application of such modelling to different types of events remains a challenge. In our presentation we intend to show examples of the effects of different events on the stratigraphic record and to discuss the challenges related to the modelling of each of these types of events. The test site chosen is the Costa da Caparica, south of Lisbon, Portugal. The stratigraphic record and progradation rates of the coastal were obtained combining geophysical (Ground Penetrating Radar) and dating (Optically Stimulating Luminescence) techniques, which document very recent ages for the preserved coastal barrier. Within the record, we focus on a period around the big tsunami of 1755, during which the shoreline experienced a long-term prograding trend with evidence of severe erosion events. Rather than trying to exactly reproduce the stratigraphy observed here, we will carry out exploratory simulations to create 'building blocks' of stratigraphy related to the different types of events, which we can loosely compare with observations reported in Rebelo et al. (2013). The model applied for all simulations is XBeach (Roelvink et al., 2009), which is used in three different modes (no short waves, time-varying wave action balance, stationary wave action balance, respectively) to accommodate the impact of tsunamis, storms, and average conditions; for the latter we include the dune and associated processes in a simplified aeolian transport and response model. In all

  18. [Hyponatremia: effective treatment based on calculated outcomes].

    PubMed

    Vervoort, G; Wetzels, J F M

    2006-09-30

    A 78-year-old man was treated for symptomatic hyponatremia. Despite administration of an isotonic NaCl 0.9% solution, plasma sodium remained unchanged due to high concentrations of sodium and potassium in the urine. After infusion of a hypertonic NaCl solution, a satisfactory increase in plasma sodium was reached and symptoms resolved gradually. The hyponatremia was found to be caused by hypothyroidism, which was treated. A 70-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with loss of consciousness and hyponatremia. She was treated initially with a hypertonic NaCl 2.5% solution, which resulted in a steady increase in plasma sodium and a resolution of symptoms. Treatment was changed to an isotonic NaCl 0.9% infusion to attenuate the rise of serum sodium. Nevertheless plasma sodium increased too rapidly due to increased diuresis and reduced urinary sodium and potassium excretion. A slower increase in plasma sodium was achieved by administering a glucose 5% infusion. Hyponatremia is frequently observed in hospitalised patients. It should be treated effectively, and the rate of correction should be adapted to the clinical situation. Effective treatment is determined by calculating changes in effective osmoles and the resulting changes in the distribution of water over extra- and intracellular spaces. Changes in urine production and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium should be taken into account.

  19. Warmer is healthier: effects on mortality rates of changes in average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and temperatures in 100 U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis A; Popken, Douglas A; Ricci, Paolo F

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that reducing particulate pollution would substantially reduce average daily mortality rates, prolonging lives, especially among the elderly (age ≥ 75). These benefits are projected by statistical models of significant positive associations between levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and daily mortality rates. We examine the empirical correspondence between changes in average PM2.5 levels and temperatures from 1999 to 2000, and corresponding changes in average daily mortality rates, in each of 100 U.S. cities in the National Mortality and Morbidity Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) data base, which has extensive PM2.5, temperature, and mortality data for those 2 years. Increases in average daily temperatures appear to significantly reduce average daily mortality rates, as expected from previous research. Unexpectedly, reductions in PM2.5 do not appear to cause any reductions in mortality rates. PM2.5 and mortality rates are both elevated on cold winter days, creating a significant positive statistical relation between their levels, but we find no evidence that reductions in PM2.5 concentrations cause reductions in mortality rates. For all concerned, it is crucial to use causal relations, rather than statistical associations, to project the changes in human health risks due to interventions such as reductions in particulate air pollution.

  20. Average BER analysis of SCM-based free-space optical systems by considering the effect of IM3 with OSSB signals under turbulence channels.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wansu; Cho, Tae-Sik; Yun, Changho; Kim, Kiseon

    2009-11-09

    In this paper, we derive the average bit error rate (BER) of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM)-based free space optics (FSO) systems using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) for optical single-sideband (OSSB) signals under atmospheric turbulence channels. In particular, we consider the third-order intermodulation (IM3), a significant performance degradation factor, in the case of high input signal power systems. The derived average BER, as a function of the input signal power and the scintillation index, is employed to determine the optimum number of SCM users upon the designing FSO systems. For instance, when the user number doubles, the input signal power decreases by almost 2 dBm under the log-normal and exponential turbulence channels at a given average BER.

  1. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  2. The effects of the variations in sea surface temperature and atmospheric stability in the estimation of average wind speed by SEASAT-SASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    The average wind speeds from the scatterometer (SASS) on the ocean observing satellite SEASAT are found to be generally higher than the average wind speeds from ship reports. In this study, two factors, sea surface temperature and atmospheric stability, are identified which affect microwave scatter and, therefore, wave development. The problem of relating satellite observations to a fictitious quantity, such as the neutral wind, that has to be derived from in situ observations with models is examined. The study also demonstrates the dependence of SASS winds on sea surface temperature at low wind speeds, possibly due to temperature-dependent factors, such as water viscosity, which affect wave development.

  3. Experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the phase averaged performance characteristics of marine current turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Flack, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies describing the interaction between marine current turbines and an overlying surface gravity wave field. In this work we present an experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the wave phase averaged performance characteristics of a marine current turbine model. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D=0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large (116m long) towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy equipped with a dual-flap, servo-controlled wave maker. Three regular waves with wavelengths of 15.8, 8.8 and 3.9m with wave heights adjusted such that all waveforms have the same energy input per unit width are produced by the wave maker and model turbine is towed into the waves at constant carriage speed of 1.68 m/s. This representing the case of waves travelling in the same direction as the mean current. Thrust and torque developed by the model turbine are measured using a dynamometer mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using in in-house designed shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Free surface elevation and wave parameters are measured with two optical wave height sensors, one located in the turbine rotor plane and other one diameter upstream of the rotor. All instruments are synchronized in time and data is sampled at a rate of 700 Hz. All measured quantities are conditionally sampled as a function of the measured surface elevation and transformed to wave phase space using the Hilbert Transform. Phenomena observed in earlier experiments with the same turbine such as phase lag in the torque signal and an increase in thrust due to Stokes drift are examined and presented with the present data as well as spectral analysis of the torque and thrust data.

  4. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    MedlinePlus

    Radiotherapy - fertility; Radiation - fertility; Chemotherapy - fertility; Sexual dysfunction - cancer treatment ... Many cancer treatments can cause sexual side effects. But you are more likely to have these side effects if ...

  5. Prostate Cancer Treatments Have Varying Side Effects, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164200.html Prostate Cancer Treatments Have Varying Side Effects, Study Shows Even ' ... News) -- The long-term side effects of different prostate cancer treatments vary -- and knowing that may help men ...

  6. Treatment effect of TUSPLV on recurrent varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tian-Zhong; Wu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the treatment effect of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic varicocelectomy (TUSPLV) on recurrent varicocele (VC). In order to compare the surgical effects of TUSPLV to traditional retroperitoneal ligation of the internal spermatic vein, 64 patients with recurrent VC were enrolled and divided into the control group (n=30) and the observation group (n=34). Patients in the control group underwent surgery using traditional retroperitoneal ligation of the internal spermatic vein, while those in the observation group underwent surgery using TUSPLV. The results showed that the time of operation and bleeding volume in the observation group were significantly lower. The occurrence and recurrence rates of periprocedural complications were considerably lower in the observation group. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In terms of the pregnancy rate, the difference between the 2 groups had no statistical significance (P>0.05). We concluded that employing TUSPLV to treat recurrent VC was safe and effective. PMID:28123466

  7. Spatial limitations in averaging social cues

    PubMed Central

    Florey, Joseph; Clifford, Colin W. G.; Dakin, Steven; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The direction of social attention from groups provides stronger cueing than from an individual. It has previously been shown that both basic visual features such as size or orientation and more complex features such as face emotion and identity can be averaged across multiple elements. Here we used an equivalent noise procedure to compare observers’ ability to average social cues with their averaging of a non-social cue. Estimates of observers’ internal noise (uncertainty associated with processing any individual) and sample-size (the effective number of gaze-directions pooled) were derived by fitting equivalent noise functions to discrimination thresholds. We also used reverse correlation analysis to estimate the spatial distribution of samples used by participants. Averaging of head-rotation and cone-rotation was less noisy and more efficient than averaging of gaze direction, though presenting only the eye region of faces at a larger size improved gaze averaging performance. The reverse correlation analysis revealed greater sampling areas for head rotation compared to gaze. We attribute these differences in averaging between gaze and head cues to poorer visual processing of faces in the periphery. The similarity between head and cone averaging are examined within the framework of a general mechanism for averaging of object rotation. PMID:27573589

  8. Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

    2010-01-01

    The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

  9. Effect of mastication and other mechanical treatments on fuel structure in chaparral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical fuel treatments are a common pre-fire strategy for reducing wildfire hazard that alters fuel structure by converting live canopy fuels to a compacted layer of dead surface fuels. Current knowledge concerning their effectiveness, however, comes primarily from forest-dominated ecosystems. Our objectives were to quantify and compare changes in shrub-dominated chaparral following crushing, mastication, re-mastication and mastication-plus-burning treatments, and to assess treatment longevity. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) identified significant differences in all fuel components by treatment type, vegetation type and time since treatment. Live woody fuel components of height, cover and mass were positively correlated with time since treatment, whereas downed woody fuel components were negatively correlated. Herbaceous fuels, conversely, were not correlated, and exhibited a 5-fold increase in cover across treatment types in comparison to controls. Average live woody fuel recovery was 50% across all treatment and vegetation types. Differences in recovery between time-since-treatment years 1–8 ranged from 32–65% and exhibited significant positive correlations with time since treatment. These results suggest that treatment effectiveness is short term due to the rapid regrowth of shrubs in these systems and is compromised by the substantial increase in herbaceous fuels. Consequences of not having a full understanding of these treatments are serious and leave concern for their widespread use on chaparral-dominated landscapes.

  10. Effects of sonochemical treatment on meteoritic nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisenko, Anatolii V.; Verchovsky, Sasha B.; Shiryaev, Andrei A.; Semjonova, Luba F.

    2017-01-01

    A nanodiamond-rich fraction (NDF) separated from the Orgueil meteorite was subjected to a high-intensity ultrasonic treatment in a weakly acidic aqueous solution. After sedimentation by centrifugation, two fractions of grains (suspension, designated as OD7C and sediment, designated as OD7D) with different properties have been obtained. The following effects of the sonication were revealed from comparison of the contents and isotope compositions of C, N, and Xe released during stepped pyrolysis and combustion of the fractions OD7C and OD7D, the initial NDF and two grain-size fractions (OD10 and OD15) produced without sonication (a) surface layer of the sonicated diamond grains is modified to different extent in comparison with nontreated ones, (b) in some grains concentrations of the bulk N and Xe a reduced significantly, and (c) nondiamond nitrogen containing phases (e.g., Si3N4) have been destroyed. It is suggested that combined effects of the sonication and centrifugation observed for the fractions OD7C and OD7D are due to differences in surface chemistry of the nanodiamond grains, which statistically influences behavior of nanoparticles during the sonication resulting in their preferential modification in the different reaction zones of the cavitating fluid.

  11. The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)

  12. Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0257 TITLE: Quality of Life and Cost Effectiveness of Prostate Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ravishankar...patients across two ethnic groups, (2) analyze and compare short and long term cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer treatment across ethnic groups; and...cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer treatment across ethnic groups; and (3) analyze and compare resource utilization patterns, treatment modalities

  13. Feedback from Outcome Measures and Treatment Effectiveness, Treatment Efficiency, and Collaborative Practice: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gondek, Dawid; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Fink, Elian; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda

    2016-05-01

    Due to recent increases in the use of feedback from outcome measures in mental health settings, we systematically reviewed evidence regarding the impact of feedback from outcome measures on treatment effectiveness, treatment efficiency, and collaborative practice. In over half of 32 studies reviewed, the feedback condition had significantly higher levels of treatment effectiveness on at least one treatment outcome variable. Feedback was particularly effective for not-on-track patients or when it was provided to both clinicians and patients. The findings for treatment efficiency and collaborative practice were less consistent. Given the heterogeneity of studies, more research is needed to determine when and for whom feedback is most effective.

  14. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  15. Psychological mechanisms of effective cognitive-behavioral treatments for PTSD.

    PubMed

    Zalta, Alyson K

    2015-04-01

    Several psychotherapies have been established as effective treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) including prolonged exposure, cognitive processing therapy, and cognitive therapy for PTSD. Understanding the key mechanisms of these treatments, i.e., how these treatments lead to therapeutic benefits, will enable us to maximize the efficacy, effectiveness, and efficiency of these therapies. This article provides an overview of the theorized mechanisms for each of these treatments, reviews the recent empirical evidence on psychological mechanisms of these treatments, discusses the ongoing debates in the field, and provides recommendations for future research. Few studies to date have examined whether changes in purported treatment mechanisms predict subsequent changes in treatment outcomes. Future clinical trials examining treatments for PTSD should use study designs that enable researchers to establish the temporal precedence of change in treatment mechanisms prior to symptom reduction. Moreover, further research is needed that explores the links between specific treatment components, underlying change mechanisms, and treatment outcomes.

  16. Understanding Treatment Effect Terminology in Pain and Symptom Management Research.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Melissa M; Dowd, Bryan; Hebert, Paul L; Maciejewski, Matthew L

    2016-09-01

    Within health services and medical research, there is a wide variety of terminology related to treatment effects. Understanding differences in types of treatment effects is especially important in pain and symptom management research where nonexperimental and quasiexperimental observational data analysis is common. We use the example of a palliative care consultation team leader considering implementation of a medication reconciliation program and a care-coordination intervention reported in the literature to illustrate population-level and conditional treatment effects and to highlight the sensitivity of values of treatment effects to sample selection and treatment assignment. Our goal is to facilitate appropriate reporting and interpretation of study results and to help investigators understand what information a decision maker needs when deciding whether to implement a treatment. Greater awareness of the reasons why treatment effects may differ across studies of the same patients in the same treatment settings can help policy makers and clinicians understand to whom a study's results may be generalized.

  17. Light propagation in the averaged universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheri, Samae; Schwarz, Dominik J. E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2014-10-01

    Cosmic structures determine how light propagates through the Universe and consequently must be taken into account in the interpretation of observations. In the standard cosmological model at the largest scales, such structures are either ignored or treated as small perturbations to an isotropic and homogeneous Universe. This isotropic and homogeneous model is commonly assumed to emerge from some averaging process at the largest scales. We assume that there exists an averaging procedure that preserves the causal structure of space-time. Based on that assumption, we study the effects of averaging the geometry of space-time and derive an averaged version of the null geodesic equation of motion. For the averaged geometry we then assume a flat Friedmann-Lemaître (FL) model and find that light propagation in this averaged FL model is not given by null geodesics of that model, but rather by a modified light propagation equation that contains an effective Hubble expansion rate, which differs from the Hubble rate of the averaged space-time.

  18. Evaluation of the antihypertensive effect of barnidipine, a dihydropyridine calcium entry blocker, as determined by the ambulatory blood pressure level averaged for 24 h, daytime, and nighttime. Barnidipine Study Group.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Abe, K; Nishiyama, A; Sekino, M; Yoshinaga, K

    1997-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of barnidipine, a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, administered once daily in the morning in a dose of 5, 10, or 15 mg on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in 34 patients (51.3+/-9.6 years). Hypertension was diagnosed based on the clinic BP. The patients were classified into groups according to the ambulatory BP: group 1, dippers with true hypertension; group 2, nondippers with true hypertension; group 3, dippers with false hypertension; and Group 4, nondippers with false hypertension. Barnidipine reduced the clinic systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in all groups and significantly reduced the average 24 h ambulatory BP (133.0+/-16.5/90.7+/-12.3 mm Hg v 119.7+/-13.7/81.8+/-10.3 mm Hg, P < .0001 for both SBP and DBP). Barnidipine significantly reduced the daytime ambulatory SBP in groups 1, 2, and 3, but not in group 4, and significantly reduced daytime ambulatory DBP in group 1 but not in groups 2, 3, and 4. Barnidipine significantly reduced the nighttime ambulatory SBP only in group 2 and the nighttime ambulatory DBP in groups 2 and 4. Once-a-day administration of barnidipine influenced 24 h BP on true hypertensives (the ratio of the trough to peak effect > 50%), but had minimal effect on low BP such as the nocturnal BP in dippers and the ambulatory BP in false hypertensives. These findings suggest that barnidipine can be used safely in patients with isolated clinic ("white coat") hypertension and in those with dipping patterns of circadian BP variation whose nocturnal BP is low before treatment.

  19. Exploiting the Immunological Effects of Standard Treatments in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Exploiting the Immunological Effects of Standard Treatments in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brad H. Nelson, Ph.D...From - To) 1 MAR 2008 - 28 FEB 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploiting the immunological effects of standard treatments in 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...treatment of prostate cancer. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Tumor immunology , immunotherapy, prostate cancer, antibody, T cell, tumor antigen, hormone therapy

  20. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

    2008-10-31

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.

  1. Safe and effective treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Elewski, Boni E

    2009-06-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder that can vary in presentation from mild dandruff to dense, diffuse, adherent scale. The disorder occurs throughout the world without racial or geographic predominance; it is more common in males than females. Its precise etiology remains unknown, but the condition is strongly associated with lipophilic Malassezia yeasts found among the normal skin flora and represents a cofactor linked to several risk factors, including T-cell depression, increased sebum levels, and activation of the alternative complement pathway. The goal of treatment is symptom control, with an emphasis on the importance of maintaining patient adherence to therapy to achieve low rates of recurrence. Available therapies include corticosteroids, antifungal agents, immunomodulators, and medicated keratolytic shampoos. Although corticosteroids are associated with recurrence, they sometimes may be recommended in combination with antifungal agents. Antifungal therapy is considered primary, but some agents are more effective than others because of their favorable pharmacokinetic profiles, high rates of absorption, anti-inflammatory and antipruritic properties, and vehicle.

  2. Curative effect and costs of surgical and gamma knife treatments on intractable epilepsy caused by temporal-hippocampal sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Z T; Chen, Q X

    2015-07-31

    This study aimed to investigate the curative effect and costs of surgical and gamma knife treatments on intractable epilepsy caused by temporal-hippocampal sclerosis. The subjects comprised patients who suffered from intractable epilepsy caused by temporal-hippocampal sclerosis and received treatment in the Department of Neurosurgery of our hospital between 2010 and 2011. After obtaining their consent, patients were evaluated and selected to receive surgical or gamma knife treatments. In the surgical group, the short-term curative rate was 92.60% and the average cost was US$ 1311.50 while in the gamma knife group, the short-term curative rate was 53.79%, and the average cost was US$ 2786.90. Both surgical and gamma knife treatments of intractable epilepsy caused by temporal-hippocampal sclerosis are safe and effective, but the short-term curative effect of surgical treatment is better than that of gamma knife, and its cost is lower.

  3. Effect of variation of average pore size and specific surface area of ZnO electrode (WE) on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Nitin A.; Singh, Pramod K.; Rhee, Hee Woo; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar

    2014-10-01

    Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface area of up to 578 m2/g which was 5.54 m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with average pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43 nm and specific surface area ranging from 50.41 to 578 m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J- V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments.

  4. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  5. Preliminary observations on the effects of vector-averaged gravity on the embryonic and larval development of the gastropod mollusk, Ilyanassa obsoleta Stimpson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, G. W.; Stephens, A. P.; Conrad, A. H.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Fertilized eggs of Ilyanassa obsoleta Stimpson were collected immediately after their deposition in egg capsules. Unopened egg capsules then were affixed to glass slides, and incubated either statically (controls) or on a clinostat (experimentals). After incubation for 9-14 days, hatching occurred sooner and in a higher percentage of clinostated capsules than in controls. Embryos that hatched while undergoing clinostat incubation were abnormal in morphology, whereas other embryos present in non-hatched capsules in the same tubes appeared normal, as did embryos in the control tubes. Although the results are compatible with a conclusion that vector-averaged gravity in the experimental tubes caused the altered development, some other aspects of how the incubations were done may have contributed to the differences between the control and experimental results.

  6. Nilotinib Effective and Safe in Initial Treatment of CML

    Cancer.gov

    Preliminary results from a phase III trial testing nilotinib (Tasigna) against imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) as first-line treatment for chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) indicate that nilotinib is effective and safe as initial treatment for

  7. Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Technical Reporting: 1 year Progress Report GW080059 - Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness PI - Lisa Conboy, MA, MS, ScD...individualized acupuncture treatment on sUbjects’ overall health and disease burden. This three-year project collects main outcomes after 2 months of biweekly... acupuncture treatment. Longer-term effectiveness will be measured with a 6 month follow-up. Our objectives are to find : a successful treatment of GW I

  8. Effects of Cognitive Adjunct Treatments on Assertiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derry, Paul A.; Stone, Gerald L.

    This study examined the contribution of cognitively-oriented adjunct treatments to assertive training. Unassertive university students (N=42) were randomly assigned within an analysis of covariance design with three levels of treatment (Cognitive Self-Statement Training (CSST), Attribution Training (AT), and Behavioral Rehearsal (BR]. Multiple…

  9. Determining GPS average performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

  10. Effects of glucocorticoid treatment on bone strength.

    PubMed

    Manolides, Andrew S; Cullen, Diane M; Akhter, Mohammed P

    2010-09-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are prescribed for the treatment of several diseases, but their long-term use causes osteoporosis. Current research suggests that GCs suppress the canonical Wnt/beta pathway, resulting in decreased expression of critical bone proteins. This study examined how bone structure and strength of high bone mass (HBM) mice and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) knockout (KO+/-) mice are affected by GC treatment in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, and if changes were specific to either trabecular or cortical bone. Mice were treated with either prednisone or placebo. The femurs and L4 vertebral bodies were analyzed by micro-CT for structure and mechanically tested to determine strength and apparent material strength properties. Differences in all measured variables corresponding to GC treatment and genotype were tested using two-way ANOVA. GC treatment caused decreased structural strength parameters, weakened apparent material strength properties, and disruption of bone structure in HBM, but not LRP5+/- or WT, mice. Despite treatment-related loss, trabecular bone structure and strength remained elevated as compared to LRP5+/- and WT mice. In HBM femurs, both cortical and trabecular structure, but not strength parameters, were negatively affected by treatment. In HBM vertebral bodies, both structural and strength parameters were negatively affected by treatment.

  11. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy: II. Numerical predictions and experimental tests.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new depth-averaged mathematical model that is designed to simulate all stages of debris-flow motion, from initiation to deposition. A companion paper shows how the model’s five governing equations describe simultaneous evolution of flow thickness, solid volume fraction, basal pore-fluid pressure, and two components of flow momentum. Each equation contains a source term that represents the influence of state-dependent granular dilatancy. Here we recapitulate the equations and analyze their eigenstructure to show that they form a hyperbolic system with desirable stability properties. To solve the equations we use a shock-capturing numerical scheme with adaptive mesh refinement, implemented in an open-source software package we call D-Claw. As tests of D-Claw, we compare model output with results from two sets of large-scale debris-flow experiments. One set focuses on flow initiation from landslides triggered by rising pore-water pressures, and the other focuses on downstream flow dynamics, runout, and deposition. D-Claw performs well in predicting evolution of flow speeds, thicknesses, and basal pore-fluid pressures measured in each type of experiment. Computational results illustrate the critical role of dilatancy in linking coevolution of the solid volume fraction and pore-fluid pressure, which mediates basal Coulomb friction and thereby regulates debris-flow dynamics.

  12. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Vibrational averages along thermal lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2016-01-01

    A method is proposed for the calculation of vibrational quantum and thermal expectation values of physical properties from first principles. Thermal lines are introduced: these are lines in configuration space parametrized by temperature, such that the value of any physical property along them is approximately equal to the vibrational average of that property. The number of sampling points needed to explore the vibrational phase space is reduced by up to an order of magnitude when the full vibrational density is replaced by thermal lines. Calculations of the vibrational averages of several properties and systems are reported, namely, the internal energy and the electronic band gap of diamond and silicon, and the chemical shielding tensor of L-alanine. Thermal lines pave the way for complex calculations of vibrational averages, including large systems and methods beyond semilocal density functional theory.

  14. Steady and Unsteady Flow Effects of Circumferential Grooves Casing Treatment in a Transonic Compressor Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill

    2011-01-01

    The current paper reports on an investigation of steady and unsteady flow effects of circumferential grooves casing treatment in a transonic compressor rotor. Circumferential grooves casing treatment is used mainly to increase stall margin in axial compressors with a relatively small decrease in aerodynamic efficiency. It is widely believed that flow mechanisms of circumferential grooves casing treatment near stall conditions are not yet well understood even though this treatment has been used widely in real engines. Numerical analysis based on steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) has been the primary tool used to understand flow mechanism for circumferential grooves casing treatment. Although steady RANS explains some flow effects of circumferential grooves casing treatment, it does not calculate all the measured changes in the compressor characteristics. Therefore, design optimization of circumferential grooves with steady RANS has not been very successful. As a compressor operates toward the stall condition, the flow field becomes transient. Major sources of self-generated flow unsteadiness are shock oscillation and interaction between the passage shock and the tip leakage vortex. In the present paper, an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) approach is applied to study the effects of circumferential grooves in a transonic compressor. The results from URANS are compared with the results from RANS and measured data. The current investigation shows that there are significant unsteady flow effects on the performance of the circumferential grooves casing treatment. For the currently investigated rotor, the unsteady effects are of the same magnitude as the steady effects in terms of extending the compressor stall margin.

  15. Radial averages of astigmatic TEM images.

    PubMed

    Fernando, K Vince

    2008-10-01

    The Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) of an image, which modulates images taken from a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is usually determined from the radial average of the power spectrum of the image (Frank, J., Three-dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006). The CTF is primarily defined by the defocus. If the defocus estimate is accurate enough then it is possible to demodulate the image, which is popularly known as the CTF correction. However, it is known that the radial average is somewhat attenuated if the image is astigmatic (see Fernando, K.V., Fuller, S.D., 2007. Determination of astigmatism in TEM images. Journal of Structural Biology 157, 189-200) but this distortion due to astigmatism has not been fully studied or understood up to now. We have discovered the exact mathematical relationship between the radial averages of TEM images with and without astigmatism. This relationship is determined by a zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind and hence we can exactly quantify this distortion in the radial averages of signal and power spectra of astigmatic images. The argument to this Bessel function is similar to an aberration function (without the spherical aberration term) except that the defocus parameter is replaced by the differences of the defoci in the major and minor axes of astigmatism. The ill effects due this Bessel function are twofold. Since the zeroth order Bessel function is a decaying oscillatory function, it introduces additional zeros to the radial average and it also attenuates the CTF signal in the radial averages. Using our analysis, it is possible to simulate the effects of astigmatism in radial averages by imposing Bessel functions on idealized radial averages of images which are not astigmatic. We validate our theory using astigmatic TEM images.

  16. Albendazole treatment of echinococcosis in humans: effects on microsomal metabolism and drug tolerance.

    PubMed

    Steiger, U; Cotting, J; Reichen, J

    1990-03-01

    We prospectively studied the effect of albendazole on microsomal reserve and on first-pass activation to albendazole sulfoxide in patients with hydatid disease. An aminopyrine breath test was performed in 12 patients while they were receiving albendazole treatment and while they were not. Excretion of 14CO2 in breath averaged 0.70%.kg.mmol-1 +/- 0.20%.kg.mmol-1 without treatment and 0.54%.kg.mmol-1 +/- 0.14%.kg.mmol-1 with treatment (p less than 0.005). Plasma levels of albendazole sulfoxide were measured 4 hours after the morning dose during the first and second half of the 4-week treatment cycles. In nine of the 12 patients albendazole sulfoxide levels decreased during the second half of the cycle by an average of 0.84 +/- 0.76 mumol/L (p less than 0.02). Transaminase levels increased in 10 of the 12 patients during long-term albendazole treatment, and major side effects, including hepatotoxicity, neutropenia, and alopecia, were observed in three patients. We conclude that albendazole partially inhibits microsomal enzyme function but induces its own metabolism. Hepatotoxicity and other possible severe side effects necessitate close therapeutic monitoring of patients who are given albendazole.

  17. Differential Effects on Student Demographic Groups of Using ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite Score, Act Benchmarks, and High School Grade Point Average for Predicting Long-Term College Success through Degree Completion. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the differential effects on racial/ethnic, family income, and gender groups of using ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours…

  18. Polyhedral Painting with Group Averaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Frank A.; Tsao, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The technique of "group-averaging" produces colorings of a sphere that have the symmetries of various polyhedra. The concepts are accessible at the undergraduate level, without being well-known in typical courses on algebra or geometry. The material makes an excellent discovery project, especially for students with some background in…

  19. Average power meter for laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevnina, Elena I.; Maraev, Anton A.; Ishanin, Gennady G.

    2016-04-01

    Advanced metrology equipment, in particular an average power meter for laser radiation, is necessary for effective using of laser technology. In the paper we propose a measurement scheme with periodic scanning of a laser beam. The scheme is implemented in a pass-through average power meter that can perform continuous monitoring during the laser operation in pulse mode or in continuous wave mode and at the same time not to interrupt the operation. The detector used in the device is based on the thermoelastic effect in crystalline quartz as it has fast response, long-time stability of sensitivity, and almost uniform sensitivity dependence on the wavelength.

  20. Effects of Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatment on Smokeless Tobacco Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatsukami, Dorothy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the effects of 2 mg of nicotine polacrilex versus placebo gum and a group behavioral treatment versus minimal contact on cessation of smokeless tobacco use. Participants (n=210) were randomly assigned 1 of the 4 treatment conditions. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed throughout the treatment. Discusses findings. (KW)

  1. Effectiveness and safety of topical tacrolimus in treatment of vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Rokni, Ghasem Rahmatpour; Golpour, Massoud; Gorji, Alimorad Heidari; Khalilian, Alireza; Ghasemi, Hamta

    2017-01-01

    Vitiligo is one of the most primitive well-known dermatoid disorders with different suggested therapies. Therefore, this study investigated the efficiency and safety of topical tacrolimus in treatment of patients with vitiligo. This study was a clinical randomized designed study pre- post-test method, has been conducted on thirty cases with vitiligo who have referred to polyclinic and dermatology clinic. Participant's evaluated and demographic information recorded in designed checklist. In the next stage, the disease activity scored by vitiligo index disease activity system. Photography and depigmentation percent has recorded before treatment and further in 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th, and 24th weeks. Finally, gathered data compared through SPSS-20 software. The final sample comprised 30 persons including: 12 men (40%) and 18 women (60%). The average of patient's age in this study was 26/13 ± 18/20 (2-76-year-old). Eleven persons was ≤15 years old and rest was older than 15. Sixty-six lesions have funded in patients that maximum has accrued on face and neck (37/87%) and trunk (21/21%). In addition, minimum of lesions is related to genitalia (9/09%). In the in 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th weeks, improvement in face and neck had increased significantly, into the past weeks. In the 20th and 24th weeks, the improvement has increased although it was not significant enhancement. Also about trunk, in the 4th week the improvement does not have significant increasing in compare to the past week. In the eighth, 12th, 16th, 20th, and 24th weeks the improvement has been increased significantly in compare to the past weeks. Although in the case of limbs and genitalia, the improvement was lower. There was no significant difference between male and females and age. Although the improvement was, slow in older persons. Study results, has presented applying topical tacrolimus in vitiligo, particularly in face and neck, could be effective and does not seen any specified adverse effects

  2. Microplastics in Sewage Sludge: Effects of Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mahon, A M; O'Connell, B; Healy, M G; O'Connor, I; Officer, R; Nash, R; Morrison, L

    2017-01-17

    Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are receptors for the cumulative loading of microplastics (MPs) derived from industry, landfill, domestic wastewater and stormwater. The partitioning of MPs through the settlement processes of wastewater treatment results in the majority becoming entrained in the sewage sludge. This study characterized MPs in sludge samples from seven WWTPs in Ireland which use anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal drying (TD), or lime stabilization (LS) treatment processes. Abundances ranged from 4196 to 15 385 particles kg(-1) (dry weight). Results of a general linear mixed model (GLMM) showed significantly higher abundances of MPs in smaller size classes in the LS samples, suggesting that the treatment process of LS shears MP particles. In contrast, lower abundances of MPs found in the AD samples suggests that this process may reduce MP abundances. Surface morphologies examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed characteristics of melting and blistering of TD MPs and shredding and flaking of LS MPs. This study highlights the potential for sewage sludge treatment processes to affect the risk of MP pollution prior to land spreading and may have implications for legislation governing the application of biosolids to agricultural land.

  3. Nonparametric Bounds and Sensitivity Analysis of Treatment Effects

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Amy; Hudgens, Michael G.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Fine, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers conducting inference about the effect of a treatment (or exposure) on an outcome of interest. In the ideal setting where treatment is assigned randomly, under certain assumptions the treatment effect is identifiable from the observable data and inference is straightforward. However, in other settings such as observational studies or randomized trials with noncompliance, the treatment effect is no longer identifiable without relying on untestable assumptions. Nonetheless, the observable data often do provide some information about the effect of treatment, that is, the parameter of interest is partially identifiable. Two approaches are often employed in this setting: (i) bounds are derived for the treatment effect under minimal assumptions, or (ii) additional untestable assumptions are invoked that render the treatment effect identifiable and then sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess how inference about the treatment effect changes as the untestable assumptions are varied. Approaches (i) and (ii) are considered in various settings, including assessing principal strata effects, direct and indirect effects and effects of time-varying exposures. Methods for drawing formal inference about partially identified parameters are also discussed. PMID:25663743

  4. Instrument to average 100 data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, G. B.; Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    An instrumentation system is currently under development which will measure many of the important parameters associated with the operation of an internal combustion engine. Some of these parameters include mass-fraction burn rate, ignition energy, and the indicated mean effective pressure. One of the characteristics of an internal combustion engine is the cycle-to-cycle variation of these parameters. A curve-averaging instrument has been produced which will generate the average curve, over 100 cycles, of any engine parameter. the average curve is described by 2048 discrete points which are displayed on an oscilloscope screen to facilitate recording and is available in real time. Input can be any parameter which is expressed as a + or - 10-volt signal. Operation of the curve-averaging instrument is defined between 100 and 6000 rpm. Provisions have also been made for averaging as many as four parameters simultaneously, with a subsequent decrease in resolution. This provides the means to correlate and perhaps interrelate the phenomena occurring in an internal combustion engine. This instrument has been used successfully on a 1975 Chevrolet V8 engine, and on a Continental 6-cylinder aircraft engine. While this instrument was designed for use on an internal combustion engine, with some modification it can be used to average any cyclically varying waveform.

  5. Teachers' Adherence to Highly Effective Instructional Practices as Related to Graduation Rates in Average-Need School Districts in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yannucci, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate school administrators' perceptions of teachers' adherence to the highly effective critical attributes of the four domains of Charlotte Danielson's "Framework for Teaching" (Planning and Preparation, The Classroom Environment, Instruction, and Professional Responsibilities) in kindergarten…

  6. Motivated Assessment: The Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on the Individually-Administered Reading Test Performance of Low, Average, and High IQ Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheady, Larry; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Results indicated that extrinsic rewards improved students' test performances significantly more than no rewards or feedback reward conditions. These improvements in performance were noted for all students under extrinsic reward conditions, thereby extending the effectiveness of these procedures across IQ levels. (Author/CL)

  7. Cost-effectiveness of trachoma control measures: comparing targeted household treatment and mass treatment of children.

    PubMed Central

    Frick, K. D.; Lietman, T. M.; Holm, S. O.; Jha, H. C.; Chaudhary, J. S.; Bhatta, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study compares the cost-effectiveness of targeted household treatment and mass treatment of children in the most westerly part of Nepal. METHODS: Effectiveness was measured as the percentage point change in the prevalence of trachoma. Resource measures included personnel time required for treatment, transportation, the time that study subjects had to wait to receive treatment, and the quantity of azithromycin used. The costs of the programme were calculated from the perspectives of the public health programme sponsor, the study subjects, and the society as a whole. FINDINGS: Previous studies have indicated no statistically significant differences in effectiveness, and the present work showed no significant differences in total personnel and transportation costs per child aged 1-10 years, the total time that adults spent waiting, or the quantity of azithromycin per child. However, the mass treatment of children was slightly more effective and used less of each resource per child aged 1-10 years than the targeted treatment of households. CONCLUSION: From all perspectives, the mass treatment of children is at least as effective and no more expensive than targeted household treatment, notwithstanding the absence of statistically significant differences. Less expensive targeting methods are required in order to make targeted household treatment more cost-effective. PMID:11285663

  8. Effect of heat-treatment temperatures on density and porosity in MgB 2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. F.; Yan, G.; Du, S. J.; Xi, W.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, P. X.; Wu, X. Z.; Zhou, L.

    2003-04-01

    The density, porosity, and microstructures of MgB 2 samples are very important factors for transition critical current density. The effect of heat-treatment temperatures on density and porosity in MgB 2 superconductors has been investigated. The open porosity increases with increasing heat-treatment temperatures, but close porosity decreases. The calculated theory densities from the lattice parameters of the measured samples are 2.6-2.63 g/cm 3. The average measured total porosity (including open and close porosity) is about 50%.

  9. Personality and Treatment Effectiveness in Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Dagna K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared pre- and posttreatment Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profiles of female inpatients (N=12) with anorexia nervosa. Results showed change after treatment, and found that pretreatment profiles obtained at a different hospital were remarkably similar, which suggests a common constellation of personality characteristics in…

  10. Effect of fluctuations on time-averaged multi-line NO-LIF thermometry measurements of the gas-phase temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feroughi, Omid M.; Kronemayer, Helmut; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof

    2015-09-01

    Multi-line NO laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) thermometry enables accurate gas-phase temperature imaging in combustion systems through least-squares fitting of excitation spectra. The required excitation wavelength scan takes several minutes which systematic biases the results in case of temperature fluctuations. In this work, the effect of various types (linear, Gaussian and bimodal) and amplitudes of temperature fluctuations is quantified based on simulated NO-LIF excitation spectra. Temperature fluctuations of less than ±5 % result in a negligible error of less than ±1 % in temperature for all cases. Bimodal temperature distributions have the largest effect on the determined temperature. Symmetric temperature fluctuations around 900 K have a negligible effect. At lower mean temperatures, fluctuations cause a positive bias leading to over-predicted mean temperatures, while at higher temperatures the bias is negative. The results of the theoretical analysis were applied as a guide for interpreting experimental multi-line NO-LIF temperature measurements in a mildly turbulent pilot-plant scale flame reactor dedicated for nanoparticle synthesis.

  11. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  12. Treatment selection in a randomized clinical trial via covariate-specific treatment effect curves.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunbei; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2017-02-01

    For time-to-event data in a randomized clinical trial, we proposed two new methods for selecting an optimal treatment for a patient based on the covariate-specific treatment effect curve, which is used to represent the clinical utility of a predictive biomarker. To select an optimal treatment for a patient with a specific biomarker value, we proposed pointwise confidence intervals for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between covariate-specific treatment effect curves of two treatments. Furthermore, to select an optimal treatment for a future biomarker-defined subpopulation of patients, we proposed confidence bands for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between each pair of covariate-specific treatment effect curve over a fixed interval of biomarker values. We constructed the confidence bands based on a resampling technique. We also conducted simulation studies to evaluate finite-sample properties of the proposed estimation methods. Finally, we illustrated the application of the proposed method in a real-world data set.

  13. Adverse effects of orthodontic treatment: A clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Talic, Nabeel F.

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment is associated with a number of adverse effects, such as root resorption, pain, pulpal changes, periodontal disease, and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Orthodontists should be aware of these effects and associated risk factors. Risk factors linked to root resorption include the duration of treatment, length, and shape of the root, trauma history, habits, and genetic predisposition. PMID:24151415

  14. Maximizing cost-effectiveness by adjusting treatment strategy according to glaucoma severity

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Ricardo Augusto Paletta; Guedes, Vanessa Maria Paletta; Gomes, Carlos Eduardo de Mello; Chaoubah, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study is to determine the most cost-effective strategy for the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Brazil, from the payer's perspective (Brazilian Public Health System) in the setting of the Glaucoma Referral Centers. Methods: Study design was a cost-effectiveness analysis of different treatment strategies for POAG. We developed 3 Markov models (one for each glaucoma stage: early, moderate and advanced), using a hypothetical cohort of POAG patients, from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and a horizon of the average life expectancy of the Brazilian population. Different strategies were tested according to disease severity. For early glaucoma, we compared observation, laser and medications. For moderate glaucoma, medications, laser and surgery. For advanced glaucoma, medications and surgery. Main outcome measures were ICER (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio), medical direct costs and QALY (quality-adjusted life year). Results: In early glaucoma, both laser and medical treatment were cost-effective (ICERs of initial laser and initial medical treatment over observation only, were R$ 2,811.39/QALY and R$ 3,450.47/QALY). Compared to observation strategy, the two alternatives have provided significant gains in quality of life. In moderate glaucoma population, medical treatment presented the highest costs among treatment strategies. Both laser and surgery were highly cost-effective in this group. For advanced glaucoma, both tested strategies were cost-effective. Starting age had a great impact on results in all studied groups. Initiating glaucoma therapy using laser or surgery were more cost-effective, the younger the patient. Conclusion: All tested treatment strategies for glaucoma provided real gains in quality of life and were cost-effective. However, according to the disease severity, not all strategies provided the same cost-effectiveness profile. Based on our findings, there should be a

  15. Side effects as influencers of treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Zafar

    2008-01-01

    Research relative to the efficacy of a therapeutic agent commands a clinician's greatest interest, but treatment decisions are made based on optimizing efficacy and tolerability/safety considerations. Second-generation atypical antipsychotic drugs are a study in the importance of taking a careful look at the full benefit-risk profile of each drug. The disorders that atypical antipsychotics are approved to treat--schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder--are associated with an increased rate of certain medical comorbidities compared to the general population. Between-drug differences in efficacy are relatively modest for the atypicals, or between atypicals and conventionals, while differences in safety and tolerability are larger and more clinically relevant. The current article will provide a brief summary of safety-related issues that influence treatment outcome and choice of drug.

  16. Invisalign: current guidelines for effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Kuncio, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Invisalign is an increasingly popular technique for aligning teeth and correcting malocclusions orthodontically. This article analyzes the current professional literature published on Invisalign and the benefits and risks of using the technique for both patients and doctors. The steady increase in the number of cases treated with Invisalign and where the technique is going in the future is investigated. Ten guidelines for Invisalign treatment and patient selection are given, along with case examples.

  17. Effects of heat treatment parameters on liquid whole egg proteins.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Soykut, Esra Acar; Ertaş, Nusret

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of heat treatment parameters on liquid whole egg (LWE) proteins by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Heat treatment (at 60-68°C for 1-5min) was applied to LWE. Treated LWE was centrifuged and supernatant was taken for measurement of UV-VIS spectroscopy and CE. The change in UV absorbance showed loss of protein solubility depending on heat treatments parameters. Electropherograms of samples demonstrated the effect of treatment parameters on composition of LWE proteins. It was found that conalbumin and lysozyme were influenced by the treatment, while ovalbumin and ovomucoid were not affected. CE combined with principal component analysis (PCA) was used for classification of samples untreated or treated and treated at different treatment parameters. The results of the study revealed that the extent of heat treatment in LWE samples could be determined with PCA of the CE measurements.

  18. Duration effects in contingency management treatment of methamphetamine disorders.

    PubMed

    Roll, John M; Chudzynski, Joy; Cameron, Jennifer M; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether different durations of contingency management (CM) in conjunction with psychosocial treatment produced different rates of abstinence among methamphetamine dependent individuals. Participants were randomized to one of the four 16-week treatment conditions: standard psychosocial treatment or psychosocial treatment plus one of the three durations of CM (one-month, two-month, or four-month). A total of 118 participants were randomized to the four treatment conditions. There were significant differences across treatment conditions for number of consecutive days of methamphetamine abstinence (p<0.05). These differences were in the hypothesized direction, as participants were more likely to remain abstinent through the 16-week trial as CM duration increased. A significant effect of treatment condition (p<0.05) and time (p<0.05) on abstinence over time was also found. Longer durations of CM were more effective for maintaining methamphetamine abstinence.

  19. Evaluating the effect of synchronized sea lice treatments in Chile.

    PubMed

    Arriagada, G; Stryhn, H; Sanchez, J; Vanderstichel, R; Campistó, J L; Rees, E E; Ibarra, R; St-Hilaire, S

    2017-01-01

    The sea louse is considered an important ectoparasite that affects farmed salmonids around the world. Sea lice control relies heavily on pharmacological treatments in several salmon-producing countries, including Chile. Among options for drug administration, immersion treatments represent the majority of antiparasitic control strategies used in Chile. As a topical procedure, immersion treatments do not induce a long lasting effect; therefore, re-infestation from neighbouring farms may undermine their efficacy. Synchronization of treatments has been proposed as a strategy to improve immersion treatment performance, but it has not been evaluated so far. Using a repeated-measures linear mixed-effect model, we evaluated the impact of treatment synchronization of neighbouring farms (within 10km seaway distance) on the adult lice mean abundance from weeks 2 to 8 post-treatment on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon farms in Chile, while controlling for external and internal sources of lice before the treatments, and also for environmental and fish-related variables. Results indicate that treatment synchronization was significantly associated with lower adult lice levels from weeks 5 to 7 after treatment. This relationship appeared to be linear, suggesting that higher levels of synchronization may result in lower adult sea lice levels during these weeks. These findings suggest that synchronization can improve the performance of immersion delousing treatments by keeping sea lice levels low for a longer period of time. Our results may be applicable to other regions of the world where immersion treatments are widely used.

  20. Revisiting the effectiveness of methadone treatment on crime reductions in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Rothbard, A; Alterman, A; Rutherford, M; Liu, F; Zelinski, S; McKay, J

    1999-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between methadone treatment and the criminal activity of 126 individuals participating in treatment during the early 1990s. The primary question addressed is to what extent is methadone maintenance treatment associated with reductions in crime? Although prior studies in the 1970s and early 1980s showed significant decreases in crime for individuals in treatment programs, criteria for remaining in this treatment modality have changed in recent years, particularly with the advent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and the need to reduce intravenous drug use. A pre-post study design is employed spanning a 6-year time period of subject recruitment and follow-up (1987-1993). Uniform administrative records on arrests are used for the analyses. A multiple regression model is employed to explain the variance in the number of arrests 2 years following program admission, with prior criminal history, prior and current drug treatment, and current cocaine use employed as explanatory variables. Results indicate that treatment retention has only a slight, though significant, effect on reducing criminal activity during treatment. Two other factors that appear to increase arrest activity are the use of cocaine and prior criminal history. The fact that arrests did not decrease during a treatment period of 18 months on average requires more investigation in light of the increase in cocaine use in this population.

  1. STUDY OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY (226Ra, 232Th AND 40K) IN SOIL SAMPLES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF AVERAGE EFFECTIVE DOSE AND RADIATION HAZARDS.

    PubMed

    Bangotra, Pargin; Mehra, Rohit; Kaur, Kirandeep; Jakhu, Rajan

    2016-10-01

    The activity concentration of (226)Ra (radium), (232)Th (thorium) and (40)K (potassium) has been measured in the soil samples collected from Mansa and Muktsar districts of Punjab (India) using NaI (Tikl) gamma detector. The concentration of three radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the studied area has been varied from 18±4 to 46±5, 53±7 to 98±8 and 248±54 to 756±110 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) have been calculated in soil samples for the assessment of the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these soil samples. The absorbed dose rate of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in studied area has been varied from 8 to 21, 33 to 61 and 9 to 25 nGy h(-1), respectively. The corresponding indoor and outdoor annual effective dose in studied area was 0.38 and 0.09 mSv, respectively. The external and internal hazard has been also calculated for the assessment of radiation hazards in the studied area.

  2. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPULSORY DRUG TREATMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Werb, D; Kamarulzaman, A; Meacham, MC; Rafful, C; Fisher, B; Strathdee, SA; Wood, E

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite widespread implementation of compulsory treatment modalities for drug dependence, there has been no systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of compulsory drug treatment. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing the outcomes of compulsory treatment. We conducted a search in duplicate of all relevant peer-reviewed scientific literature evaluating compulsory treatment modalities. The following academic databases were searched: PubMed, PAIS International, Proquest, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Soc Abstracts, JSTOR, EBSCO/Academic Search Complete, REDALYC, SciELO Brazil. We also searched the Internet, and article reference lists, from database inception to July 15th, 2015. Eligibility criteria are as follows: peer-reviewed scientific studies presenting original data. Primary outcome of interest was post-treatment drug use. Secondary outcome of interest was post-treatment criminal recidivism. Results Of an initial 430 potential studies identified, nine quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies evaluated compulsory treatment options including drug detention facilities, short (i.e. 21-day) and long-term (i.e., 6 months) inpatient treatment, community-based treatment, group-based outpatient treatment, and prison-based treatment. Three studies (33%) reported no significant impacts of compulsory treatment compared with control interventions. Two studies (22%) found equivocal results but did not compare against a control condition. Two studies (22%) observed negative impacts of compulsory treatment on criminal recidivism. Two studies (22%) observed positive impacts of compulsory inpatient treatment on criminal recidivism and drug use. Conclusion There is limited scientific literature evaluating compulsory drug treatment. Evidence does not, on the whole, suggest improved outcomes related to compulsory treatment approaches, with some studies suggesting potential harms. Given the potential for human

  3. Intralesional Cryotherapy for the Treatment of Keloid Scars: Evaluating Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bulstra, Anne Eva J.; Ket, Johannes C. F.; Ritt, Marco J. P. F.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Niessen, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intralesional (IL) cryotherapy is a novel treatment technique for keloid scars, in which the scar is frozen from inside. Over the past decade, several studies have been published with varying outcomes. A critical analysis of the current literature is, therefore, warranted to determine whether IL cryotherapy is an alternative to established keloid scar treatments. Methods: A comprehensive review was performed, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception. Studies and level of recommendation were graded according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons criteria. Results: Eight studies meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The average scar volume decrease ranged from 51% to 63%, but no complete scar eradication was achieved on average. Scar recurrence ranged from 0% to 24%. Hypopigmentation posttreatment was seen mostly in Fitzpatrick 4–6 skin type patients. Finally, complaints of pain and pruritus decreased significantly in most studies. Conclusions: IL cryotherapy for the treatment of keloid scars shows favorable results in terms of volume reduction and alleviated complaints of pain and pruritus. However, no complete scar eradication is established, and recurrences are seen. Also, persistent hypopigmentation proved a problem in Fitzpatrick 4–6 skin type patients. Summarized, the evidence proved limited and inconsistent resulting in an American Society of Plastic Surgeons grade C recommendation for this type of treatment of keloid scars. PMID:26180738

  4. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia.

    PubMed

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S

    2013-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  5. Morphometric analysis of treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction in growing Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, H. J.; Cevidanes, L. H.; Franchi, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present morphometric investigation was to evaluate the effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) in the treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion. The shape and size changes in the craniofacial configuration of a sample of 26 children with Class III malocclusions consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol were compared with a matched sample of 15 children with untreated Class III malocclusions. All subjects in the two groups were at a prepubertal stage of skeletal development at time of first observation. Average duration of treatment was 14 months. Significant treatment-induced modifications involved both the maxilla and the mandible. The most evident deformation consisted of marked forward displacement of the maxillary complex with more moderate favourable effects in the mandible. Deformations in the vertical dimension were not detected. The significant deformations were associated with significant differences in size in the group treated with the BAMP protocol. PMID:21187527

  6. Common Language Effect Size for Multiple Treatment Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2015-01-01

    Researchers who need to explain treatment effects to laypeople can translate Cohen's effect size (standardized mean difference) to a common language effect size--a probability of a random observation from one population being larger than a random observation from the other population. This common language effect size can be extended to represent…

  7. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the

  8. A pharmacokinetic/viral kinetic model to evaluate the treatment effectiveness of danoprevir against chronic HCV

    SciTech Connect

    Canini, Laetitia; Chatterjee, Anushree; Guedj, Jeremie; Lemenuel-Diot, Annabelle; Brennan, Barbara; Smith, Patrick F.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2014-10-16

    Background—Viral kinetic models have proven useful to characterize treatment effectiveness during HCV therapy with interferon (IFN) or with direct acting antivirals (DAAs). Methods—We use a pharmacokinetic/viral kinetic (PK/VK) model to describe HCV RNA kinetics during treatment with danoprevir, a protease inhibitor. In a phase 1 study, danoprevir monotherapy was administered for 14 days in ascending doses ranging from 200 to 600 mg per day to 40 patients of whom 32 were treatment-naïve and 8 were non-responders to prior PEG-IFN-α/ribavirin treatment. Results—In most patients, a biphasic decline of HCV RNA during therapy was observed. A two-compartment PK model and a VK model that considered treatment effectiveness to vary with the predicted danoprevir concentration inside the second compartment provided a good fit to the viral load data. A time-varying effectiveness model was also used to fit the viral load data. We found the antiviral effectiveness increased in a dose-dependent manner, with a 14-day time-averaged effectiveness of 0.95 at the lowest dose (100 mg bid) and 0.99 at the highest dose (200 mg tid). Prior IFN non-responders exhibited a 14-day time-averaged effectiveness of 0.98 (300 mg bid). Finally, the second phase decline showed two different behaviors, with 30% of patients exhibiting a rapid decline of HCV RNA, comparable to that seen with other protease inhibitors (>0.3 d-1), whereas the viral decline was slower in the other patients. Conclusions—Our results are consistent with the modest SVR rates from the INFORM-SVR study where patients were treated with a combination of mericitabine and ritonavir-boosted danoprevir.

  9. A pharmacokinetic/viral kinetic model to evaluate the treatment effectiveness of danoprevir against chronic HCV

    DOE PAGES

    Canini, Laetitia; Chatterjee, Anushree; Guedj, Jeremie; ...

    2014-10-16

    Background—Viral kinetic models have proven useful to characterize treatment effectiveness during HCV therapy with interferon (IFN) or with direct acting antivirals (DAAs). Methods—We use a pharmacokinetic/viral kinetic (PK/VK) model to describe HCV RNA kinetics during treatment with danoprevir, a protease inhibitor. In a phase 1 study, danoprevir monotherapy was administered for 14 days in ascending doses ranging from 200 to 600 mg per day to 40 patients of whom 32 were treatment-naïve and 8 were non-responders to prior PEG-IFN-α/ribavirin treatment. Results—In most patients, a biphasic decline of HCV RNA during therapy was observed. A two-compartment PK model and a VKmore » model that considered treatment effectiveness to vary with the predicted danoprevir concentration inside the second compartment provided a good fit to the viral load data. A time-varying effectiveness model was also used to fit the viral load data. We found the antiviral effectiveness increased in a dose-dependent manner, with a 14-day time-averaged effectiveness of 0.95 at the lowest dose (100 mg bid) and 0.99 at the highest dose (200 mg tid). Prior IFN non-responders exhibited a 14-day time-averaged effectiveness of 0.98 (300 mg bid). Finally, the second phase decline showed two different behaviors, with 30% of patients exhibiting a rapid decline of HCV RNA, comparable to that seen with other protease inhibitors (>0.3 d-1), whereas the viral decline was slower in the other patients. Conclusions—Our results are consistent with the modest SVR rates from the INFORM-SVR study where patients were treated with a combination of mericitabine and ritonavir-boosted danoprevir.« less

  10. Percutaneous Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Nodules Is Effective and Safe in Pregnant Women: A Study of 13 Patients with an Average Follow-Up of 6.8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Solymosi, Tamas; Melczer, Zsolt; Szabolcs, Istvan; Nagy, Endre V.; Goth, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because of the increased risk of surgery, thyroid nodules causing compression signs and/or hyperthyroidism are concerning during pregnancy. Patients and Methods. Six patients with nontoxic cystic, four with nontoxic solid, and three with overt hyperthyroidism caused by toxic nodules were treated with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI). An average of 0.68 mL ethanol per 1 mL nodule volume was administered. Mean number of PEI treatments for patients was 2.9. Success was defined as the shrinkage of the nodule by more than 50% of the pretreatment volume (V0) and the normalization of TSH and FT4 levels. The average V0 was 15.3 mL. Short-term success was measured prior to labor, whereas long-term success was determined during the final follow-up (an average of 6.8 years). Results. The pressure symptoms decreased in all but one patient after PEI and did not worsen until delivery. The PEI was successful in 11 (85%) and 7 (54%) patients at short-term and long-term follow-up, respectively. Three patients underwent repeat PEI which was successful in 2 patients. Conclusions. PEI is a safe tool and seems to have good short-term results in treating selected symptomatic pregnant patients. Long-term success may require repeat PEI. PMID:26697066

  11. ESTIMATING TREATMENT EFFECTS ON HEALTHCARE COSTS UNDER EXOGENEITY: IS THERE A 'MAGIC BULLET'?

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Polsky, Daniel; Manning, Willard G

    2011-07-01

    Methods for estimating average treatment effects, under the assumption of no unmeasured confounders, include regression models; propensity score adjustments using stratification, weighting, or matching; and doubly robust estimators (a combination of both). Researchers continue to debate about the best estimator for outcomes such as health care cost data, as they are usually characterized by an asymmetric distribution and heterogeneous treatment effects,. Challenges in finding the right specifications for regression models are well documented in the literature. Propensity score estimators are proposed as alternatives to overcoming these challenges. Using simulations, we find that in moderate size samples (n= 5000), balancing on propensity scores that are estimated from saturated specifications can balance the covariate means across treatment arms but fails to balance higher-order moments and covariances amongst covariates. Therefore, unlike regression model, even if a formal model for outcomes is not required, propensity score estimators can be inefficient at best and biased at worst for health care cost data. Our simulation study, designed to take a 'proof by contradiction' approach, proves that no one estimator can be considered the best under all data generating processes for outcomes such as costs. The inverse-propensity weighted estimator is most likely to be unbiased under alternate data generating processes but is prone to bias under misspecification of the propensity score model and is inefficient compared to an unbiased regression estimator. Our results show that there are no 'magic bullets' when it comes to estimating treatment effects in health care costs. Care should be taken before naively applying any one estimator to estimate average treatment effects in these data. We illustrate the performance of alternative methods in a cost dataset on breast cancer treatment.

  12. Natural Acne Treatment: What's Most Effective?

    MedlinePlus

    ... be helpful in reducing acne inflammation and breakouts: Tea tree oil. Gels containing 5 percent tea tree oil may be as effective as are lotions containing 5 percent benzoyl peroxide, although tea tree oil might work more slowly. Possible side ...

  13. Psychopharmacologic Treatment: A Note on Classroom Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for teachers, the article provides an introduction to the four major classes of psychotropic medication (stimulants, tranquilizers, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants) commonly prescribed for children with learning or behavioral disorders. Specific effects on the classroom are addressed. (DB)

  14. Effective physical treatment for chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Maher, C G

    2004-01-01

    It is now feasible to adopt an evidence-based approach when providing physical treatment for patients with chronic LBP. A summary of the efficacy of a range of physical treatments is provided in Table 1. The evidence-based primary care options are exercise, laser, massage, and spinal manipulation; however, the latter three have small or transient effects that limit their value as therapies for chronic LBP. In contrast, exercise produces large reductions in pain and disability, a feature that suggests that exercise should play a major role in the management of chronic LBP. Physical treatments, such as acupuncture, backschool, hydrotherapy, lumbar supports, magnets, TENS, traction, ultrasound, Pilates therapy, Feldenkrais therapy, Alexander technique, and craniosacral therapy are either of unknown value or ineffective and so should not be considered. Outside of primary care, multidisciplinary treatment or functional restoration is effective; however, the high cost probably means that these programs should be reserved for patients who do not respond to cheaper treatment options for chronic LBP. Although there are now effective treatment options for chronic LBP, it needs to be acknowledged that the problem of chronic LBP is far from solved. Though treatments can provide marked improvements in the patient's condition, the available evidence suggests that the typical chronic LBP patient is left with some residual pain and disability. Developing new, more powerful treatments and refining the current group of known effective treatments is the challenge for the future.

  15. Reconstruction versus conservative treatment after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament: cost effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The decision whether to treat conservatively or reconstruct surgically a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an ongoing subject of debate. The high prevalence and associated public health burden of torn ACL has led to continuous efforts to determine the best therapeutic approach. A critical evaluation of benefits and expenditures of both treatment options as in a cost effectiveness analysis seems well-suited to provide valuable information for treating physicians and healthcare policymakers. Methods A literature review identified four of 7410 searched articles providing sufficient outcome probabilities for the two treatment options for modeling. A transformation key based on the expert opinions of 25 orthopedic surgeons was used to derive utilities from available evidence. The cost data for both treatment strategies were based on average figures compiled by Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist and reinforced by Swiss national statistics. A decision tree was constructed to derive the cost-effectiveness of each strategy, which was then tested for robustness using Monte Carlo simulation. Results Decision tree analysis revealed a cost effectiveness of 16,038 USD/0.78 QALY for ACL reconstruction and 15,466 USD/0.66 QALY for conservative treatment, implying an incremental cost effectiveness of 4,890 USD/QALY for ACL reconstruction. Sensitivity analysis of utilities did not change the trend. Conclusion ACL reconstruction for reestablishment of knee stability seems cost effective in the Swiss setting based on currently available evidence. This, however, should be reinforced with randomized controlled trials comparing the two treatment strategies. PMID:22098703

  16. Effects of particle size and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on performance and stomach health in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Effects of grinding and hydro-thermal treatment of feed on growth performance, slaughter traits, nutrient digestibility, stomach content and stomach health were examined by using 96 crossbred fattening pigs. Pigs were fed a grain-soybean meal-based diet processed by various technical treatments. Feeding groups differed in particle size after grinding (finely vs. coarsely ground feed) and hydro-thermal treatment (without hydro-thermal treatment, pelleting, expanding, expanding and pelleting). Fine grinding and hydro-thermal treatment showed significant improvements on the digestibility of crude nutrients and content of metabolisable energy. Hydro-thermal treatment influenced average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (DFI) significantly. Finely ground pelleted feed without expanding enhanced performances by increasing ADG and decreasing feed-to-gain ratio (FGR) of fattening pigs. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment resulted in the highest ADG and DFI, however also in the highest FGR. Expanded feed decreased DFI and ADG. Slaughter traits were not affected by treatments. Coarsely ground feed without hydro-thermal treatment had protective effects on the health of gastric pars nonglandularis, however, pelleting increased gastric lesions. Hydro-thermal treatment, especially expanding, resulted in clumping of stomach content which possibly induced satiety by slower ingesta passage rate and thus decreased feed intake. Pigs fed pelleted feed showed less pronounced development of clumps in stomach content compared with expanded feed.

  17. Fibromyalgia Syndrome in Need of Effective Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Tsilioni, Irene; Arbetman, Lauren; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Stewart, Julia M.; Gleason, Rae M.; Russell, Irwin J.

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic, idiopathic condition of widespread musculoskeletal pain, affecting primarily women. It is clinically characterized by chronic, nonarticular pain and a heightened response to pressure along with sleep disturbances, fatigue, bowel and bladder abnormalities, and cognitive dysfunction. The diagnostic criteria have changed repeatedly, and there is neither a definitive pathogenesis nor reliable diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Clinical and laboratory studies have provided evidence of altered central pain pathways. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of neuroinflammation with stress peptides triggering the release of neurosenzitizing mediators. The management of FMS requires a multidimensional approach including patient education, behavioral therapy, exercise, and pain management. Here we review recent data on the pathogenesis and propose new directions for research and treatment. PMID:26306765

  18. Effects of alkali treatments on Ag nanowire transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Kang, Jun-gu; Eom, Tae-yil; Moon, Bongjin; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we employ various alkali materials (alkali metals with different base strengths, and ammonia gas and solution) to improve the conductivity of silver nanowire (Ag NW)-networked films. The alkali treatment appears to remove the surface oxide and improve the conductivity. When applied with TiO2 nanoparticles, the treatment appears more effective as the alkalis gather around wire junctions and help them weld to each other via heat emitted from the reduction reaction. The ammonia solution treatment is found to be quick and aggressive, damaging the wires severely in the case of excessive treatment. On the other hand, the ammonia gas treatment seems much less aggressive and does not damage the wires even after a long exposure. The results of this study highlight the effectiveness of the alkali treatment in improving of the conductivity of Ag NW-networked transparent conductive films.

  19. Effects of chemical treatments on fresh-cut papaya.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Silvana; Lai Reyes, Andrés Enrique; Trigo, Juliana Moreno; Sarriés, Gabriel Adrián; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2016-01-01

    Four treatments (control, 0.1% cinnamaldehyde, 0.75% calcium chloride and combination of 0.1% cinnamaldehyde and 0.75% calcium chloride) were used to evaluate chemical effects on shelf life, quality and sensory acceptability of fresh-cut papaya (Carica papaya L.). Papaya slices were packed and covered with polypropylene film, stored at 5 °C; and evaluated after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days for microbiological and physicochemical changes. A sensory evaluation was performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days. There was no occurrence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli or psychotropic bacteria. The cinnamaldehyde alone and a combination of cinnamaldehyde and calcium chloride treatments yielded better control of the total coliforms. The combination treatment decreased the CO2 concentration and increased the maintenance of papaya firmness. All the treatments had acceptability. The combination treatment was the most effective treatment for flavor, taste, and preservation until day 12.

  20. Anxious distress predicts subsequent treatment outcome and side effects in depressed patients starting antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Gaspersz, Roxanne; Lamers, Femke; Kent, Justine M; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Smit, Johannes H; van Hemert, Albert M; Schoevers, Robert A; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2017-01-01

    Evidence has shown that the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier captures a clinically valid construct that predicts a worse clinical course. Although of importance for treatment planning and monitoring, however, the specifier's ability to predict treatment outcome is unknown. This is the first study to examine the ability of the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier to predict treatment response and side effects in depressed patients who recently initiated antidepressant treatment. Patients were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, an ongoing longitudinal cohort study. Baseline, 1-year and 2-year follow-up data were used from 149 patients (18-65 years) with current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) who recently started adequately dosed antidepressant medication. Five self-report items were used to construct the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier. Treatment outcomes were depression severity after 1 year and 2 years, remission of MDD after 2 years and antidepressant side effects during treatment. For comparison, analyses were repeated for comorbid DSM-IV-based anxiety disorders as a predictor. In depressed patients who received antidepressant treatment, the anxious distress specifier (prevalence = 59.1%) significantly predicted higher severity (1 year: B = 1.94, P = 0.001; 2 years: B = 1.63, P = 0.001), lower remission rates (OR = 0.44, P = 0.0496) and greater frequency of side effects (≥4 vs. 0: OR = 2.74, P = 0.061). In contrast, the presence of comorbid anxiety disorders did not predict these treatment outcomes. The anxious distress specifier significantly predicts poorer treatment outcomes as shown by higher depression severity, lower remission rates, and greater frequency of antidepressant side effects in patients with MDD on adequate antidepressant treatment. Therefore, this simple 5-item specifier is of potential great clinical usefulness for treatment planning and monitoring in depressed patients.

  1. Achronal averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D.

    2007-09-15

    The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

  2. Safety and effectiveness of cantharidin-podophylotoxin-salicylic acid in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar warts.

    PubMed

    López López, Daniel; Vilar Fernández, Juan Manuel; Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Álvarez Castro, Carlos; Romero Morales, Carlos; García Sánchez, María Matilde; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical cantharidin-podophylotoxin-salicylic acid (CPS) treatment of recalcitrant plantar warts (RPW). This study was carried out in a health center in the city of A Coruña (Spain) between January and December 2013. A total of 75 patients completed all the stages of the research process. Information related to treatment with CPS and adverse effects was abstracted from medical records. Of 93 potential patients identified, 75 had at least one follow-up visit or telephone call after treatment and were included in this study. Patients experienced an average of 5.4 visits until complete resolution of their plantar wart occurred, although CPS was not applied at every visit. Fifty-four patients required one application to eliminate the wart and 21 patients required two applications/patient. Seventy-seven percent of patients experienced blistering - an expected therapeutic side effect. All patients experienced some form of an adverse event, the most common being pain (81.3%) and significant blistering (15%). Other side effects were rare (18.7%) and included pruritus, possible mild infection, significant irritation, and bleeding. All patients reported treatment, supporting our results that CPS is a safe and efficacious treatment modality for RPW and should be considered when symptomatic infection necessitates treatment.

  3. Assessing and reporting heterogeneity in treatment effects in clinical trials: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that there is frequently considerable variation in the risk of the outcome of interest in clinical trial populations. These differences in risk will often cause clinically important heterogeneity in treatment effects (HTE) across the trial population, such that the balance between treatment risks and benefits may differ substantially between large identifiable patient subgroups; the "average" benefit observed in the summary result may even be non-representative of the treatment effect for a typical patient in the trial. Conventional subgroup analyses, which examine whether specific patient characteristics modify the effects of treatment, are usually unable to detect even large variations in treatment benefit (and harm) across risk groups because they do not account for the fact that patients have multiple characteristics simultaneously that affect the likelihood of treatment benefit. Based upon recent evidence on optimal statistical approaches to assessing HTE, we propose a framework that prioritizes the analysis and reporting of multivariate risk-based HTE and suggests that other subgroup analyses should be explicitly labeled either as primary subgroup analyses (well-motivated by prior evidence and intended to produce clinically actionable results) or secondary (exploratory) subgroup analyses (performed to inform future research). A standardized and transparent approach to HTE assessment and reporting could substantially improve clinical trial utility and interpretability. PMID:20704705

  4. Costs and water quality effects of wastewater treatment plant centralization

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    The costs and water quality impacts of two regional configurations of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Northeastern Illinois are compared. In one configuration, several small treatment plants are consolidated into a smaller number of regional facilities. In the other, the smaller plants continue to operate. Costs for modifying the plants to obtain various levels of pollutant removal are estimated using a simulation model that considers the type of equipment existing at the plants and the costs of modifying that equipment to obtain a range of effluent levels for various pollutants. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine the water quality effects of the various treatment technologies and pollutant levels. Cost and water quality data are combined and the cost-effectiveness of the two treatment configurations is compared. The regionalized treatment-plant configuration is found to be the more cost-effective.

  5. Psychotherapy: The Humanistic (and Effective) Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampold, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well established that psychotherapy is remarkably effective, the change process in psychotherapy is not well understood. Psychotherapy is compared with medicine and cultural healing practices to argue that critical aspects of psychotherapy involve human processes that are used in religious, spiritual, and cultural healing practices.…

  6. Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, P.J.; Bhasin, S.; Cunningham, G.R.; Matsumoto, A.M.; Stephens-Shields, A.J.; Cauley, J.A.; Gill, T.M.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Swerdloff, R.S.; Wang, C.; Ensrud, K.E.; Lewis, C.E.; Farrar, J.T.; Cella, D.; Rosen, R.C.; Pahor, M.; Crandall, J.P.; Molitch, M.E.; Cifelli, D.; Dougar, D.; Fluharty, L.; Resnick, S.M.; Storer, T.W.; Anton, S.; Basaria, S.; Diem, S.J.; Hou, X.; Mohler, E.R.; Parsons, J.K.; Wenger, N.K.; Zeldow, B.; Landis, J.R.; Ellenberg, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Serum testosterone concentrations decrease as men age, but benefits of raising testosterone levels in older men have not been established. METHODS We assigned 790 men 65 years of age or older with a serum testosterone concentration of less than 275 ng per deciliter and symptoms suggesting hypoandrogenism to receive either testosterone gel or placebo gel for 1 year. Each man participated in one or more of three trials — the Sexual Function Trial, the Physical Function Trial, and the Vitality Trial. The primary outcome of each of the individual trials was also evaluated in all participants. RESULTS Testosterone treatment increased serum testosterone levels to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age. The increase in testosterone levels was associated with significantly increased sexual activity, as assessed by the Psychosexual Daily Questionnaire (P<0.001), as well as significantly increased sexual desire and erectile function. The percentage of men who had an increase of at least 50 m in the 6-minute walking distance did not differ significantly between the two study groups in the Physical Function Trial but did differ significantly when men in all three trials were included (20.5% of men who received testosterone vs. 12.6% of men who received placebo, P=0.003). Testosterone had no significant benefit with respect to vitality, as assessed by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue scale, but men who received testosterone reported slightly better mood and lower severity of depressive symptoms than those who received placebo. The rates of adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS In symptomatic men 65 years of age or older, raising testosterone concentrations for 1 year from moderately low to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age had a moderate benefit with respect to sexual function and some benefit with respect to mood and depressive symptoms but no benefit with respect to vitality or

  7. Effects of heat treatment on hair structure.

    PubMed

    Bories, M F; Martini, M C; Et, M F; Cotte, J

    1984-10-01

    Synopsis The influence of increasing temperature from 20 to 200 degrees C was studied at the superficial level by electron microscopy and in depth by differential colorimetry and X-ray defraction. The results have been related to moisture content in order to establish the influence of hair-drying treatment which would respect the integrity of the keratin fibre whilst encouraging the deformation of the hair. A critical temperature of 140 degrees C resulted from the studies. Below this temperature little modification of the hair structure was observed which was reversible and linked to the progressive loss of free water. Above 140 degrees C the structural modifications were profound and irreversible. This was accompanied by a change in the appearance of a folding of the cuticle and the gradual disappearance of the scale of the cuticle. After elimination of bound water, a total degradation of the structure was observed around 200 degrees C. From the point of view of these structure studies, a drying temperature of 60 degrees C would appear optimal since a subsequent moisture pick-up is slower, leaving the hair less sensitive to atmospheric humidity variations.

  8. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R H; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D

    1983-01-01

    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near normal levels and they then had radical excision of the remaining tumour. Living malignant tumour was found in four of the specimens and these patients received postoperative chemotherapy. One patient died after eight months and the remaining five patients are alive and well 13-136 months after the start of treatment. The two patients who did not undergo surgery died at one month and 15 months. Intermittent combination chemotherapy and carefully timed radical excision of these tumours would appear to have produced better results than have been reported in other series. Images PMID:6198739

  9. Mode-Specific Effects among Three Treatments for Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imber, Stanley D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Randomly assigned 250 depressed outpatients to interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine plus clinical management, or pill placebo plus clinical management treatments. All treatments demonstrated significant symptom reduction with few differences in general outcomes. None of the therapies produced consistent effects on…

  10. The effective field theory treatment of quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, John F.

    2012-09-24

    This is a pedagogical introduction to the treatment of quantum general relativity as an effective field theory. It starts with an overview of the methods of effective field theory and includes an explicit example. Quantum general relativity matches this framework and I discuss gravitational examples as well as the limits of the effective field theory. I also discuss the insights from effective field theory on the gravitational effects on running couplings in the perturbative regime.

  11. Prolotherapy: An Effective Treatment for Low Back Pain?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain? Is prolotherapy an effective treatment for chronic low back pain? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Prolotherapy is ... reduced pain. Studies of prolotherapy in people with low back pain have had mixed results. A combination of prolotherapy ...

  12. The Holistic Effects of Acupuncture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-Wen; Li, Qian-Qian; Li, Fang; Fu, Qing-Nan; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), as a complex medical science which reflects philosophical principles and embodies large dialectical thought, is used to place the human body into a large system for observation. Acupuncture as a vital part of TCM, has been practiced to treat various diseases and symptoms. However, acupuncture is also facing severe challenges resulted from insufficient modern scientific research. Nowadays, the holistic effects of acupuncture can be researched by some modern approaches, such as the systems biology and fMRI technique. It is believed that having a better understand will greatly promote acupuncture research and be beneficial to scientization and modernization of acupuncture. PMID:24527051

  13. Moving towards best practice when using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score to estimate causal treatment effects in observational studies.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-10

    The propensity score is defined as a subject's probability of treatment selection, conditional on observed baseline covariates. Weighting subjects by the inverse probability of treatment received creates a synthetic sample in which treatment assignment is independent of measured baseline covariates. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score allows one to obtain unbiased estimates of average treatment effects. However, these estimates are only valid if there are no residual systematic differences in observed baseline characteristics between treated and control subjects in the sample weighted by the estimated inverse probability of treatment. We report on a systematic literature review, in which we found that the use of IPTW has increased rapidly in recent years, but that in the most recent year, a majority of studies did not formally examine whether weighting balanced measured covariates between treatment groups. We then proceed to describe a suite of quantitative and qualitative methods that allow one to assess whether measured baseline covariates are balanced between treatment groups in the weighted sample. The quantitative methods use the weighted standardized difference to compare means, prevalences, higher-order moments, and interactions. The qualitative methods employ graphical methods to compare the distribution of continuous baseline covariates between treated and control subjects in the weighted sample. Finally, we illustrate the application of these methods in an empirical case study. We propose a formal set of balance diagnostics that contribute towards an evolving concept of 'best practice' when using IPTW to estimate causal treatment effects using observational data.

  14. Integrating Fasciolosis Control in the Dry Cow Management: The Effect of Closantel Treatment on Milk Production

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Johannes; Hostens, Miel; Jacobs, Jos; Van Ranst, Bonny; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of ruminants with a worldwide distribution and an apparent increasing incidence in EU member states. Effective control in dairy cattle is hampered by the lack of flukicides with a zero-withdrawal time for milk, leaving the dry period as the only time that preventive treatment can be applied. Here, we present the results of a blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial on 11 dairy herds (402 animals) exposed to F. hepatica to 1) assess the effect of closantel treatment at dry-off (or 80–42 days before calving in first-calving heifers) on milk production parameters and 2) evaluate if a number of easy-to-use animal parameters is related to the milk production response after treatment. Closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease of anti-F. hepatica antibody levels from 3–6 months after treatment onwards, a higher peak production (1.06 kg) and a slightly higher persistence (9%) of the lactation, resulting in a 305-day milk production increase of 303 kg. No effects of anthelmintic treatment were found on the average protein and fat content of the milk. Milk production responses after treatment were poor in meagre animals and clinically relevant higher milk production responses were observed in first-lactation animals and in cows with a high (0.3–0.5 optical density ratio (ODR)), but not a very high (≥0.5 ODR) F. hepatica ELISA result on a milk sample from the previous lactation. We conclude that in dairy herds exposed to F. hepatica, flukicide treatment at dry-off is a useful strategy to reduce levels of exposure and increase milk production in the subsequent lactation. Moreover, the results suggest that treatment approaches that only target selected animals within a herd can be developed based on easy-to-use parameters. PMID:22916226

  15. Effect of heat treatment on viability of Taenia hydatigena eggs.

    PubMed

    Buttar, Birpal S; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Hancock, Dale D; Walsh, Douglas B; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2013-04-01

    Effects of heat treatments on activation and infectivity of Taenia hydatigena eggs were assessed. Eggs containing oncospheres were used for in vitro and in vivo studies to determine the response to 5min of heat treatment, ranging from room temperature (22°C) to 60°C. The study demonstrated 99.47% and 100% reduction in oncosphere activation or infectivity after 5min of heat treatment at 60°C and 57.38°C under in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. Similar results between the two approaches indicted the appropriateness of the in vitro methods to identify oncosphericidal treatments of practical significance. Similar heat treatments may also be effective against Taenia saginata and help to reduce occurrence of beef cysticercosis.

  16. Topical immunomodulators are effective for treatment of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chong Won; Chang, Sung Eun; Bak, Hana; Choi, Jee Ho; Park, Hyun Sun; Huh, Chang Hun; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Mun, Seog Kyun; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2008-08-01

    Vitiligo is a common, acquired, depigmenting disease of the skin. Although the pathogenesis of vitiligo is still unclear, it is postulated that topical immunomodulators exert therapeutic effects on treatment of vitiligo. We reviewed the treatment of vitiligo with topical immunomodulators and topical steroids to evaluate the efficacy of immunomodulators in treatment of vitiligo. We reviewed 52 patients treated with topical immunomodulators and 27 patients with topical steroids. To evaluate the efficacy, repigmentation of vitiligo was reviewed. Between the two treatments, the duration from the start of treatment to onset of repigmentation was significantly shorter in the topical immunomodulator group (P = 0.002). However, no statistically significant differences were found in sex, age, mean disease duration, sites of vitiligo lesion and ratio of patients who showed response. We may suggest topical immunomodulator as an alternative to topical steroids for treatment of vitiligo.

  17. Effects of Decompression Treatment for Controlling the Powderpost Beetle, Lyctus africanus Lesne, (Coleoptera: Lyctinae)

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Kazushi; Hiraku, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Izumi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of decompression treatment as a non-destructive method to control larvae of the powderpost beetle, Lyctus africanus Lesne, was evaluated in the laboratory using various combinations of two pressure levels, 1.1 kPa and 40 kPa, and three temperature levels, 20, 25, and 40 °C. Larval mortality generally depended on weight reduction while decreases in the oxygen level had relatively little effect. The lower pressure, 1.1 kPa, significantly affected mortality, and no larvae survived after 12 h of this pressure treatment, at 25 °C. The average body weight was reduced with treatment time and temperature, and the reduction rate at 25 °C was higher than that at the lower temperature, 20 °C. Effects on larvae of the higher pressure treatment, 40 kPa, with a CO2 gas purge, were tested to determine the feasibility of decompression treatment in the manufacturing process. Although higher pressure resulted in low mortality, the body weight was dramatically decreased using the CO2 purge. These results present important information on the possibility of using decompression treatment for wood products. PMID:27429007

  18. Sample Size Bias in Judgments of Perceptual Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Paul C.; Kimura, Nicole M.; Smith, Andrew R.; Marshall, Lindsay D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people exhibit a sample size bias when judging the average of a set of stimuli on a single dimension. The more stimuli there are in the set, the greater people judge the average to be. This effect has been demonstrated reliably for judgments of the average likelihood that groups of people will experience negative,…

  19. Subjective and cardiovascular effects of cocaine during treatment with amantadine and baclofen in combination.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; De La Garza, Richard; Mahoney, James J; Shoptaw, Steve; Newton, Thomas F

    2007-08-30

    This study assessed the subjective and cardiovascular effects of relevant doses of cocaine administration during steady-state treatment of the combination of amantadine and baclofen compared to placebo. Participants included 8 healthy, male, cocaine-dependent, non-treatment-seeking individuals (age=36.6+/-5.9; 75% African American, 25% Caucasian; using cocaine for an average of 15.3+/-6.5 years). Data were collected prior to and following double-blind intravenous administration of 0 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg of cocaine. Data were collected at baseline, following 5 days of treatment with placebo, and again following 5 days of treatment with a combination of amantadine 100 mg t.i.d. and baclofen 30 mg t.i.d. counterbalanced for order of medication and placebo in a cross-over design. Results showed no significant alterations to cardiovascular variables (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) from treatment using combination medication or placebo in the presence of cocaine. Self-rated "desire" for cocaine was significantly lower during cocaine administrations while participants were receiving treatment with amantadine-baclofen compared to infusions while taking placebo medication, although there was no difference in the intensity of cocaine-induced euphoria, or reduction in the likelihood to use cocaine if given access. Study findings support the safety of the amantadine-baclofen combination treatment for cocaine dependence.

  20. Effectiveness of Educational Technology in Promoting Quality of Life and Treatment Adherence in Hypertensive People.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ana Célia Caetano; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhaes; Oliveira, Edmar Souza de; Menezes, Anaíze Viana Bezerra de; Loureiro, Aline Maria Oliveira; Silva, Camila Brasileiro de Araújo; Linard, Jair Gomes; Almeida, Italo Lennon Sales de; Mattos, Samuel Miranda; Borges, José Wicto Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention with use of educational technology (flipchart) to promote quality of life (QOL) and treatment adherence in people with hypertension. It was an intervention study of before-and-after type conducted with 116 hypertensive people registered in Primary Health Care Units. The educational interventions were conducted using the flipchart educational technology. Quality of life was assessed through the MINICHAL (lowest score = better QOL) and the QATSH (higher score = better adherence) was used to assess the adherence to hypertension treatment. Both were measured before and after applying the intervention. In the analysis, we used the Student's t-test for paired data. The average baseline quality of life was 11.66 ± 7.55, and 7.71 ± 5.72 two months after the intervention, showing a statistically significant reduction (p <0.001) and mean of differences of 3.95. The average baseline adherence to treatment was 98.03 ± 7.08 and 100.71 ± 6.88 two months after the intervention, which is statistically significant (p < 0.001), and mean of differences of 2.68. The conclusion was that the educational intervention using the flipchart improved the total score of quality of life in the scores of physical and mental domains, and increased adherence to hypertension treatment in people with the disease.

  1. Effectiveness of Educational Technology in Promoting Quality of Life and Treatment Adherence in Hypertensive People

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Ana Célia Caetano; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhaes; de Oliveira, Edmar Souza; de Menezes, Anaíze Viana Bezerra; Loureiro, Aline Maria Oliveira; Silva, Camila Brasileiro de Araújo; Linard, Jair Gomes; de Almeida, Italo Lennon Sales; Mattos, Samuel Miranda; Borges, José Wicto Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention with use of educational technology (flipchart) to promote quality of life (QOL) and treatment adherence in people with hypertension. It was an intervention study of before-and-after type conducted with 116 hypertensive people registered in Primary Health Care Units. The educational interventions were conducted using the flipchart educational technology. Quality of life was assessed through the MINICHAL (lowest score = better QOL) and the QATSH (higher score = better adherence) was used to assess the adherence to hypertension treatment. Both were measured before and after applying the intervention. In the analysis, we used the Student’s t-test for paired data. The average baseline quality of life was 11.66 ± 7.55, and 7.71 ± 5.72 two months after the intervention, showing a statistically significant reduction (p <0.001) and mean of differences of 3.95. The average baseline adherence to treatment was 98.03 ± 7.08 and 100.71 ± 6.88 two months after the intervention, which is statistically significant (p < 0.001), and mean of differences of 2.68. The conclusion was that the educational intervention using the flipchart improved the total score of quality of life in the scores of physical and mental domains, and increased adherence to hypertension treatment in people with the disease. PMID:27851752

  2. Expectation, the placebo effect and the response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Walter A

    2015-05-01

    What we believe we will experience from a treatment--our expectation--has a substantial impact on what we actually experience. Expectation has been established as a key process behind the placebo effect. Studies in both laboratory and clinical settings consistently show that when people ingest a pharmacologically inert substance (placebo) but believe that it is an active substance, they experience both the subjective sensations and physiologic effects expected from that active substance. Expectation has an important place in the response to "real" treatment as well. This paper provides an overview of the data which point to the role of expectation in both the placebo effect and the response to treatment. These data suggest that clinicians might enhance the benefit of all treatments by promoting patients' positive expectations.

  3. 42 CFR 414.904 - Average sales price as the basis for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Medicare Part B drug payment methodology in effect on November 1, 2003. (5) Treatment of certain drugs... for Drugs and Biologicals Under Part B § 414.904 Average sales price as the basis for payment. (a) Method of payment. Payment for a drug furnished on or after January 1, 2005 is based on the lesser of—...

  4. The impact of breathing motion versus heterogeneity effects in lung cancer treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Rosu, Mihaela; Chetty, Indrin J.; Tatro, Daniel S.; Haken, Randall K. ten

    2007-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of tissue heterogeneity and breathing-induced motion/deformation on conformal treatment planning for pulmonary tumors and to compare the magnitude and the clinical importance of changes induced by these effects. Treatment planning scans were acquired at normal exhale/inhale breathing states for fifteen patients. The internal target volume (ITV) was defined as the union of exhale and inhale gross tumor volumes uniformly expanded by 5 mm. Anterior/posterior opposed beams (AP/PA) and three-dimensional (3D)-conformal plans were designed using the unit-density exhale (''static'') dataset. These plans were further used to calculate (a) density-corrected (''heterogeneous'') static dose and (b) heterogeneous cumulative dose, including breathing deformations. The DPM Monte Carlo code was used for dose computations. For larger than coin-sized tumors, relative to unit-density plans, tumor and lung doses increased in the heterogeneity-corrected plans. In comparing cumulative and static plans, larger normal tissue complication probability changes were observed for tumors with larger motion amplitudes and uncompensated breathing-induced hot/cold spots in lung. Accounting for tissue heterogeneity resulted in average increases of 9% and 7% in mean lung dose (MLD) for the 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. Breathing-induced effects resulted in approximately 1% and 2% average decreases in MLD from the static value, for the 6 and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. The magnitude of these effects was not found to correlate with the treatment plan technique, i.e., AP/PA versus 3D-CRT. Given a properly designed ITV, tissue heterogeneity effects are likely to have a larger clinical significance on tumor and normal lung treatment evaluation metrics than four-dimensional respiratory-induced changes.

  5. Landmark estimation of survival and treatment effects in observational studies.

    PubMed

    Parast, Layla; Griffin, Beth Ann

    2017-04-01

    Clinical studies aimed at identifying effective treatments to reduce the risk of disease or death often require long term follow-up of participants in order to observe a sufficient number of events to precisely estimate the treatment effect. In such studies, observing the outcome of interest during follow-up may be difficult and high rates of censoring may be observed which often leads to reduced power when applying straightforward statistical methods developed for time-to-event data. Alternative methods have been proposed to take advantage of auxiliary information that may potentially improve efficiency when estimating marginal survival and improve power when testing for a treatment effect. Recently, Parast et al. (J Am Stat Assoc 109(505):384-394, 2014) proposed a landmark estimation procedure for the estimation of survival and treatment effects in a randomized clinical trial setting and demonstrated that significant gains in efficiency and power could be obtained by incorporating intermediate event information as well as baseline covariates. However, the procedure requires the assumption that the potential outcomes for each individual under treatment and control are independent of treatment group assignment which is unlikely to hold in an observational study setting. In this paper we develop the landmark estimation procedure for use in an observational setting. In particular, we incorporate inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) in the landmark estimation procedure to account for selection bias on observed baseline (pretreatment) covariates. We demonstrate that consistent estimates of survival and treatment effects can be obtained by using IPTW and that there is improved efficiency by using auxiliary intermediate event and baseline information. We compare our proposed estimates to those obtained using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, the original landmark estimation procedure, and the IPTW Kaplan-Meier estimator. We illustrate our resulting reduction in bias

  6. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Enzymatic Treatment of Cellulosic Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, C. W.; Yuen, C. W. M.; Jiang, S. Q.

    Fiber modifications by environmentally friendly processing are essential in order to simplify the preparation and finishing processes, in addition to minimizing the chemical waste and associated disposal problem. In this regard, enzymes have been used extensively because it can remove the small fiber ends from yarn surface to create a smooth fabric surface appearance and introduce a degree of softness without using traditional chemical treatment. However, a significant strength reduction and slow reaction rate of the enzymatic reaction limit its industrial application. In this paper, the potential of using low-temperature plasma (LTP) as a surface pre-treatment prior to enzyme treatment on flax fiber has been studied. By means of the LTP pre-treatment, the effectiveness of enzyme treatment can be enhanced.

  7. Average mass scan of the total ion chromatograms: a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry derived variable for fast and reliable multivariate statistical treatment of essential oil compositional data.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Blagojević, Polina D

    2013-08-02

    Plant volatiles have been repeatedly shown to provide valuable insight into the evolutionary relationships among plant taxa on various taxonomical levels. The number of variables available from GC-MS analyses of these plant metabolites usually represents a large data set. The comparison of such data sets requires the use of multivariate statistical analyses (MSA) but with several serious shortcomings. In order to make multivariate statistical comparison of essential oils more applicable, reliable and faster, this work was set to explore the suitability of a complementary use of relative abundances of m/z values of the average mass scan of the total GC chromatograms instead of the traditionally used variables-percentages (peak areas) of individual oil constituents. To achieve this, essential oils extracted from 12 different Artemisia species were analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Almost 500 different constituents were successfully identified. Average mass scans of the total GC chromatograms (AMS) and chemical compositions (relative percentages) of the analyzed oils were separately compared using two MSA methods: agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. This approach was applied to an additional set of essential oil compositional data (representatives of a number of different genera/families; data from the literature) using both types of variables. The obtained results strongly suggest that MSA of complex volatile mixtures, using the corresponding directly obtainable AMS, could be considered as a promising time saving tool for easy and reliable comparison purposes. The AMS approach gives comparable or even better results than the traditional method - it reflected the natural relationships between observations within both studied groups of oils.

  8. Effect of Cedar Honey in the Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Sanatkhani, Majid; Mosannen Mozafari, Pegah; Amirchaghmaghi, Maryam; Najafi Fathi, Mohsen; Sanatkhani, Mohammad; Sarjami, Naghmeh; Azarian, Amir Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease with an immunological etiology. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cedar honey in the treatment of erosive- atrophic OLP. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with a confirmed clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OLP participated in this randomized clinical trial in Mashhad Dental School. Patients were randomly allocated into one of two groups. Both groups received standard OLP treatment (dexamethasone mouthwash 0.5 mg three times daily and fluconazole capsule 100 mg daily). The intervention group received cedar honey (20 ml three times daily, via a swish and swallow technique) in addition to standard treatment. The patients were followed for 4 weeks. The pain and severity of the lesions were recorded at the initial visit and follow ups. All recorded data were analyzed using the chi-square test, T-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 11.5. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Both groups had a marked reduction in pain, size of erosive area, and atrophic lesions, particularly in the first follow-up period, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Honey was effective in the healing of ulcerative lesions (average recovery in the experimental group was 69% while the average relief of ulcerative lesion in the control group was 50%), but the difference was not significant (P=0.896). Conclusion: No significant difference was found in the treatment of atrophic and erosive lesions of OLP through use of honey as an alternative treatment. However, this approach may be effective in managing ulcerative lesions of OLP; although more research with a larger sample size is necessary. PMID:25009805

  9. Effects of heat treatment on physical, microstructural and optical characteristics of PbS luminescent nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Moztarzadeh, Fathollah; Vashaee, Dayoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2012-04-01

    The oxidation of lead sulfide (PbS) luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) considerably changes their luminescence characteristics. Hence, an understanding of the oxidation mechanism, the structure and properties of oxidized moieties is important. In this research, well-defined spherical PbS NCs were synthesized via a simple, effective and surfactant-free method and characterized. Then, the effects of heat treatment (at 250, 350, 450 and 550 °C) on the PbS NCs were investigated. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs of the synthesized PbS NCs revealed that they had a well-defined spherical morphology. In addition, the average crystallite size using Scherrer's formula was about 13 nm and the calculated lattice constant using Bragg's equation was 0.5950 nm, which was very close to the value in the standard card (JCPDS No. 5-592). Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the heat treatment of samples at temperatures of 250, 350,450 and 550 °C in air results in the formation of oxide sulfate phase of the compositions PbSO4 and PbO·PbSO4. The lattice parameter, crystallite size, average internal stress, micro-strain and optical properties of PbS NCs were calculated and correlated with the heat-treatment temperature.

  10. Money Matters: Cost Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments.

    PubMed

    Sheidow, Ashli J; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W David; Henggeler, Scott W; Shapiro, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within Court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a four-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community services (DC), Drug Court with Multisystemic Therapy (DC/MST), and Drug Court with MST enhanced with a contingency management program (DC/MST/CM). Average cost effectiveness ratios for substance use and criminal behavior outcomes revealed that economic efficiency in achieving outcomes generally improved from FC to DC, with the addition of evidence-based treatments improving efficiency in obtaining substance use outcomes.

  11. Money Matters: Cost Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within Court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a four-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community services (DC), Drug Court with Multisystemic Therapy (DC/MST), and Drug Court with MST enhanced with a contingency management program (DC/MST/CM). Average cost effectiveness ratios for substance use and criminal behavior outcomes revealed that economic efficiency in achieving outcomes generally improved from FC to DC, with the addition of evidence-based treatments improving efficiency in obtaining substance use outcomes. PMID:22389577

  12. Dichloroacetate treatment for mitochondrial cytopathy: long-term effects in MELAS.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masato; Yamagata, Takanori; Goto, Tamako; Saito, Shigeko; Momoi, Mariko Y

    2004-10-01

    The long-term effects of the sodium salt of dichloroacetic acid (DCA) were evaluated in four patients with mitochondrial encephalomyelopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) carrying A3243G mutation. Oral administration of DCA in MELAS patients was followed for an average of 5 years 4 months. Serum levels of lactate and pyruvate were maintained at around 10 and 0.6 mg/dl, respectively. Serum levels of DCA were 40-136 microg/ml. Symptoms responding to treatment included persistent headache, abdominal pain, muscle weakness, and stroke-like episodes. In contrast, no improvements in mental status, deafness, short stature, or neuroelectrophysiological findings were observed. Adverse effects included mild liver dysfunction in all patients, hypocalcemia in three and peripheral neuropathy in one. None of these adverse events was severe enough to require discontinuation of treatment. To determine suitable indications for DCA therapy, analysis of many more patients who have undergone DCA administration is required.

  13. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves.

    PubMed

    Enemark, Heidi Larsen; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-08-01

    In this multicentric, randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled field study, the effect of treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox(®) Bovis, Bayer) on oocyst excretion, diarrhoea score and weight gain was studied in Danish dairy herds with confirmed history of eimeriosis (coccidiosis) and prevalence of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 - 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment was followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced the first weeks post treatment. In Herd 1, by contrast, the farmer made some unforeseen changes in the management which entailed relocation to large deep-litter pens 3 - 6 weeks post treatment. In addition, many calves were not treated metaphylactically while few calves excreted oocysts when the trial was initiated. Thus, no significant difference in weight gain was found between toltrazuril and placebo treated calves (p = 0.523), and the oocyst excretion of toltrazuril treated calves was significantly higher during week 7 and 8. Significant differences in faecal scores were observed between the herds (p<0.002) but not between treatment groups in any of the herds. In conclusion, timing of treatment is crucial for optimal effect of metaphylactic toltrazuril treatment on weight gain and oocyst excretion.

  14. Assessing fuel treatment effectiveness using satellite imagery and spatial statistics.

    PubMed

    Wimberly, Michael C; Cochrane, Mark A; Baer, Adam D; Pabst, Kari

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the influences of forest management practices on wildfire severity is critical in fire-prone ecosystems of the western United States. Newly available geospatial data sets characterizing vegetation, fuels, topography, and burn severity offer new opportunities for studying fuel treatment effectiveness at regional to national scales. In this study, we used ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression and sequential autoregression (SAR) to analyze fuel treatment effects on burn severity for three recent wildfires: the Camp 32 fire in western Montana, the School fire in southeastern Washington, and the Warm fire in northern Arizona. Burn severity was measured using differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) maps developed by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. Geospatial data sets from the LANDFIRE project were used to control for prefire variability in canopy cover, fuels, and topography. Across all three fires, treatments that incorporated prescribed burning were more effective than thinning alone. Treatment effect sizes were lower, and standard errors were higher in the SAR models than in the OLS models. Spatial error terms in the SAR models indirectly controlled for confounding variables not captured in the LANDFIRE data, including spatiotemporal variability in fire weather and landscape-level effects of reduced fire severity outside the treated areas. This research demonstrates the feasibility of carrying out assessments of fuel treatment effectiveness using geospatial data sets and highlights the potential for using spatial autoregression to control for unmeasured confounding factors.

  15. Effect of mechanical surface and heat treatments on erosion resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of mechanical surface treatments as well as heat treatments on the erosion resistance of 6061 aluminum alloy and 1045 steel were studied. Mechanical surface treatments were found to have little or no effect on the erosion resistance. This is due to the formation by particle impact of a work hardened surface layer regardless of the initial surface condition. The erosion resistance of Al single crystals is found to be independent of orientation. This is due to destruction of the surface microstructure and formation of a polycrystalline surface layer by the impact of erodant particles as observed by X-ray diffraction. While upon solution treatment of annealed 6061 aluminum the increase in hardness is accompanied by an increase in erosion resistance, precipitation treatment which causes a further increase in hardness results in slightly lower erosion resistance. Using two types of erodant particles, glass beads and crushed glass, the erosion rate is found to be strongly dependent on erodant particle shape, being an order of magnitude higher for erosion with crushed glass as compared to glass beads. While for erosion with glass beads heat treatment of 1045 steel had a profound effect on its erosion resistance, little or no such effect was observed for erosion with crushed glass.

  16. Measures Inherent to Treatments in Program Effectiveness Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert; Madden, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    Program effectiveness reviews in education seek to provide educators with scientifically valid and useful summaries of evidence on achievement effects of various interventions. Different reviewers have different policies on measures of content taught in the experimental group but not the control group, called here "treatment-inherent"…

  17. Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-2-0064 TITLE: Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: New England School of Acupuncture , Inc. Newton, MA 02458-1005...December 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH

  18. Effects of maternal plasmid GHRH treatment on offspring growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To differentiate prenatal effects of plasmid growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) treatment from maternal effects mediated by lactation on long-term growth of offspring, a cross-fostering study was designed. Pregnant sows (n = 12) were untreated (n = 6), or received either a Wt-GHRH (n = 2), or H...

  19. Feedback: Asset or Liability in Improving Treatment Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Robert B.

    1973-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that feedback may enable a treatment team to increase their effectiveness, but an increase does not always occur. Three conditions seemed necessary for feedback to enhance team effectiveness. When these conditions were met on one ward, the posthospital adjustment of patients rose to a higher level than that of…

  20. Heterogeneous treatment effects of speed cameras on road safety.

    PubMed

    Li, Haojie; Graham, Daniel J

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyses how the effects of fixed speed cameras on road casualties vary across sites with different characteristics and evaluates the criteria for selecting camera sites. A total of 771 camera sites and 4787 potential control sites are observed for a period of 9 years across England. Site characteristics such as road class, crash history and site length are combined into a single index, referred to as a propensity score. We first estimate the average effect at each camera site using propensity score matching. The effects are then estimated as a function of propensity scores using local polynomial regression. The results show that the reduction in personal injury collisions ranges from 10% to 40% whilst the average effect is 25.9%, indicating that the effects of speed cameras are not uniform across camera sites and are dependent on site characteristics, as measured by propensity scores. We further evaluate the criteria for selecting camera sites in the UK by comparing the effects at camera sites meeting and not meeting the criteria. The results show that camera sites which meet the criteria perform better in reducing casualties, implying the current site selection criteria are rational.

  1. The partially averaged field approach to cosmic ray diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C.; Birmingham, T. J.; Kaiser, T. B.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetic equation for particles interacting with turbulent fluctuations is derived by a new nonlinear technique which successfully corrects the difficulties associated with quasilinear theory. In this new method the effects of the fluctuations are evaluated along particle orbits which themselves include the effects of a statistically averaged subset of the possible configurations of the turbulence. The new method is illustrated by calculating the pitch angle diffusion coefficient D sub Mu Mu for particles interacting with slab model magnetic turbulence, i.e., magnetic fluctuations linearly polarized transverse to a mean magnetic field. Results are compared with those of quasilinear theory and also with those of Monte Carlo calculations. The major effect of the nonlinear treatment in this illustration is the determination of D sub Mu Mu in the vicinity of 90 deg pitch angles where quasilinear theory breaks down. The spatial diffusion coefficient parallel to a mean magnetic field is evaluated using D sub Mu Mu as calculated by this technique. It is argued that the partially averaged field method is not limited to small amplitude fluctuating fields and is hence not a perturbation theory.

  2. Clinicians' perspectives on negative effects of psychological treatments.

    PubMed

    Bystedt, Samuel; Rozental, Alexander; Andersson, Gerhard; Boettcher, Johanna; Carlbring, Per

    2014-01-01

    Negative effects of psychological treatments is a fairly unexplored area of clinical research. Previous investigations have indicated that a portion of all patients experience negative effects in terms of deterioration and various adverse events. Meanwhile, evidence suggests that many clinicians are untrained in identifying negative effects and unaware of the current research findings. The objective of the current study is thus to investigate clinicians' own perspectives and experiences of possible negative effects of psychological treatments. An invitation to participate in an anonymous online survey consisting of 14 open-ended questions was distributed via three mailing lists used by clinicians that primarily identify themselves as cognitive behavior therapists. The responses were analyzed using a qualitative method based on thematic analysis. In total, 74 participants completed the survey. A majority agreed that negative effects of psychological treatments exist and pose a problem, and many reported having experienced both deterioration and adverse events among patients in their own practice. The thematic analysis resulted in three core themes: characteristics of negative effects, causal factors, as well as methods and criteria for evaluating negative effects. The clinicians recognize that negative effects exist, but many are unaware of the current research findings and are unfamiliar with methods and criteria for identifying and preventing deterioration and adverse events. The results provide evidence for further dissemination of the present knowledge regarding negative effects, particularly during basic clinical training, as well as the need for raising awareness of the available methods for identifying and preventing negative effects.

  3. Clinicians' Perspectives on Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Bystedt, Samuel; Rozental, Alexander; Andersson, Gerhard; Boettcher, Johanna; Carlbring, Per

    2014-01-01

    Negative effects of psychological treatments is a fairly unexplored area of clinical research. Previous investigations have indicated that a portion of all patients experience negative effects in terms of deterioration and various adverse events. Meanwhile, evidence suggests that many clinicians are untrained in identifying negative effects and unaware of the current research findings. The objective of the current study is thus to investigate clinicians' own perspectives and experiences of possible negative effects of psychological treatments. An invitation to participate in an anonymous online survey consisting of 14 open-ended questions was distributed via three mailing lists used by clinicians that primarily identify themselves as cognitive behavior therapists. The responses were analyzed using a qualitative method based on thematic analysis. In total, 74 participants completed the survey. A majority agreed that negative effects of psychological treatments exist and pose a problem, and many reported having experienced both deterioration and adverse events among patients in their own practice. The thematic analysis resulted in three core themes: characteristics of negative effects, causal factors, as well as methods and criteria for evaluating negative effects. The clinicians recognize that negative effects exist, but many are unaware of the current research findings and are unfamiliar with methods and criteria for identifying and preventing deterioration and adverse events. The results provide evidence for further dissemination of the present knowledge regarding negative effects, particularly during basic clinical training, as well as the need for raising awareness of the available methods for identifying and preventing negative effects. PMID:25204370

  4. Effect of mechanical treatment on the silicate lattice of kaolinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulumyan, N. H.; Papakhchyan, L. R.; Isahakyan, A. R.; Beglaryan, H. A.; Aloyan, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and chemical analysis have been used to investigate the effect of mechanical treatment on the crystalline lattice of kaolinite. It was established that mechanical treatment leads to amorphization of the mineral and the release of hydroxyl water, but the continuity of kaolinite's silicate lattice remains intact despite certain deformations, and the phase transformations of the mineral thus occur without any noticeable change in temperature.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder: The development of effective psychological treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Clark, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has only relatively recently been introduced into the diagnostic classification of mental disorders. Building on advances in the treatment of other anxiety disorders, a range of effective psychological treatments for PTSD has been developed. The most effective of these treatments focus on the patient’s memory for the traumatic event and its meaning. This paper briefly reviews the currently available evidence for these treatments. It then illustrates the process of developing effective psychological treatments by discussing how a combination of phenomenological, experimental and treatment development studies and theoretical considerations was used to develop a trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment, Cognitive Therapy (CT) for PTSD. This treatment program builds on Ehlers and Clark’s (2000) model of PTSD, which specifies two core cognitive abnormalities in PTSD. First, people with chronic PTSD show idiosyncratic personal meanings (appraisals) of the trauma and/or its sequelae that lead to a sense of serious current threat. Second, the nature of the trauma memory explains the occurrence of reexperiencing symptoms. It is further proposed that the idiosyncratic appraisals motivate a series of dysfunctional behaviors (such as safety-seeking behaviors) and cognitive strategies (such as thought suppression and rumination) that are intended to reduce the sense of current threat, but maintain the problem by preventing change in the appraisals and trauma memory, and/or lead to increases in symptoms. CT addresses the cognitive abnormalities and maintaining behaviors in an individualized, but focused, way. Four randomized controlled trials and two dissemination studies showed that CT for PTSD is acceptable and effective. PMID:18752113

  6. Side effects, dropouts from treatment and cost consequences.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, S A; Kasper, S

    1998-02-01

    Estimating the cost of treatment of depression has to take into account the quantifiable direct costs of medication, and hospital and community care, and the indirect costs such as loss of productivity, unemployment, costs of social support, etc. It also has to take into account the intangible costs to the depressed individual which are more difficult to quantify. Depression is a long-term illness and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality which contribute substantially to the indirect costs of the illness. Successful treatment can be expected to reduce the overall costs of depression to the individual and to society at large. Compliance with treatment is an essential factor in the successful treatment of depression. Meta-analyses of published papers have indicated that significantly more patients discontinue treatment with tricyclic antidepressants due to side effects than with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and therefore better tolerated antidepressants should be the first choice of treatment. Pharmacoeconomic studies that take account of the failure of treatment represented by the discontinuations due to side effects show that an apparently cheaper antidepressant like imipramine may turn out to be more expensive than the better tolerated antidepressants.

  7. Treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes: practical tools for effective management.

    PubMed

    Kurtin, Sandra E; Demakos, Erin P; Hayden, Janet; Boglione, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid malignancies with variability in clinical presentation, disease trajectory, treatment goals, and expected outcomes. The treatment of patients with MDS, therefore, often differs from patient to patient. Tools are needed to aid effective communication with patients, their caregivers, and their dedicated team of healthcare professionals. The use of methods often employed in clinical trials can help healthcare providers diagnose and classify risk status, track trends within patient responses, manage adverse events, set treatment expectations, and provide ongoing supportive care. This article discusses several tools and strategies available for the management of patients with MDS throughout the continuum of their disease.

  8. The cost-effectiveness of an intensive treatment protocol for severe dyslexia in children.

    PubMed

    Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Goettsch, Wim G; Ekkebus, Michel; Gerretsen, Patty; Stolk, Elly A

    2011-08-01

    Studies of interventions for dyslexia have focused entirely on outcomes related to literacy. In this study, we considered a broader picture assessing improved quality of life compared with costs. A model served as a tool to compare costs and effects of treatment according to a new protocol and care as usual. Quality of life was measured and valued by proxies using a general quality-of-life instrument (EQ-5D). We considered medical cost and non-medical cost (e.g. remedial teaching). The model computed cost per successful treatment and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) in time. About 75% of the total costs was related to diagnostic tests to distinguish between children with severe dyslexia and children who have reading difficulties for other reasons. The costs per successful treatment of severe dyslexia were €36 366. Successful treatment showed a quality-of-life gain of about 11%. At primary school, the average cost per QALY for severe dyslexia amounted to €58 647. In the long term, the cost per QALY decreased to €26 386 at secondary school and €17 663 thereafter. The results of this study provide evidence that treatment of severe dyslexia is cost-effective when the investigated protocol is followed.

  9. A cost-effectiveness analysis of seminatural wetlands and activated sludge wastewater-treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

  10. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Seminatural Wetlands and Activated Sludge Wastewater-Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

  11. The effective medium and the average field approximations vis-à-vis the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. II. The generalized self-consistent scheme in matrix-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Y.; Milton, G. W.

    2010-07-01

    The present Part II of this two-part study is concerned with the average field approximation (AFA), and the effective medium approximation (EMA) in two-phase matrix-based dielectric composites through the use of an auxiliary configuration in which a particle of the inclusion phase is first surrounded by some matrix material, and then embedded in the effective medium. Those models will be referred as the generalized self-consistent scheme-average field approximation (GSCS-AFA), and the generalized self-consistent scheme-effective medium approximation (GSCS-EMA). We show that there are four types of the GSCS-AFA and a single type of the GSCS-EMA. In this paper the application of those models to dielectric composites with isotropic constituents and an inclusion phase that consists of randomly oriented ellipsoidal particles will be studied. The analytical solution of the auxiliary problem, which consists of an ellipsoidal particle confocally surrounded by a matrix shell and embedded in the effective medium, is achieved by means of ellipsoidal harmonics. Our results show that the effective property predictions of the GSCS-EMA and GSCS-AFA for the considered systems differ from each other, and more importantly, out of the four GSCS-AFA models, three of them violate the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The predictions of the GSCS-EMA obey the bounds. It is then shown that the version of the GSCS-AFA which obeys the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for an inclusion phase with randomly oriented ellipsoids will violate them in the case of a particle shape which is not simply connected. Moreover, it turns out that the SCS-AFA studied in Part I also violates the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds in that case; the EMA, as expected, owing to its realizability property, continues to obey the bounds. Among the AFA and EMA in matrix-based composites, the GSCS-EMA therefore stands out as the method to be recommended.

  12. Subclinical effects and fenbendazole treatment of turkey ascaridiasis under simulated field conditions.

    PubMed

    Yazwinski, T A; Tucker, C; Stelzleni, A; Johnson, Z; Robins, J; Downum, K; Fincher, M; Matlock, J; Chapman, H D

    2002-01-01

    Under simulated natural conditions of bird production and parasite challenge, the effects of ascaridiasis and the effectiveness of fenbendazole treatment (6-day regimes in the feed at 16 ppm) were documented. Birds were artificially challenged with ascarid larvae on a daily basis from day 35 to 112, with bird grow out ending on day 119. Experimental groups, on a per pen basis, were infected control, treated with fenbendazole at days 63-69, treated with fenbendazole at days 63-69 and days 91-97, and uninfected control. In the same order as above, and on an experimental group mean bird basis, final weights were 13.34, 13.47, 13.59, and 13.78 kg, average daily gains from day 7 to day 119 were 117.8, 118.9, 120.1, and 121.8 g, and units gained per unit of feed consumed from day 7 to day 119 were 0.337, 0.341, 0.347, and 0.362. Infected control bird mean Ascaridia dissimilis burdens, with all stages combined, ranged from 351.1 on day 63 to 117.2 on day 91, levels seen commonly with naturally infected commercial turkeys. Trial data dearly indicated that moderate A. dissimilis burdens negatively impacted animal performance (average daily gains and feed efficiencies) and that these parasite burdens are effectively removed by fenbendazole treatment.

  13. Effect of treatment temperature on the microstructure of asphalt binders: insights on the development of dispersed domains.

    PubMed

    Menapace, I; Masad, E; Bhasin, A

    2016-04-01

    This paper offers important insights on the development of the microstructure in asphalt binders as a function of the treatment temperature. Different treatment temperatures are useful to understand how dispersed domains form when different driving energies for the mobility of molecular species are provided. Small and flat dispersed domains, with average diameter between 0.02 and 0.70 μm, were detected on the surface of two binders at room temperature, and these domains were observed to grow with an increase in treatment temperature (up to over 2 μm). Bee-like structures started to appear after treatment at or above 100°C. Moreover, the effect of the binder thickness on its microstructure at room temperature and at higher treatment temperatures was investigated and is discussed in this paper. At room temperature, the average size of the dispersed domains increased as the binder thickness decreased. A hypothesis that conciliates current theories on the origin and development of dispersed domains is proposed. Small dispersed domains (average diameter around 0.02 μm) are present in the bulk of the binder, whereas larger domains and bee-like structures develop on the surface, following heat treatment or mechanical disturbance that reduces the film thickness. Molecular mobility and association are the key factors in the development of binder microstructure.

  14. Clinical Therapeutic Effects of the Application of Doxycycline in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Spasovski, Spiro; Belazelkoska, Zlatanka; Popovska, Mirjana; Atanasovska-Stojanovska, Aneta; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Muratovska, Ilijana; Toseska-Spasova, Natasa; Dzipunova, Biljana; Nikolovski, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects of the application of doxycycline-full dose (100 mg) and sub-dose (20 mg) in the treatment of periodontal disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients with periodontal disease were examined. Patients are divided into two groups: A) treated with antimicrobial dose of 100 mg doxycycline once daily for 30 days, and B) treated with 2 x 20 mg/day. doxycycline, during 75 days. Among all patients a conservative treatment was carried out and ordinated the proper dose doxycycline in total dose during treatment from 3 gr. Index of dental plaque by Löe-Sillness, index of gingival inflammation and gingival bleeding by Cowell were followed. RESULTS: Values of dental plaque in relation first examination, 10th, 20th day, 1 month and 2.5 months, showed that after 2.5 months, average value (x = 0.83) of dental plaque in second group is slightly less than the value (x = 0.93) of dental plaque in the first group. The average value (x = 0.17) of gingival inflammation in second group is significantly less than the value (x = 0.50) of gingival inflammation in the first group. The average value (x = 0.97) of gingival bleeding in patients from the first group was significantly higher than value(x = 0.37) of gingival bleeding in the second group. CONCLUSION: Patients whose therapy was helped by a sub-dose doxycycline demonstrated positive therapeutic effects on gingival inflammation and bleeding. PMID:27275351

  15. Stimulant Treatment over Five Years: Adherence, Effectiveness, and Adverse Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of adherence and medication status on effectiveness and adverse effects of stimulant use in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over 5 years. Method: Seventy-nine of 91 participants in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of methylphenidate and parent groups enrolled in a follow-up…

  16. Characterizing individual painDETECT symptoms by average pain severity

    PubMed Central

    Sadosky, Alesia; Koduru, Vijaya; Bienen, E Jay; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    Background painDETECT is a screening measure for neuropathic pain. The nine-item version consists of seven sensory items (burning, tingling/prickling, light touching, sudden pain attacks/electric shock-type pain, cold/heat, numbness, and slight pressure), a pain course pattern item, and a pain radiation item. The seven-item version consists only of the sensory items. Total scores of both versions discriminate average pain-severity levels (mild, moderate, and severe), but their ability to discriminate individual item severity has not been evaluated. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional, observational study of six neuropathic pain conditions (N=624). Average pain severity was evaluated using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, with severity levels defined using established cut points for distinguishing mild, moderate, and severe pain. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was followed by ridit analysis to represent the probability that a randomly selected subject from one average pain-severity level had a more favorable outcome on the specific painDETECT item relative to a randomly selected subject from a comparator severity level. Results A probability >50% for a better outcome (less severe pain) was significantly observed for each pain symptom item. The lowest probability was 56.3% (on numbness for mild vs moderate pain) and highest probability was 76.4% (on cold/heat for mild vs severe pain). The pain radiation item was significant (P<0.05) and consistent with pain symptoms, as well as with total scores for both painDETECT versions; only the pain course item did not differ. Conclusion painDETECT differentiates severity such that the ability to discriminate average pain also distinguishes individual pain item severity in an interpretable manner. Pain-severity levels can serve as proxies to determine treatment effects, thus indicating probabilities for more favorable outcomes on pain symptoms. PMID:27555789

  17. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and carnitine treatment on rat liver.

    PubMed

    Battelli, D; Bellei, M; Kneer, N; Contri, M B; Ronchetti, I P; Bobyleva, V; Lardy, H A

    1994-08-01

    It is well established that DHEA treatment is associated in the rat to an increase in fatty acids metabolism. This condition would require levels of L-carnitine much higher than those physiologically present in the liver. The possibility thus exist that during DHEA treatment the concentration of L-carnitine may become a limiting factor for fatty acids oxidation and therefore responsible of some of the effects observed after administration of the hormone. The present experiments were designed to test this hypothesis. The results show that the increase in the levels of peroxisomal enzymes induced in hepatocytes by DHEA, is greatly reduced by parallel administration of L-carnitine. Furthermore, L-carnitine administration counteracts the effect of DHEA on mitochondrial structure. On the contrary, carnitine has no significant effect on the reduction in weight gain observed upon short- or long-term treatment with DHEA.

  18. Late effects of treatment of cancer in infancy

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, G.; Antonelli, R.; Fine, W.; Li, F.P.; Sallan, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Eighty-six children were diagnosed with cancer in infancy, followed for at lest 5 years, and assessed for late effects of disease and therapy. One child subsequently died from respiratory failure and 3 died from second primary cancers. Another patient survived second primary cancers of the skin. The high frequency of new cancers (4 observed, 0.09 expected) was attributable to host susceptibility factors and treatment effects. Kyphoscoliosis was diagnosed in 44 patients, 40 of whom had received radiotherapy to the spine. Other patients had neurologic deficits, pulmonary fibrosis, hypoplastic breasts, bowel adhesions, thyroid nodules, musculoskeletal defects, and liver fibrosis associated with tumor therapy. Sequelae of cancer were more common after treatment in infancy than in later childhood. Improved treatments and knowledge of natural history can reduce adverse effects of therapy.

  19. Effect of Se treatment on the volatile compounds in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jiayu; Wu, Jie; Zuo, Jinhua; Fan, Linlin; Shi, Junyan; Gao, Lipu; Li, Miao; Wang, Qing

    2017-02-01

    Broccoli contains high levels of bioactive compounds but deteriorates and senesces easily. In the present study, freshly harvested broccoli was treated with selenite and stored at two different temperatures. The effect of selenite treatment on sensory quality and postharvest physiology were analyzed. Volatile components were assessed by HS-SPME combined with GC-MS and EN. The metabolism of Se and S was also examined. Results indicated that Se treatment had a significant effect on maintaining the sensory quality, suppressing the respiration intensity and ethylene production, as well as increasing the content of Se and decreasing the content of S. In particular, significant differences in the composition of volatile compounds were present between control and Se-treated. The differences were mainly due to differences in alcohols and sulfide compounds. These results demonstrate that Se treatment can have a positive effect on maintaining quality and enhancing its sensory quality through the release of volatile compounds.

  20. An evaluation of persistence of treatment effects during long-term treatment of destructive behavior.

    PubMed

    Wacker, David P; Harding, Jay W; Berg, Wendy K; Lee, John F; Schieltz, Kelly M; Padilla, Yaniz C; Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-09-01

    Eight young children who displayed destructive behavior maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement received long-term functional communication training (FCT). During FCT, the children completed a portion of a task and then touched a communication card attached to a microswitch to obtain brief breaks. Prior to and intermittently throughout FCT, extinction probes were conducted within a withdrawal design in which task completion, manding, and destructive behavior were placed on extinction to evaluate the relative persistence of appropriate and destructive behavior over the course of treatment. FCT continued until appropriate behavior persisted and destructive behavior failed to recur at baseline levels during extinction probes. The completion of FCT was followed by four challenges to the persistence of treatment effects conducted within mixed- or multiple-schedule designs: (a) extended extinction sessions (from 5 to 15 min), (b) introduction of a novel task, (c) removal of the microswitch and communication card, and (d) a mixed schedule of reinforcement in which both appropriate and destructive behavior produced reinforcement. The results showed that although FCT often resulted in quick reductions in destructive behavior and increases in appropriate behavior, destructive behavior often recurred during the extinction probes conducted during the initial treatment. When the effects of treatment persisted during the extinction probes, the remaining challenges to treatment effects resulted in only mild to moderate disruptions in behavior. These results are consistent with the quantitative predictions of behavioral momentum theory and may provide an alternative definition of maintenance as constituting behavioral persistence.

  1. An Evaluation of Persistence of Treatment Effects During Long-Term Treatment of Destructive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, David P; Harding, Jay W; Berg, Wendy K; Lee, John F; Schieltz, Kelly M; Padilla, Yaniz C; Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    Eight young children who displayed destructive behavior maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement received long-term functional communication training (FCT). During FCT, the children completed a portion of a task and then touched a communication card attached to a microswitch to obtain brief breaks. Prior to and intermittently throughout FCT, extinction probes were conducted within a withdrawal design in which task completion, manding, and destructive behavior were placed on extinction to evaluate the relative persistence of appropriate and destructive behavior over the course of treatment. FCT continued until appropriate behavior persisted and destructive behavior failed to recur at baseline levels during extinction probes. The completion of FCT was followed by four challenges to the persistence of treatment effects conducted within mixed- or multiple-schedule designs: (a) extended extinction sessions (from 5 to 15 min), (b) introduction of a novel task, (c) removal of the microswitch and communication card, and (d) a mixed schedule of reinforcement in which both appropriate and destructive behavior produced reinforcement. The results showed that although FCT often resulted in quick reductions in destructive behavior and increases in appropriate behavior, destructive behavior often recurred during the extinction probes conducted during the initial treatment. When the effects of treatment persisted during the extinction probes, the remaining challenges to treatment effects resulted in only mild to moderate disruptions in behavior. These results are consistent with the quantitative predictions of behavioral momentum theory and may provide an alternative definition of maintenance as constituting behavioral persistence. PMID:21909168

  2. Methaphylactic effect of tulathromycin treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Enrico; Armato, Leonardo; Morgante, Massimo; Muraro, Michele; Boso, Matteo; Gianesella, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tulathromycin as a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) metaphylactic treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot cattle in an intensive livestock production farm. One hundred beef cattle, immediately after housing, were divided in 2 equal groups: 50 animals with metaphylactic treatment against BRD (treated group; tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW) and 50 animals with placebo treatment (control group). Rumen fluid samples were collected from each animal by rumenocentesis in 3 periods: 1 d (T1), 8 d (T8), and 15 d (T15) after treatment. Rumen pH was determined by ruminal fluid using portable pH meter. Total volatile fatty acids (total VFA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All animals were singularly weighed at T1 and T15. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine significant effects of treatment (treated group versus control group) and period (T1, T8, and T15) on rumen fluid parameters and body weight. No clinical signs of BRD or other related diseases were recorded during the periods of study from any animal. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between treated group and control group for mean values of ruminal pH (6.02 versus 5.89) and total VFA (5.84 versus 5.13) at 8 d after treatment. The weight gain (Δ) showed an average increase of 8.6 kg in treated group (P < 0.05). The trends of ruminal pH and VFA values suggest an effect of tulathromycin as BRD metaphylactic treatment on the modulation of rumen fermentation, particularly 8 d after administration.

  3. Methaphylactic effect of tulathromycin treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Enrico; Armato, Leonardo; Morgante, Massimo; Muraro, Michele; Boso, Matteo; Gianesella, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tulathromycin as a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) metaphylactic treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot cattle in an intensive livestock production farm. One hundred beef cattle, immediately after housing, were divided in 2 equal groups: 50 animals with metaphylactic treatment against BRD (treated group; tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW) and 50 animals with placebo treatment (control group). Rumen fluid samples were collected from each animal by rumenocentesis in 3 periods: 1 d (T1), 8 d (T8), and 15 d (T15) after treatment. Rumen pH was determined by ruminal fluid using portable pH meter. Total volatile fatty acids (total VFA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All animals were singularly weighed at T1 and T15. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine significant effects of treatment (treated group versus control group) and period (T1, T8, and T15) on rumen fluid parameters and body weight. No clinical signs of BRD or other related diseases were recorded during the periods of study from any animal. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between treated group and control group for mean values of ruminal pH (6.02 versus 5.89) and total VFA (5.84 versus 5.13) at 8 d after treatment. The weight gain (Δ) showed an average increase of 8.6 kg in treated group (P < 0.05). The trends of ruminal pH and VFA values suggest an effect of tulathromycin as BRD metaphylactic treatment on the modulation of rumen fermentation, particularly 8 d after administration. PMID:26733733

  4. Effective treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding with thalidomide - Chances and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Bauditz, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 50 years bleeding from gastrointestinal angiodysplasias has been treated by hormonal therapy with estrogens and progesterons. After a randomized study finally demonstrated that hormones have no effect on bleeding events and transfusion requirements, therapy has switched to endoscopic coagulation. However, angiodysplasias tend to recur over months to years and endoscopy often has to be repeated for long time periods. Thalidomide, which caused severe deformities in newborn children in the 1960s, is now increasingly used after it was shown to suppress tumor necrosis factor alpha, inhibit angiogenesis and to be also effective for treatment of multiple myeloma. In 2011 thalidomide was proven to be highly effective for treatment of bleeding from gastrointestinal angiodysplasias in a randomized study. Further evidence by uncontrolled studies exists that thalidomide is also useful for treatment of bleeding in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. In spite of this data, endoscopic therapy remains the treatment of choice in many hospitals, as thalidomide is still notorious for its teratogenicity. However, patients with gastrointestinal bleeding related to angiodysplasias are generally at an age in which women have no child-bearing potential. Teratogenicity is therefore no issue for these elderly patients. Other side-effects of thalidomide like neurotoxicity may limit treatment options but can be monitored safely. PMID:27003992

  5. Leishmania amazonensis: effects of oral treatment with copaiba oil in mice.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Costa, Marco Antonio; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias-Filho, Benedito Prado; da Veiga-Júnior, Valdir Florêncio; de Souza Lima, Marli Miriam; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a severe public-health problem, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Efforts to find new, effective and safe oral agents for the treatment of leishmaniasis have been ongoing for several decades, in order to avoid the problems with the currently used antimonials. In the present study, we found that a copaiba oil oral treatment (Group IV) caused a significant reduction in the average lesion size (1.1±0.4mm) against Leishmania amazonensis lesions compared with untreated mice (Group I) (4.4±1.3mm). To prove the safety of the oil, the toxicity and genotoxicity were also determined. Histopathological evaluation did not reveal changes in the copaiba oil-treated animals compared to the control animals. In the mutagenicity evaluation, (micronucleus test) the dose tested (2000mg/kg) showed no genotoxic effects. Morphological and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated notable changes in parasite cells treated with this oleoresin. The main ultrastructural effect was mitochondrial swelling. We also demonstrated that in vitro copaiba oil treatment of L. amazonensis led to an increase in plasma membrane permeability, and depolarization in the mitochondrial membrane potential in parasite cells. Although the mechanism of action of the oleoresin is still unclear, these findings indicate that copaiba oil is a possible new drug, which would provide a safer, shorter, less-expensive, and more easily administered treatment for leishmaniasis.

  6. The cost-effectiveness of depression treatment for co-occurring disorders: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Katherine E; Cuellar, Alison E; Hepner, Kimberly A; Hunter, Sarah B; Paddock, Susan M; Ewing, Brett A; de la Cruz, Erin

    2014-02-01

    The authors aimed to determine the economic value of providing on-site group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression to clients receiving residential substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Using a quasi-experimental design and an intention-to-treat analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratio of the intervention were estimated relative to usual care residential treatment. The average cost of a treatment episode was $908, compared to $180 for usual care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio was $131 for each point improvement of the BDI-II and $49 for each additional depression-free day. The incremental cost-utility ratio ranged from $9,249 to $17,834 for each additional quality adjusted life year. Although the intervention costs substantially more than usual care, the cost effectiveness and cost-utility ratios compare favorably to other depression interventions. Health care reform should promote dissemination of group CBT to individuals with depression in residential SUD treatment.

  7. Random-effects linear modeling and sample size tables for two special crossover designs of average bioequivalence studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation and six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation designs.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Francisco J; Berg, Michel J; Krebill, Ron; Welty, Timothy; Gidal, Barry E; Alloway, Rita; Privitera, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Due to concern and debate in the epilepsy medical community and to the current interest of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in revising approaches to the approval of generic drugs, the FDA is currently supporting ongoing bioequivalence studies of antiepileptic drugs, the EQUIGEN studies. During the design of these crossover studies, the researchers could not find commercial or non-commercial statistical software that quickly allowed computation of sample sizes for their designs, particularly software implementing the FDA requirement of using random-effects linear models for the analyses of bioequivalence studies. This article presents tables for sample-size evaluations of average bioequivalence studies based on the two crossover designs used in the EQUIGEN studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation design, and the six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation design. Sample-size computations assume that random-effects linear models are used in bioequivalence analyses with crossover designs. Random-effects linear models have been traditionally viewed by many pharmacologists and clinical researchers as just mathematical devices to analyze repeated-measures data. In contrast, a modern view of these models attributes an important mathematical role in theoretical formulations in personalized medicine to them, because these models not only have parameters that represent average patients, but also have parameters that represent individual patients. Moreover, the notation and language of random-effects linear models have evolved over the years. Thus, another goal of this article is to provide a presentation of the statistical modeling of data from bioequivalence studies that highlights the modern view of these models, with special emphasis on power analyses and sample-size computations.

  8. Effects of Heat Treatment on Microstructural Modification of As-Cast Gamma-TiAl Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Rahman; Hadavi, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Effects of normalizing and annealing treatments on the microstructure of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (at.%) were investigated. Normalizing processes were done at 1385 ± 5 °C in α-phase domain with the heating rate of 10 °C/min, the average cooling rate of 30 °C/min, and the holding times of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min. The annealing process was done at the same temperature and heating rate, the holding time of 15 min, and the average cooling rate of 2 °C/min. Microstructures, phases, and hardness levels were studied by optical and field emission electron microscopic observations, x-ray diffractometry (XRD), and microhardness testing, respectively. Also, crystallographic texture variations were analyzed by means of texture coefficient and XRD results. Experimental results showed a linear direct relationship between treatment time and grain size, up to 15 min. A linear reversed behavior was observed for longer times. The untreated alloy consisted of γ and α2 phases with a columnar morphology with the length of about 300 μm. A near-lamellar microstructure with equiaxed gamma grains, Widmansttäten, and laminar γ + α2 colonies was obtained by the normalizing process. The maximum reduction of the grain size was about 70%, as achieved by normalizing with the 15 min holding time. A texture-free microstructure was acquired by normalizing treatment in comparison with strong texture of the as-cast and annealed alloys.

  9. [Effectiveness of trazodone in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions].

    PubMed

    Gałecki, Piotr; Florkowski, Antoni

    2010-07-01

    Sexual dysfunctions may be main cause of social disability. The knowledge of the rates of occurrence of sexual dysfunctions in the general population and the primary risk factors for these conditions is very important to assist in assessing the risk and planning treatment. Sexual dysfunctions are highly prevalent in our society worldwide, and that the occurrence of sexual dysfunctions increases directly with age for both men and women. Specific medical conditions and health behaviors represent major risk factors for sexual disorders. Trazodone is sedative antidepressant drug, which is effective, safe, fast acting, with a few side effects, with proved efficiency in the treatment of sexual dysfunction.

  10. Dose Specific Effects of Olanzapine in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Rae A.; Claus, Eric D.; Arenella, Pamela; Bogenschutz, Michael; Karoly, Hollis; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale It is well-established that the rewarding effects of alcohol are modulated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Olanzapine, a D2 dopamine antagonist, has been shown to reduce alcohol craving and consumption. Objective To clarify whether olanzapine has clinical utility in the treatment of alcohol dependence, a 12-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted. Methods One-hundred twenty-nine treatment-seeking alcohol dependent adults were randomly assigned to 12-weeks of olanzapine (5mg vs. 2.5mg) or placebo. Outcomes examined were average drinks per drinking day (DDD), proportion of drinking days to total days in treatment (PDD), alcohol craving, and impaired control over alcohol use. Mixed models were used to examine medication effects during the course of treatment on specified outcomes. Results All of the analyses indicated a main effect for time, such that there were reductions in alcohol use and craving and an increase in control over alcohol use across treatment conditions. Dose-response analyses indicated that, in comparison to placebo, participants in the 5mg group experienced reduced craving for alcohol and participants in the 2.5mg group decreased in PDD and increased in their control over alcohol use. Better control over alcohol use remained significant 6 months post-treatment for the 2.5mg group. Subjective experiences of the medication suggest that 2.5mg and 5mg were equally well-tolerated. Conclusions Results provide some support for the notion that dosage is an important consideration in relation to effectiveness; however, the cost-benefit balance does not support the clinical utility of olanzapine in treating alcohol dependence. PMID:25304864

  11. Alcohol use disorder: pathophysiology, effects, and pharmacologic options for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wackernah, Robin C; Minnick, Matthew J; Clapp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) continue to be a concerning health issue worldwide. Harmful alcohol use leads to 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide. Multiple options exist for the management of dependence on alcohol, not all of which are approved by drug-regulating agencies. Current practice in treating AUD does not reflect the diversity of pharmacologic options that have potential to provide benefit, and guidance for clinicians is limited. Few medications are approved for treatment of AUD, and these have exhibited small and/or inconsistent effects in broad patient populations with diverse drinking patterns. The need for continued research into the treatment of this disease is evident in order to provide patients with more specific and effective options. This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms of AUD that are amenable to treatment and drug therapies that target pathophysiological conditions of AUD to reduce drinking. In addition, current literature on pharmacologic (both approved and non-approved) treatment options for AUD offered in the United States and elsewhere are reviewed. The aim is to inform clinicians regarding the options for alcohol abuse treatment, keeping in mind that not all treatments are completely successful in reducing craving or heavy drinking or increasing abstinence. PMID:24648792

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of electronic signal treatment.

    PubMed

    Odell, Robert H; Sorgnard, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation often plays a key role in the perpetuation of pain. Chronic inflammatory conditions (e.g. osteoarthritis, immune system dysfunction, micro-circulatory disease, painful neuritis, and even heart disease) have increased as baby boomers age. Medicine's current anti-inflammatory choices are NSAIDs and steroids; the value in promoting cure and side effect risks of these medications are unclear and controversial, especially considering individual patient variations. Electricity has continuously been a powerful tool in medicine for thousands of years. All medical professionals are, to some degree, aware of electrotherapy; those who directly use electricity for treatment know of its anti-inflammatory effects. Electronic signal treatment (EST), as an extension of presently available technology, may reasonably have even more anti-inflammatory effects. EST is a digitally produced alternating current sinusoidal electronic signal with associated harmonics to produce theoretically reasonable and/or scientifically documented physiological effects when applied to the human body. These signals are produced by advanced electronics not possible even 10 to 15 years ago. The potential long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects of some electrical currents are based on basic physical and biochemical facts listed in the text below, namely that of stimulating and signaling effective and long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects in nerve and muscle cells. The safety of electrotherapeutic treatments in general and EST in particular has been established through extensive clinical use. The principles of physics have been largely de-emphasized in modern medicine in favor of chemistry. These electrical treatments, a familiar application of physics, thus represent powerful and appropriate elements of physicians' pain care armamentaria in the clinic and possibly for prescription for use at home to improve overall patient care and maintenance of quality of life via low-risk and potentially

  13. Effects of four treatment strategies for temporomandibular joint closed lock

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, E. L.; Velly, A. M.; Look, J. O.; Hodges, J. S.; Swift, J. Q.; Decker, K. L.; Anderson, Q. N.; Templeton, R. B.; Lenton, P. A.; Kang, W.; Fricton, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    A previous randomized controlled trial (RCT) by Schiffman et al. (2007)15 compared four treatments strategies for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement without reduction with limited mouth opening (closed lock). In this parallel group RCT, 106 patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-confirmed TMJ closed lock were randomized between medical management, non-surgical rehabilitation, arthroscopic surgery, and arthroplasty. Surgical groups also received rehabilitation post-surgically. The current paper reassesses the effectiveness of these four treatment strategies using outcome measures recommended by the International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (IAOMS). Clinical assessments at baseline and at follow-up (3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 60 months) included intensity and frequency of TMJ pain, mandibular range of motion, TMJ sounds, and impairment of chewing. TMJ MRIs were performed at baseline and 24 months, and TMJ tomograms at baseline, 24 and 60 months. Most IAOMS recommended outcome measures improved significantly over time (P ≤ 0.0003). There was no difference between treatment strategies relative to any treatment outcome at any follow-up (P ≥ 0.16). Patient self-assessment of treatment success correlated with their ability to eat, with pain-free opening ≥35 mm, and with reduced pain intensity. Given no difference between treatment strategies, non-surgical treatment should be employed for TMJ closed lock before considering surgery. PMID:24042068

  14. Effects of Depression on Treatment Motivation in Male Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    CENGİSİZ, Cengiz; DEVECİ, Artuner; YAPICI, Aslıhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Treatment motivation in alcohol dependents is usually viewed as a strong predictor of seeking treatment and treatment success. The conditions affecting motivation in alcohol dependence, however, has not been clarified. In this study, it is aimed to determine the effects of depression on treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Methods The present study included 34 male alcohol dependents presenting to outpatient clinics in Manisa Hospital of Mental Disorders and Hospital of Celal Bayar University. The patients underwent evaluation using the socio-demographic and clinical information form, DSM-IV SCID-I Clinical Version, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Results A significant relationship was found between the total score of TMQ and HDRS (p=.039). Conclusion We believe that the present study, in which we examined the relationship between treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence and depression, would provide a significant contribution to literature. It is also important to investigate other factors that may affect treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Studies with larger samples are needed on this topic.

  15. Effect of water treatment processes on Cryptosporidium infectivity.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Alexandra; Daminato, David; Saint, Christopher P; Monis, Paul T

    2008-03-01

    Conventional water treatment processes have the ability to remove Cryptosporidium oocysts through coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration, provided there is efficient management of plant performance. The potential exists for the breakthrough of oocysts through the treatment train. The effect of the water treatment chemical aluminium sulphate (alum) on Cryptosporidium oocyst infectivity has been assessed using an assay that combines cell culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. The infectivity of fresh and temperature-aged oocysts (stored up to 6 months at 4 or 15 degrees C) was unaffected by exposure to a range of doses of alum in standard jar test procedures and dissolved air flotation processes and subsequent exposure to chlorine or chloramine. Removal efficiencies and infectivity measures are important in determining risk to public health and will reflect the ability of water treatment plants to act as a barrier to these pathogens.

  16. Ivermectin: new indication. Oral treatment of scabies: simple and effective.

    PubMed

    2002-10-01

    (1) Ivermectin is the first oral drug to be licensed in France for the treatment of scabies. (2) In common scabies, three small trials suggest that ivermectin is about as effective as topical preparations. (3) Several cohort studies have shown that ivermectin can control outbreaks of scabies (especially in institutions) and also in endemic areas. (4) There are no clinical trial data on ivermectin in crusted scabies. Case series suggest that combining ivermectin with topical treatments may increase efficacy. (5) Ivermectin seems to have few, mostly mild short-term side effects in adults. There are no reports of ivermectin treatment in infants weighing less than 15 kg or in breast-feeding infants. Data on about 400 pregnant women treated with ivermectin are reassuring. (6) In a small cohort of elderly patients, ivermectin used after topical preparations coincided with excess mortality 6 months later. Subsequent studies were reassuring, but all adverse events (including death) in elderly patients treated with ivermectin must none the less be notified. (7) In practice, oral ivermectin is effective against scabies and is thus an alternative to topical treatments. Its single-dose administration facilitates treatment, especially during outbreaks.

  17. Study of Convective Flow Effects in Endwall Casing Treatments in Transonic Compressor Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill; Mueller, Martin W.; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The unsteady convective flow effects in a transonic compressor rotor with a circumferential-groove casing treatment are investigated in this paper. Experimental results show that the circumferential-groove casing treatment increases the compressor stall margin by almost 50% for the current transonic compressor rotor. Steady flow simulation of the current casing treatment, however, yields only a 15% gain in stall margin. The flow field at near-stall operation is highly unsteady due to several self-induced flow phenomena. These include shock oscillation, vortex shedding at the trailing edge, and interaction between the passage shock and the tip clearance vortex. The primary focus of the current investigation is to assess the effects of flow unsteadiness and unsteady flow convection on the circumferential-groove casing treatment. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques were applied in addition to steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to simulate the flow field at near-stall operation and to determine changes in stall margin. The current investigation reveals that unsteady flow effects are as important as steady flow effects on the performance of the circumferential grooves casing treatment in extending the stall margin of the current transonic compressor rotor. The primary unsteady flow mechanism is unsteady flow injection from the grooves into the main flow near the casing. Flows moving into and out of the grooves are caused due to local pressure difference near the grooves. As the pressure field becomes transient due to self-induced flow oscillation, flow injection from the grooves also becomes unsteady. The unsteady flow simulation shows that this unsteady flow injection from the grooves is substantial and contributes significantly to extending the compressor stall margin. Unsteady flows into and out of the grooves have as large a role as steady flows in the circumferential grooves. While the

  18. The effectiveness of biofeedback therapy in children with monosymptomatic enuresis resistant to desmopressin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sancak, Eyüp Burak; Akbaş, Alpaslan; Kurt, Ömer; Alan, Cabir; Ersay, Ahmet Reşit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of biofeedback therapy on children with desmopressin- resistant primary monosymptomatic enuresis (MsE). Material and methods The study comprised both retrospective and prospective sections. A total of 262 medical files of patients who were diagnosed as enuresis between November 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively screened. Patients with neuropathic bladder, daytime voiding problems, anatomical pathology and enuresis-related diseases were excluded from the study. The demographic data and family characteristics of 29 children with desmopressin- resistantprimary MsE were recorded. After biofeedback treatment patients whose frequency of enuretic episodes decrease by more than 50% were included in the successful biofeedback treatment group (SBTG), while other patients were categorized in the unsuccessful biofeedback treatment group (USGBT). The outcomes of uroflowmetry, voided volume, postvoiding residue (PVR) and total bladder volume/age-adjusted normal bladder capacity (TBV/NBC) were recorded before and at the sixth month of the treatment. Results The mean age of 29 patients included in the study was 9.14±3.07 (6–15) years. Of patients, 16 were male (55.2%) and 13 were female (44.8%). Before biofeedback treatment the frequency of enuresis was 25.1±5.76 days/month, while after treatment this was calculated as 8.52±10.07 days/month. After treatment 8 patients (28.6%) achieved complete dryness. Twenty patients (69%), benefited from biofeedback (SBTG), while there were 9 patients (31%) in the USBTG group. There was no significant difference between the SBTG and USBTG groups in terms of age, body mass index and sex. The average bladder capacity of the patients increased from 215 mL to 257 mL after biofeedback treatment (p<0.001). The TBV/NBC value before treatment was 0.66, while after treatment it was 0.77 (p<0.001). There was a statistically significant difference between the SBTG and USBTG groups in terms of presence of Ms

  19. The health effects of cost-related treatment delays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Rizzo, John A; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2011-01-01

    The number of Americans who report delaying or forgoing necessary medical care because of cost concerns has increased markedly in recent years. Delaying or forgoing treatment may result in negative health effects, but empirical evidence is scarce. Using the merged data set of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the National Health Interview Survey 2002-2006, the effect of delaying or forgoing medical care on ex post health status was estimated. Results indicate that people who delayed or forwent medical treatment were significantly less likely to report having excellent or very good ex post health status and had significantly lower quality-of-life scores compared with people who never delayed or forwent necessary medical care, controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, chronic medical conditions, and baseline health status. The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that expanding health insurance coverage can prevent 9% to 12% of the health decrements associated with delaying or forgoing medical treatment.

  20. The Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Mass Treatment for Intestinal Nematode Worm Infections Using Different Treatment Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Andrew; Horton, Sue; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2009-01-01

    Background It is estimated that almost a half of all of people living in developing countries today are infected with roundworms, hookworms, or whipworms or combinations of these types of intestinal nematode worms. They can all be treated using safe, effective, and inexpensive single-dose generic drugs costing as little as USD 0.03 per person treated when bought in bulk. The disease caused by intestinal nematodes is strongly related to the number of worms in the gut, and it is typical to find that worms tend to be aggregated or clumped in their distribution so that <20% of people may harbour >80% of all worms. This clumping of worms is greatest when the prevalence is low. When the prevalence rises above 50%, the mean worm burden increases exponentially, worms are less clumped, and more people are likely to have moderate to heavy infections and may be diseased. Children are most at risk. For these reasons, the World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends mass treatment of children ≥1 year old without prior diagnosis when the prevalence is ≥20% and treatment twice a year when the prevalence is ≥50%. Methods and Findings The risk of moderate to heavy infections with intestinal nematodes was estimated by applying the negative binomial probability distribution, then the drug cost of treating diseased individuals was calculated based on different threshold numbers of worms. Based on this cost analysis, a new three-tier treatment regime is proposed: if the combined prevalence is >40%, treat all children once a year; >60% treat twice a year; and >80% treat three times a year. Using average data on drug and delivery costs of USD 0.15 to treat a school-age child and USD 0.25 to treat a pre-school child (with provisos) the cost of treating children aged 2–14 years was calculated for 105 low- and low-middle-income countries and for constituent regions of India and China based on estimates of the combined prevalence of intestinal nematode worms therein. The

  1. Effects of Chronic Buspirone Treatment on Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Nancy K; Fivel, Peter A; Kohut, Stephen J; Bergman, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine abuse and dependence is a major public health problem that continues to challenge medication-based treatment. Buspirone (Buspar) is a clinically available, non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic medication that acts on both serotonin and dopamine systems. In recent preclinical studies, acute buspirone treatment reduced cocaine self-administration at doses that did not also decrease food-reinforced behavior in rhesus monkeys (Bergman et al, 2012). The present study evaluated the effectiveness of chronic buspirone treatment on self-administration of cocaine and food. Five adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to self-administer cocaine and food during four 1-h daily sessions under a second-order schedule of reinforcement (FR2 [VR 16:S]). Buspirone (0.32 and 0.56 mg/kg/h) was administered intravenously through one lumen of a double-lumen catheter every 20 min for 23 h each day for 7–10 consecutive days. Each buspirone treatment period was followed by saline control treatment until drug- and food-maintained responding returned to baseline levels. Buspirone significantly reduced responding maintained by cocaine, and shifted the dose–effect curve downwards. Buspirone had minimal effects on food-maintained responding. In cocaine discrimination studies, buspirone (0.1–0.32 mg/kg, IM) did not antagonize the discriminative stimulus and rate-altering effects of cocaine in four of six monkeys. These findings indicate that buspirone selectively attenuates the reinforcing effects of cocaine in a nonhuman primate model of cocaine self-administration, and has variable effects on cocaine discrimination. PMID:23072835

  2. Effects of chronic buspirone treatment on cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Mello, Nancy K; Fivel, Peter A; Kohut, Stephen J; Bergman, Jack

    2013-02-01

    Cocaine abuse and dependence is a major public health problem that continues to challenge medication-based treatment. Buspirone (Buspar) is a clinically available, non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic medication that acts on both serotonin and dopamine systems. In recent preclinical studies, acute buspirone treatment reduced cocaine self-administration at doses that did not also decrease food-reinforced behavior in rhesus monkeys (Bergman et al, 2012). The present study evaluated the effectiveness of chronic buspirone treatment on self-administration of cocaine and food. Five adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to self-administer cocaine and food during four 1-h daily sessions under a second-order schedule of reinforcement (FR2 [VR 16:S]). Buspirone (0.32 and 0.56 mg/kg/h) was administered intravenously through one lumen of a double-lumen catheter every 20 min for 23 h each day for 7-10 consecutive days. Each buspirone treatment period was followed by saline control treatment until drug- and food-maintained responding returned to baseline levels. Buspirone significantly reduced responding maintained by cocaine, and shifted the dose-effect curve downwards. Buspirone had minimal effects on food-maintained responding. In cocaine discrimination studies, buspirone (0.1-0.32 mg/kg, IM) did not antagonize the discriminative stimulus and rate-altering effects of cocaine in four of six monkeys. These findings indicate that buspirone selectively attenuates the reinforcing effects of cocaine in a nonhuman primate model of cocaine self-administration, and has variable effects on cocaine discrimination.

  3. Short- and long-term effectiveness of an empirically supported treatment for agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Hahlweg, K; Fiegenbaum, W; Frank, M; Schroeder, B; von Witzleben, I

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of individual high-density exposure (2-3 weeks, all day) for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDAG). Participants were 416 unselected patients with a primary diagnosis of PDAG who were treated by 52 therapists in 3 outpatient clinics of the Christoph-Dornier Foundation of Clinical Psychology in Germany. Results 6 weeks after the end of therapy and at the 1-year follow-up showed highly significant reductions in anxiety symptoms, anxious cognition, agoraphobic avoidance, general symptomatology, and depressive symptoms. Results did not differ significantly between the 3 outpatient clinics and are comparable with the average effect sizes reported by meta-analytic studies of controlled efficacy research, using selected patients and specifically trained therapists. Effectiveness was not dependent on duration of disorder, number of treatment sessions, and therapist experience. The study suggests that high-density exposure can be transported from research settings to the mental health field.

  4. Training Implications of Harmful Effects of Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castonguay, Louis G.; Boswell, James F.; Constantino, Michael J.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Hill, Clara E.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to delineate training implications regarding harmful effects associated with psychotherapy. The authors strongly recommend that trainees be made aware of (and encouraged to examine carefully) the potentially harmful treatments that have been recently identified (Lilienfeld, 2007). Consistent with a broad perspective on…

  5. Childhood Resiliency Effects from Schoolwide Treatment: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinerman, Krystal M.; Hull, Darrell M.; Hayes, DeMarquis; Powell, Marvin G.; Ferguson, Sarah; Naslund-Hadley, Emma I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Childhood Resiliency Effects from Schoolwide Treatment (CREST) Pilot was to implement a comprehensive school wide social and character development program aimed at decreasing violence among students and assisting students exposed to violence in Belize City. This one-year pilot program implemented portions of the Positive Action…

  6. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, N. E.; Pahren, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the potential health effects associated with: (1) wastewater treatment plants; (2) land application of municipal wastewater; and (3) use of renovated water. This review covers the publications of 1976-77. A list of 96 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Correlates, Causes, Effects, and Treatment of Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembree, Ray

    1988-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the results of 562 studies illustrates the nature, effect, and treatment of academic test anxiety (TA). TA correlated inversely to students' self-esteem and directly to their fears of negative evaluation, defensiveness, and other forms of anxiety. Ability, gender, and school grade level also affect TA. (TJH)

  8. Effect of 82% Lactic Acid in Treatment of Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rashmi; Goyal, Sapna; Ahmed, Qazi Rais; Gupta, Narendra; Singh, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired, chronic, and symmetrical hypermelanosis, characterized by brown patches of variable darkness on sun exposed areas of body. There are numerous modalities of treatment currently in use for this disease, of which the chemical peeling is very commonly used. Therefore, the present work was done to see the effect of 82% lactic acid peel in the treatment of melasma. A total number of 20 patients of either sex attending the OPD of dermatology department with clinically evident melasma were included in the study. 82% Lactic acid peel was applied on the face for 12 weeks in each patient. Patients were evaluated clinically and photographically at various intervals and in follow-up till 24 weeks. Assessment of patient satisfaction and side effects were also noted. All the subjects completed the study. Application of this peel for 12 weeks significantly decreased the melasma area severity index score and also melasma severity scale score. Patient and physician analogue scales also showed the improvement by the treatment. Regarding the adverse effects, burning sensation was the only side effect noted in our study. In conclusion, 82% lactic acid peel is well tolerated and can be used for the treatment of melasma. PMID:27355080

  9. PERMEABLE TREATMENT WALL EFFECTIVENESS MONITORING PROJECT, NEVADA STEWART MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 39, Permeable Treatment Wall Effectiveness Monitoring Project, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. De...

  10. Effects of Two Comprehension Treatments in a College Reading Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heerman, Charles E.

    To compare the effects of two different comprehension treatments on the reading of university students enrolled in a developmental reading laboratory, 74 students were administered pretests measuring reading achievement and reading attitudes and were given five weeks of instruction in text organizing strategies and vocabulary development. After…

  11. The effect of treatment of skeletal open bite with two types of bite-blocks.

    PubMed

    Kuster, R; Ingervall, B

    1992-12-01

    The treatment of anterior skeletal open bite was studied in two groups of children. The children of one group wore a removable spring-loaded bite-block in the lower jaw for one year. The bite-block exerted an intrusive force on the upper and lower posterior teeth. The children of the other group were treated for 3 months with bite-blocks with repelling magnets. These bite-blocks were cemented on the posterior teeth of both jaws. The effects of treatment were monitored by measurement of the bite-force (group with spring bite-blocks only), by electromyographic recording of the activity of the temporal and masseter muscles, and by X-ray cephalometry. Recordings were made before, during, and at the end of the treatment, and at a follow-up observation. The bite-force increased during the first months of treatment, but was then unchanged. The activity of the masseter muscle during maximal bite also increased in the first part of the period of treatment with a spring bite-block. In the group treated with magnetic bite-blocks, there was an increase in the resting activity of the masseter muscle and in the chewing activity of the anterior temporal muscle. The effects of the treatment on bite and facial morphology were less marked in the group with spring bite-blocks than in the group with magnetic bite-blocks, with an average improvement of the overbite of 1.3 mm with the spring bite-block therapy. In the group with magnetic bite-blocks, the average improvement in overbite was 3 mm. This was thought to be due to anterior rotation of the mandible and increased eruption of the incisors. The mandibular rotation was a result of intrusion of the upper and lower posterior teeth and possibly also increased mandibular growth. A follow-up of the cases treated with magnetic bite-blocks revealed a tendency for the beneficial effects of the treatment to relapse which possibly could be counteracted by a long phase of active retention.

  12. Contact transcleral ciliary body photodynamic therapy with verteporfin in pigmented rabbits: effect of repeated treatments.

    PubMed

    Charisis, Spyridon K; Naoumidi, Irene I; Ginis, Harilaos S; Detorakis, Efstathios T; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the ciliary body (CB) morphology after four consecutive contact transcleral photodynamic treatments of the ciliary body (CB-PDT) with verteporfin in pigmented rabbits. Twenty-two pigmented rabbits underwent CB-PDT (study group), performed once (six rabbits) or repeated for up to four times (16 rabbits). Six additional rabbits received only laser treatment without photosensitizer administration (control group). CB-PDT was performed in one eye in rabbits of the study group, with the fellow eye serving as internal control. Verteporfin dosage was 1 mg kg(-1) as bolus injection and laser settings were 40 mW (600 microm core optical fiber) for 1.5 min per spot, for 10 spots. In repeated CB-PDT, treatments were performed in 4-day intervals. Daily IOP measurements were recorded. Histological studies were performed at selected time points. An IOP reduction, more sustained following repeated treatments, was detected in all treated eyes but not in fellow eyes or in the control group. On the average, the IOP was restored to pretreatment levels 4 days after the last treatment. No serious adverse events were observed and the CB architecture was intact at the end of the experiment. Repeated CB-PDT is safe and results in a short-term reduction of IOP. Induced CB alterations are reversible.

  13. Charge neutral MoS2 field effect transistors through oxygen plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhall, Rohan; Li, Zhen; Kosmowska, Ewa; Cronin, Stephen B.

    2016-11-01

    Lithographically fabricated MoS2 field effect transistors suffer from several critical imperfections, including low sub-threshold swings, large turn-on gate voltages (VT), and wide device-to-device variability. The large magnitude and variability of VT stems from unclean interfaces, trapped charges in the underlying substrate, and sulfur vacancies created during the mechanical exfoliation process. In this study, we demonstrate a simple and reliable oxygen plasma treatment, which mitigates the effects of unintentional doping created by surface defect sites, such as S vacancies, and surface contamination. This plasma treatment restores charge neutrality to the MoS2 and shifts the threshold turn-on voltage towards 0 V. Out of the 10 devices measured, all exhibit a shift of the FET turn-on voltage from an average of -18 V to -2 V. The oxygen plasma treatment passivates these defects, which reduces surface scattering, causing increased mobility and improved subthreshold swing. For as-prepared devices with low mobilities (˜0.01 cm2/V s), we observe up to a 190-fold increase in mobility after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Perhaps the most important aspect of this oxygen plasma treatment is that it reduces the device-to-device variability, which is a crucial factor in realizing any practical application of these devices.

  14. Fall rice straw management and winter flooding treatment effects on a subsequent soybean crop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, M.M.; Windham, T.E.; McNew, R.W.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of fall rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw management and winter flooding on the yield and profitability of subsequent irrigated and dryland soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops were studied for 3 years. Rice straw treatments consisted of disking, rolling, or standing stubble. Winter flooding treatments consisted of maintaining a minimum water depth of 10 cm by pumping water when necessary, impounding available rainfall, and draining fields to prevent flooding. The following soybean crop was managed as a conventional-tillage system or no-till system. Tillage system treatments were further divided into irrigated or dryland. Results indicated that there were no significant effects from either fall rice straw management or winter flooding treatments on soybean seed yields. Soybean seed yields for, the conventional tillage system were significantly greater than those for the no-till system for the first 2 yrs and not different in the third year. Irrigated soybean seed yields were significantly greater than those from dryland plots for all years. Net economic returns averaged over the 3 yrs were greatest ($390.00 ha-1) from the irrigated no-till system.

  15. Effectiveness of different footbath solutions in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Speijers, M H M; Baird, L G; Finney, G A; McBride, J; Kilpatrick, D J; Logue, D N; O'Connell, N E

    2010-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of different footbath solutions and regimens in the treatment of digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cows. During the study, groups of cows walked through allocated footbath solutions after milking on 4 consecutive occasions. All cows were scored weekly for DD lesion stage on the hind feet during milking. A "transition grade" was assigned on the basis of whether the DD lesions improved (1) or deteriorated or did not improve (0) from week to week. This grade per cow was averaged for all cows in the group. In experiment 1, 118 cows were allocated to 1 of 3 footbath treatments for 5 wk: (1) 5% CuSO(4) each week, (2) 2% ClO(-) each week, or (3) no footbath (control). The mean transition grade, and proportion of cows without DD lesions at the end of the trial were significantly higher for treatment 1 above (0.36, 0.13, and 0.11, respectively; standard error of the difference, SED = 0.057). In experiment 2, 117 cows were allocated to 1 of 4 footbath treatment regimens for 8 wk: (1) 5% CuSO(4) each week, (2) 2% CuSO(4) each week, (3) 5% CuSO(4) each fortnight, or (4) 2% CuSO(4) each fortnight. For welfare reasons, cows allocated to the weekly and fortnightly footbath regimens had an average prevalence of >60% and ≤25% active DD at the start of the trial, respectively. Significantly more cows had no DD lesions (0.53 vs. 0.36, respectively; SED = 0.049), and the mean transition grade of DD lesions was higher in the 5% compared with the 2% weekly CuSO(4) treatment (0.52 vs. 0.38, respectively; SED = 0.066). Similarly, significantly more cows had no DD lesions in the 5% compared with the 2% fortnightly CuSO(4) treatments (0.64 vs. 0.47, respectively; SED = 0.049). In experiment 3, 95 cows were allocated to 1 of 3 footbath treatments: (1) each week alternating 5% CuSO(4) with 10% salt water, (2) each week alternating 5% CuSO(4) with water, or (3) 5% CuSO(4) each fortnight (control). After 10 wk, more cows had no DD in

  16. Below-Average, Average, and Above-Average Readers Engage Different and Similar Brain Regions while Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Dennis L.; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Kelly, Spencer; Cunningham, Natalie; Terrell, Shona; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Victoria J.; Bonebright, Terri

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between children with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP…

  17. Effect of heat treatments on aminoglycosides in milk.

    PubMed

    Zorraquino, M A; Althaus, R L; Roca, M; Molina, M P

    2009-06-01

    The presence of antibiotic residues in milk not only is a potential consumer risk but also may cause serious problems in the fermentation processes used in the dairy industry. There is very limited information available on the effect of heat treatments on aminoglycoside activity in milk. For this reason, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of different heat treatments (60 degrees C for 30 min, 120 degrees C for 20 min, and 140 degrees C for 10 s) on milk samples spiked with four aminoglycosides (gentamicin, 50, 100, and 200 microg/liter; kanamycin, 300, 600, and 1200 microg/liter, neomycin, 200, 400, and 800 microg/liter; and streptomycin, 200, 400, and 800 microg/liter). The method used was a bioassay based on the inhibition of Bacillus subtilis BGA. Statistical analysis of the three heat treatments studied showed that the one at 60 degrees C for 30 min did not inactivate the aminoglycosides, the treatment at 140 degrees C for 10 s produced inactivation levels of between 17% for kanamycin and 40% for neomycin, and the classic sterilization (120 degrees C for 20 min) showed a high heat inactivation (>95%) for all the concentrations of aminoglycosides tested with respect to the samples without treatment (control group).

  18. Effective treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous malignant tumours by electrochemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Mir, L. M.; Glass, L. F.; Sersa, G.; Teissié, J.; Domenge, C.; Miklavcic, D.; Jaroszeski, M. J.; Orlowski, S.; Reintgen, D. S.; Rudolf, Z.; Belehradek, M.; Gilbert, R.; Rols, M. P.; Belehradek, J.; Bachaud, J. M.; DeConti, R.; Stabuc, B.; Cemazar, M.; Coninx, P.; Heller, R.

    1998-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT) enhances the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents by administering the drug in combination with short intense electric pulses. ECT is effective because electric pulses permeabilize tumour cell membranes and allow non-permeant drugs, such as bleomycin, to enter the cells. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the anti-tumour effectiveness of ECT with bleomycin on cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours. This article summarizes results obtained in independent clinical trials performed by five cancer centres. A total of 291 cutaneous or subcutaneous tumours of basal cell carcinoma (32), malignant melanoma (142), adenocarcinoma (30) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (87) were treated in 50 patients. Short and intense electric pulses were applied to tumours percutaneously after intravenous or intratumour administration of bleomycin. The tumours were measured and the response to the treatment evaluated 30 days after the treatment. Objective responses were obtained in 233 (85.3%) of the 273 evaluable tumours that were treated with ECT. Clinical complete responses were achieved in 154 (56.4%) tumours, and partial responses were observed in 79 (28.9%) tumours. The application of electric pulses to the patients was safe and well tolerated. An instantaneous contraction of the underlying muscles was noticed. Minimal adverse side-effects were observed. ECT was shown to be an effective local treatment. ECT was effective regardless of the histological type of the tumour. Therefore, ECT offers an approach to the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours in patients with minimal adverse side-effects and with a high response rate. PMID:9649155

  19. Effects of 3% trehalose as an adjuvant treatment after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Mateo Orobia, Antonio J; Casas Pascual, Paula; Cristóbal Bescós, José Á; Perez García, Diana; Peiro Embid, Carlos; del Buey Sayas, M Ángeles; Korobko Kulikova, Valentyna; Lafuente Ojeda, Noelia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of 3% trehalose as an adjuvant in the standard treatment after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. Design Interventional prospective comparative single-blind study. Setting Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Quirón Zaragoza, Spain. Methods A total of 26 eyes (13 patients) were included, of which 12 eyes (group 1) received conventional treatment with lubricant drops of hyaluronic acid (0.15%) and 14 eyes (group 2) received, additionally, an ophthalmic solution of 3% trehalose. Pre- and postoperative quality-of-life tests and vital stains, tear breakup time, and osmolarity measurements were made. Results We obtained statistically significant differences between the groups in the Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye test in all visits with respect to severity, and in the postoperative day 1 visit with respect to frequency, in all cases favoring the trehalose treatment. The values of osmolarity were not significantly different between groups. However, we did find significant differences in the Oxford scale in day 90 for the trehalose treatment (P<0.001), and in the National Eye Institute scale in day 30 (P=0.02). Conclusion The results of this exploratory study indicate that the adjuvant treatment with 3% trehalose could be superior with respect to the standard treatment, with improvements in the objective and subjective parameters of tear quality. PMID:28243058

  20. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Schover, Leslie R; van der Kaaij, Marleen; van Dorst, Eleonora; Creutzberg, Carien; Huyghe, Eric; Kiserud, Cecilie E

    2014-06-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common consequence of cancer treatment, affecting at least half of men and women treated for pelvic malignancies and over a quarter of people with other types of cancer. Problems are usually linked to damage to nerves, blood vessels, and hormones that underlie normal sexual function. Sexual dysfunction also may be associated with depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, and loss of self-esteem. Innovations in cancer treatment such as robotic surgery or more targeted radiation therapy have not had the anticipated result of reducing sexual dysfunction. Some new and effective cancer treatments, including aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer or chemoradiation for anal cancer also have very severe sexual morbidity. Cancer-related infertility is an issue for younger patients, who comprise a much smaller percentage of total cancer survivors. However, the long-term emotional impact of being unable to have a child after cancer can be extremely distressing. Advances in knowledge about how cancer treatments may damage fertility, as well as newer techniques to preserve fertility, offer hope to patients who have not completed their childbearing at cancer diagnosis. Unfortunately, surveys in industrialised nations confirm that many cancer patients are still not informed about potential changes to their sexual function or fertility, and all modalities of fertility preservation remain underutilised. After cancer treatment, many patients continue to have unmet needs for information about restoring sexual function or becoming a parent. Although more research is needed on optimal clinical practice, current studies suggest a multidisciplinary approach, including both medical and psychosocial treatment options.

  1. Effects of a realistic mixture of antibiotics on resistant and nonresistant sewage sludge bacteria in laboratory-scale treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Ali; Haiss, Annette; Unger, Jörg; Brunswick-Tietze, Andrea; Wiethan, Jürgen; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2009-08-01

    The detection of antibiotics and resistant bacteria in sewage treatment plants (STPs) has stimulated a discussion on the origin and selection of resistant bacteria during sewage treatment. Currently, there is little data available regarding the effects of realistic mixtures of antibiotics on the bacteria present in the aeration tanks of STPs. In this study we used four laboratory-scale sewage treatment plants (LSSTPs) to study the effects of antibiotics on bacteria during sewage treatment under standardized conditions. Two plants were fed with a mixture of antibiotics at two concentration levels based on the average annual input of antibiotics into German municipal STPs. The total operational period was 84 days. A multiresistant bacterium (Acinetobacter baumannii) was added twice to two of the plants. The fate of the multiresistant bacterium was monitored. The mix of antibiotics did not affect the purification efficiency. The presence of the antibiotics did not favour the multiresistant bacterium. No difference was detected between the test plant and the controls.

  2. Effects of bright light treatment on psychomotor speed in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tulppo, Mikko P.; Jurvelin, Heidi; Roivainen, Eka; Nissilä, Juuso; Hautala, Arto J.; Kiviniemi, Antti M.; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.; Takala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A recent study suggests that transcranial brain targeted light treatment via ear canals may have physiological effects on brain function studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in humans. We tested the hypothesis that bright light treatment could improve psychomotor speed in professional ice hockey players. Methods: Psychomotor speed tests with audio and visual warning signals were administered to a Finnish National Ice Hockey League team before and after 24 days of transcranial bright light or sham treatment. The treatments were given during seasonal darkness in the Oulu region (latitude 65 degrees north) when the strain on the players was also very high (10 matches during 24 days). A daily 12-min dose of bright light or sham (n = 11 for both) treatment was given every morning between 8 and 12 am at home with a transcranial bright light device. Mean reaction time and motor time were analyzed separately for both psychomotor tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adjusted for age was performed. Results: Time × group interaction for motor time with a visual warning signal was p = 0.024 after adjustment for age. In Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, motor time with a visual warning signal decreased in the bright light treatment group from 127 ± 43 to 94 ± 26 ms (p = 0.024) but did not change significantly in the sham group 121 ± 23 vs. 110 ± 32 ms (p = 0.308). Reaction time with a visual signal did not change in either group. Reaction or motor time with an audio warning signal did not change in either the treatment or sham group. Conclusion: Psychomotor speed, particularly motor time with a visual warning signal, improves after transcranial bright light treatment in professional ice-hockey players during the competition season in the dark time of the year. PMID:24860513

  3. Effect of repeated suboptimal chlorate treatment on ruminal and fecal bacterial diversity.

    PubMed

    Copado, R; Arzola, C; Epps, S V R; Rodriguez-Almeida, F; Ruiz, O; Rodriguez-Muela, C; Castillo, Yamicela Castillo; Corral-Luna, Agustin; Salinas, J

    2014-09-01

    The minimal effective dose of sodium chlorate as an intervention to reduce the carriage of pathogenic bacteria in food-producing animals has not been clearly established. The effect of low-level oral chlorate administration to ewes was assessed by comparing the diversity of prominent bacterial populations in their gastrointestinal tract. Twelve lactating crossed Pelibuey and Blackbelly-Dorper ewes (average body weight, 65 kg) were randomly assigned (four per treatment) to receive a control treatment (TC; consisting of 3 g of NaCl per animal per day) or one of two chlorate treatments (T3 or T9; consisting of 1.8 or 5.4 g of NaClO3 per animal per day, respectively). Treatments were administered twice daily via oral gavage for 5 days. Ruminal and fecal samples were collected daily, starting 3 days before and ending 6 days after treatment, and were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence amplified from total population DNA. For ruminal microbes, percent similarity coefficients (SCs) between groups varied from 23.0 to 67.5% and from 39.4 to 43.3% during pretreatment and treatment periods, respectively. During the treatment period, SCs within groups ranged from 39.4 to 90.3%, 43.3 to 86.7%, and 67.5 to 92.4% for TC, T3, and T9, respectively. For fecal microbes, SCs between groups varied from 38.0 to 85.2% and 38.0 to 94.2% during pretreatment and treatment periods, respectively. SCs for fecal populations during treatment were most varied for TC (38.0 to 67.9%), intermediate for T9 (75.6 to 92.0%), and least varied for T3 (80.6 to 90.6%). Heterogeneity within and between groups provided no evidence of an effect of chlorate treatment on ruminal or fecal microbial populations.

  4. Adjunctive aripiprazole decreased metabolic side effects of clozapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Masopust, Jirí; Tůma, Ivan; Libiger, Jan

    2008-08-01

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic indicated for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. Clozapine treatment is associated with the metabolic side effects. Weight gain, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia are the risk factors for onset of diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. We report a case vignette of a patient in whom the decrease in negative and general psychopathology after adjunctive aripiprazole appeared simultaneously with a reduction of clozapine-induced increase in weight and metabolic measures. Combined application of clozapine and aripiprazole is in accordance with a neurobiological rationale and appears to be a safe and well tolerated.

  5. Effects of GlidArc plasma treatment on metallic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astanei, D.; Ursache, M.; Hnatiuc, E.; Stoica, I.; Hnatiuc, B.; Felea, C.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the GlidArc plasma effects on some metallic surfaces often used in dentistry: zirconium, titanium and nickel - chromium alloy plates. For the experiments performed, a GlidArc reactor with two planar electrodes has been used. During the tests, the gas flow has been kept constant while the treatment time and the distance between the plasma and the sample were modified. The surfaces were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to determine the surface morphological modifications induced by the plasma treatment.

  6. Fenbendazole treatment may influence lipopolysaccharide effects in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Randy L; Choi, Dong-Young; Kincer, Jeanie F; Cass, Wayne A; Bing, Guoying; Gash, Don M

    2007-10-01

    In evaluating discrepant results between experiments in our laboratory, we collected data that challenge the notion that anthelminthic drugs like FBZ do not alter inflammatory responses. We found that FBZ significantly modulates inflammation in F344 rats intrastriatally injected with LPS. FBZ treatment of LPS-injected rats significantly increased weight loss, microglial activation, and dopamine loss; in addition, FBZ attenuated the LPS-induced loss of astrocytes. Therefore, FBZ treatment altered the effects of LPS injection. Caution should be used in interpreting data collected from rats treated with LPS and FBZ.

  7. Do time-averaged, whole-building, effective volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions depend on the air exchange rate? A statistical analysis of trends for 46 VOCs in U.S. offices.

    PubMed

    Rackes, A; Waring, M S

    2016-08-01

    We used existing data to develop distributions of time-averaged air exchange rates (AER), whole-building 'effective' emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC), and other variables for use in Monte Carlo analyses of U.S. offices. With these, we explored whether long-term VOC emission rates were related to the AER over the sector, as has been observed in the short term for some VOCs in single buildings. We fit and compared two statistical models to the data. In the independent emissions model (IEM), emissions were unaffected by other variables, while in the dependent emissions model (DEM), emissions responded to the AER via coupling through a conceptual boundary layer between the air and a lumped emission source. For 20 of 46 VOCs, the DEM was preferable to the IEM and emission rates, though variable, were higher in buildings with higher AERs. Most oxygenated VOCs and some alkanes were well fit by the DEM, while nearly all aromatics and halocarbons were independent. Trends by vapor pressure suggested multiple mechanisms could be involved. The factors of temperature, relative humidity, and building age were almost never associated with effective emission rates. Our findings suggest that effective emissions in real commercial buildings will be difficult to predict from deterministic experiments or models.

  8. Synergistic Effects of Gold Nanocages in Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-wei; Guo, Wei-hua; Qi, Ya-fei; Wang, Jian-zhen; Ma, Xiang-xing; Yu, De-xin

    2016-06-01

    Gold nanocages (GNCs) are a promising material that not only converts near infrared (NIR) light to heat for the ablation of tumors but also acts as a radiosensitizer. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has a synergistic effect that can lead to significant tumor cell necrosis. In the current study, we synthesized GNCs that offered the combined effects of hyperthermia and radiotherapy. This combination strategy resulted in increased tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor tissue necrosis. We propose that GNCs can be used for clinical treatment and to potentially overcome resistance to radiotherapy by clearly increasing the antitumor effect.

  9. Quantile treatment effects of job loss on health.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Valentin; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    Studies on health effects of job loss mostly estimate mean effects. We argue that the effects might differ over the distribution of the health status and use quantile regression methods to provide a more complete picture. To take the potential endogeneity of job loss into account, we estimate quantile treatment effects where we rely on job loss due to plant closures. We find that the effect of job loss indeed varies across the mental and physical health distribution. Job loss due to plant closures affects physical health adversely for individuals in the middle and lower part of the health distribution while those in best physical condition do not seem to be affected. The results for mental health, though less distinct, point in the same direction. We find no effects on BMI.

  10. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  11. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  12. Thermal management in high average power pulsed compression systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wavrik, R.W.; Reed, K.W.; Harjes, H.C.; Weber, G.J.; Butler, M.; Penn, K.J.; Neau, E.L.

    1992-08-01

    High average power repetitively pulsed compression systems offer a potential source of electron beams which may be applied to sterilization of wastes, treatment of food products, and other environmental and consumer applications. At Sandia National Laboratory, the Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) program is developing a 7 stage magnetic pulse compressor driving a linear induction voltage adder with an electron beam diode load. The RHEPP machine is being design to deliver 350 kW of average power to the diode in 60 ns FWHM, 2.5 MV, 3 kJ pulses at a repetition rate of 120 Hz. In addition to the electrical design considerations, the repetition rate requires thermal management of the electrical losses. Steady state temperatures must be kept below the material degradation temperatures to maximize reliability and component life. The optimum design is a trade off between thermal management, maximizing overall electrical performance of the system, reliability, and cost effectiveness. Cooling requirements and configurations were developed for each of the subsystems of RHEPP. Finite element models that combine fluid flow and heat transfer were used to screen design concepts. The analysis includes one, two, and three dimensional heat transfer using surface heat transfer coefficients and boundary layer models. Experiments were conducted to verify the models as well as to evaluate cooling channel fabrication materials and techniques in Metglas wound cores. 10 refs.

  13. Effect of heat treatment and storage conditions on mead composition.

    PubMed

    Kahoun, David; Řezková, Soňa; Královský, Josef

    2017-03-15

    The effects of heat treatment and storage conditions on the composition of pure mead (honey wine) made from only honey and water were investigated. Heat treatment experiments were performed at 7 different temperatures ranging from 40°C to100°C with 10°C increments for 60min. Storage condition experiments were performed at room temperature (20-25°C) in daylight without direct sunlight and in darkness in a refrigerator at 4°C for 1, 2, 4 and 12weeks. The parameters evaluated were phenolic compounds, peak area of unidentified compounds, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content and antioxidant capacity. Significant changes in compound content were observed in the case of 6 identified compounds and 9 unidentified compounds. However, the antioxidant activity was not affected by the heat treatments or storage at room temperature.

  14. The effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment for forensic inpatients.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Irma G H; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2005-10-01

    The effects of an intramural cognitive-behavioral treatment for forensic inpatients with personality disorders in a high-security hospital were examined. Treatment was aimed at modifying maladaptive coping and social skills, at enhancing social awareness, at reducing egoistic and oppositional behaviors, and at reducing psychological complaints. The patients, who all had committed serious crimes (violence, arson, sexual offences), participated voluntarily in the study. A total of 39 patients started the study, but during the course of the study, several patients dropped out because of several reasons. Patients as a group showed significant improvements over time on psychopathological symptoms, personality traits, and coping. A significant decrease of oppositional behaviors was reported by the staff. Though the patients improved well at the group level, only a minority of patients showed reliable change over time at the individual level. The meaning of the results in relation to treatment are discussed.

  15. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: cost effective pharmacologic treatments.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, James P; Kirkbride, Michael S

    2008-12-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) can range from morning sickness to moderate NVP to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). If it is left unmanaged, health plans may pay for expensive unproven outpatient therapies that are not necessary for treatment of simple morning sickness or moderate NVP. Meanwhile, patients with serious hyperemesis gravidarum whose treatment is delayed may suffer needlessly, ending up with multiple hospitalizations or emergency room (ER) visits. Two expensive, heavily marketed outpatient therapies with scant supportive evidence in the treatment of NVP have recently emerged and some health plans are providing coverage without a thorough review of the medical evidence or cost implications. Health plans may have an opportunity to save a significant amount and to improve member satisfaction by utilizing evidence-based knowledge of pharmacologic interventions that are driven, in order, by known safety, proven efficacy, and cost effectiveness.

  16. Effects of oxidative treatments on human hair keratin films.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Ito, Y; Watanabe, T; Kawasoe, T

    2012-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen peroxide and commercial bleach on hair and human hair keratin films were examined by protein solubility, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Protein solubility in solutions containing urea decreased when the keratin films were treated with hydrogen peroxide or bleach. Oxidative treatments promoted the urea-dependent morphological change by turning films from opaque to transparent in appearance. Immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting showed that the oxidation of amino acids and proteins occurred due to the oxidative treatments, and such occurrence was more evident in the bleach-treated films than in the hydrogen peroxide-treated films. Compared with hair samples, the formation of cysteic acid was more clearly observed in the keratin films after the oxidative treatments.

  17. Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…

  18. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...

  19. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...

  20. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...

  1. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...

  2. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...

  3. A Novel Methodology to Estimate the Treatment Effect in Presence of Highly Variable Placebo Response

    PubMed Central

    Gomeni, Roberto; Goyal, Navin; Bressolle, Françoise; Fava, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    One of the main reasons for the inefficiency of multicenter randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in depression is the excessively high level of placebo response. The aim of this work was to propose a novel methodology to analyze RCTs based on the assumption that centers with high placebo response are less informative than the other centers for estimating the ‘true' treatment effect (TE). A linear mixed-effect modeling approach for repeated measures (MMRM) was used as a reference approach. The new method for estimating TE was based on a nonlinear longitudinal modeling of clinical scores (NLMMRM). NLMMRM estimates TE by associating a weighting factor to the data collected in each center. The weight was defined by the posterior probability of detecting a clinically relevant difference between active treatment and placebo at that center. Data from five RCTs in depression were used to compare the performance of MMRM with NLMMRM. The results of the analyses showed an average improvement of ~15% in the TE estimated with NLMMRM when the center effect was included in the analyses. Opposite results were observed with MMRM: TE estimate was reduced by ~4% when the center effect was considered as covariate in the analysis. The novel NLMMRM approach provides a tool for controlling the confounding effect of high placebo response, to increase signal detection and to provide a more reliable estimate of the ‘true' TE by controlling false negative results associated with excessively high placebo response. PMID:25895454

  4. Effective Medicinal Plant in Cancer Treatment, Part 2.

    PubMed

    Kooti, Wesam; Servatyari, Karo; Behzadifar, Masoud; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Nouri, Bijan; Zare Marzouni, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. With due attention to rapid progress in the phytochemical study of plants, they are becoming popular because of their anticancer effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effective medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer and study their mechanism of action. In order to gather information the keywords "traditional medicine," "plant compounds," "medicinal plant," "medicinal herb," "toxicity," "anticancer effect," "cell line," and "treatment" were searched in international databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Scopus and national databases such as Magiran, Sid, and Iranmedex, and a total of 228 articles were collected. In this phase, 49 nonrelevant articles were excluded. Enhancement P53 protein expression, reducing the expression of proteins P27, P21, NFκB expression and induction of apoptosis, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, and reduction of the level of acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation are the most effective mechanisms of herbal plants that can inhibit cell cycle and proliferation. Common treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy can cause some complications. According to results of this study, herbal extracts have antioxidant compounds that can induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation by the investigated mechanisms.

  5. Modeling and analysis of cosmetic treatment effects on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunderstaedt, Reinhart A.; Hopermann, Hermann; Hillemann, Thomas

    2000-10-01

    In view of treatment effects of cosmetics, quality management becomes more and more important. Due to the efficiency reasons it is desirable to quantify these effects and predict them as a function of time. For this, a mathematical model of the skin's surface (epidermis) is needed. Such a model cannot be worked out purely analytically. It can only be derived with the help of measurement data. The signals of interest as output of different measurement devices consist of two parts: noise of high (spatial) frequencies (stochastic signal) and periodic functions (deterministic signal) of low (spatial) frequencies. Both parts can be separated by correlation analysis. The paper introduces in addition to the Fourier Transform (FT) with the Wavelet Transform (WT), a brand new, highly sophisticated method with excellent properties for both modeling the skin's surface as well as evaluating treatment effects. Its main physical advantage is (in comparison to the FT) that local irregularities in the measurement signal (e.g. by scars) remain at their place and are not represented as mean square values as it is the case when applying the FT. The method has just now been installed in industry and will there be used in connection with a new in vivo measurement device for quality control of cosmetic products. As texture parameter for an integral description of the human skin the fractal dimension D is used which is appropriate for classification of different skin regions and treatment effects as well.

  6. A multisite study of the effectiveness of methamphetamine treatment: an initiative of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.

    PubMed

    Herrell, J M; Taylor, J A; Gallagher, C; Dawud-Noursi, S

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, responding to national and regional epidemiological data indicating that methamphetamine (MA) abuse was a growing problem in the United States, the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) initiated a multisite MA treatment study. Through a collaborative approach among CSAT, seven treatment sites, and a coordinating center, the study compares the clinical and cost effectiveness of a manualized, cognitive-behavioral outpatient treatment developed by the Matrix Center in Los Angeles to the treatment approaches currently employed by the treatment sites. The study also explores technology transfer issues associated with integrating the Matrix approach within existing treatment settings. CSAT's approach to the initiation and management of this type of study is discussed.

  7. Effect of combined treatments on viscosity of whey dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camillo, A.; Sabato, S. F.

    2004-09-01

    Whey proteins, enriched protein fractions from milk, are of great interest as ingredients due to nutritional value associated with its functional properties. These proteins could have their structural properties improved when some treatments are applied, such as thermal and gamma irradiation or when some compounds are added. The current work aimed to study the viscometer behavior of whey dispersions submitted to two different combined treatments: (1) thermal plus irradiation and (2) thermal plus vacuum and N 2 plus irradiation. Dispersions of whey protein in water (5% and 8% protein (w/v) base) and containing proteins and glycerol at ratios 1:1 and 2:1 (protein:glycerol) were submitted to both combined treatments. The irradiation doses were 0, 5, 15 and 25 kGy. The viscosity of the two combined treatments and for four levels of absorbed doses is presented and the combined effects are discussed. The thermal treatment combined with gamma irradiation contributed to increase the viscosity as irradiation doses increases for both (5% and 8%) concentrations of proteins ( p<0.05). For protein and glycerol solutions, the irradiation dose seemed to result in a slightly increase. The vacuum applied before the irradiation showed a small contribution.

  8. Effectiveness of combined intermittent preventive treatment for children and timely home treatment for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Whiles awaiting for the arrival of an effective and affordable malaria vaccine, there is a need to make use of the available control tools to reduce malaria risk, especially in children under five years and pregnant women. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) has recently been accepted as an important component of the malaria control strategy. This study explored the potential of a strategy of intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTC) and timely treatment of malaria-related febrile illness in the home in reducing the parasite prevalence and malaria morbidity in young children in a coastal village in Ghana. Methods The study combined home-based delivery of IPTC among six to 60 months old and home treatment of suspected febrile malaria illness within 24 hours. All children between six and 60 months of age received intermittent preventive treatment using amodiaquine and artesunate, delivered by community assistants every four months (three times in 12 months). Malaria parasite prevalence surveys were conducted before the first and after the third dose of IPTC. Results Parasite prevalence was reduced from 25% to 3% (p < 0.00, Mann-Whitney) one year after the inception of the two interventions. At baseline, 13.8% of the children were febrile (axillary temperature greater than or equal to 37.5 degree Celsius) compared to 2.2% at evaluation (post IPTC3 combined with timely home management of fever) (p < 0.00, Mann-Whitney). Conclusion The evaluation result indicates that IPTC given three times in a year combined with timely treatment of febrile malaria illness, impacts significantly on the parasite prevalence. The marked reduction in the parasite prevalence with this strategy points to the potential for reducing malaria-related childhood morbidity and mortality, and this should be explored by control programme managers. PMID:20003357

  9. [Effectiveness of intranasal salmon calcitonin treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Kopaliani, M

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clinical efficacy of intranasal salmon calcitonin (Miacalcic, Novartis pharma) treatment in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. 30 women of the main group with established postmenopausal osteoporosis(T-score < -2,5) were treated with intranasal salmon calcitonin: 200 IU daily for 2 months with subsequent pause of 2 months (3 cycles), 12 months in total. Age matched control group was formed by 25 postmenopausal women with similar clinical status. SOS (speed of sound) of cortical bone was measured in the middle of the tibia by ultrasound densitometer--Sound Scan Compact (Myriad-Israel). Patients of both groups received 500 mg Ca and 200 IU vit.D3 (CaD3 Nycomed) two times daily in the same regimen (two months treatment--two months pause). Our results showed that intranasal treatment with 200 IU daily effectively influence the back pain, reduces bone turnover and significantly increases cortical BMD. Significant changes were not observed in patients of the control group, who received only CaD3 Nycomed, that showed that Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is more effective for prevention of bone lose in postmenopausal women, rather for treatment of established osteoporosis.

  10. Oxygen plasma-treatment effects on Si transfer.

    PubMed

    Langowski, Bryan A; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2005-07-05

    Oxygen plasma-treatment is commonly used to increase the hydrophilicity of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps used for microcontact printing (muCP) aqueous-based inks. Review of the literature reveals that a wide range of plasma parameters are currently employed to modify stamp surfaces. However, little is known about the effect of these parameters (e.g., power, chamber pressure, duration) on the undesirable transfer of low-molecular-weight silicon-containing fragments from the stamps that commonly occurs during muCP. To study the effect of oxygen plasma-treatment on Si transfer, unpatterned PDMS stamps were treated with oxygen plasma under various conditions and used to stamp deionized water on plasma-activated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates. Once stamped, the PMMA substrates were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to quantify and characterize silicon present on the substrate surface. In addition, used PDMS stamps were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe topographical changes that occur during oxygen plasma-treatment. XPS results show that all plasma treatments studied significantly reduced the amount of Si transfer from the treated stamps during muCP as compared to untreated PDMS stamps and that the source of transfer is residual PDMS fragments not removed by oxygen plasma. SEM results show that, although the treated stamps undergo a variety of topographical changes, no correlation exists between stamp topography and extent of Si transfer from the stamps.

  11. Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Effect of high-pressure treatment on hard cheese proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Costabel, Luciana M; Bergamini, Carina; Vaudagna, Sergio R; Cuatrin, Alejandra L; Audero, Gabriela; Hynes, Erica

    2016-06-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has been proposed to reduce the ripening time of cheese via modifications in the enzymatic activities or the substrate reactivity. Investigations on the effect of HHP on cheese proteolysis have been undertaken with either encouraging results or little effect according to the treatment conditions and the type of cheese, but information concerning the effect of HHP on the ripening of hard cooked cheese is still lacking. In this report, we describe the effect of HHP treatment on Reggianito cheese proteolysis. For that purpose, 1-d-old miniature cheeses (5.5-cm diameter and 6-cm height) were treated at 100 or 400MPa and 20°C for 5 or 10min, and control cheeses in the trial were not pressurized. All cheeses were ripened at 12°C during 90d. The HHP did not affect gross composition of the cheeses, but microbial load changed, especially because the starter culture count was significantly lower at the beginning of the ripening of the cheeses treated at 400MPa than in controls and cheeses treated at 100MPa. Cheeses treated at 400MPa for 10min had significantly higher plasmin activity than did the others; the residual coagulant activity was not affected by HHP. Proteolysis assessment showed that most severe treatments (400MPa) also resulted in cheeses with increased breakdown of αS1- and β-CN. In addition, nitrogen content in soluble fractions was significantly higher in cheeses treated at 400MPa, as well as soluble peptides and free AA production. Peptide profiles and individual and total content of free AA in 60-d-old treated cheese were as high as in fully ripened control cheeses (90d). Holding time had an effect only on pH-4.6-soluble nitrogen fraction and plasmin activity; cheese treated for 10min showed higher values than those treated for 5min, at both levels of pressure assayed. We concluded that HHP treatments at 400MPa applied 1d after cheesemaking increased the rate of proteolysis, leading to an

  13. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of an electronic medication management system to reduce medication errors, adverse drug events and average length of stay at two paediatric hospitals: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, J I; Li, L; Raban, M Z; Baysari, M T; Prgomet, M; Georgiou, A; Kim, T; Lake, R; McCullagh, C; Dalla-Pozza, L; Karnon, J; O'Brien, T A; Ambler, G; Day, R; Cowell, C T; Gazarian, M; Worthington, R; Lehmann, C U; White, L; Barbaric, D; Gardo, A; Kelly, M; Kennedy, P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Medication errors are the most frequent cause of preventable harm in hospitals. Medication management in paediatric patients is particularly complex and consequently potential for harms are greater than in adults. Electronic medication management (eMM) systems are heralded as a highly effective intervention to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs), yet internationally evidence of their effectiveness in paediatric populations is limited. This study will assess the effectiveness of an eMM system to reduce medication errors, ADEs and length of stay (LOS). The study will also investigate system impact on clinical work processes. Methods and analysis A stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) will measure changes pre-eMM and post-eMM system implementation in prescribing and medication administration error (MAE) rates, potential and actual ADEs, and average LOS. In stage 1, 8 wards within the first paediatric hospital will be randomised to receive the eMM system 1 week apart. In stage 2, the second paediatric hospital will randomise implementation of a modified eMM and outcomes will be assessed. Prescribing errors will be identified through record reviews, and MAEs through direct observation of nurses and record reviews. Actual and potential severity will be assigned. Outcomes will be assessed at the patient-level using mixed models, taking into account correlation of admissions within wards and multiple admissions for the same patient, with adjustment for potential confounders. Interviews and direct observation of clinicians will investigate the effects of the system on workflow. Data from site 1 will be used to develop improvements in the eMM and implemented at site 2, where the SWCRCT design will be repeated (stage 2). Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network and Macquarie University. Results will be reported through academic journals and

  14. The side effects of orthodontic mechanics in orthodontic treatments.

    PubMed

    Javaheri, Homan H

    2008-01-01

    The side effects of orthodontic mechanics at each tissue level (alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, gingiva, pulp, cementum, and enamel) are addressed, along with the issue of pain following orthodontic appointments, and psychobehavioral alterations observed in orthodontic patients. It is necessary to know how orthodontic treatment affects enamel health, including methods to manage these side effects, which are still a dilemma for orthodontic clinicians. It is interesting to note that the dental pulp, which lies deep in the tooth core, also reacts to orthodontic force. The way the periodontal ligament responds to light and heavy forces, in young and adult patients, with or without periodontal disease, should be considered. Root resorption is a well-recognized phenomenon following orthodontic treatment. Advances made in this area of research to identify the parameters and genes associated with this process are developing.

  15. Effect of Propylene Oxide Treatment on the Microflora of Pecans

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Robert O.; Hanlin, Richard T.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of propylene oxide (PO) treatment in controlling the microflora of pecans. As used commercially, PO has little effect on internal bacteria and fungi in pecan halves. Tests of surface washings of commercially treated pecans showed a reduction of 96% in coliform bacteria following PO treatment. Under controlled laboratory conditions, PO gave 80 to 92% reduction of surface microflora and at least 64% reduction of internal flora, but neither bacteria nor fungi could be eliminated completely, even with high dosages. Current assay methods for determining bacterial content of nutmeats were shown to be inadequate because they utilize only surface washings and thus do not give an accurate picture of the total bacterial population of the nutmeat. Consequently, such assays do not permit an accurate assessment of any potential health hazard related to these organisms. PMID:4202707

  16. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M.

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  17. A Review of Behavioral Foundations of Effective Autism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Amanda M; Andrade, Meca; Cividini-Motta, Catia; Conde, Kerry A; Donnelly, Maeve G; McConnell, Kelly; Moore, Keira; Peters, Lindsay; Roberts, Kylie; Stocco, Corey; Sveinbjornsdottir, Berglind; Vanselow, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Behavior analysts must base their practices on both the conceptual foundations and the validated technologies of our field. In recognition of these important facets of effective practice, Mayville and Mulick (2011) have produced an edited book aimed at “developing the conceptually sound and procedurally innovative behavior analysts that are so badly needed” (p. x) within the burgeoning field of autism treatment. We summarize the content of this book and evaluate its utility to practitioners working with people with autism spectrum disorders.

  18. Homelessness prevention in New York City: On average, it works.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O'Flaherty, Brendan

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluates the community impact of the first four years of Homebase, a homelessness prevention program in New York City. Family shelter entries decreased on average in the neighborhoods in which Homebase was operating. Homebase effects appear to be heterogeneous, and so different kinds of averages imply different-sized effects. The (geometric) average decrease in shelter entries was about 5% when census tracts are weighted equally, and 11% when community districts (which are much larger) are weighted equally. This study also examines the effect of foreclosures. Foreclosures are associated with more shelter entries in neighborhoods that usually do not send large numbers of families to the shelter system.

  19. Homelessness prevention in New York City: On average, it works

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Sarena; Messeri, Peter; O'Flaherty, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the community impact of the first four years of Homebase, a homelessness prevention program in New York City. Family shelter entries decreased on average in the neighborhoods in which Homebase was operating. Homebase effects appear to be heterogeneous, and so different kinds of averages imply different-sized effects. The (geometric) average decrease in shelter entries was about 5% when census tracts are weighted equally, and 11% when community districts (which are much larger) are weighted equally. This study also examines the effect of foreclosures. Foreclosures are associated with more shelter entries in neighborhoods that usually do not send large numbers of families to the shelter system. PMID:26941543

  20. Accounting for perception, placebo and unmasking effects in estimating treatment effects in randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jamshidian, Farid; Hubbard, Alan E; Jewell, Nicholas P

    2014-06-01

    There is a rich literature on the role of placebos in experimental design and evaluation of therapeutic agents or interventions. The importance of masking participants, investigators and evaluators to treatment assignment (treatment or placebo) has long been stressed as a key feature of a successful trial design. Nevertheless, there is considerable variability in the technical definition of the placebo effect and the impact of treatment assignments being unmasked. We suggest a formal concept of a 'perception effect' and define unmasking and placebo effects in the context of randomised trials. We employ modern tools from causal inference to derive semi-parametric estimators of such effects. The methods are illustrated on a motivating example from a recent pain trial where the occurrence of treatment-related side effects acts as a proxy for unmasking.

  1. Research Recommendations for Improving Measurement of Treatment Effectiveness in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, María; Nieto, Mónica; Bernard, Renaldo; Kohls, Elisabeth; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Ayuso-Mateos, José L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the steadily escalating psychological and economic burden of depression, there is a lack of evidence for the effectiveness of available interventions on functioning areas beyond symptomatology. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to give an insight into the current measurement of treatment effectiveness in depression and to provide recommendations for its improvement. Materials and Methods: The study was based on a multi-informant approach, comparing data from a systematic literature review, an expert survey with representatives from clinical practice (130), and qualitative interviews with patients (11) experiencing depression. Results: Current literature places emphasis on symptomatic outcomes and neglects other domains of functioning, whereas clinicians and depressed patients highlight the importance of both. Interpersonal relationships, recreation and daily activities, communication, social participation, work difficulties were identified as being crucial for recovery. Personal factors, neglected by the literature, such as self-efficacy were introduced by experts and patients. Furthermore, clinicians and patients identified a number of differences regarding the areas improved by psychotherapeutic or pharmacological interventions that were not addressed by the pertinent literature. Conclusion: Creation of a new cross-nationally applicable measure of psychosocial functioning, broader remission criteria, report of domain-specific information, and a personalized approach in treatment decision-making are the first crucial steps needed for the improvement of the measurement of treatment effectiveness in depression. A better measurement will facilitate the clinical decision making and answer the escalating burden of depression. PMID:28337167

  2. Weightbath hydrotraction treatment: application, biomechanics, and clinical effects

    PubMed Central

    Kurutz, Márta; Bender, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Weightbath hydrotraction treatment (WHT) is a simple noninvasive effective method of hydro- or balneotherapy to stretch the spine or lower limbs, applied successfully in hospitals and health resort sanitaria in Hungary for more than fifty years. This study aims to introduce WHT with its biomechanical and clinical effects. History, development, equipment, modes of application, biomechanics, spinal traction forces and elongations, indications and contraindications of WHT are precented. Subjects and methods: The calculation of traction forces acting along the spinal column during the treatment is described together with the mode of suspension and the position of extra weight loads applied. The biomechanics of the treatment are completed by in vivo measured elongations of lumbar segments using a special underwater ultrasound measuring method. The clinical effects, indications, and contraindications of the treatment are also presented. Results: In the underwater cervical suspension of a human body, approximately 25 N stretching load occurs in the cervical spine, and about 11 N occurs in the lumbar spine. By applying extra weights, the above tensile forces along the spinal column can be increased. Thus, the traction effect can be controlled by applying such loads during the treatment. Elongations of segments L3–L4, L4–L5, and L5–S1 were measured during the usual WHT of patients suspended cervically in water for 20 minutes, loaded by 20–20 N lead weights on the ankles. The mean initial elastic elongations of spinal segments were about 0.8 mm for patients aged under 40 years, 0.5 mm between 40–60 years, and 0.2 mm for patients over 60 years. The mean final viscoelastic elongations were 1.5 mm, 1.2 mm, and 0.6 mm for the same age classes, respectively. No significant difference was found between the sexes regarding age-dependence in tension. WHT for discopathy showed significant improvement of clinical parameters, which was still evident

  3. Non-wiggler-averaged theory of short wavelength free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    A three-dimensional nonlinear analysis of the interaction in short wavelength free-electron lasers is presented using a non-wiggler-averaged formulation for the electron trajectories. The analysis and simulation code is based upon a slow-time-scale amplifier model in which it is assumed that the interaction is with a single frequency wave, and Maxwell`s equations are averaged over a wave period. This eliminates the fast time scale from the analysis. Note that although Maxwell`s equations are averaged over the wave period, no average is imposed on the Lorentz force equations. The electromagnetic field is represented as a superposition of Gaussian optical modes. The wiggler model used is that of a three-dimensional planar wiggler which dictates the choice of a Gauss-Hermite mode decomposition. These fields are substituted into Maxwell`s equations and, after averaging over the wave period and integration over the transverse coordinates, yields nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of the amplitude and phase of each mode. These equations are integrated simultaneously with the three-dimensional Lorentz force equations for an ensemble of electrons. Advantages which are derived from the non-wiggler-averaged orbit treatment are: the adiabatic injection of the beam into the wiggler can be modeled; effects due to the transverse wiggler inhomogeniety such as betatron oscillations and synchrotron-betatron coupling are implicitly included in the treatment; wiggler imperfections can be included in the analysis by the relatively simple expedient of allowing the wiggler amplitude to vary with axial position; and harmonic interactions are implicitly included. The first two advantages relate to the self-consistent treatment of emittance growth due to the injection process and the transverse wiggler inhomogenieties. It should be noted that MEDUSA is also capable of analyzing the effect of the measured imperfections of a specific wiggler magnet to be used in an experiment.

  4. Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Wang, Quan-Ying; Wu, Dan-Ya

    2009-12-30

    There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment to affect soil enzyme activities were explored. After treatments with 1-3 V cm(-1) of voltage gradient for 420 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil heavy metal concentration and enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of soil copper were about 65% and 83% without and with pH control of catholyte, respectively, and all the removal efficiencies of cadmium were above 90%. The soil invertase and catalase activities increased and the highest invertase activity was as 170 times as the initial one. The activities of soil urease and acidic phosphatase were lower than the initial ones. Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that the soil invertase and acidic phosphatase activities were significantly correlated with soil pH, EC, and DOC at P<0.05, but the soil urease activities had no correlation with the soil properties. On the other hand, the effects of DC electric current on solution invertase and catalase enzyme protein activities indicated that it had negative effect on solution catalase activity and little effect on solution invertase activity. From the change of invertase and catalase activities in soil and solution, the conclusion can be drawn that the dominant effect mechanism is the change of soil properties by EK treatments.

  5. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy is an effective treatment for major depression in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Priscila Silveira; Miyazaki, Maria Cristina; Blay, Sergio Luís; Sesso, Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Depression is an important target of psychological assessment in patients with end-stage renal disease because it predicts their morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. We assessed the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients diagnosed with major depression by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). In a randomized trial conducted in Brazil, an intervention group of 41 patients was given 12 weekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy led by a trained psychologist over 3 months while a control group of 44 patients received the usual treatment offered in the dialysis unit. In both groups, the Beck Depression Inventory, the MINI, and the Kidney Disease and Quality of Life-Short Form questionnaires were administered at baseline, after 3 months of intervention or usual treatment, and after 9 months of follow-up. The intervention group had significant improvements, compared to the control group, in the average scores of the Beck Depression Inventory overall scale, MINI scores, and in quality-of-life dimensions that included the burden of renal disease, sleep, quality of social interaction, overall health, and the mental component summary. We conclude that cognitive-behavioral group therapy is an effective treatment of depression in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  6. Clinical Effectiveness of Primary and Secondary Headache Treatment by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pinchuk, Dmitry; Pinchuk, Olga; Sirbiladze, Konstantin; Shugar, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness of primary and secondary headache treatment by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with various locations of stimulating electrodes on the scalp was analyzed retrospectively. The results of the treatment were analyzed in 90 patients aged from 19 to 54 years (48 patients had migraine without aura, 32 – frequent episodic tension-type HAs, 10 – chronic tension-type HAs) and in 44 adolescents aged 11–16 years with chronic post-traumatic HAs after a mild head injury. Clinical effectiveness of tDCS with 70–150 μA current for 30–45 min via 6.25 cm2 stimulating electrodes is comparable to that of modern pharmacological drugs, with no negative side effects. The obtained result has been maintained on average from 5 to 9 months. It has been demonstrated that effectiveness depends on localization of stimulating electrodes used for different types of HAs. PMID:23519166

  7. Refined treatment of single-edge diffraction effects in radiometry.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Eric L

    2016-08-01

    This work treats diffraction corrections in radiometry for cases of point and extended sources in cylindrically symmetrical three-element systems. It considers diffraction effects for spectral power and total power in cases of Planck sources. It improves upon an earlier work by the author by giving a simpler rendering of leading terms in asymptotic expansions for diffraction effects and reliable estimates for the remainders. This work also demonstrates a framework for accelerating the treatment of extended sources and simplifying the calculation of diffraction effects over a range of wavelengths. This is especially important in the short-wavelength region, where dense sampling of wavelength values is in principle necessitated by the rapidly oscillatory behavior of diffraction effects as a function of wavelength. We demonstrate the methodology's efficacy in two radiometric applications.

  8. Effects of chronic amiodarone treatment on rat testis.

    PubMed

    Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Dilber, Embiya; Gürgen, Seren Gülşen; Kutlu, Ömer; Cansu, Ali; Gedik, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Amiodarone is a potent agent used to treat tachyarrhythmias, which are especially refractory to other medications, in both adults and children. Although widely used as an antiarrhythmic drug, amiodarone causes many serious adverse effects that limit its use. This study investigated the possible morphological and apoptotic effects of amiodarone on rat testes. Amiodarone was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 20 or 200mg/kg/day for 14 days. A histopathological examination of testicular tissue revealed the presence of inflammatory cells in the seminiferous tubule lumen together with swelling and vacuolization in the cytoplasm of some spermatogonia; these effects occured in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed evidence of apoptosis, including caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax and increased DNA fragmentation was detected via a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. In conclusion, the results show that chronic amiodarone treatment causes dose-dependent degenerative and apoptotic effects on rat testes.

  9. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

    2015-03-01

    Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

  10. Effects of metformin treatment on glioma-induced brain edema

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Xiaoke; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Hailiang; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated that metformin can activate 5’-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in protection of endothelial cell permeability. Hence, the present study evaluated the effects of metformin on blood brain barrier permeability and AQP4 expression in vitro, and assessed the effects of metformin treatment on tumor-induced brain edema in vivo. Hypoxia or VEGF exposure enhanced bEnd3 endothelial cell monolayer permeability and attenuated the expression of tight junction proteins including Occludin, Claudin-5, ZO-1, and ZO-2. However, 0.5 mM metformin treatment protected bEnd3 endothelial cell monolayer from hypoxia or VEGF-induced permeability, which was correlated with increased expression of tight junction proteins. Furthermore, metformin treatment attenuated AQP4 protein expression in cultured astrocytes. Such an effect involved the activation of AMPK and inhibition of NF-κB. Finally, metformin treatment dose-dependently reduced glioma induced vascular permeability and cerebral edema in vivo in rats. Thus, our results suggested that metformin may protect endothelial cell tight junction, prevent damage to the blood brain barrier induced by brain tumor growth, and alleviate the formation of cerebral edema. Furthermore, since the formation of cytotoxic edema and AQP4 expression was positively correlated, our results indicated that metformin may reduce the formation of cytotoxic edema. However, given that AQP4 plays a key role in the elimination of cerebral edema, attenuation of AQP4 expression by metformin may reduce the elimination of cerebral edema. Hence, future studies will be necessary to dissect the specific mechanisms of metformin underlying the dynamics of tumor-induced brain edema in vivo. PMID:27648126

  11. Effects of metformin treatment on glioma-induced brain edema.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Xiaoke; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Hailiang; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated that metformin can activate 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in protection of endothelial cell permeability. Hence, the present study evaluated the effects of metformin on blood brain barrier permeability and AQP4 expression in vitro, and assessed the effects of metformin treatment on tumor-induced brain edema in vivo. Hypoxia or VEGF exposure enhanced bEnd3 endothelial cell monolayer permeability and attenuated the expression of tight junction proteins including Occludin, Claudin-5, ZO-1, and ZO-2. However, 0.5 mM metformin treatment protected bEnd3 endothelial cell monolayer from hypoxia or VEGF-induced permeability, which was correlated with increased expression of tight junction proteins. Furthermore, metformin treatment attenuated AQP4 protein expression in cultured astrocytes. Such an effect involved the activation of AMPK and inhibition of NF-κB. Finally, metformin treatment dose-dependently reduced glioma induced vascular permeability and cerebral edema in vivo in rats. Thus, our results suggested that metformin may protect endothelial cell tight junction, prevent damage to the blood brain barrier induced by brain tumor growth, and alleviate the formation of cerebral edema. Furthermore, since the formation of cytotoxic edema and AQP4 expression was positively correlated, our results indicated that metformin may reduce the formation of cytotoxic edema. However, given that AQP4 plays a key role in the elimination of cerebral edema, attenuation of AQP4 expression by metformin may reduce the elimination of cerebral edema. Hence, future studies will be necessary to dissect the specific mechanisms of metformin underlying the dynamics of tumor-induced brain edema in vivo.

  12. Is immunotherapy an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction?

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga

    2015-11-27

    Immunotherapy has a great potential of becoming a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of addiction to psychoactive drugs. It may be used to treat addiction but also to prevent neurotoxic complications of drug overdose. In preclinical studies two immunological methods have been tested; active immunization, which relies on the administration of vaccines and passive immunization, which relies on the administration of monoclonal antibodies. Until now researchers have succeeded in developing vaccines and/or antibodies against addiction to heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and phencyclidine. Their effectiveness has been confirmed in preclinical studies. At present, clinical studies are being conducted for vaccines against nicotine and cocaine and also anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. These preclinical and clinical studies suggest that immunotherapy may be useful in the treatment of addiction and drug overdose. However, there are a few problems to be solved. One of them is controlling the level of antibodies due to variability between subjects. But even obtaining a suitable antibody titer does not guarantee the effectiveness of the vaccine. Additionally, there is a risk of intentional or unintentional overdose. As vaccines prevent passing of drugs through the blood/brain barrier and thereby prevent their positive reinforcement, some addicted patients may erroneously seek higher doses of psychoactive substances to get "high". Consequently, vaccination should be targeted at persons who have a strong motivation to free themselves from drug dependency. It seems that immunotherapy may be an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction if directed to adequate candidates for treatment. For other addicts, immunotherapy may be a very important element supporting psycho- and pharmacotherapy.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ACUPUNCTURE IN THE TREATMENT OF FROZEN SHOULDER

    PubMed Central

    Asheghan, Mahsa; Aghda, Amidoddin Khatibi; Hashemi, Ebrahim; Hollisaz, Mohammadtaghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adhesive capsulitis is a common disease that causes pain and reduced range of motion, but vague on the shoulder. Woman are affected fewer than men, but there is no known racial or genetic tendency. Most patients with adhesive capsulitis will improve with nonsurgical treatment. Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief in patients without contraindication are first-line options. Acupuncture considered being safe and effective in reducing pain. The aim of this study was to Investigation of the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of frozen shoulder. Materials and Methods: In a controlled clinical trial, patients referred to the Baqiatallah clinic in 91 years with shoulder pain, frozen shoulder diagnosed based on history and physical exam, they have been enrolled. Indicators measured in the study was included the involved joint pain, range of motion and quality of life. Patients, first at baseline, one and a half months later (end of session) and then 3 months after the examination information about each individual entered in the from of questionnaires were pre-determined and data were analyzed by SPSS 17 software. Results: In this clinical trial study total 40 patients with frozen shoulder (20 interference with the acupuncture and 20 people control) study that patients average age 55/54. Age maximum 71 years and minimum 44 years. Acupuncture in the treatment of frozen shoulder with the results achieved in the general case acupuncture may improve shoulder motion in patients. VAS index at three months after treatment compared with the control group had a greater improvement. Conclusion: In the case of acupuncture and ultimately improve the overall look of all the movement of flexion and adduction of the shoulder, but the movement has been further improved, VAS index at three months after treatment compared with the control group had a greater improvement and finally, we perform acupuncture as a way to improve shoulder

  14. The Effect of Stabilization Treatments on Disk Alloy CH98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Gabb, Timothy P.; Ellis, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickelbase superalloy disks with 1300 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, CH98, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines and is being studied in NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program. For large disks, residual stresses generated during quenching from solution heat treatments are often reduced by a stabilization heat treatment, in which the disk is heated to 1500 or 1600 F for several hours followed by a static air cool. The reduction in residual stress levels lessens distortion during machining of disks. However, previous work on CH98 has indicated that stabilization treatments can also decrease creep capability. In this study, a systematic variation of stabilization temperature and time was investigated to determine its effect on 1300 F tensile and, more importantly, creep behavior. Dwell crack growth rates were also measured for selected stabilization conditions. As these advanced disk alloys may be given a supersolvus solution or a subsolvus solution heat treatment for a given application, it was decided that both options would be studied.

  15. Effect of oral cephalexin in the treatment of BCG lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Taremiha, Alireza; Ghorani, Najmeh; Esmailzadehha, Neda

    2014-06-01

    Lymphadenitis and abscess formation are the most common side effects of vaccination with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). The lower the child's age at the time of vaccination, the higher the incidence of BCG lymphadenitis tends to be. Although various therapeutic approaches are in use for the treatment of BCG lymphadenitis, there is no consensus on which of them is optimal. This study aimed to determine whether oral cephalexin treatment hastens recovery from BCG lymphadenitis. The study involved 40 children (24 boys and 16 girls) with BCG lymphadenitis who were referred to Qazvin Children's Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences between December 2008 and the end of September 2009. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 patients each (12 boys and 8 girls in each group): group A patients did not receive any treatment and served as controls, and group B patients were treated with 50 mg/kg/day cephalexin syrup, administered in four doses, for 10 days. In all patients, clinical examination was normal, except for lymphadenitis. In all patients, BCG vaccination had been performed at birth, and polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for tuberculous bacilli. The recovery period and requirement of fine needle aspiration did not significantly differ between the two groups (P 0.05). This study showed that treatment with cephalexin does not hasten recovery from BCG lymphadenitis.

  16. [Comparative evaluation of clinical effectiveness of treatment of giardiasis].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    Giardia is the most common causes of protozoan diarrhea that leads to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical efficiency of different scheme of therapy giardiasis with new original plant preparation "Sausalin" (Kazakhstan). We conducted open clinical trial with participation of 93 patients with giardiasis. According the method of treatment the patients were divided into three groups.  Group I - Sausalin at the dose 300 mg/day; group II - Metronidazole at 750 mg/ day; group III - combination of Sausalin 300 mg/day and Metronidazole 750 mg/ day. The treatment was conducted during 10 days. The protozoal clearance rate and clinical symptoms were assessed. There were no significant differences in the efficiency of treatments in group I and group II. The protozoal clearance rate was 68% in group I (Sausalin); in group II -  42,1% (metronidazole). In group III - 83,2% (combination therapy) (р=0.001; 95% CI 54,6-89,7). There was no negative effect on clinical and biochemical blood analysis. We detected statistically significant differences in the dynamics of clinical symptoms (defecation disorders, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, asthenia) of giardiasis in a group of patients receiving Sausalin.The scheme with new drug Sausalin can be used as alternative treatment of Giardiasis. Moreover, the use of the Sausalin is improved the clinical symptoms and safety of therapy.

  17. Average-cost based robust structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

  18. Lasso adjustments of treatment effect estimates in randomized experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bloniarz, Adam; Liu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Sekhon, Jasjeet S.; Yu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We provide a principled way for investigators to analyze randomized experiments when the number of covariates is large. Investigators often use linear multivariate regression to analyze randomized experiments instead of simply reporting the difference of means between treatment and control groups. Their aim is to reduce the variance of the estimated treatment effect by adjusting for covariates. If there are a large number of covariates relative to the number of observations, regression may perform poorly because of overfitting. In such cases, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) may be helpful. We study the resulting Lasso-based treatment effect estimator under the Neyman–Rubin model of randomized experiments. We present theoretical conditions that guarantee that the estimator is more efficient than the simple difference-of-means estimator, and we provide a conservative estimator of the asymptotic variance, which can yield tighter confidence intervals than the difference-of-means estimator. Simulation and data examples show that Lasso-based adjustment can be advantageous even when the number of covariates is less than the number of observations. Specifically, a variant using Lasso for selection and ordinary least squares (OLS) for estimation performs particularly well, and it chooses a smoothing parameter based on combined performance of Lasso and OLS. PMID:27382153

  19. The Effective Treatment of Juveniles Who Sexually Offend

    PubMed Central

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Borduin, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    This article raises serious concerns regarding the widespread use of unproven interventions with juveniles who sexually offend and suggests innovative methods for addressing these concerns. Dominant interventions (i.e., cognitive-behavioral group treatments with an emphasis on relapse prevention) typically fail to address the multiple determinants of juvenile sexual offending and could result in iatrogenic outcomes. Methodologically sophisticated research studies (i.e., randomized clinical trials) are needed to examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group interventions, especially those delivered in residential settings. The moral and ethical mandate for such research is evident when considering the alternative, in which clinicians and society are willing to live in ignorance regarding the etiology and treatment of juvenile sexual offending and to consign offending youths to the potential harm of untested interventions. Encouraging signs of a changing ethical climate include recent federal funding of a randomized clinical trial examining treatment effectiveness with sexually offending youths and the introduction of separate (i.e., developmentally informed) clinical and legal interventions for juvenile vs. adult sexual offenders. PMID:20721303

  20. Effects of long-term atorvastatin treatment on cardiac aging

    PubMed Central

    HAN, LEI; LI, MINGGAO; LIU, XIN

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have reported that atorvastatin (AVT) may have an important role in the delay of cardiac aging. However, the mechanism by which AVT affects cardiac aging has not been established. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to investigate the effects of AVT treatment on the cardiovascular system and the associated mechanism. Wistar rats were administered AVT or saline for 4 months. Age-related changes in the hearts were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that compared with young rats, the aged rats had significant changes indicative of myocardial aging, including increased blood lipid 1evelss, increased body weight, cardiac hypertrophy, larger myocardial cells, irregular muscle fibers, fewer deeply stained nuclei, smaller intercellular spaces, a larger number of apoptotic cells and increased levels of lipofuscin in myocardial tissue. However, long-term AVT treatment was able to significantly delay or even reverse these aging-related changes. In addition, these effects showed a certain dose-dependence. In general, long-term AVT treatment reduces blood lipids, inhibits cardiac hypertrophy, suppresses cardiomyocyte apoptosis and lowers the level of oxidative stress to protect the heart from aging. PMID:24137254

  1. Effects of thermal treatments on donkey milk nutritional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Paolo; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutritional support to ensure right development and influence immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infants develop allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Most infants with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow's milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow's milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. An in-depth analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study. The interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in human. Since donkey milk supply is related to its seasonal availability during the year, in this study were evaluated the effects of different thermal treatments on the protein fractions of donkey milk. The results obtained in fresh, frozen, powdered and lyophilized donkey milk showed different values in total proteins, caseins, whey proteins and lysozyme content. This study demonstrated the possibility of using lyophilization in order to maintain the nutritional characteristics of donkey milk. The article presents some promising patents on the effects of thermal treatments on donkey milk nutritional characteristics.

  2. The stochastic system approach for estimating dynamic treatments effect.

    PubMed

    Commenges, Daniel; Gégout-Petit, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The problem of assessing the effect of a treatment on a marker in observational studies raises the difficulty that attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. As an example, we focus on the analysis of the effect of a HAART on CD4 counts, where attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. This problem has been treated using marginal structural models relying on the counterfactual/potential response formalism. Another approach to causality is based on dynamical models, and causal influence has been formalized in the framework of the Doob-Meyer decomposition of stochastic processes. Causal inference however needs assumptions that we detail in this paper and we call this approach to causality the "stochastic system" approach. First we treat this problem in discrete time, then in continuous time. This approach allows incorporating biological knowledge naturally. When working in continuous time, the mechanistic approach involves distinguishing the model for the system and the model for the observations. Indeed, biological systems live in continuous time, and mechanisms can be expressed in the form of a system of differential equations, while observations are taken at discrete times. Inference in mechanistic models is challenging, particularly from a numerical point of view, but these models can yield much richer and reliable results.

  3. Effect Size for Single-Subject Design in Phonological Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Morrisette, Michele L.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document, validate, and corroborate effect size (ES) for single-subject design in treatment of children with functional phonological disorders; to evaluate potential child-specific contributing variables relative to ES; and to establish benchmarks for interpretation of ES for the population. Method Data were extracted from the Developmental Phonologies Archive for 135 preschool children with phonological disorders who previously participated in single-subject experimental treatment studies. Standard mean differenceall with correction for continuity was computed to gauge the magnitude of generalization gain that accrued longitudinally from treatment for each child with the data aggregated for purposes of statistical analyses. Results ES ranged from 0.09 to 27.83 for the study population. ES was positively correlated with conventional measures of phonological learning and visual inspection of learning data on the basis of procedures standard to single-subject design. ES was linked to children's performance on diagnostic assessments of phonology but not other demographic characteristics or related linguistic skills and nonlinguistic skills. Benchmarks for interpretation of ES were estimated as 1.4, 3.6, and 10.1 for small, medium, and large learning effects, respectively. Conclusion Findings have utility for single-subject research and translation of research to evidence-based practice for children with phonological disorders. PMID:26184118

  4. Postantibiotic effect of disinfection treatment by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Odashima, Yu; Nakamura, Keisuke; Ikai, Hiroyo; Kanno, Taro; Meirelles, Luiz; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the postantibiotic effect (PAE) of the disinfection treatment by photolysis of H2O2. Postantibiotic effect was induced in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus salivarius by exposing the bacteria to H2O2 at concentrations of 250-1000 mmol/l, laser irradiation at a wavelength of 405 nm, and the combination of both (photolysis of H2O2) for 10-30 seconds. The photolysis of H2O2 induced significantly longer PAE than other treatments. The PAE was augmented dependently on not only the concentration of H2O2 but the laser irradiation time. Electron spin resonance analysis showed that the hydroxyl radical was also generated dependently on both the concentration of H2O2 and the laser irradiation time, suggesting that the hydroxyl radicals contribute to the PAE. These results suggest that the disinfection treatment by photolysis of H2O2 induces PAE in S. aureus and S. salivarius even though they were treated for only 10-30 seconds.

  5. Effective extraction of Arabidopsis adherent seed mucilage by ultrasonic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xianhai; Qiao, Lijun; Wu, Ai-Min

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis seed coat is composed of two layers of mucilage, a water-soluble non-adherent outer layer and an adherent inner layer. The non-adherent mucilage can easily be extracted by gentle shaking. However, adherent mucilage is extremely difficult to dissociate from the seed coat. Despite various treatments to extract the adherent mucilage, including EDTA, ammonium oxalate, dilute alkali or acid washes, most of it remains on the seed coat. Here, we show for the first time the extraction of almost all of the adherent mucilage from the Arabidopsis seed coat. Our results demonstrate that ultrasonic treatment was able to extract the adherent mucilage effectively within 20 seconds. Adherent mucilage, like non-adherent mucilage, is mainly composed of rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I). The crystalline cellulose content in adherent mucilage was measured as 3.7 mg g−1 of dry seed. Compared with non-adherent mucilage, the adherent mucilage exhibits relatively stable levels of sugar under various environmental conditions. In all cases, adherent mucilage showed higher levels of sugar than non-adherent mucilage. The cell wall remnant could associate with the adherent mucilage, which could prevent the extraction of the adherent mucilage. Our results show that ultrasonic treatment is an effective method for the quick extraction of Arabidopsis adherent mucilage with little effort. PMID:28091592

  6. Antivenom: the most cost-effective treatment in the world?

    PubMed

    Brown, N; Landon, J

    2010-06-15

    Antivenom is the only effective treatment for envenoming by snakes, scorpions and other venomous creatures. Unfortunately, supplies of this life-saving drug in many countries are critically low, and the tragic consequence of untreated envenoming exacts a chronic humanitarian and economic burden on those communities affected. This neglected health crisis struggles to compete with higher profile illnesses for recognition, research attention and funding. Sound strategies to improve the provision of antivenoms repeatedly fail because of an inability to attract the requisite financial investment. In the highly competitive international health landscape, the greatest challenge for stakeholders is to demonstrate that antivenom constitutes an affordable, cost-effective and worthwhile investment of healthcare resources. Recent collaborations in the UK, Africa and South America, have proven that lowering the production costs of antivenom to affordable levels is sustainable. A simple healthcare-economic calculation can be used to demonstrate the superior cost-effectiveness of antivenoms in preventing death and disability. These advances may lead to antivenom becoming one of the most cost-effective treatments available to modern medicine, and provides strong justification for its inclusion in international health funding initiatives.

  7. Cost-effectiveness model for hepatitis C screening and treatment: Implications for Egypt and other countries with high prevalence.

    PubMed

    Kim, David D; Hutton, David W; Raouf, Ahmed A; Salama, Mohsen; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A; Soliman, Amr S

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer, and many developing countries report intermediate-to-high prevalence. However, the economic impact of screening and treatment for HCV in high prevalence countries has not been well studied. Thus, we examined the cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment for HCV infection for asymptomatic, average-risk adults using a Markov decision analytic model. In our model, we collected age-specific prevalence, disease progression rates for Egyptians and local cost estimates in Egypt, which has the highest prevalence of HCV infection (~15%) in the world. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and conducted sensitivity analyses to determine how cost-effective HCV screening and treatment might be in other developing countries with high and intermediate prevalence. In Egypt, implementing a screening programme using triple-therapy treatment (sofosbuvir with pegylated interferon and ribavirin) was dominant compared with no screening because it would have lower total costs and improve health outcomes. HCV screening and treatment would also be cost-effective in global settings with intermediate costs of drug treatment (~$8000) and a higher sustained viral response rate (70-80%).

  8. Yoga as a Complementary Treatment of Depression: Effects of Traits and Moods on Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ian A.; Davydov, Dmitry M.; Ottaviani, Cristina; Leuchter, Andrew F.; Abrams, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary findings support the potential of yoga as a complementary treatment of depressed patients who are taking anti-depressant medications but who are only in partial remission. The purpose of this article is to present further data on the intervention, focusing on individual differences in psychological, emotional and biological processes affecting treatment outcome. Twenty-seven women and 10 men were enrolled in the study, of whom 17 completed the intervention and pre- and post-intervention assessment data. The intervention consisted of 20 classes led by senior Iyengar yoga teachers, in three courses of 20 yoga classes each. All participants were diagnosed with unipolar major depression in partial remission. Psychological and biological characteristics were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and participants rated their mood states before and after each class. Significant reductions were shown for depression, anger, anxiety, neurotic symptoms and low frequency heart rate variability in the 17 completers. Eleven out of these completers achieved remission levels post-intervention. Participants who remitted differed from the non-remitters at intake on several traits and on physiological measures indicative of a greater capacity for emotional regulation. Moods improved from before to after the yoga classes. Yoga appears to be a promising intervention for depression; it is cost-effective and easy to implement. It produces many beneficial emotional, psychological and biological effects, as supported by observations in this study. The physiological methods are especially useful as they provide objective markers of the processes and effectiveness of treatment. These observations may help guide further clinical application of yoga in depression and other mental health disorders, and future research on the processes and mechanisms. PMID:18227917

  9. Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.

    1994-02-01

    A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

  10. Cosmological ensemble and directional averages of observables

    SciTech Connect

    Bonvin, Camille; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Maartens, Roy; Umeh, Obinna E-mail: chris.clarkson@gmail.com E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com

    2015-07-01

    We show that at second order, ensemble averages of observables and directional averages do not commute due to gravitational lensing—observing the same thing in many directions over the sky is not the same as taking an ensemble average. In principle this non-commutativity is significant for a variety of quantities that we often use as observables and can lead to a bias in parameter estimation. We derive the relation between the ensemble average and the directional average of an observable, at second order in perturbation theory. We discuss the relevance of these two types of averages for making predictions of cosmological observables, focusing on observables related to distances and magnitudes. In particular, we show that the ensemble average of the distance in a given observed direction is increased by gravitational lensing, whereas the directional average of the distance is decreased. For a generic observable, there exists a particular function of the observable that is not affected by second-order lensing perturbations. We also show that standard areas have an advantage over standard rulers, and we discuss the subtleties involved in averaging in the case of supernova observations.

  11. Cell averaging Chebyshev methods for hyperbolic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Cai; Gottlieb, David; Harten, Ami

    1990-01-01

    A cell averaging method for the Chebyshev approximations of first order hyperbolic equations in conservation form is described. Formulas are presented for transforming between pointwise data at the collocation points and cell averaged quantities, and vice-versa. This step, trivial for the finite difference and Fourier methods, is nontrivial for the global polynomials used in spectral methods. The cell averaging methods presented are proven stable for linear scalar hyperbolic equations and present numerical simulations of shock-density wave interaction using the new cell averaging Chebyshev methods.

  12. Effect of blood vessel segmentation on the outcome of electroporation-based treatments of liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Marčan, Marija; Kos, Bor; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation-based treatments rely on increasing the permeability of the cell membrane by high voltage electric pulses applied to tissue via electrodes. To ensure that the whole tumor is covered with sufficiently high electric field, accurate numerical models are built based on individual patient anatomy. Extraction of patient's anatomy through segmentation of medical images inevitably produces some errors. In order to ensure the robustness of treatment planning, it is necessary to evaluate the potential effect of such errors on the electric field distribution. In this work we focus on determining the effect of errors in automatic segmentation of hepatic vessels on the electric field distribution in electroporation-based treatments in the liver. First, a numerical analysis was performed on a simple 'sphere and cylinder' model for tumors and vessels of different sizes and relative positions. Second, an analysis of two models extracted from medical images of real patients in which we introduced variations of an error of the automatic vessel segmentation method was performed. The results obtained from a simple model indicate that ignoring the vessels when calculating the electric field distribution can cause insufficient coverage of the tumor with electric fields. Results of this study indicate that this effect happens for small (10 mm) and medium-sized (30 mm) tumors, especially in the absence of a central electrode inserted in the tumor. The results obtained from the real-case models also show higher negative impact of automatic vessel segmentation errors on the electric field distribution when the central electrode is absent. However, the average error of the automatic vessel segmentation did not have an impact on the electric field distribution if the central electrode was present. This suggests the algorithm is robust enough to be used in creating a model for treatment parameter optimization, but with a central electrode.

  13. Ultraviolet and pulsed electric field treatments have additive effect on inactivation of E. coli in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Gachovska, T K; Kumar, S; Thippareddi, H; Subbiah, J; Williams, F

    2008-11-01

    Apple juice inoculated with Escherichia coli ATCC 23472 was processed continuously using either ultraviolet (UV), high-voltage pulsed electric field (PEF), or a combination of the PEF and UV treatment systems. Apple juice was pumped through either of the systems at 3 flow rates (8, 14, and 20 mL/min). E. coli was reduced by 3.46 log CFU/mL when exposed in a 50 cm length of UV treatment chamber at 8 mL/min (2.94 s treatment time with a product temperature increase of 13 degrees C). E. coli inactivation of 4.87 log CFU/mL was achieved with a peak electric field strength of 60 kV/cm and 11.3 pulses (average pulse width of 3.5 mus, product temperature increased to 52 degrees C). E. coli reductions resulting from a combination treatment of UV and PEF applied sequentially were evaluated. A maximum E. coli reduction of 5.35 log CFU/mL was achieved using PEF (electrical field strength of 60 kV/cm, specific energy of 162 J/mL, and 11.3 pulses) and UV treatments (length of 50 cm, treatment time of 2.94 s, and flow rate of 8 mL/min). An additive effect was observed for the combination treatments (PEF and UV), regardless of the order of treatment (P > 0.05). E. coli reductions of 5.35 and 5.30 log CFU/mL with PEF treatment (electrical field strength of 60 kV/cm, specific energy of 162 J/mL, and 11.3 pulses) followed by UV (length of 30 cm, treatment time of 1.8 s, and flow rate of 8 mL/min) and UV treatment followed by PEF (same treatment conditions), respectively. No synergistic effect was observed.

  14. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure Characteristics of Laser Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yuanbin; Li, Yajiang; Yang, Qingqing; Liu, Yan; Ren, Guocheng

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, effect of heat treatment on the microstructures and wear properties of laser alloying (LA) composites is investigated. LA of the T-Co50/FeSi/TiC/TiN/CeO2 mixed powders on substrate of 45 steel can form the hard composites, which increased the wear resistance of substrate greatly. Such LA composites were investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tempering promoted the growth of the block-shape hard phases, favoring an enhancement of the integrity of block-shape hard phases; and tempering also improved greatly the formation mechanism, guarantying the composites to have enough ability of intensity transfer. This research provided essential experiment and theoretical basis to promote the application of the laser and heat treatment technologies in the field of surface modification.

  15. Neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure on sewage treatment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kraut, A.; Lilis, R.; Marcus, M.; Valciukas, J.A.; Wolff, M.S.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1988-07-01

    Nineteen Sewage Treatment Workers (STWs) exposed to industrial sewage that contained benzene, toluene, and other organic solvents at a primary sewage treatment plant in New York City (Plant A) were examined for evidence of solvent toxicity. Fourteen (74%) complained of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms consistent with solvent exposure, including lightheadedness, fatigue, increased sleep requirement, and headache. The majority of these symptoms resolved with transfer from the plant. Men working less than 1 yr at Plant A were more likely to complain of two or more CNS symptoms than men who were working there longer than 1 yr (p = .055). Objective abnormalities in neurobehavioral testing were found in all 4 men working longer than 9 yr at this plant, but in only 5 of 15 employed there for a shorter period (p = .03). These results are consistent with the known effects of solvent exposure. Occupational health personnel must be aware that STWs can be exposed to solvents and other industrial wastes.

  16. Passive mine drainage treatment: an effective low-cost alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Two prototype Passive Mine Drainage Treatment Systems have been designed and constructed in Colorado. These projects have addressed acid mine drainage from inactive coal mines. Metal removal for both systems is accomplished using simulated peat bogs composed of sphagnum moss and hypnum moss retained by loose rock check dams. Acid neutralization is accomplished using crushed limestone filled channels. Neutralization and aeration are enhanced with drop structures and waterfalls placed in the drainage channel. Preliminary water quality results show dramatic treatment effects with the PMDT system. This investigation presents cost data for design and construction of the two PMDT systems. Cost projections for periodic maintenance requirements are provided along with a suggested method for financing maintenance costs. Performance data for the first system installed are presented. 14 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  17. Is hot water immersion an effective treatment for marine envenomation?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, P R T; Boyle, A; Hartin, D; McAuley, D

    2006-07-01

    Envenomation by marine creatures is common. As more people dive and snorkel for leisure, the incidence of envenomation injuries presenting to emergency departments has increased. Although most serious envenomations occur in the temperate or tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region, North American and European waters also provide a habitat for many stinging creatures. Marine envenomations can be classified as either surface stings or puncture wounds. Antivenom is available for a limited number of specific marine creatures. Various other treatments such as vinegar, fig juice, boiled cactus, heated stones, hot urine, hot water, and ice have been proposed, although many have little scientific basis. The use of heat therapies, previously reserved for penetrating fish spine injuries, has been suggested as treatment for an increasing variety of marine envenomation. This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness of hot water immersion (HWI) and other heat therapies in the management of patients presenting with pain due to marine envenomation.

  18. Towards Effective Photothermal/Photodynamic Treatment Using Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bucharskaya, Alla; Maslyakova, Galina; Terentyuk, Georgy; Yakunin, Alexander; Avetisyan, Yuri; Bibikova, Olga; Tuchina, Elena; Khlebtsov, Boris; Khlebtsov, Nikolai; Tuchin, Valery

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different size and shape are widely used as photosensitizers for cancer diagnostics and plasmonic photothermal (PPT)/photodynamic (PDT) therapy, as nanocarriers for drug delivery and laser-mediated pathogen killing, even the underlying mechanisms of treatment effects remain poorly understood. There is a need in analyzing and improving the ways to increase accumulation of AuNP in tumors and other crucial steps in interaction of AuNPs with laser light and tissues. In this review, we summarize our recent theoretical, experimental, and pre-clinical results on light activated interaction of AuNPs with tissues and cells. Specifically, we discuss a combined PPT/PDT treatment of tumors and killing of pathogen bacteria with gold-based nanocomposites and atomic clusters, cell optoporation, and theoretical simulations of nanoparticle-mediated laser heating of tissues and cells. PMID:27517913

  19. The enduring effects of psychodynamic treatments vis-a-vis alternative treatments: A multilevel longitudinal meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivlighan, D. Martin, III

    Although evidence suggests that the benefits of psychodynamic treatments are sustained over time, presently it is unclear whether these sustained benefits are superior to non-psychodynamic treatments. Additionally, the extant literature comparing the sustained benefits of psychodynamic treatments compared to alternative treatments is limited with methodological shortcomings. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a rigorous test of the growth of the benefits of psychodynamic treatments relative to alternative treatments across distinct domains of change (i.e., all outcome measures, targeted outcome measures, non-targeted outcome measures, and personality outcome measures). To do so, the study employed strict inclusion criteria to identify randomized clinical trials that directly compared at least one bona fide psychodynamic treatment and one bona fide non-psychodynamic treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling (Raudenbush, Bryk, Cheong & Congdon, du Toit, 2011) was used to longitudinally model the impact of psychodynamic treatments compared to non-psychodynamic treatments at post-treatment and to compare the growth (i.e., slope) of effects beyond treatment completion. Findings from the present meta-analysis indicated that psychodynamic treatments and non-psychodynamic treatments were equally efficacious at post-treatment and at follow-up for combined outcomes ( k = 20), targeted outcomes (k =19), non-targeted outcomes (k =17), and personality outcomes (k =6). Clinical implications, directions for future research, and limitations are discussed.

  20. Development and evaluation of a hybrid averaged orbit generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, W. D.; Long, A. C.; Early, L. W.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid orbit generator based on a first-order application of the Generalized Method of Averaging has been developed for the Research and Development (R&D) version of the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). The evaluation of the averaged equations of motion can use both numerically averaged and recursively evaluated, analytically averaged perturbation models. These equations are numerically integrated to obtain the secular and long-period motion. Factors affecting efficient orbit prediction are discussed and guidelines are presented for treatment of each major perturbation. Guidelines for obtaining initial mean elements compatible with the theory are presented. An overview of the orbit generator is presented and comparisons with high precision methods are given.

  1. Inhibitory effects of the macrolide antimicrobial tylosin on anaerobic treatment.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Toshio; Zilles, Julie L; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2008-09-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was operated using a glucose-based synthetic wastewater to study the effects of tylosin, a macrolide antimicrobial commonly used in swine production, on treatment performance. The experimental period was divided into three consecutive phases with different influent tylosin concentrations (0, 1.67, and 167 mg/L). The addition of 1.67 mg/L tylosin to the reactor had negligible effects on the overall treatment performance, that is, total methane production and effluent chemical oxygen demand did not change significantly (P < 0.05), yet analyses of individual ASBR cycles revealed a decrease in the rates of both methane production and propionate uptake after tylosin was added. The addition of 167 mg/L tylosin to the reactor resulted in a gradual decrease in methane production and the accumulation of propionate and acetate. Subsequent inhibition of methanogenesis was attributed to a decrease in the pH of the reactor. After the addition of 167 mg/L tylosin to the reactor, an initial decrease in the rate of glucose uptake during the ASBR cycle followed by a gradual recovery was observed. In batch tests, the specific biogas production with the substrate butyrate was completely inhibited in the presence of tylosin. This study indicated that tylosin inhibited propionate- and butyrate-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria and fermenting bacteria resulting in unfavorable effects on methanogenesis.

  2. Effective Utilization Management in a Military Treatment Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    16. Accumulative Average Length of Stay Figure 17. MEPRS Inpatient Summary Data Figure 18. Inpatient Personnel Expenses Figure 19. Inpatient...utilization management efforts have decreased the average length of stay , modified the case mix index, and reduced cost per inpatient bed day. This...system was also used to identify Case Mix Index changes of patients seen at WHMC. The same system provided data to determine Average Length of Stay (ALOS

  3. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  4. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  5. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  6. Whatever Happened to the Average Student?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Mandated state testing, college entrance exams and their perceived need for higher and higher grade point averages have raised the anxiety levels felt by many of the average students. Too much focus is placed on state test scores and college entrance standards with not enough focus on the true level of the students. The author contends that…

  7. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... class or subclass: Credit = (Average Standard − Emission Level) × (Total Annual Production) × (Useful Life) Deficit = (Emission Level − Average Standard) × (Total Annual Production) × (Useful Life) (l....000 Where: FELi = The FEL to which the engine family is certified. ULi = The useful life of the...

  8. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  9. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  10. Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi

    2017-03-01

    A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.

  11. The Effect of Mechanochemical Treatment of the Cellulose on Characteristics of Nanocellulose Films.

    PubMed

    Barbash, V A; Yaschenko, O V; Alushkin, S V; Kondratyuk, A S; Posudievsky, O Y; Koshechko, V G

    2016-12-01

    The development of the nanomaterials with the advanced functional characteristics is a challenging task because of the growing demand in the market of the optoelectronic devices, biodegradable plastics, and materials for energy saving and energy storage. Nanocellulose is comprised of the nanosized cellulose particles, properties of which depend on characteristics of plant raw materials as well as methods of nanocellulose preparation. In this study, the effect of the mechanochemical treatment of bleached softwood sulfate pulp on the optical and mechanical properties of nanocellulose films was assessed. It was established that the method of the subsequent grinding, acid hydrolysis and ultrasound treatment of cellulose generated films with the significant transparency in the visible spectral range (up to 78 % at 600 nm), high Young's modulus (up to 8.8 GPa), and tensile strength (up to 88 MPa) with increased ordering of the packing of the cellulose macromolecules. Morphological characterization was done using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocellulose particles had an average diameter of 15-30 nm and a high aspect ratio in the range 120-150. The crystallinity was increased with successive treatments as shown by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The thermal degradation behavior of cellulose samples was explored by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).

  12. The Effect of Mechanochemical Treatment of the Cellulose on Characteristics of Nanocellulose Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbash, V. A.; Yaschenko, O. V.; Alushkin, S. V.; Kondratyuk, A. S.; Posudievsky, O. Y.; Koshechko, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The development of the nanomaterials with the advanced functional characteristics is a challenging task because of the growing demand in the market of the optoelectronic devices, biodegradable plastics, and materials for energy saving and energy storage. Nanocellulose is comprised of the nanosized cellulose particles, properties of which depend on characteristics of plant raw materials as well as methods of nanocellulose preparation. In this study, the effect of the mechanochemical treatment of bleached softwood sulfate pulp on the optical and mechanical properties of nanocellulose films was assessed. It was established that the method of the subsequent grinding, acid hydrolysis and ultrasound treatment of cellulose generated films with the significant transparency in the visible spectral range (up to 78 % at 600 nm), high Young's modulus (up to 8.8 GPa), and tensile strength (up to 88 MPa) with increased ordering of the packing of the cellulose macromolecules. Morphological characterization was done using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocellulose particles had an average diameter of 15-30 nm and a high aspect ratio in the range 120-150. The crystallinity was increased with successive treatments as shown by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The thermal degradation behavior of cellulose samples was explored by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).

  13. Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Gang; Kent, Michael S; He, Lilin; Varanasi, Patanjali; Dibble, Dean; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

  14. Effect of preliminary vacuum plasma treatment on coating adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabodchikov, Vladimir A.; Borisov, Dmitry P.; Kuznetsov, Vladimir M.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents research results on the adhesion properties of Si coatings synthesized by different methods and under different conditions of preliminary vacuum ion plasma treatment of substrates with subsequent magnetron sputtering. The substrate surface was pretreated with low-energy ion beams, high-energy ion beams, gas discharge plasma, and plasma produced by a magnetron sputtering system. The vacuum conditions (pump type, pressure, etc.), the ion current density, and the bias parameters (pulse repetition frequency and duration) were varied. The research results demonstrate a considerable effect of plasma immersion ion implantation on the adhesion of Si coatings to NiTi substrates.

  15. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, A.; Caballin, M.R.; Miro, R.; Benet, J.; Bonfill, X.; Egozcue, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa.

  16. Is honey an effective treatment for acute cough in children?

    PubMed

    Nitsche, María Pía; Carreño, Mónica

    2016-05-30

    Cough represents one of the most common reasons for pediatrician consultations. There are many available treatments for symptomatic relief, including honey. Despite its wide availability, there is little knowledge about its benefits. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including three randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of honey probably decreases the severity and frequency of cough, improves the quality of parent's and patient's sleep, and does not have side effects.

  17. The factors affecting effectiveness of treatment in phages therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ly-Chatain, Mai Huong

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the use of lytic bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents controlling pathogenic bacteria has appeared as a promising new alternative strategy in the face of growing antibiotic resistance which has caused problems in many fields including medicine, veterinary medicine, and aquaculture. The use of bacteriophages has numerous advantages over traditional antimicrobials. The effectiveness of phage applications in fighting against pathogenic bacteria depends on several factors such as the bacteriophages/target bacteria ratio, the mode and moment of treatment, environmental conditions (pH, temperature...), the neutralization of phage and accessibility to target bacteria, amongst others. This report presents these factors and the challenges involved in developing phage therapy applications. PMID:24600439

  18. Proton Radiotherapy: The Biological Effect of Treating Alternating Subsets of Fields for Different Treatment Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Engelsman, Martijn; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Hong, Theodore S.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Common practice in proton radiotherapy is to deliver a subset of all fields in the treatment plan on any given treatment day. We investigate using biological modeling if the resulting variation in daily dose to normal tissues has a relevant detrimental biological effect. Methods and Materials: For four patient groups, the cumulative normalized total dose (NTD) was determined for normal tissues (OARs) of each patient using the clinically delivered fractionation schedule (FS{sub clin}), and for hypothetical fractionation schedules delivering all fields every day (FS{sub all}) or only a single field each day (FS{sub single}). Cumulative three-dimensional NTD distributions were summarized using the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) model. Results: For the skull base/cervical spine chordoma group, the largest effect is a 4-Gy increase in gEUD of the chiasm when treating only a subset of fields on any day. For lung cancer and pancreatic cancer patients, the variation in the gEUD of normal tissues is <0.2 Gy. For the prostate group, FS{sub clin} increases the gEUD of the femoral heads by 9 Gy compared with FS{sub all}. Use of FS{sub single} resulted in the highest NTD to normal tissues for any patient. FS{sub all} resulted in an integral NTD to the patient that is on average 5% lower than FS{sub clin} and 10% lower than FS{sub single}. Conclusion: The effects of field set of the day treatment delivery depend on the tumor site and number of fields treated each day. Modeling these effects may be important for accurate risk assessment.

  19. Changes in average length of stay and average charges generated following institution of PSRO review.

    PubMed

    Westphal, M; Frazier, E; Miller, M C

    1979-01-01

    A five-year review of accounting data at a university hospital shows that immediately following institution of concurrent PSRO admission and length of stay review of Medicare-Medicaid patients, there was a significant decrease in length of stay and a fall in average charges generated per patient against the inflationary trend. Similar changes did not occur for the non-Medicare-Medicaid patients who were not reviewed. The observed changes occurred even though the review procedure rarely resulted in the denial of services to patients, suggesting an indirect effect of review.

  20. Treatment Effectiveness of Amantadine Against Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chieh-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patient: — Final Diagnosis: Dengue fever infection Symptoms: Bone pain • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: About 400 million cases of dengue, a mosquito-borne disease, are reported annually, but no drug is yet available for treatment. In 1988, at Feng Lin Clinic, Taiwan, we encountered about 10,000 cases and tested various drugs before confirming an antiviral effect of amantadine against dengue virus in vitro. After we administered amantadine to patients for 1–2 days, most achieved full remission. None experienced potentially life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. Herein, we present 34 cases from recent clinical experience that show amantadine’s unusual effect against dengue virus infection. Case Report: We divided 34 patients with symptoms of dengue fever, confirmed by a screening test, into 3 groups: 6 Category 1 patients received amantadine at onset, 21 Category 2 patients received amantadine within 2–6 days, and 7 Contrast group patients received no amantadine because they visited other clinics or were admitted to a large hospital. When Category 1 patients were treated with amantadine 100 mg 3 times per day, all symptoms dramatically subsided within 1–2 days. In Category 2 patients, most symptoms diminished within 1–2 days after starting the same regimen. In the Contrast group, all symptoms persisted 7 days after onset. White blood cell and platelet counts in Category 1 and 2 patients recovered to normal range, but remained below low normal in the Contrast group. Conclusions: Amantadine is effective and should be given as soon as possible to stop the disease course if dengue fever is confirmed through screening or clinical signs and symptoms. A well-designed larger sample study is warranted to test this effectiveness. PMID:27920420