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Sample records for averrhoa carambola infested

  1. Influence of temperature on Pythium splendens--induced root disease on carambola, Averrhoa carambola.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2004-02-01

    A series of glasshouse and incubator studies were conducted to investigate the role played by Pythium splendens in a decline disorder of carambola, Averrhoa carambola. Plants, 4-6 months old, were grown in native calcareous soil either infested or not infested with the pathogen. Isolates recovered from atemoya, carambola and passion fruit grew optimally at 30 degrees C, and significantly (P < 0.05) increased root necrosis and reduced root, shoot and total biomass of carambola. Temperature had a profound impact on the latter relationships. Two or more times more necrosis developed at 10 and 15 degrees C than at 25 and 30 degrees C. Total biomass accumulations were over four times greater at 30 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, and were always lower in soil infested with P. splendens. When biomass totals from infested and noninfested soil were compared, relative values were lowest at 15 and 20 degrees C and were almost two times greater at 30 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. Root infection by P. splendens was greatest at 15 and 20 degrees C, far below the species' optimum for growth, and at 30 degrees C was over nine times lower than at 15 and 20 degrees C. This is the first detailed report of P. splendens as a pathogen of carambola.

  2. [Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) toxic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Signaté, A; Olindo, S; Chausson, N; Cassinoto, C; Edimo Nana, M; Saint Vil, M; Cabre, P; Smadja, D

    2009-03-01

    Ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) can induce severe intoxication in subjects with chronic renal failure. Oxalate plays a key role in the neurotoxicity of star fruit. We report the cases of two patients with unknown chronic renal insufficiency who developed severe encephalopathy after ingestion of star fruit. The two patients developed intractable hiccups, vomiting, impaired consciousness and status epilepticus. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging showed cortical and thalamic hyperintense lesions related to epileptic status. They improved after being submitted to continuous hemofiltration which constitutes the most effective treatment during the acute phase.

  3. Phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soil by carambola (Averrhoa carambola) in field trials.

    PubMed

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Dai, Z Y; Zhu, R; Shu, W S

    2009-08-01

    Use of metal-accumulating woody species to extract metals from heavy metal contaminated soil has received more attention. While considerable studies have focused on the phytoextraction potential of willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Populus spp.), similar information is rare for other woody species. Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) is a high-biomass tree and has been identified as a new Cd-accumulating species. The present study aimed to evaluate the Cd phytoextraction potential of carambola under field condition. After growing in a slightly Cd-contaminated site for about 170 d, the carambola stand initiated by seed-seedling with high planting density (encoded with "HD-1yr") attained a high shoot biomass yield of 18.6 t ha(-1) and extracted 213 g Cdha(-1), resulting in a 1.6-fold higher Cd removal efficiency than that of a contrasting stand established by grafted-seedling with low planting density (5.3% vs. 2%). That is, "HD-1yr" would remove 50% of the total soil Cd with 13yr, assuming that the Cd removal efficiency would not change over time. Further, one crop of "HD-1yr" significantly decreased (63-69%) the Cd uptake by subsequent vegetables. Among the four carambola stands established using grafted-seedling, the 2-yr-old stand exhibited the highest annual Cd removal efficiency (3.7%), which was yet lower than that of "HD-1yr". These results suggested that phytoextraction of Cd by carambola (especially for "HD-1yr" stand) presented a feasible option to clean up agricultural soils slightly contaminated by Cd.

  4. Pectic type II arabinogalactans from starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.).

    PubMed

    Leivas, Carolina Lopes; Iacomini, Marcello; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C

    2016-05-15

    A structural characterization of polysaccharides from edible tropical fruit named starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) was carried out. After the purification steps, two homogeneous fractions were obtained. Fraction 50R was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acid in 4.3:56.2:37.4:2M ratio, respectively and fraction 10R was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acid in 2.8:65.8:28.5:3M ratio, respectively. Methylation and NMR spectroscopy analyses showed that these fractions are formed by pectic arabinogalactans, which contain (1→3), (1→6) and (1→3,6)-linked Galp units. The side chains have 3-O-, 5-O- and 3,5-di-O-linked α-Araf and nonreducing end-units of α-Araf, Arap, β-Galp and α-GlcpA. These arabinogalactans were linked to type I rhamnogalacturonans.

  5. Enzymatic carotenoid cleavage in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola).

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Peter; Watanabe, Naoharu; Winterhalter, Peter

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the first description of an enzyme fraction exhibiting carotenoid cleavage activity isolated from fruit skin of Averrhoa carambola. Partial purification of the enzyme could be achieved by acetone precipitation, ultrafiltration (300 kDa, 50 kDa), isoelectric focusing (pH 3-10) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (7.5%). In this way, an enzymatically active protein fraction was obtained, consisting of four proteins in the molecular weight range of between 12 and 90 kDa. Using beta-carotene as substrate, the enzyme activity was detected spectrophotometrically at 505 nm. The main reaction product, detected by GC analysis, was beta-ionone. This proves that the isolated enzymes are closely related to aroma metabolism and release of star fruit. The time constant of the reaction was 16.6 min, the Michaelis Constant K(m)=3.6 micromol 1(-1) and the maximum velocity V(max)=10.5 x 10(-3) micromol l(-1) s(-1) mg((Protein))(-1). The optimum temperature was 45 degrees C.

  6. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R

    2016-05-01

    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities.

  7. Effect of temperature on enzymatic and physiological factors related to chilling injury in carambola fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tello, G O; Silva-Espinoza, B A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Briceño-Torres, B O; Martinez-Tellez, M A

    2001-10-05

    Three groups of carambola fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.) were stored at 2 and 10 degrees C (85-90% relative humidity). The major physicochemical, physiological, and enzymatic responses of fruit were measured in each group over a 30-day period: chilling injury index (CII), decay (%), intracuticular waxes, cuticle permeability, pulp firmness, weight loss, sucrose, fructose and glucose contents, ion electrolyte leakage in pulp (%), ethylene and carbon dioxide production rates, and the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzymes. CII values were statistically different at 2 and 10 degrees C, showing high significance with respect to sucrose content and weight loss (P < 0.05). Chilling injury included darkened ribs and skin desiccation. According to the CI symptom development, a possible relationship of POD and PPO activities was found at 2 degrees C. A significant sucrose content increase was observed at 10 degrees C. CI symptoms were associated with POD and PAL activities.

  8. Saccharides and fructooligosaccharides composition of green and ripe Averrhoa carambola, Blighia sapida and Spondias dulcis fruits.

    PubMed

    Benkeblia, Noureddine; Lopez, Mercedes G

    2015-06-01

    The maturation of fruits is characterized by numerous compositional changes during ripening and these changes contribute in their quality attributes. This study aimed to assess the contents of saccharides and potential fructooligosaccharides (FOS) of ackee (Blighia sapida Köenig), carambola (Averrhoa carambola) and June plum (Spondias dulcis), at green and ripe stages. Beside glucose and fructose and lower sucrose content, three short chain fructooligosaccharides were identified in ackee fruit, namely 1-kestose (1(F)-β-d-fructofuranosyl sucrose), nystose (1(F)(1-β-d-fructofuranosyl)2 sucrose) and DP5 (1(F)(1-β-d-fructofuranosyl)3 sucrose), while in carambola and June plum DP5 (1(F)(1-β-d-fructofuranosyl)3 sucrose) was not detected. Ripening stage also affected significantly the contents of these saccharides and sFOS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization and physicochemical properties of some potential fibres derived from Averrhoa carambola.

    PubMed

    Chau, Chi-Fai; Chen, Chien-Hung; Lee, Mao-Hsiang

    2004-02-01

    The pomace of Averrhoa carambola (carambola) was found to possess a high level of insoluble fibre-rich fractions (FRFs) including insoluble dietary fibre, alcohol-insoluble solid, and water-insoluble solid (46.0-58.2 g/100 g of pomace). These FRFs were mainly composed of pectic substances and hemicellulose. The physicochemical properties of these FRFs (e.g., water-holding capacities, swelling properties, and cation-exchange capacities) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of cellulose. The apparent abilities of these FRFs to adsorb glucose and reduce amylase activity implied that they might help control postprandial serum glucose. These results recommended the consumption and application of the insoluble FRFs as low-calorie bulk ingredients in fibre enrichment. Further investigations on the in vivo hypoglycemic effect and other physiological effects of these FRFs using animal-feeding experiments are underway.

  10. Analysis of CYP3A inhibitory components of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Shinzo; Shimizu, Eri; Arimori, Kazuhiko; Okumura, Manabu; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yamada, Mitsuko; Sakushima, Akiyo

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the CYP3A inhibitory components of star fruit Averrhoa carambola L., using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The stereoisomer of procyanidin B1 and B2 and/or the trimer consisting of catechin and/or epicatechin were suggested to be potent inhibitory components.

  11. Three sesquiterpene compounds biosynthesised from artemisinic acid using suspension-cultured cells of Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhu, Jianhua; Song, Liyan; Shi, Xiaojian; Li, Xingyi; Yu, Rongmin

    2012-01-01

    A new sesquiterpene glycoside, artemisinic acid 3-β-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, 31.24%) and other two biotransformation products, 3-β-hydroxyartemisinic acid (2, 36.69%) and 3-β-hydroxyartemisinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4, 7.03%), were biosynthesised after artemisinic acid (1) was administered to the cultured cells of Averrhoa carambola. The three biotransformation products were obtained for the first time by using the suspension-cultured cells of A. carambola as a new biocatalyst system, and their structures were identified on the basis of the physico-chemical properties, NMR and mass spectral analyses. The results indicate that the cultured cells of A. carambola have the abilities to hydroxylate and glycosylate sesquiterpene compounds in a regio- and stereoselective manner. Furthermore, the anti-tumour activity of compounds 3 and 4 was evaluated against K562 and HeLa cell lines. Compound 4 showed strong activity against HeLa cell line, with the IC₅₀ value of 0.56 µmol mL⁻¹.

  12. Effect of ultrasound and centrifugal force on carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) slices during osmotic dehydration.

    PubMed

    Barman, Nirmali; Badwaik, Laxmikant S

    2017-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration (OD) of carambola slices were carried out using glucose, sucrose, fructose and glycerol as osmotic agents with 70°Bx solute concentration, 50°C of temperature and for time of 180min. Glycerol and sucrose were selected on the basis of their higher water loss, weight reduction and lowers solid gain. Further the optimization of OD of carambola slices (5mm thick) were carried out under different process conditions of temperature (40-60°C), concentration of sucrose and glycerol (50-70°Bx), time (180min) and fruit to solution ratio (1:10) against various responses viz. water loss, solid gain, texture, rehydration ratio and sensory score according to a composite design. The optimized value for temperature, concentration of sucrose and glycerol has been found to be 50°C, 66°Bx and 66°Bx respectively. Under optimized conditions the effect of ultrasound for 10, 20, 30min and centrifugal force (2800rpm) for 15, 30, 45 and 60min on OD of carambola slices were checked. The controlled samples showed 68.14% water loss and 13.05% solid gain in carambola slices. While, the sample having 30min ultrasonic treatment showed 73.76% water loss and 9.79% solid gain; and the sample treated with centrifugal force for 60min showed 75.65% water loss and 6.76% solid gain. The results showed that with increasing in treatment time the water loss, rehydration ratio were increased and solid gain, texture were decreased.

  13. Nutritional, Medicinal and Toxicological Attributes of Star-Fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Narmataa; Lee, Su Yin; Phua, Kia Kien; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2016-01-01

    Plants are very complex organisms that produce medicinally important natural products. The Star-fruit producing plant (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a species of woody plant in the family Oxalidaceae native to the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka; but, cultivated in many parts of the world. Star-fruits are popular tropical fruits and used commonly in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) in India, China, and Brazil to relieve ailments such as chronic headache, fever, cough, gastro-enteritis, diarrhoea, ringworm infections, and skin inflammations. However, this fruit contains high amount of oxalate, which is hazardous for uremic patients, and caramboxin (CBX), which is neurotoxic. The aim of this review is to highlight the nutritional, medicinal and toxicological traits of the star-fruits. PMID:28405126

  14. Convulsant activity and neurochemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales).

    PubMed

    Carolino, Ruither O G; Beleboni, Renê O; Pizzo, Andrea B; Vecchio, Flavio Del; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Santos, Wagner F Dos; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a neurotoxic fraction (AcTx) from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and studied its effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission systems. AcTx had no effect on GABA/glutamate uptake or release, or on glutamate binding. However, it specifically inhibited GABA binding in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.89muM). Video-electroencephalogram recordings demonstrated that following cortical administration of AcTx, animals showed behavioral changes, including tonic-clonic seizures, evolving into status epilepticus, accompanied by cortical epileptiform activity. Chemical characterization of AcTx showed that this compound is a nonproteic molecule with a molecular weight less than 500, differing from oxalic acid. This neurotoxic fraction of star fruit may be considered a new tool for neurochemical and neuroethological research.

  15. Intoxication by star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) in six dialysis patients? (Preliminary report)

    PubMed

    Neto, M M; Robl, F; Netto, J C

    1998-03-01

    We observed six cases of patients in a dialysis programme who were apparently intoxicated by ingestion of star fruit. After ingestion of 2-3 fruits or 150-200 ml of the fruit juice, the six patients, who had previously been stable in a regular dialysis programme, developed a variety of symptoms ranging from insomnia and hiccups to agitation, mental confusion and (in one case) death. In preliminary investigations to characterize the hypothetical neurotoxin in the fruit, an extract, when injected intraperitoneally or intracerebroventricularly in rats, provoked persistent convulsions of the tonic-clonic type. It appears that star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) contains an excitatory neurotoxin. Patients with renal failure on conservative or dialysis treatment should be dissuaded from ingestion of the fruit.

  16. Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Asyifah Mohamed; Lu, Kaihui; Yip, Yew Mun; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of many chronic diseases. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that phytochemicals may inhibit adipogenesis and obesity. In this study, we report for the first time, the ability of Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract commonly known as star fruit (SFP) to effectively suppress adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and therefore, address it as a potential candidate to treat obesity and its related diseases. (-)-Epicatechin was identified as a bioactive compound likely responsible for this suppression. As the genetic expression studies revealed that the adipogenic activity of SFP extract was due to the simultaneous downregulation of the C/EBPα and PPARγ as well as the upregulation of PPARα receptor genes, a detailed computational docking study was also elucidated to reveal the likely binding mode of (-)-epicatechin to the receptor of interest, accounting for the likely mechanism that results in the overall suppression of adipocyte differentiation.

  17. Electrophysiological effects of the aqueous extract of Averrhoa carambola L. leaves on the guinea pig heart.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, C M L; Araújo, M S; Conde-Garcia, E A

    2006-07-01

    This work aims to describe some electrophysiological changes promoted by the aqueous extract (AEx) from Averrhoa carambola leaves in guinea pig heart. The experiments were carried out on isolated heart or on right atrium-ventricle preparations. In 6 hearts, the extract induced many kinds of atrioventricular blocks (1st, 2nd, and 3rd degrees); increased the QT interval from 229+/-23 to 264+/-19 ms; increased the QRS complex duration from 27+/-3.1 to 59+/-11 ms, and depressed the cardiac rate from 136+/-17 to 89+/-14b pm. Furthermore, it decreased the conduction velocity of atrial impulse (17+/-3%); reduced the intraventricular pressure (86+/-6%), and increased the conduction time between the right atrium and the His bundle (27+/-6.5%). The conduction time from the His bundle to the right ventricle was not altered. Atropine sulfate did not change either the electrocardiographic parameters or the intraventricular pressure effects promoted by the A. carambola AEx. Based on these results, the popular use of such extracts should be avoided because it can promote electrical and mechanical changes in the normal heart.

  18. Anti-hyperglycemic action of apigenin-6-C-β-fucopyranoside from Averrhoa carambola.

    PubMed

    Cazarolli, Luisa Helena; Kappel, Virgínia Demarchi; Pereira, Danielle Fontana; Moresco, Henrique Hunger; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto

    2012-10-01

    A stimulatory effect of apigenin-6-C-β-fucopyranoside (1) on glucose uptake was observed when rat soleus muscle was incubated with 1, 10 and 100 μM of this flavonoid glycoside. The presence of specific insulin signaling inhibitors, such as wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), RO318220, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), PD98059, an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK), and HNMPA(AM)₃, an insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity inhibitor showed that apigenin-6-C-β-fucopyranoside triggers different metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The oral administration of crude extract, fractions and isolated flavonoids (apigenin-6-C-β-fucopyranoside (1) and apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-fucopyranoside (2)) from Averrhoa carambola leaves exhibited a potential hypoglycemic activity in hyperglycemic normal rats. Additionally, both flavonoids significantly increased the muscle and liver glycogen content after an acute treatment. The results indicate that A. carambola can be regarded as a potent antihyperglycemic agent with insulin secretagogue and insulin mimetic properties.

  19. Analysis of the Potential Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Moresco, Henrique Hunger; Imazu, Priscila; da Silva, Cíntia Delai; Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Mendes, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno; da Silveira Prudente, Arthur; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are very common in the population; however, the treatments currently available are not well tolerated and are often ineffective. Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) is an Asian tree that has been used in traditional folk medicine in the treatment of several skin disorders. The present study evaluates the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the crude ethanolic extract of A. carambola leaves, its hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions and two isolated flavonoids on skin inflammation. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a croton oil-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. Topically applied ethanolic extract reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 73 ± 3% and an ID50 value of 0.05 (range: 0.02–0.13) mg/ear. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was also inhibited by the extract, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 60 ± 6% (0.6 mg/ear). All of the fractions tested caused inhibition of edema formation and of MPO activity. Treatment with the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective, resulting in inhibition levels of 75 ± 5 and 54 ± 8% for edema formation and MPO activity, respectively. However, treatment of mice with isolated compounds [apigenin-6-C-β-l-fucopyranoside and apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside] did not yield successful results. Apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside caused only a mild reduction in edema formation (28 ± 11%). Taken together, these preliminary results support the popular use of A. carambola as an anti-inflammatory agent and open up new possibilities for its use in skin disorders. PMID:21785638

  20. Analysis of the Potential Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Moresco, Henrique Hunger; Imazu, Priscila; da Silva, Cíntia Delai; Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Mendes, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno; da Silveira Prudente, Arthur; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, are very common in the population; however, the treatments currently available are not well tolerated and are often ineffective. Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) is an Asian tree that has been used in traditional folk medicine in the treatment of several skin disorders. The present study evaluates the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the crude ethanolic extract of A. carambola leaves, its hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions and two isolated flavonoids on skin inflammation. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured using a croton oil-induced ear edema model of inflammation in mice. Topically applied ethanolic extract reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 73 ± 3% and an ID(50) value of 0.05 (range: 0.02-0.13) mg/ear. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was also inhibited by the extract, resulting in a maximum inhibition of 60 ± 6% (0.6 mg/ear). All of the fractions tested caused inhibition of edema formation and of MPO activity. Treatment with the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective, resulting in inhibition levels of 75 ± 5 and 54 ± 8% for edema formation and MPO activity, respectively. However, treatment of mice with isolated compounds [apigenin-6-C-β-l-fucopyranoside and apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside] did not yield successful results. Apigenin-6-C-(2″-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-l-fucopyranoside caused only a mild reduction in edema formation (28 ± 11%). Taken together, these preliminary results support the popular use of A. carambola as an anti-inflammatory agent and open up new possibilities for its use in skin disorders.

  1. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of a high-biomass tropical tree (Averrhoa carambola) and its potential for phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Lan, C Y; Ye, Z H; Baker, A J M; Shu, W S

    2010-01-01

    Averrhoa carambola is a high-biomass tropical tree that has been identified as a Cd accumulator. In the present study, field survey, pot, and hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of Cd tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of A. carambola as well as its potential for phytoextraction. In the field survey, it was found that concentrations of Cd in aerial tissues of A. carambola varied greatly among sites and cultivars. The Cd bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and Cd removals by the field-grown A. carambola differed significantly among sites but not among cultivars. Nonetheless, all four carambola cultivars investigated were able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in their shoots, which indicated that the 4-yr-old carambola stands could remove 0.3 to 51.8% of the total Cd content in the top 20-cm soil layer. When cultured in Cd-spiked soils, the carambola cultivar Hua-Di always showed higher Cd tolerance than the other cultivars; however, this tendency was not confirmed by hydroponic experiment. The Cd BCFs of cultivar Thailand grown in soils with 6 and 12 mg Cd kg(-1) were highest among cultivars, whereas this trend was reversed at 120 mg Cd kg(-1) treatment. Nevertheless, the pot- and hydroponics-grown carambola cultivars generally showed higher capacities to tolerate and accumulate Cd, compared with the control species. The present results indicate that a strong ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd seems to be a trait at the species level in A. carambola, although some degree of variances in both Cd tolerance and accumulation exists among cultivars.

  2. Process optimization for osmo-dehydrated carambola (Averrhoa carambola L) slices and its storage studies.

    PubMed

    Roopa, N; Chauhan, O P; Raju, P S; Das Gupta, D K; Singh, R K R; Bawa, A S

    2014-10-01

    An osmotic-dehydration process protocol for Carambola (Averrhoacarambola L.,), an exotic star shaped tropical fruit, was developed. The process was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) following Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The experimental variables selected for the optimization were soak solution concentration (°Brix), soaking temperature (°C) and soaking time (min) with 6 experiments at central point. The effect of process variables was studied on solid gain and water loss during osmotic dehydration process. The data obtained were analyzed employing multiple regression technique to generate suitable mathematical models. Quadratic models were found to fit well (R(2), 95.58 - 98.64 %) in describing the effect of variables on the responses studied. The optimized levels of the process variables were achieved at 70°Brix, 48 °C and 144 min for soak solution concentration, soaking temperature and soaking time, respectively. The predicted and experimental results at optimized levels of variables showed high correlation. The osmo-dehydrated product prepared at optimized conditions showed a shelf-life of 10, 8 and 6 months at 5 °C, ambient (30 ± 2 °C) and 37 °C, respectively.

  3. Antidotal activity of Averrhoa carambola (Star fruit) on fluoride induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Vasant, Rupal A; Narasimhacharya, A V R L

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of fluoride leads to several physiological disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Averrhoa carambola L. fruit (Star fruit) is a commonly consumed fruit in tropical countries and is an ingredient in folklore medicines. As the fruits have high polyphenolic and antioxidant contents, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of star fruit as a dietary supplement in attenuating the fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress in laboratory rats. A four-week exposure to fluoride caused sustained hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress and, when the diet was supplemented with star fruit powder, carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles were restored significantly. It is surmised that the antihyperglycemic, antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of star fruit in fluoride exposed rats could be due to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, ascorbic acid and fibers in the fruit, which are all well known regulators of carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. These findings suggest that star fruit can be used as a dietary supplement in fluoride endemic regions to contain fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress.

  4. Fatal outcome after ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) in uremic patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, J M; Hwang, S J; Kuo, H T; Tsai, J C; Guh, J Y; Chen, H C; Tsai, J H; Lai, Y H

    2000-02-01

    Clinical outcome of dialysis patients after eating star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) varies, but it may be fatal. In the past 10 years, 20 such patients were treated in our hospital when they developed clinical symptoms after eating the fruit or drinking star fruit juice. Their initial presentations included sudden-onset limb numbness, muscle weakness, intractable hiccups, consciousness disturbance of various degrees, and seizure. No other major events that might be responsible for these symptoms could be identified. Eight patients died, including one patient with a serum creatinine level of 6.4 mg/dL who had not yet begun dialysis. The clinical manifestations of the survivors were similar to those who died except for consciousness disturbance and seizure. Death occurred within 5 days despite emergent hemodialysis and intensive medical care. The survivors' symptoms usually became less severe after supportive treatment, and these patients subsequently recovered without obvious sequelae. The purpose of this article is to report that patients with renal failure who ingest star fruit may develop neurological symptoms and also run the risk for death in severe cases. Mortality may also occur in patients with chronic renal failure not yet undergoing dialysis.

  5. Phenolic and lignan glycosides from the butanol extract of Averrhoa carambola L. root.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qingwei; Lin, Xing; Liu, Yeqi; Xu, Xiaohui; Liang, Tao; Zheng, Ni; Kintoko; Huang, Renbin

    2012-10-19

    Fifteen compounds, which included six chiral lignans and nine phenolic glycosides, were separated from the butanol fraction of Averrhoa carambola L. root and identified. All of the compounds, namely 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, benzyl-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (+)-5'-methoxyisolariciresinol 3α-O-β-D-gluco-pyranoside, (+)-isolariciresinol 3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, koaburaside, (+)-lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (-)-lyoniresinol 3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (-)-5'-methoxyisolariciresinol 3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (-)-isolariciresinol 3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl 1-O-β-apiofuranosyl (1''→6')-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl 1-O-β-apiofuranosyl (1''→6')-β-gluco-pyranoside, methoxyhydroquinone-4-β-D-glucopyranoside, (2S)-2-O-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl-2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenol 1-O-β-D-apio-furanosyl-(1''→6')-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenol 1-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1''→6')-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  6. Antidotal activity of Averrhoa carambola (Star fruit) on fluoride induced toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vasant, Rupal A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of fluoride leads to several physiological disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Averrhoa carambola L. fruit (Star fruit) is a commonly consumed fruit in tropical countries and is an ingredient in folklore medicines. As the fruits have high polyphenolic and antioxidant contents, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of star fruit as a dietary supplement in attenuating the fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress in laboratory rats. A four-week exposure to fluoride caused sustained hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress and, when the diet was supplemented with star fruit powder, carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles were restored significantly. It is surmised that the antihyperglycemic, antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of star fruit in fluoride exposed rats could be due to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, ascorbic acid and fibers in the fruit, which are all well known regulators of carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. These findings suggest that star fruit can be used as a dietary supplement in fluoride endemic regions to contain fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress. PMID:26109886

  7. Intraspecific variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation of a high-biomass tropical tree Averrhoa carambola L.: implication for phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zi-yun; Shu, Wen-sheng; Liao, Bin; Wan, Cai-yun; Li, Jin-tian

    2011-06-01

    Averrhoa carambola L., a high-biomass tropical tree, has recently been shown to be a strong accumulator of cadmium (Cd) and has great potential for Cd phytoextraction. In the present study, field studies and a controlled-environment experiment were combined to establish the extent of variation in Cd tolerance and accumulation at the cultivar level using 14 to 19 cultivars of A. carambola. The results indicated that all cultivars tested could accumulate Cd at high but different levels, and that Cd tolerance also varied greatly between these cultivars. It is confirmed that the high Cd tolerance and accumulation capacity are species-level and constitutional traits in A. carambola. However, no correlation was detected between tolerance index and accumulation of Cd in different cultivars, suggesting that the two traits are independent in this woody Cd accumulator. More importantly, cultivar Wuchuan Sweet (WCT) was shown to have the highest Cd-extraction potential; it yielded a high shoot biomass of 30 t ha(-1) in 230 d, and extracted 330 g ha(-1) Cd in the aerial tissues grown in Cd-contaminated field soil, which accounted for 12.8% of the total soil Cd in the top 20 cm of the soil profile.

  8. Antihyperglycemic activities of leaves of three edible fruit plants (Averrhoa carambola, Ficus hispida and Syzygium samarangense) of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shahreen, Shejuty; Banik, Joyanta; Hafiz, Abdul; Rahman, Shahnaz; Zaman, Anahita Tanzia; Shoyeb, Md Abu; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae), and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) are three common plants in Bangladesh, the fruits of which are edible. The leaves and fruits of A. carambola and F. hispida are used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of diabetes, while the leaves of S. samarangense are used for treatment of cold, itches, and waist pain. Since scientific studies are absent on the antihyperglycemic effects of the leaves of the three plants, it was the objective of the present study to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of methanolic extract of leaves of the plants in oral glucose tolerance tests carried out with glucose-loaded mice. The extracts at different doses were administered one hour prior to glucose administration and blood glucose level was measured after two hours of glucose administration (p.o.) using glucose oxidase method. Significant oral hypoglycemic activity was found with the extracts of leaves of all three plants tested. The fall in serum glucose levels were dose-dependent for every individual plant, being highest at the highest dose tested of 400 mg extract per kg body weight. At this dose, the extracts of A. carambola, F. hispida, and S. samarangense caused, respectively, 34.1, 22.7, and 59.3% reductions in serum glucose levels when compared to control animals. The standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, caused a 57.3% reduction in serum glucose levels versus control. Among the three plants evaluated, the methanolic extract of leaves of S. samarangense proved to be the most potent in demonstrating antihyperglycemic effects. The result validates the folk medicinal uses of A. carambola and F. hispida in the treatment of diabetes, and indicates that the leaves of S. samarangense can also possibly be used for amelioration of diabetes-induced hyperglycemia.

  9. Negative inotropic and chronotropic effects on the guinea pig atrium of extracts obtained from Averrhoa carambola L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, C M L; Araújo, M S; Silva, B A; Conde-Garcia, E A

    2005-07-01

    It has been reported that star fruit can lead to a fatal outcome in uremic patients. The intoxication syndrome consists of hiccups, mental confusion, dizziness, and vomiting. On the other hand, folk medicine uses teas and infusions of carambola leaves to treat headache, vomiting, cough, insomnia, and diabetes. This motivated us to determine if Averrhoa carambola can act on the contractility and automaticity of the guinea pig heart. We measured the atrial isometric force in stimulated left atria and determined the chronotropic changes in spontaneously beating right atria. The carambola leaf extracts (1.5 mg/ml) abolished the contractile force in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the crude, methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous, and acetic extracts, the aqueous one was the most potent (EC50 = 520 +/- 94 microg/ml; flavonoids and tannins are the main constituents; Na+ and K+ contents in 1.0 mg/ml of aqueous extract were 0.12 +/- 0.016 and 1.19 +/- 0.15 mM, respectively). The aqueous extract abolished the positive Bowditch staircase phenomenon and reduced the inotropic response to CaCl2 (0.17-8.22 mM), events that are dependent on the cellular Ca2+ inward current. The adrenergic, muscarinic or opioid membrane receptors do not seem to participate in the mechanism of action of the cardioactive substance(s). In spontaneously beating atria, the aqueous extract promoted a negative chronotropic effect that was antagonized by 0.1 microM isoproterenol bitartrate. With this agonist, the EC50 of the aqueous extract increased from 133 +/- 58 to 650 +/- 100 microg/ml. These data regarding the effect of A. carambola on guinea pig atrial contractility and automaticity indicate an L-type Ca2+ channel blockade.

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control.

  11. Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit) Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ritu; Sharma, Jyoti; Goyal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak) on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA-) induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection) and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks) liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage). CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) along with an elevation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, P < 0.001, and catalase, P < 0.001), nonenzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, P < 0.001), and total proteins (P < 0.001) when compared to the carcinogen treated control. These results demonstrate that ACE prevents the DENA/CCl4 induced adverse physical and biochemical alterations during hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. This study suggests the prophylactic role of Averrhoa carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer.

  12. Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit) Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ritu; Sharma, Jyoti; Goyal, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak) on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA-) induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection) and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks) liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage). CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) along with an elevation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, P < 0.001, and catalase, P < 0.001), nonenzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, P < 0.001), and total proteins (P < 0.001) when compared to the carcinogen treated control. These results demonstrate that ACE prevents the DENA/CCl4 induced adverse physical and biochemical alterations during hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. This study suggests the prophylactic role of Averrhoa carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer. PMID:24696677

  13. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  14. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  15. Optimisation of phenolic extraction from Averrhoa carambola pomace by response surface methodology and its microencapsulation by spray and freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2015-03-15

    Optimised of the extraction of polyphenol from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) pomace using response surface methodology was carried out. Two variables viz. temperature (°C) and ethanol concentration (%) with 5 levels (-1.414, -1, 0, +1 and +1.414) were used to design the optimisation model using central composite rotatable design where, -1.414 and +1.414 refer to axial values, -1 and +1 mean factorial points and 0 refers to centre point of the design. The two variables, temperature of 40°C and ethanol concentration of 65% were the optimised conditions for the response variables of total phenolic content, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity. The reverse phase-high pressure liquid chromatography chromatogram of the polyphenol extract showed eight phenolic acids and ascorbic acid. The extract was then encapsulated with maltodextrin (⩽ DE 20) by spray and freeze drying methods at three different concentrations. Highest encapsulating efficiency was obtained in freeze dried encapsulates (78-97%). The obtained optimised model could be used for polyphenol extraction from star fruit pomace and microencapsulates can be incorporated in different food systems to enhance their antioxidant property.

  16. Structural characterization of a rhamnogalacturonan I-arabinan-type I arabinogalactan macromolecule from starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.).

    PubMed

    Leivas, Carolina Lopes; Iacomini, Marcello; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C

    2015-05-05

    A structural characterization of polysaccharides obtained from edible tropical fruit named starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) was carried out. After fractionation by freeze-thaw and Fehling precipitation, a pectic polysaccharide was obtained. It was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acid in the 5.0:72.5:12.1:10.4 molar ratios, respectively. A combination of monosaccharide, GPC, methylation and NMR analysis and enzymatic hydrolysis with endo-β-(1→4)-D-galactanase showed the presence of a rhamnogalacturonan I to which a branched arabinan and a type I arabinogalactan are attached. The arabinan moiety was formed by (1→5)-linked α-L-Araf units in the backbone, branched only at O-3 by (1→2)- and (1→3)-linked α-L-Araf units, while the type I arabinogalactan was formed by (1→4)- and (1→4,6)-linked β-D-Galp units in the backbone with (1→5)-, (1→3,5)- and (1→3)-linked α-L-Araf units as side chains.

  17. A comparison of the morphological and physiochemical characteristics of ten carambola cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) was grown on a Krome gravely loam soil (Loamy-skeletal, carbonic, hyperthermic Lithic Udorthents) in Miami, FL. Carambola morphological characteristics were determined by measuring fruit length, diameter and weight. Carambola physiochemical characteristics were det...

  18. Specialized optical fiber sensor for nondestructive intrinsic quality measurement of Averrhoa Carambola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an innovative and low-cost approach for nondestructive fruit quality analysis. The specialized optical fiber sensor developed and presented in this paper used a monochromatic wavelength, rather than a broad spectrum, to measure the intact carambola (star fruit) intrinsic quality, namely pH and firmness. The main objective of this research was to investigate the two optical fiber sensors used in this work, namely, the optical fiber red system (OF-RS) that operated with the peak sensitivity at 635 nm and the optical fiber near the infrared spectroscopy system (OF-NIRS) that operated with the peak sensitivity at 880 nm. Both systems showed good accuracy in the pH and firmness measurement of the intact carambola with the correlation coefficient R over 0.75, and the measurement results were comparable with those of the commercial spectrometer. The best measurement results were obtained using OF-RS (pH: R = 0.876; the root mean square error ( RMSE) = 0.211 pH; firmness: R = 0.872; RMSE = 0.909 kgf).

  19. Antioxidant activities of some local bangladeshi fruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Annona squamosa, Terminalia bellirica, Syzygium samarangense, Averrhoa carambola and Olea europa).

    PubMed

    Soubir, Titov

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, antioxidant activities of the fruits of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were investigated. For this, at first matured fruits of them were sliced into small pieces and dried in the sun and finally crushed in a grinder to make powder. Ethanolic extracts of fruit powder were prepared using 99.99% ethanol. The antioxidative activities of these extracts were determined according to their abilities of scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. It was demonstrated that all the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. caranbola and O. europa showed antioxidant activities. The IC50 of the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were 410, 250, 34, 200, 30 and 76 microg/mL, respectively. Among them, A. carambola showed the highest antioxidant activities followed by T. bellirica, O. europa, S. samarangense, A. squamosa and A. heterophyllus indicating that fruits of A. carambola, T. bellirica and O. europa are very beneficial to human health.

  20. Effects of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) juice mediated on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and its influence on regulatory protein expression in the injured kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hoa Thi Thai; Huang, Wansu; Han, Chuangye; Li, Juman; Xie, Qiuqiao; Wei, Jinbin; Xu, Xiaohui; Lai, Zefeng; Huang, Xiang; Huang, Renbin; Wen, Qingwei

    2017-01-01

    Recently, many reports have shown that Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) juice (EACJ) could reduce blood glucose in humans. However, its mechanisms have not been well explored; therefore, our study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of EACJ on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and renal injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Those mice were injected with STZ via the tail vein (120 mg/kg body weight) and were identified as diabetic mice when the level of blood glucose was ≥ 11.1 mmol/L. Those mice were intragastriced gavage with saline, EACJ (25, 50, 100 g/kg body weight/d) and metformin (320 mg/kg body weight/d) for 21 days. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), Scr (CREA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly decreased, while the sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), Cyclic Adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and insulin were elevated. Diabetes-dependent alterations in the kidney, such as glomerular hypertrophy, thicken and tubular basement membrane, were improved after 21 days of EACJ treatment. Hyperglycemia, renal formation and the expressions of related proteins such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) were markedly decreased by EACJ. These results indicate that EACJ treatment decrease hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and inhibit the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which may be linked to regulating several pharmacological targets for treating or preventing DN.

  1. Effects of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) juice mediated on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and its influence on regulatory protein expression in the injured kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hoa Thi Thai; Huang, Wansu; Han, Chuangye; Li, Juman; Xie, Qiuqiao; Wei, Jinbin; Xu, Xiaohui; Lai, Zefeng; Huang, Xiang; Huang, Renbin; Wen, Qingwei

    2017-01-01

    Recently, many reports have shown that Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) juice (EACJ) could reduce blood glucose in humans. However, its mechanisms have not been well explored; therefore, our study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of EACJ on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and renal injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Those mice were injected with STZ via the tail vein (120 mg/kg body weight) and were identified as diabetic mice when the level of blood glucose was ≥ 11.1 mmol/L. Those mice were intragastriced gavage with saline, EACJ (25, 50, 100 g/kg body weight/d) and metformin (320 mg/kg body weight/d) for 21 days. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), Scr (CREA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly decreased, while the sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), Cyclic Adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and insulin were elevated. Diabetes-dependent alterations in the kidney, such as glomerular hypertrophy, thicken and tubular basement membrane, were improved after 21 days of EACJ treatment. Hyperglycemia, renal formation and the expressions of related proteins such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) were markedly decreased by EACJ. These results indicate that EACJ treatment decrease hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and inhibit the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which may be linked to regulating several pharmacological targets for treating or preventing DN. PMID:28123632

  2. Effect of 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) roots, on advanced glycation end-product-mediated renal injury in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ni; Lin, Xing; Wen, Qingwei; Kintoko; Zhang, Shijun; Huang, Jianchun; Xu, Xiaohui; Huang, Renbin

    2013-05-10

    The roots of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) have a long history of medical use in traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. 2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) was isolated from the tuberous roots of A. carambola L. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of DMDD on the advanced glycation end-product-mediated renal injury in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice with regard to prove its efficacy by local traditional practitioners in the treatment of kidney frailties in diabetics. KKAy mice were orally administrated DMDD (12.5, 25, 50mg/kg body weight/d) or aminoguanidine (200mg/kg body weight/d) for 8 weeks. Hyperglycemia, renal AGE formation, and the expression of related proteins, such as the AGE receptor, nuclear factor-κB, transforming growth factor-β1, and N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, were markedly decreased by DMDD. Diabetes-dependent alterations in proteinuria, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and serum urea-N and glomerular mesangial matrix expansion were attenuated after treatment with DMDD for 8 weeks. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, which are reduced in the kidneys of KKAy mice, were enhanced by DMDD. These findings suggest that DMDD may inhibit the progression of diabetic nephropathy and may be a therapeutic agent for regulating several pharmacological targets to treat or prevent of diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  4. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Deus, E G; Godoy, W A C; Sousa, M S M; Lopes, G N; Jesus-Barros, C R; Silva, J G; Adaime, R

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement.

  5. A comparison of the morphological and physiochemical characteristics of 14 carambola cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A variety trial of 14 different carambola (Averrhoa carambola, L.) cultivars was conducted at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical Horticultural Research Station in Miami, FL. The study compared the morphological and physicochemical characteristics of 14 carambola varieties grown at the re...

  6. The antidiabetic compound 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, isolated from Averrhoa carambola L., demonstrates significant antitumor potential against human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Huang, Renbin; Gong, Yixuan; Park, Hyo Sim; Wen, Qingwei; Almosnid, Nadin Marwan; Chippada-Venkata, Uma D; Hosain, Najlaa Abdulrhman; Vick, Eric; Farone, Anthony; Altman, Elliot

    2015-09-15

    2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) is a cyclohexanedione found in the roots of Averrhoa carambola L., commonly known as starfruit. Researchers have shown that DMDD has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetes; however, the effects of DMDD on human cancers have never been reported. We investigated the cytotoxic effects of DMDD against human breast, lung and bone cancer cells in vitro and further examined the molecular mechanisms of DMDD-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. DMDD suppressed the growth of breast carcinoma cells, but not normal mammary epithelial cells, via induction of G1 phase cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and apoptosis. DMDD increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DMDD-induced ROS generation was found to be associated with the mitochondrial activity. The cytotoxicity that was induced by DMDD was attenuated by co-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). DMDD-induced cell apoptosis involved the activation of both the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and the extrinsic receptor pathway. In addition, DMDD inhibited the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway at all steps, including TNF-α production, phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκBα, as well as TNF-α activated NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation.Collectively, our studies indicate that DMDD has significant potential as a safe and efficient therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

  7. The antidiabetic compound 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, isolated from averrhoa carambola L., demonstrates significant antitumor potential against human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Huang, Renbin; Gong, Yixuan; Park, Hyo Sim; Wen, Qingwei; Almosnid, Nadin Marwan; Chippada-Venkata, Uma D.; Hosain, Najlaa Abdulrhman; Vick, Eric; Farone, Anthony; Altman, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) is a cyclohexanedione found in the roots of Averrhoa carambola L., commonly known as starfruit. Researchers have shown that DMDD has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetes; however, the effects of DMDD on human cancers have never been reported. We investigated the cytotoxic effects of DMDD against human breast, lung and bone cancer cells in vitro and further examined the molecular mechanisms of DMDD-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. DMDD suppressed the growth of breast carcinoma cells, but not normal mammary epithelial cells, via induction of G1 phase cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and apoptosis. DMDD increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DMDD-induced ROS generation was found to be associated with the mitochondrial activity. The cytotoxicity that was induced by DMDD was attenuated by co-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). DMDD-induced cell apoptosis involved the activation of both the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and the extrinsic receptor pathway. In addition, DMDD inhibited the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway at all steps, including TNF-α production, phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκBα, as well as TNF-α activated NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Collectively, our studies indicate that DMDD has significant potential as a safe and efficient therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26203774

  8. Protective Effects of 2-Dodecyl-6-Methoxycyclohexa-2,5 -Diene-1,4-Dione Isolated from Averrhoa Carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) Roots on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Juman; Wei, Xiaojie; Xie, Qiuqiao; Hoa Pham, Thi Thai; Wei, Jinbin; He, Ping; Jiao, Yang; Xu, Xiaohui; Giang Nguyen, Thi Huong; Wen, Qingwei; Huang, Renbin

    2016-01-01

    The roots of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) have long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diabetes and diabetes-related diseases. 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycycyclohexa-2,5-1,4-dione (DMDD) has been isolated from A. carambola L. roots, and this study was carried out to investigate the potential beneficial effects of DMDD on obesity and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered DMDD (12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg of body weight per day) and metformin (280 mg/kg of body weight per day) for the last 4 weeks. The body weights and adipose tissue weights as well as the serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly decreased by DMDD, and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor (Myd88) in the epididymal adipose tissue was downregulated by DMDD. In contrast, insulin sensitivity was enhanced. The results of the glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and insulin release tests indicated that there was a marked improvement in insulin secretion, and the areas under the curve corresponding to the three tests were also significantly decreased by DMDD. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were simultaneously enhanced, whereas the content of malondialdehyde was decreased by DMDD in the liver homogenates of the C57BL/6J mice. In addition, hepatic steatosis and adipocyte hypertrophy, as assessed by H&E staining of liver and adipose tissues, were significantly improved by DMDD. These data suggest that MDD has potential benefits for the treatment of HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance, and its effects may be associated with improvements in lipid metabolism and inhibition of the expression of TLR4 in adipose tissues. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Harvest maturity and post-processing dip to improve quality of fresh-cut carambola fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Arkin' carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit harvested at color break or full yellow stage were washed with or without an alkaline solution (pH 13.5), cut to 1 cm thick slices, dipped in calcium ascorbate (Ca ASA), ascorbic acid (ASA) or water, and packaged in perforated clamshells for up to 14 d...

  10. Harvest maturity, pre-cutting wash and post-processing dip to improve quality of fresh-cut carambola fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Arkin’ carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit harvested at color break or full yellow stage were washed with or without an alkaline solution (pH 12), cut to 10 mm slices, dipped in calcium ascorbate (Ca ASA), ascorbic acid (ASA) or water, and packaged in perforated clamshells for up to 14 days sto...

  11. Zinc, nickel and cadmium in carambolas marketed in Guangzhou and Hong Kong, China: implication for human health.

    PubMed

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Lan, C Y; Qiu, J W; Shu, W S

    2007-12-15

    Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a popular juicy fruit throughout the tropical and subtropical world. This study was designed to quantify the levels of zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) in carambolas marketed in southern China, and further to evaluate the potential health risk of human consumption of carambola. Zinc concentrations, ranging from 1.471 to 2.875 mg/kg (on fresh weight basis), were below the maximum permissible concentration for Zn in fruit of China (5 mg/kg). However, Ni concentrations (0.134-0.676 mg/kg) were considerably higher than the related recommendation values. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in 51% of the carambolas purchased from Guangzhou exceeded the maximum permissible concentration for Cd in fruit of China (0.03 mg/kg). Our results implicated that the consumption of 0.385 kg carambola contaminated by Cd per day would cause the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Cd by the consumer to be exceeded. In addition, the remarkably high Ni concentrations in carambolas should also be of concern. The status of heavy metal contamination of carambola products marketed in the other regions and their implications for human health should be identified urgently by in-depth studies.

  12. Multiplex PCR in Determination of Opiinae Parasitoids of Fruit Flies, Bactrocera sp., Infesting Star Fruit and Guava

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, S.; Ibrahim, N. J.; Md-Zain, B. M.; Idris, A. B.; Suhana, Y.; Roff, M. N.; Yaakop, S.

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. PMID

  13. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    PubMed

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. This is an

  14. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Unahawutti, Udorn; Intarakumheng, Rachada; Oonthonglang, Pitawat; Phankum, Salukjit; Follett, Peter A

    2014-08-01

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly) and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (carambola fruit fly). Ripe commercial quality fruit (1 wk after harvest) that were either undamaged or damaged by puncturing or peeling the pericarp were exposed to a high density of gravid flies in screen cages and then held for 10 d and dissected to inspect for immature life stages. Undamaged mangosteen fruit were not infested by B. dorsalis and B. carambolae. Partially damaged fruit with shallow punctures in the pericarp that did not extend to the aril also were not infested. Both fruit flies could infest damaged fruit if the pericarp damage allowed oviposition in the aril. Results suggest that natural infestation of mangosteen by B. dorsalis and B. carambolae can only occur if fruit exhibit physical cracks or mechanical injury. Resistance appears to be due to the pericarp hardness and thickness as well as latex secretion. Nonhost status could be used without additional quarantine measures to achieve quarantine security against B. dorsalis and B. carambolae in mangosteen exported from Thailand.

  15. Pectinesterase inhibitor from jelly-fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes reduces methanol content in carambola wine.

    PubMed

    Wu, James Swi-Bea; Wu, Ming-Chang; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hwang, Ya-Ping; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-11-30

    Crude pectinesterase (PE) inhibitor (PEI) extracted from jelly-fig achenes (JFA) (Ficus awakeosang Makino) was added to carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) puree to determine the change in methanol production during fermentation. Addition of pectin or microbial pectic enzyme to puree increased dose-dependently the methanol content in fermented products. Decreasing ratio (from 1:0 to 1:19, v:v) of pectic enzyme to diluted crude PEI solution in the puree-enzyme mixture decreased the PE activity remarkably. Except for transmittance (%T), addition of crude PEI to puree did not affect apparently the physical and chemical properties of wine; however, it reduced methanol content in the control from 256 to 58 ppm. The degree of esterification (DE) of pectin in starting puree was approximately 70%. It decreased to approximately 27% in the control group and reduced slightly to approximately 67% in fermented puree with crude PEI added after 14 days of fermentation. This reveals that crude PEI solution was potent in inhibiting intrinsic carambola PE activity and appeared to be a potential alternative for methanol reduction in wines.

  16. Quality attributes of starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) juice treated with ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Ameran, Suhaida Binti; Voon, Han Ching; Karim, A A; Tze, Liong Min

    2011-07-15

    Starfruit juice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV-C) light for 0, 30 and 60min at room temperature (25±1°C). On exposure, the titratable acidity significantly decreased, while the decrease in °Brix and pH were not significant. With regard to colorimetric parameters, L(∗) value increased significantly with a subsequent decrease in a(∗) and b(∗) values corresponding to UV treatment time. Except for the ascorbic acid, other antioxidants measured (% DPPH inhibition, total phenols, flavonols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) showed enhancement on expsoure to UV (significant at 60min). Microbial studies showed reduction in APC, yeasts and mould counts by 2-log cycle on UV treatments. These results supports the application of UV as a measure of non-thermal and physical food preservation technique for starfruit juice that can be explored commercially to benefit both the producers and consumers.

  17. Impact of micronized starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) fiber concentrate on lipid metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Elvira-Torales, Laura I; Rodriguez-Miranda, Jesús; Torruco-Uco, Juan G; Carmona-García, Roselis; Mendoza-García, Patricia G; García, Hugo S; Soto-Rodríguez, Ida; Sánchez-Valdivieso, Enrique; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia E

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronized insoluble fiber from starfruit bagasse as an ingredient of a functional food (FF) or as micronized insoluble fiber-rich fraction (IFRF) and its effects in vivo on lipids metabolism in a murine model. Experimental animals were divided in four isoproteic (15.8%) treatments differing on the fiber and cholesterol level used. The micronized IFRF particle size ranged from 37.5 to 149 μm. Treatments with added IFRF and those including the FF lowered serum triacylglycerols, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) concentrations (IFRF: 14.2, 25.4, 55.06, and 12.18%, respectively; FF: 30.18, 39.47, 35.11, and 43.18%, respectively). IFRF produced the overall highest serum hypolipidemic effect and prevented the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver. Both the IFRF and the FF exhibited hypolipidemic effects that suggest a potential role of starfruit insoluble fiber as a component of FFs aimed against cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) intoxication: an important cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Tung; Chen, Yung-Chang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2002-05-01

    Star fruit intoxication is a rare cause of consciousness disturbance in patients with renal failure. Most cases in the literature are uremic patients on maintenance dialysis. We present a patient with chronic renal failure, who was not on dialysis program yet, suffered from star fruit intoxication with presentation of consciousness disturbance and successfully managed by a session of hemodialysis.

  19. Host plants of Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tephritidae);and provisional list of suitable host plants of Carambola fruit fly,(Bactrocera(Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the carambola fruit fly, is native to Southeast Asia, but has extended its geographic range to several countries in South America. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B.carambolae in areas where it...

  20. Neurotoxicity following the Ingestion of Bilimbi Fruit (Averrhoa bilimbi) in an End-Stage Renal Disease Patient on Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Camille Pereira; de Sá, Cinara Barros; Faleiros, Bruno Antônio Paixão; Gomes, Marcelo Fonseca Coutinho Fernandes; Pereira, Edna Regina Silva

    2017-01-01

    The toxic effects of the ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) in chronic kidney disease patients are well described in the literature. Recently, the compound caramboxin has been isolated, explaining the mechanisms of its neurotoxicity. Bilimbi fruit belongs to the family Oxalidaceae, Averrhoa bilimbi species, and exhibits similar biochemical characteristics to star fruit. To report the case of a patient with chronic kidney disease who developed a seizure disorder after the ingestion of bilimbi fruit. A 69-year-old man with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis therapy had intractable hiccups, myoclonus, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures after the consumption of a moderate amount of bilimbi fruit. The electroencephalogram showed a pattern of seizure disorder despite the use of anticonvulsant drugs. Renal replacement therapy was maintained during the whole period and prescribed according to the patient's hemodynamic status. Despite showing clinical resolution of the seizure disorder, the patient died on the 27th day of hospitalization for infectious complications. The neurologic status without any other known cause and with clear temporal association with the ingestion of the fruit suggests the diagnosis of neurotoxicity. We propose the hypothesis that the bilimbi fruit has neurotoxic effects similar to those exhibited by the star fruit.

  1. Neurotoxicity following the Ingestion of Bilimbi Fruit (Averrhoa bilimbi) in an End-Stage Renal Disease Patient on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Camille Pereira; de Sá, Cinara Barros; Faleiros, Bruno Antônio Paixão; Gomes, Marcelo Fonseca Coutinho Fernandes; Pereira, Edna Regina Silva

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The toxic effects of the ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) in chronic kidney disease patients are well described in the literature. Recently, the compound caramboxin has been isolated, explaining the mechanisms of its neurotoxicity. Bilimbi fruit belongs to the family Oxalidaceae, Averrhoa bilimbi species, and exhibits similar biochemical characteristics to star fruit. Objective To report the case of a patient with chronic kidney disease who developed a seizure disorder after the ingestion of bilimbi fruit. Case Report A 69-year-old man with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis therapy had intractable hiccups, myoclonus, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures after the consumption of a moderate amount of bilimbi fruit. The electroencephalogram showed a pattern of seizure disorder despite the use of anticonvulsant drugs. Renal replacement therapy was maintained during the whole period and prescribed according to the patient's hemodynamic status. Despite showing clinical resolution of the seizure disorder, the patient died on the 27th day of hospitalization for infectious complications. Conclusions The neurologic status without any other known cause and with clear temporal association with the ingestion of the fruit suggests the diagnosis of neurotoxicity. We propose the hypothesis that the bilimbi fruit has neurotoxic effects similar to those exhibited by the star fruit. PMID:28203564

  2. Purification and properties of a beta-galactosidase from carambola fruit with significant activity towards cell wall polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Sumathi; Lee, Heng Chin; Lazan, Hamid; Othman, Roohaida; Ali, Zainon Mohd

    2005-01-01

    beta-Galactosidase (EC. 3.2.1.23) from ripe carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. cv. B10) fruit was fractionated through a combination of ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography into four isoforms, viz. beta-galactosidase I, II, III and IV. This beta-galactosidases had apparent native molecular masses of 84, 77, 58 and 130 kDa, respectively. beta-Galactosidase I, the predominant isoform, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity; analysis of the protein by SDS-PAGE revealed two subunits with molecular masses of 48 and 36 kDa. N-terminal amino acid sequence of the respective polypeptides shared high similarities albeit at different domains, with the deduced amino acid sequence of certain plant beta-galactosidases, thus, explaining the observed low similarity between the two subunits. beta-Galactosidase I was probably a heterodimer that have glycoprotein properties and a pI value of 7.2, with one of the potential glycosylation sites appeared to reside within the 48-kDa-polypeptide. The purified beta-galactosidase I was substantially active in hydrolyzing (1-->4)beta-linked spruce and a mixture of (1-->3)beta- and (1-->6)beta-linked gum arabic galactans. This isoform also had the capability to solubilize and depolymerize structurally intact pectins as well as to modify alkaline-soluble hemicelluloses, reflecting in part changes that occur during ripening.

  3. Multiple light recycling with the Carambola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ling; Leutz, Ralf; Ries, Harald

    2006-08-01

    The Carambola is an optical device designed to allow the deterministic and multiple recycling of light rays. The rays transit through the source a defined number of times before exiting in the same phase space as light directly emitted and not recycled. The brightness enhancement by light recycling (the optical light recycling factor) with the Carambola depends on the reflectivity of the reflecting walls of the Carambola, as well as on the size of the source and on the optical thickness of the source. The results of a ray-tracing simulation and an analytical model are promising an optical light recycling factor up to three for a Xenon high-pressure arc discharge lamp.

  4. Carambola optics for recycling of light.

    PubMed

    Leutz, Ralf; Fu, Ling; Ries, Harald

    2006-04-20

    Recycling of light allows the luminance (radiance) emitted by a light source to be increased at the cost of reducing the total luminous flux (radiant power). Recycling of light means returning part of the emitted light to the source, where part of it will escape absorption. An optical design that is suitable for multiple and controlled recycling is described. Carambola optics is named for its resemblance to star fruit. Several pairs of mirrors or prisms redirect light repeatedly onto the source, thus achieving multiple transits of the light through the source. This recycled light exits the carambola in the same phase space as light directly emitted and not recycled.

  5. Carambola optics for recycling of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutz, Ralf; Fu, Ling; Ries, Harald

    2006-04-01

    Recycling of light allows the luminance (radiance) emitted by a light source to be increased at the cost of reducing the total luminous flux (radiant power). Recycling of light means returning part of the emitted light to the source, where part of it will escape absorption. An optical design that is suitable for multiple and controlled recycling is described. Carambola optics is named for its resemblance to star fruit. Several pairs of mirrors or prisms redirect light repeatedly onto the source, thus achieving multiple transits of the light through the source. This recycled light exits the carambola in the same phase space as light directly emitted and not recycled.

  6. Carambola Cultivar, Fruit Ripeness, and Damage by Conspecific Larvae Influence the Host-Related Behaviors of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    López-Ley, Jorge Ulises; Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Gomez, Jaime; Santiesteban, Antonio; Rojas, Julio C

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of cultivar type, fruit ripeness, and damage by conspecific larvae on the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to and oviposition on carambola fruit (Averroha carambola L.). The attraction of both sexes of A. obliqua to fruit of different quality was evaluated through cage experiments in the field, and the oviposition preferences of mated females were examined in laboratory tests. Both sexes, mated or virgin, were more attracted to the "Maha" fruit than to the "Golden Star" fruit, and the females oviposited more frequently on the Maha cultivar than the Golden Star cultivar. Both sexes were more attracted to ripe and half-ripe Maha fruits than to mature green fruit, and although females did not show a preference for ovipositing on half-ripe or ripe fruits, they did not oviposit on mature green fruits. Males did not show a preference for the volatiles from uninfested, artificially damaged, or infested Maha fruits, but females were more attracted to uninfested fruits than to artificially damaged and infested Maha fruits. Furthermore, females preferred to oviposit on uninfested fruits compared with artificially damaged fruit, and they did not oviposit on infested fruits. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal.

    PubMed

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8.

  8. Non-convulsive status epilepticus and consciousness disturbance after star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) ingestion in a dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Hsin; Yeh, Jiann-Horng

    2004-12-01

    Star fruit ingestion may induce severe neurological complications in chronic renal failure patients. We present a case on maintenance dialysis therapy who developed a consciousness disturbance without convulsion after eating star fruit. The symptoms became aggravated after haemodialysis. The brain computed tomography scan showed no abnormal findings, but the electroencephalogram found active focal sharp waves in the left central regions and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging also showed hyperintense lesions in the left central regions that were compatible with non-convulsive status epilepticus. His condition improved dramatically after anticonvulsant therapy and regular haemodialysis. The patient was discharged 20 days later without neurological sequela.

  9. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sreeja; George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

    2014-01-01

    Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support.

  10. Acute Oxalate Nephropathy following Ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi Juice

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; Kumar, Sajeev; Gracious, Noble

    2014-01-01

    Plant toxins are known to cause acute kidney injury in tropical countries. We report two cases of acute kidney injury with tubular oxalate deposition following ingestion of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit juice. Both patients had complete renal recovery though one required dialytic support. PMID:24995136

  11. Distribution of Anastrepha spp. in carambola orchards: Evidence for migration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carambola orchards in Juana Diaz, Corozal, and Isabela, PR, were monitored for Anastrepha spp. fruit flies using Multi-lure traps baited with putrescine and ammonium acetate. The number of flies at various locations within the orchards were statistically compared with the expected distribution if fl...

  12. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Laupland, Kevin B.; Valiquette, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Although the practice of infectious diseases involves a broad range of surgical and medical disciplines, interactions with psychiatry are infrequent. Delusional infestation is a condition where an individual has a firmly fixed false belief that they have an infection. Delusional infestation challenges the infectious diseases specialist who must diligently rule out the presence of a true infection. However, perhaps, more importantly, we may need to initiate therapy with neuroleptic medications for which we may have little specific knowledge and experience. In this note we review the diagnosis and management of patients with delusional infestation. PMID:27366186

  13. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to 'Averrhoa bilimbi' fruit juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Bakul, G; Unni, V N; Seethaleksmy, N V; Mathew, A; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G; Rajesh, J; Jayaraj, P M; Kishore, D S; Jose, P P

    2013-07-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management.

  14. Bedbug infestation.

    PubMed

    Studdiford, James S; Conniff, Kathryn M; Trayes, Kathryn P; Tully, Amber S

    2012-10-01

    The significant resurgence of bedbugs in the past decade has been attributed to pesticide resistance, more frequent travel, lack of public awareness, and inadequate pest control programs. Bedbugs are obligate blood parasites (insect family Cimicidae). They can withstand a large range of temperatures but are attracted to warmth and carbon dioxide. They typically feed just before dawn. Cutaneous reactions to bedbug bites can include macules, papules, wheals, vesicles, bullae, and nodules. Bites may be confused with other skin conditions. Bedbug bite reactions are typically self-limited and resolve within one to two weeks without treatment. Bedbug infestation may cause significant psychological distress. The diagnosis of a bedbug infestation is based on history, appearance of bites, and inspection of sleeping quarters. Although there is no evidence that bedbugs transmit disease, systemic reactions may include asthma, angioedema, generalized urticaria, iron deficiency anemia, and, rarely, anaphylaxis. An integrated pest management strategy should be employed to eliminate infestation. Tactics include vacuuming, heat or cold treatment, trapping devices, and pesticides.

  15. Delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

    2009-10-01

    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol.

  16. Dermatologic infestations.

    PubMed

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Levitt, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    Head lice are transmitted by head to head contact. Optimal therapy includes malathion lotion 0.5% repeated in one week left on for 30 minutes to 8 hours. Spinosad topical suspension 0.9% repeated in one week left on for 10 minutes is another option. Scabies is transmitted mainly by direct contact but also via heavily infested fomites due to crusted scabies. Permethrin 5% cream to the body repeated in four days is often sufficient; however, scalp treatment with malathion lotion 0.5% is helpful in crusted scabies and in infested children. Oral ivermectin 200 mcg/kg is another option, repeated in four days. For scabies more than lice, fomites should be placed in a drier at 60 °C for 10 minutes to kill the arthropods. Treatment of close contacts in both cases will control outbreaks and repeated infestations. Both have been associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Bed bugs are a common cause for papular urticaria. Identification of the insect in the mattress or bedding confirms the diagnosis. Prevention involves encasing the mattress in a sealed plastic cover and extermination. Delusions of parasitosis is a diagnosis of exclusion that is best treated with an antipsychotic.

  17. Global Potential Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and the Risks for Fruit Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Cesar A

    2016-01-01

    The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is a tephritid native to Asia that has invaded South America through small-scale trade of fruits from Indonesia. The economic losses associated with biological invasions of other fruit flies around the world and the polyphagous behaviour of B. carambolae have prompted much concern among government agencies and farmers with the potential spread of this pest. Here, ecological niche models were employed to identify suitable environments available to B. carambolae in a global scale and assess the extent of the fruit acreage that may be at risk of attack in Brazil. Overall, 30 MaxEnt models built with different combinations of environmental predictors and settings were evaluated for predicting the potential distribution of the carambola fruit fly. The best model was selected based on threshold-independent and threshold-dependent metrics. Climatically suitable areas were identified in tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, west and east coast of India and northern Australia. The suitability map of B. carambola was intersected against maps of fruit acreage in Brazil. The acreage under potential risk of attack varied widely among fruit species, which is expected because the production areas are concentrated in different regions of the country. The production of cashew is the one that is at higher risk, with almost 90% of its acreage within the suitable range of B. carambolae, followed by papaya (78%), tangerine (51%), guava (38%), lemon (30%), orange (29%), mango (24%) and avocado (20%). This study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the ecology of B. carambolae, and the information generated here can be used by government agencies as a decision-making tool to prevent the carambola fruit fly spread across the world.

  18. Global Potential Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and the Risks for Fruit Production in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marchioro, Cesar A.

    2016-01-01

    The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is a tephritid native to Asia that has invaded South America through small-scale trade of fruits from Indonesia. The economic losses associated with biological invasions of other fruit flies around the world and the polyphagous behaviour of B. carambolae have prompted much concern among government agencies and farmers with the potential spread of this pest. Here, ecological niche models were employed to identify suitable environments available to B. carambolae in a global scale and assess the extent of the fruit acreage that may be at risk of attack in Brazil. Overall, 30 MaxEnt models built with different combinations of environmental predictors and settings were evaluated for predicting the potential distribution of the carambola fruit fly. The best model was selected based on threshold-independent and threshold-dependent metrics. Climatically suitable areas were identified in tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, west and east coast of India and northern Australia. The suitability map of B. carambola was intersected against maps of fruit acreage in Brazil. The acreage under potential risk of attack varied widely among fruit species, which is expected because the production areas are concentrated in different regions of the country. The production of cashew is the one that is at higher risk, with almost 90% of its acreage within the suitable range of B. carambolae, followed by papaya (78%), tangerine (51%), guava (38%), lemon (30%), orange (29%), mango (24%) and avocado (20%). This study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the ecology of B. carambolae, and the information generated here can be used by government agencies as a decision-making tool to prevent the carambola fruit fly spread across the world. PMID:27832144

  19. Delusional Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Freudenmann, Roland W.; Lepping, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Summary: This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme “infestation” is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed “Morgellons disease” can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895

  20. Iron removal on feldspar by using Averrhoa bilimbii as bioleaching agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Muhammad; Aji, Bramantyo B.; Supriyatna, Yayat Iman; Bahfie, Fathan

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of Averrhoa bilimbii as bioleaching agent was carried out. Parameters of leaching duration, acid concentration, and temperature were performed in iron removal process. Feldspar with sized 149 µm was diluted in 30 ml acid solution in order to reduce its iron content. The experimental results showed a good technical feasibility of the process which iron oxide content of feldspar was decreased from 2.24% to 0.29%. The lowest iron concentration remained was obtained after 5 hours of leaching treatment at 60 °C, and concentrated (100 vol%) Averrhoa bilimbii extract as bioleaching agent. SEM characterizations were carried out on the feldspar before and after the leaching treatment. The result shows that there were no significant effect of leaching process on the ore morphology.

  1. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using carambola fruit extract and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane Gavade, S. J.; Nikam, G. H.; Dhabbe, R. S.; Sabale, S. R.; Tamhankar, B. V.; Mulik, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    In this study well defined silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using carambola fruit extract. After exposing the silver ions to the fruit extract, the rapid reduction of silver ions led to the formation of stable AgNPs in solution due to the reducing and stabilizing properties of carambola fruit juice. The synthesized NPs were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction pattern. The as-synthesized AgNPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs were characterized by TEM to determine their size and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by agar well diffusion method. This newly developed method is eco-friendly and could prove a better substitute for the current physical and chemical methods for the synthesis of AgNPs.

  2. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

  3. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Unusual botfly skin infestation.

    PubMed

    Ono, Jill C; Navin, James J; Glamb, Roman W; Hardman, John M

    2004-03-01

    Myiasis, the infestation of humans and animals with fly larvae, is observed in tropical, lowland areas. Dermatobia hominis is a common cause of cutaneous human infestation in these areas. Patients often present with a furuncular lesion on the extremities, back, or scalp. We report a case of furuncular myiasis in a patient returning from a trip to South America. We will discuss the life-cycle of D. hominis and the clinical findings important in the diagnosis of myiasis.

  5. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. ©2014 The Authors Journal compliation © Insititute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science.

  6. Effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaf extract on blood glucose and lipids in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, P; Tan, C H; Tan, B K

    2000-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. leaves (Oxalidaceae, Common name: Bilimbi) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The optimal hypoglycemic dose (125 mg kg(-1)) was determined by performing the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both normal and STZ-diabetic rats. To investigate the effect of repeated administration of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi (ABe) leaves, diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (distilled water), ABe (125 mg kg(-1)) or metformin (500 mg kg(-1)) twice a day for 2 weeks. Like metformin, ABe significantly lowered blood glucose by 50% and blood triglyceride by 130% when compared with the vehicle. ABe also significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 60% compared with the vehicle. ABe thus significantly increased the anti-atherogenic index and HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio. However, like metformin, ABe did not affect total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but significantly reduced the kidney lipid peroxidation level. These data show that ABe has hypoglycemic, hypotriglyceridemic, anti-lipid peroxidative and anti-atherogenic properties in STZ-diabetic rats.

  7. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has improved the fruit fly control. However, matings between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. carambolae are incompatible, which hinder the application of the Salaya1 strain to control the carambola fruit fly. To solve this problem, we introduced genetic sexing components from the Salaya1 strain into the B. carambolae genome by interspecific hybridization. Results Morphological characteristics, mating competitiveness, male pheromone profiles, and genetic relationships revealed consistencies that helped to distinguish Salaya1 and B. carambolae strains. A Y-autosome translocation linking the dominant wild-type allele of white pupae gene and a free autosome carrying a recessive white pupae homologue from the Salaya1 strain were introgressed into the gene pool of B. carambolae. A panel of Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite loci of the Salaya1 strain served as markers for the introgression experiments. This resulted in a newly derived genetic sexing strain called Salaya5, with morphological characteristics corresponding to B. carambolae. The rectal gland pheromone profile of Salaya5 males also contained a distinctive component of B. carambolae. Microsatellite DNA analyses confirmed the close genetic relationships between the Salaya5 strain and wild B. carambolae populations. Further experiments showed that the sterile males of Salaya5 can compete with wild males for mating with wild females in field cage conditions. Conclusions Introgression of sex sorting components from the Salaya1 strain to a

  8. Isolation, identification and field tests of the sex pheromone of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes.

    PubMed

    Hung, C C; Hwang, J S; Hung, M D; Yen, Y P; Hou, R F

    2001-09-01

    Two components, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate (Z8-12:Ac) and (Z)-8-dodecenol (Z8-12:OH), were isolated from sex pheromone glands of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes, and were identified by GC, and GC-MS, chemical derivatization, and comparison of retention times. The ratio of the alcohol to acetate in the sex pheromone extracts was 2.7. However, synthetic mixtures (1 mg) in ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 were more effective than other blends in trapping male moths in field tests.

  9. Near infrared spectral linearisation in quantifying soluble solids content of intact carambola.

    PubMed

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2013-04-12

    This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR) spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC) of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP) = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques.

  10. Near Infrared Spectral Linearisation in Quantifying Soluble Solids Content of Intact Carambola

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel application of near infrared (NIR) spectral linearisation for measuring the soluble solids content (SSC) of carambola fruits. NIR spectra were measured using reflectance and interactance methods. In this study, only the interactance measurement technique successfully generated a reliable measurement result with a coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.724 and a root mean square error of prediction for (RMSEP) = 0.461° Brix. The results from this technique produced a highly accurate and stable prediction model compared with multiple linear regression techniques. PMID:23584118

  11. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet

    PubMed Central

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

  12. Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.

    PubMed

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world.

  13. Phytochemical profile and free radical nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Suluvoy, Jagadish Kumar; Berlin Grace, V M

    2017-05-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi L. belongs to family Oxalidaceae. Traditionally, people use this plant (root, bark, leaves and fruits) for treating several illnesses include itches, boils, syphilis, whooping cough, hypertension, fever and inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity and GC-MS analysis of A. bilimbi L. fruit extract. Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruits were collected for the preliminary phytochemical analysis, antioxidant scavenging activity and biologically important compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. The preliminary phytochemicals, GC-MS, total phenolic content and NO scavenging activity of the plant were analysed. In the present investigation, the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract has major phytochemicals. Among the 151 compounds identified in GC-MS, 15 compounds are found to have diverse biological activity. We also observed that the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract has high level of total phenolic compounds at a concentration of 209.25 GAE mg/g. Presence of phenolic compound apparently explains the antioxidant activity of the plant. Antioxidant activity of A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is proven from its high level of NO scavenging activity of potent IC50 value of 108.10. From the above study, it is apparent that the A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is a rich source of phytochemicals (natural products) with biological activity. The GC-MS report on this fruit proves that natural products have pharmacologically and biologically active compounds. A high phenolic content is observed in our study. A. bilimbi L. fruit extract is also found to have NO scavenging activity in our study.

  14. Gastrointestinal parasite infestation.

    PubMed

    Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E; Sammak, Bassam M; Mohamed, Abdulrahman E; Al Karawi, Mohamed A; Al Shahed, Mona; Al Thagafi, Mohamed A

    2004-03-01

    Twenty-five percent of the world's population could be suffering parasitic infestation. Highest prevalence is in underdeveloped agricultural and rural areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. In some areas incidence may reach 90% of the population. In contrast, some major economic projects intended to promote local development have, paradoxically, caused parasitic proliferation, e.g. bilharziasis in Egypt and Sudan and Chagas disease in Brazil. The commonest cosmopolitan gastrointestinal parasite is Entamoeba histolytica. Some intestinal parasite are endemic in temperate climates, e.g. Entrobius vermicularis. The AIDS epidemic has increased the prevalence and severity of parasitic disease, particularly Strongyloides stercolaris. Tropical parasites are seen in Western people who travel to tropical countries. Radiology has acquired a major role in diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal parasite infestations and their complications.

  15. Protective effect of Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit extract on ulcerative colitis in wistar rats via regulation of inflammatory mediators and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Suluvoy, Jagadish Kumar; Sakthivel, K M; Guruvayoorappan, C; Berlin Grace, V M

    2017-07-01

    Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is a lingering type of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) which affects the colon mucosa. Ulcerative colitis is majorly associated with oxidative stress and inflammation in colon tissue leading to damage. Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit is rich in antioxidant phytochemicals including Vitamin C. In the current research, we have evaluated the defence mechanism of Averrhoa bilimbi L. on Ulcerative Colitis (UC). Male wistar rats were treated with Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit extract (50mg/kg/bwt and 100mg/kg/bwt) and a standard drug Sulfasalazine (100mg/kg/bwt) for 6 consecutive days via intra peritoneally. After one day fasting, rats were given single dose of 3% 2ml of acetic acid through anal (intra-anal) region to induce Ulcerative Colitis. The protective and therapeutic effect of fruit extract on UC was assessed by comparing the relevant changes observed in the normal and treated group. In treated group the level of mucosal injury was decreased (ulcer score - 2) when compared to the control group (ulcer score - 9). The abnormal increase observed in the inflammation mediator cytokines in control rats, i.e IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α levels were decreased significantly (**p<0.01) in the Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit extract treated groups. The increase in weights of the colon tissue and spleen of the control rats were found to be reduced in treated groups. The levels of inflammatory markers iNOS and COX-2 were also decreased in treated group significantly (**p<0.01) when compared with the control. Furthermore, the treatment with Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit extract has shown a significant antioxidant activity in the UC condition by reducing the levels of NO and enhancing the levels of SOD and GSH in the colon tissue. These results demonstrate the effective anti-ulcerative colitis activity of the Averrhoa bilimbi L. fruit extract in experimental wistar rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries

  17. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries may not

  18. [Pinworm infestation of the appendix].

    PubMed

    Di Marco, L; Berghenti, M; Cocuzza, C; Manfredini, A; Sciascia, V; Salmi, R

    2006-01-01

    The Authors present 2 cases of enterobiasis of appendix observed on a total of 186 appendicectomies. Enterobius infestation is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible without clinical suspect. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis but parasitic infection rarely causes it. It is also important considered in the differential diagnosis cases that mimic Crohn's disease.

  19. Studies on the antihyperlipidemic properties of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit in rats.

    PubMed

    Ambili, Savithri; Subramoniam, Appian; Nagarajan, Natesan Shanmugam

    2009-01-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. fruit and its extracts were screened for antihypercholesterolemic activity using Triton-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats as a model. The fruit and its water extract, but not alcohol and hexane extracts, showed remarkable antihypercholesterolemic activity. An active fraction, which showed activity at a low dose of 0.8 mg/kg, was purified from the water extract. An active component was isolated from the active fraction, which showed optimum activity at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg. The efficacy of the fruit was tested in chronic high-fat diet fed hyperlipidemic rats. The fruit (125 mg/kg) as well as its water extract (50 mg/kg) were found to be effective in lowering lipids in the high-fat diet fed rats. The fruit was subjected to preliminary general toxicity evaluation in mice. Oral administration of the fruit homogenate daily for 15 days did not result in any toxic symptoms up to a dose of 1 g/kg studied. Thus, this fruit can be used as a dietary ingredient to prevent as well as treat hyperlipidemia.

  20. Ocular leech infestation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yueh-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. PMID:25784786

  1. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn.: A review of its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Alhassan Muhammad; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. is principally cultivated for medicinal purposes in many tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Literature survey about this plant shows that A. bilimbi is mainly used as a folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and as an antimicrobial agent. The prime objective of this review is to accumulate and organize literature based on traditional claims and correlate those with current findings on the use of A. bilimbi in the management of different ailments. Through interpreting already published scientific manuscripts (1995 through 2015) retrieved from the different scientific search engines, namely Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Science Direct databases, published articles and reports covering traditional and scientific literature related to A. bilimbi's potential role against various ailments have been thoroughly evaluated, interpreted, and discussed. Several pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to act as antidiabetic, antihypertensive, thrombolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic agent. A. bilimbi holds great value in the complementary and alternative medicine as evidenced by the substantial amount of research on it. Therefore, we aimed to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of A. bilimbi that covers its traditional and folk medicine uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Hence, this paper presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the ethnomedicinal uses, different chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi. So far, the biologically active agents have not been isolated from this plant and this can be a good scientific study for the future antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial implications. Hence, this review targets at emphasizing the diverse traditional claims and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi with respect to carrying out more scientific studies to isolate active principles

  2. Averrhoa bilimbi fruits attenuate hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Surya B; Mini, S

    2017-04-01

    Hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. (Oxalidaceae) is a medicinal plant with fruits reported to possess antidiabetic activity. This study evaluated the beneficial effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of A. bilimbi fruit (ABAEE) on the antioxidant/oxidant status in diabetes mellitus. Diabetic rats were treated orally with the ethyl acetate fraction of A. bilimbi fruits at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight for 60 days. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, hepatic toxicity markers, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation products, and liver histopathology were assayed checked after 60 days of extract treatment. Diabetic rats administered ABAEE showed a significant decline in serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and also significantly increases the level of plasma insulin, as well as a notable attenuation in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, conjugated dienes, and hydroperoxides. ABAEE also modulated hepatic antioxidant potential by significantly increasing the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and reducing glutathione content. The results associated with ABAEE were more significant than those observed following treatment with the standard drug metformin. Histopathological observations showed that ABAEE effectively rescued hepatocytes from oxidative damage without affecting cellular function and structural integrity. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of ABAEE indicated the presence of phenolic compound, quercetin, indicating that the antidiabetic effect of the extract might be related to quercetin. These results demonstrated the potential beneficial effect of ABAEE on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn.: A review of its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Alhassan Muhammad; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. is principally cultivated for medicinal purposes in many tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Literature survey about this plant shows that A. bilimbi is mainly used as a folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and as an antimicrobial agent. The prime objective of this review is to accumulate and organize literature based on traditional claims and correlate those with current findings on the use of A. bilimbi in the management of different ailments. Through interpreting already published scientific manuscripts (1995 through 2015) retrieved from the different scientific search engines, namely Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Science Direct databases, published articles and reports covering traditional and scientific literature related to A. bilimbi's potential role against various ailments have been thoroughly evaluated, interpreted, and discussed. Several pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to act as antidiabetic, antihypertensive, thrombolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic agent. A. bilimbi holds great value in the complementary and alternative medicine as evidenced by the substantial amount of research on it. Therefore, we aimed to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of A. bilimbi that covers its traditional and folk medicine uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Hence, this paper presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the ethnomedicinal uses, different chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi. So far, the biologically active agents have not been isolated from this plant and this can be a good scientific study for the future antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial implications. Hence, this review targets at emphasizing the diverse traditional claims and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi with respect to carrying out more scientific studies to isolate active principles

  4. Tungiasis infestation in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mazigo, Humphrey D; Behamana, Emmanuel; Zinga, Maria; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2010-03-29

    Tungiasis is caused by the jigger flea Tunga penetrans. We describe a case of severe infestation from Kigoma region, Western Tanzania. A 19-year-old male with epilepsy and mental disability presented with ulcerated and inflamed toes. Clinical examination revealed the presence of approximately 810 embedded jigger fleas on the feet, and another 60 lesions on the hands. The patient presented with fissures on the feet, hands and soles. He had difficulty walking and erythematous, oedematous, ulcerated and inflamed skin around the feet. Living conditions were precarious. The patient was assisted to extract the embedded fleas and his feet were washed with disinfectants. Oral antibiotics were given. The case shows that the disease may reach high parasite loads in Tanzanian individuals, with consequently severe pathology. There have been single reports of returning tourists from Tanzania with tungiasis, but the epidemiological situation and the geographic occurrence of the disease in this country are not known. Systematic studies are needed to increase knowledge on the epidemiological situation of tungasis in Tanzania and to identify endemic areas.

  5. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

    2014-09-01

    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

  6. Cockroach infestation on seagoing ships.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver

    2008-01-01

    Cockroaches are detected ashore worldwide. At present, little is known about cockroach infestation on ships. The authors' objective in this study was to assess the current prevalence of cockroach infestation on seagoing vessels. In August 2005, port officials investigated cockroach infestation on 59 ships in Hamburg's port via standardized procedures (ie, illuminating hiding places and using pyrethrum spray). About 3 minutes after illumination or chemical provocation, the inspectors counted the number of insects escaping from their hiding places. The examination revealed cockroach presence in the galley or mess room of 6 ships (10.2%). These ships were bigger than 10,000 gross register tons (GRT) and older than 7 years. Inspectors detected the cockroach species Blattella germanica on 5 ships and Blatta orientalis on 1 ship. The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places.

  7. Human scrotal myiasis: botfly infestation.

    PubMed

    Massey, Robert L; Rodriguez, Gabriel

    2002-10-01

    Cutaneous infestation of the scrotum with botfly larva from the order Dioptera, family Cuterebridae, species Dermatobia hominis is extremely rare. The first reported case of scrotal myiasis in the United States of America is described here. There is increased potential for human infestation with botfly larva (Dermatobia hominis), due to a more affluent and mobile population traveling to tropical areas for exotic vacations where the botfly is endemic. Urology nurses in a clinical setting should be aware of patients with unusual clinical presentations involving the genitourinary system.

  8. Protective potential of Averrhoa bilimbi fruits in ameliorating the hepatic key enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Surya B; S, Mini

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a mutifactorial disease which leads to several complications. Currently available drug regimens for management of diabetes have certain drawbacks. Need for safer and effective medicines from natural sources having potent antidiabetic activity. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. (Oxalidaceae) is a medicinal plant and is reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. To investigate the antidiabetic potential of Averrhoa bilimbi fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg body weight). The diabetic rats were treated orally with ethyl acetate fraction of A. bilimbi fruits (ABE) (25mg/kg body weight) and metformin (100mg/kg body weight) by intragastric intubation for 60days. After 60days, the rats were sacrificed; blood, liver and pancreas were collected. Several indices such as blood glucose, plasma insulin, toxicity markers and the activities of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes were assayed. The phytochemicals present in the ABE was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. ABE significantly (p<0.05) reduced the level of blood glucose and hepatic toxicity markers and increased plasma insulin in diabetic rats. ABE modulated the activities of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, significantly increased the activities of hexokinase (59%) and pyruvate kinase (68%) and reduced the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (32%) and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (20%). The histological studies of the pancreas also supported our findings. The results were compared with metformin, a standard oral hypoglycemic drug. GC-MS analysis of ABE revealed the presence of 11 chemical constituents in the extract. ABE exerts its antidiabetic effect by promoting glucose metabolism via glycolysis and inhibiting hepatic endogenous glucose production via gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Reseeding tarweed-infested ranges.

    Treesearch

    E.W. Stevenson

    1950-01-01

    Cluster tarweed(Madia glomerata) infests many livestock ranges in eastern Oregon, using soil moisture and nutrients that should be producing plants more valuable as forage and more effective in stabilizing watersheds. No completely satisfactory method of eliminating this obnoxious plant and replacing it, with forage has yet been found. Recent...

  10. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Conclusions: Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs. PMID:23826461

  11. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Male, 62. Bipolar disorder. Bordeline personality disorder. - Bed bug infestation. Psychiatry. Unusual clinical course. In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. We present a case, based on a coroner's investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs.

  12. Delusional Infestation and Chronic Pruritus: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kimsey, Lynn S

    2016-03-01

    The literature on chronic pruritus, paresthesia and delusional infestation indicates that a wide variety of conditions ranging from AIDS to vitamin deficiencies may cause these symptoms. In many, or perhaps most of these cases, activation of itch pathways seems to be the underlying cause of the skin sensations and perhaps even the visual hallucinations characteristic of delusional infestation. The principle difference between diagnoses of chronic pruritus and delusional infestation appears to lie in the patient's interpretation of the cause of the symptoms, rather than underlying physiological differences. Delusional infestation, paresthesia and chronic pruritus must be considered symptoms of underlying conditions.

  13. Increasing bedbug, Cimex lectularius, infestations in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    El-Azazy, Osama M E; Al-Behbehani, Bahja; Abdou, Nadra-Elwgoud M I

    2013-08-01

    Bedbug, Cimex lectularius, human infestations were reported in the State of Kuwait in the last 2 years. Eleven separate infestations from different localities were received at the Veterinary Laboratories indicating that bedbug is widespread in the State of Kuwait. There was circumstantial evidence to suggest the transfer of bugs with recent immigrants or used furniture. The spread of infestation can be attributed to the increase in migrant labor and their mobility inside the country. The increase in reported cases appears also consistent with a worldwide increase in bedbug infestations.

  14. Tick infestation of the eyelid.

    PubMed

    Samaha, A; Green, W R; Traboulsi, E I; Ma'luf, R

    1998-02-01

    To report the rare occurrence of tick infestation of the eyelid margin. A 58-year-old woman was initially examined with a small yellow lesion of the left upper eyelid margin that appeared after she felt a sting near her eye. Close examination disclosed an insect body attached to the eyelid margin. En bloc excision of the insect with part of the eyelid was performed. Gross examination of the specimen identified the organism as the nymph stage of a bloated tick of the genus Hyalomma but of an uncertain species. Ticks (Hyalomma) can become embedded in the meibomian gland orifice and manifest as a mass at the eyelid margin.

  15. Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mominur; Habib, Md Razibul; Hasan, Md Anayet; Al Amin, Mohammad; Saha, Ayan; Mannan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ± 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 ± 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment.

  16. Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mominur; Habib, Md. Razibul; Hasan, Md. Anayet; Al Amin, Mohammad; Saha, Ayan; Mannan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ± 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 ± 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Conclusion: Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment. PMID:24497740

  17. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. PMID:26362991

  18. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae.

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-02-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  19. High Diversity of Bacterial Communities in Developmental Stages of Bactrocera carambolae (Insecta: Tephritidae) Revealed by Illumina MiSeq Sequencing of 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Chua, Kah-Ooi; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2017-09-01

    Bactrocera carambolae is a highly polyphagous fruit pest of agricultural importance. This study reports the bacterial communities associated with the developmental stages of B. carambolae. The microbiota of the developmental stages were investigated by targeted 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region) sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq. At 97% similarity, there were 19 bacterial phyla and unassigned bacteria, comprising 39 classes, 86 orders, 159 families and 311 genera. The bacterial composition varied among the specimens of developmental stage and across developmental stages as well as exuviae. Four phyla of bacteria (with relative abundance of ≥1% in at least one specimen)-Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria-were recovered from the larva, pupa, adult stages and exuviae. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in all the developmental stages as well as the exuviae. Enterobacteriaceae (Proteobacteria) was the predominant family in the adult flies while the family [Weeksellaceae] (Bacteroidetes) was predominant in the larval and pupal stages. Among the genera occurring in more than one developmental stage of B. carambolae, Erwinia was more abundant in the larval stage, Halomonas more abundant in adult female, Stenotrophomonas more abundant in adult male, and Chryseobacterium more abundant in the larval and pupal stages. The results indicate transmission of bacteria OTUs from immatures to the newly emerged adults, and from exuviae to the environment.

  20. Bed Bug Infestations in an Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Tomislav J.; De Jong, Iain J.; Kabasele, Karl J.; Gogosis, Evie

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, bed bugs have been considered uncommon in the industrialized world. This study determined the extent of reemerging bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto, Canada. Toronto Public Health documented complaints of bed bug infestations from 46 locations in 2003, most commonly apartments (63%), shelters (15%), and rooming houses (11%). Pest control operators in Toronto (N = 34) reported treating bed bug infestations at 847 locations in 2003, most commonly single-family dwellings (70%), apartments (18%), and shelters (8%). Bed bug infestations were reported at 20 (31%) of 65 homeless shelters. At 1 affected shelter, 4% of residents reported having bed bug bites. Bed bug infestations can have an adverse effect on health and quality of life in the general population, particularly among homeless persons living in shelters. PMID:15829190

  1. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  2. Negative Feedbacks on Bark Beetle Outbreaks: Widespread and Severe Spruce Beetle Infestation Restricts Subsequent Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Sarah J.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  3. Controlling zebra mussel infestations at hydroelectric plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. ); Claudi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.

  4. Distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria in infested seeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...

  5. Bedbugs: Helping your patient through an infestation.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Omer; Syed, Usama Mohammad; Tomecki, Kenneth J

    2017-03-01

    Bedbugs--hematophagous parasitic arthropods of the genus Cimex--have been unwelcome bedfellows for humans for thousands of years. With increases in population density, ease of travel, and insecticide resistance, bedbugs have reemerged. As a result, physicians are often at the forefront in the diagnosis and treatment of bedbug infestation. This review summarizes the biology and epidemiology of bedbugs and provides details on the diagnosis and treatment of bedbug infestation.

  6. Tick Infestation of Eyelid: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Aslıhan; Gök, Mustafa; İşcanlı, Murat Doğan

    2016-01-01

    Tick infestation of the eyelid is a rare but serious condition that can lead to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. In this report, we describe two cases who presented with tick infestation of the eyelid. Neither patient developed systemic disease or adverse sequelae after tick extraction. Complete mechanical removal of ticks located on the eyelid with blunt forceps is a safe and effective treatment method. PMID:28058170

  7. The mechanism of hypoglycemic action of the semi-purified fractions of Averrhoa bilimbi in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pushparaj, P N; Tan, B K; Tan, C H

    2001-12-21

    In the present study, we have examined the possible mechanism of the hypoglycemic action of the semi-purified fractions of an ethanolic extract of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn (Oxalidaceae) leaves (ABe) in streptozotocin-diabetic male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The ABe was partitioned with water and butanol to yield a butanol-soluble fraction (BuF) and a water-soluble fraction (AF). The AF was further partitioned with ethyl acetate and hexane to obtain ethyl acetate (EF) and hexane (HF) soluble fractions. The hypoglycemic property of each fraction was assessed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at a dose of 125-mg/kg-body weight in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats (STZ 60 mg/kg i.p.). Fractions AF, BuF and the reference drug metformin (500 mg/kg body weight), produced significant blood glucose-lowering effect in the diabetic rats when compared to the vehicle (distilled water). In the long-term study, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated orally by gavage with vehicle, AF (125 mg/kg body weight), BuF (125 mg/kg body weight), and metformin (500 mg/kg body weight) respectively twice a day for 14 days. On day 7 and day 14, AF and BuF, like the reference drug, metformin, lowered the fasting blood glucose concentration significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with the vehicle. The serum insulin level was significantly increased in the AF-treated rats only on day 14 when compared to that in the vehicle-treated rats on day zero (P < 0.05). The serum insulin level in BuF-treated rats was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) on both day 7 and day 14 compared to that on day zero. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity was significantly lower (P<0.05) in AF- and metformin-treated groups, but not in BuF-treated groups, compared to that in vehicle-treated group. However, there was no change in hepatic glycogen content in AF-, BuF- and metformin-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group. These results indicate that AF is more potent than Bu

  8. Delusional infestation: are you being bugged?

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Angeli; Ooi, Kenneth GJ; Assaad, Nagi; Coroneo, Minas

    2015-01-01

    This case report documents a 58-year-old male who presented to the clinic with a 12-month history of a burrowing sensation in his eyelids that he attributed to a parasitic infestation. After being extensively investigated and reviewed by relevant specialties, no evidence of parasitic infestation was found. He was diagnosed with and treated for blepharitis. Psychiatric referral for presumed delusional infestation (DI) was recommended. Despite this, he remained insistent in his belief of infestation, and was inevitably lost to follow-up. DI, previously known as delusional parasitosis, is a rare delusional disorder where affected individuals have a fixed, false belief that they have a parasitic infestation. Diagnosis can be challenging. Practitioners need to evaluate between primary and secondary DI carefully, as management differs depending on the etiology. Despite this, patients diagnosed with primary DI tend to be resistant to psychiatric referral. This report aims to optimize management by giving the reader a guideline for appropriate investigations and advice on patient approach. It is important to recognize hallmark features of DI to minimize self-inflicted trauma and associated psychosocial consequences. Effective treatment for DI is available, and devastating consequences, including blindness, can be avoided. PMID:26082608

  9. Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa triggered by scabies infestation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehwan; Loh, Chee Hoou; Murrell, Dedee F

    2013-07-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa (EB-Pr) is an unusual variant of dystrophic EB. Potential genetic disease modifiers and metabolic factors have been investigated, but thus far no specific insight into this phenotype has emerged. We report an in-depth description of three patients diagnosed as having EB-Pr in whom this particular phenotype developed after scabies infestation and dramatically improved after full treatment. This short communication suggests that scabies infestation could be one of the important triggering factors for the development of the EB-Pr phenotype. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Emerald ash borer infestation rates in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana.

    Treesearch

    Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...

  11. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  12. [Head lice infestation in the Cottbus district].

    PubMed

    Volcsik, R; Preuss, P; Knaus, B

    1990-11-01

    670 children of infant-schools and 109 children of schools were examined for head-lice. Also the existence of nits was valued. The identified infestation of 9.9% is to stimulate examinations in other districts of GDR and measures to form the search and the control of these ectoparasites with more effects.

  13. Bedbug infestations recorded in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Masetti, Massimo; Bruschi, Fabrizio

    2007-03-01

    In summer 2003 two separate infestations due to the common bedbug (Cimex lectularius) occurred in Pisa, Italy. Cutaneous reaction was evident and one patient developed a severe bullous eruption. In both cases there was circumstantial evidence for association with international travel.

  14. [Infestation with Enterobius vermicularis mimicking appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Levens, Afra M A; Schurink, Maarten; Koetse, Harma A; van Baren, Robertine

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infestation with the parasite Enterobius vermicularis is common in humans and is usually harmless. Anal pruritus is the most characteristic symptom, but the parasites can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Early recognition can prevent an unnecessary appendectomy. A six-year-old girl reported to the accident and emergency department with pain in the lower right abdominal region. She was admitted and treated for suspected perforated appendix, following physical examination supplemented with an abdominal CT scan. After antibiotic treatment the symptoms disappeared as did the abscess, apart from a minor amount of residual infiltrate. She was then readmitted twice with recurrent abdominal pain without radiological evidence of an abdominal focus. We decided to conduct a diagnostic laparoscopy and an elective appendectomy à froid. During this procedure living worms were found in the appendix. Treatment with the anthelminthicum mebendazol was effective. Gastro-intestinal infestation with E. vermicularis is very common, especially in young children. This infestation is usually harmless, but can mimic appendicitis. This infestation is easily treatable with mebendazol.

  15. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the final part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned concerning the management of rehabilitated cheatgrass-infested rangelands. Steve Novak and Richard Mack reported in 2003 that they found no evidence of outcrossing in 2,000 cheatgrass seedlings from 60 North Americ...

  16. Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2006-09-01

    A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.

  17. Delusional Infestation: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Vulink, Nienke C

    2016-08-23

    Patients with a delusional infestation (DI) have an overwhelming conviction that they are being infested with (non) pathogens without any medical proof. The patients need a systematic psychiatric and dermatological evaluation to assess any possible underlying cause that could be treated. Because they avoid psychiatrists, a close collaboration of dermatologists and psychiatrists, who examine the patient together, seems to be a promising solution. It helps to start a trustful doctor-patient relationship and motivates the patient for psychiatric treatment. We here review diagnostic criteria, classification of symptoms, pathophysiology and treatment options of DI. Antipsychotic medication is the treatment of choice when any other underlying cause or disorder is excluded. Further research is needed to assess the pathophysiology, and other treatment options for patients with DI.

  18. A rare manifestation of cysticercosis infestation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sunita; Mittal, Amit; Mahendra, Aneet; Aggarwal, Anshu; Batra, Rohit; Jindal, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    There are many causes of urticaria, which may vary from infections to malignancy. Among the infections, infestations by cysticercosis (larval stage of the tapeworm called Taenia solium) is an important cause. The present report is of forty four years old female who presented with urticaria and swelling on face. The swelling was later diagnosed as cysticercosis by noninvasive ultrasonography. The urticaria subsided after the treatment of cysticercosis. We report this case for rarity of its presentation.

  19. Botfly infestation (myiasis) masquerading as furunculosis.

    PubMed

    Gewirtzman, A; Rabinovitz, H

    1999-02-01

    With air travel so prevalent, diseases endemic to certain regions may appear anywhere. The botfly (Dermatobia hominis) is not native to North America. We describe a case of a young boy and his father who presented with furunculosis secondary to infestation with the botfly. The infected patients live in South Florida and had been vacationing in Central America. Standard surgical treatment as well as multiple native remedies are described.

  20. Spatial scaling of mountain pine beetle infestations.

    PubMed

    Gamarra, J G P; He, F

    2008-07-01

    1. The relationship between occupancy and spatial contagion during the spread of eruptive and invasive species demands greater study, as it could lead to improved prediction of ecosystem damage. 2. We applied a recently developed model that links occupancy and its fractal dimension to model the spatial distribution of mountain pine beetle infestations in British Columbia, Canada. We showed that the distribution of infestation was scale-invariant in at least 24 out of 37 years (mostly in epidemic years), and presented some degree of scale-invariance in the rest. There was a general logarithmic relationship between fractal dimension and infestation occupancy. Based on the scale-invariance assumption, we further assessed the interrelationships for several landscape metrics, such as correlation length, maximum cluster size, total edge length and total number of clusters. 3. The scale-invariance assumption allows fitting the above metrics, and provides a framework to establish the scaling relationship between occupancy and spatial contagion. 4. We concluded that scale-invariance dominates the spread of mountain pine beetle. In this context, spatial aggregation can be predicted from occupancy, hence occupancy is the only variable one needs to know in order to predict the spatial distributions of populations. This supports the hypothesis that fractal dispersal kernels may be abundant among outbreaks of pests and invasive species.

  1. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13tm), BALB/c-Il13/Il4tm, and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm index mice. However, only Il13tm and Il13/Il4tm mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2tm1.1Flv Il2rgtm1.1Flv/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  2. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits.

  3. Assessing invasive plant infestation in freshwater wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbick, Nathan M.

    Recent shifts in wetland ecosystem management goals have directed efforts toward measuring ecological integrity, rather than only using physical and chemical measures of ecosystems as health indicators. Invasive species pose one of the largest threats to wetlands integrity. Resource managers can benefit from improved methods for identifying invasive plant species, assessing infestation, and monitoring control measures. The utilization of advanced remote sensing tools for species-level mapping has been increasing and techniques need to be explored for identifying species of interest and characterizing infestation. The overarching goal of this research was to develop monitoring technologies to map invasive plants and quantify wetland infestation. The first field-level objective was to characterize absorption and reflectance features and assess processing techniques for separating wetland species. The second field-level objective was to evaluate the abilities of a shape filter to identify wetland invasive plant species. The first landscape-level objective was to classify hyperspectral imagery in order to identify invasives of interest. The second landscape-level objective was to quantify infestation within the study area. Field-level hyperspectral data (350-2500nm) were collected for twenty-two wetland plant species in a wetland located in the lower Muskegon River watershed in Michigan, USA. The Jeffries-Matusita distance measure, continuum removal, and a shape-filter were applied to hyperspectral species reflectance data to characterize spectral features. Generally, continuum removal decreased separation distance for the invasive species of interest. Using the shape-filter, Lythrum salicaria, Phragmites australis, and Typha latifolia possessed maximum separation (distinguished from other species) at the near-infrared edge (700nm) and water absorption region (1350nm), the near-infrared down slope (1000 and 1100nm), and the visible/chlorophyll absorption region (500nm

  4. Constituents of Indonesian medicinal plant Averrhoa bilimbi and their cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2D6 inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Auw, Lidyawati; Subehan; Sukrasno; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    As constituents of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves we identified three new compounds (1-3) together with 12 known ones (4-15); their inhibitory activities on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and 2D6 (CYP2D6) were examined. Among the isolated compounds, the mixture of 1 and 2, and compounds 4 and 9 showed strong inhibition on CYP3A4, but mild or no inhibition on CYP2D6. These compounds revealed the characteristics of 1) time- and concentration-dependent inhibition, 2) requirement of NADPH for the inhibition, 3) no protection by nucleophiles, and 4) suppression of the inhibition by competitive inhibitor. Thus, they are suggested to be mechanism-based inactivators of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. The kinetic parameters for the inactivation (k(inact) and K(I)) were 0.19 min(-1) and 36.7 μM for the mixture of 1 and 2, 0.126 min(-1) and 10.5 μM for 4, and 0.29 min(-1) and 23.4 μM for 9.

  5. Prevalence and clustering of louse infestation in Queensland sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Ward, M P; Armstrong, R T

    1999-04-12

    Information provided by wool growers in Queensland, Australia between 1995 and 1997 was used to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of louse (Bovicola ovis) infestation in sheep flocks. The estimated prevalence of louse-infested flocks was 40% (95% confidence interval, 35-46%). Although the prevalence of infestation was higher in western regions (41-50%) compared to the south region of Queensland (31%), the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Significant (P = 0.02) clustering of infested flocks was detected in the south region where two foci were apparent. We conclude that Queensland sheep flocks have a moderate prevalence of louse infestation, and that clustering of infestation is not strong. The control of lice is an industry-wide issue that needs to be addressed by most wool growers in Queensland.

  6. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    PubMed

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.

  7. Infestation of people with lice in Kathmandu and Pokhara, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Poudel, S K S; Barker, S C

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of infestation with head lice and body lice, Pediculus spp. (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) and pubic (crab) lice Pthirus pubis (L.) (Phthiraptera: Pthiridae), was recorded from 484 people in Nepal. The prevalence of head lice varied from 16% in a sample of people aged 10-39 years of age, to 59% in street children. Simultaneous infestations with head and body lice (double infestations) varied from 18% in slum children to 59% in street children.

  8. Response of Grape Leaf Spectra to Phylloxera Infestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1993 growing season, leaf reflectance and chlorophyll concentrations were monitored with respect to phylloxera (root-louse) infestation in a Napa Valley (California) vineyard. Study plots were established in areas of severely infested, mildly infested, and uninfested sections of the vineyard. A handheld chlorophyll meter, measuring leaf transmittance of near-infrared and red light, confirmed that reduced foliar chlorophyll concentrations were symptomatic of phylloxera stress in the sample vines. Bidirectional reflectance measurements of green and near-infrared light, taken on fresh leaves with a laboratory spectrophotometer, were related to chlorophyll concentration but did not allow discrimination of mildly infested from uninfested vines.

  9. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.

  10. Parasitic Infestation and Choice of Reproductive Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Sá Martins, J. S.

    The Penna model is used to simulate the competition between an asexual parthenogenetic and asexual population inhabiting the same environment represented by a square lattice. With a small probability, a newborn from the sexual population mutates into an asexual one and vice versa. Then, the asexual population rapidly dominates the sexual one, which all but disappears. However, when an infestation by mutating genetically coupled parasites, that mimic trematodes that feed on gonads, is introduced, the outcome may be one in which both populations coevolve or one in which one of the populations overcomes the other, depending on the density of parasites on the lattice.

  11. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  12. Impregnated Netting Slows Infestation by Triatoma infestans

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L.; Waller, Lance A.; Richards, Jean M.; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G. Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A.; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2008-01-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease. PMID:18840739

  13. Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2008-10-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease.

  14. Monoterpene emissions from bark beetle infested Engelmann spruce trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Hardik S.; Russo, Rachel S.; Sive, Barkley; Richard Hoebeke, E.; Dodson, Craig; McCubbin, Ian B.; Gannet Hallar, A.; Huff Hartz, Kara E.

    2013-06-01

    Bark beetle infestation impacts the health of coniferous forests, which are an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. The types and amounts of VOCs emitted from forests can influence secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and impact overall air quality. In this initial work, the impact of bark beetle infestation on SOA precursors from Engelmann spruce is assessed. The VOCs emitted from the trunk of infested and healthy spruce trees were sampled using both sorbent traps and evacuated canisters that were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The samples from the infested spruce tree suggest a nine-fold enhancement in the total VOC emissions. The dominant VOCs in the infested spruce trees were 3-carene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The increase observed in VOCs sampled at the trunk of the infested spruce was consistent with increases observed at infested lodgepole pine trunks. However, the types and amounts of VOCs emitted from Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine are different, which suggests that additional measures of VOC emissions are needed to characterize the impact of bark beetle infestation on VOC emissions and SOA precursors.

  15. 7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Generally infested areas. 301.45-3 Section 301.45-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally infested...

  16. 7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Generally infested areas. 301.45-3 Section 301.45-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally infested...

  17. 7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Generally infested areas. 301.45-3 Section 301.45-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally infested...

  18. 7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Generally infested areas. 301.45-3 Section 301.45-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally infested...

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-3 - Generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generally infested areas. 301.45-3 Section 301.45-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-3 Generally infested...

  20. Delusional infestation: an Australian multicentre study of 23 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Tran, M M A; Iredell, J R; Packham, D R; O'Sullivan, M V N; Hudson, B J

    2015-04-01

    Delusional infestation remains a debilitating condition that is therapeutically challenging for clinicians. This case series identifies 23 patients with delusional infestation in an Australian setting. The majority of patients are women and unlikely to have a psychiatric comorbid background. The use of unnecessary anti-parasitic medication is prevalent. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  1. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Treesearch

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  2. Relationship between horn fly infestation and polymorphisms in cytochrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Individual animal variation occurs regarding external parasite infestation in beef cattle. Our objective was to determine if horn flies infestations present on beef cattle are associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; T-318C) in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP3A28) and the prolactin (PR...

  3. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Postharvest quarantine treatments for Diaphorina citri on infested curry leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to evaluate treatments that reduce survival and attachment of Diaphorina citri nymphs on infested curry leaves (Bergera koenigii). Decontamination of curry leaves infested with D. citri in relation to disinfectant (none or Pro-San), temperature (0, 40, and 50°C), and treatment...

  5. Ditylenchus dipsaci Infestation of Trifolium repens. II. Dynamics of Infestation Development

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, G. S.; Cook, R.; Mizen, K. A.

    1997-01-01

    Trifolium repens (white clover) stolons were inoculated with Ditylenchus dipsaci (stem nematode), and the development of resulting infestations was monitored. Nematodes initially remained confined to superficial locations, concentrating in petiole axils near inoculation points. They were able to migrate slowly from the inidal inoculation points and infest adjacent axils, especially in regions near the stolon tip. As time progressed, in some axils, nematodes migrated through the stolon epidermis and colonized slowly expanding subepidermal pockets of host tissue (ca. 0.2-mm length of stolon/day). In these loci nematodes established exponentially increasing populations, but the rates of locus expansion remained constant, indicating that locus expansion was limited by unidentified host-dependent factors. As a result of increasing population pressure within subepidermal loci, J4 entered a "diapause" state and the rate of egg production by adults declined, thereby reducing rate of population growth to more sustainable levels. Typically, these populations peaked at ca. 10,000 individuals in ca. 160 days occupying 3-cm lengths of stolon. Thereafter, heavily infested regions of stolons started to die, leading to the formation of longitudinal splits in their epidermis. In other axils, nematodes did not migrate into the stolons but remained confined to axils. Some of these populations increased a hundred-fold in 95 days, with population growth ending when petioles started to die. Host plant stolon morphology was affected only when subepidermal stolon populations developed high population levels (>100 nematodes) within close proximity (<2 cm) to active terminal meristems. This occurred either when axillary buds became active on previously infested nodes or when nematodes established endoparasitic populations at locations near the stolon tip during winter and spring, when the rate of stolon extension was limited by low light intensity. Affected stolon tips could "escape" from

  6. [Delusional parasitic infestation and folie à deux: case report].

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Quirino; Corbett, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Cordeiro Jr, Quirino

    2003-09-01

    Shared psychiatric disorder (folie deux) is a rare condition. But its prevalence can be 5-25% in patients with delusional parasitic infestation. We report the a case of a 62 years-old female with psychotic symptoms. For 15 years, she has lived with her younger sister. Since the patient was well-controled, her sister interrupted her antipsychotic drug administration. So, the patient initiated delusional parasitic infestation accompanied by visual hallucinations. Her sister, who did not have psychiatric history, initiated to believe that the patient was really infested. Moreover, she started to believe that was infested by the patient. This case report aims to discuss the relation between folie deux and delusional parasitic infestation.

  7. Insects and Spiders: Infestations and Bites

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, E.W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Despite successful eradication techniques and specific effective therapies, insect bites and infestations remain a source of great human misery. The current scabies pandemic shows no signs of abating. Bed bugs, which through the ages have been second only to the malarial mosquito as an insect vector of fatal infection, have now been implicated in the transmission of Hepatitis B and possibly African acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of head- and pubic lice is on the rise, the latter paralleling, and often co-existing with, other sexually transmitted diseases. Black widow spiders are native to many populous areas in southern Canada, and the brown recluse spider's range now encompasses Canada, thanks to moving vans and central heating. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263961

  8. Delusional infestations: case series, differential diagnoses, and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H; Nesbitt, Lee T

    2014-01-01

    Physicians are not infrequently consulted by distraught patients with delusions of infestation who believe that they are infested with external or internal parasites and describe a crawling sensation of bugs or worms on or under their skin. Internet search engines were queried with the keywords as search terms to examine the latest articles on delusional infestations in order to describe presenting manifestations, differential diagnoses, and effective management strategies. The demographic and behavioral features of delusional infestations have remained constant and include: (1) onset in well-educated, middle-aged adults who are pet owners; (2) production of purported specimens of causative parasites; (3) pesticide overtreatment of themselves, their households, and pets; (4) excessive cleaning or vacuuming of households; (5) intense anger and resentment directed at physicians failing to confirm their self-diagnoses; and (6) sharing delusional symptoms with spouses or relatives. Although some reports have suggested that cases of delusional infestation are increasing today in the tropics, most studies have confirmed a stable incidence over time and similar disorder demographics worldwide. However, management strategies for delusional infestations have changed significantly over time with second generation, atypical antipsychotics offering safer adverse effect profiles and better prognoses than earlier therapies with first generation, typical antipsychotics. The most effective management strategies for delusional infestations include empathetic history-taking and active listening to the patient, careful exclusion of true parasitoses, and a therapeutic regimen that includes a second generation neuroleptic agent.

  9. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  10. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun G.; Kim, Byung K.; Song, Geun C.; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  11. Tick infestation of small mammals in an English woodland.

    PubMed

    Cull, Benjamin; Vaux, Alexander G C; Ottowell, Lisa J; Gillingham, Emma L; Medlock, Jolyon M

    2017-06-01

    Tick infestations on small mammals were studied from April to November, 2010, in deciduous woodland in southern England in order to determine whether co-infestations with tick stages occurred on small mammals, a key requirement for endemic transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). A total of 217 small mammals was trapped over 1,760 trap nights. Yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) made up the majority (52.5%) of animals, followed by wood mice (A. sylvaticus) 35.5% and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) 12%. A total of 970 ticks was collected from 169 infested animals; 96% of ticks were Ixodes ricinus and 3% I. trianguliceps. Over 98% of ticks were larval stages. Mean infestation intensities of I. ricinus were significantly higher on A. flavicollis (6.53 ± 0.67) than on A. sylvaticus (4.96 ± 0.92) and M. glareolus (3.25 ± 0.53). Infestations with I. ricinus were significantly higher in August than in any other month. Co-infestations with I. ricinus nymphs and larvae were observed on six (3.6%) infested individuals, and fifteen small mammals (8.9%) supported I. ricinus - I. trianguliceps co-infestations. This work contributes further to our understanding of European small mammal hosts that maintain tick populations and their associated pathogens, and indicates that co-infestation of larvae and nymph ticks does occur in lowland UK. The possible implications for transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus between UK ticks and small mammals are discussed. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  12. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/m2 in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities >5,000–6,000/m2 and infestation intensities >100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and akes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  13. Severe cat flea infestation of dairy calves in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, F R; Silva, M P; Lopes, A A; Ribeiro, O C; Pires, P P; Carvalho, C M; Balbuena, C B; Villas, A A; Ramos, J K

    1998-12-15

    An investigation was conducted into a severe flea infestation on dairy calves. Inspection of the dairy revealed a high infestation of Ctenocephalides felis felis on four calves and thousands of fleas in the stable where cows and calves were brought in for milking. A 3-month-old female calf was highly infested with fleas. The animal showed an evident lethargy, weight loss, as well as pale mucous membranes and dehydration. Hematological analysis revealed anemia, with 10% packed cell volume and a 1.72 x 10(6) microl(-1) erythrocyte count. Blood transfusions were performed and the flea infestation was controlled with 1% fipronil pour-on (1 ml/10 kg). The farmer was advised to treat the other calves with fipronil, remove the manure from the stable and spread 1% propoxur powder (100 g/m2) onto the floor of the stable.

  14. Intestinal Infestations in Under-Five Children in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Kamukwamba; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intestinal infestations are of considerable public health importance in Zambia and elsewhere in Africa. Children aged less than 5 years are at the highest risk of infection. Interventions for prevention and control of these infestations require identification of their determinants. This study investigates the determinants of intestinal infestations in children below 5 years of age admitted to a children’s hospital and assesses the most prevalent of the helminthes. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at Arthur Davison Children’s Hospital, Ndola, Zambia. Socio-demographic data of study participants and possible determinants for occurrence of intestinal infestations were collected using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined for presence of parasites using direct techniques. The Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to establish associations. Results: Present study had 148 participants out of the expected 165, making a respondent rate of 89.7%. Over half of the participants were male (50.6%), and 68.9% were above the age of 2 years. Prevalence of intestinal infestations was 19.6%, and the most prevalent parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides. Factors independently associated with worm infestation were father’s employment (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI [0.19, 0.90]) and history of prior worm infestation (AOR = 6.54; 95 % CI [3.28, 13.03]). Conclusion: Intestinal infestations particularly Ascaris lumbricoides were more prevalent in this study. There should be policy towards countrywide deworming programs and enhanced hygiene. PMID:27622006

  15. Cat flea infestation in a hospital: a case report.

    PubMed

    Leelavathi, Muthupalaniappen; Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin

    2012-03-01

    Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome.

  16. Cat Flea Infestation in a Hospital: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Norhayati, Moktar; Lee, Yin Yin

    2012-01-01

    Cat flea bite in humans results in extremely pruritic skin lesions. It has been reported to occur among those living in domiciliary accommodation. However, nosocomial infestation with cat flea has not been reported. We hereby report a case of nosocomial infestation of cat flea in a hospital facility. Identification of the parasite, its appropriate eradication, and adequate medical management of the patients resulted in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:22451739

  17. Anti-diabetic activity of the semi-purified fractions of Averrhoa bilimbi in high fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Benny Kwong Huat; Tan, Chee Hong; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan

    2005-04-29

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of the semi-purified fractions of an ethanolic leaf extract of Averrhoa bilimbi (ABe) in high fat diet (HFD)-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 10 weeks (200-250 g) were fed with a high fat diet obtained from Glen Forrest stock feeders (Western Australia) for 2 weeks prior to intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg). The leaves of A.bilimbi were exhaustively extracted with 80% ethanol, concentrated at 40 degrees C using a rotavapor and partitioned successively with butanol, ethylacetate and hexane to get aqueous (AF), butanol (BuF), ethylacetate (EF), and hexane fractions (HF). The fractions were freeze-dried to obtain powders of each. To investigate the effect of long term administration of the hypoglycemic fractions, diabetic animals were treated with vehicle (distilled water), AF (125 mg/kg), or BuF (125 mg/kg), twice a day for 14 days. The long term administration of AF and BuF at a dose of 125 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) lowered blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations when compared to the vehicle. The hepatic glycogen content was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in AF-treated rats when compared to diabetic control, however no change was found in the BuF-treated rats. Moreover, AF as well as BuF did not cause any significant change in the total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. There was also no difference in liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and cytochrome P450 values between AF, BuF and vehicle-treated control rats. In conclusion, the results indicate that AF is more potent than BuF in the amelioration of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD fed-STZ diabetic rats. Hence, AF is a potential source for the isolation of active principle(s) for oral anti-diabetic therapy.

  18. Infestation patterns of microphallid trematodes in Corophium volutator (Amphipoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißner, Karin

    2001-05-01

    Infestation patterns of digenetic trematodes in Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) were studied in a shallow-water area of the southern Baltic Sea. The amphipod C. volutator is the most common second intermediate host of microphallid trematodes, in particular Maritrema subdolum, in this area. Seasonal and interannual alterations in infestation among the amphipod population are described. The general trend of infestation followed a relatively invariable seasonal pattern. Lowest prevalences were generally observed in spring and early summer, when juvenile amphipods predominated. Increasing prevalences and relative infestation intensities were recorded over the summer, with the highest values in late summer and autumn. These observations are mainly explained by the population dynamics of C. volutator and the infection dynamics of the first intermediate hosts, mudsnails of the genus Hydrobia. Exceptionally high infestation rates in summer 1997 may have been triggered by the earlier appearance of high cercaria densities in the field compared to 1996. The coincidence of the infection dynamics of the first intermediate host with the population dynamics of C. volutator was apparently important. Parasite infestation, in turn, obviously induced mortality of the crustacean host, but conclusive evidence could not be provided based on the analysis of the parasite dispersion patterns in C. volutator.

  19. Cellular responses to Rhipicephalus microplus infestations in pre-sensitised cattle with differing phenotypes of infestation.

    PubMed

    Marufu, Munyaradzi C; Dzama, Kennedy; Chimonyo, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, threatens cattle production in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Delayed skin hypersensitivity reactions are thought to cause Nguni cattle to be more resistant to R. microplus than Bonsmara cattle yet the cellular mechanisms responsible for these differences have not been classified. Tick counts and inflammatory cell infiltrates in skin biopsies from feeding sites of adult R. microplus ticks were determined in 9-month-old Nguni and Bonsmara heifers to determine the cellular mechanisms responsible for tick immunity. Nguni heifers (1.7 ± 0.03) had lower (P < 0.05) tick counts than the Bonsmaras (2.0 ± 0.03). Parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had higher counts of basophils, mast and mononuclear cells than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Conversely, parasitized sites in Nguni heifers had lower neutrophil and eosinophil counts than those in the Bonsmara heifers. Tick count was negatively correlated with basophil and mast cell counts and positively correlated with eosinophil counts in both breeds. In the Bonsmara breed, tick count was positively correlated with mononuclear cell counts. Cellular responses to adult R. microplus infestations were different and correlated with differences in tick resistance in Nguni and Bonsmara cattle breeds. It is essential to further characterise the molecular composition of the inflammatory infiltrate elicited by adult R. microplus infestation to fully comprehend immunity to ticks in cattle.

  20. Spinosad for treatment of head lice infestation.

    PubMed

    Cole, Sabrina W; Lundquist, Lisa M

    2011-07-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and safety profile of spinosad 0.9% topical lotion, a recently approved pediculicide for treatment of head lice infestation. English-language articles indexed in MEDLINE (1948-May 2011), Toxline, Google Scholar, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-May 2011), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1981-May 2011) were identified, using the search terms spinosad, head lice, and pediculosis capitis. Available English-language articles were reviewed. In the studies that were reviewed, the percentage of patients who were lice free 14 days after the last treatment was significantly higher in the spinosad groups compared to the permethrin groups (84.6% vs 44.9% and 86.7% vs 42.9%, respectively; p < 0.001 for both studies). Additionally, the proportion of all primary and nonprimary participants determined to be lice free following only 1 treatment with the study medication was higher among patients in the spinosad groups compared with those in the permethrin groups. Application-site erythema was observed in patients in both treatment groups; however, it was more common in patients in the permethrin groups compared with those receiving spinosad (6.8% vs 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.007). No serious adverse effects were reported by patients receiving spinosad. Adherence was higher in the spinosad groups compared with the permethrin groups, although adherence overall was high in both studies. These data suggest that spinosad is a safe and effective treatment for the eradication of head lice, and the ease of administration and improved adherence with spinosad could offer an advantage over currently available treatment options. Because of its established efficacy, favorable safety profile, and ease of application, spinosad can be considered a convenient and effective treatment for head lice in patients aged 4 years and older.

  1. Monogenean infestations and mortality in wild and cultured Red Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.

    1984-03-01

    Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.

  2. Control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting power poles.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Martin A; Westlake, Terry; Kathuria, Amrit

    2010-12-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of termiticidal dusts (arsenic trioxide, triflumuron, and Metarhizium anisopliae), a timber fumigant (dazomet) and liquid termiticides (bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and imidacloprid) for controlling subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infesting in-service power poles in New South Wales, Australia. Dusts were applied to parts of the pole where termites were present. Fumigant was inserted into holes drilled into the base of the pole. Liquid termiticides were mixed with soil around the base of the pole and injected into internal voids if present. Poles were inspected for up to 5 yr, and the time taken for reinfestation to occur was recorded. Before the start of the trial, the major Australian pole owners were surveyed to obtain an estimate of the annual national cost of termite infestation to the power supply industry. The annual costs of termite treatment and replacing damaged poles were estimated at AU$2 million and AU$13 million, respectively. Infestation rates were lower for all treatments compared with controls within the first 12 mo of the study. Dazomet, arsenic trioxide, fipronil, and chlorpyrifos were the most efficacious treatments. Efficacy was positively related to the amount of termiticide applied and negatively related to the infestation severity but was unaffected by geographical location. Survival curves were calculated of the time elapsed before the recurrence of termite infestations (survival absence of reinfestation). Survival was highest for poles treated with liquid termiticides.

  3. Hookworm infestation in a 3-month old female.

    PubMed

    Otaigbe, B E; Eneh, A U; Oruamabo, B

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal helminthiasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children particularly in the tropics and subtropics. This report highlights the possibility of hookworm infestation in infancy. A case report of hookworm infestation in a three-month old infant who was managed in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt in May 2001 for failure to thrive and recurrent severe anaemia. The patient was admitted in the children's emergency ward with passage of dark watery stools, fever, excessive crying and severe anemia and was transfused twice. Stool microscopy revealed numerous ova of hookworm and she was treated with albendazole. Three days after administration of anti-helminthic, stools became formed with normal colour and temperature was normal. She gained weight before discharge home. Hookworm infestation should be suspected as a cause of severe anaemia in infants in communities with a high risk of infestation such as fishing port communities. To the best of my knowledge, symptomatic hookworm infestation in the first year of life has not been previously documented in Nigeria.

  4. Different clinical allergological features of Taenia solium infestation.

    PubMed

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cascio, Antonio; Isola, Stefania; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia (T.) solium can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. PubMed search of human cases of allergic reactions occurring during T. solium infestation was performed combining the terms (allergy, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) with T. solium. A study was considered eligible for inclusion in the review if it reported data on patients with T. solium infestation who had signs or symptoms of allergy. In literature we found six articles reporting the association between an allergic reaction and T. solium infestation: two cases of urticaria, two cases of relapsing angioedema, one case of asthma and two cases of anaphylaxis. Despite the large diffusion of T. solium infestation, we found only a few cases of concomitant allergic reaction and the presence of Taenia in the host. The association between T. solium infestation and allergic manifestations has never been clearly demonstrated, and in absence of a well-documented causality the hypotheses are merely speculative. Therefore, the association between Taenia infection and allergy needs to be thoroughly studied to better clarify if this association may really exist and which is the pathogenetic mechanism supported.

  5. Mountain pine beetle infestation impacted by water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B.; Emanuel, R.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation pattern and landscape structure intersect to exert strong control over ecohydrological dynamics at the watershed scale. The hydrologic implications of vegetation disturbance (e.g. fire, disease etc.) depend on the spatial pattern and form of environmental change. Here we investigate this intersection at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana with a focus on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic currently affecting the Rocky Mountains. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with a leaf-level spectral library of local vegetation. We used this spectral library to determine optimal vegetation indices for differentiating stages of beetle infestation within the 37 km2 TCEF watershed. These indices formed the basis of a three-component mixing model to quantify the extent and magnitude of beetle infestation across the TCEF watershed. We compared disturbance patterns to spatially distributed topography and vegetation variables derived from a LiDAR-based digital elevation model (DEM) of TCEF. We determined that certain landscape characteristics (low vegetation density, south facing slopes, steep slopes, locations with small contributing areas, and locations with lower values of the topographic wetness index (TWI)) were significantly more likely to exhibit the effects of beetle infestation. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality across space and time provide a context for assessing landscape susceptibility to initial mountain pine beetle infestation via feedbacks between biodiversity and hydrological patterns and further research into understanding how outbreak (i.e. landscape scale infestation) patterns may affect watershed ecohydrology via altered water and biogeochemical cycles.

  6. Parasitic Infestation in Pediatric and Adolescent Appendicitis: A Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients. PMID:23599875

  7. Head lice infestation in some urban localities of NWFP, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Suleman, M; Jabeen, N

    1989-10-01

    The prevalence of head lice infestation was estimated among the general population of four urban localities in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan during 1986. Altogether 1002 persons (656 females, 346 males) were screened by visual inspection and combing of the head. The overall infestation rate was 36.7%, with females showing a higher prevalence (41.5%) than males (27.7%). The prevalence did not differ significantly with locality, and exhibited only a slight seasonal variation. Pediculosis was high in the five to 19 year old age-group, beyond which it decreased, gradually in females and abruptly in males. Higher rate of infestation in females could be attributed to their long hair. A significant negative association between pediculosis and dandruff was noticed in males but not in females. Crowding and low level of education, which reflect poor socio-economic status, apparently contributed to higher rate of infestation. Prevalence was directly related to the number of children per family, suggesting that school children perhaps play an important role in the distribution of lice. Intensity of infestation, like prevalence, was higher in females than males, and decreased with age in both sexes.

  8. Leech infestation and its association with water drinking habits.

    PubMed

    Raza, Syed Nusrat; Shabbir, Syed Muhammad Asad

    2006-03-01

    To assess the common presentations of leech infestation in leech endemic areas of Pakistan and to establish its association with unsafe water drinking habits of the individual. A cohort study. CMH, Kohat, between 1st February 1997 and 30th April 2002. Fourteen patients with leech infestation who reported to ENT department of CMH, Kohat, during the above period were selected for study. A specific comparison of their water drinking habits was made with a control group of 42 normal individuals who had come from the same leech endemic area as the first group and belonged to the same socioeconomic class. Twelve cases (83.4%) in the first group had unsafe water drinking habit i.e. they drank water directly from marshes without seeing its contents substituting cupped palm of hand for a drinking cup. This was in contrast to the control group where only 6 individuals (14%) gave a history of unsafe water drinking habits. Nose was the most common ENT site of leech infestation (71%) with epistaxis being the most prominent symptom. Other sites included hypopharynx (14%), nasopharynx (7 %) and oropharynx (7 %). All the 14 cases with leech infestation were males, 26.09 years being the mean age. The association between patient s unsafe water drinking habits and leech infestation in ENT region was statistically proved with odds ratio being 36. Epistaxis or any other related symptom must be taken with suspicion in leech endemic area. This condition is closely related to unsafe water drinking habits, therefore, the incidence of this infestation can be significantly reduced by educating the individuals to adopt safe water drinking habits.

  9. Associations between Demodex species infestation and various types of cancer.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Yalçın, Zeliha Gülter; Karakeçe, Engin; Çiftci, İhsan Hakkı; Erdem, Teoman

    2013-12-01

    Tumor-associated immune system cells secrete protease and cytokines that can inhibit the immune response. In particular, T-cell effector functions could be inhibited, potentially causing an increase in parasitic infestations. Demodex species are common inhabitants of normal hair follicles. Humans are the specific host for two species Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and infestation of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in patients with cancer. In the present study, 101 patients with cancer were selected from among patients who were diagnosed and treated for cancer. The cancer patients were divided into four groups according to cancer type. Slides were examined for parasites using light microscopy at magnifications of ×40 and ×100. Infestation was defined as having at least five living parasites/cm(2) of skin. The ages of the patients with cancer ranged between 38 and 82 years, with a mean of 65.5±10.1 years. It was determined that 77 of the 101 (76.2%) cancer patients were positive for Demodex species. Infestation was positive in 18 (47.4%) of the 38 cases in the breast cancer group, 7 (29.2%) of the 24 cases in the lung cancer group, 5 (18.5%) of the 27 cases in the gastrointestinal system cancer group, and 2 (16.7%) of the 12 cases in the urogenital system cancer group. Results showed that the rate of Demodex species infestation was higher in patients with breast cancer. Thus, cancer - and particularly breast cancer - is a risk factor for Demodex species infestation.

  10. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery. PMID:26283859

  11. An overview of head lice infestation in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divyesh; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Choudhari, Kishor A

    Head lice or pediculosis is recognized as an increasing problem in medical practice (Down et al, 1999). Secondary bacterial infections can occur in patients with infestation. In neurosurgical patients, head lice infestation may be a potential risk factor for peri-operative complications. Secondary infection could further complicate neurosurgical wounds with subsequent complications. The authors discuss epidemiology, pathogenesis of potential peri-operative complications resulting from pediculosis and methodology of treatment of this common condition. The importance of early recognition and prompt treatment in patients with neurological diseases is highlighted. A simple algorithm to treat scalp pediculosis is suggested.

  12. Enterobius vermicularis infestation masquerading as cervical carcinoma: A cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, Kalyani; Verappa, Seema; Venkataramappa, Srinivas Murthy

    2015-01-01

    Although prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis (EV) infestation in Intestines ranges from 35% to 70%, its prevalence in female genital tract is not known despite several incidental findings. Acute inflammatory cells in the background of cervical Pap smear indicate infestation and should not be neglected as contamination. A 40-year-woman presented with white vaginal discharge persistent for past 1 year. Local examination showed hypertrophied cervix with eversion of both lips and hard consistency of the anterior lip of cervix. A clinical diagnosis of cervical carcinoma was made. However, cervical Pap smear indicated EV eggs in an inflammatory background, treatment to which resulted in completely recovery.

  13. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis: Human infestation by the botfly.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bryan; Brown, David L

    2006-01-01

    Dermatobia hominis, the botfly, is indigenous to Central and South America. Its usual host is a mammal, often a horse or cow. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis, human infestation by the botfly, has rarely been reported. Symptoms of infestation include a locally painful, firm furuncular lesion, often with a centrally located pore. Due to their infrequent occurrence, these lesions are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis, leishmaniasis, furunculosis, staphylococcal boil, insect bite or sebaceous cyst - conditions with similar presentations. The present case reiterates the need to think of 'zebras' when hearing 'hoof beats' that may have originated in a different land.

  14. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis: Human infestation by the botfly

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Bryan; Brown, David L

    2006-01-01

    Dermatobia hominis, the botfly, is indigenous to Central and South America. Its usual host is a mammal, often a horse or cow. Cutaneous furuncular myiasis, human infestation by the botfly, has rarely been reported. Symptoms of infestation include a locally painful, firm furuncular lesion, often with a centrally located pore. Due to their infrequent occurrence, these lesions are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis, leishmaniasis, furunculosis, staphylococcal boil, insect bite or sebaceous cyst – conditions with similar presentations. The present case reiterates the need to think of ‘zebras’ when hearing ‘hoof beats’ that may have originated in a different land. PMID:19554228

  15. Parasites in the fossil record: a Cretaceous fauna with isopod-infested decapod crustaceans, infestation patterns through time, and a new ichnotaxon.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W M; Fraaije, René H B; Jagt, John W M

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations).

  16. Experimental examinations concerning the problem of deformed emerging bees after infestation with Varroa jacobsoni.

    PubMed

    Koch, W; Ritter, W

    1991-07-01

    The deformations of bees occurring in connection with varroatosis was examined both in case of natural and artificial infestation. Under both conditions, the number of bees showing wing deformations increased with the degree of mite infestation. Shortened abdomina, however, only appeared in the case of natural infestation. Inadequate brood care in colonies severely infested by Varroa mites is supposed to be responsible. Wing deformations could be produced by experimental haemolymph extraction.

  17. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  18. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  19. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation after treatment and...

  20. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  1. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  2. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this action...

  3. Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor: prevalence and reproduction in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the reproductive ability of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite g...

  4. Prevalence and reproduction of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested Apis mellifera colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of Tropilaelaps mercedesae and Varroa destructor in concurrently infested A. mellifera colonies in Thailand was monitored. We also assessed the fecundity of T. mercedesae and V. destructor in naturally infested brood and in brood cells deliberately infested with both mite genera. Resu...

  5. Detection and prediction of Sitophilus oryzae infestations in triticale via near infrared spectral signature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this research was to detect and predict degree of triticale seed infestation with rice weevils using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Groups of seeds at 11 different levels (degrees) of infestation were tested by combining mixtures of infested and uninfested seeds at different ratios. S...

  6. Determination of degree of infestation of triticale seed using NIR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect infestation of seeds of the triticale hybrid, Triticosecale, causes extraordinary storage losses as a consequence of vulnerability of triticale seed to insect infestation and its soft coat. Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), is a common insect that causes infestation in Florida, which was t...

  7. Infestation Trends of Balsam Woolly Aphid in an Abies Alba Plantation in North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Gerhard F. Fedde

    1971-01-01

    Infestations of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratz.), on European silver fir trees in a plantation were observed over a 7-year period. Infestations were usually light, but occasionally increased to heavy. Heavy infestations declined within 1 or 2 years without killing the trees or causing them apparent damage.

  8. Reducing costly zebra mussel infestations at power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, G.

    1994-10-01

    The fast-spreading-zebra mussel has significant potential to foul intakes and other water systems at North American hydro projects. Chemical controls can be effective in reducing infestations, but most have environmental and other drawbacks. Several non-chemical methods promise to help project operators reduce problems associated with the mussels.

  9. Remote sensing for detecting and mapping whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) infestations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing technology has long been used for detecting insect infestations on agricultural crops. With recent advances in remote sensing sensors and other spatial information technologies such as Global Position Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing is finding mo...

  10. Concurrent puerperal hysterectomy with Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: coincidence or consequence?

    PubMed

    Zapardiel, Ignacio; Peiretti, Michele; Godoy-Tundidor, Sonia

    2010-04-01

    The most common etiology of postpartum hemorrhage is uterine atony, although hematologic disorders may be present. A 36-year-old nulliparous woman underwent puerperal hysterectomy caused by uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage. One day after discharge, she vomited in the emergency room a 24-cm long Ascaris lumbricoides. Infestation during gestation may cause hematologic disorders that could complicate pregnancy outcome.

  11. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  12. Detection of internally infested popcorn using electrically conductive roller mills

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To detect popcorn kernels infested by the internal feeding stored-product insect pest Sitophilus zeamais, maize weevil, a laboratory roller mill was modified so that the electrical conductivity of the grain is measured while the kernels are milled between the rolls. When a kernel with a S. zeamais l...

  13. Charring does not affect wood infestation by subterranean termites

    Treesearch

    C.J. Peterson; P.D. Gerard; T.L. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important part of forest ecosystems, as is the insect fauna. Changes in wood brought aboutby fire may alter the ability of termites to use the wood, interrupting the decay cycle of woody debris.The ability of termites to find, infest, and feed upon wood after it had been charred was evaluated in

  14. Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece.

    PubMed

    Doulgeraki, Artemis; Valari, Manthoula

    2011-06-01

    Pediculosis capitis constitutes a growing problem worldwide and is usually considered as an inconvenience. Parents often handle this infestation on their own initiative. We conducted a survey in order to depict the parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. Parents of children aged 3-14 years, attending a dermatology outpatient clinic at a children's hospital, were given a questionnaire regarding head lice. Demographic data, management, and prevention strategies were included in the questionnaire. Three-hundred and seventy-two complete questionnaires were analyzed (response rate: 89%). Pediculosis capitis was more prevalent in the age groups 3-5 years and 6-8 years. The percentage of parents of infested children who sought advice on treatment from the pharmacist was 73%, and only 15% consulted their doctor. Chemical agents to treat head lice were used by 59% of them, products containing natural oils by 38%, and wet combing in parallel was employed by 79% of them. Preventive measures were employed by 66% of the respondents, and 54% applied botanical and synthetic products commercially available for this purpose. There is a trend towards the use of natural oils for either prevention or treatment. More needs to be done to promote public education and rational use of either pediculicides or non-pharmacological agents for pediculosis capitis infestation. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands: applications and practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The challenges that land owners and resource managers face when trying to attempt applications and practices when attempting to rehabilitate rangelands infested with cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) are over-whelming. Simply purchasing seed and spreading it throughout the rangelands is doomed for failu...

  16. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  17. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in Northwest Italy.

    PubMed

    Giorda, Federica; Guardone, Lisa; Mancini, Marialetizia; Accorsi, Annalisa; Macchioni, Fabio; Mignone, Walter

    2013-01-01

    CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  18. Oxidative enzyme changes in sorghum infested by shoot fly.

    PubMed

    Padmaja, P G; Shwetha, B L; Swetha, G; Patil, J V

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the role of oxidative enzymes in the defense response of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae), to the sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani (Diptera: Muscidae). Changes in polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity and total protein content were observed in resistant and susceptible sorghum genotypes in response to A. soccata feeding. Resistant plants exhibited higher levels of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content compared with susceptible plants. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities and total protein content in the infested resistant and susceptible genotypes were higher when compared with their control plants, respectively. These findings suggest that resistant genotypes may be able to tolerate shoot fly feeding by increasing their peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities. Among the enzymes examined, differences in isozyme profiles for peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were detected between control and infested IS 18551, M35-1, 296B, SSV 84, and DJ 6514 plants. Differences in protein profiles were observed between A. soccata infested and their respective uninfested controls of all the genotypes. In conclusion, this study revealed that these defense enzymes and proteins might attribute to the resistance mechanisms in sorghum plants against A. soccata infestation.

  19. Susceptibility of pear to European pear sawfly fruit infestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The European pear sawfly, Hoplocampa brevis (Klug), is a relatively new pest in the Mid-Atlantic fruit production region. A plot containing twelve Pyrus communis pear cultivars and one breeder’s selection in a randomized block design was surveyed for fruit damage. Infestation frequency ranged from...

  20. Kraft pulp from budworm-infested jack pine

    Treesearch

    J. Y. Zhu; Gary C. Myers

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of kraft pulp from bud-worm-infested jack pine. The logs were classified as merchantable live, suspect, or merchantable dead. Raw materials were evaluated through visual inspection, analysis of the chemical composition, SilviScan measurement of the density, and measurement of the tracheid length. Unbleached pulps were then refined using...

  1. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF LEAFY SPURGE-INFESTED RANGELAND

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leafy spurge is an invasive Eurasian weed on pastures and rangeland in North America where it reduces grass forage production. Our objective was to determine the effects of multispecies grazing combined with Aphthona 'ea beetles on leafy spurge-infested rangeland. On two western North Dakota sites d...

  2. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  3. Does hair coat length affect flea infestation in naturally infested dogs?

    PubMed

    Silva, Guilherme Araujo Collares da; Lins, Luciana Araujo; Irala, Márcio Josué Costa; Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha

    2016-01-01

    The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length < 5.0 cm, n= 7) and long coat (coat length > 5.0 cm, n= 7). In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91%) and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%). The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.

  4. Dynamics of tick infestations in foxes in Thuringia, Germany.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Kayser, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Lothar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Mahling, Monia; Passos, Lygia M F

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to provide up-to-date information on the dynamics of tick infestations on foxes in Thuringia, as the most recent information available was published in 1997. Fox carcasses that had been sent to the Thuringian State Authority for Food Safety and Consumer Protection (Thüringer Landesamt für Lebensmittelsicherheit und Verbraucherschutz - TLLV), between January 1st and December 31st, 2009, were examined for the presence of ticks. All ticks collected were stored at -20 °C before being identified and classified according to their developmental stage and sex. Out of a total of 1286 foxes examined, 989 (76.9%) were infested with ticks. A total of 13,227 ticks were collected from the foxes. The stage most frequently found was the larva (48.1%), followed by the adult (34.1%), and the nymphal stage (17.8%). Regarding the adult stage, Ixodes ricinus was the most frequent tick species detected (82.2%), followed by I. canisuga (10.8%) and I. hexagonus (6.7%). Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were very rare (0.3%). With regard to nymphs, I. canisuga and I. hexagonus were the most frequent tick species found, and this was also assumed for the larval stage. The results indicate the occurrence of tick infestations in foxes throughout the year, mainly by I. ricinus, I. canisuga, and I. hexagonus, with seasonal variations. Foxes were infested by I. ricinus ticks significantly more frequently from April to September. This applied to all tick developmental stages, but especially to adults. In contrast to I. ricinus, the infestation of foxes with I. canisuga and I. hexagonus was significantly higher from January to March and from October to December, especially with the immature developmental stages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Biophoton Emission from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Uefune, Masayoshi; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2004-08-01

    We studied spontaneous photon emission from kidney bean leaves infested with spider mites. Strong photon radiation was observed from the leaf veins where spider mites were crowding. Photon emission intensity increased with the decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis yield; these decreases represented the degree of damage caused by the pest. When both infested and un-infested leaves were put on the same wet cotton, photon emission from the un-infested leaf increased, too. Photon emission from the un-infested leaf might be induced by an aqueous elicitor released from the infested leaf. Such an elicitor activates the plant defense response. Therefore, it is suggested that photon emission from an infested leaf conveys information on the direct injury (physical stresses) and physiological (biochemical) actions associated with the defensive response.

  6. DNA identification confirms pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation of Carpathian walnut.

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Hunt, Kenneth L; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-08-01

    Larvae found infesting fruit from a Carpathian walnut, Juglans regia L., tree in Missouri were confirmed by DNA analysis to be those of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The infested walnut tree occurs in the midst of pecan weevil-infested pecans, Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch; the larval haplotypes were found to be identical to pecan weevil larvae from the region, indicating that the walnut infestation arose by association with infested pecan. This is the first confirmed DNA analysis showing pecan weevil attacks J. regia and the second report that J. regia may be at risk of infestation by pecan weevil. Further study indicates this infestation on walnut is established and ongoing. The pecan weevil is a key pest of pecan and seems capable of inflicting similar damage to walnut if spread to commercial areas that produce J. regia.

  7. Single- versus Multiple-Pest Infestation Affects Differently the Biochemistry of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Ailsa Craig').

    PubMed

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Drungowski, Mario; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2015-11-25

    Tomato is susceptible to pest infestations by both spider mites and aphids. The effects of each individual pest on plants are known, whereas multiple-pest infestations have received little interest. We studied the effects of single- versus multiple-pest infestation by Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae on tomato biochemistry (Solanum lycopersicum) by combining a metabolomic approach and analyses of carotenoids using UHPLC-ToF-MS and volatiles using GC-MS. Plants responded differently to aphids and mites after 3 weeks of infestation, and a multiple infestation induced a specific metabolite composition in plants. In addition, we showed that volatiles emissions differed between the adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermes and identified compounds emitted particularly in response to a multiple infestation (cyclohexadecane, dodecane, aromadendrene, and β-elemene). Finally, the carotenoid concentrations in leaves and stems were more affected by multiple than single infestations. Our study highlights and discusses the interplay of biotic stressors within the terpenoid metabolism.

  8. Aphid infestation affecting the biogeochemistry of European beech saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Bischoff, S.; Näthe, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mass outbreaks of herbivore insects are known to perturb the functional properties of forests. However, it is less clear how endemic to moderate aboveground herbivory affects the vertical flow of nutrients from tree canopies to the soil. Here, we report on the effects of low to moderate infestation levels of the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on the nutrient dynamics and hydrology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In a potted sapling experiment, we followed the vertical dynamics of nutrients via throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF) and litter leachates (LL) collected over ten weeks underneath infested and uninfested control trees. Aphid infestation amplifies the fluxes of K+, Mn2+ and particulate nitrogen (0.45μm < PN < 500 μm) in TF solution by 42% for K+, 59% for Mn2+ and 13% for PN relative to the control. In contrast, fluxes of NH4-N and SO4-S diminished during peaking aphid abundance by 26 and 16%, respectively. Differences in canopy-derived dissolved nitrogen and carbon compounds, sulfur (S), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ were < 10%. The effect of aphid abundance on nutrient dynamics was most notable in TF and SF and diminished in LL.Aphid infestation greatly altered the SF fluxes of DOC, K+, Mn2+, DON and sulfur-species, which were significantly concentrated at the tree base by "funneling" the rainfall through the canopy biomass to the trunk. Normalized to one square meter, water and nutrient fluxes were amplified by a factor of up to 200 compared to TF.Imaging of leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy exhibited notable differences of the surface morphology and microbiology of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves. This observation might point to an aphid-mediated alteration of the phyllosphere ecology triggering the microbial uptake of NH4-N and SO4-S and its transformation to particulate N by magnified biomass growth of the phyllosphere microflora, consequently changing the chemical partitioning and temporal availability of nitrogen.

  9. Infestation of the clam Chione fluctifraga by the burrowing worm Polydora sp. nov. in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2003-07-01

    Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity.

  10. Genetic analysis of bed bug populations reveals small propagule size within individual infestations but high genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Virna L; Booth, Warren; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-07-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) are a resurgent pest worldwide and infestations within the United States are increasing at a rapid rate. Because of the physical and psychological discomfort inflicted by their blood feeding habits, and allergies and secondary infections associated with bites, bed bugs are recognized as a significant public health problem. Although bed bug infestations are spreading and becoming more prevalent, we have a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. To help fill this gap, we conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States, nearly all of which came from single rooms within residences. We genotyped samples comprised of 8-10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5-17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3 alleles per locus), we found low genetic diversity (1-4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny, or a female mated with multiple males that were highly related to her. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise F(ST) between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of genetic structure, indicating infestations located in closer proximity to each other were nearly as genetically differentiated as those located hundreds of kilometers away. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources.

  11. Spinosad for the treatment of head lice infestations.

    PubMed

    Villegas, S C

    2012-09-01

    Head lice infestations continue to be an issue in today's society, with an increase in economic cost and resistance. Spinosad 0.9% topical suspension was recently introduced in the U.S. market as a novel agent with both pediculicidal and ovicidal activity, approved in children 4 years of age and older for the treatment of head lice infestations. In clinical trials, it has demonstrated effectiveness against head lice with permethrin resistance. In two clinical trials comparing spinosad to permethrin, efficacy was observed in the spinosad-treated groups at 84.6% and 86.7%, respectively, when compared to the permethrin-treated groups (respective values of 44.9% and 42.9%; P < 0.001). Overall, spinosad was well tolerated in clinical trials.

  12. Relationship between lice infestation and leather damage in cattle.

    PubMed

    Coles, G C; Hadley, P J; Milnes, A S; Green, L E; Stosic, P J; Garnsworthy, P C

    2003-08-30

    The relationship between lice infestation and leather damage was investigated in a trial involving 61 cattle, half of which were treated with ectoparasiticides for lice control either in their first or second year. Hides from the lice-free and lousy calves were removed manually at an abattoir, tanned and inspected for lice-related damage, commercially referred to as light spot and/or fleck. In both the first- and second-year animals there was a significant difference between the hides of the lousy and lice-free animals, confirming that the chewing louse Bovicola bovis is a cause of winter light spot. There was also a difference between the two groups in the levels of scratch damage. After the infested animals had been treated with fenvalerate and eprinomectin to kill all the lice, the damage to the hides had not been fully reversed 13 weeks later.

  13. Delusional infestation with unusual pathogens: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P

    2011-10-01

    Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI.

  14. Exploring the Psychological Profile of Patients with Delusional Infestation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Reena; Taylor, Ruth E; Bewley, Anthony

    2017-01-04

    Delusional infestation (DI) is an uncommon psychiatric disorder in which patients present with the false and fixed belief (i.e. a delusion) that their skin and/or their environment is infested despite objective evidence to the contrary. Within psychodermatology specialist clinics there is a high rate of DI referrals. What is not known is the level of psychiatric and psychological co-morbidities associated with DI and whether psychiatric or psychological assessment would be warranted. One-hundred and thirty-eight adult patients with DI attending an outpatient psychodermatology clinic were given 3 standardised questionnaires. The results showed that 81% had a poor quality of life; 52% with anxiety, 41.6% with depression and 49% with appearance-related concerns. This study indicates high levels of psychiatric and psychological disorders in DI which require assessment and appropriate intervention.

  15. Charring does not affect wood infestation by subterranean termites.

    Treesearch

    Christopher Peterson; P. D. Gerard; Terence Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Fire is an important part of forest ecosystems, as is the insect fauna. Changes in wood brought about by fire may alter the ability of termites to use the wood, interrupting the decay cycle of woody debris. The ability of termites to find, infest, and feed upon wood after it had been charred was evaluated in the laboratory and field. Eastern subterranean termites,...

  16. Control Strategies for Zebra Mussel Infestations at Public Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    facilities. It was decided that sites where zebra mussel infestations would be most apparent were components of (1) navigation locks (walls, miter gates, fill... components likely to be negatively affected by zebra mussels. In addition, attendees prepared a preliminary list of strategies to deal with zebra mussel...struc- tural components , and suitable control strategies. The matrix was developed prior to the meeting by WES personnel and was based on an approach

  17. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    PubMed

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  18. A massive infestation of sea snakes by cymothoid isopods.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, A; Balasubramanian, T; Raja, K; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a massive infestation of the sea snake Enhydrina schistosa by the cymothoid isopod Nerocila serra, commonly parasitizing fishes, is reported for the first time from India. This isopod was found attached on the different parts of the body of the snake. According to the month, the parasitic prevalence ranged from 30.8 to 55.3%, increasing during the monsson period. It was higher in female than in male snakes.

  19. Arthropod bites, stings, and infestations: their prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Honig, P J

    1986-06-01

    Readily available information as to the management of arthropod bites, stings, and infestations is important to have but often difficult to find. This article brings such information together in one reference for use by the practicing pediatrician, dermatologist, and family practitioner. Preventive measures are stressed and therapy is outlined for each entity; the rationale for many of the interventions is discussed. It is not the intent of this paper to cover each subject comprehensively.

  20. Species of flea (siphonaptera) infesting pets and hedgehogs in Germany.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Rehbein, S; Wiedemann, C

    2001-04-01

    The species of flea infesting pets and hedgehogs in Germany were investigated through a survey of small animal practitioners throughout the country who were asked to collect specimens at their veterinary practices. A total of 625 veterinarians/veterinary practices responded and provided 2445 intact anti identifiable flea specimens. These fleas originated from 294 dogs (795 fleas), 334 cats (1152 fleas), 76 hedgehogs (481 fleas), five domestic rabbits (10 fleas), one golden hamster (four fleas) and one ferret (three fleas). Dogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Chaetopsylla globiceps, Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Paraceras melis and Pulex irritans. From cats, Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae, Ceratophyllus garei, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus assimilis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Monopsyllus sciurorum, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi and Typhloceras poppei were collected. In both dogs and cats the most prevalent species were Ctenocephalides felis (78.9% and 91.6%, respectively) and Archaeopsylla erinacei (21.1% and 12.6%, respectively) followed by Ctenocephalides canis in dogs (5.8%) and Hystrichopsylla talpae in cats (1.2%). The fleas isolated from rabbits were Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae and Spilopsyllus cuniculi. Nosopsyllus fasciatus and Ctenocephalides felis were recovered from the golden hamster and the ferret, respectively. The hedgehogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae and Ctenocephalides felis.

  1. Ascarid infestation in captive Siberian tigers in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Shijie; Hou, Zhijun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-08-15

    The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of leafy spurge infestation on grassland birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheiman, D.M.; Bollinger, E.K.; Johnson, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland bird populations are declining. Invasive plant species may be contributing to these declines by altering habitat quality. However, the effects of invasive plants on grassland birds are largely unknown. Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an exotic, invasive weed in the northern Great Plains. We examined the effects of leafy spurge infestation on densities of breeding birds, nest-site selection, and nest success in grasslands on the Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG), North Dakota, USA, 1999-2000. We categorized spurge-infested grasslands into 3 groups (low, medium, high), based on the area covered by spurge patches. We surveyed 75 100-m-radius circular points (25 in each group), and searched for nests in 6 16-ha plots (2 in each group). Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) and savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) densities were lower on high-spurge points than on low- and medium-spurge points. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) densities were not significantly different among spurge cover groups. Spurge cover did not appear to be an important factor in nest-site selection. However, western meadowlark nest success was positively associated with spurge cover. Vegetation structure is an important indicator of habitat quality and resource availability for grassland birds. Changes in vegetation structure caused by introduced plant species, such as spurge, can alter resource availability and hence affect bird community composition. Managers of spurge-infested grasslands should continue current spurge control measures to help prevent further declines in grassland habitat quality and grassland bird populations.

  3. Physiological Response of Orchids to Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infestation.

    PubMed

    Kmieć, K; Kot, I; Golan, K; Górska-Drabik, E; Łagowska, B; Rubinowska, K; Michałek, W

    2016-10-25

    The harmfulness of mealybugs resulting from sucking plant sap, secreting honeydew, and transmitting plant viruses can give them the status of serious pests. This study documents the influence of Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) infestation on alterations in selected physiological parameters of Phalaenopsis x hybridum 'Innocence'. The condition of the cytoplasmic membranes was expressed as the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. We have determined changes in the activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and measured the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (Y), photochemical quenching (qP), and nonphotochemical quenching (qN). The strongest physiological response of orchids was recorded in the initial period of mealybugs infestation. Prolonged insect feeding suppressed lipid peroxidation, peroxidase and catalase activity, as well as photosynthesis photochemistry. The pattern of changes was dependent on mealybug species. This indicated the complexity of the processes responsible for plant tolerance. Data generated in this study have provided a better understanding of the impact of two mealybug species infestation on Phalaenopsis and should be useful in developing pest management strategies.

  4. Is Enterobius vermicularis infestation associated with acute appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Akkapulu, N; Abdullazade, S

    2016-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis might be seen in specimens of patients who underwent surgery due to acute appendicitis. There is still debate as to E. vermicularis infestation causes acute appendicitis. The primary aim of this study is to determine the incidence of E. vermicularis infestation, and the secondary aim is to determine the possible role of E. vermicularis in pathogenesis of appendicitis as well as the adequacy of demographic data and laboratory values in predicting infestation preoperatively. A retrospective investigation was conducted with all patients who underwent appendectomy due to acute appendicitis in a secondary care center. Patients with E. vermicularis were compared with 24 controls that underwent appendectomy during the same time period. Demographic data, preoperative white blood cell (WBC) count, eosinophil counts, and histopathological findings for both groups were analyzed and compared. Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the appendectomy materials in 9 of 1446 patients (0.62 %). Histopathologically, only one of nine patients had acute appendicitis while the others were diagnosed with lymphoid hyperplasia. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups except WBC count. However, the WBC count was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the group which was detected E. vermicularis. Enterobius vermicularis is rarely associated with the histopathological findings of acute appendicitis. Also eosinophil count and elevation of white blood counts are inadequate for predicting preoperative E. vermicularis.

  5. Ticks infesting cattle in Central Equatoria region of South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Marcellino, Wani L; Julla, Ibrahim I; Salih, Diaeldin A; El Hussein, Abdel R M

    2011-11-15

    Ticks infesting cattle represent a serious problem for improvement of cattle productivity in South Sudan. There has been limited information on ticks and tick-borne diseases in southern Sudan. This study was initiated to update the current distribution of ticks infesting cattle in the Central Equatoria region of South Sudan. The surveys for the present study were conducted at various cattle camps in Juba, Mangalla and Terekeka between December 2004 and June 2005. A total of 2322 ticks were collected from the bodies of 88 randomly selected cattle. Ticks were preserved in 70% ethanol for later identification. Seven ixodid tick species were found to infest cattle in Juba whilst six species were recorded in Mangalla and only four species in Terekeka. Amblyomma variegatum was the most common and widely distributed species found on cattle across all the study locations. Amblyomma lepidum was not found during this study. Based on these findings, it would be advisable to preempt the situation and institute containment procedures before possible East Coast fever outbreaks occur.

  6. Infestation and hydraulic consequences of induced carbon starvation.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, William R L; Callaway, Elizabeth S

    2012-08-01

    Drought impacts on forests, including widespread die-off, are likely to increase with future climate change, although the physiological responses of trees to lethal drought are poorly understood. In particular, in situ examinations of carbon starvation and its interactions with and effects on infestation and hydraulic vulnerability are largely lacking. In this study, we conducted a controlled, in situ, repeated defoliation experiment to induce carbon stress in isolated trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) ramets. We monitored leaf morphology, leaves per branch, and multitissue carbohydrate concentrations during canopy defoliation. We examined the subsequent effects of defoliation and defoliation-induced carbon stress on vulnerability to insect/fungus infestation and hydraulic vulnerability the following year. Defoliated ramets flushed multiple canopies, which coincided with moderate drawdown of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves. Infestation frequency greatly increased and hydraulic conductivity decreased 1 year after defoliation. Despite incomplete carbohydrate drawdown from defoliation and relatively rapid carbohydrate recovery, suggesting considerable carbohydrate reserves in aspen, defoliation-induced carbon stress held significant consequences for vulnerability to mortality agents and hydraulic performance. Our results indicate that multiyear consequences of drought via feedbacks are likely important for understanding forests' responses to drought and climate change over the coming decades.

  7. Self-reported bed bug infestation among New York City residents: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Nancy; Jones, Heidi E; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2013-01-01

    Bed bug infestations have risen precipitously in urban areas. Little is known about risk factors for infestations or health outcomes resulting from these infestations. In the 2009 Community Health Survey, which is a representative population-based survey, 9,934 noninstitutionalized adults in New York City reported on bed bug infestations requiring an exterminator in the past year. The authors estimated infestation prevalence and explored predictors of infestation and associations between infestations and health outcomes using logistic regression. Seven percent of adults in New York City reported bed bug infestations. Significant individual and household risk factors were younger age, increased household poverty, and having three or more adults in the household. Environmental risk factors included living in high poverty neighborhoods and in buildings with more housing units, suggesting apartment-to-apartment transmission. Bed bug infestations were not associated with stress-related outcomes of alcohol consumption or recent depression, and, unlike cockroach infestation, were not associated with recent asthma episodes caused by allergens or contaminants.

  8. Immune adaptive response induced by Bicotylophora trachinoti (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) infestation in pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, I S; Luvizzotto-Santos, R; Sampaio, L A N; Bianchini, A; Martínez, P E

    2006-09-01

    Fish have developed protective strategies against monogeneans through immunological responses. In this study, immune adaptive response to parasites was analysed in the pompano Trachinotus marginatus infested by Bicotylophora trachinoti. Hosts were pre-treated with formalin and after 10 days assigned to one of the following experimental treatments: (1) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti; (2) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti and experimentally re-infested by exposure to T. marginatus heavily infested with B. trachinoti. Samples were collected at 0, 15, and 30 days. Gills were dissected to check the presence of B. trachinoti. Blood was collected for haematological and biochemical assays. Spleen and head-kidney were dissected for phagocytosis assay. The spleen-somatic index was also calculated. Re-infested fish showed a faster and higher parasite infestation than infested ones. The parasite mean abundance at 15 days was 24.86+/-13.32 and 11.67+/-8.57 for re-infested and infested fish, respectively. In both groups, hosts showed an immune adaptive response to parasite infestation that was marked by an increased number of leukocytes. Also, phagocytosis (%) in spleen and head-kidney cells was stimulated after parasite infestation (92.50+/-3.73 and 66.00+/-9.54, respectively), becoming later depressed (77.39+/-6.69 and 53.23+/-9.14, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that monogenean infestation induces a biphasic response of the non-specific defence mechanisms in the pompano T. marginatus. This response is marked by an initial stimulation followed by a later depression of the non-specific defence mechanisms.

  9. Parasites in the Fossil Record: A Cretaceous Fauna with Isopod-Infested Decapod Crustaceans, Infestation Patterns through Time, and a New Ichnotaxon

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Artal, Pedro; van Bakel, Barry W. M.; Fraaije, René H. B.; Jagt, John W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian) reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%), arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp), to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise) and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations). PMID:24667587

  10. Don't get bugged: practical strategies for managing bedbug infestation in psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Zipple, Anthony M; Batscha, Catherine L; Flaherty, Peggy; Reynolds, Jared L

    2012-07-01

    Bedbug infestation has become a major problem in the United States. Infestations can be frightening and expensive and appear to be more prevalent in urban settings and low-income housing such as homeless shelters, public housing, and single-room occupancy apartments. This exposes consumers and staff of psychiatric rehabilitation agencies to higher risk of infestation. This brief report outlines practical suggestions for managing bedbug infestation in such agencies. Drawing on resources readily available on the Internet and the experience of Thresholds, a large provider of psychiatric rehabilitation services based in Chicago, this report describes strategies for responding to infestation. Providers need to assume that bedbug infestation is a significant risk and prepare accordingly. Assertive, persistent, and calm response is recommended.

  11. [Louse infestation of the red marmot, Marmota caudata, during its active period].

    PubMed

    Sosnina, E F; Davydov, G S

    1975-01-01

    2213 lice of Neohaematopinus palaearctcus Ols. were collected from 152 of 865 examined specimens of Marmota caudata Geoffr. from different vertical zones of Tadjikistan. The long-tailed marmot is characterized by a moderate or poor infestation with lice. In the subalpine zone, where the number and density of these animals in rather high, the infestation rate is greater than that in the brushwood zone. In spring after hibernation the infestation of M. caudata is very low. Within the reporoduction period the infestation with lice increases, the latter begin to reproduce intensively. During the preparation for hibernation the infestation rate falls due to a less intensive reproduction of lice. There are no distinct differences in the infestation rate of long-tailed marmots belonging to different age groups since there are constant contacts between the individuals of the colony. Only reproducing females live together with brood by themselves, differ in moulting periods and in a greater intensity of invasion during reproduction.

  12. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bawin, Thomas; De Backer, Lara; Dujeu, David; Legrand, Pauline; Caparros Megido, Rudy; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae) were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research. PMID:26462946

  13. Caste, sex and strain of honey bees (Apis mellifera) affect infestation with tracheal mites (Acarapis woodi).

    PubMed

    Villa, José D; Danka, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Worker honey bees from genetic strains selected for being resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to tracheal mites typically show large differences in infestation in field colonies and in bioassays that involve controlled exposure to infested bees. We used bioassays exposing newly emerged individuals to infested workers to compare the propensity for tracheal mites to infest queens, drones and workers from R and S colonies. In tests with queens, newly emerged R and S queens were either simultaneously confined in infested colonies (n = 95 and 87 respectively), or individually caged with groups of 5-20 infested workers (n = 119 and 115 respectively). Mite prevalence (percentage of individuals infested) and abundance (foundress mites per individual) after 4-6 days did not differ between R and S queens. In another test, five newly emerged drones and workers from both an R and an S colony, and a queen of one of the two strains, were caged in each of 38 cages with 20 g of workers infested at 60-96% prevalence. Infestations of the R queens (n = 17) and S queens (n = 19) did not differ significantly, but R workers had half the mite abundance of S workers, while R drones received about a third more migrating mites than S drones. In tests to evaluate possible mechanisms, removal of one mesothoracic leg from R and S workers resulted in 2- to 10-fold increase in mite abundance on the treated side, but excising legs did not affect infestation of the corresponding tracheae in drones. This suggests that differences in infestation between R and S workers, but not drones, are largely determined by their ability to remove mites through autogrooming. If autogrooming is the primary mechanism of colony resistance to tracheal mites, selection for resistance to tracheal mites using infestation of hemizygous drones may be inefficient.

  14. Does Aphid Infestation Interfere with Indirect Plant Defense against Lepidopteran Caterpillars in Wild Cabbage?

    PubMed

    Li, Yehua; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Chamontri, Surachet; Dicke, Marcel; Gols, Rieta

    2017-04-12

    Attraction of parasitoids to plant volatiles induced by multiple herbivory depends on the specific combinations of attacking herbivore species, especially when their feeding modes activate different defense signalling pathways as has been reported for phloem feeding aphids and tissue feeding caterpillars. We studied the effects of pre-infestation with non-host aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) for two different time periods on the ability of two parasitoid species to discriminate between volatiles emitted by plants infested by host caterpillars alone and those emitted by plants infested with host caterpillars plus aphids. Using plants originating from three chemically distinct wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, Diadegma semiclausum switched preference for dually infested plants to preference for plants infested with Plutella xylostella hosts alone when the duration of pre-aphid infestation doubled from 7 to 14 days. Microplitis mediator, a parasitoid of Mamestra brassicae caterpillars, preferred dually-infested plants irrespective of aphid-infestation duration. Separation of the volatile blends emitted by plants infested with hosts plus aphids or with hosts only was poor, based on multivariate statistics. However, emission rates of individual compounds were often reduced in plants infested with aphids plus hosts compared to those emitted by plants infested with hosts alone. This effect depended on host caterpillar species and plant population and was little affected by aphid infestation duration. Thus, the interactive effect of aphids and hosts on plant volatile production and parasitoid attraction can be dynamic and parasitoid specific. The characteristics of the multi-component volatile blends that determine parasitoid attraction are too complex to be deduced from simple correlative statistical analyses.

  15. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K F; Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Andersen, B; Thrane, U; Frisvad, J C

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species were inoculated on gypsum board with and without wallpaper and on chipboard with and without wallpaper. Fungal material was scraped off the materials, extracted, and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and thin layer chromatography. All six isolates of C. globosum produced the toxic chaetoglobosins A and C, at levels of up to 50 and 7 microg/cm2 respectively. The quantities of secondary metabolites produced by Penicillia were generally low, and no toxin production was detected from any of the five isolates of Pen. chrysogenum. Both isolates of Pen. polonicum produced 3-methoxy-viridicatin, verrucosidin, and verrucofortine. Two of five isolates of Pen. brevicompactum produced mycophenolic acid. From five out of six isolates of Alternaria spp., altenariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were detected. From Ulocladium spp., Paecilomyces spp., and Asp. ustus no known mycotoxins were detected, although the latter two are known mycotoxin producers. Asp. niger produced several naphtho-gamma-pyrones and tetra-cyclic compounds. All investigated species, especially Asp. ustus and Asp. niger produced many unknown secondary metabolites on the building materials. Analyses of wallpaper and glass-fibre wallpaper naturally infested with Asp. versicolor revealed sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin. Analyses of naturally infested wallpaper showed that C. globosum produced the chaetoglobosins A and C, and Pen. chrysogenum produced the antibiotic meleagrin.

  16. Detecting insect infestation with poly3-hexylthiophenethin thin film sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerakoon, Kanchana; Li, Suiquing; Shu, Hungjen J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2009-05-01

    The financial losses and destruction of crops due to insect infestation in the United States are estimated by the USDA to exceed 20 billion dollars annually. Much of these losses could be avoided by having a sensor that could effectively identify the early stages of insect infestation. However, traditional detection methods are time consuming, require trained personnel, and are not sufficient for early detection. Several previous research studies showed that emitting organic volatile compounds is a defensive mechanism activated by some plant species after being attacked by herbivores and parasites. Corn, cotton, pine, Brussels sprouts when attacked by Beet army worm, spider mites, bark beetles and caterpillars respectively, emits different blends of plant volatiles including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate, with a concentration of about 50 ppm. Therefore, monitoring for these volatile compounds may enable on-site early detection of insect infestations. In this study, a chemical resistor sensor to detect plant volatiles was designed and fabricated. The sensor platform consists of micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes. On to this platform, a poly3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) thin film was deposited, using a spin coater at 8000 rpm for 30 seconds. The sensor was tested and found to be sensitive to a variety of plant volatiles, including γ-terpinene, α-pinene, p-cymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate at room temperature. These vapors interacted with the P3HT film causing an increase in the resistance of the sensor by more than one order of magnitude

  17. [Some aspects of the skin infestation by Demodex folliculorum].

    PubMed

    Raszeja-Kotelba, Barbara; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Izdebska, Joanna N; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Tomczak, Małgorzata; Dembińska, Magdalena

    2004-01-01

    The importance of demodicids (Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis) infestation and their effect on skin lesions has been described based on literature data and our own clinical and parasitological investigations. Hair follicle mites have been detected in 45% of patients with rosacea, 27% of patients with perioral dermatitis, 28% of patients suffering from seborrhoeic dermatitis and in 3 out of 7 patients with chronic blepharitis. Clinical picture of demodecosis included erythemato-papulous and pustulous (rosacea-like) skin lesions together with erythemato-desquamative changes of the face.

  18. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B

    2008-01-01

    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given.

  19. Unilateral cacosmia: a presentation of maxillary fungal infestation

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, Sally E; Schelenz, Silke; Philpott, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of long-standing unilateral cacosmia in a healthy 67-year-old man due to maxillary fungal infestation. Treatment with septoplasty had been attempted 10 years prior but no further investigation or management undertaken and symptoms continued. Subsequent MRI scan revealed significant opacification of the left maxillary sinus. This was readily amenable to treatment by balloon sinuplasty. This yielded viscous grey mucus which grew Scedosporium apiospermum. The case highlights the need for careful investigation of olfactory symptoms, including blood tests to exclude systemic causes, endoscopy and imaging where indicated. PMID:23563684

  20. Human botfly infestation: the tip of the iceberg.

    PubMed

    Nduka, Jude Chiedu; Mcnair, Rory

    2014-12-19

    A retired man in his 60s was referred to the on call orthopaedic team by his general practitioner following several attempts to extricate a human botfly larva from his forearm. While on holiday in Belize with his daughter 8 weeks previously they both were bitten by some insects. She developed an infestation which was treated locally. Once back in the UK, he subsequently reported of localised itching and discomfort. A botfly larva was successfully removed in the emergency department following local anaesthetic infiltration. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Human botfly infestation: the tip of the iceberg

    PubMed Central

    Nduka, Jude Chiedu; Mcnair, Rory

    2014-01-01

    A retired man in his 60s was referred to the on call orthopaedic team by his general practitioner following several attempts to extricate a human botfly larva from his forearm. While on holiday in Belize with his daughter 8 weeks previously they both were bitten by some insects. She developed an infestation which was treated locally. Once back in the UK, he subsequently reported of localised itching and discomfort. A botfly larva was successfully removed in the emergency department following local anaesthetic infiltration. PMID:25527681

  2. Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiming

    Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total

  3. A Method for Field Infestation with Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Xing, L. J.; Westphal, A.

    2005-01-01

    A field inoculation method was developed to produce Meloidogyne spp. infestation sites with minimal quantities of nematode inoculum and with a reduced labor requirement compared to previous techniques. In a preseason-methyl bromidefumigated site, nematode egg suspensions were delivered at concentrations of 0 or 10x eggs/m of row where x = 2.12, 2.82, 3.52, or 4.22 through a drip line attached to the seed firmer of a commercial 2-row planter into the open seed furrow while planting cowpea. These treatments were compared to a hand-inoculated treatment, in which 103.1 eggs were delivered every 30 cm in 5 ml of water agar suspension 2 weeks after planting. Ten weeks after planting, infection of cowpea roots was measured by gall rating and gall counts on cowpea roots. A linear relationship between the inoculation levels and nematode-induced galls was found. At this time, the amount of galling per root system in the hand-inoculated treatment was less than in the machine-applied treatments. Advantages of this new technique include application uniformity and low population level requisite for establishing the nematode. This method has potential in field-testing of Meloidogyne spp. management strategies by providing uniform infestation of test sites at planting time. PMID:19262898

  4. Abnormal gray and white matter volume in delusional infestation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Robert Christian; Huber, Markus; Depping, Malte Sebastian; Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Karner, Martin; Lepping, Peter; Freudenmann, Roland W

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the neural basis of delusional infestation (DI), the delusional belief to be infested with pathogens. Case series and the response to anti-dopaminergic medication indicate disruptions in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum (caudate, putamen), but did not allow for population-based inference. Here, we report the first whole-brain structural neuroimaging study to investigate gray and white matter abnormalities in DI compared to controls. In this study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to investigate gray and white matter volume in 16 DI patients and 16 matched healthy controls. Lower gray matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in left medial, lateral and right superior frontal cortices, left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left thalamus, right striatal areas and in lateral and medial temporal cortical regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). Higher white matter volume in DI patients compared to controls was found in right middle cingulate, left frontal opercular and bilateral striatal regions (p<0.05, cluster-corrected). This study shows that structural changes in prefrontal, temporal, insular, cingulate and striatal brain regions are associated with DI, supporting a neurobiological model of disrupted prefrontal control over somato-sensory representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura

    PubMed Central

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

  6. Ocular symptoms reported by patients infested with Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Sędzikowska, Aleksandra; Osęka, Maciej; Grytner-Zięcina, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine subjective ocular symptoms occurring in patients infested with Demodex. The number of Demodex mites in the obtained material that correlated with the appearance of ocular symptoms was estimated. The study material were eyelashes collected from 1499 patients. The material were observed under a light microscope. T-test, the logistic regression method, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for the analysis. Demodex mites were detected in 47% patients. The mean ages of infected women and men were 64 and 59 years, respectively. 64% infected patients complained of one or more ophthalmological symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms included itching (28%), redness of eyelids (21%), and watery eyes (15%). Positive correlation was found between itching, redness, pain, purulence or eyelash loss and the presence of Demodex. The mentioned symptoms increase the probability of Demodex infestation in a statistically significant manner (p<0.005). A correlation between the age and gender and the number of Demodex was revealed by the study. The threshold average number of seven Demodex mites per eight collected eyelashes with which the risk of the occurrence of an ocular symptom increases significantly was defined. In patients with a low number of Demodex mites, symptoms may be absent. The risk of the occurrence of ocular symptom in patients with demodicosis increases with the increase in the average number of Demodex mites.

  7. Efficient detection of internal infestation in wheat based on biophotonics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weiya; Jiao, Keke; Liang, Yitao; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    In the process of grain storage, there are many losses of grain quantity and quality for the sake of insects. As a result, it is necessary to find a rapid and economical method for detecting insects in the grain. The paper innovatively proposes a model of detecting internal infestation in wheat by combining pattern recognition and BioPhoton Analytical Technology (BPAT). In this model, the spontaneous ultraweak photons emitted from normal and insect-contaminated wheat are firstly measured respectively. Then, position, distribution and morphological characteristics can be extracted from the measuring data to construct wheat feature vector. Backpropagation (BP) neural network based on genetic algorithm is employed to take decision on whether wheat kernel has contaminated by insects. The experimental results show that the proposed model can differentiate the normal wheat from the insect-contaminated one at an average accuracy of 95%. The model can also offer a novel thought for detecting internal infestation in the wheat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Current Status of Mimosa pigra L. Infestation in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Asyraf; Crawley, Micheal J.

    2011-01-01

    The status and distribution of Mimosa pigra L., a semi-aquatic invasive species in Peninsular Malaysia, were continuously assessed between 2004 and 2007. This assessment investigated its population stand density and related weed management activities. In total, 106 sites of 6 main habitat types i.e., construction site (CS), dam/ reservoir (DM), forest reserve (FR), plantation (PL), river bank/waterway (RB) and roadside (RD) were assessed, and 55 sites were recorded with M. pigra populations. A CS is the most likely habitat to be infested with M. pigra (16 out of 18 assessed sites have this weed), whereas none of the FR visited were found to harbour M. pigra. In terms of population stand density, 41 populations were in the low range of stand density (individual plant of ≤5 m−2), compared to only 9 populations in the high range of stand density (individual plant of >10 m−2). In general, the current impact of M. pigra infestation on natural habitats is relatively low, as its distribution is only confined to disturbed areas. However, continuous monitoring of this weed species is highly recommended, especially in the riparian zone and wetland habitats. PMID:24575208

  9. Human botfly infestation presenting as peri-auricular mass.

    PubMed

    Boruk, Marina; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Alexis, Richard

    2006-02-01

    To report a new cause of peri-auricular mass in children: cutaneous myiasis-botfly infestation. Case report. The human botfly (Dermatobia hominis) is found in the tropics of Central and South America. However, cases of infestation are uncommon in the United States. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl with cutaneous myiasis in order to expand the differential diagnosis for a peri-auricular mass in children. In our report, the parasite was initially identified as sparganum, but was later reclassified by the center for disease control and prevention (CDC) as a botfly larva. Parasitic infection should be considered with a newly noted head and neck mass, and cutaneous myiasis should be included in the differential diagnosis. Cutaneous myiasis has not been previously reported in the literature describing the peri-auricular region as the site of occurrence. Furthermore, when an unusual parasite is extracted from a lesion, it should be confirmed by an authority such as CDC for definitive diagnosis, so appropriate plan of care and follow up can be instituted.

  10. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1981-05-01

    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups.

  11. Influence of canopy aspect and height on codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval infestation in apple, and relationship between infestation and fruit size.

    PubMed

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Mody, Karsten; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-02-01

    Monitoring systems based on traps with female attractants are expected to enhance forecasting of insect population size and damage. The optimal placement of such traps should match the small-scale distribution of ovipositing females. In the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), fruit infestation takes place in proximity to the oviposition site. We characterized the within-tree distribution of codling moth infestations and the size of uninfested fruit based on a survey of 40,000 apples (Malus spp.) from trees belonging to 160 different apple genotypes and growing in two different environments. Each tree was subdivided into 12 sectors, considering canopy aspect (north, east, south, and west) and canopy height (bottom, middle, and top). This study revealed that fruit infestation by the first but not by the second generation of larvae correlated significantly with canopy aspect. Similarly, fruit size differed significantly between the north- and the south-facing tree side for the period of infestation by the first but not by the second larval generation. Significantly lower fruit infestation was observed on the north- compared with the south- or east-facing tree side for the first generation. A significant influence of canopy height on larval infestation was observed in three of eight assessments, in which the middle height level showed the highest infestations. Significant differences in within-tree distribution of codling moth infestation suggest that oviposition preference is guided by nonrandom factors including microclimate, fruit phenology, and wind direction. These cultivar-independent findings should be considered in future monitoring systems that focus on female codling moth.

  12. Detection of Mango Infested with Fruit Fly Eggs and Larvae by Infrared Imaging and Discriminant Analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...

  13. Infestation of wild and ornamental non-crop fruits by Drosophila suzukii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drosophila suzukii is a pest of small fruits and cherries, and has also been noted to infest a variety of wild, ornamental, and uncultivated hosts. Identifying alternative hosts is critical for pest management. Research objectives were to: 1) survey fruits in fields for natural infestation of D. ...

  14. 76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions... detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on September...

  15. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this action...

  16. 75 FR 78587 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Ohio, and Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. This document corrects errors... necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States...

  17. 78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin... infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on October 24, 2013, we are...

  18. Head lice predictors and infestation dynamics among primary school children in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Birkemoe, Tone; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Soleng, Arnulf; Næss, Øyvind; Rukke, Bjørn Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health providers need to know which measures to take and children to prioritize in order to decrease costs associated with head lice infestations. Objective. Our aim was to determine the most important predictors for head lice and identify the major drivers of an infestation outbreak in a low-prevalence area. Methods. The study was based on three datasets of head lice prevalence (retrospective, point prevalence and prospective approach) from primary school children (ages 6–12) at 12 schools in Oslo, Norway. The tested predictors were siblings with lice, individual and household characteristics as well as class and school affiliation. Self-reported monthly incidences (prospective approach) of head lice were used to evaluate infestation dynamics. Results. Infested siblings strongly increased the odds of head lice infestation of school children (odds ratio 36, 26 and 7 in the three datasets) whereas having short hair halved the odds. Household characteristics were of minor importance, and class affiliation proved more important than school affiliation. Having head lice in one school term increased the odds of an infestation in the next, but this effect diminished over time. About 97% of all self-reported infestations were noted in two consecutive months or less. Conclusions. With the exception of hair length, we have found that individual and household characteristics are of minor importance to predict head lice infestations in a low-prevalence country and that unnoticed transmissions in school classes and families are likely to be the major driver upon outbreaks. PMID:26511728

  19. Evaluating airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains by far the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable band...

  20. 7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... divided into generally infested areas or suppressive areas as indicated below: New York (1) Generally infested area: Cayuga County. (A) The Town of Montezuma; (B) That portion of land within the Town of Mentz... intersection of Tow Path Road and Maiden Lane; then west along Tow Path Road to its intersection with the Town...

  1. 7 CFR 301.85-2a - Regulated areas; suppressive and generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... south and southeast along New York Route 36 to its intersection with the Dansville Town line, then west... divided into generally infested areas or suppressive areas as indicated below: New York (1) Generally infested area: Cayuga County. (A) The Town of Montezuma; (B) That portion of land within the Town of Mentz...

  2. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  3. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  4. A survey of ectoparasites infesting urban and rural dogs of Maranhão state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Andrea P; Silva, Arannadia B; Costa, Francisco B; Xavier, Gabriel S; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Guerra, Rita M S N C

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated for the first time, ectoparasite infestations on dogs from urban and rural areas of the continental land of the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil. In total, 622 dogs were examined for ectoparasite infestations. Overall, 392 (63.0%) were infested with ectoparasites, 154 (51.3%) of 300 urban dogs and 238 (73.9%) of 322 rural dogs. Five species of ectoparasites were found, three ticks [Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma cajennense (F.)], one flea [Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché)], and one louse [(Heterodoxus spininger (Enderlein)]. The frequency of infestation by R. sanguineus tended to be higher in urban than in rural areas, whereas infestations by Amblyomma ticks and C. felis fleas tended to be higher among rural dogs. Louse (H. spininger) infestations were similarly low among all areas. Mixed infestations by at least two species of ectoparasites on the same dog were significantly more frequent on rural than on urban dogs. The most frequent mixed infestation was by R. sanguineus and C. felis, found on 11.4% of the dogs. Further studies are warranted to evaluate canine vector-borne agents in Maranhão, especially because most of the ectoparasites here reported are vectors of major vector-borne diseases, including zoonoses of continental importance.

  5. Using airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping saltcedar infestations in west Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Rio Grande of west Texas contains, by far, the largest infestation of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in Texas. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different classification techniques for mapping saltcedar infestations. Hyperspectral imagery with 102 usable ba...

  6. Effects of intensive forest management practices on insect infestation levels and loblolly pine growth

    Treesearch

    John T. Nowak; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    Intensive forest management practices have been shown to increase tree growth and shorten rotation time. However, they may also lead to an increased need for insect pest management because of higher infestation levels and lower action thresholds. To investigate the relationship between intensive management practices arid insect infestation, maximum growth potential...

  7. Ladybug hypersensitivity among residents of homes infested with ladybugs in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kusum; Muldoon, Susan B; Potter, Michael F; Pence, Hobert L

    2006-10-01

    There have been isolated case reports of hypersensitivity to the ladybug species Harmonia axyridis. Entomologists now report a rapid increase in ladybug numbers, giving rise to increasing complaints of residential infestations. To determine whether ladybug infestation of homes causes hypersensitivity among residents and to estimate the prevalence of self-reported ladybug allergy in this population. This pilot observational study was conducted using an anonymous survey. The participation rate was 59% (99/167). The incidence of self-reported allergy symptoms in this population was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-85%). The prevalence of self-reported ladybug allergy was 50% (95% CI, 39%-60%). Of all the respondents, 19% (95% CI, 12%-28%) reported allergy symptoms on direct contact with ladybugs and 31% (95% CI, 22%-41%) reported the use of extra allergy medications during times of infestation. The correlation between worsening of allergy symptoms and time of infestation was significant for spring, fall, and winter infestations (P = .02, P = .001, and P < .001, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first study to estimate the prevalence of ladybug hypersensitivity, which was found to be 50% by self-report among people with home infestations. These results suggest that the ladybug could be a significant cause of respiratory allergy in heavily infested homes. Further studies using diagnostic testing to confirm allergy are now indicated. We recommend that patients with spring, fall, and winter allergies be asked about ladybug infestation and that ladybug reagents be made available for diagnostic testing.

  8. Seasonal infestation of birds with immature stages of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes arboricola.

    PubMed

    Kocianová, Elena; Rusňáková Tarageľová, Veronika; Haruštiaková, Danka; Špitalská, Eva

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the parasitization of cavity-nesting birds and ground-nesting/foraging birds with larvae and nymphs of two Ixodes species, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes arboricola. Totals of 679 (52.3%) I. ricinus and 619 (47.7%) I. arboricola ticks were collected from 15 species of passerine birds which were caught during the nesting and non-nesting periods of 2003-2006, in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic, the Drahanská Vrchovina Uplands. In the non-nesting period from October to March, 6.8% (101/1492) of birds were infested with ticks, mainly with I. arboricola larvae. In the non-nesting period, the average intensity of infestation by I. arboricola and I. ricinus was 8.5 and 1.5 individuals per infested bird, respectively. In the nesting period from April to June, 21.6% (50/232) of birds were infested by both tick species but mainly with I. ricinus nymphs. The average intensity of infestation by I. ricinus and I. arboricola was 13.3 and 10.8 individuals per infested bird, respectively. Altogether, 23.2% of the infested birds were parasitized by both immature life stages of one or both tick species. From an enzootic perspective, co-feeding and co-infestation of I. ricinus and I. arboricola subadults on passerine birds might happen and may be important for the dissemination of tick-borne agents.

  9. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw...

  10. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw...

  11. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw...

  12. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw...

  13. 9 CFR 95.28 - Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tick-infested areas. 95.28 Section 95.28 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS (EXCEPT CASINGS), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.28 Hay or straw and similar material from tick-infested areas. Hay or straw...

  14. Infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) is associated with housing characteristics in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Justin M; Wilson, Mark L; Cruz-Celis, Adriana; Ordoñez, Rosalinda; Ramsey, Janine M

    2006-11-01

    Long-term control of Chagas disease requires not only interruption of the human transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi Schyzotrypanum, Chagas, 1909 by controlling its domestic triatomine vectors but also surveillance to prevent reinfestation of residences from sylvatic or persistent peridomestic populations. Although a number of potential risk factors for infestation have been implicated in previous studies, the explanatory power of resulting models has been low. Two years after cessation of triatomine vector control efforts in the town of Chalcatzingo, Morelos, 78 environmental, socioecological, and spatial variables were analyzed for association with infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis Stal 1872 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), the principal vector of T. cruzi. We studied 712 residences in this rural community to identify specific intradomestic and peridomestic risk factors that predicted infestation with T. pallidipennis. From numerous characteristics that were identified as correlated with infestation, we derived multivariate logistic regression models to predict residences that were more or less likely to be infested with T. pallidipennis. The most important risk factors for infestation included measurements of house age, upkeep, and spatial location in the town. The effects of certain risk factors on infestation were found to be modified by spatial characteristics of residences. The results of this study provide new information regarding risk factors for infestation by T. pallidipennis that may aid in designing sustainable disease control programs in rural Mexico.

  15. Changes in Wood Processing and Use Have Influenced the Likelihood of Beetle Infestations in Seasoned Wood

    Treesearch

    Lonnie H. Williams

    1980-01-01

    Fewer houses are being built with crawl spaces and more houses have central heating and air-conditioning, so the number of anobiid beetle infestations should decline. The likelihood of lyctid infestations in domestic hardwoods has been decreased by improved processing and marketing, but increased imports of tropical hardwoods likely will increase the frequency of...

  16. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  17. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  18. Effects of Intensive Forest Management Practices on Insect Infestation Levels and Loblolly Pine Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, J.T.; Berisford, C.W.

    2000-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intensive management practices and insect infestation, maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine over four years using different levels of cultural treatments. Results indicate tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management can improve initial tree growth.

  19. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  20. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  1. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the US. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export fruit hosts of this insect from infested countries to non-infested countries where it might...

  2. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  3. Amino acid composition and chemical evaluation of protein quality of cereals as affected by insect infestation.

    PubMed

    Jood, S; Kapoor, A C; Singh, R

    1995-09-01

    A significant decrease in essential amino acids of wheat, maize and sorghum was observed due to grain infestation caused by mixed populations of Trogoderma granarium Everts and Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius (50:50). Non-essential amino acids were also adversely affected. Among the essential amino acids, maximum reduction was found in methionine, isoleucine and lysine in infested wheat, maize and sorghum grains, respectively. Lysine, with lowest chemical score in uninfested and infested grains of three cereals, is the first limiting amino acid. Insect infestation caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the chemical score of all the essential amino acids, yet did not change the position of first and second limiting amino acids in wheat and sorghum. However, in case of maize, isoleucine became the second limiting amino acid. Infested grains also showed substantial reduction in essential amino acid index, calculated biological value and requirement index.

  4. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ponson, Laura; Andersson, Frédéric; El-Hage, Wissam

    2015-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown. Case presentation Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Conclusion Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. PMID:25673993

  5. Assessment of Immune Activation in Mice before and after Eradication of Mite Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Nancy A; Trammell, Rita A; Ball-Kell, Susan; Verhulst, Steven; Toth, Linda A

    2009-01-01

    Mite infestation of mice remains a persistent problem for many institutions, leading to numerous health problems and creating unknown and unwanted variables for research. In this study, mice with mite infestation demonstrated significantly higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, both at draining lymph nodes (axillary) and systemically, as compared with mice without mites. In addition, histologic evaluation revealed significant inflammation in mite-infested mice. Inflammatory changes were still present in the skin of mice at 6 to 8 wk after treatment, despite absence of detectable infestation at that time. Because these significant and lasting local and systemic changes have the potential to alter research findings, eradication of mites infestations should be an important goal for all institutions. PMID:19653944

  6. Chagas Disease: Assessing the Existence of a Threshold for Bug Infestation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Aiga, Hirotsugu; Sasagawa, Emi; Hashimoto, Ken; Nakamura, Jiro; Zúniga, Concepción; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Hernández, Hector Manuel Ramos; Nakagawa, Jun; Tabaru, Yuichiro

    2012-01-01

    To examine the existence of a possible threshold for the domestic infestation rate of Triatoma dimidiata, below which transmission becomes unlikely, a census was conducted in 59 Chagas disease endemic communities of El Salvador and Honduras. Entomological and serological tests were conducted targeting 4,083 households and 6,324 children between 6 months and 15 years of age. The overall domestic infestation rate of Triatoma dimidiata and seroprevalence among children were 12.9% and 0.49%, respectively. Communities with a domestic infestation rate at 8% or less consistently showed a seroprevalence of 0%. In communities with a domestic infestation rate above 8%, there was a wide range in seroprevalence. A domestic infestation rate of 8% could serve as the possible threshold below which transmission would become unlikely. The implementation of an 8% threshold for determining needs for universal insecticide spraying would lead to a 21% reduction in spraying-related costs. PMID:22665603

  7. Bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the greater Yellowstone area during four postfire years. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, L.A.; Amman, G.D.; Vandygriff, J.C.; Oakes, R.D.; Munson, A.S.

    1996-03-01

    Surveys of bark beetle and wood borer infestation in the Greater Yellowstone Area were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effect of delayed tree mortality on mosaics of fire-killed and green tree stands, the relationship between fire injury and infestation, but both types of mortality greatly altered the mosaics immediately apparent after the 1988 fires. The high level of infestation suggests that insects built up in fire-injured trees and then caused increased infestation of uninjured trees.

  8. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) when heavily infested by Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000) copepodids.

    PubMed

    González, Margarita P; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Marín, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    The year-round presence of ovigerous females of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi in the fish farms of southern Chile results in a continuous source of the copepodid (infestive) stage of this louse. The short generation time in spring-summer could lead to high abundances of this copepodid, potentially leading to high infestation levels for fish. Knowing how heavy lice infestations affect Salmo salar can help determine how to time antiparasitic treatments so as to both minimize the treatment impact and reduce lice infestation levels for fish. This study aimed to describe the effects of high infestations of the copepodid stage of C. rogercresseyi on the physiology of S. salar. Two groups of S. salar were used: an infested group (75 copepodids per fish) and a control group (not infested). Sixty-five days after the first infestation, the infested fish group was re-infested at an infestation pressure of 200 copepodids per fish. Sampling was done prior to and following the second infestation, at 56 and 67 days (the latter 2 days following the second infestation). Several physiological variables were measured: cortisol (primary stress response) and glucose, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides, lactate, osmolality levels, and number and diameter of skin mucous cells (secondary stress responses). The plasma cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride levels were altered in the heavily infested fish, as was the diameter of skin mucous cells. These results suggest that heavy infestations of C. rogercresseyi lead to an acute stress response, metabolic reorganization, and increased mucus production in S. salar under heavy infestation conditions.

  9. Injury and interplant compensation for southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestations in field corn.

    PubMed

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2013-04-01

    Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun.

  10. Sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor analysis of Demodex infestation (Acari: Demodicidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao

    2011-12-01

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (χ(2)=60.6, P<0.001). Specifically, the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R(2)=0.57, moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1, severe infestation OR=10.3). It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.

  11. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. Cars or others vehicles which have carried cattle exposed to or infested with ticks within the quarantined...

  12. Detection of fruit-fly infestation in olives using X-ray imaging: Algorithm development and prospects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

  13. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter and manure removed... which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall be destroyed or treated by...

  14. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...

  15. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... premises or inclosures which have contained interstate shipments of tick-infested animals, shall...

  16. Optimum survival strategies against zombie infestations - a population dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    We model a zombie infestation by three coupled ODEs that jointly describe the time evolution of three populations: regular humans, zombies, and survivors (humans that have survived at least one zombie encounter). This can be generalized to take into account more levels of expertise and/or skill degradation. We compute the fixed points, and stability thereof, that correspond to one of three possible outcomes: human extinction, zombie extermination or, if one allows for a human non-zero birth-rate, co-habitation. We obtain analytically the optimum strategy for humans in terms of the model's parameters (essentially, whether to flee and hide, or fight). Zombies notwithstanding, this can also be seen as a toy model for infections of immune system cells, such as CD4+ T cells in AIDS, and macrophages in tuberculosis, whereby cells are both the target of infection, and mediate the acquired immunity response against the same infection. I thank FAPERJ for financial support.

  17. Phthiriasis palpebrarum: A case of eyelash infestation with Pthirus pubis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Na; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Feng Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is a rare type of eyelid infestation. In the present study, a 63-year-old woman presented with a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum, which was initially misdiagnosed as anterior blepharitis. The patient had a 2-month history of repeated episodes of itching and burning sensations and moderate pain in both eyes that were not improved by antibiotic and corticosteroid eye drops. Slit lamp examination revealed lice and nits anchored to the eyelashes. All eyelashes were removed from the base along with lice and nits. The patient recovered fully within 2 weeks with no further management, and no evidence of lice or nits was found at the follow up. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggests that patients presenting with itching of the eyelids and with clinical findings resembling seborrhea accumulation on the eyelashes should be carefully examined by prolonged observation with a slit lamp. PMID:28565799

  18. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    PubMed Central

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366

  19. Dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestation of horned oak galls.

    PubMed

    Eliason, E A; Potter, D A

    2000-06-01

    Pin oak, Quercus palustris Muenchhausen, is the primary host for the gall wasp Callirhytis cornigera (Osten Sacken). Woody stem galls formed by C. cornigera may be infested by the dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), an important pest of flowering dogwood, Cornus florida L. Previous research has shown that S. scitula has a bimodal seasonal flight pattern, with peaks in late spring and midsummer. We tested the hypothesis that moths emerging from dogwoods largely account for the first flight pulse, whereas emergence from stem galls contributes disproportionately to the second pulse. Seasonal flight activity of S. scitula was monitored with pheromone traps baited with Z,Z-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol acetate. Traps were hung near plantings of dogwoods in suburban landscapes or near heavily galled pin oaks. Borer emergence from dogwood was monitored by sampling infested trees for pupal exuviae, and from galls that were collected and held in outdoor rearing cages. The impact of S. scitula on C. cornigera larvae was assessed by weighing, measuring, and dissecting galls. Flight activity of S. scitula began on 5 May and ended on 13 October 1999, with peaks in late May and in late July to early August. The flight pattern was similar for the two types of trapping sites, and moths emerged from both hosts during both flight periods. Proportionately more moths emerged from dogwoods during the first flight pulse than during the second, but emergence from galls was nearly evenly divided between the two flight peaks. We therefore reject the hypothesis that emergence of borers from galls contributes disproportionately to the second flight period. Approximately 12-15% of stem galls (2-3 yr old) contained S. scitula larvae. Feeding and tunneling by borers contributed to gall desiccation and reduced horn development, but rarely killed C. cornigera larvae. This study has implications for management of S. scitula because borers emerging from horned oak galls may represent a threat to

  20. Bark-beetle infestation affects water quality in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelson, K.; Dickenson, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In the previous decade, millions of acres in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado have been infested by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) leading to large-scale tree mortality. These vegetation changes can impact hydrological and biogeochemical processes, possibly altering the leaching of natural organic matter to surrounding waters and increasing the potential for harmful disinfection byproducts (DBP) during water treatments. To investigate these adverse outcomes, we have collected water quality data sets from local water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado that have either been infested with MPB or remain a control. Results demonstrate significantly more total organic carbon (TOC) and DBPs in water treatment facilities receiving their source water from infested watersheds as compared to the control sites. Temporal DBP concentrations in MPB-watersheds also have increased significantly in conjunction with the bark-beetle infestation. Interestingly, only modest increases in TOC concentrations were observed in infested watersheds despite more pronounced increases in DBP concentrations. Total trihalomethanes, a heavily regulated DBP, was found to approach the regulatory limit in two out of four reporting quarters at facilities receiving their water from infested forests. These findings indicate that bark-beetle infestation alters TOC composition and loading in impacted watersheds and that this large-scale phenomenon has implications on the municipal water supply in the region.

  1. Worm infestations and development of autoimmunity in children – The ABIS study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michael P.; Faresjö, Åshild

    2017-01-01

    Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. The parents answered questions on worm infestations when the children were 1, 5 and 8 years of age. The ABIS registry was connected to the National Registry of Drug Prescriptions, and national registries for diagnosis of the studied diseases. We found no differences in incidence of worm infestations at 1, 5 or 8 years of age between children who developed autoimmune disease(s) or healthy controls. At 8 years in total 20.0% of the general child population had experienced a worm infestation; children who developed Type 1 diabetes, 21,3%, celiac disease 19,5% and JRA 18,8%. There was no difference in prescriptions of drugs for treatment of worm infestations between those who had and who had not developed Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. We found no associations indicating that worm infestations in childhood does not play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases in Sweden. PMID:28333965

  2. Effect of Wheat Flour Packaging Materials on Infestation by Lasioderma serricorne (F.).

    PubMed

    Lü, Jianhua; Ma, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The ability of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), to infest wheat flour under packaged and unpackaged conditions was investigated in the laboratory at 27 ± 2°C and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. Five common packaging materials, namely, vacuum plastic bags, kraft paper bags, nonwoven cloth bags, aluminum foil bags, and woven plastic bags, were investigated. Adults and eggs of L. serricorne were released on different packaged wheat flour or on unpackaged wheat flour, and infestation levels (number of live adults and larvae) were determined after 45 days. When adults were released on wheat flour, the infestation degree varied depending on the package materials. The highest infestation was observed in refined wheat flour packaged in nonwoven cloth bags. With wheat flour packaged in kraft paper bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation or insect infestation was negligible (mean population, <1.3). With wheat flour packaged in aluminum foil bags and vacuum plastic bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation. Damage to the packaging materials along the folds or edges was found in nonwoven cloth bags and woven plastic bags. Therefore, both aluminum foil and plastic bags had the greatest resistance to package invasion by L. serricorne.

  3. Acute impacts of the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation on reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kynkäänniemi, Sanna-Mari; Kettu, Maria; Kortet, Raine; Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja; Paakkonen, Tommi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Härkönen, Sauli; Ylönen, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2014-04-01

    Blood-sucking ectoparasites have often a strong impact on the behaviour of their hosts. The annual insect harassment of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has increased in the southern part of the Finnish reindeer herding area because of the recent invasion of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic louse-fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). We studied the impact of the deer ked on the behaviour of reindeer. Twelve reindeer were infested with a total of 300 keds/reindeer on six occasions in a 5-week period during the deer ked flight season in autumn, while six non-infested reindeer were used as controls. Behavioural patterns indicating potential stress were monitored by visual observation from August to December. The infested reindeer displayed more incidences of restless behaviour than the controls. Shaking and scratching were the most common forms of restless behaviour after infestation of deer keds. Increased grooming was also observed after the transplantation and also later, 1 month after the infestation. Based on the results, the deer ked infestation can cause acute behavioural disturbance in reindeer and, thus, could pose a potential threat to reindeer welfare. Antiparasitic treatment with, e.g. ivermectin, may increase the welfare of parasitized reindeer by reducing deer keds. If the deer ked infestation intensity on the reindeer herding area increases and restless behaviour of reindeer becomes more common, the present results can help in further evaluation of the duration and magnitude of behavioural changes.

  4. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I

    2005-04-01

    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  5. Oviposition behavior of the wheat stem sawfly when encountering plants infested with cryptic conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Buteler, Micaela; Weaver, David K; Peterson, Robert K D

    2009-12-01

    Insect herbivores typically oviposit on the most suitable hosts, but choices can be modulated by detection of potential competition among conspecifics, especially when eggs are deposited cryptically. Larvae of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, developing within an already infested stem, experience elevated risk when only one will survive because of cannibalism. To increase our understanding of host selection when the choices made by females can lead to severe intraspecific competition, females were presented with either uninfested wheat plants or with plants previously exposed to other females in laboratory choice tests. The oviposition behavior of this insect was described by recording the behavioral sequences that lead to and follow the insertion of the ovipositor in both previously infested and uninfested stems. No significant differences were found in frequencies of specific behaviors or behavioral transitions associated with oviposition. In choice tests, there was no difference in the numbers of eggs laid in infested and uninfested plants. Taller plants received more eggs, irrespective of infestation. Females neither preferred nor avoided previously infested hosts. Other characteristics of the host, such as stem height, may be more important in determining suitability for oviposition. These findings support the use of management tactics relying on the manipulation of oviposition behavior, such as trap cropping. Given that there is no evidence for response to previously infested hosts, the infested plants in a trap crop would remain as suitable as they were when uninfested, which could also lead to an increase in mortality caused by intraspecific competition.

  6. Prevalence and associated factors of head lice infestation among primary schoolchildren in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bachok, Norsa'adah; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Awang, Che Wil; Ibrahim, Noor Aini; Naing, Lin

    2006-05-01

    Head lice infestation contributes a significant morbidity among schoolchildren in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of head lice infestation among primary schoolchildren in Kelantan, Malaysia. Six schools were randomly selected from three sub-districts of Kuala Krai, Kelantan. A total of 463 eleven-year-old pupils were screened by visual scalp examination and fine-toothed combing. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 35.0% (95% Cl: 30.6, 39.3) with 11.9% inactive, 23.1% active, 18.2% light and 16.8% heavy infestations. The associated factors were girls; family income of RM247 or less; head lice infestation of family member and having four or more siblings. The high prevalence of head lice infestation in this study indicates the need for regular school health program that emphasis on the eradication of head lice. The significant associated factors identified in this study reconfirm the importance of controlling the transmissibility of head lice. Pupils and parents should be informed regarding factors that may facilitate the transmission of head lice.

  7. Sensitivity of two-stage sampling to detect sheep biting lice (Bovicola ovis) in infested flocks.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Garrett, J A; Moon, R D

    2002-01-03

    The sampling distribution of Bovicola ovis (Schrank) on sheep was examined in two flocks, one with a light and one with a heavy infestation of lice. The derived distributions were used to calculate the sensitivity of detecting lice on individual sheep and in flocks by fleece parting regimes that varied in number of parts per animal and number of sheep per flock, different scenarios of flock sizes, proportion infested and louse density were examined. Lice were aggregated among fleece partings in the heavily infested flock and described by a negative binomial distribution with k values between 0.3 and 1.92. The distribution was indistinguishable from Poisson in the lightly infested flock. The assumed distribution had little effect on sensitivity, except when only one fleece part per animal was examined. On individual sheep where louse density was 0.5 per 10 cm part or greater, there were only marginal gains from inspecting more than 10 parts per animal. Increasing the number of sheep inspected always increased sensitivity more than increasing number of parts per sheep by an equivalent amount. This advantage was greatest in situations where a low proportion of sheep in the flock were infested with a high density of lice, and less where a low proportion of sheep were infested with a low density of lice, or a high proportion of sheep were infested with a high density of lice.

  8. Influence of agro-environmental factors on fusarium infestation and population structure in wheat kernels.

    PubMed

    Rohácik, Tibor; Hudec, Kamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of location, year and cultivar on occurrence, level of infestation and Fusarium species spectrum in winter wheat seeds were evaluated. The wheat seeds from different cultivars and localities of the Slovak Republic were used for Fusarium species evaluation during years 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2003. The significant influence of the locality on total Fusarium kernel infestation was confirmed. The total sample infestation was significantly higher in the colder and moister localities, lower infestation was in warmer and dryer ones. Cultivar "Astella" was significantly the most susceptible. The widest Fusarium species spectrum was recorded in the locations with a high level of total kernel infestation. In localities with lower infestation, the species spectrum was less numerous. F. poae was the dominant species in all locations. The species F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and Microdochium nivale were subdominant and relatively frequent in the locations with higher altitude. The frequency and density of other isolated species (F. graminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. tricinctum, F. semitectum, F. acuminatum, F. heterosporum, F. sambucinum, F. solani, F. compactum and F. oxysporum) was trivial in all localities. The kernel infestation and Fusarium population structure in wheat grains mostly depends on microclimatic condition of the locality. Rising of rainfall rate and altitude led to an increase in the species spectrum. The wide Fusarium species spectrum is connected with the high frequency of coincident species. The species with low and medium frequency achieved low or trivial density in population structure.

  9. Amblyomma cajennense infestation on horses in two microregions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pires, Marcus Sandes; Santos, Tiago Marques dos; Santos, Huarrisson Azevedo; Vilela, Joice Aparecida Rezende; Peixoto, Maristela Peckle; Roier, Erica Cristina Rocha; Silva, Claudia Bezerra da; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Massard, Carlos Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with infestation by Amblyomma cajennense on horses in two microregions of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Horses on 62 farms in the municipalities of the Itaguaí and Serrana microregions were evaluated between January and May 2009. The animals were examined to determine the presence of ticks and infestation level. The animals' rearing and management were assessed on each farm property using an epidemiological questionnaire. Out of the 635 horses evaluated, 41.6% were infested with A. cajennense. It was observed that farms in low-altitude regions (OR=3.69; CI: 2.3-5.8), with unsatisfactory zootechnical and sanitary management (OR=5.92; CI: 3.8-9.2) and an extensive rearing system (OR=4.25; CI: 2.1-8.5) were factors associated with tick infestation (p < 0.05) and also with cases of high infestation on horses. Use of chemical acaricides on horses was also associated with infestation (p < 0.05); the owners described different therapeutic approaches with different treatment intervals. From the present study, low altitudes, unsatisfactory management, extensive rearing and inappropriate use of acaricide products were factors associated with occurrences of A. cajennense at different infestation levels on horses in these municipalities.

  10. Incorporating insect infestation into rodent seed dispersal: better if the larva is still inside.

    PubMed

    Perea, Ramón; López, David; San Miguel, Alfonso; Gil, Luis

    2012-11-01

    Many nutritious seeds are commonly attacked by insects which feed on the seed reserves. However, studies have not fully explored the ecological implications of insect infestation in animal seed dispersal and subsequent plant regeneration. Our question is whether the fact that an infested seed still contains the larva or not might increase/decrease the probability of being successfully dispersed by animals. This study examines the effects of weevil-infested seeds on the natural regeneration of a rodent-dispersed oak species. Rodents showed a high ability to discriminate between sound and infested seeds, even when the larva was still inside. As a result, rodents caused differential seed dispersal for sound and infested seeds by modifying multiple aspects of the dispersal process. We found that, for the same seed weight, infested acorns with a larva still inside can contribute to natural regeneration (0.7 % of seedlings in next summer), although in comparison to sound acorns they suffered higher predation rates by rodents (both partial and complete), were removed later from the ground (less preferred), cached less frequently, and dispersed to shorter distances, which reduced their potential to colonize new environments. However, infested seeds with exit holes are notably less preferred by rodents and, when dispersed, they are mostly deposited on the litter (uncached) with shorter dispersal distances and lower emergence success. Thus, the probability that larval-holed acorns will produce viable seedlings is extremely low (null in this study). Whether infested seeds still contain a larva or not clearly determines the probability of being successfully dispersed. Premature seed drop prolongs the presence of the larva inside the acorn after seed drop, and could be a possible mechanism to allow dispersal of infested seeds.

  11. [Small bowel obstruction secondary to massive hookworm infestation complicated by fatal plurimicrobial bacteriemia].

    PubMed

    Mémain, N; Ben M'Rad, M; Rouvier, P; Pallot, J-L

    2016-10-01

    Intestinal symptoms (cramping, flatulence) and iron deficient anemia are classical presenting manifestations of duodenal hookworm infestation in patients living in endemic area. We report a 45-year-old immunocompetent metropolitan man who presented with intestinal obstruction secondary to massive hookworm infestation complicated by fatal plurimicrobial bacteriemia with refractory septic shock. We report a case of acute surgical abdominal presentation with septicemia and refractory shock syndrome due to ileal translocation secondary to massive hookworm infestation. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has not yet been reported. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran. PMID:25629073

  13. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen☆

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  14. Human Infestation with Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) in a Family Referred with Pruritus and Skin Lesions.

    PubMed

    Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.

  15. Pearls in the ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra caused by polydorin polychaetes (Spionidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Diez, M E; Vázquez, N; Cremonte, F

    2016-10-01

    Aulacomya atra populations of the San Jose gulf, Northern Patagonia, Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, are infested by two polydorin species, Polydora rickettsi and Dipolydora cf. giardi. The infestation by these boring polychaetes causes the formation of pearls which is evidenced by the presence of capsules containing polydorin tissue debris and the elemental composition of organic material inside the pearls. Moreover, a positive relationship between the abundance of perforations of polydorin polychaetes and abundance of pearls was found by applying generalized lineal model analysis. These results constitute the first evidence of pearls formation due to infestation by polychaete. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling the spread of bed bug infestation and optimal resource allocation for disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Gharouni, Ali; Wang, Lin

    2016-10-01

    A patch-structured multigroup-like $SIS$ epidemiological model is proposed to study the spread of the common bed bug infestation. It is shown that the model exhibits global threshold dynamics with the basic reproduction number as the threshold parameter. Costs associated with the disinfestation process are incorporated into setting up the optimization problems. Procedures are proposed and simulated for finding optimal resource allocation strategies to achieve the infestation free state. Our analysis and simulations provide useful insights on how to efficiently distribute the available exterminators among the infested patches for optimal disinfestation management.

  17. Severe iron deficiency anaemia associated with heavy lice infestation in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Althomali, Sarah Ali; Alzubaidi, Lamya Mohammed; Alkhaldi, Dhelal Musleh

    2015-11-05

    Lice feed on human blood, and heavy and chronic lice infestation can lead to chronic blood loss with resultant iron deficiency anaemia. Although no definite relationship between lice infestation and iron deficiency anaemia has been described, the concurrent presence of these two conditions has been reported in children and adults, as well as in cattle. We present a case of a young woman with severe iron deficiency anaemia that could not be explained by the known causes of iron deficiency anaemia. However, the patient was found to have heavy and chronic head lice infestation.

  18. Effects of bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) juice on Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and the sensory properties of raw shrimps.

    PubMed

    Norhana, M N Wan; Azman, Mohd Nor A; Poole, Susan E; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

    2009-11-30

    The potential of using juice of bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) to reduce Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 populations on raw shrimps after washing and during storage (4 degrees C) was investigated. The uninoculated raw shrimps and those inoculated with approximately 9 log cfu/ml of L. monocytogenes Scott A and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 were washed (dipped or rubbed) in distilled water (SDW) (control), bilimbi or tamarind juice at 1:4 (w/v) concentrations for 10 and 5 min. Naturally occurring aerobic bacteria (APC), L. monocytogenes Scott A and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 counts, pH values and sensory analysis of washed shrimps were determined immediately after washing (day 0), and on days 3 and 7 of storage. Compared to SDW, bilimbi and tamarind juice significantly (p<0.05) reduced APC (0.40-0.70 log cfu/g), L. monocytogenes Scott A (0.84-1.58 log cfu/g) and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 (1.03-2.00 log cfu/g) populations immediately after washing (0 day). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in bacterial reduction between the dipping (0.40-0.41 log for APC; 0.84 for L. monocytogenes Scott A and 1.03-1.09 log for S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028) and rubbing (0.68-0.70 log for APC; 1.34-1.58 for L. monocytogenes Scott A and 1.67-2.00 log for S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028) methods. Regardless of washing treatments or methods, populations of S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 decreased slightly (5.10-6.29 log cfu/g on day 7 of storage) while populations of L. monocytogenes Scott A (8.74-9.20 log cfu/g) and APC (8.68-8.92 log cfu/g) increased significantly during refrigerated storage. The pH of experimental shrimps were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by 0.15-0.22 pH units after washing with bilimbi and tamarind juice. The control, bilimbi or tamarind-washed shrimps did not differ in sensory panellist acceptability (p>0.05) throughout the storage except for odour (p<0.05) attributes at 0 day when acidic or lemony

  19. A country bug in the city: urban infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Arequipa, Peru.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Stephen; Ernst, Kacey C; Pumahuanca, María Luz Hancco; Yool, Stephen R; Comrie, Andrew C; Sterling, Charles R; Gilman, Robert H; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2013-10-30

    Interruption of vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi remains an unrealized objective in many Latin American countries. The task of vector control is complicated by the emergence of vector insects in urban areas. Utilizing data from a large-scale vector control program in Arequipa, Peru, we explored the spatial patterns of infestation by Triatoma infestans in an urban and peri-urban landscape. Multilevel logistic regression was utilized to assess the associations between household infestation and household- and locality-level socio-environmental measures. Of 37,229 households inspected for infestation, 6,982 (18.8%; 95% CI: 18.4 - 19.2%) were infested by T. infestans. Eighty clusters of infestation were identified, ranging in area from 0.1 to 68.7 hectares and containing as few as one and as many as 1,139 infested households. Spatial dependence between infested households was significant at distances up to 2,000 meters. Household T. infestans infestation was associated with household- and locality-level factors, including housing density, elevation, land surface temperature, and locality type. High levels of T. infestans infestation, characterized by spatial heterogeneity, were found across extensive urban and peri-urban areas prior to vector control. Several environmental and social factors, which may directly or indirectly influence the biology and behavior of T. infestans, were associated with infestation. Spatial clustering of infestation in the urban context may both challenge and inform surveillance and control of vector reemergence after insecticide intervention.

  20. Olfactory response of predatory mites to vegetative and reproductive parts of coconut palm infested by Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Melo, José Wagner S; Lima, Debora B; Pallini, Angelo; Oliveira, José Eudes M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2011-10-01

    The phytophagous mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. A promising method of control for this pest is the use of predatory mites. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram are predatory mites found in association with A. guerreronis in the field. To understand how these predators respond to olfactory cues from A. guerreronis and its host plant, the foraging behavior of the predatory mites was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer and on T-shaped arenas. The predators were subjected to choose in an olfactometer: (1) isolated parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of infested coconut plant or clean air stream; (2) isolated parts of non-infested or infested coconut plant; and (3) two different plant parts previously shown to be attractive. Using T-shaped arenas the predators were offered all possible binary combinations of discs of coconut fruit epidermis infested with A. guerreronis, non-infested discs or coconut pollen. The results showed that both predators were preferred (the volatile cues from) the infested plant parts over clean air. When subjected to odours from different infested or non-infested plant parts, predators preferred the infested parts. Among the infested plant parts, the spikelets induced the greatest attraction to predators. On the arenas, both predators preferred discs of coconut fruits infested with A. guerreronis over every other alternative. The results show that both predators are able to locate A. guerreronis by olfactory stimuli. Foraging strategies and implications for biological control are discussed.

  1. HISTOPATHOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NEOTROMBICULA MICROTI INFESTATION IN THE ENDANGERED AMARGOSA VOLE (MICROTUS CALIFORNICUS SCIRPENSIS).

    PubMed

    Ott-Conn, Caitlin N; Woods, Leslie W; Clifford, Deana L; Branston, Tammy; Foley, Janet

    2015-07-01

    The Amargosa vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis) is a profoundly endangered rodent found only in the Central Mojave Desert, Inyo County, California, US. In 2010, severe cases of trombiculiasis, caused by larval Neotrombicula microti mites, were discovered among voles and sympatric small mammals. We evaluated Amargosa voles and sympatric rodents for infestation with N. microti December 2011-November 2012 and evaluated histopathology of ear tissue from 13 actively N. microti-infested Amargosa voles and 10 Amargosa voles with no gross evidence of current or past infestation. Rodents with current infestation had mites visible on tissue, typically ear pinnae, whereas mites were not seen on rodents with presumptive past infestation, but some of these animals had gross tissue scarring and loss consistent with healing from infestation. Ears from infested voles had severe granulocytic and necrotizing dermatitis, most associated with stylostome fragments, whereas few lesions were present in grossly uninfested voles. There was no association between body condition and infestation or severity of lesions. Significantly more voles were infested (37%) with N. microti than sympatric rodents (3%), suggesting that sympatric rodents do not serve as an important source of N. microti exposure to voles. Although this chigger infestation was common and induced severe localized pathology, we did not detect a fitness cost to infestation and recommend further evaluation of the disease to discern its significance in this conservation context.

  2. A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. A Door-to-Door Survey of Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Row Homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M.; Barbarin, Alexis M.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Levy, Michael Z.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012–2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372

  4. Helicopter thermal imaging for detecting insect infested cadavers.

    PubMed

    Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank

    2017-09-01

    One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial control of the gypsy moth in recently infested states: experiences and expectations

    Treesearch

    Timothy C. Tigner

    1985-01-01

    Experiences and expectations concerning microbial control of the gypsy moth in recently infested states are summarized. Initial experience included mixed results, but expectations remain optimistic. Public sentiment assures continued pressure for improvement in microbial control technology.

  6. Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The toxicity of eight commercially-available botanical formulations were evaluated against 3rd instars of the nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. In vi...

  7. REVEGETATION SUCCESS OF MEDUSAHEAD-INFESTED RANGELANDS WITH PLATEAU® AND PRESCRIBED BURNING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) is an invasive annual grass that is rapidly invading rangelands. Medusahead invasion reduces the productivity and biodiversity of rangelands. Efforts to control medusahead and revegetation infested rangelands are often unsuccessful. We evaluated...

  8. Spatial stratification of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in La Rioja, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gorla, David E; Porcasi, Ximena; Hrellac, Hugo; Catalá, Silvia S

    2009-03-01

    Vectorial transmission of Chagas disease has been decreasing over the past few decades because of effective vector control programs in the southern cone of South America. However, the disease is still actively transmitted within the Gran Chaco region. In this area, vector populations are abundant and highly prevalent in poor rural houses. This study analyses the spatial pattern of rural house infestation by Triatoma infestans in a 56,000 km(2) area in the province of La Rioja, Argentina, before the re-initiation of systematic activity on vector control intervention. Data on 5,045 rural houses show that infestation has high spatial heterogeneity, with highly infested localities concentrated in a few areas. House infestation has a negative significant relationship with locality size. Rural houses in the region are highly dispersed and this feature has been and will remain a challenge for any vigilance system to be installed in the region.

  9. Applying image transformation and classification techniques to airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping Ashe juniper infestations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz), in excessive coverage, reduces forage production, interferes with livestock management, and degrades watersheds and wildlife habitat in infested rangelands. The objective of this study was to apply minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation and different cla...

  10. Diel infestation dynamics of gnathiid isopod larvae parasitic on Caribbean reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkel, Paul C.; Schaumburg, Collin S.; Mathenia, Jeremy K.

    2006-11-01

    Infestation dynamics of parasitic gnathiid isopods on Caribbean reefs were studied throughout the 24-h diel cycle. Gnathiid infestation on caged longfin damselfish ( Stegastes diencaeus) peaked strongly at dawn, remained low during the remainder of the day, and increased again at night until about midnight. Gnathiids were less abundant during the pre-dawn period. Peak loads on fish retrieved at dawn were the highest reported in any study thus far. The dawn peak consisted almost exclusively of individuals from the smallest size class, whereas nocturnal activity consisted almost exclusively of individuals of the largest size class. Because of the high rates of infestation at night and dawn, and the high variation in parasite loads on fish collected during that time, reduction of parasite infestation may play an important role in the selection of nocturnal and crepuscular shelter holes and settlement sites by reef fishes.

  11. Survey of bed bugs in infested premises in Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    How, Yee-Fatt; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2010-06-01

    A total of 54 bed bug-infested sites (hotels, public accommodations, and residential premises) in Malaysia and Singapore was surveyed between July, 2005 and December, 2008. Only one species of bed bug was found, the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius). Bed bug infestations were common in hotels and public accommodations when compared to residential premises. The three most common locations of infestation within an infested premise were the bedding (31.1%), the headboard (30.3%), and cracks and crevices surrounding the baseboard, wall, or floor (23.5%). We speculate that the route of movement of bed bugs in hotels and public accommodations is more direct than in residential premises.

  12. [Nitrogen-containing mycotoxins of fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium species infesting grain and its products].

    PubMed

    Reshetilova, T A; Vinokurova, N G; L'vova, L S

    1993-01-01

    The review summarizes the literature data on distribution of nitrogen-containing mycotoxins (alkaloids) among Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi infesting grain and products of grain processing. Particular attention in given to clavins (ergotalkaloids) and tremorgens (roquefortine, verruculogen, penitrems).

  13. Effect of rootstock on mango fruit susceptibility to infestation by Anastrepha obliqua.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Luna, A; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Perez-Flores, L J; Diaz-Sobac, R

    2011-12-01

    The effect of the use of rootstock Criollo on the susceptibility of Manila mango fruit to infestation by Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) was determined in the present investigation. Growth, quality parameters (Soluble solids content (%), citric acid content (%), firmness, monoterpene volatiles (3-carene, limonene, alpha-pinene, and beta-myrcene), main flavonoids content (milligrams/100 g fresh pulp), and larvicidal activity of methanolic extracts, as well as the degree of infestation during preharvest development of the fruits were analyzed. The results indicated that the rootstock did not have any significant effect on growth, soluble solids content, or citric acid content; although it increased firmness as well as 3-carene levels and main flavonoids content, resulting in a greater resistance to infestation by A. obliqua. The obtained results support the use of this rootstock because of the beneficial effects observed on the resistance of mango fruit to infestation by this fruit fly.

  14. Short communication serum copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations in lice-infested sheep.

    PubMed

    Deger, Y; Dede, S; Deger, S

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in serum concentration of copper, zinc, and calcium in sheep naturally infested with lice (Bovicola caprae, Linognathus africanus, Linognatus ovillus, and Linognattus pedalis). Twenty sheep naturally infested with lice and 20 healthy sheep were used as subjects. Blood samples were collected from the sheep before and 8 and 15 d after treatment with Avermectin, a veterinary antiparasitic drug. The samples were analyzed for their serum copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of these elements in the infested animals were lower than in the healthy controls, mainly because the general condition of the affected sheep was poor. When the infested animals were treated with an ectoparasitic drug, the serum levels of the studied elements rose to normal ranges while the health of the animals improved.

  15. Specific Cues Associated With Honey Bee Social Defence against Varroa destructor Infested Brood

    PubMed Central

    Mondet, Fanny; Kim, Seo Hyun; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Beslay, Dominique; Le Conte, Yves; Mercer, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Social immunity forms an essential part of the defence repertoire of social insects. In response to infestation by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its associated viruses, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have developed a specific behaviour (varroa-sensitive hygiene, or VSH) that helps protect the colony from this parasite. Brood cells heavily infested with mites are uncapped, the brood killed, and the cell contents removed. For this extreme sacrifice to be beneficial to the colony, the targeting of parasitized brood for removal must be accurate and selective. Here we show that varroa-infested brood produce uniquely identifiable cues that could be used by VSH-performing bees to identify with high specificity which brood cells to sacrifice. This selective elimination of mite-infested brood is a disease resistance strategy analogous to programmed cell death, where young bees likely to be highly dysfunctional as adults are sacrificed for the greater good of the colony. PMID:27140530

  16. Can the amount of corn acreage predict fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infestation levels in nearby cotton?

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rodney N

    2009-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of corn, Zea mays L., and a significant, but more sporadic, pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Western Hemisphere. Previous studies showed that the cotton infestations primarily involve a fall armyworm subpopulation known as the "corn-strain" for which corn is the preferred host plant. It was suggested that the fall armyworm infesting cotton originated in corn and spread into secondary hosts as their numbers increased. In this study, high positive correlations were found between corn acreage and fall armyworm infestation levels in cotton. These occurred between areas that are either geographically close or along plausible migration pathways. Formulae were derived from scatter plot and linear regression analysis that can predict infestation levels in cotton based on corn acreage. The implications of these results for describing and predicting fall armyworm population movements are discussed.

  17. Preventive efficacy of a topical combination of fipronil--(S)-methoprene--eprinomectin--praziquantel against ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation of cats through a natural infestation model.

    PubMed

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Bouhsira, Emilie; Halos, Lénaïg; Franc, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A study based on naturally infested cats was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a single treatment with a topical formulation containing fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel, for the prevention of Otodectes cynotis infestation in cats. Six treated cats and six untreated cats were housed with three chronically Otodectes cynotis-infested cats, respectively. The cats of each group were kept together in a 20-m(2) room for 1 month. Both clinical examination and ear mite counts were conducted on Day 28. All donor cats were confirmed to be chronically infested with Otodectes cynotis on Day -1 and Day 28. From untreated control cats, 129 live mites were recovered on Day 28 and all cats were found to be infested. In the treated group, three cats were found to be infested, with a total of five live mites recovered, the difference between the two groups being significant (p = 0.003). One treatment corresponded to 96% preventive efficacy at Day 28 based on ear mite counts. With regard to cerumen, the clinical score increased significantly for untreated cats between Day -1 and Day 28 (p = 0.00026) and not for treated cats (p = 0.30). The difference in cerumen abundance was significant between untreated and treated cats on Day 28 (p = 0.0035). Concerning the pruritic reflex in at least one ear, all cats were negative at inclusion. All six untreated cats became positive and showed a reflex on Day 28, whereas no treated cat showed ear pruritus (p = 0.00026). © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  18. Field accumulation of aflatoxin in cottonseed as influenced by irrigation termination dates and pink bollworm infestation.

    PubMed

    Russell, T E; Watson, T F; Ryan, G F

    1976-05-01

    Aflatoxin accumulation in Deltapine 16 cottonseed, grown in Yuma, Ariz., in a 3-year study, was significantly influenced by the timing of irrigation terminations and by level of pink bollworm infestations. In 1971 and 1972, termination of irrigations by early August resulted in significantly less aflatoxin than in plots where two additional irrigations were applied. Significantly less aflatoxin also was found in the 1971 and 1973 plots where low levels of pink bollworm infestations were maintained.

  19. Public Street Lights Increase House Infestation by the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Tucuch, Freddy Santiago; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Gourbière, Sébastien; Dumonteil, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata is one of the primary vectors of Chagas disease. We previously documented the spatio-temporal infestation of houses by this species in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and found that non-domiciliated triatomines were specifically attracted to houses. However, the factors mediating this attraction remained unclear. Artificial light has been known for a long time to attract many insect species, and therefore may contribute to the spread of different vector-borne diseases. Also, based on the collection of different species of triatomines with light traps, several authors have suggested that light might attract triatomines to houses, but the role of artificial light in house infestation has never been clearly demonstrated and quantified. Here we performed a spatial analysis of house infestation pattern by T. dimidiata in relation to the distribution of artificial light sources in three different villages from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. In all three villages, infested houses were significantly closer to public street light sources than non-infested houses (18.0±0.6 vs 22.6±0.4 m), and street lights rather than domestic lights were associated with house infestation. Accordingly, houses closer to a public street lights were 1.64 times more likely to be infested than houses further away (OR, CI95% 1.23–2.18). Behavioral experiments using a dual-choice chamber further confirmed that adult male and females were attracted to white light during their nocturnal activity. Attraction was also dependent on light color and decreased with increasing wavelength. While public lighting is usually associated with increased development, these data clearly show that it also directly contributes to house infestation by non-domiciliated T. dimidiata. PMID:22558384

  20. Public street lights increase house infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Tucuch, Freddy Santiago; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Gourbière, Sébastien; Dumonteil, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata is one of the primary vectors of Chagas disease. We previously documented the spatio-temporal infestation of houses by this species in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and found that non-domiciliated triatomines were specifically attracted to houses. However, the factors mediating this attraction remained unclear. Artificial light has been known for a long time to attract many insect species, and therefore may contribute to the spread of different vector-borne diseases. Also, based on the collection of different species of triatomines with light traps, several authors have suggested that light might attract triatomines to houses, but the role of artificial light in house infestation has never been clearly demonstrated and quantified. Here we performed a spatial analysis of house infestation pattern by T. dimidiata in relation to the distribution of artificial light sources in three different villages from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. In all three villages, infested houses were significantly closer to public street light sources than non-infested houses (18.0 ± 0.6 vs 22.6 ± 0.4 m), and street lights rather than domestic lights were associated with house infestation. Accordingly, houses closer to a public street lights were 1.64 times more likely to be infested than houses further away (OR, CI95% 1.23-2.18). Behavioral experiments using a dual-choice chamber further confirmed that adult male and females were attracted to white light during their nocturnal activity. Attraction was also dependent on light color and decreased with increasing wavelength. While public lighting is usually associated with increased development, these data clearly show that it also directly contributes to house infestation by non-domiciliated T. dimidiata.

  1. Efficacy of topical eprinomectin in the treatment of Chorioptes sp. infestation in alpacas and llamas.

    PubMed

    Plant, Jon D; Kutzler, Michelle A; Cebra, Christopher K

    2007-02-01

    Chorioptes sp. mite infestation is increasingly recognized as a cause of skin disease in New World camelids and there is a need for an effective treatment protocol to eliminate herd infestation. In this field trial, eprinomectin applied topically at the rate of 0.5 mg kg(-1) weekly for 10 weeks was found to be ineffective in a herd of 12 llamas and 16 alpacas.

  2. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2009-12-01

    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p<0.05) in cattle (1076/1475; 72.9%) than in buffaloes (957/2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies.

  3. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

    2011-12-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans.

  4. Dermanyssus gallinae (chicken mite): an underdiagnosed environmental infestation.

    PubMed

    Collgros, H; Iglesias-Sancho, M; Aldunce, M J; Expósito-Serrano, V; Fischer, C; Lamas, N; Umbert-Millet, P

    2013-06-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a mite that normally parasitizes small birds but may occasionally bite humans. We report an unusual case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with pruritus and bite-like lesions over her trunk. Other members of the household were also affected. On physical examination, mites < 1 mm in size were found on the patient's body. The family were residing in the city centre and had no pets, but there were pigeon nests in close proximity to the house. Most dermatologists have difficulties identifying ectoparasitosis. In the case of D. gallinae, the small size of the mites and the fact that they leave the host after feeding means that they may not be seen at presentation, thus such infestations are likely to be underdiagnosed. Physicians should be aware that infection with this mite is possible even in patients from urban areas, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of conditions causing recurrent pruritus unresponsive to standard treatments.

  5. Severe infestation of blow flies in a raccoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1955-01-01

    A raccoon. (Procyon lotor) was observed in a weakened condition for several days at a farm a few miles east of Salisbury, Maryland. It was then caught and held in captivity for a few days. It continued to become weaker and on May 3, 1954, B. Mixon of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish submitted it to us for study. There was no evidence of trauma, either internal or external. The fur was matted over the right hind leg, the inguinal region, and over much of the left hind leg. Inspection revealed the presence of thousands of larvae of the green-bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, (Meigen}1 actively tunneling in and out of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscle under lying infested skin appeared healthy and untraumatized. A few larvae were in comers of the eyes but none were found in other orifices. Gross and microscopic examination of tissue from the raccoon gave no indication of any acute process which might have led to its moribund condition. James (1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.) and Hall (1948: The blowflies of North America.. Thom. Say Foundation) indicate that P. sericata may vary in virulence, some strains becoming parasitic with an ability to invade healthy tissue. In all probability, the larvae described above hatched from eggs originally laid in a skin wound although no evidence for this was found.

  6. An outbreak of bed bug infestation in an office building.

    PubMed

    Baumblatt, Jane A Gwira; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Stull-Lane, Annica; Jones, Timothy F

    2014-04-01

    Since 2000, resurgence in bed bugs has occurred in the U.S. Reports of infestations of homes, hospitals, hotels, and offices have been described. On September 1, 2011, complaints of itching and bites among workers in an office were reported to the Tennessee Department of Health. A retrospective cohort study and environmental assessments were performed in response to the complaints. Canines certified to detect live bed bugs were used to inspect the office and arthropod samples were collected. Of 76 office workers, 61 (80%) were interviewed; 39 (64%) met the case definition. Pruritic maculopapular lesions were consistent with arthropod bites. One collected arthropod sample was identified as a bed bug by three entomologists. Exposures associated with symptoms included working in a cubicle in which a canine identified bed bugs (risk ratio [RR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3.6), and self-reported seasonal allergies (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4). Bed bugs represent a reemerging and challenging environmental problem with clinical, psychological, and financial impacts.

  7. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix *

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Moumita, D.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November–February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

  8. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    PubMed

    Alam, M M; Khan, M A; Hussain, M A; Moumita, D; Mazlan, A G; Simon, K D

    2012-12-01

    Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix.

  9. Seasonal fluctuations of head lice infestation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eline; Jahnke, Claudia; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    Pediculosis capitis is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in childhood. If not diagnosed and treated rapidly, considerable clinical pathology may develop. The ubiquitous parasitic skin disease is characterized by a lack of sound epidemiological data, and factors which influence disease occurrence are still enigmatic. To investigate whether, in Germany, head lice infestation follows a seasonal pattern, we analyzed the weekly head lice consultations at the Health Department of Braunschweig City, Lower Saxony, for a period of 5 years, and compared the data with the units of pediculocides sold by two wholesalers to German pharmacies during a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively. The number of consultations did not show a clear seasonality, although there was a tendency of fewer consultations during school holidays, and an increase when schools opened again after Christmas, Easter, summer, and autumn holidays. In contrast, the number of packages of pediculocides sold followed a distinct seasonal rhythm with a maximum between calendar week 34 and 40, i.e., from mid September to end of October. In Germany, occurrence of pediculosis capitis varies according to the season of the year with a maximum in late summer and early autumn.

  10. Survey of flea infestation in cats in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gracia, M J; Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Castillo, J A; Peribáñez, M A; Lucientes, J

    2013-06-01

    Fleas are a common cause of feline skin disorders as well as vectors of zoonotic diseases. This study evaluated the flea species infesting domestic cats in Spain and assessed factors influencing their distribution. Fleas from 217 cats from 57 localities in Spain were identified and associations between abundance, and host-dependent, host habitat and environmental factors were examined. Variations in infracommunity and component community structure were also explored. Three species were present, of which Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) was the most abundant (98.4%), followed by Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis) (1.1%) and Pulex irritans (L.) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (0.5%). Overall abundance and abundances of both C. felis and C. canis were higher on farms than in apartments, but overall flea abundance and abundances of both C. felis and C. canis were lower in rural than urban environments. Overall abundance and C. felis abundance were lower during the warmest months, and mean annual rainfall was positively correlated with overall, C. felis and C. canis abundances. No relationship between the number of species per cat and any host, habitat or physiographical variable was found. Species richness was not correlated with mean annual temperature or rainfall. Flea abundance was mainly associated with host habitat and environmental factors. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Ornithonyssus bacoti infestation and elimination from a mouse colony.

    PubMed

    Cole, Joan S; Sabol-Jones, Michelle; Karolewski, Brian; Byford, Tracylea

    2005-09-01

    Skin lesions, consisting of nonspecific bites with intense pruritus and excoriation of the skin, were found on personnel working in an animal colony primarily housing mice. The tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti, was diagnosed from mites trapped on insect-monitoring sticky traps and collected from mouse cages in the colony. Because these mites do not live on mice but only come to feed when the animals are in their nest, an initial attempt was made to eliminate the mites with a thorough cleaning of the facility. Clidox foam was applied to the entire room with a foaming machine. Then the mice were transferred into the sanitized cages in the cleaned room. The numbers of mites were reduced to the point that they were no longer noticed in the colony, but the mites returned within 2 weeks. The mites were successfully eliminated with the use of permethrin-impregnated cotton balls in the mouse cages for 8 weeks and treatment of the premises. Treatment of the premises included spraying floors and walls of all rooms housing mice and adjacent hallways in the colony with pyrethrin spray by a commercial pest control company. To prevent one room of rabbits from maintaining the infestation, they were treated weekly with an organic pyrethrin dust. Insect sticky traps have remained negative for mites for more than 3 years after treatment.

  12. Stress response of brown pelican nestlings to ectoparasite infestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, L.M.F.; Jodice, P.G.R.; O'Reilly, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of corticosterone has become a useful tool for assessing the response of individuals to ecological stressors of interest. Enhanced corticosterone levels can promote survival of stressful events; however, in situations where a stressor persists and corticosterone levels remain elevated, the adrenocortical response can be detrimental. A potential ecological stressor for wild birds is parasitism by ectoparasites. We studied the stress response of 11-23-day-old brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in relation to the presence of the soft tick Carios capensis at two colonies in South Carolina in 2005. We expected to see higher baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone for parasitized chicks compared to those nestlings with no ticks. Although nestlings mounted a response to capture stress, tick category was not associated with corticosterone levels at either colony. Our results appear to contrast those of previous studies and indicate that the adrenocortical response of the host is likely dependent on the type of ectoparasite and the degree of infestation. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Exotic Plant Infestation Is Associated with Decreased Modularity and Increased Numbers of Connectors in Mixed-Grass Prairie Pollination Networks

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots and Convolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvense and the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested networks

  14. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  15. Risk factors for domestic infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata in Chiquimula, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Weeks, E N I; Cordón-Rosales, C; Davies, C; Gezan, S; Yeo, M; Cameron, M M

    2013-12-01

    In Guatemala prior to control initiatives, the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, were Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. This study conducted in 2006 in the department of Chiquimula recorded a high level of T. dimidiata infestation and an absence of R. prolixus in all surveyed communities. In Guatemala, the presence of T. dimidiata as domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic populations results in control difficulties as houses are re-infested from the surrounding environment. Entomological surveys, the current method used to select houses in need of control efforts, are labour intensive and time consuming. A time- and cost-effective way to prioritize houses for evaluation and subsequent treatment is the stratification of houses based on the risk of triatomine infestation. In the present study, 17 anthropogenic risk factors were evaluated for associations with house infestation of T. dimidiata including: wall, floor and roof type. There was an increased likelihood of domestic infestation with T. dimidiata associated with the presence of dirt floors (18/29; OR 8.075, 95% CI 2.13-30.6), uncoated bajareque walls (12/17; OR 4.80, 95% CI 1.35-17.1) and triatomine-like faeces on walls (16/26; OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.19-12.7). These factors could be used to target control of T. dimidiata to communities with an increased risk of being infested.

  16. Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk factors and management.

    PubMed

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2014-07-14

    A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy.

  17. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    PubMed

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Hamedan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mansour; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Shobeiri, Fatemeh

    2006-01-01

    Pediculus capitis or head-louse infestation has been a worldwide public-health problem, especially among school-aged children. To determine the intensity of infestation (abundance) among schoolchildren, children's sex and social factors were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence of parasitism. The study included 847 schoolchildren (407 girls, 440 boys) aged 6-12 years, from 12 public rural primary schools of Hamedan, Hamedan Province, Iran. Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. The general prevalence was 6.85% (girls: 13.5%; boys: 0.7%, p<0.001), head lice were much more common in girls than boys. The results showed significant variations in head lice infestation, and factors such as parents' literacy, type of hair, previous infestation, sharing of bed and comb, and care centers, while there was no significant variation between school grade, parents' job, members of family, and pediculosis in the studied areas (p>0.05). Sex and social factors are important modifiers of P. capitis general prevalence and degree of infestation. The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures.

  19. Circulating oxidative stress caused by Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Sumit; Panigrahi, Padma Nibash; Dey, Sahadeb; Dan, Ananya; Kumar, Akhilesh; Mahendran, K; Maurya, P S

    2017-09-01

    The present study reports the circulating oxidative stress associated with Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes. Three non-descriptive water buffaloes, age ranging between 4 and 9 years, presented to Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, IVRI, for treatment served as clinical subject. The infested animals were treated with Ivermectin subcutaneously and Amitraz topically along with antioxidant like ascorbic acid, Vitamin E and selenium. The level of lipid peroxidase was significantly higher (3.94 ± 0.34) in Psoroptes infested buffalo and was reduced significantly (P ≤ 0.05) after treatment (1.56 ± 0.40). The significantly higher levels of MDA before treatment signify the role of lipid peroxide mediated skin lesions in P. natalensis infested buffaloes. Similarly the activities of the body antioxidant like GSH and CAT were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) after treatment. The less level of the body antioxidant (GSH) and reduced activities of the antioxidant enzymes like CAT and SOD before treatment imply that Psoroptes mite-infested buffaloes were in a state of significant oxidative stress. The study provides information on oxidative stress indices in P. natalensis infested buffaloes and gives additional insight regarding the pathogenesis of the disease and its management.

  20. Physiological and molecular alterations promoted by Schizotetranychus oryzae mite infestation in rice leaves

    PubMed Central

    Buffon, Giseli; Blasi, Édina A. R.; Adamski, Janete M.; Ferla, Noeli J.; Berger, Markus; Santi, Lucélia; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Yates, John R.; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O.; Sperotto, Raul A.

    2016-01-01

    Infestation of phytophagous mite Schizotetranychus oryzae in rice causes critical yield losses. To better understand this interaction, we employed Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) approach to identify differentially expressed proteins. We detected 18 unique proteins in control and 872 in infested leaves, respectively, along with 32 proteins more abundant in control leaves. S. oryzae infestation caused decreased abundance of proteins related to photosynthesis (mostly photosystem II-related), carbon assimilation and energy production, chloroplast detoxification, defense, fatty acid and gibberellin synthesis. On the other hand, infestation caused increased abundance of proteins involved in protein modification and degradation, gene expression at the translation level, protein partitioning to different organelles, lipid metabolism, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and synthesis of jasmonate, amino acid and molecular chaperones. Our results also suggest that S. oryzae infestation promotes cell wall remodeling and interferes with ethylene biosynthesis in rice leaves. Proteomic data were positively correlated with enzymatic assays and RT-qPCR analysis. Our findings describe the protein expression patterns of infested rice leaves, and suggest that the acceptor side of PSII is probably the major damaged target in the photosynthetic apparatus. These data will be useful in future biotechnological approaches aiming to induce phytophagous mite resistance in rice. PMID:26667653

  1. The Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Puerto Rico: Distribution, Infestation, and Population per Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Victor J.; García, José M.; Verle Rodrigues, José C.; García, Noelia M.; Bayman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei: Ferrar) was first detected in Puerto Rico in 2007. Its distribution since then has been extensive, but not extensively documented. An island-wide survey was carried out from August to November 2014 (the coffee production season) to assess CBB distribution, infestation, and population per fruit. The CBB was well-established throughout the coffee-growing area of Puerto Rico, but was not evenly distributed. Infestation (or percentages of fruits perforated) in sites sampled ranged from 0 to 95%, and CBB number per infested fruit varied from 1 to 34 individuals. CBB infestation and total population per fruit were positively correlated with altitude. Highest infestation and total population were observed in sites located >400 masl; most of the coffee-producing area in Puerto Rico is above this altitude. Coffea arabica (L.) had higher CBB infestation and population per fruit than Coffea canephora (Pierre ex A. Froehner) (robusta coffee). Based on these results, management tools should be implemented to mitigate the severe damage that CBB is causing in Puerto Rico. These management tools should include the removal of all fruits that remain on the plants after harvest and the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balls.) Vuill. for biocontrol, especially on coffee farms at higher elevations. PMID:28931153

  2. The Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Puerto Rico: Distribution, Infestation, and Population per Fruit.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Yobana A; Vega, Victor J; García, José M; Verle Rodrigues, José C; García, Noelia M; Bayman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei: Ferrar) was first detected in Puerto Rico in 2007. Its distribution since then has been extensive, but not extensively documented. An island-wide survey was carried out from August to November 2014 (the coffee production season) to assess CBB distribution, infestation, and population per fruit. The CBB was well-established throughout the coffee-growing area of Puerto Rico, but was not evenly distributed. Infestation (or percentages of fruits perforated) in sites sampled ranged from 0 to 95%, and CBB number per infested fruit varied from 1 to 34 individuals. CBB infestation and total population per fruit were positively correlated with altitude. Highest infestation and total population were observed in sites located >400 masl; most of the coffee-producing area in Puerto Rico is above this altitude. Coffea arabica (L.) had higher CBB infestation and population per fruit than Coffea canephora (Pierre ex A. Froehner) (robusta coffee). Based on these results, management tools should be implemented to mitigate the severe damage that CBB is causing in Puerto Rico. These management tools should include the removal of all fruits that remain on the plants after harvest and the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balls.) Vuill. for biocontrol, especially on coffee farms at higher elevations. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  3. Walking Responses of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to Its Aggregation Pheromone and Odors of Wheat Infestations.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, B J; Cai, L; Faucher, C; Michie, M; Berna, A; Ren, Y; Anderson, A; Chyb, S; Xu, W

    2017-03-03

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a worldwide pest of stored grains. Using "Y"-tube olfactometry we studied the response of T. castaneum to odors from simulated wheat infestations containing conspecifics, and infestations containing the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Tribolium castaneum larvae were significantly attracted to odors from all three test species. Tribolium castaneum adults were attracted to grains infested by R. dominica and flour infested by T. castaneum but repelled from grains infested by S. granarius. Further behavioral analysis with pheromones showed that T. castaneum were significantly attracted to their aggregation pheromone, dimethyldecanal (DMD), but not to the R. dominica aggregation pheromone, a mixture of dominicalure 1 and 2. Female T. castaneum adults were attracted to ∼50-fold less DMD than larvae and 100-fold less than male adults, suggesting they are more sensitive to DMD. This study improves our understanding of T. castaneum behaviors to infested grain volatile compounds and pheromones, and may help develop new control methods for grain pest species.

  4. Induction of soluble and cell wall peroxidases by aphid infestation in barley.

    PubMed

    Chaman, M E; Corcuera, L J; Zúñiga, G E; Cardemil, L; Argandoña, V H

    2001-05-01

    Peroxidase enzymes have been found in soluble, ionically bound, and covalently bound forms and have been implicated in several physiological processes in plants. This paper investigates the effect of aphid infestation on soluble and bound-cell wall peroxidase activity and bound-cell wall isoform changes of barley plants. Peroxidase activity was measured in control plants and plants infested with the aphid Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). The activity of soluble peroxidases increased with time of infestation, older plants being more affected than younger ones. The increase in bound-cell wall peroxidase activity as a function of age was higher in infested than in control plants, being higher in ionically bound than in covalently bound peroxidases. When the aphids were removed from plants, the activities of both types of peroxidases decreased to control levels. Isoelectrofocusing analyses of the ionically bound peroxidases showed changes in the isoform pattern. A new isoform was induced by infestation. The activities of all covalently bound isoforms increased after infestation. The physiological implications of these changes are discussed.

  5. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya.

    PubMed

    Hosni, M M; Maghrbi, A A El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human.

  6. Physiological and Molecular Alterations Promoted by Schizotetranychus oryzae Mite Infestation in Rice Leaves.

    PubMed

    Buffon, Giseli; Blasi, Édina A R; Adamski, Janete M; Ferla, Noeli J; Berger, Markus; Santi, Lucélia; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Yates, John R; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O; Sperotto, Raul A

    2016-02-05

    Infestation of phytophagous mite Schizotetranychus oryzae in rice causes critical yield losses. To better understand this interaction, we employed Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) approach to identify differentially expressed proteins. We detected 18 and 872 unique proteins in control and infested leaves, respectively, along with 32 proteins more abundant in control leaves. S. oryzae infestation caused decreased abundance of proteins related to photosynthesis (mostly photosystem II-related), carbon assimilation and energy production, chloroplast detoxification, defense, and fatty acid and gibberellin synthesis. On the contrary, infestation caused increased abundance of proteins involved in protein modification and degradation, gene expression at the translation level, protein partitioning to different organelles, lipid metabolism, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and synthesis of jasmonate, amino acid, and molecular chaperones. Our results also suggest that S. oryzae infestation promotes cell-wall remodeling and interferes with ethylene biosynthesis in rice leaves. Proteomic data were positively correlated with enzymatic assays and RT-qPCR analysis. Our findings describe the protein expression patterns of infested rice leaves and suggest that the acceptor side of PSII is probably the major damaged target in the photosynthetic apparatus. These data will be useful in future biotechnological approaches aiming to induce phytophagous mite resistance in rice.

  7. Avian and Habitat Characteristics Influence Tick Infestation Among Birds in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Parker, Christine M; Miller, James R; Allan, Brian F

    2017-05-01

    Avian movements are an important mechanism by which ticks and associated pathogens can colonize new locations. The temporal and geographic extent of tick and pathogen dispersal is dependent on tick phenology and host movements across a landscape. We evaluated bird-host traits and habitat characteristics that may influence tick infestation and subsequent dispersal in Illinois. To determine which characteristics of host species and habitats influence infestation, we examined captured birds in 22 forest patches across east-central Illinois during migratory periods in fall of 2012 and 2013, and spring of 2013 and 2014. We examined 1,028 birds of 78 species; 136 (13.2%) individuals representing 33 (42.3%) species were infested with at least one tick. We determined that infestation prevalence was greatest among birds that 1) forage primarily in the forest understory; 2) use large forest patches; 3) use patches with less invasive shrub cover. Furthermore, infestation intensity was greatest among birds captured during fall migration. These findings highlight the importance of avian and habitat traits that may influence tick infestation among passerine birds. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Prevalence, intensity and associated factor analysis of Tropilaelaps mercedesae infesting Apis mellifera in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qi Hua; Zhou, Ting; Dai, Ping Li; Song, Huai Lei; Wu, Yan Yan; Wang, Qiang

    2011-10-01

    Tropilaelaps mercedesae is a serious ectoparasite of Apis mellifera in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the infestation rates and intensity of T. mercedesae in A. mellifera in China, and to explore the relative importance of climate, district, management practices and beekeeper characteristics that are assumed to be associated with the intensity of T. mercedesae. Of the 410 participating apiaries, 379 apiaries were included in analyses of seasonal infestation rates and 352 apiaries were included in multivariable regression analysis. The highest infestation rate (86.3%) of T. mercedesae was encountered in autumn, followed by summer (66.5%), spring (17.2%) and winter (14.8%). In autumn, 28.9% (93) of the infested apiaries were in the north (including the northeast and northwest of China), 71.1% (229) were in the central and south (including east, southeast and southwest China), and 306 apiaries (82.9%) were co-infested by both T. mercedesae and Varroa. Multivariable regression analysis showed that geographical location, season, royal jelly collection and Varroa infestation were the factors that influence the intensity of T. mercedesae. The influence of beekeeper's education, time of beekeeping, operation size, and hive migration on the intensity of T. mercedesa was not statistically significant. This study provided information about the establishment of the linkage of the environment and the parasite and could lead to better timing and methods of control.

  9. Differential induction of Pisum sativum defense signaling molecules in response to pea aphid infestation.

    PubMed

    Mai, Van Chung; Drzewiecka, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Narożna, Dorota; Rucińska-Sobkowiak, Renata; Kęsy, Jacek; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Gabryś, Beata; Morkunas, Iwona

    2014-05-01

    This study demonstrates the sequence of enhanced generation of signal molecules such as phytohormones, i.e. jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), and a relatively stable free radical, nitric oxide (NO), in response of Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski seedling leaves to the infestation of pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) at a varied population size. In time from 0 to 96h after A. pisum infestation these signal molecules accumulated transiently. Moreover, the convergence of these signaling pathways occurred. JA and its methyl derivative MeJA reached the first maximum of generation at 24th hour of infestation. An increase in ET and NO generation was observed at 48th hour of infestation. The increase in SA, JA/MeJA and ET concentrations in aphid-infested leaves occurred from the 72nd to 96th hour. In parallel, an increase was demonstrated for the activities of enzymes engaged in the biosynthesis of SA, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H). Additionally, a considerable post-infestation accumulation of transcripts for PAL was observed. An increase in the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX), an important enzyme in the biosynthesis of JA was noted. This complex signaling network may contribute to the coordinated regulation of gene expression leading to specific defence responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Infestation and population dynamics of insects on stored cassava and yams chips in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Gnonlonfin, G J B; Hell, K; Siame, A B; Fandohan, P

    2008-12-01

    Natural insect infestation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz subspecies esculenta) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) chips was evaluated during two consecutive storage seasons (2003-2004 and 2004-2005) in two agroecological zones of Benin (Northern Guinea Savanna [NGS] and Sudan Savanna [SS]). The insects infesting chips were collected, identified, and counted, they included Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), Cathartus quadricollis (Guerin) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), Carpophilus dimidiatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). P. truncatus and C. quadricollis were observed with a higher prevalence on cassava than on yam chips. During both seasons after 3 mo of storage, all (100%) cassava chip samples were infested with P. truncatus and C. quadricollis in both agroecological zones, whereas yam chips only showed lower infestation rates of 59.5 and 19.1% for P. truncatus and C. quadricollis, respectively, at the end of storage in 2003-2004. During the 2004-2005 season after 3 mo of storage infestation rate in yam chips was 66 and 24% in NGS and 100 and 0% in SS for P. truncatus and C. quadricollis, respectively, showing that insect infestation levels vary significantly with commodity, year, and fluctuate during the storage season.

  11. Pre-dispersal strategies by Quercus schottkyana to mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ke; Harrower, William L.; Turkington, Roy; Tan, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how pre-dispersal strategies may mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns in a population of Quercus schottkyana, a dominant oak in Asian evergreen broad-leaved forests, and assess if weevil infestation contributes to low seedling recruitment. We counted the number of acorns produced, daily from the end of August to mid-late November for 9 years from 2006–2014. We also recorded the rate of acorn infestation by weevils and acorn germination rates of weekly collections. Annual acorn production was variable, but particularly low in 2011 and 2013. There was no trade-off between acorn production and acorn dry mass. However, acorns produced later in the season were significantly heavier. For most years: (i) the rate of weevil infestation was negatively density dependent (a greater proportion of acorns died with increased acorn density), (ii) the percentage germination of acorns was positively density dependent (proportionately more acorns germinated with increased density), and (iii) as the season progressed, the percentage of infested acorns declined while germination rates increased. Finally, (iv) maximum acorn production, percentage infestation and percentage germination were asynchronous. Although pre-dispersal mortality is important it is unlikely to be the primary factor leading to low recruitment of oak seedlings. PMID:27874099

  12. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya

    PubMed Central

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  13. Delusional infestation is typically comorbid with other psychiatric diagnoses: review of 54 patients receiving psychiatric evaluation at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Hylwa, Sara A; Foster, Ashley A; Bury, Jessica E; Davis, Mark D P; Pittelkow, Mark R; Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Delusional infestation, which encompasses both delusions of parasitosis and delusions of infestation with inanimate objects (sometimes called Morgellons disease), has been said to represent a distinct and encapsulated delusion, that is, a stand-alone diagnosis. Anecdotally, we have observed that patients with delusional infestation often have one or more psychiatric comorbid conditions and that delusional infestation should not be regarded as a stand-alone diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to identify whether patients with delusional infestation have psychiatric comorbid conditions. We therefore identified patients who had been formally evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry during their visit to Mayo Clinic. We retrospectively searched for and reviewed the cases of all patients with delusional infestation seen from 2001 through 2007 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and who underwent psychiatric evaluation. The diagnoses resulting from psychiatric evaluation were analyzed. During the 7-year study period, 109 patients seen for delusional infestation at Mayo Clinic were referred to the Department of Psychiatry, 54 (50%) of whom actually followed through with psychiatric consultation. Of these 54 patients, 40 (74%) received additional active psychiatric diagnoses; 14 patients (26%) had delusional infestation alone. Abnormal personality traits were rarely documented. Most patients with delusional infestation have multiple coexisting or underlying psychiatric disorders. Therefore, evaluation by a psychiatrist, when possible, is advised for all patients with delusional infestation. Copyright © 2012 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    PubMed

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  15. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of infestation by stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), under natural infestation conditions.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vazquez, C; Carvajal Márquez, J; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Vitela-Mendoza, I; Ramos-Parra, M

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae applied by aspersion to control of Stomoxys calcitrans flies in dairy cattle naturally infested. Was applied by aspersion an aqueous formulation of M. anisopliae sensu lato (Ma134), at a concentration of 1×10(8)conidia/ml, four times with seven day intervals, on a group of eight Holstein cows; a control group of eight Holstein cows, received a water solution with Tween 80 (0.1%). The average number of flies per animal was estimated one day before each application, and then daily counts were done in both groups. The effectiveness of the formulation was calculated using the Abbott's formula. At the same time, defensive behaviors of stamp/kicks and tail movements were evaluated daily, estimating relative frequency per hour. The Ma134 formulation had an infestation control efficacy of 73%, taking into consideration the four study weeks. The population reduction effect was observed since the first week post-application (p<0.05), and the effect increased with the subsequent applications. Defensive behaviors were reduced beginning from the first application, reaching a reduction of 66% and 70%, respectively, during the four weeks of study. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the formulation to control infestation by S. calcitrans, as well as reduce defensive behaviors which involves the infestation.

  16. Branchial cymothoids infesting the marine food fishes of Malabar coast.

    PubMed

    Panakkool-Thamban, Aneesh; Ameri Kottarathil, Helna; Kappalli, Sudha

    2016-12-01

    Occurrence of cymothoid isopods parasitizing the branchial chamber of marine food fishes along the Malabar coast was investigated. Live and fresh fishes collected from the Ayyikkara fish landing center (Lat. 11°51'N, Long. 75°22'E; Malabar coast, India) were subjected to the thorough observation for the presence of branchial cymothoids for 3 consecutive years (November 2009-November 2012). Among the recovered cymothoids, 11 species were branchial residents belonging to 6 genera; the species include Agarna malayi, Catoessa gruneri, C. boscii, Joryma hilsae, J. brachysoma, J. engraulidis, J. sawayah, Mothocya collettei, M. renardi, Norileca indica and Ryukyua circularis; highest prevalence being exhibited by two species of Mothocya, (M. renardi and M. collettei) parasitizing the belonidaen fishes, Strongylura leiura (92.15 %) and Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (87.2 %) respectively. Except Mothocya species, which preferred the branchial floor for infestation, all recovered branchial cymothoids were found attached the inner wall of the operculum. In several instances, the parasites appeared in male-female pairs, one in each branchial cavity. Ovigerous female members of all species of branchial cymothoids except R. circularis showed remarkable bending either towards left or right depending on whether they are located in right or left branchial cavity of their respective host fishes. The deleterious effects of parasitization by all recovered branchial cymothoids include the formation of a pit like depression in the branchial chamber and atrophy of the gill filament; the damage was more pronounced in the gill cavity of parasitized host fishes where the ovigerous female member was accommodated.

  17. An implicit approach to model plant infestation by insect pests.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Christelle; Spataro, Thierry; Doursat, Christophe; Lapchin, Laurent; Arditi, Roger

    2007-09-07

    Various spatial approaches were developed to study the effect of spatial heterogeneities on population dynamics. We present in this paper a flux-based model to describe an aphid-parasitoid system in a closed and spatially structured environment, i.e. a greenhouse. Derived from previous work and adapted to host-parasitoid interactions, our model represents the level of plant infestation as a continuous variable corresponding to the number of plants bearing a given density of pests at a given time. The variation of this variable is described by a partial differential equation. It is coupled to an ordinary differential equation and a delay-differential equation that describe the parasitized host population and the parasitoid population, respectively. We have applied our approach to the pest Aphis gossypii and to one of its parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes, in a melon greenhouse. Numerical simulations showed that, regardless of the number and distribution of hosts in the greenhouse, the aphid population is slightly larger if parasitoids display a type III rather than a type II functional response. However, the population dynamics depend on the initial distribution of hosts and the initial density of parasitoids released, which is interesting for biological control strategies. Sensitivity analysis showed that the delay in the parasitoid equation and the growth rate of the pest population are crucial parameters for predicting the dynamics. We demonstrate here that such a flux-based approach generates relevant predictions with a more synthetic formalism than a common plant-by-plant model. We also explain how this approach can be better adapted to test different management strategies and to manage crops of several greenhouses.

  18. Spatial Heterogeneity and Risk Maps of Community Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Rural Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Spillmann, Cynthia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Kitron, Uriel

    2012-01-01

    Background Fifty years of residual insecticide spraying to control Triatoma infestans in the Gran Chaco region of northern Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia shows that vertically coordinated interventions aiming at full coverage have limited effects and are unsustainable. We quantified the spatial distribution of T. infestans domestic infestation at the district level, identified environmental factors associated with high infestation and then explored the usefulness of risk maps for the spatial stratification of interventions. Methods and Findings We performed spatial analyses of house infestation data collected by the National Chagas Service in Moreno Department, northern Argentina (1999–2002). Clusters of high domestic infestation occurred in the southwestern extreme of the district. A multi-model selection approach showed that domestic infestation clustered in areas of low elevation, with few farmlands, high density of rural houses, high mean maximum land surface temperature, large NDVI, and high percentage of degraded and deforested lands. The best model classified 98.4% of the communities in the training dataset (sensitivity, 93.3%; specificity, 95.4%). The risk map evidenced that the high-risk area only encompassed 16% of the district. By building a network-based transportation model we assessed the operational costs of spatially contiguous and spatially targeted interventions. Targeting clusters of high infestation would have reached ∼80% of all communities slated for full-coverage insecticide spraying, reducing in half the total time and economic cost incurred by a spatially contiguous strategy. Conclusions and Significance In disperse rural areas where control programs can accomplish limited coverage, consideration of infestation hot spots can contribute to the design and execution of cost-effective interventions against Chagas disease vectors. If field validated, targeted vertical control in high risk areas and horizontal control in medium to low risk

  19. Infestation of rural houses by Triatoma infestans in the region of Los Llanos (La Rioja, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Porcasi, X; Hrellac, H; Catalá, S; Moreno, M; Abrahan, L; Hernandez, L; Gorla, D E

    2007-02-01

    Vectorial transmission of Chagas disease has been strongly reduced in most parts of the Southern Cone countries of South America, except in the Gran Chaco region of Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Given periodical interruptions of the vector control programmes in the endemic region of the Gran Chaco of Argentina, the vectorial transmission of the disease has been increasing during the last years. From the beginning of 2004, the provincial Ministry of Health of La Rioja, Argentina, started a vector control programme to cover the rural houses of the Los Llanos area in the southwestern area of the Gran Chaco region. This article reports the result of a standardized entomological survey and insecticide application against Chagas disease vectors in the intra and peridomestic structures of the rural houses of Los Llanos. A total of 4062 houses were inspected, of which 46.8% were found to be infested by Triatoma infestans. Infestation by vector species other than T. infestans was less than 0.5%(T. eratyrusiformis and T. platensis). Intradomestic infestation was found in 27.2%, whereas peridomestic infestation was found in 39.3% of the houses. The lowest figure of intradomestic infestation was 6.6% (Department F Varela), and the highest value of intradomestic infestation was 45.1% (Department Independencia). In spite of the demonstrated success of vector control elsewhere, this study shows that the vector populations are susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides in the southern area of the Gran Chaco of Argentina, that there still are regions where rural houses show heavy infestation by T. infestans associated with big peridomestic structures and that the vectorial transmission of the Chagas disease will continue, unless a sustained and well organized vector control effort is installed in the region.

  20. Delusional infestation: clinical presentation in 147 patients seen at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Foster, Ashley A; Hylwa, Sara A; Bury, Jessica E; Davis, Mark D P; Pittelkow, Mark R; Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-10-01

    Delusional infestation is the conviction that one's skin is infested with foreign organisms or materials despite contradictory objective evidence. To delineate clinical characteristics of patients presenting with delusional infestation. We performed a retrospective study of patients meeting delusional infestation criteria who were seen for diagnosis and treatment in our tertiary care academic medical center (2001-2007). Medical records were reviewed to abstract demographic, historical, and physical findings and treatment. Over 7 years, 147 patients presented with delusional infestation; 87% (123/142) for another opinion. Mean age was 57 years; female-to-male ratio was 2.89 to 1; 82 (56%) were married. Mean duration of symptoms was 31 months. Employment data were available for 145 patients: 48 (33%) were self-described as disabled, 16 of whom cited delusions as their disability; 41 (28%) were retired; and 38 (26%) were employed. Reported infestations included multiple materials (45% [64/143]), not limited to insects (79% [113/143]), worms (27% [39/143]), and fibers (20% [29/143]). Most patients presented initially to dermatology or other specialties; only 3 presented to psychiatry. A high proportion (81%) had prior psychiatric conditions. Thirty-eight (26%) of the 147 patients had a shared psychotic disorder. The retrospective nature of the study and the incompleteness of some data because not all the characteristics that were analyzed were documented for every patient. Patients were predominantly female, had a long history of symptoms, and had been seen previously at many medical centers. A large proportion were disabled or retired. Patients reported skin infestation with both animate and inanimate objects. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  2. Molecular recognition of emerald ash borer infestation using leaf spray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Caitlin E; Cooks, R Graham

    2016-06-15

    The introduction of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB) from Asia to Michigan, USA, in the 1990s caused the widespread death of ash trees in two Canadian provinces and 24 US states. The three current methods for the detection of emerald ash borer infestation, visual surveys, tree girdling and artificial traps, can be unreliable, and there is clearly a need for a rapid, dependable technique for the detection of emerald ash borer infestation. Leaf spray, an ambient ionization method for mass spectrometry (MS), gives direct chemical information on a leaf sample by applying a high voltage to a naturally or artificially sharply pointed leaf piece causing ions to be generated directly from the leaf tip for MS analysis. Leaflets from 23 healthy and EAB-infested ash trees were analyzed by leaf spray mass spectrometry in an attempt to distinguish healthy and EAB-infested ash trees. In negative ion mode, healthy ash trees showed an increased abundance of ions m/z 455.5, 471.5 and 487.5, and ash trees infested with the EAB displayed an increased abundance of ions m/z 181 and 217. The identities of the chemical discriminators ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in healthy ash trees, and six-carbon sugar alcohols in infested ash trees, were determined by tandem mass spectrometry and confirmed with standards. This preliminary study suggests that leaf spray mass spectrometry of ash tree leaflets provides a potential tool for the early detection of ash tree infestation by the emerald ash borer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Acoustic estimation of infestations and population densities of white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minling; Crocker, Robert L; Mankin, Richard W; Flanders, Kathy L; Brandhorst-Hubbard, Jamee L

    2003-12-01

    Incidental sounds produced by Phyllophaga crinita (Burmeister) and Cyclocephala lurida (Bland) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) white grubs were monitored with single- and multiple-sensor acoustic detection systems in turf fields and golf course fairways in Texas. The maximum detection range of an individual acoustic sensor was measured in a greenhouse as approximately the area enclosed in a 26.5-cm-diameter perimeter (552 cm2). A single-sensor acoustic system was used to rate the likelihood of white grub infestation at monitored sites, and a four-sensor array was used to count the numbers of white grubs at sites where infestations were identified. White grub population densities were acoustically estimated by dividing the estimated numbers of white grubs by the area of the detection range. For comparisons with acoustic monitoring methods, infestations were assessed also by examining 10-cm-diameter soil cores collected with a standard golf cup-cutter. Both acoustic and cup-cutter assessments of infestation and estimates of white grub population densities were verified by excavation and sifting of the soil around the sensors after each site was monitored. The single-sensor acoustic method was more successful in assessing infestations at a recording site than was the cup-cutter method, possibly because the detection range was larger than the area of the soil core. White grubs were recovered from >90% of monitored sites rated at medium or high likelihood of infestation. Infestations were successfully identified at 23 of the 24 sites where white grubs were recovered at densities >50/m2, the threshold for economic damage. The four-sensor array yielded the most accurate estimates of the numbers of white grubs in the detection range, enabling reliable, nondestructive estimation of white grub population densities. However, tests with the array took longer and were more difficult to perform than tests with the single sensor.

  4. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Woli, P; Ortiz, B V; Buntin, D; Flanders, K

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is expected to have an influence on the population of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a serious insect pest of winter wheat in the southeastern United States. This study had two objectives: 1) to examine the effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Hessian fly infestation and 2) to develop a weather-based Hessian fly infestation model for wheat yield loss prediction. At least 20 years of Hessian fly infestation and wheat yield records from two locations in South Georgia were used for this study. The yearly values of infestation were separated by ENSO phase and tested to assess the infestation differences across ENSO phases. Each year, yield losses from infestation were calculated by subtracting the yields of resistant varieties from those of susceptible ones. The yield losses were then separated by ENSO phase and tested. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the contribution of monthly weather variables and changes in wheat acreage to Hessian fly infestation. Results showed that Hessian fly infestation and yield losses were greatest during the La Niña and least during the El Niño phase. The weather conditions that significantly increased the risk for infestation were those of the August-February period. The risk of infestation was higher during August-September under wetter, cooler conditions and during October-February under drier, warmer conditions. These findings could help wheat growers reduce the risk of infestation in the years that are expected to have more infestation through the adoption of necessary mitigation measures before the crop season.

  5. The effect of northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation on hen physiology, physical condition, and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; King, Annie J; Mench, Joy A

    2016-05-01

    The northern fowl mite (NFM),Ornithonyssus sylviarum, is the most common ectoparasite of laying hens in North America. Infestation can cause a reduction in egg production, egg weights, and feed conversion efficiency. However, there is a lack of information on the effects of NFM on hen physiology, physical condition, and egg quality. Singly caged beak-trimmed White Leghorn hens (N=32) were infested with mites at 25 wk of age. The condition of each hen was assessed at wk 0 (infestation) and wk 5 and 7 post-infestation to determine comb temperatures and feather, skin, and comb condition. Heterophil-lymphocyte (H/L) ratios and body weight (BW) were evaluated at wk 0 and wk 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infestation. Egg weight, egg specific gravity, yolk color, Haugh unit (HU), and eggshell thickness were determined prior to infestation (wk -1) and at 1, 3, 5, and 7 wk post-infestation. The H/L ratio (P<0.0001), HU (P<0.0001), and egg specific gravity (P=0.001) were lowest, and the egg yolk color was lightest (P=0.087) at wk 5, the peak of infestation. At wk 5 and 7, more than 65% of the hens had red skin and more than 75% had scabs on the vent; in addition more than 84% had grey-black vent feathers. There were no effects of infestation on comb color, comb temperature, feather cover, BW, or eggshell thickness. It was concluded that infestation with NFM has negative effects on interior egg quality and hen integument. A decrease in H/L ratio was also observed at the peak of infestation. However, the effects of NFM on the immune system are unclear, and H/L ratio might not be a good stress measure in hens highly infested with NFM. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Distribution, Predictors, and Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Infestation of White Fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus).

    PubMed

    Peterson, Donnie L; Cipollini, Don

    2017-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America that was recently found infesting white fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus L.). Initial reports of the infestation of white fringetree by emerald ash borer occurred in southwestern Ohio and Chicago, IL. We examined white fringetrees at additional sites in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania in Summer and Fall 2015 and Winter 2016 for emerald ash borer infestation. Our aim was to examine white fringetrees at a limited number of sites with emerald ash borer infestation and to relate tree size, crown dieback, epicormic sprouting, tree sex, and adjacency to ash or white fringetrees with the likelihood of beetle infestation. A higher proportion of infested trees exhibited epicormic sprouting and the likelihood that a tree was infested increased with increasing crown dieback, variables that may be both predictors and responses to attack. The proportion of trees infested with emerald ash borer increased with increasing tree size. Signs consistent with emerald ash borer infestation were found in 26% of 178 white fringetrees, with at least one host infested at each site in all states. Infestation rates of white fringetrees increased with the density of white fringetrees at each site. The Chicago Botanic Garden site had a significantly lower infestation (3.7%) than other sites, which may be due to proactive management of ash. Overall, these data indicate white fringetree has been utilized by emerald ash borer throughout their overlapping ranges in the United States in ornamental settings likely due to ecological fitting. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. First report of family infestation with pubic louse (Pthirus pubis; Insecta: Anoplura: Pthiridae) in Iran--a case report.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, R; Limoee, M; Ahaki, A R

    2013-03-01

    The sucking lice including the head, body and pubic louse infest humans and so they are of high hygienic importance. Pubic lice are transmitted during sexual contact in adults. Thus, infestation of children with pubis louse is very rare. A case of infestation with pubic louse (Pthirus pubis) in a family in Kashan was seen. On examination of family members, the parasites were collected and observed under the light microscope. Infestation of eyelashes with P. pubis lice was confirmed. Since this parasite can be observed on the skin, infestation with this louse has always been one of the concerns of human communities. Pthiriasis has frequently been reported in many parts of the world; however, there are few reports on this infestation in Iran, especially familial infestation with this louse. Hence, this article could be the first report on the familial infestation with P. pubis in Iran and it can be suggested that infestation with pubic lice occurs in sporadic form in all over the country.

  8. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address the

  9. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O.; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests’ biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host’s defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address

  10. Evaluation of risk factors for rural infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Triatominae), a Mexican vector of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Enger, Kyle S; Ordoñez, Rosalinda; Wilson, Mark L; Ramsey, Janine M

    2004-07-01

    Control of Chagas disease requires control of its triatomine vectors, which requires an understanding of the determinants of infestation. Twenty-seven household environmental characteristics in the town of Chalcatzingo, Morelos, were analyzed for association with infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis, the predominant local vector. Data were obtained through timed household searches for triatomines and surveys that characterized intradomicile and peridomicile environments. Of the households surveyed, 28.4% were infested by T. pallidipennis. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed that regressed infestation on environmental variables. Of the 530 households in the town, 84% had sufficient data to be included. Adobe walls, agricultural products, junk piles, lack of bednets, and number of rabbits were significantly associated with intradomiciliary infestation. Junk piles and numbers of dogs, cats, and rabbits were significantly associated with peridomiciliary infestation. Junk piles, agricultural products, and numbers of cats, rabbits, and birds were significantly associated with overall infestation. Unexpectedly, presence of stone piles was not associated with infestation. The results of this study provide information for designing Chagas disease control programs in rural Mexican areas infested by T. pallidipennis.

  11. Pea aphid infestation induces changes in flavonoids, antioxidative defence, soluble sugars and sugar transporter expression in leaves of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Formela, Magda; Mai, Van Chung; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Kühn, Christina; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The perception of aphid infestation induces highly coordinated and sequential defensive reactions in plants at the cellular and molecular levels. The aim of the study was to explore kinetics of induced antioxidative defence responses in leaf cells of Pisum sativum L.cv. Cysterski upon infestation of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum at varying population sizes, including accumulation of flavonoids, changes of carbon metabolism, and expression of nuclear genes involved in sugar transport. Within the first 96 h, after A. pisum infestation, flavonoid accumulation and increased peroxidase activity were observed in leaves. The level of pisatin increased after 48 h of infestation and reached a maximum at 96 h. At this time point, a higher concentration of flavonols was observed in the infested tissue than in the control. Additionally, strong post-infestation accumulation of chalcone synthase (CHS) and isoflavone synthase (IFS) transcription products was also found. The levels of sucrose and fructose in 24-h leaves infested by 10, 20, and 30 aphids were significantly lower than in the control. Moreover, in leaves infested by 30 aphids, the reduced sucrose level observed up to 48 h was accompanied by a considerable increase in the expression level of the PsSUT1 gene encoding the sucrose transporter. In conclusion, A. pisum infestation on pea leads to stimulation of metabolic pathways associated with defence.

  12. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  13. Influence of Household Rat Infestation on Leptospira Transmission in the Urban Slum Environment

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C.; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N.; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13–11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06–7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28–6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21–6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71–0.84). Conclusions/Significance Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may

  14. Effect of bark beetle infestation on secondary organic aerosol precursor emissions.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hardik; Atkins, P Tyson; Russo, Rachel S; Brown, Aaron W; Sive, Barkley; Hallar, A Gannet; Huff Hartz, Kara E

    2012-06-05

    Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosystems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere. The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled i.) from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) trees and ii.) from sites with and without active mountain pine beetle infestation. The emissions from the trunk and the canopy were collected via sorbent traps. After collection, the sorbent traps were extracted with hexane, and the extracts were separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Canister samples were also collected and analyzed by a multicolumn gas chromatographic system. The samples from bark beetle infested lodgepole pine trees suggest a 5- to 20-fold enhancement in total VOCs emissions. Furthermore, increases in the β-phellandrene emissions correlated with bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions can be used to identify bark beetle infestation but, more importantly, can lead to increases in secondary organic aerosol from these forests as potent SOA precursors are produced.

  15. Infestation and Identification of Ixodid Tick in Cattle: The Case of Arbegona District, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tamerat, Nateneal; Tuluka, Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted from October 2014 to June 2015 to estimate tick prevalence and identify major tick genera infesting cattle and the associated risk factors in Arbegona district, southern Ethiopia. A total of 2024 adult ticks were collected from main body parts of animals and eight species of ticks which belong to three genera were identified. Questionnaire survey was employed concerning the general case on the tick infestation problems on the cattle. From 384 cattle examined, 291 (75.7%) were found to be infested with one or more types of tick species. The relative prevalence of each genera was Amblyomma (34.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) (26.6%), Hyalomma (19.2%), and Rhipicephalus (19%). The prevalence of tick infestation in good (65.5%), medium (74%), and poor body condition animal (100%) was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was also significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence in old (98.4%) than adult (78.8%) and young (59.8%) age groups of animals. In the survey, 87.5% of respondents believe that there was tick infestation problem in their locality. This study showed there was high burden and prevalence of ticks that still play major roles in reducing productivity and cause health problems of cattle in the area which call for urgent attention. PMID:28105466

  16. Defense Responses in Rice Induced by Silicon Amendment against Infestation by the Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis.

    PubMed

    Han, Yongqiang; Li, Pei; Gong, Shaolong; Yang, Lang; Wen, Lizhang; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores. In the present study, the physiological and cytological mechanisms underlying the enhanced resistance of plants with Si addition were investigated for one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries, the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). Activities of defense-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves were measured in rice plants with or without leaf folder infestation and with or without Si amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil. Silicon amendment significantly reduced leaf folder larval survival. Silicon addition alone did not change activities of defense-related enzymes and malondialdehyde concentration in rice leaves. With leaf folder infestation, activities of the defense-related enzymes increased and malondialdehyde concentration decreased in plants amended with Si. Soluble protein content increased with Si addition when the plants were not infested, but was reduced more in the infested plants with Si amendment than in those without Si addition. Regardless of leaf folder infestation, Si amendment significantly increased leaf Si content through increases in the number and width of silica cells. Our results show that Si addition enhances rice resistance to the leaf folder through priming the feeding stress defense system, reduction in soluble protein content and cell silicification of rice leaves.

  17. Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Hamedan-Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Mansour; Saidijam, Massoud

    2007-10-01

    To determine the intensity of Pediculus capitis infestation (abundance) among school children, children's sex and social factors were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence of parasitism. The study included 847 school children (407 girls, 440 boys) between 6 and 12 years, from 12 in public rural primary schools of Hamedan, Province of Hamedan, Iran. Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. The general prevalence was 6.85% (girls: 13.5%; boys: 0.7%, p < 0.001), head lice were much more commonly detected in girls than in boys. The obtained results showed that there was significant variations between head lice infestation and the factors such as parents' literacy, type of hair, previous infestation, sharing of bed and comb and care centers, while there was no significant variation between school grade, parents' job, members of family and pediculosis in the studied areas (p > 0.05). Sex and social factor are important modifiers of P. capitis general prevalence and degree of infestation. The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures.

  18. Insect stings to change gear for healthy plant: Improving maize drought tolerance by whitefly infestation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-05-03

    Since plants first appeared about 1.1 billion years ago, they have been faced with biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment. To overcome these stresses, plants developed defense strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] affects the regulation of plant defenses and physiology. A recent study demonstrates that aboveground whitefly infestation positively modulates root biomass and anthocyanin pigmentation on brace roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.). In agreement with these observations, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents and the expression of IAA- and JA-related genes are higher in whitefly-infested maize plants than in non-infected control plants. Interestingly, the fresh weight of whitefly-infested maize plants is approximately 20% higher than in non-infected control plants under water stress conditions. Further investigation has revealed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulates in whitefly-infested maize plants after water stoppage. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of phytohormones- (i.e., IAA and JA) and H2O2-mediated maize signaling pathways triggered by aboveground whitefly infestation promotes drought resistance. They also provide an insight into how inter-kingdom interactions can improve drought tolerance in plants.

  19. Detection of Magnaporthe grisea in infested rice seeds using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Chadha, S; Gopalakrishna, T

    2006-05-01

    To develop a diagnostic assay based on polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Magnaporthe grisea from infested rice seeds. Primers were designed based on the nucleotide sequence of the mif 23, an infection-specific gene of M. grisea. The primers amplified target DNA from genetically and geographically diverse isolates of the pathogen. The lowest concentration of template DNA that led to amplification was 20 rhog. No PCR product was detected when DNA from other fungi was used, indicating the specificity of the primers. With this PCR based seed assay, M. grisea was detected in rice seedlots with infestation rates as low as 0.2%. The PCR detection of M. grisea is simple, rapid, specific, sensitive and suitable for the routine detection of the pathogen in infested seeds. Introduction of the blast fungus into new areas where it has not been previously recorded could be avoided by the detection of infested seedlots. A PCR-based seed assay could facilitate risk assessment of naturally infested rice seeds; help design management programs and optimize fungicide use.

  20. Exclusion Netting Delays and Reduces Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Infestation in Raspberries.

    PubMed

    Leach, Heather; Van Timmeren, Steven; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-07-14

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a new frugivorous pest of raspberries and other soft fruits in North America, causing infestation of fruit at harvest time. Control of this pest has primarily been through the application of broad-spectrum insecticides to prevent oviposition and larval development, and there is an urgent need for alternative approaches. Over two growing seasons, we compared D. suzukii control in a research planting with insecticide and exclusion treatments in a factorial design, monitoring first-, second-, and third-instar Drosophila larvae in ripening, ripe, and overripe berries. Each of the two control approaches provided significant reduction of infestation in raspberry fruit, but the combination treatment had the lowest overall abundance of larvae in fruit. This pattern was seen for all larval instars in both years. The combination treatment also delayed the first detected larval infestation by 10 d compared to the untreated plots. Exclusion netting applied to commercial size high tunnels resulted in a significant reduction in overall D. suzukii infestation in raspberries, as well as a 3-wk delay in the average first detectable fruit infestation. Raspberry size and quality were not affected by the exclusion treatments, indicating that this approach can be an important component of growers' response to invasion by D. suzukii in temperate climates. We discuss the opportunities and limitations for implementing exclusion netting in raspberry production. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  2. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Durand, R; Cannet, A; Berdjane, Z; Bruel, C; Haouchine, D; Delaunay, P; Izri, A

    2012-11-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97%) and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6%) apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6%) reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%). DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n=124) had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  3. [Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes].

    PubMed

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F; Dantas, Jorge L L; Morales, Cinara F G; Caldas, Ranulfo C

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lenghtwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil on V. cauliflora.

  4. Spectral Analysis of Ultraweak Chemiluminescence from Kidney Bean Leaf Infested with Tetranychus Kanzawai Kishida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Ryuzou; Miike, Tohru; Okabe, Hirotaka; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji; Takagi, Masami; Kai, Shoichi

    2005-02-01

    We performed the spectral analysis of ultraweak-photon emissions from kidney bean leaves infested by the kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae). We also measured the spectrum of photon emissions from artificially wounded leaves, and compared the result with spectral data obtained from the mite-infested leaves. Photon emissions from both the mite-infested and wounded leaves primarily consisted of wavelengths ranging from 500 to 700 nm, and photon intensity at these wavelengths increased steadily after perturbation. In contrast, photon intensity of the mite-infested leaves at 300-400 nm exhibited only differential changes; it began increasing at 20 h, and showed two peaks at 72 and 120 h. We previously reported that photon emissions from infested leaves might be the result of both insect damage and plant self-protection. Plant defensive responses, such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), are induced by insect elicitors via insect damage. Therefore, photon intensity at 500-700 nm might be related to direct injury (physiological stress), while photon intensity at 300-400 nm may signify a physiological (biochemical)-action-related defensive response.

  5. Efficacy of doramectin in Trixacarus caviae infestation in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Ahmed, Quazi Shahir; Sayedda, Kauser; Singh, Krishna Veer

    2013-04-01

    The present study was intended to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin against seven naturally Trixacarus caviae infested male guinea pigs. Multiple skin scrapings of all the seven guinea pigs were found microscopically positive for T. caviae mites. Clinically these animals revealed, more or less denuded, very red often thickened, and crustated cutaneous lesions restricted at the sacral region and back. Doramectin 1 % (w/v) was administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 400 μg/kg once weekly, which resulted in profound improvements in clinical conditions within 14 days after the first doramectin application. It took almost 28 days for the cutaneous lesions to disappear and to witness partial hair coat regrowth. Two moderately infested guinea pigs required only single injection of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure, while remaining five (one moderately infested and four severely infested) guinea pigs required two injections of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure. No adverse effects were revealed by any of the doramectin treated guinea pigs during the study period. Thus, it can be concluded from the present study that guinea pigs naturally infested by T. caviae mites can be cured safely using two doses of doramectin once in a week.

  6. Probability of detecting nematode infestations for quarantine sampling with imperfect extraction efficacy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peichen; Liu, Shih-Chia; Liu, Hung-I; Chen, Tse-Wei; Chiang, Kuo-Szu

    2011-03-01

    For quarantine sampling, it is of fundamental importance to determine the probability of finding an infestation when a specified number of units are inspected. In general, current sampling procedures assume 100% probability (perfect) of detecting a pest if it is present within a unit. Ideally, a nematode extraction method should remove all stages of all species with 100% efficiency regardless of season, temperature, or other environmental conditions; in practice however, no method approaches these criteria. In this study we determined the probability of detecting nematode infestations for quarantine sampling with imperfect extraction efficacy. Also, the required sample and the risk involved in detecting nematode infestations with imperfect extraction efficacy are presented. Moreover, we developed a computer program to calculate confidence levels for different scenarios with varying proportions of infestation and efficacy of detection. In addition, a case study, presenting the extraction efficacy of the modified Baermann's Funnel method on Aphelenchoides besseyi, is used to exemplify the use of our program to calculate the probability of detecting nematode infestations in quarantine sampling with imperfect extraction efficacy. The result has important implications for quarantine programs and highlights the need for a very large number of samples if perfect extraction efficacy is not achieved in such programs. We believe that the results of the study will be useful for the determination of realistic goals in the implementation of quarantine sampling.

  7. Defense Responses in Rice Induced by Silicon Amendment against Infestation by the Leaf Folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yongqiang; Li, Pei; Gong, Shaolong; Yang, Lang; Wen, Lizhang; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores. In the present study, the physiological and cytological mechanisms underlying the enhanced resistance of plants with Si addition were investigated for one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries, the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). Activities of defense-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves were measured in rice plants with or without leaf folder infestation and with or without Si amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil. Silicon amendment significantly reduced leaf folder larval survival. Silicon addition alone did not change activities of defense-related enzymes and malondialdehyde concentration in rice leaves. With leaf folder infestation, activities of the defense-related enzymes increased and malondialdehyde concentration decreased in plants amended with Si. Soluble protein content increased with Si addition when the plants were not infested, but was reduced more in the infested plants with Si amendment than in those without Si addition. Regardless of leaf folder infestation, Si amendment significantly increased leaf Si content through increases in the number and width of silica cells. Our results show that Si addition enhances rice resistance to the leaf folder through priming the feeding stress defense system, reduction in soluble protein content and cell silicification of rice leaves. PMID:27124300

  8. Alterations in the nitrogen dynamics of European beech trees infested by the woolly beech aphid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, D. F.; Michalzik, B.

    2012-12-01

    Insects are a major stressor in wooded ecosystems, triggering profound changes in the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and net primary productivity of infested forests. The influence of woolly beech aphids (Phyllaphis fagi L.) on nitrogen cycling via throughfall, stemflow, and litter leachates is not well understood. Employing a combination of field sampling, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, we examined and compared the alterations and partitioning of nitrogen (particulate, dissolved, organic, inorganic) between control (uninfested) and infested trees. Preliminary results suggest that the amount of nitrogen routed to the soil is much lower in throughfall and stemflow of infested trees than control trees. Preliminary X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements on the abaxial surface of sample leaves have demonstrated that the surface microbiology and nitrogen chemistry of control, lightly infested, and heavily infested leaves are notably different. These observations suggest that the aphids alter the phyllosphere ecology to such an extent that they trigger nitrogen uptake by microbes on the leaf surface in the presence of easily available carbon from aphid excretions (i.e., honeydew). A better understanding of nitrogen cycling in stressed forests would advance theories of nitrogen cycling.

  9. Intra-farm variation of rodent infestations on poultry farms of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gómez Villafañe, I E; Cavia, R; Busch, M; Bilenca, D N

    2003-12-01

    1. During the summer and winter of 1998 we monitored rodent infestation in the sheds of 9 poultry farms in central Argentina to estimate variation in rodent infestation within farms and its possible association with shed structure and farm design. 2. We observed great heterogeneity in rodent infestations, with a mean variation of 37% in the 'Rodent Infestation Index' (RII; an estimate of rodent density revealed by tracks) between sheds of the same farm. 3. In summer, the group of sheds that showed the highest RII had a higher chicken density than the group of sheds with the lowest RII. Sheds located between other sheds of the same farm showed a lower RII than sheds located beside the perimeter of the farm. 4. Our results support the hypothesis that rodents show habitat selection at both macro (farm) and microhabitat (shed) scales, and that the variables associated with these associations can change according to the scale. 5. Our observation that sheds located beside the perimeter of the farms are prone to rodent invasions reinforces our previous recommendation that farms with an efficient control of vegetation growth around their perimeter would have appreciably lower rodent infestations.

  10. Megninia ginglymura feather mite infestation in a Hamburg poultry flock in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Van Poucke, Stefaan; Creighton, Robin; Baker, Anne S

    2016-04-01

    A flock of rare breed poultry was heavily infested with small white mites. Although apparently not harming the birds, the mites were identified in order to access data on veterinary/medical significance and to decide upon appropriate treatment. To determine the identity of the mites, assess their potential impact on the host birds and to apply a chemical treatment regime. Twelve, 5-month-old Hamburg large fowl kept on a UK farm owned by the second author. They were housed together on shavings in an indoor pen with a grass outdoor run. All were hatched on the farm and never left it. Mites were identified using taxonomic identification keys and morphological descriptions. Nine birds were treated topically with 0.25% fipronil at 8 mL/kg on one occasion, while three birds were separated and left untreated as a control. The infesting species was the feather mite Megninia ginglymura. Treated birds were mite-free after three weeks, whereas untreated ones were still heavily infested. This is the first published report of such a heavy infestation of M. ginglymura in poultry in the UK and the first time topical fipronil has been used to eradicate these mites. The case is highlighted because, although asymptomatic in this instance, such infestations may be injurious to birds in different rearing regimes. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Head lice infestations (Anoplura: Pediculidae) in Saudi and non-Saudi school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bosely, Hanan Aboalkasem; El-Alfy, Nadia M

    2011-04-01

    The prevalence and human risk factors associated with head lice infestation was studied. A total of 860 children, 474 (55.1%) boys and 386 (44.9%) girls, with ages ranged from 6-13 years were critically examined. They were randomly selected from two schoolchildren (one for boys and one for girls) in Jazan Province. The children or their parents were subjected to questionnaire and physical examination by visual inspections of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice, nymphs, and/or eggs (nits). A total of 114 children (13.3%) were infested with head lice, 73 (18.9%) girls and 41 (8.6%) boys. The highest infestation rate was recorded in rural area (20.5%). Pediculosis had a negative association with father's education level and frequency of hair washing (p > 0.01). The results indicated that rural residence, sex, long hair, age- group 6- < 8 years old, positive history of previous infestation, sharing of beds and combs, uneducated mother and family overcrowding might be the risk factors for the head lice infestation.

  12. Infestation of Werneckiella equi on Icelandic horses, characteristics of predilection sites and lice dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, K S; Eydal, M; Mencke, N; Sigurdsson, H

    2005-08-01

    Lice infestations on horses caused by the lice Werneckiella (Damalinia) equi and Haematopinus equi are observed worldwide. In this study, the distribution and clinical manifestations of lice on Icelandic horses were examined. Thirty-eight out of 93 animals (40.86%) were identified as infested with W. equi. Sixty-eight animals (73.12%) presented dermatological lesions associated with lice infestation, while only 32 of these animals presented lice. Six animals had no clinical signs although of being lice-positive, and 19 animals (20.43%) showed neither lice nor clinical manifestations. Lice burdens varied from animal to animal, and clinical manifestations occurred at all levels of infestation. Focal alopecia was the main clinical sign (83.78%) on lice-positive horses, while scaling and crusts occurred in 10.81% and 9.68% of the cases, respectively. Clinical signs present in the head and the neck/mane area were found to be an indication of lice infestation in horses.

  13. A meta-analysis of association between acne vulgaris and Demodex infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Ma, Jun-Xian

    2012-03-01

    Until now, etiology of acne vulgaris is still uncertain. Although clinicians usually deny the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, it has been proved in some clinical practices. To confirm the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris, a meta-analysis was conducted. Predefined selection criteria were applied to search all published papers that analyzed the association between Demodex infestation and acne vulgaris (January 1950 to August 2011) in ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on fixed effects models or random effects models. We enrolled the 60 Chinese and 3 English papers in this meta-analysis, which covered Turkey and 25 different provinces/municipalities in China and 42130 participants including students and residents, aged from 1 to 78 years. The pooled OR in random effects models is 2.80 (95% CI, 2.34-3.36). Stability is robust according to sensitivity analysis. The fail-safe number is 18477, suggesting that at least 18477 articles with negative conclusions would be needed to reverse the conclusion that acne vulgaris was related to Demodex infestation. So the effect of publication bias was insignificant and could be ignored. It was concluded that acne vulgaris is associated with Demodex infestation. This indicates that when regular treatments for acne vulgaris are ineffective, examination of Demodex mites and necessary acaricidal therapies should be considered.

  14. Infestation and Identification of Ixodid Tick in Cattle: The Case of Arbegona District, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kemal, Jelalu; Tamerat, Nateneal; Tuluka, Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted from October 2014 to June 2015 to estimate tick prevalence and identify major tick genera infesting cattle and the associated risk factors in Arbegona district, southern Ethiopia. A total of 2024 adult ticks were collected from main body parts of animals and eight species of ticks which belong to three genera were identified. Questionnaire survey was employed concerning the general case on the tick infestation problems on the cattle. From 384 cattle examined, 291 (75.7%) were found to be infested with one or more types of tick species. The relative prevalence of each genera was Amblyomma (34.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) (26.6%), Hyalomma (19.2%), and Rhipicephalus (19%). The prevalence of tick infestation in good (65.5%), medium (74%), and poor body condition animal (100%) was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was also significantly (p < 0.05) higher prevalence in old (98.4%) than adult (78.8%) and young (59.8%) age groups of animals. In the survey, 87.5% of respondents believe that there was tick infestation problem in their locality. This study showed there was high burden and prevalence of ticks that still play major roles in reducing productivity and cause health problems of cattle in the area which call for urgent attention.

  15. Prevalence of tick infestation in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Ali; Moghaddas, Elham

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of tick infestation and identify tick species that parasitize dromedary camels. Since April 2012 through March 2013, a total of 400 camels that brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir were examined for tick infestation. Out of the total 400 camels examined, 237 were infested and annual prevalence of tick infestation 59.25 % (95 % CI 54-64) was calculated. The higher prevalence rates were found in the summer and spring, especially the summer that prevalence rate was the highest. A total of 1,122 ticks were collected from the infested camels and identified by stereomicroscopy. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick species and comprised 70.76 % of the collected ticks. The frequency of other species was as follows: H. excavatum (19.25 %), H. anatolicum (4.81 %), H. asiaticum (4.72 %), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.17 %), H. detritum (0.09 %), H. impeltatum (0.09 %) and H. schulzei (0.09 %). Based on the results of present study, it is concluded that camels mostly harbor Hyalomma spp. The species of this genus are the most notorious ticks for transmission of human and animal diseases. Therefore, appropriate tick control measures need to be employed and pour-on method for acaricide application is suggested because this method is fast, easy and suitable for use by camel owners in deserts.

  16. Pilot study of the prevalence of head lice infestation in a population of Saudi Arabian children.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P

    1987-06-01

    The prevalence of infestation with the head louse, Pediculus capitis, was assessed among the child population, from birth to 10 years old inclusive, of the rapidly expanding Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah. Over a period of two months, 300 consecutive children attending the general practitioner for any reason were examined specifically to identify those infested with head lice: 37 cases of active infestation were found, which is an overall prevalence of 12%. An interesting distribution, however, was noted in respect of age, ranging from less than 2% in the first year of life, rising rapidly to around 30% in ages six to eight years, thereafter declining steadily to about 16% by age 10 years. The distribution of infestation among males and females was broadly similar. These results show a high head lice infestation, particularly in the early school years, where presumably interpersonal contacts are most frequent, facilitating contagious spread. As the head lice is known to spread several viral and rickettsial diseases, such as relapsing fever and typhus, greater efforts should be made towards patient education in hygiene, and towards identifying and treating the disease when found.

  17. Role of Demodex mite infestation in rosacea: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin-Shuo; Huang, Yu-Chen

    2017-09-01

    The reported prevalence and degrees of Demodex mite infestation in rosacea vary widely. We sought to conduct an evidence-based meta-analysis of the prevalence and degrees of Demodex mite infestation in patients with rosacea. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted. Odds ratios for prevalence of infestation and standardized mean difference (SMD) for Demodex density in patients with rosacea were pooled. Subgroup analysis for type of rosacea, control group, and sampling and examination methods were also performed. Twenty-three case-control studies included 1513 patients with rosacea. Compared with the control patients, patients with rosacea were more likely to be infested by Demodex mites [odds ratio, 9.039; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.827-16.925] and had significantly higher Demodex density (SMD, 1.617; 95% CI, 1.090-2.145). Both erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (SMD, 2.686; 95% CI, 1.256-4.116) and papulopustular rosacea (SMD, 2.804; 95% CI, 1.464-4.145) had significantly higher Demodex density than did healthy control patients. Interstudy variability was high, and a causal relationship could not be established by case-control studies. Patients with rosacea had significantly higher prevalence and degrees of Demodex mite infestation than did control patients. Demodex mites may play a role in both erythematotelangiectatic rosacea and papulopustular rosacea. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    PubMed Central

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events. PMID:26553505

  19. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    Durand, R.; Cannet, A.; Berdjane, Z.; Bruel, C.; Haouchine, D.; Delaunay, P.; Izri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97%) and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6%) apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6%) reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%). DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124) had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs. PMID:23193523

  20. Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

    2013-04-01

    The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall.

  1. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events.

  2. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar

    2011-05-01

    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  3. A remote sensing assessment of pest infestation on sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Sao, R.; Singh, K. P.

    The damage caused by the pest to crop is well known. The major aspects of remote sensing are timely estimates of agriculture crop yield, prediction of pest. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the utility and potential application of microwave remote sensing for detection of pest infestation within sorghum field. The studies were made on crop sorghum (Meethi Sudan) that is a forage variety and the pest observed was a species of grasshopper. The beds of crop sorghum were specially prepared for pests as well as microwave scattering measurements. In first phase of study, dependence of occurrence of pests on sorghum plant parameters (i.e., crop covered moist soil (SM), plant height (PH), leaf area index (LAI), percentage biomass (BIO), total chlorophyll (TC)) have been observed and analyzed and it was noticed that pests were more dependent on sorghum chlorophyll than other plant parameters, while climatic conditions were taken as constant. An empirical relationship has been developed between occurrence of pests and TC with quite significant values of coefficient of determination ( r2 = 0.82). These crop parameters are easily assessable through microwave remote sensing and therefore they can form the basis for prediction of pest remotely. In the second phase of this study, several observations were carried out for various growth stages of sorghum using scatterometer for both like polarizations (i.e., HH- and VV-) and different incidence angles at X-band (9.5 GHz). Linear regression analysis was carried out to obtain the best suitable incidence angle and polarization to assess the sorghum TC. VV-pol gives better results than HH-pol and incidence angle should be more than 40° for both like polarizations for assessing the sorghum TC at X-band. A negative correlation has been obtained between TC and scattering coefficient with the r2 values (0.69 and 0.75 for HH- and VV-pol, respectively). The TC assessed by the microwave measurements was

  4. Ecological and Sociodemographic Determinants of House Infestation by Triatoma infestans in Indigenous Communities of the Argentine Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Gaspe, M. Sol; Provecho, Yael M.; Cardinal, M. Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. Methods A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Principal Findings Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles’. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles’ (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Conclusions and Significance Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and

  5. A country bug in the city: urban infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi remains an unrealized objective in many Latin American countries. The task of vector control is complicated by the emergence of vector insects in urban areas. Methods Utilizing data from a large-scale vector control program in Arequipa, Peru, we explored the spatial patterns of infestation by Triatoma infestans in an urban and peri-urban landscape. Multilevel logistic regression was utilized to assess the associations between household infestation and household- and locality-level socio-environmental measures. Results Of 37,229 households inspected for infestation, 6,982 (18.8%; 95% CI: 18.4 – 19.2%) were infested by T. infestans. Eighty clusters of infestation were identified, ranging in area from 0.1 to 68.7 hectares and containing as few as one and as many as 1,139 infested households. Spatial dependence between infested households was significant at distances up to 2,000 meters. Household T. infestans infestation was associated with household- and locality-level factors, including housing density, elevation, land surface temperature, and locality type. Conclusions High levels of T. infestans infestation, characterized by spatial heterogeneity, were found across extensive urban and peri-urban areas prior to vector control. Several environmental and social factors, which may directly or indirectly influence the biology and behavior of T. infestans, were associated with infestation. Spatial clustering of infestation in the urban context may both challenge and inform surveillance and control of vector reemergence after insecticide intervention. PMID:24171704

  6. Ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in indigenous communities of the Argentine Chaco.

    PubMed

    Sol Gaspe, M; Provecho, Yael M; Cardinal, M Victoria; del Pilar Fernández, M; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2015-03-01

    The Gran Chaco ecoregion, a hotspot for Chagas and other neglected tropical diseases, is home to >20 indigenous peoples. Our objective was to identify the main ecological and sociodemographic determinants of house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in traditional Qom populations including a Creole minority in Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina. A cross-sectional survey determined house infestation by timed-manual searches with a dislodging aerosol in 386 inhabited houses and administered questionnaires on selected variables before full-coverage insecticide spraying and annual vector surveillance. We fitted generalized linear models to two global models of domestic infestation and bug abundance, and estimated coefficients via multimodel inference with model averaging. Most Qom households were larger and lived in small-sized, recently-built, precarious houses with fewer peridomestic structures, and fewer livestock and poultry than Creoles'. Qom households had lower educational level and unexpectedly high residential mobility. House infestation (31.9%) was much lower than expected from lack of recent insecticide spraying campaigns and was spatially aggregated. Nearly half of the infested houses examined had infected vectors. Qom households had higher prevalence of domestic infestation (29.2%) than Creoles' (10.0%), although there is large uncertainty around the adjusted OR. Factors with high relative importance for domestic infestation and/or bug abundance were refuge availability, distance to the nearest infested house, domestic insecticide use, indoor presence of poultry, residential overcrowding, and household educational level. Our study highlights the importance of sociodemographic determinants of domestic infestation such as overcrowding, education and proximity to the nearest infested house, and corroborates the role of refuge availability, domestic use of insecticides and household size. These factors may be used for designing improved

  7. PREHISTORICAL Pediculus humanus capitis INFESTATION: QUANTITATIVE DATA AND LOW VACUUM SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Juliana M.F.; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412

  8. Prehistorical Pediculus humanus capitis infestation: quantitative data and low vacuum scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Juliana M F; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; Souza, Wanderley de; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Souza, Sheila Mendonça de; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits.

  9. Detection of Hypoderma actaeon infestation in Cervus elaphus with ELISA and western blotting.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Julia; Panadero, Rosario; de la Fuente-López, Concepción

    2010-07-01

    We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting (WB) to evaluate the reactivity of first-stage larval extracts of Hypoderma lineatum with antibodies in sera from 76 red deer from an endemic area for Hypoderma actaeon. Antibodies in sera from deer infested with H. actaeon recognized hypodermin C from H. lineatum in both ELISA and WB assays. ELISA values were correlated with the epidemiology of the fly infestation in the area where the deer sera were collected. There was no clear relationship between anti-hypodermin C antibody levels and the age of the animals or the number of Hypoderma grubs found at necropsy in the hides of the deer. Our results suggest that first-instar antigens of H. lineatum can be used to diagnose natural infestations by H. actaeon by indicating the presence of first-stage larvae, which can help to accurately describe H. actaeon epidemiology.

  10. House Infestation Dynamics and Feeding Sources of Triatoma dimidiata in Central Veracruz, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Montero, Jesús; López-Monteon, Aracely; Dumonteil, Eric; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, and we investigated here the dynamics of house infestation by Chagas disease vectors to understand disease transmission and design effective control interventions. Bug collections in 42 rural villages confirmed the widespread distribution of Triatoma dimidiata in central Veracruz. Unexpectedly, collection data further indicated a clear pattern of seasonal infestation by mostly adult bugs. Analysis of feeding sources with a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay indicated a frequent feeding on humans, in agreement with the high seroprevalence previously observed. Feeding sources also confirmed a significant dispersal of bugs between habitats. High dispersal capabilities and seasonal infestation may thus be a shared characteristic of several of the T. dimidiata sibling species from this complex. It would thus be critical to adapt vector control interventions to this behavior to improve their efficacy and sustainability, as the control of T. dimidiata has been notoriously challenging. PMID:22492153

  11. The prevalence of lice infesting students of primary, preparatory and secondary schools in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el-Ela, R G; Mawla, M Y; Khalaf, S A

    2001-04-01

    Human lice (head and body) are among the arthropod-ectoparasites of worldwide distribution. Examining students in primary, preparatory and secondary schools recorded prevalence rates of 21.86%, 30.38% and 12.94% respectively. The overall rate of the lice infestation in the three schools was 384 out of 1772 or 21.67%. The prevalence rate of lice infestation among males and females were 17.02% & 37.8% (primary school), 27.8% & 33.1% (preparatory school), and 12.0% & 13.9% (secondary school). These totaled 17.7% (males) and 30.26% (females). The overall ratio of head to body lice was 18.2:1. Consequently, lice mainly the head louse, are still a public health problem particularly among female students in the primary and preparatory schools. In the secondary school prevalence rate of the lice infestation was low. So human lice is still a community health problem.

  12. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species.

  13. Chronic ringworm infestation and Marjolin's ulcer, an association unknown in the literature.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Mohammad; Biswas, Jaydip

    2010-06-30

    We report here a case of Marjolin's ulcer developing in a long-standing, inadequately treated, chronic ringworm infestation of the lower limb. A 35-year-old female patient with a ten-year history of a chronic ringworm infestation had developed a nonhealing ulcer in an area of infestation on the right leg. A biopsy revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma associated with the ringworm infection. A below-knee amputation by an inguinal block dissection was performed. We conclude that proper and timely treatment of fungal infections of the skin is needed to allow for healing of dermal infections and thus the prevention of the disastrous consequences that recurrent mechanical trauma from scratching of the affected area, leading to occult malignancy, which may occur in a small number of patients.

  14. Chronic ringworm infestation and Marjolin’s ulcer, an association unknown in the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Mohammad; Biswas, Jaydip

    2010-01-01

    We report here a case of Marjolin’s ulcer developing in a long-standing, inadequately treated, chronic ringworm infestation of the lower limb. A 35-year-old female patient with a ten-year history of a chronic ringworm infestation had developed a nonhealing ulcer in an area of infestation on the right leg. A biopsy revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma associated with the ringworm infection. A below-knee amputation by an inguinal block dissection was performed. We conclude that proper and timely treatment of fungal infections of the skin is needed to allow for healing of dermal infections and thus the prevention of the disastrous consequences that recurrent mechanical trauma from scratching of the affected area, leading to occult malignancy, which may occur in a small number of patients. PMID:21139833

  15. Dermatobia hominis (botfly) infestation of the lower extremity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cottom, James M; Hyer, Christopher F; Lee, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    We present a report of myiasis, which is the infestation of the body by the larva of flies. In this particular case the patient traveled to Belize and was infested in her foot and leg by Dermatobia hominis or the human botfly. Treatment was initiated once she returned to the United States. She ultimately underwent surgical excision of the larva, which was noted to be alive and moving upon removal. This is a rare larval infestation in humans, but is frequently seen in domestic and livestock animals in Central and South America. With increased international travel, the foot and ankle surgeon should be aware of this parasitic infection in recent travelers to Central and South American countries. ACFAS Level of Clinical Evidence: 4.

  16. A case of an apparent infestation by Proisotoma spp. springtails (Collembola: Isotomidae) in a cat.

    PubMed

    Beccati, Massimo; Gallo, Maria G; Chiavassa, Elisa; Peano, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    This case report is presumed to be the first case of infestation of a cat by springtails which are small arthropods closely related to insects. The organisms, found by skin scrapings, were identified as Proisotoma spp. (Collembola: Isotomidae). The cat presented with dermatological lesions (itchy, furfuraceous dermatitis), and we speculate that they were due to this infestation. The pathogenic role of the Collembola was hypothesized because of the large number of organisms, the presence of eggs indicating an active reproduction cycle, the lack of other pathogens (fleas, mites or lice) and the clinical recovery accompanied by the disappearance of Collembola following treatment. The owner seemed to be affected by the infestation, because a few days after having purchased the cat, she developed a pruriginous papular dermatitis on the neck and the arms, which disappeared shortly after treatment of the kitten and a careful washing of all of its toys and other accoutrements.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Dimeticone in the Treatment of Lice Infestation through Prophylaxis of Classmates

    PubMed Central

    FERRARA, Pietro; DEL BUFALO, Francesca; ROMANO, Valerio; TIBERI, Eloisa; BOTTARO, Giorgia; ROMANI, Lorenza; MALAMISURA, Monica; IANNIELLO, Francesca; CENI, Laura; MOTTINI, Giovanni; GATTO, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted a study to evaluate efficacy and safety of dimeticone 4%, a lotion with no conventional insecticide activity, to cure lice infection and to prevent spread of infestation/reinfestation by prophylaxis of classmates. Methods: The study is carried out between April 2008 and June 2008 in Petranova International Institute in Rome. A total of 131 children, aged 3 to 13 years (median age: 7 years) were included in the study. All participants received treatment with dimeticone 4% that was applied both to children with the infestation, to cure it, and to all classmates, to prevent the spreading of the infestation. They have been controlled after 7 and 30 days from the application of dimeticone. Results: At baseline we found a positivity of lice infestation in 23/131 children (17.6%), whereas 108/131 (82.4%) children were free from lice. After 7 days of treatment with dimeticone 4%, 7/23 (30.4%) positive children still had lice infestation, with a cure rate of 69.6% (16/23). At 30 days 26/131 children (19.9%) were infested: 15 children were lice free at baseline whereas 11 had lice at both evaluations; the cure rate amounted to 52.2% (12/23). The reinfestation rate (percentage of positive children that showed negativity at baseline) was 5.3% (7/131) at 7 days and 11.5% (15/131) at 30 days. Conclusion: The lower reinfestation rate showed in our trial suggests that this approach could be effective in reducing spreading of head lice in small communities. More studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24427749

  18. Protective efficacy of permethrin-treated trousers against tick infestation in forestry workers.

    PubMed

    Roßbach, Bernd; Kegel, Peter; Zier, Ulrike; Niemietz, Adrian; Letzel, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of tick borne diseases in forestry workers is essentially based on the use of appropriate clothing. The objective of this pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial was to assess the potential benefit of permethrin-treated working trousers for the prevention of tick infestation during forestry work. N=164 male forestry workers were equipped for a period of 16 weeks with permethrin-treated (intervention group-I) or untreated work trousers (control group-II). Subgroups, according to the use of trousers with (I-1, II-1) or without cut protection lining (I-2, II-2) were constituted. Tick infestation (quantity of ticks on the body surface) was assessed by questionnaire after 16 workdays. Control and intervention groups were compared by calculating the infestation rate (percentage of subjects with ticks) and the average number of ticks per workday. The infestation rate in the intervention group was significantly lower than in the control group (36.6 vs. 63.4%, p=0.001; Fisher-test). Further analysis revealed a significant reduction of tick infestation by permethrin treatment only for subjects wearing trousers without the cut protection lining (I-2: 34.2 vs. II-2: 80.0%, p<0.001), while users of cut protection trousers did not benefit from such treated trousers (I-1: 38.6 vs. II-1: 47.6%, n.s.). Similar results were found for comparisons based on the average number of ticks per workday. The use of permethrin-treated trousers does not completely prevent tick infestations. Improvement of tick protection has been shown only for some applications, but not in general. Additional prevention measures are therefore still indispensable.

  19. Tick infestation in birds and prevalence of pathogens in ticks collected from different places in Germany.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Christine; Gethmann, Jörn; Hoffmann, Bernd; Ziegler, Ute; Heller, Martin; Beer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The importance of ticks and tick-borne pathogens for human and animal health has been increasing over the past decades. For their transportation and dissemination, birds may play a more important role than wingless hosts. In this study, tick infestation of birds in Germany was examined. Eight hundred ninety-two captured birds were infested with ticks and belonged to 48 different species, of which blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were most strongly infested. Ground feeders were more strongly infested than non-ground feeders, sedentary birds more strongly than migratory birds, and short-distance migratory birds more strongly than long-distance migratory birds. Mean tick infestation per bird ranged between 2 (long-distance migratory bird) and 4.7 (sedentary bird), in some single cases up to 55 ticks per bird were found. With the exception of three nymphs of Haemaphysalis spp., all ticks belonged to Ixodes spp., the most frequently detected tick species was Ixodes ricinus. Birds were mostly infested by nymphs (65.1 %), followed by larvae (32.96 %). Additionally, ticks collected from birds were examined for several pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Sindbisvirus with real-time RT-PCR, Flaviviruses, Simbuviruses and Lyssaviruses with broad-range standard RT-PCR-assays, and Borrelia spp. with a Pan-Borrelia real-time PCR. Interestingly, no viral pathogens could be detected, but Borrelia spp. positive ticks were collected from 76 birds. Borrelia (B.) garinii, B. valaisiaina, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. afzelii were determined. The screening of ticks and birds for viral pathogens with broad range PCR-assays was tested and the use as an "early warning system" is discussed.

  20. Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Catalá, Silvia; Junco, Luis; Vaporaky, Rita

    2005-06-01

    To determine the intensity of Pediculus capitis infestation (abundance) among Argentinean schoolchildren. Children's sex and social stratum were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence and degree of parasitism. The study included 1,370 schoolchildren (692 girls, 678 boys) from 26 schools of the province of La Rioja (21 public schools, five private schools). Classic prevalence was obtained as the percentage of children with nits and/or lice. Moreover, five degrees of parasitism were classified: 0) children with no signs of pediculosis; 0+) children with evidence of past infestation; 1) children with a recent infestation and low probability of active parasitism; 2) children with a recent infestation and high probability of active parasitism; 3) children with mobile lice (active pediculosis). The general prevalence was 61.4% (girls: 79%; boys: 44%, p<0.001). Private schools showed lower prevalence than public schools (p=0.02), especially due to the low prevalence in boys. Fifty percent of children were classified in classes 0 and 0+, 22% in class 1; and 28% in grades 2 and 3. The proportion of children in grade 3 was higher in public schools than in private schools. There were significant sexual differences in the intensity of parasitism for grades 2 and 3, where girls' rates exceeded twice those of boys'. Sex and social stratum are important modifiers of P. capitis general prevalence and degree of infestation. The classification of children by intensity of infestation allowed a more precise delimitation of this condition, which is especially important for disease surveillance and application of control measures.

  1. Footbath acaricide treatment to control cattle infestation by the tick Amblyomma variegatum.

    PubMed

    Stachurski, F; Lancelot, R

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that about 90% of adult Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (Acari: Ixodidae) picked up daily by grazing cattle are still attached to the interdigital areas in the evening, when the animals return from pasture. It was therefore postulated that a targeted treatment, designed to kill the ticks attached to the feet, would limit infestation of the predilection sites. Footbaths filled with various pyrethroid formulations were used over 3 years, at the beginning of the rainy season (from mid-May to the end of July), to assess the efficacy of such a control method. It proved efficient in preventing the ticks from attaching to the predilection sites. Although five to 12 A. variegatum adults attached to each treated animal daily, and although the tick burden of the predilection sites of control cattle increased each day by four to 10 ticks, the average infestation of the predilection sites of treated cattle that were initially highly infested (over 100 ticks/animal) continuously decreased to reach a level of about 10-30 ticks/animal after 6-8 weeks of treatment. In herds with a lower initial tick burden (40-70 ticks/animal) this level was obtained within 2-3 weeks and the mean infestation subsequently remained consistently low. Footbath treatment carried out every other day during the adult peak infestation period should therefore greatly limit losses due to ticks. This method was appreciated by traditional livestock farmers, essentially because it is not time-consuming and because it requires only c. 200 mL aqueous formulation per animal at each passage. The cost of the acaricide needed to treat one animal during the peak infestation period was assessed at c. euro 0.20. This control method might also have an impact on some species of tsetse flies and mosquitoes, thereby contributing to trypanosomiasis and malaria control.

  2. Cellular response in the tick feeding site in crossbred cattle artificially infested by Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Engracia Filho, Jair Rodini; Araújo, Chiara Domingues; Pinto, Gabriela Nishihara; Mendes, Yann Henrique; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique

    2017-06-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are of global importance and can cause serious economic losses to cattle-raising businesses. However, only few attempts have been made to describe the relationships between various cellular immune components and tick counts of, and therefore resistance to, Rhipicephalus microplus. The present study evaluated the late inflammatory cellular response and dermal dendritic cells at the attachment site in naturally presensitized bovines, artificially infested by R. microplus ticks. Twenty-two crossbred (Holstein × Gir) male experimental cattle were artificially infested with approximately 10,000 larvae of R. microplus. Parasitic infestation was determined by counting the engorged female ticks (4.5-8.0 mm in diameter) at the 21st day after artificial infestation. Biopsies (6 mm) were taken prior to the infestation and along with the tick count from the right pinna of each animal, and examined with histological techniques and immunohistochemistry using S100 protein. Inflammatory cell counts were conducted in the sections stained with the May-Grünwald Giemsa technique, and immunostained dermal dendritic cells were evaluated and classified in scores ranging from 0 to 4. An average of 39.2 ticks per animal was found. Eosinophils (47.8%) constituted the major portion of the cellular infiltrate, followed by mononuclear cells (28.3%), neutrophils (14.4%), and basophils (0% to approximately 2%). The dendritic cell count shows a considerable population in the dermis, with pre- and post-infestation mean scores of 1.54 and 1.89, respectively; these scores were not significantly different. Our results pointed out the importance of the cellular response in the cattle resistance to ticks.

  3. Vaccination with proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions reduces vector infestations and pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Merino, Octavio; Antunes, Sandra; Mosqueda, Juan; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Rodríguez, Sergio; Domingos, Ana; de la Fuente, José

    2013-12-02

    Tick-borne pathogens cause diseases that greatly impact animal health and production worldwide. The ultimate goal of tick vaccines is to protect against tick-borne diseases through the control of vector infestations and reducing pathogen infection and transmission. Tick genetic traits are involved in vector-pathogen interactions and some of these molecules such as Subolesin (SUB) have been shown to protect against vector infestations and pathogen infection. Based on these premises, herein we characterized the efficacy of cattle vaccination with tick proteins involved in vector-pathogen interactions, TROSPA, SILK, and Q38 for the control of cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. SUB and adjuvant/saline placebo were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The results showed that vaccination with Q38, SILK and SUB reduced tick infestations and oviposition with vaccine efficacies of 75% (Q38), 62% (SILK) and 60% (SUB) with respect to ticks fed on placebo control cattle. Vaccination with TROSPA did not have a significant effect on any of the tick parameters analyzed. The results also showed that vaccination with Q38, TROSPA and SUB reduced B. bigemina DNA levels in ticks while vaccination with SILK and SUB resulted in lower A. marginale DNA levels when compared to ticks fed on placebo control cattle. The positive correlation between antigen-specific antibody titers and reduction of tick infestations and pathogen infection strongly suggested that the effect of the vaccine was the result of the antibody response in vaccinated cattle. Vaccination and co-infection with A. marginale and B. bigemina also affected the expression of genes encoding for vaccine antigens in ticks fed on cattle. These results showed that vaccines using tick proteins involved in vector-pathogen interactions could be used for the dual control of tick infestations and pathogen infection. Copyright © 2013

  4. Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation at two rural, seasonal camps in Maine and Vermont.

    PubMed

    Lubelczyk, C; Cahill, B K; Hanson, T; Turmel, J; Lacombe, E; Rand, P W; Elias, S P; Smith, R P

    2010-04-01

    In July 2008, owners of seasonal camps in Vermont and Maine were exposed to large numbers of questing ticks after opening their camps for the season. Examination of collected specimens revealed that the camp in Vermont was infested with Ixodes cookei Packard, and the camp in Maine was infested with Ixodes marxi Banks. In both instances, numerous tick bites were reported by residents. Both camps were also occupied by wildlife during the off-season, primarily squirrels (Maine) and skunks (Vermont). Subsequent samples from the Vermont site were tested for the presence of Powassan encephalitis virus, though no viral activity was detected.

  5. [Infestation by Lynxacarus radovskyi (Tenorio, 1974) in domestic cats from Metropolitan Region of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Romeiro, Edenilze T; Alves, Leucio C; Soares, Ylka Maria V; Matoso, Ulysses N V; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da G

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed with the aim of to investigate the infestation by the cat fur-mite Lynxacarus radovskyi in cats from Recife Metropolitan Region, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, during the period of May through December of 2003. Hair samples were taken from cats of both sexes and different ages and submitted to microscopical examination. The results showed that 75.84% (254/335) of cats were infested with L. radovskyi, but statistically significant differences were not observed among the presence of mite and sex, race and age. The results indicate that the mite L. radovskyi is endemic in this population.

  6. Impact of Mountain Pine Beetle Infestation on Snowmelt: Variations with Vegetation Structure and Geographical Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni-Meister, W.

    2015-12-01

    The warming climate resulted in the current outbreak of mountain pine beetles (MPB) in western and northwestern US. and Western Canada. Colorado, Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, and British Columbia are also currently experiencing widespread mountain pine beetle infestations. Forest disturbance due to MPB can have a large impact on hydrological processes specifically snow accumulation and snowmelt. In those regions, spring snowmelt is a major water resource and MPB infestations can have a big impact on water resource management. MPB infestations cause forest canopies to gradually diminish over the course of several years, they therefore impact snow interception and radiation balance at snow surface, thus snowmelt. Past studies on this topic have achieved contradicting results. This study focuses on understanding how the impacts of MPB infestations on snow surface radiation balance and snowmelt rates vary with vegetation structure and geographical locations. We selected four sites in northern Colorado and four sites in the Cascade Mountains in Oregon with varying intensities of MPB. Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) data from SNOTEL sites and MPB-caused forest disturbance data extracted from Landsat time series disturbance maps were used for our analysis. Our results show that MPB sites show larger snow accumulation for sites in Colorado and Cascade Mountains. However snowmelt rate varies differently. For sites in Colorado, snow melts faster in the MPB sites than in the healthy forest sites. In contrary, in the Cascade Mountains, snow stays longer in MPB sites than in healthy and undisturbed sites. Our modeling study shows that shortwave radiation is a dominant factor for radiation balance in the mid-latitude region (Colorado). There, MPB infestations lead to increased shortwave radiation and faster snowmelt. However, long wave radiation plays an important role for radiation balance in high latitude areas. MPB infestations decrease longwave radiation and result in snow

  7. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    PubMed Central

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Anagnostopoulou, Rimma; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, Anna; Theodoridou, Kalliopi; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%), 11 with cockroaches (52.3%), three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96%) traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03), and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007), no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02), and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05). Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03). Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more persistent in older

  8. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, risk factors related to infestations.

    PubMed

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Anagnostopoulou, Rimma; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, Anna; Theodoridou, Kalliopi; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2008-03-27

    Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%), 11 with cockroaches (52.3%), three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96%) traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03), and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007), no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02), and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05). Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03). Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more persistent in older ships. HACCP system aids in the

  9. Infestation of two brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) with the hunchback mite (Harpirhynchus quasimodo).

    PubMed

    Magenwirth, Jessica; Nemeth, Nicole M; Yabsley, Michael J; Munk, Brandon A; Keel, M Kevin; Brown, Justin D

    2013-12-01

    A recently described North American mite, Harpirhynchus quasimodo (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae), was identified in a wild brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) from Tennessee and another from Arkansas, U. S. A., during 2010 and 2011, respectively. Consistent with a single previous report of H. quasimodo infestation, both cowbirds had multiple skin masses composed of epidermal cysts filled with harpirhynchid mites, keratin, and cellular debris. Although very little is currently known about this avian mite, these three reports suggest that H. quasimodo infestation is a rare source of overt disease in free-ranging brown-headed cowbirds from the southeastern United States; however, further research and surveillance efforts are needed.

  10. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-04-11

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide "Four-Pest Elimination" campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000-2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999-2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  11. Infestation by Pyemotes tritici (Acari, Pyemotidae) causes death of stingless bee colonies (Hymenoptera: Meliponina).

    PubMed

    Menezes, C; Coletto-Silva, A; Gazeta, G S; Kerr, W E

    2009-01-01

    We report the infestation of stingless bee nests by the mite Pyemotes tritici, which killed four colonies of Tetragonisca angustula and one colony of Frieseomelitta varia in Brazil. The first infected colony, a colony of T. angustula, came from an area between Uberlândia and Araguari, Minas Gerais. The transfer of the mites to the other colonies occurred through the transfer of infected combs and subsequent manipulations. Other colonies in the same meliponary, which had not been manipulated, were not infected. The infestation was terminated by isolating the dead colonies from the meliponary.

  12. Fatal Ichthyocotylurus erraticus infestation in Inca terns (Larosterna inca) in a zoological collection.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Wouter; Hoyer, Mark; Verstappen, Frank; Wolters, Marno; Ijzer, Jooske; de Jong, Sara; Cremers, Herman; Kik, Marja

    2014-06-01

    In a breeding group of Inca terns (Larosterna inca), 14 birds died without antemortem signs of illness. Other than a poor body condition and a bloody cloaca, no symptoms were observed. Gross necropsy revealed severe segmental hemorrhagic enteritis with intralesional trematodes in most birds. Histopathologic examination revealed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes in the lamina propria of the duodenum and cross-sections of trematodes in the lumen. The parasites were identified as Ichthyocotylurus erraticus, a trematode of fish-eating birds. The cause of the infestation most likely was the feeding of unfrozen fresh fish. We describe the first case of a lethal I. erraticus infestation in Inca terns.

  13. Infestation and pathological alterations by Ergasilus sarsi (Copepoda) on the Tanganyika Killifish from Africa.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2013-12-01

    A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi.

  14. Phthirus pubis infestation of the eyelashes and scalp hairs in a girl.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Nariko; Nomoto, Hiroo; Hayasaka, Seiji; Nagaki, Yasunori

    2003-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl was seen because of foreign bodies on the eyelashes. Parasites and their nits were seen on the patient's eyelashes and scalp. Her parents denied having Phthirus pubis infection of the axillary, pubic, or body hair, despite confirmation of the infestation in their child. The parasites were removed and the lashes with nits were cut off at the base. The parasite was identified as P. pubis. The scalp was washed with phenothrin shampoo. One month later no P. pubis infestation was found. Removal of the parasites, cutting the lashes at the base, and using phenothrin shampoo on the scalp were effective in resolving phthiriasis.

  15. Trichinella infestation in mice genetically selected for high and low antibody production.

    PubMed Central

    Perrudet-Badoux, A; Binaghi, R A; Biozzi, G

    1975-01-01

    Mice genetically selected according to their capacity to produce antibodies (high and low responder lines) were infested with Trichinella spiralis. High responder mice produced much higher levels of IgE and gamma1 serum antibodies than low responder mice. IgG and IgM antibodies were detected by immunodiffusion analysis or passive haemagglutination only in animals of the high responder line and in very low concentrations. The number of living larvae present in the muscles was very similar in the animals of both lines 30, 60 or 75 days after infestation. PMID:51004

  16. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changlu; Wen, Xiujun

    2011-01-01

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2010. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)) are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests) were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts). Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010), there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons), hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong) experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates). There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  17. Gene expression and plant hormone levels in two contrasting rice genotypes responding to brown planthopper infestation.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyan; Luo, Chao; Zhou, Zaihui; Wang, Rui; Ling, Fei; Xiao, Langtao; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

    2017-02-28

    The brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is a destructive piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play important roles in plant-pest interactions. Many isolated rice genes that modulate BPH resistance are involved in the metabolism or signaling pathways of SA, JA and ethylene. 'Rathu Heenati' (RH) is a rice cultivar with a high-level, broad-spectrum resistance to all BPH biotypes. Here, RH was used as the research material, while a BPH-susceptible rice cultivar 'Taichung Native 1' (TN1) was the control. A cDNA microarray analysis illuminated the resistance response at the genome level of RH under BPH infestation. The levels of SA and JA in RH and TN1 seedlings after BPH infestation were also determined. The expression pattern clustering indicated that 1467 differential probe sets may be associated with constitutive resistance and 67 with the BPH infestation-responsive resistance of RH. A Venn diagram analysis revealed 192 RH-specific and BPH-inducible probe sets. Finally, 23 BPH resistance-related gene candidates were selected based on the expression pattern clustering and Venn diagram analysis. In RH, the SA content significantly increased and the JA content significantly decreased after BPH infestation, with the former occurring prior to the latter. In RH, the differential genes in the SA pathway were synthesis-related and were up-regulated after BPH infestation. The differential genes in the JA pathway were also up-regulated. They were jasmonate ZIM-domain transcription factors, which are important negative regulators of the JA pathway. Comparatively, genes involved in the ET pathway were less affected by a BPH infestation in RH. DNA sequence analysis revealed that most BPH infestation-inducible genes may be regulated by the genetic background in a trans-acting manner, instead of by their promoters. We profiled the analysis of the global gene expression in RH and TN1 under BPH infestation

  18. The infestation of Dermestes ater (De Geer) on a human corpse in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2009-04-01

    A human corpse at an advanced stage of decomposition was found in a house in the residential area of Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaysia. Entomological specimens were collected during the post-mortem and the live specimens were subsequently reared at room temperature. The time of death was estimated to have been 14 days previous to the discovery of the body based on the police investigation. Both adult and larvae of the beetle Dermestes ater (De Geer) were found to be infesting the corpse and from the stage of decomposition of the body and the estimated time of death it would appear that infestation may have begun at a relatively early stage of decomposition.

  19. Infestation and Pathological Alterations by Ergasilus sarsi (Copepoda) on the Tanganyika Killifish from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2013-01-01

    A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi. PMID:24341764

  20. Infestation with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) among students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chin, Heo Chong; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Lim, Lee Han; Jeffery, John; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports six male undergraduate students living at a local university hostel who were infested with cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae: Ctenocephalides felis felis) in February 2009. All of them suffered from maculopapular rashes and severe pruritus after the bites. Investigation revealed the presence of a stray cat in the hostel building; five of the students had a history of contact with the cat. Six cat fleas were collected at the hostel and identified as C. felis felis. Most of the students were not aware of this infestation and did not seek medical treatment.

  1. Human infestation with rodent botfly larvae: a new route of entry?

    PubMed

    Goddard, J

    1997-02-01

    A 3-year-old child was infested with two larvae of the rodent botfly (insect order Diptera, genus Cuterebra), one on the back and one on the neck. Both larvae produced tracklike lesions in the skin. After week 1, the back lesion did not develop further, but the neck lesion continued to enlarge and formed a boil-like lesion. Despite examination by several physicians, the case was not recognized as myiasis for more than 3 weeks. Details of the case are presented and discussed, including the possibility that infestation resulted from direct deposition of eggs or larvae on the patient.

  2. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-11-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  3. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with...

  4. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and...

  5. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and...

  6. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and...

  7. 9 CFR 72.11 - Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantined area; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. 72.11 Section 72.11 Animals and...; cattle considered infested; requirements for placing in noninfectious pens or premises. Cattle of the...

  8. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with...

  9. 9 CFR 72.23 - Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and treated. 72.23 Section 72.23 Animals... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.23 Cars or other vehicles having carried infested or exposed cattle in quarantined area shall be cleaned and...

  10. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with...

  11. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with...

  12. Pilot program (proof of concept) to mitigate Phytophthora ramorum at an infested nursery based on a systems approach

    Treesearch

    Gary Chastagner; Marianne Elliott

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this program was to demonstrate proof of concept of certain mitigation approaches at a repeat P. ramorum-positive nursery site in Washington. Approaches included steam treatment of infested soil areas; creating a gravel “sandwich” above steam-treated and potentially infested soil surfaces; improving drainage systems; required...

  13. Epidemiological and Clinical Study of Infested Cases with Pediculus capitis and P. corporis in Khorasan-e-Razavi, Iran.

    PubMed

    Riabi, H Ramezani Awal; Atarodi, Ar

    2012-01-01

    Pediculosis (head lice) is considered as one of the most common health problems of the students in primary schools. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence rate of the infestation in the schools of Gonabad City (south of Khorasan-e-Razavi Province) to prevent its outbreak by on-time planning. In this retrospective-descriptive study, data were collected from the files of recorded health examinations of 55,997 female and male students of Gonabad City. We surveyed the infested cases to Pediculus capitis and P. corporis during 2006-2010. We used schools health unit of the city health center and review reports of infestation to head lice and body lice in cumulative centers. The reports showed 398 cases of P. capitis and 3 P. corporis infestations, which 91.5% were female (P <0.05). Generally 46.4% were from rural and 63.6% were from urban areas (P <0.05). 71.3% of the infestation to head lice was from the last month and the rest had recently been infested. The most age group being infested were students of 6-10 years old and the lowest were >17 yr. Pediculosis infestation has become a major health problem in primary school students in south of Khorasan-e-Razavi.

  14. Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M; Makundi, R H; Maerere, A P

    2009-12-01

    The host range of major fruit fly pests in Central Tanzania was evaluated from October 2004 to October 2006. Samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. Bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. Eight new host fruits are reported. Infestation by native pests, such as Ceratitis capitata and C. cosyra, was minor compared to B. invadens. Ceratitis rosa was the dominant species in temperate fruits, and Cucurbitaceae were mainly infested by Bactrocera cucurbitae, a specialized cucurbit feeder. Among commercial fruits, high infestation incidences were observed in mango and guava, but they decreased throughout the fruiting season. Low infestation rates were observed in all Citrus species and in avocado, indicating these fruits as poor hosts for the studied fruit fly pests in this region. Widespread availability and abundance of fruit species studied here ensures year-round breeding of B. invadens. Seasonal infestation differs, with mango being the most important host in October to January, while guava being important from February to August. Tropical almond showed very high incidence and infestation rate for B. invadens and might act as an important reservoir host, bridging the fruiting seasons of mango and guava. Soursop acts as an important host for C. cosyra after the mango season. Ceratitis capitata is a pest of minor importance of the commercial fruits studied in this region.

  15. Impact of environmental variables on Dubas bug infestation rate: A case study from the Sultanate of Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M; Kwan, Paul; Andrew, Nigel; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investment coming from both the government and from private individuals. However, a global infestation of Dubas bug (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin) has impacted the Middle East region, and infestations of date palms have been widespread. In this study, spatial analysis and geostatistical techniques were used to model the spatial distribution of Dubas bug infestations to (a) identify correlations between Dubas bug densities and different environmental variables, and (b) predict the locations of future Dubas bug infestations in Oman. Firstly, we considered individual environmental variables and their correlations with infestation locations. Then, we applied more complex predictive models and regression analysis techniques to investigate the combinations of environmental factors most conducive to the survival and spread of the Dubas bug. Environmental variables including elevation, geology, and distance to drainage pathways were found to significantly affect Dubas bug infestations. In contrast, aspect and hillshade did not significantly impact on Dubas bug infestations. Understanding their distribution and therefore applying targeted controls on their spread is important for effective mapping, control and management (e.g., resource allocation) of Dubas bug infestations.

  16. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

  17. Discovery of a novel aquaporin ZmPIP2-8 from southern corn rootworm infested maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A common paradigm of infestation by chewing insects is a jasmonic acid (JA) cascade that results in the induction of JA responsive genes. However examination of several maize genes induced by Southern corn rootworm (SCR) infestation, an insect that chews into and significantly damages maize roots, ...

  18. Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots using Spectral Vegetation Indices Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing technology was used to distinguish corn infested with European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis, from corn that was not infested. In 2004 and 2005, eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery. Manual inocu...

  19. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  20. Automatic image analysis and spot classification for detection of fruit fly infestation in hyperspectral images of mangoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An algorithm has been developed to identify spots generated in hyperspectral images of mangoes infested with fruit fly larvae. The algorithm incorporates background removal, application of a Gaussian blur, thresholding, and particle count analysis to identify locations of infestations. Each of the f...