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Sample records for aves laridae breeding

  1. Population genetic study of mitochondrial DNA in Roseate spoonbill (Aves; Platalea ajaja) breeding colonies from the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus Henrique; Lopes, Iara Freitas; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2008-08-01

    Five breeding colonies of the Roseate spoonbill (Aves: Platalea ajaja) from two Brazilian wetland areas (Pantanal and Taim marshes) were sampled, and domain I of the mitochondrial DNA control region (483 bp) was sequenced in 50 birds. The average haplotype diversity (h = 0.75, s = 0.071) and average nucleotide diversity (pi = 0.004, s = 0.003) were evaluated, and nonsignificant differences were found among the colonies studied. The lack of differentiation among breeding colonies revealed by AMOVA analysis was explained either as a consequence of high gene flow or recent expansion. The significantly negative results of the neutrality tests (Fu's F ( s ) = -23.271, P < 0.01; Tajima's D = -1.941, P < 0.01) associated with the star shape of the haplotype tree and mismatch distribution data are evidence supporting the idea that these populations underwent a recent demographic expansion in the Pantanal region. The average time since the expansion is estimated to be 25,773 years, and this agrees with a period of increased moisture that occurred during the last glacial period. PMID:18504651

  2. Population genetic study of mitochondrial DNA in Roseate spoonbill (Aves; Platalea ajaja) breeding colonies from the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus Henrique; Lopes, Iara Freitas; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2008-08-01

    Five breeding colonies of the Roseate spoonbill (Aves: Platalea ajaja) from two Brazilian wetland areas (Pantanal and Taim marshes) were sampled, and domain I of the mitochondrial DNA control region (483 bp) was sequenced in 50 birds. The average haplotype diversity (h = 0.75, s = 0.071) and average nucleotide diversity (pi = 0.004, s = 0.003) were evaluated, and nonsignificant differences were found among the colonies studied. The lack of differentiation among breeding colonies revealed by AMOVA analysis was explained either as a consequence of high gene flow or recent expansion. The significantly negative results of the neutrality tests (Fu's F ( s ) = -23.271, P < 0.01; Tajima's D = -1.941, P < 0.01) associated with the star shape of the haplotype tree and mismatch distribution data are evidence supporting the idea that these populations underwent a recent demographic expansion in the Pantanal region. The average time since the expansion is estimated to be 25,773 years, and this agrees with a period of increased moisture that occurred during the last glacial period.

  3. Breeding system evolution influenced the geographic expansion and diversification of the core Corvoidea (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Marki, Petter Z; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Jønsson, Knud A; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon; Kennedy, Jonathan D

    2015-07-01

    Birds vary greatly in their life-history strategies, including their breeding systems, which range from brood parasitism to a system with multiple nonbreeding helpers at the nest. By far the most common arrangement, however, is where both parents participate in raising the young. The traits associated with parental care have been suggested to affect dispersal propensity and lineage diversification, but to date tests of this potential relationship at broad temporal and spatial scales have been limited. Here, using data from a globally distributed group of corvoid birds in concordance with state-dependent speciation and extinction models, we suggest that pair breeding is associated with elevated speciation rates. Estimates of transition between breeding systems imply that cooperative lineages frequently evolve biparental care, whereas pair breeders rarely become cooperative. We further highlight that these groups have differences in their spatial distributions, with pair breeders overrepresented on islands, and cooperative breeders mainly found on continents. Finally, we find that speciation rates appear to be significantly higher on islands compared to continents. These results imply that the transition from cooperative breeding to pair breeding was likely a significant contributing factor facilitating dispersal across tropical archipelagos, and subsequent world-wide phylogenetic expansion among the core Corvoidea.

  4. Waterbirds (other than Laridae) nesting in the middle section of Laguna Cuyutlán, Colima, México.

    PubMed

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E

    2008-03-01

    Laguna de Cuyutlán, in the state of Colima, Mexico, is the only large coastal wetland in a span of roughly 1150 km. Despite this, the study of its birds has been largely neglected. Between 2003 and 2006 we assessed the waterbirds nesting in the middle portion of Laguna Cuyutlán, a large tropical coastal lagoon, through field visits. We documented the nesting of 15 species of non-Laridae waterbirds: Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), Tricolored Egret (Egretta tricolor), Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea), Great Egret (Ardea alba), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Black-crowned Night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), Yellow-crowned Night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea), Green Heron (Butorides virescens), Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja), White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), Black-bellied Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis), Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris), Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus), and Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus). These add to six species of Laridae known to nest in that area: Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla), Royal Terns (Thalasseus maximus), Gull-billed Terns (Gelochelidon nilotica), Forster's Terns (S. forsteri), Least Terns (Sternula antillarum), and Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and to at least 57 species using it during the non-breeding season. With such bird assemblages, Laguna Cuyutlán is an important site for waterbirds, which should be given conservation status.

  5. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny of the Neotropical cotingas (Cotingidae, Aves) with a comparative evolutionary analysis of breeding system and plumage dimorphism and a revised phylogenetic classification.

    PubMed

    Berv, Jacob S; Prum, Richard O

    2014-12-01

    The Neotropical cotingas (Cotingidae: Aves) are a group of passerine birds that are characterized by extreme diversity in morphology, ecology, breeding system, and behavior. Here, we present a comprehensive phylogeny of the Neotropical cotingas based on six nuclear and mitochondrial loci (∼7500 bp) for a sample of 61 cotinga species in all 25 genera, and 22 species of suboscine outgroups. Our taxon sample more than doubles the number of cotinga species studied in previous analyses, and allows us to test the monophyly of the cotingas as well as their intrageneric relationships with high resolution. We analyze our genetic data using a Bayesian species tree method, and concatenated Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, and present a highly supported phylogenetic hypothesis. We confirm the monophyly of the cotingas, and present the first phylogenetic evidence for the relationships of Phibalura flavirostris as the sister group to Ampelion and Doliornis, and the paraphyly of Lipaugus with respect to Tijuca. In addition, we resolve the diverse radiations within the Cotinga, Lipaugus, Pipreola, and Procnias genera. We find no support for Darwin's (1871) hypothesis that the increase in sexual selection associated with polygynous breeding systems drives the evolution of color dimorphism in the cotingas, at least when analyzed at a broad categorical scale. Finally, we present a new comprehensive phylogenetic classification of all cotinga species. PMID:25234241

  6. Comparisons of host specificity in feather louse genera (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) parasitizing gulls (Aves: Laridae: Larus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species.

  7. 32. 1700 BLOCK OF JEFFERSON AVE. 172125 JEFFERSON AVE., DOUGAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 1700 BLOCK OF JEFFERSON AVE. 1721-25 JEFFERSON AVE., DOUGAN BUILDING (1891), PICKLES & SUTTON, ARCHITECTS. 1735 JEFFERSON AVE., MOFFITT & TOWNE COMPANY BUILDING (1910). - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  8. 1. DELAWARE AVE. (right, looking north) AND WASHINGTON AVE. SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DELAWARE AVE. (right, looking north) AND WASHINGTON AVE. SHOWING GLORIA DEI CHURCH (note steeple) - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. NASA's atmospheric variability experiments /AVE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, K.; Turner, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of seven mesoscale experiments were conducted under the NASA program, Atmospheric Variability Experiments (AVE). Rawinsonde, satellite, aircraft, and ground observations were recorded during specially selected meteorological periods lasting from 1 to 3 days. Details are presented for each AVE relative to observation times, experiment size and location, and significant weather. Some research results based on the use of these AVE data are referenced. These include contributions to regional numerical prediction; relations between wind shears, instability, and thunderstorm motion and development; relations between moisture and temperature and the probability of convection; retrieval of tropospheric temperature profiles from cloud-contaminated satellite data; variation of convection intensity as a result of atmospheric variability; and effects of cloud rotation on their trajectories.

  10. NASA's AVE/VAS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented concerning the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE) which was conducted during the spring of 1982 as part of NASA's Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) demonstration. The AVE/VAS Ground Truth Field Experiment is examined in detail, which comprised the obtaining of rawinsonde observations during various meteorological conditions on four different days when VAS data were obtained. These experiments were performed over 24 hr periods in a mesoscale network of 24 National Weather Service rawinsonde sites and 13 NASA and NOAA special sites. The VAS, operating as a part of the GOES satellite system, was employed to provide two-dimensional cloud mapping capability during each of the AVE/VAS experiment periods. Among the goals of this AVE/VAS program, in addition to management of the acquisition and processing of the data, were to perform the research and development needed to produce data products from VAS radiances, to validate the data, and to assess the impact of the data on mesoscale meteorological forecasting and research requirements.

  11. 15. WEST SIDE OF 1900 BLOCK, PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. WEST SIDE OF 1900 BLOCK, PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; 1920-22 PACIFIC AVE., WIEGAL COMPANY CANDY FACTORY (1904); 1924-26 PACIFIC AVE., CAMPBELL BUILDING (DAVIS BUILDING) (1890); 1928-30 PACIFIC AVE., REESE-CRANDALL & REDMAN BUILDING, (1890); 1932-36 PACIFIC AVE., MC DONALD & SMITH BUILDING (1890); 1938-48 PACIFIC AVE., F.S. HARMON COMPANY WAREHOUSE (1908), DESIGNED BY CARL AUGUST DARMER. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  12. 17. WEST SIDE OF 2100 BLOCK OF PACIFIC AVE. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WEST SIDE OF 2100 BLOCK OF PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; 2102-2106 PACIFIC AVE., MORRIS MILLER BUILDING (1906), FREDERICK HEATH, ARCHITECT; 2110 PACIFIC AVE., TACOMA DRY GOODS BUILDING (1906), FREDERICK HEATH, ARCHITECT; 2114-16 PACIFIC AVE., HUNT & MOTTET COMPANY HEADQUARTERS (1907), BULLARD & HILL, ARCHITECTS. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  13. 98. Street view, East San Antonio Ave., looking west northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. Street view, East San Antonio Ave., looking west northwest, Guarantee Shoe Co. is 211 East San Antonio Ave. - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  14. 1. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON CONVENT AVE. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL STREET VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON CONVENT AVE. FROM INTERSECTION OF SOUTH CONVENT AVE. AND WEST KENNEDY ST. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  15. Ave Maria: A 'Seriously Catholic' Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the founding of Ave Maria School of Law (Michigan), opening in 2000, which plans to integrate Catholic teachings into every course. Focus is on the school's founder, Thomas S. Monaghan, and the school's first dean, Bernard Dobranski, who suggest that the new school can avoid difficulties with tenured liberal professors and attract top…

  16. GRANT AVE., FROM SOUTHEAST OF BUILDING #191 (NORTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRANT AVE., FROM SOUTHEAST OF BUILDING #191 (NORTHWEST CORNER OF POPE & GRANT AVENUES), LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Fort Leavenworth, Metropolitan Avenue & Seventh Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  17. AVE-SESAME program for the REEDA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDA system software was modified and improved to process the AVE-SESAME severe storm data. A random access file system for the AVE storm data was designed, tested, and implemented. The AVE/SESAME software was modified to incorporate the random access file input and to interface with new graphics hardware/software now available on the REEDA system. Software was developed to graphically display the AVE/SESAME data in the convention normally used by severe storm researchers. Software was converted to AVE/SESAME software systems and interfaced with existing graphics hardware/software available on the REEDA System. Software documentation was provided for existing AVE/SESAME programs underlining functional flow charts and interacting questions. All AVE/SESAME data sets in random access format was processed to allow developed software to access the entire AVE/SESAME data base. The existing software was modified to allow for processing of different AVE/SESAME data set types including satellite surface and radar data.

  18. RIVERSIDE AVE. FROM SOUTH, SOUTHEAST OF BUILDINGS #433 SHOWING BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RIVERSIDE AVE. FROM SOUTH, SOUTHEAST OF BUILDINGS #433 SHOWING BUILDINGS #434 AND #435, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST - Fort Leavenworth, Metropolitan Avenue & Seventh Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  19. VIEW OF EMBANKMENT ALONG SHERMAN AVE. FROM SOUTHEAST OF SHERMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EMBANKMENT ALONG SHERMAN AVE. FROM SOUTHEAST OF SHERMAN & REYNOLDS AVENUES, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST - Fort Leavenworth, Metropolitan Avenue & Seventh Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  20. Atmospheric variability experiment /AVE II/ pilot experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Scroggins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) was conducted in May 1974. Rawinsonde releases were made at 54 upper-air stations in two thirds of the eastern U.S. at 3-hr intervals for a 24-hr period. Radar data were obtained from 11 stations located near the center of the observational area, and as many data as possible were collected from the Nimbus 5, NOAA 2, ATS-3, and DMSP satellites. The present paper provides an overview of the experiment and describes how the user community can obtain copies of the data.

  1. Physiological breeding.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  2. Impact of egg harvesting on breeding success of black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Philippa J.; Hudson, Malcolm D.; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Gull colonies world-wide have been harvested for their eggs for centuries with minimal knowledge of the impacts on breeding. Although most Laridae can replace lost eggs, they have comparatively high energetic demands for egg production. In this paper we assess the impacts of a licensed egg harvest on the breeding success of black-headed gulls Larus ridibundus, which nest colonially in an EU Special Protection Area in Hampshire, southern England. We compared egg volume, hatching and chick survival from harvested and un-harvested nests in central and fringe positions within colonies of various sizes, including colonies with no harvesting activity. Eggs from various laying stages were collected from harvested and un-harvested colonies of similar pre-harvest intrinsic quality, for comparison of their volumes, yolk-to-albumen ratios and eggshell thickness. Egg volume and the yolk-to-albumen ratio depended on laying time and location, with the largest eggs laid during the peak period by birds breeding in central positions on large colonies. Eggs produced by these peak layers also had the largest yolk-to-albumen ratios. Harvested sites were characterised by reductions in egg volume, yolk-to-albumen ratio and eggshell thickness, which translated to poorer hatching success and chick survival. Harvested sites also had a higher proportion of abnormal eggs, particularly taking the forms of small yolkless eggs and unpigmented eggs. The reduced breeding success on harvested colonies is likely to be linked to depletion of the female's endogenous reserves which can also reduce future survival and breeding propensity.

  3. 8. Wabash Ave. North. View of Loop and Dan Ryan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Wabash Ave. North. View of Loop and Dan Ryan Line. Curve at Van Buren St. and Wabash Ave. at center. Dan Ryan line starts at center and runs south (toward bottom of picture). Photo by Jet Lowe. - Union Elevated Railroad, Union Loop, Wells, Van Buren, Lake Streets & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. AVE 0991 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuedong; Huang, Huiling; Jiang, Jingzhou; Wu, Lingling; Lin, Chunxi; Tang, Anli; Dai, Gang; He, Jiangui; Chen, Yili

    2016-06-10

    AVE 0991, the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) analog, is recognized as having beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AVE 0991 on cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanisms involved. Mice were underwent aortic banding to induce cardiac hypertrophy followed by the administration of AVE 0991 (20 mg kg·day (-1)) for 4 weeks. It was shown that AVE 0991 reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and improved heart function, characterized by decreases in left ventricular weight and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and increases in ejection fraction. Moreover, AVE 0991 significantly down-regulated mean myocyte diameter and attenuate the gene expression of the hypertrophic markers. Furthermore, AVE 0991 inhibited the expression of NOX 2 and NOX 4, meaning that AVE 0991 reduced oxidative stress of cardiac hypertrophy mice. Our data showed that AVE 0991 treatment could attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and improve heart function, which may be due to reduce oxidative stress. PMID:26403967

  5. Simulated Breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  6. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 2. DELAWARE AVE. (far right, looking north) AND BAINBRIDGE ST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DELAWARE AVE. (far right, looking north) AND BAINBRIDGE ST. (lower horizontal line) SHOWING SOCIETY HILL TOWERS (upper left, by I.M. Pei) - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. View of twofamily house at 520522 Rison Ave., NE, originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of two-family house at 520-522 Rison Ave., NE, originally occupied by workers in nearby mills. Note original asbestos shingle roof - 520-522 Rison Avenue, Northeast (House), Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  10. AVE-SESAME 1: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhard, M. L.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Williams, S. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seven atmospheric variability experiments (AVE), two atmospheric variability and severe storms experiments (AVSSE), and six atmospheric variability experiment-severe environmental storm and mesoscale experiments (AVE-SESAME) conducted by NASA are discussed. The dates, observation times, and data reports for each of the experiments for which data was processed are listed. The AVE experiments were conducted primarily to study atmospheric variability with emphasis on spatial and temporal in atmospheric structure that can be detected from soundings taken at 3 hr intervals but not seen in soundings taken at 12 hr intervals. The AVSSE experiments were conducted to study atmospheric structure and variability associated with severe storms combining both rawinsonde and aircraft data to provide information on near storm environments. The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, an example of contact data is given, and soundings are listed which exhibited abnormal characteristics.

  11. 167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN 5TH AVE. SHOWING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 504, 436, 11, AND 155. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  12. 168. GENERAL VIEW FROM 5TH AVE. VIEW SOUTH, ACROSS 5TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. GENERAL VIEW FROM 5TH AVE. VIEW SOUTH, ACROSS 5TH AVE., TOWARD BUILDING 506 (ON LEFT) AND BUILDING 435. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  13. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 2 conducted on 19-20 April 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Horvath, N.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary information on data collected, synoptic conditions, and severe and unusual weather reported during the AVE-SESAME 2 period is presented. The information provides researchers a preliminary look at conditions during the AVE-SESAME 2 period.

  14. NASA's AVE 7 experiment: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The AVE 7 Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25 mb internals from the surface to 25 mb for the 24 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000GMT May 2 and 1200 GMT May 3, 1978. The methods of data processing and the accuracy are briefly discussed. Selected synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented as well as an example of contact data. A tabulation of adverse weather events that occured during the AVE 7 period, including freezing temperature, snow, tornadoes, damaging winds, and flooding, is presented.

  15. From the corner of E. Harlow Ave. and S. Cooper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of E. Harlow Ave. and S. Cooper St. looking west with building 633 at the left, part of building 226 at the right and then buildings #225-221 farther along E. Harlow Ave. on the right side. Beyond them is the smokestack of the steam plant (building 215). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V., Jr.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  17. Looking west along W. Mcafee Ave., building 509 is to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west along W. Mcafee Ave., building 509 is to the right, building 507 is to the left and at the end of the block is building 506. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Looking northeast along E. Mcafee Ave. From the corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast along E. Mcafee Ave. From the corner of S. Page St. towards building 618, with the water tower (building 239) in the background. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. AVES: A Computer Cluster System approach for INTEGRAL Scientific Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, M.; Martino, B. L.; Natalucci, L.; Umbertini, P.

    The AVES computing system, based on an "Cluster" architecture is a fully integrated, low cost computing facility dedicated to the archiving and analysis of the INTEGRAL data. AVES is a modular system that uses the software resource manager (SLURM) and allows almost unlimited expandibility (65,536 nodes and hundreds of thousands of processors); actually is composed by 30 Personal Computers with Quad-Cores CPU able to reach the computing power of 300 Giga Flops (300x10{9} Floating point Operations Per Second), with 120 GB of RAM and 7.5 Tera Bytes (TB) of storage memory in UFS configuration plus 6 TB for users area. AVES was designed and built to solve growing problems raised from the analysis of the large data amount accumulated by the INTEGRAL mission (actually about 9 TB) and due to increase every year. The used analysis software is the OSA package, distributed by the ISDC in Geneva. This is a very complex package consisting of dozens of programs that can not be converted to parallel computing. To overcome this limitation we developed a series of programs to distribute the workload analysis on the various nodes making AVES automatically divide the analysis in N jobs sent to N cores. This solution thus produces a result similar to that obtained by the parallel computing configuration. In support of this we have developed tools that allow a flexible use of the scientific software and quality control of on-line data storing. The AVES software package is constituted by about 50 specific programs. Thus the whole computing time, compared to that provided by a Personal Computer with single processor, has been enhanced up to a factor 70.

  20. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma Irene

    After establishing reliability for an associative verbal encoding (a/v/e) test, the relationship between children's a/v/e and their reading achievement was investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) a/v/e will improve with training, and (2) associated with improved a/v/e will be concomitant improvement in reading achievement. The subjects…

  1. Evolution of leaf warbler songs (Aves: Phylloscopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Martens, Jochen; Fischer, Balduin S; Sun, Yue-Hua; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Päckert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Songs in passerine birds are important for territory defense and mating. Speciation rates in oscine passerines are so high, due to cultural evolution, that this bird lineage makes up half of the extant bird species. Leaf warblers are a speciose Old-World passerine family of limited morphological differentiation, so that songs are even more important for species delimitation. We took 16 sonographic traits from song recordings of 80 leaf warbler taxa and correlated them with 15 potentially explanatory variables, pairwise, and in linear models. Based on a well-resolved molecular phylogeny of the same taxa, all pairwise correlations were corrected for relatedness with phylogenetically independent contrasts and phylogenetic generalized linear models were used. We found a phylogenetic signal for most song traits, but a strong one only for the duration of the longest and of the shortest element, which are presumably inherited instead of learned. Body size of a leaf warbler species is a constraint on song frequencies independent of phylogeny. At least in this study, habitat density had only marginal impact on song features, which even disappeared through phylogenetic correction. Maybe most leaf warblers avoid the deterioration through sound propagation in dense vegetation by singing from exposed perches. Latitudinal (and longitudinal) extension of the breeding ranges was correlated with most song features, especially verse duration (longer polewards and westwards) and complexity (lower polewards). Climate niche or expansion history might explain these correlations. The number of different element types per verse decreases with elevation, possibly due to fewer resources and congeneric species at higher elevations. PMID:25691998

  2. AVE/VAS experiment: Synoptic summary and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The AVE/VAS ground truth field experiment was conducted during the Spring of 1982 severe storms and weather research program. The experiment consisted of acquiring correlative ground truth measurements of rawinsonde data, corresponding to the time and space resolutions of VAS sounding data. The objectives of the AVE/VAS experiment are: (1) to acquire four dimensional data sets of the actual atmospheric structure down to the mesoscale; (2) to provide measurements for quantitative comparisons between ground based and VAS-derived atmospheric parameters; (3) to evaluate the impact of VAS data on diagnostic analysis of structural features and dynamical processes important to the development of mesoscale phenomena; (4) to evaluate the impact of VAS data on numerical model simulations, nowcasting, and other mesoscale forecasting systems.

  3. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  4. 1. VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 502 ASKEW AVE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 502 ASKEW AVE. HOUSE IS 1 1/2 STORY, 3 BAY SIDE GABLE WITH REAR KITCHEN ELL AND PORCH EXTENDING FROM FRONT. LOCKWOOD GREENE ENGINEERS BUILT THIS AND 128 OTHER NEW HOUSES FOR NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN 1923-1924. THE PREEXISTING MILL VILLAGE NEEDED TO BE EXPANDED TO ACCOMODATE WORKERS FOR THEIR NEW STARK MILL IN HOGANSVILLE. THIS HOUSE WAS BUILT WITH INDOOR PLUMBING, AND ELECTRICITY AT A COST OF APPROXIMATELY $430 PER ROOM. - 502 Askew Avenue (House), 502 Askew Avenue, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  5. AVE/VAS 1: 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS I (shakedown) experiment is described. Tabulated data at 25-mb intervals for the 13 special rawinsonde stations and 1 National Weather Service station participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 1200 and 1800 GMT on February 6, 1982, and at 0000 GMT on February 7, 1982. The method of processing soundings is discussed briefly, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  6. AVE-SESAME IV: 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 4 experiment is descirbed and tabulated data at 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 20 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on May 9, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on May 10, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Reasons are given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  7. AVE-SESAME 6: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 6 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 15 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 h intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on June 7, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on June 8, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  8. AVE-Sesame 3: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. T.; Gerhard, M. L.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 3 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 25, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 26, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  9. AVE-SESAME 2: The 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Gerhard, M. L.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME II experiment is described. Data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 19, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 20, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  10. The AVE/VAS 2: The 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS II experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals, was an 18 hour period. An additional sounding was taken at the normal synoptic observation time. The processing soundings method is discussed, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the meso-beta-scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  11. Can non-breeding be a cost of breeding dispersal?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danchin, E.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Breeding habitat selection and dispersal are crucial processes that affect many components of fitness. Breeding dispersal entails costs, one of which has been neglected: dispersing animals may miss breeding opportunities because breeding dispersal requires finding a new nesting site and mate, two time- and energy-consuming activities. Dispersers are expected to be prone to non-breeding. We used the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) to test whether breeding dispersal influences breeding probability. Breeding probability was associated with dispersal, in that both were negatively influenced by private information (previous individual reproductive success) and public information (average reproductive success of conspecifics) about patch quality. Furthermore, the probability of skipping breeding was 1.7 times higher in birds that settled in a new patch relative to those that remained on the same patch. Finally, non-breeders that resumed breeding were 4.4 times more likely to disperse than birds that bred in successive years. Although private information may influence breeding probability directly, the link between breeding probability and public information may be indirect, through the influence of public information on breeding dispersal, non-breeding thus being a cost of dispersal. These results support the hypothesis that dispersal may result in not being able to breed. More generally, non-breeding (which can be interpreted as an extreme form of breeding failure) may reveal costs of various previous activities. Because monitoring the non-breeding portion of a population is difficult, non-breeders have been neglected in many studies of reproduction trade-offs.

  12. 169. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 6TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 6TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN 6TH AVE. SHOWING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 8 (HOSPITAL) WITH PART OF ONE OF ITS 1-STORY WARD WINGS, AND THE 3 ORIGINAL DORMITORY WINGS OF BUILDING 9 (BOQ). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  13. NASA's participation in the AVE-SESAME '79 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, K.; Turner, R. E.; Wilson, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center participated with its AVE (Atmospheric Variability Experiment) in a large interagency mesoscale and severe storms experiment identified herein as AVE-SESAME '79 (Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment 1979). A primary objective of NASA was to support an effort to acquire carefully edited sets of rawinsonde data during selected severe weather events for use in correlative and diagnostic studies with satellite and radar data obtained at approximately the same times. Data were acquired during six individual 24-h experiments on both the regional and storm scales over a network in the central United States that utilized approximately 20 supplemental rawinsonde sites meshed among 23 standard National Weather Service sites. Included among the six experiments are data obtained between 1200 GMT on April 10 and 1200 GMT on April 11, encompassing the formation and development period for the tornado-producing systems that devastated Wichita Falls, Texas, and other sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The other dates for which data sets are available are April 19-20 and 25-26, May 9-10 and 20-21, and June 7-8, 1979.

  14. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  15. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  16. Welfare in horse breeding.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, P

    2015-04-25

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations.

  17. AVE-SEASAME 5: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rewinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 5 experiment is described and tubulated data at 25 mb intervals are presented for the 23 National Weather Service stations and 20 special stations participating in the experiment. Soundings were taken at 3-hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on May 20, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on may 21, 1979 (nine sounding times). A tenth sounding was teken at many special stations between 2100 and 0000 GMT on May 20. The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Reasons are given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings with abnormal characteristics are listed.

  18. AVE/VAS 3: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS 3 experiment is described. Tabulated data are presented at 25-mb intervals for the 24 National Weather Service stations and 14 special stations participating in the experiment. Soundings were taken at 3-hr intervals, beginning at 1200 GMT on March 27, 1982, and ending at 0600 GMT on March 28, 1982 (7 sounding times). An additional sounding was taken at the National Weather Service stations at 1200 GMT on March 28, 1982, at the normal synoptic observation time. The method of processing soundings is briefly discussed, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the mesos-beta-scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  19. The AVES adaptive optics spectrograph for the VLT: status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Delabre, Bernard; Pasquini, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Santin, Paolo; Damiani, Francesco; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Spano, Paolo; Bonifacio, P.; Catalano, Santo; Molaro, Paolo P.; Randich, S.; Rodono, Marcello

    2003-03-01

    We report on the status of AVES, the Adaptive-optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph proposed for the secondary port of the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) recently installed at the VLT. AVES is an intermediate resolution (R ≍ 16,000) high-efficiency fixed- format echelle spectrograph which operates in the spectral band 500 - 1,000 nm. In addition to a high intrinsic efficiency, comparable to that of ESI at Keck II, it takes advantage of the adaptive optics correction provided by NAOS to reduce the sky and detector contribution in background-limited observations of weak sources, thus allowing a further magnitude gain with respect to comparable non-adaptive optics spectrographs. Simulations show that the instrument will be capable of reaching a magnitude V = 22.5 at S/N > 10 in two hours, two magnitudes weaker than GIRAFFE at the same resolution and 3 magnitudes weaker than the higher resolution UVES spectrograph. Imaging and coronographic functions have also been implemented in the design. We present the results of the final design study and we dicuss the technical and operational issues related to its implementation at the VLT as a visitor instrument. We also discuss the possibility of using a scaled-up non-adaptive optics version of the same design as an element of a double- or triple-arm intermediate-resolution spectrograph for the VLT. Such an option looks attractive in the context of a high-efficiency large-bandwidth (320 - 1,500 nm) spectrograph ("fast-shooter") being considered by ESO as a 2nd-generation VLT instrument.

  20. Genomics and plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Aljanabi, S

    2001-01-01

    Much of our most basic understanding of genetics has its roots in plant genetics and crop breeding. The study of plants has led to important insights into highly conserved biological process and a wealth of knowledge about development. Agriculture is now well positioned to take its share benefit from genomics. The primary sequences of most plant genes will be determined over the next few years. Informatics and functional genomics will help identify those genes that can be best utilized to crop production and quality through genetic engineering and plant breeding. Recent developments in plant genomics are reviewed.

  1. 1980 breeding bird censuses

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and the surrounding region, the two breeding bird censuses originated in 1977 were continued in 1980. Coverage was below that of previous years due to illness and travel of some participants, but 11 trips were made to the BNL plot and 8 to the Westhampton plot. Each was censused by separate teams of three volunteer observers. The number of breeding species and number of territorial males on the BNL plot have progressively declined since 1977 but little change has taken place in either number of territories or species composition on the Westhampton plot.

  2. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 3 conducted on 25-26 April 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Horvath, N.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    General weather conditions, including synoptic maps, radar reports, satellite photographs, precipitation areas and amounts, and a summary of severe weather reports are presented. These data provide researchers a preliminary look at conditions during the AVE-SESAME 3 period.

  3. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  4. AVE 0991, a non-peptide Mas-receptor agonist, facilitates penile erection.

    PubMed

    da Costa Gonçalves, Andrey C; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Leite, Romulo; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in erectile function. It has been shown that elevated levels of angiotensin II contribute to the development of erectile dysfunction both in humans and in aminals. On the contrary, the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) appears to mediate penile erection by activation of the Mas receptor. Recently, we have shown that the erectile function of Mas gene-deleted mice was substantially reduced, which was associated with a marked increase in fibrous tissue in the corpus cavernosum. We have hypothesized that the synthetic non-peptide Mas agonist, AVE 0991, would potentiate penile erectile function. We showed that intracavernosal injection of AVE 0991 potentiated the erectile response of anaesthetized Wistar rats, measured as the ratio between corpus cavernosum pressure and mean arterial pressure, upon electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion. The facilitatory effect of AVE 0991 on erectile function was dose dependent and completely blunted by the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, l-NAME. Importantly, concomitant intracavernosal infusion of the specific Mas receptor blocker, A-779, abolished the effect of AVE 0991. We demonstrated that AVE 0991 potentiates the penile erectile response through Mas in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, these results suggest that Mas agonists, such as AVE 0991, might have significant therapeutic benefits for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  5. Hop Cultivars and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in hops varies among cultivars. Historically, the primary objective of hop breeding programs has been to increase the yield or characteristics associated with either bittering (high alpha-acids) or aroma (unique volatile oil profiles) cultivars. Other factors consid...

  6. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges. This report to the California Leafy Greens Research Program annual meeting provides an update by the ‘Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species’ project at Salinas on the genetics and breeding...

  7. A multilocus phylogeny of the Sulidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes).

    PubMed

    Patterson, S A; Morris-Pocock, J A; Friesen, V L

    2011-02-01

    Gene trees will often differ from the true species history, the species tree, as a result of processes such as incomplete lineage sorting. New methods such as Bayesian Estimation of the Species Tree (BEST) use the multispecies coalescent to model lineage sorting, and directly infer the species tree from multilocus DNA sequence data. The Sulidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes) is a family of ten booby and gannet species with a global distribution. We sequenced five nuclear intron loci and one mitochondrial locus to estimate a species tree for the Sulidae using both BEST and by concatenating nuclear loci. We also used fossil calibrated strict and relaxed molecular clocks in BEAST to estimate divergence times for major nodes in the sulid phylogeny. Individual gene trees showed little phylogenetic conflict but varied in resolution. With the exception of the mitochondrial gene tree, no gene tree was completely resolved. On the other hand, both the BEST and concatenated species trees were highly resolved, strongly supported, and topologically consistent with each other. The three sulid genera (Morus, Sula, Papasula) were monophyletic and the relationships within genera were mostly consistent with both a previously estimated mtDNA gene tree and the mtDNA gene tree estimated here. However, our species trees conflicted with the mtDNA gene trees in the relationships among the three genera. Most notably, we find that the endemic and endangered Abbott's booby (Papasula abbotti) is likely basal to all other members of the Sulidae and diverged from them approximately 22 million years ago.

  8. A multilocus phylogeny of the Sulidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes).

    PubMed

    Patterson, S A; Morris-Pocock, J A; Friesen, V L

    2011-02-01

    Gene trees will often differ from the true species history, the species tree, as a result of processes such as incomplete lineage sorting. New methods such as Bayesian Estimation of the Species Tree (BEST) use the multispecies coalescent to model lineage sorting, and directly infer the species tree from multilocus DNA sequence data. The Sulidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes) is a family of ten booby and gannet species with a global distribution. We sequenced five nuclear intron loci and one mitochondrial locus to estimate a species tree for the Sulidae using both BEST and by concatenating nuclear loci. We also used fossil calibrated strict and relaxed molecular clocks in BEAST to estimate divergence times for major nodes in the sulid phylogeny. Individual gene trees showed little phylogenetic conflict but varied in resolution. With the exception of the mitochondrial gene tree, no gene tree was completely resolved. On the other hand, both the BEST and concatenated species trees were highly resolved, strongly supported, and topologically consistent with each other. The three sulid genera (Morus, Sula, Papasula) were monophyletic and the relationships within genera were mostly consistent with both a previously estimated mtDNA gene tree and the mtDNA gene tree estimated here. However, our species trees conflicted with the mtDNA gene trees in the relationships among the three genera. Most notably, we find that the endemic and endangered Abbott's booby (Papasula abbotti) is likely basal to all other members of the Sulidae and diverged from them approximately 22 million years ago. PMID:21144905

  9. AVES: an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Luca; Delabre, Bernard; Avila, Gerardo; Bonaccini, Domenico

    1998-07-01

    We present the preliminary study of a low cost, high performance spectrograph for the VLT, for observations in the V, R and I bands. This spectrograph is meant for intermediate (R equals 16,000) resolution spectroscopy of faint (sky and/or detector limited) sources, with particular emphasis on the study of solar-type (F-G) stars belonging to the nearest galaxies and to distant (or highly reddened) galactic clusters. The spectrograph is designed to use the adaptive optics (AO) systems at the VLT Telescope. Even if these AO systems will not provide diffraction limited images in the V, R and I bands, the photon concentration will still be above approximately 60% of the flux in an 0.3 arcsecond aperture for typical Paranal conditions. This makes the construction of a compact, cheap and efficient echelle spectrograph possible. AVES will outperform comparable non adaptive optic instruments by more than one magnitude for sky- and/or detector-limited observations, and it will be very suitable for observations in crowded fields.

  10. Multiple cenozoic invasions of Africa by penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Thomas, Daniel B

    2012-03-01

    Africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern African coastlines. Here, we show that the African penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. Phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four Early Pliocene African penguin species do not represent an endemic radiation or direct ancestors of the living Spheniscus demersus (blackfooted penguin). A minimum of three dispersals to Africa, probably assisted by the eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar and South Atlantic currents, occurred during the Late Cenozoic. As regional sea-level fall eliminated islands and reduced offshore breeding areas during the Pliocene, all but one penguin lineage ended in extinction, resulting in today's depleted fauna. PMID:21900330

  11. Multiple cenozoic invasions of Africa by penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Thomas, Daniel B

    2012-03-01

    Africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern African coastlines. Here, we show that the African penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. Phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four Early Pliocene African penguin species do not represent an endemic radiation or direct ancestors of the living Spheniscus demersus (blackfooted penguin). A minimum of three dispersals to Africa, probably assisted by the eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar and South Atlantic currents, occurred during the Late Cenozoic. As regional sea-level fall eliminated islands and reduced offshore breeding areas during the Pliocene, all but one penguin lineage ended in extinction, resulting in today's depleted fauna.

  12. Population Genetic Structure of the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens (Aves, Suliformes) Breeding Colonies in the Western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Andressa; Carlos, Caio J; Moreno, Ignacio B; Fagundes, Nelson J R

    2016-01-01

    The Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens has a pantropical distribution, nesting on islands along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. In the Caribbean, there is little genetic structure among colonies; however, the genetic structure among the colonies off Brazil and its relationship with those in the Caribbean are unknown. In this study, we used mtDNA and microsatellite markers to infer population structure and evolutionary history in a sample of F. magnificens individuals collected in Brazil, Grand Connétable (French Guyana), and Barbuda. Virtually all Brazilian individuals had the same mtDNA haplotype. There was no haplotype sharing between Brazil and the Caribbean, though Grand Connétable shared haplotypes with both regions. A Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data found two genetic clusters: one associated with Barbuda and the other with the Brazilian populations. Grand Connétable was more similar to Barbuda but had ancestry from both clusters, corroborating its "intermediate" position. The Caribbean and Grand Connétable populations showed higher genetic diversity and effective population size compared to the Brazilian population. Overall, our results are in good agreement with an effect of marine winds in isolating the Brazilian meta-population. PMID:26901878

  13. Population Genetic Structure of the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens (Aves, Suliformes) Breeding Colonies in the Western Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Andressa; Carlos, Caio J.; Moreno, Ignacio B.; Fagundes, Nelson J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens has a pantropical distribution, nesting on islands along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. In the Caribbean, there is little genetic structure among colonies; however, the genetic structure among the colonies off Brazil and its relationship with those in the Caribbean are unknown. In this study, we used mtDNA and microsatellite markers to infer population structure and evolutionary history in a sample of F. magnificens individuals collected in Brazil, Grand Connétable (French Guyana), and Barbuda. Virtually all Brazilian individuals had the same mtDNA haplotype. There was no haplotype sharing between Brazil and the Caribbean, though Grand Connétable shared haplotypes with both regions. A Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data found two genetic clusters: one associated with Barbuda and the other with the Brazilian populations. Grand Connétable was more similar to Barbuda but had ancestry from both clusters, corroborating its “intermediate” position. The Caribbean and Grand Connétable populations showed higher genetic diversity and effective population size compared to the Brazilian population. Overall, our results are in good agreement with an effect of marine winds in isolating the Brazilian meta-population. PMID:26901878

  14. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome. PMID:19811618

  15. The evolution of intermittent breeding.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Allison K; Levin, Simon A

    2013-03-01

    A central issue in life history theory is how organisms trade off current and future reproduction. A variety of organisms exhibit intermittent breeding, meaning sexually mature adults will skip breeding opportunities between reproduction attempts. It's thought that intermittent breeding occurs when reproduction incurs an extra cost in terms of survival, energy, or recovery time. We have developed a matrix population model for intermittent breeding, and use adaptive dynamics to determine under what conditions individuals should breed at every opportunity, and under what conditions they should skip some breeding opportunities (and if so, how many). We also examine the effect of environmental stochasticity on breeding behavior. We find that the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for breeding behavior depends on an individual's expected growth and mortality, and that the conditions for skipped breeding depend on the type of reproductive cost incurred (survival, energy, recovery time). In constant environments there is always a pure ESS, however environmental stochasticity and deterministic population fluctuations can both select for a mixed ESS. Finally, we compare our model results to patterns of intermittent breeding in species from a range of taxonomic groups.

  16. Materials for breeding blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified.

  17. Pressure Contact Sounding Data for NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.; Long, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    The basic rawinsonde data are described at each pressure contact from the surface to sounding termination for the 41 stations participating in the AVE III measurement program that began at 0000 GMT on February 6 and ended at 1200 GMT on February 7, 1975. Soundings were taken at 3-hour intervals during a large period of the experiment from most stations within the United States east of about 105 degrees west longitude. Methods of data processing, change in reduction scheme since the AVE II pilot experiment, and data accuracy are briefly discussed. An example of contact data is presented, and microfiche cards of all the contact data are included in the appendix. The AVE III project was conducted to better understand and establish the extent of applications for meteorological satellite sensor data through correlative ground truth experiments and to provide basic experimental data for use in studies of atmospheric scales of-motion interrelationships.

  18. Reduction and error analysis of the AVE 2 pilot experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction techniques used to process data from the pilot experiment of the second NASA atmospheric variability experiment (AVE IIP), which was conducted during a 24 hour period beginning at 1200 GMT on May 11, 1974, and ending at 1200 GMT on May 12, 1974 are described. Each step of the data handling process is described through the presentation of computer flow charts, programs, equations, and narrative. An error analysis of the final output is presented, and results of the AVE IIP reduction process are compared with results from the National Weather Service. The AVE IIP sounding data contain more detail than National Weather Service data, but the two data sets may be used together without difficulty.

  19. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  20. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding In Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RosBREED will create a national, dynamic, sustained effort in research, infrastructure establishment, training, and extension for applying marker-assisted breeding (MAB) to deliver improved plant materials more efficiently and rapidly. The Rosaceae family (including apple, peach, sweet and tart cher...

  1. To breed, or not to breed? Predation risk induces breeding suppression in common voles.

    PubMed

    Jochym, Mateusz; Halle, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Breeding suppression hypothesis (BSH) predicts that, in several vole species, females will suppress breeding in response to high risk of mustelid predation; compared to breeding females, suppressing females would gain higher chances of survival. Seminal evidence for BSH was obtained in the laboratory, but attempts to replicate breeding suppression under field conditions were less conclusive. We tested whether breeding suppression occurs in common voles (Microtus arvalis), and how population density and predation risk combined affect voles' reproductive activity. We found that, in contrast to males, female common voles suppress reproductive activity when faced with high predation risk. Population size was not reduced despite breeding suppression. A model of the interaction between predation risk and population density revealed that predator-induced breeding suppression depends on the density of conspecifics. We concluded that breeding suppression is a viable adaptation only at low vole densities, when per capita predation risk is high. Finally, we identified the key issues of experimental design required for the consistency of future studies on breeding suppression. PMID:22700062

  2. Data for NASA's AVE 5 experiment: 25 mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humbert, M. E.; Hill, K.

    1977-01-01

    The AVE V Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, June 11, and 1200 GMT, June 12, 1976. The methods of data processing and accuracy are briefly discussed. An example of contact data is also included.

  3. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  4. MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH MAIN CEMETERY GATE TO CEMETERY'S MAIN STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18276, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  5. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 4 conducted on 9-10 May 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    July, M.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains information on data collected, symptotic conditions, and severe and unusual weather reported during the Atmospheric Variability Experiment Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME) 4 period. The information provides researchers a look at conditions during the period.

  6. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  7. Best of Breed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    No team of engineers, no matter how much time they took or how many bottles of cabernet they consumed, would dream up an antenna that looked like a deer antler on steroids. Yet that's what a group at NASA Ames Research Center came up with-thanks to a little help from Darwin. NASA's Space Technology 5 nanosatellites, which are scheduled to start measuring Earth's magnetosphere in late 2004, requires an antenna that can receive a wide range of frequencies regardless of the spacecraft's orientation. Rather than leave such exacting requirements in the hands of a human, the engineers decided to breed a design using genetic algorithms and 32 Linux PCs. The computers generated small antenna-constructing programs (the genotypes) and executed them to produce designs (the phenotypes). Then the designs were evaluated using an antenna simulator. The team settled on the form pictured here. You won't find this kind of antenna in any textbook, design guide, or research paper. But its innovative structure meets a challenging set of specifications. If successfully deployed, it will be the first evolved antenna to make it out of the lab and the first piece of evolved hardware ever to fly in space.

  8. Hemodynamic Effects of the Non-Peptidic Angiotensin-(1-7) Agonist AVE0991 in Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Schierwagen, Robert; Grace, Josephine; Haltenhof, Tom; Uschner, Frank E.; Strassburg, Christian P.; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Walther, Thomas; Angus, Peter W.; Trebicka, Jonel

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Although in cirrhosis with portal hypertension levels of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II are increased, this is accompanied by increased production of angiotensin (Ang)-(1–7), the endogenous ligand of the Mas receptor (MasR), which blunts hepatic fibrosis and decreases hepatic vascular resistance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the non-peptidic Ang-(1–7) agonist, AVE0991, in experimental cirrhosis. Methods Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication. The coloured microsphere technique assessed portal and systemic hemodynamic effects of AVE0991 in vivo. Hepatic expression of eNOS, p-eNOS, iNOS, JAK2, ROCK and p-Moesin were analyzed by western blots. Activities of ACE and ACE2 were investigated fluorometrically. Moreover, fibrosis was assessed in BDL rats receiving AVE0991. Results In vivo, AVE0991 decreased portal pressure (PP) in both rat models of cirrhosis. Importantly, systemic effects were not observed. The hepatic effects of AVE0991 were based on upregulation of vasodilating pathways involving p-eNOS and iNOS, as well as by downregulation of the vasoconstrictive pathways (ROCK, p-Moesin). Short-term treatment with AVE0991 decreased the activity of ACE2, long-term treatment did not affect hepatic fibrosis in BDL rats. Conclusions The non-peptidic agonist of Ang-(1–7), AVE0991, decreases portal pressure without influencing systemic pressure. Thus, although it does not inhibit fibrosis, AVE0991 may represent a promising new therapeutic strategy for lowering portal pressure. PMID:26406236

  9. Large-scale vertical motion calculations in the AVE IV Experiment. [of atmospheric wind velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    Using 3- and 6-h consecutive rawinsonde and surface data from NASA's AVE IV Experiment, synoptic-scale vertical motion calculations are made using an adiabatic technique and three variations of the kinematic technique. Both subjective and objective comparisons in space and time between the sign and magnitude of the computed vertical velocities and precipitation intensities are made. These comparisons are conducted to determine which method would consistently produce realistic magnitudes, patterns, and vertical profiles of vertical velocity essential to the diagnostic study of the relationship between severe convective storms and their environment in AVE IV. The kinematic method, adjusted to the adiabatic value at 100 mb, proved to produce the best overall vertical velocities.

  10. Pressure contact sounding data for NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 2). [rawinsondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The basic rawinsonde data are described at each pressure contact from the surface to sounding termination for the 54 stations participating in the AVE 2 pilot experiment. Soundings were taken at three-hour intervals from stations within the United States east of about 105 degrees west longitude. Methods of data reduction and estimates of data accuracy are discussed. Examples of the data records produced are shown. The AVE 2 pilot experiment was conducted as part of NASA's program to better understand and establish the extent of applications for meteorological satellite sensor data through correlative ground truth experiments and to provide basic experimental data for use in studies of atmospheric scales-of-motion interrelationships.

  11. Data for NASA's AVE 4 experiment: 25 mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucik, N. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The AVE IV Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 42 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, April 24, and 1,200 GMT, April 25, 1975. The methods of data processing and accuracy are briefly discussed. Synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented, as well as an example of contact data.

  12. Data for NASA's AVE 4 experiment: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucik, N. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The AVE 4 Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 42 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, April 24 and 1200 GMT, April 25, 1975. The methods of data processing and accuracy are discussed. Synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented, as well as an example of contact data.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Germain's Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron germaini (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Omeire, Destiny; Abdin, Shaunte; Brooks, Daniel M; Miranda, Hector C

    2015-04-01

    The Germain's Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron germaini (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae) is classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. germaini is 16,699 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. All of the 13 protein-coding genes have ATG as start codon. Eight of the 13 protein-coding genes have TAA as stop codon.

  14. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  15. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials-UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r (2) = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  16. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  17. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials-UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r (2) = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  18. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  19. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    PubMed

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  20. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    PubMed

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  1. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  2. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  3. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Methods Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. Results With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Conclusions Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training

  4. The evolution of potato breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  5. Genomic selection in plant breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor ...

  6. Breeding and propagating oakleaf hydrangeas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An oakleaf hydrangea breeding program at the U.S. National Arboretum’s worksite in McMinnville, Tenn. was started in 1996 for the purpose of developing attractive, compact oakleaf hydrangea cultivars suitable for use in small residential gardens. ‘Ruby Slippers’ and ‘Munchkin’ oakleaf hydrangeas we...

  7. USDA lettuce breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lettuce industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The USDA lettuce breeding and genetics project aims to incorporate valuable traits into crisphead, mixed...

  8. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  9. Population trends and survival of nesting green sea turtles Chelonia mydas on Aves Island, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Cruz, Marco A.; Lampo, Margarita; Penaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William; Solé, Genaro; Rodriguez-Clark, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term demographic data are valuable for assessing the effect of anthropogenic impacts on endangered species and evaluating recovery programs. Using a 2-state open robust design model, we analyzed mark-recapture data from green turtles Chelonia mydas sighted between 1979 and 2009 on Aves Island, Venezuela, a rookery heavily impacted by human activities before it was declared a wildlife refuge in 1972. Based on the encounter histories of 7689 nesting females, we estimated the abundance, annual survival, and remigration intervals for this population. Female survival varied from 0.14-0.91, with a mean of 0.79, which is low compared to survival of other populations from the Caribbean (mean = 0.84) and Australia (mean = 0.95), even though we partially corrected for tag loss, which is known to negatively bias survival estimates. This supports prior suggestions that Caribbean populations in general, and the Aves Island population in particular, may be more strongly impacted than populations elsewhere. It is likely that nesters from this rookery are extracted while foraging in remote feeding grounds where hunting still occurs. Despite its relatively low survival, the nesting population at Aves Island increased during the past 30 years from approx. 500 to >1000 nesting females in 2009. Thus, this population, like others in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, seems to be slowly recovering following protective management. Although these findings support the importance of long-term conservation programs aimed at protecting nesting grounds, they also highlight the need to extend management actions to foraging grounds where human activities may still impact green turtle populations.

  10. Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

  11. Population structure of ice-breeding seals.

    PubMed

    Davis, Corey S; Stirling, Ian; Strobeck, Curtis; Coltman, David W

    2008-07-01

    The development of population genetic structure in ice-breeding seal species is likely to be shaped by a combination of breeding habitat and life-history characteristics. Species that return to breed on predictable fast-ice locations are more likely to exhibit natal fidelity than pack-ice-breeding species, which in turn facilitates the development of genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Other aspects of life history such as geographically distinct vocalizations, female gregariousness, and the potential for polygynous breeding may also facilitate population structure. Based on these factors, we predicted that fast-ice-breeding seal species (the Weddell and ringed seal) would show elevated genetic differentiation compared to pack-ice-breeding species (the leopard, Ross, crabeater and bearded seals). We tested this prediction using microsatellite analysis to examine population structure of these six ice-breeding species. Our results did not support this prediction. While none of the Antarctic pack-ice species showed statistically significant population structure, the bearded seal of the Arctic pack ice showed strong differentiation between subpopulations. Again in contrast, the fast-ice-breeding Weddell seal of the Antarctic showed clear evidence for genetic differentiation while the ringed seal, breeding in similar habitat in the Arctic, did not. These results suggest that the development of population structure in ice-breeding phocid seals is a more complex outcome of the interplay of phylogenetic and ecological factors than can be predicted on the basis of breeding substrate and life-history characteristics.

  12. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    PubMed

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  13. [The evaluation of breed-specific defects in dog breeds from an animal welfare viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Peyer, N; Steiger, A

    1998-01-01

    Issues of breed defects such as morphology, physiology or behaviour in pure-breed dogs, are briefly discussed. Suggestions for various kinds of improvements are made, particularly concerning legislation, analysis of pedigree to avoid undesirable breed characteristics and what breeding clubs, individual breeders, judges, future dog owners and veterinarians could and should do about these problems; these are followed by summary conclusions.

  14. From the corner of E. Mccloskey Ave. and N. 10th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of E. Mccloskey Ave. and N. 10th St., looking west with building 135 (gas station) on the left. Beyond it is building 119 and to the right of 119 is the gable end of the north side of 120. Beyond and perpendicular to building 120 are 118 and 117. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. AVES-IMCO: an adaptive optics visible spectrograph and imager/coronograph for NAOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Lagrange, A.-M.; Mouillet, D.; Chauvin, G.; Stadler, E.; Charton, J.; Lacombe, F.; AVES-IMCO Team

    2001-05-01

    The NAOS adaptive optics system will very soon provide diffraction-limited images on the VLT, down to the visible wavelengths (0.020 arcseconds at 0.83 micron for instance). At the moment, the only instrument dedicated to NAOS is the CONICA spectro-imager, operating in the near-infrared from 1 to 5 microns. We are now proposing to ESO, in collaboration with an Italian group, the development of a visible spectrograph/imager/coronograph, AVES-IMCO (Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and IMager/COronograph). We present here the general concept of the new instrument as well as its expected performances in the different modes.

  16. The Chewing Lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) Fauna of the Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (Aves, Parulidae).

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Reiley, Bryan M

    2015-09-01

    We examined Swainson's warblers (Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon, 1834), Aves: Parulidae) for lice fauna during 2 yr at three study sites in Arkansas, USA. A total of 66 individuals were examined; eight birds (10.6%) were parasitized with 16 lice of two new species belonging to two genera Myrsidea Waterson, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Parasitological parameter data are given on the prevalence of lice on Swainson's warblers. Species descriptions and illustrations are provided for Myrsidea bensoni sp. nov. and Brueelia limnothlypiae sp. nov.; including a key for females of the genus Myrsidea that parasitize Parulidae (Passeriformes).

  17. A revised classification of the Icteridae (Aves) based on DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Remsen, J V Jr; Powell, Alexis F L A; Schodde, Richard; Barker, F Keith; Lanyon, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    The higher-level classification of the New World blackbirds (Icteridae; Aves) has remained relatively stable for nearly a half-century, with most currently used classifications (e.g. Sibley & Monroe 1990; Jaramillo & Burke 1999; Fraga 2011; Remsen et al. 2015) following Blake's (1968) delimitation and sequence of genera in the Peters Check-list of Birds of the World series. Early molecular studies (e.g., Lanyon 1992, 1994; Johnson & Lanyon 1999; Price & Lanyon 2002; Cadena et al. 2004) produced only minor modifications. PMID:27394496

  18. Emperor Penguins Breeding on Iceshelves

    PubMed Central

    Fretwell, Peter T.; Trathan, Phil N.; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin’s reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as “near threatened” in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  19. Data for first NASA Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 1). Part 1: Data tabulation. [rawindsonde data for eastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.; Smith, O. E.

    1973-01-01

    A tablulation is given of rawinsonde data for NASA's first Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 1) conducted during the period February 19-22, 1964. Methods of data handling and processing, and estimates of error magnitudes are also given. Data taken on the AVE 1 project in 1964 enabled an analysis of a large sector of the eastern United States on a fine resolution time scale. This experiment was run in February 1964, and data were collected as a wave developed in the East Gulf on a frontal system which extended through the eastern part of the United States. The primary objective of AVE 1 was to investigate the variability of parameters in space and over time intervals of three hours, and to integrate the results into NASA programs which require this type of information. The results presented are those from one approach, and represent only a portion of the total research effort that can be accomplished.

  20. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same

  1. Migratory double breeding in Neotropical migrant birds

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.

    2009-01-01

    Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers south in midsummer to breed a second time during the same summer in coastal west Mexico or Baja California Sur. They then migrate further south to their final wintering areas in the Neotropics. Our discovery of dual breeding ranges in Neotropical migrants reveals a hitherto unrealized flexibility in life-history strategies for these species and underscores that demographic models and conservation plans must consider dual breeding for these migrants. PMID:19858484

  2. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma I.

    This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…

  3. Pelecitus tercostatus (Molin, 1960) (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) in Amazona vinacea (Aves, Psittaciformes) from Argentina: morphological details and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Julia I; Di Nucci, Dante L; Falzone, Martín P; Demergassi, Natalia M; Fernanda Lois, M; Zalazar, Raúl O; Navone, Graciela T; Gachen, Gustavo G

    2012-06-01

    Pelecitus tercostatus (Molin, 1860) (Onchocercidae, Dirofilariinae) was found in the leg of a Vinaceous-breasted Parrot Amazona vinacea (Aves, Psittaciformes) from Misiones, Argentina. The present report enlarges the host distribution of the species and represents the first record of any nematode in A. vinacea. The macroscopic lesions produced in the bird are also described.

  4. [Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

    2013-02-01

    The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out. PMID:23713267

  5. The Breeding Bird Survey, 1966

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Van Velzen, W.T.

    1967-01-01

    A Breeding Bird Survey of a large section on North America was conducted during June 1966. Cooperators ran a total of 585 Survey routes in 26 eastern States and 4 Canadian Provinces. Future coverage of established routes will enable changes in the abundance of North American breeding birds to be measured. Routes are selected at random on the basis of one-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 241/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced one-half mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms and the data are then transferred to machine punch cards. The average number of birds per route is tabulated by State, along with the total number of each species and the percent of routes and stops upon which they were recorded. Maps are presented showing the range and abundance of selected species. Also, a year-to-year comparison is made of populations of selected species on Maryland routes in 1965 and 1966.

  6. Breed structure of Senepol cattle.

    PubMed

    Williams, A R; Hupp, H D; Thompson, C E; Grimes, L W

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected by the Virgin Islands Beef Cattle Improvement Program and the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station staff to establish the breed structure of the Senepol cattle. Data for the analysis were limited to the two Virgin Islands Senepol breeders with the most complete and largest set of records, representing approximately 65% of the entire Senepol population. Inbreeding (F) and coancestry relationship coefficients (rAB) and the theoretical inbreeding (FT) were determined from each data set and for the combined data from both farms, for each year, ranging from 1947 to 1984 for Annaly Farms, and from 1967 to 1984 for Castle Nugent Farm. The data sets for both farms were examined for the possibility of separation into families. Actual F within the Senepol population was relatively low, averaging less than 1.00%. Some separation into families occurred within Annaly Farms' cattle. The F and FT decreased (1.6 to 0.7% and 1.0 to 0.2%, respectively) as population numbers increased. The low F was accomplished through the breeding programs and exchanges of animals between farms on the island. PMID:3367044

  7. Fish genome manipulation and directional breeding.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ding; Zhu, ZuoYan; Sun, YongHua

    2015-02-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest developing agricultural industries worldwide. One of the most important factors for sustainable aquaculture is the development of high performing culture strains. Genome manipulation offers a powerful method to achieve rapid and directional breeding in fish. We review the history of fish breeding methods based on classical genome manipulation, including polyploidy breeding and nuclear transfer. Then, we discuss the advances and applications of fish directional breeding based on transgenic technology and recently developed genome editing technologies. These methods offer increased efficiency, precision and predictability in genetic improvement over traditional methods.

  8. Chemical classification of cattle. 1. Breed groups.

    PubMed

    Baker, C M; Manwell, C

    1980-01-01

    From approximately 1000 papers with data on protein polymorphism in some 216 breeds of cattle, 10 polymorphic proteins were compared in means and variances of gene frequencies (arcsin p 1/2) for ten well-recognized breed groups for 196 of the breeds. The polymorphic proteins were alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins (alpha s1, beta and chi), serum albumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, amylase I and carbonic anhydrase II. The breed groups were North European, Pied Lowland, European Red brachyceros, Channel Island brachyceros, Upland brachyceros, primigenius-brachyceros mixed, primigenius, Indian Zebu, African Humped (with Zebu admixture), and African Humped (Sanga). The coherence within groups and the differences between groups are often impressive. Only carbonic anhydrase II fails to differentiate at least some of the major breed groups. In some cases paradoxical distributions of rare genetic variants can be explained by a more detailed inspection of breed history. The chemical data support the morphological and geographical divisions of cattle into major breed groups. There are three distinct but related brachyceros groups; for some polymorphisms the two Channel Island breeds, the Jersey and the Guernsey, are quite divergent. Although some authorities have considered the Pied Lowland as primigenius, it is a very distinct breed group.

  9. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  10. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding. PMID:27069395

  11. Breeding without Breeding: Is a Complete Pedigree Necessary for Efficient Breeding?

    PubMed Central

    El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Cappa, Eduardo P.; Liewlaksaneeyanawin, Cherdsak; Klápště, Jaroslav; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called “Breeding without Breeding” (BwB) that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS) and incomplete (half-sib: HS) analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors), growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP) or complete (FS) pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB. PMID:21991342

  12. Use of animal breeds and breeding to overcome the incidence of grass tetany: a review.

    PubMed

    Greene, L W; Baker, J F; Hardt, P F

    1989-12-01

    British breeds of cattle are not so effective as Zebu in extracting nutrients from low-quality roughages, and these breeds differ in their nutrient metabolism and animal physiology. Breeds of cattle may differ in their requirements for Mg. Brahman cows are less susceptible to death from disease and metabolic disorders than are British breeds of cattle, whereas cows with 50% or greater dairy breeding (Holstein and Jersey) are more susceptible than British or Brahman breeds when maintained in beef production herds. Brahman or Brahman crossbred cows are less susceptible than other breeds to metabolic disorders such as grass tetany. Magnesium absorption has been shown to be greater in Brahman than in Jersey, Holstein and Hereford cows. These differences in the efficiency of Mg absorption between different breeds of cows may be due to genetic variation in the absorptive mechanisms of Mg, in feeding behavior, in gastrointestinal tract motility, in gastrointestinal tract fill or to some combination. PMID:2693421

  13. Characteristics of ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of a severe weather outbreak - AVE-SESAME I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    GOES satellite data was used to examine the ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of severe weather outbreaks along the Red River between Texas and Oklahoma in April 1979. The observations were part of the NASA AVE-SESAME I data on atmospheric states close to severe weather conditions. The Barnes Objective Analysis Technique was employed to analyze the data on a 100 km grid. The ageostrophic wind was defined on a regional scale from satellite data on different levels of cloud wind vectors, with a height change signalling a short-wave system in a long-wave trough. The percentage of deviation of the subgeostrophic winds from the geostrophic wind was calculated, and maximum departure corresponded with the region of greatest storm development. Time cross sections of additions to the ageostrophic flow were made as a function of pressure at 100 mb intervals from 900-100 mb. The ageostrophic acceleration was consistently twice the geostrophic acceleration.

  14. Impact evaluation of lighting retrofit projects at Boeing Commercial Airplane Group under The Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, G.P.; Oens, M.A.; Spanner, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    This impact evaluation of two lighting retrofit projects that were recently installed at Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (Boeing) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The first project was a light-fixture and lighting control retrofit, consisting of five individual measures installed in Building 40-05. The second project was a retrofit of all parking lot lighting on the site. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Boeing as a result of the E$P projects and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the project was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Boeing`s proposals and completion reports).

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Great tit Parus major (Aves, Passeriformes, Paridae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiao-Yu; Li, Dong-Hai; Ti, Ru-Juan; Song, Sen

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Great tit Parus major was sequenced used polymerase chain reaction (PCR), long-and-accurate PCR and directly sequencing by primer walking. The Genbank accession was KP137624. The entire mitochondrial genome of P. major is a circular molecule of 16,776 bp in length and the content of A, T, C and G were 29.68%, 22.63%, 33.56% and 14.13%, respectively. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. major contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, plus 1 control regions and was similar to most of the other Aves birds in gene arrangement and composition. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. major could provide a useful data for resolving phylogenetic relationship problems related to Parus and P. major subspecies complex. PMID:25600732

  16. A Megafauna’s Microfauna: Gastrointestinal Parasites of New Zealand’s Extinct Moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Bonner, Karen I.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Kinsella, John M.; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We perform the first multidisciplinary study of parasites from an extinct megafaunal clade using coprolites from the New Zealand moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). Ancient DNA and microscopic analyses of 84 coprolites deposited by four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; little bush moa, Anomalopteryx didiformis; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus; and upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus) reveal an array of gastrointestinal parasites including coccidians (Cryptosporidium and members of the suborder Eimeriorina), nematodes (Heterakoidea, Trichostrongylidae, Trichinellidae) and a trematode (Echinostomida). Parasite eggs were most prevalent and diverse in coprolites from lowland sites, where multiple sympatric moa species occurred and host density was therefore probably higher. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence supports a possible vicariant Gondwanan origin for some of the moa parasites. The discovery of apparently host-specific parasite taxa suggests paleoparasitological studies of megafauna coprolites may provide useful case-studies of coextinction. PMID:23451203

  17. Assessments of tritium-breeding requirements and breeding potential for the STARFIRE/DEMO design

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.; Abdou, M.

    1983-03-01

    This paper presents assessments of tritium-breeding requirements and breeding potential for the STARFIRE/DEMO design. The assessment of breeding requirement is described based on two design considerations; i.e.: (1) tritium inventory and doubling requirement; and (2) computational uncertainties associated with the breeding calculation. The lithium-containing materials considered include: solid Li/sub 2/O and LiAlO/sub 2/ and liquid lithium and 17 Li-83Pb.

  18. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized ...

  19. Multi-scale habitat selection in highly territorial bird species: Exploring the contribution of nest, territory and landscape levels to site choice in breeding rallids (Aves: Rallidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Chibowski, Piotr; Karasek, Tomasz; Brambilla, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection often involves choices made at different spatial scales, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, and studies that investigate the relative importance of individual scales are rare. We investigated the effect of three spatial scales (landscape, territory, nest-site) on the occurrence pattern of little crake Zapornia parva and water rail Rallus aquaticus at 74 ponds in the Masurian Lakeland, Poland. Habitat structure, food abundance and water chemical parameters were measured at nests and random points within landscape plots (from 300-m to 50-m radius), territory (14-m) and nest-site plots (3-m). Regression analyses suggested that the most relevant scale was territory level, followed by landscape, and finally by nest-site for both species. Variation partitioning confirmed this pattern for water rail, but also highlighted the importance of nest-site (the level explaining the highest share of unique variation) for little crake. The most important variables determining the occurrence of both species were water body fragmentation (landscape), vegetation density (territory) and water depth (at territory level for little crake, and at nest-site level for water rail). Finally, for both species multi-scale models including factors from different levels were more parsimonious than single-scale ones, i.e. habitat selection was likely a multi-scale process. The importance of particular spatial scales seemed more related to life-history traits than to the extent of the scales considered. In the case of our study species, the territory level was highly important likely because both rallids have to obtain all the resources they need (nest site, food and mates) in relatively small areas, the multi-purpose territories they defend.

  20. 78 FR 45494 - Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting ACTION: Notice of a Plant Breeding... Agriculture (USDA) announces a Plant Breeding Listening Session stakeholder meeting for all interested plant breeding and cultivar development stakeholders. DATES: The Plant Breeding Listening Session will be...

  1. Evolution of seasonal ecological niches in the Passerina buntings (Aves: Cardinalidae).

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of migration has long been considered complex and recent work has demonstrated additional complexity: some species follow the same ecological conditions throughout the year, whereas others 'switch niches' between breeding and wintering ranges. Hypotheses regarding the evolution of migration would generally predict niche-following as primitive, and niche-switching as derived. However, no test has, to our knowledge, yet determined the directionality of evolution of these states within a lineage. We present an analysis of phylogenetic dimensions of seasonal niches in the Passerina buntings that indicates greater evolutionary change in the niches of breeding populations than among those of wintering populations. These results are consistent with hypotheses of (i) niche conservatism (in winter, at least) across a recently speciated lineage; and (ii) the derived state of the breeding (rather than winter) ecological niches of each species. PMID:15306365

  2. Plant Breeding: Surprisingly, Less Sex Is Better.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Peter J; Rigola, Diana; Schauer, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Introduction of apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, into crop species has the potential to dramatically transform plant breeding. A new study demonstrates that traits can be stably transferred between generations in newly produced apomictic lines, and heralds a breeding revolution needed to increase food production for the growing planet. PMID:26859270

  3. Mean EPDs reported by different breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breeding stock against their ...

  4. Plant Breeding: Surprisingly, Less Sex Is Better.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Peter J; Rigola, Diana; Schauer, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Introduction of apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, into crop species has the potential to dramatically transform plant breeding. A new study demonstrates that traits can be stably transferred between generations in newly produced apomictic lines, and heralds a breeding revolution needed to increase food production for the growing planet.

  5. TES Carbon Monoxide Validation during the Two AVE Campaigns using the Argus and ALIAS Instruments on NASA's WB-57F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jinena P.; Luo, Ming; Christensen, Lance E.; Loewenstein, Max; Jost, Hansjurg; Webster, Christopher R.; Osterman, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) focuses on validating Aura satellite measurements of important atmospheric trace gases using ground-based, aircraft, and balloon-borne instruments. Global satellite observations of CO from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS Aura satellite have been ongoing since September 2004. This paper discusses CO validation experiments during the Oct-AVE (2004 Houston, Texas) and CR-AVE (2006 San Jose, Costa Rica) campaigns. The coincidences in location and time between the satellite observations and the available in situ profiles for some cases are not ideal. However, the CO distribution patterns in the two validation flight areas are shown to have very little variability in the aircraft and satellite . observations, thereby making them suitable for validation comparisons. TES CO profiles, which typically have a retrieval uncertainty of 10-20%, are compared with in situ CO measurements from NASA Ames Research Center's Argus instrument taken on board the WB-57F aircraft during Oct-AVE. TES CO retrievals during CR-AVE are compared with in situ measurements from Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS) instrument as well as with the Argus instrument, both taken on board the WB-57F aircraft. During CR-AVE, the average overall difference between ALIAS and Argus CO was 4%, with the ALIAS measurement higher. During individual flights, 2-min time-averaged differences between the two in situ instruments had standard deviation of 14%. The TES averaging kernels and a priori constraint profiles for CO are applied to the in situ data for proper comparisons to account for the reduced vertical resolution and the influence of the a priori in the satellite-derived profile. In the TES sensitive pressure range, approx.700-200 hPa, the in situ profiles and TES profiles agree within 5-10%, less than the variability in CO distributions obtained by both TES and the aircraft instruments in the two

  6. Patterns of molecular genetic variation among cat breeds.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Pflueger, Solveig M; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation in cat breeds was assessed utilizing a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) loci genotyped in 38 cat breeds and 284 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 24 breeds. Population structure in cat breeds generally reflects their recent ancestry and absence of strong breed barriers between some breeds. There is a wide range in the robustness of population definition, from breeds demonstrating high definition to breeds with as little as a third of their genetic variation partitioning into a single population. Utilizing the STRUCTURE algorithm, there was no clear demarcation of the number of population subdivisions; 16 breeds could not be resolved into independent populations, the consequence of outcrossing in established breeds to recently developed breeds with common ancestry. These 16 breeds were divided into 6 populations. Ninety-six percent of cats in a sample set of 1040 were correctly assigned to their classified breed or breed group/population. Average breed STR heterozygosities ranged from moderate (0.53; Havana, Korat) to high (0.85; Norwegian Forest Cat, Manx). Most of the variation in cat breeds was observed within a breed population (83.7%), versus 16.3% of the variation observed between populations. The hierarchical relationships of cat breeds is poorly defined as demonstrated by phylogenetic trees generated from both STR and SNP data, though phylogeographic grouping of breeds derived completely or in part from Southeast Asian ancestors was apparent.

  7. Data for NASA's AVE 3 experiment: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts. [investigation of atmospheric parameters detected from satellite data under conditions of heavy snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The atmospheric variability experiment (AVE 3) is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 41 stations is presented. The experiment was conducted between February 6 and February 7, 1975. Brief discussions are given on methods of data processing, changes in the reduction scheme since the AVE 2 pilot experiment, and data accuracy. An example of contact data is presented as well as synoptic charts prepared from the data.

  8. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  9. Breeding season survival and breeding incidence of female Mottled Ducks on the upper Texas gulf coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Haukos, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula) studies suggested that high female breeding season survival may be caused by low nesting effort, but few breeding season estimates of survival associated with nesting effort exist on the western Gulf Coast. Here, breeding season survival (N = 40) and breeding incidence (N = 39) were estimated for female Mottled Ducks on the upper Texas coast, 2006–2008. Females were fitted with backpack radio transmitters and visually relocated every 3–4 days. Weekly survival was estimated using the Known Fate procedure of program MARK with breeding incidence estimated as the annual proportion of females observed nesting or with broods. The top-ranked survival model included a body mass covariate and held weekly female survival constant across weeks and years (SW = 0.986, SE = 0.006). When compared to survival across the entire year estimated from previous band recovery and age ratio analysis, survival rate during the breeding season did not differ. Breeding incidence was well below 100% in all years and highly variable among years (15%–63%). Breeding season survival and breeding incidence were similar to estimates obtained with implant transmitters from the mid-coast of Texas. The greatest breeding incidence for both studies occurred when drought indices indicated average environmental moisture during the breeding season. The observed combination of low breeding incidence and high breeding season survival support the hypothesis of a trade-off between the ecological cost of nesting effort and survival for Mottled Duck females. Habitat cues that trigger nesting are unknown and should be investigated.

  10. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  11. First charge breeding results at CARIBU EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S. Barcikowski, A. Dickerson, C. Ostroumov, P. N. Sharamentov, S. Vondrasek, R.; Pikin, A.

    2015-01-09

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed to breed CARIBU radioactive beams at ATLAS is currently in the off-line commissioning stage. The beam commissioning is being performed using a low emittance surface ionization source producing singly-charged cesium ions. The primary goal of the off-line commissioning is the demonstration of high-efficiency charge breeding in the pulsed injection mode. An overview of the final design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder, the off-line commissioning installation and the first results on charge breeding of stable cesium ions are presented and discussed.

  12. Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.

    1966-01-01

    Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

  13. Book review: Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2004-01-01

    The first North American breeding bird atlases were initiated during the 1970s. With atlases completed or ongoing in more than 40 U.S. states and most Canadian provinces, these projects are now familiar to professional ornithologists and amateur birders. This book provides the results of the Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas, the data for which were collected during 1997–2001. Its appearance less than 3 years after completing fieldwork is remarkable and everyone associated with its timely publication should be congratulated for their efforts.Review info: Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas. By Dan L. Reinking, 2004. ISBN: 0806136146, 528 pp.

  14. [The use of biotechnology in animal breeding].

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, E; Brade, W

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnological techniques are extensively used in dairy breeding programs. Thus, artificial insemination and embryo transfer (and associated techniques) constitute an integral part of modern breeding programs. In pig breeding, embryo transfer is mostly restricted to special problem areas because of its high costs. Currently this technique is used for the exchange of genetic material on an international level, for the creation of specific pathogene free herds, and in connection with cryoconservation for the setup of embryobanks in the context of the preservation of genetic resources. PMID:9011495

  15. Breeding bald eagles in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestrelli, J.R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1975-01-01

    A 7-year-old female Bald Eagle from Alabama was paired with a 4-year-old Alaskan male in a large flight pen during December 1969. Both birds were free of physical defects when originally placed in the pen but the female was blind in one eye prior to the 1973 breeding season.....Nesting first occurred during 1971 when at least two eggs were laid; all but one, which showed no sign of embryonic development after being incubated for 56 days, were broken by the adult birds. Two of three eggs laid in 1972 hatched. Both young died a few days after hatching following a period of inclement weather. Three eggs were laid and hatched during 1973. Antagonism between the nestlings was observed soon after hatching and may have been responsible for the unobserved death of one nestling, two days after the third young hatched. The two remaining young were raised by the adult birds and eventually left the nest 85 days after the first egg hatched. Incubation periods for the 1972-73 clutches averaged 35 days. No renesting attempts were made by the eagles during the 3.year period.

  16. A synoptic analysis of the first AVE-SESAME '79 period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. T.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    Key features of a severe convection observed during April 10-11, 1979 as part of the Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME) are examined. Three-hourly rawinsonde readings from 23 stations were taken, and vertical motion and divergence parameters are considered. The data were converted into a 127 km grid at the surface, and at 50 mb intervals from 900 mb to 100 mb by an objective analysis scheme, while a kinematic method was used to compute vertical motion. A weak upper tropospheric short wave trough was found to propagate from New Mexico into the Texas panhandle, while a jet maximum propagated eastward. The development of a strong wind maximum over Oklahoma and Kansas was associated with a rapid increase in upper-level divergence and the development of a small-scale pressure perturbation in the Texas panhandle, as well as a low-level jet and convergence, which led to rapid changes over the Red River Valley, where stability was decreased.

  17. Radar analyses of mesoscale meteorological phenomena during the AVE/VAS correlation field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Radar data were collected during the selected critical times of the field experiment and subsequently analyzed for specific items. The analyses of the radar data for the AVE/VAS experiment provided statistically significant values for each of the 10 Km by 10 Km grids within radar range. The resulting information for correlation with satellite data included the following derived items that were averaged for each grid area: (1) rainfall rate in mm/hr; (2) dBZ (reflectivity) values; (3) accumulated rainfall values per hour; (4) accumulated rainfall values for a 6-hour period; (5) vertically integrated liquid water content per square meter; and (6) vertical height of the radar axis at the midpoint of each grid. Additional products derived from radar data are being investigated. An example of one such product is the derivation of the errors in integrated rainfall with different sampling periods. This is of significance for correlation with satellite data in that normally a step-function type of rainfall rate is used to derive the total rainfall over a period.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of the spoonbills (Aves: Threskiornithidae) based on mitochondrial DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R. Terry; Yeung, Carol K.L.; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    Spoonbills (genus Platalea) are a small group of wading birds, generally considered to constitute the subfamily Plataleinae (Aves: Threskiornithidae). We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among the six species of spoonbills using variation in sequences of the mitochondrial genes ND2 and cytochrome b (total 1796 bp). Topologies of phylogenetic trees reconstructed using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses were virtually identical and supported monophyly of the spoonbills. Most relationships within Platalea received strong support: P. minor and P. regia were closely related sister species, P. leucorodia was sister to the minor-regia clade, and P. alba was sister to the minor-regia-leucorodia clade. Relationships of P. flavipes and P. ajaja were less well resolved: these species either formed a clade that was sister to the four-species clade, or were successive sisters to this clade. This phylogeny is consistent with ideas of relatedness derived from spoonbill morphology. Our limited sampling of the Threskiornithinae (ibises), the putative sister group to the spoonbills, indicated that this group is paraphyletic, in agreement with previous molecular data; this suggests that separation of the Threskiornithidae into subfamilies Plataleinae and Threskiornithinae may not be warranted.

  19. Coprolite deposits reveal the diet and ecology of the extinct New Zealand megaherbivore moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Jamie R.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Rogers, Geoffery M.; Austin, Jeremy J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Cooper, Alan

    2008-12-01

    The discovery in New Zealand of Late Holocene deposits of coprolites from extinct avian megaherbivores has provided a unique opportunity to gain a detailed insight into the ecology of these birds across ecologically diverse habitats. Macrofossil analysis of 116 coprolites of the giant ratite moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes) reveals a diverse diet of herbs and low shrubs in both semi-arid and high rainfall ecological zones, overturning previous models of moa as dominantly browsers of trees and shrubs. Ancient DNA analysis identified coprolites from four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus and stout-legged moa, Euryapteryx gravis), revealing a larger dietary variation between habitat types than between species. The new data confirm that moa fed on a variety of endemic plant taxa with unusual growth forms previously suggested to have co-evolved with moa. Lastly, the feeding ecologies of moa are shown to be widely different to introduced mammalian herbivores.

  20. Embodying animals: Body-part compatibility in mammalian, reptile and aves classes.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Sandra M; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how humans code homologous body parts of nonhuman mammal, reptilian, and aves animals with respect to the representation of the human body. To this end, participants completed body-part compatibility tasks in which responses were executed to colored targets that were superimposed over the upper limbs, lower limbs or head of different animals in different postures. In Experiment 1, the images were of meekats and lizards in bipedal and quadrupedal postures. In Experiment 2, the images were of a human, a penguin, and an owl in a bipedal posture with upper limbs stretched out. Overall, the results revealed that the limbs of nonhuman mammals (meerkat and human) were consistently mapped onto the homologous human body parts only when the mammals were in a bipedal posture. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects emerged for the human and the meerkat in a bipedal posture, but not the meerkat in the quadrupedal posture. Further, consistent body-part compatibility effects were not observed for the lizard in the quadrupedal posture or for the lizard, penguin, or owl in a bipedal posture. The pattern of results suggests that the human bipedal body representation may distinguish taxonomical classes and is most highly engaged when viewing homologous body parts of mammalian animals.

  1. Unexpected divergence and lack of divergence revealed in continental Asian Cyornis flycatchers (Aves: Muscicapidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaoyang; Huang, Yuan; Olsson, Urban; Martinez, Jonathan; Alström, Per; Lei, Fumin

    2016-01-01

    The flycatcher genus Cyornis (Aves: Muscicapidae) comprises 25 species with Oriental distributions. Their relationships are poorly known. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of 70 individuals from 12 species and several subspecies of Cyornis based on three mitochondrial genes and five nuclear introns, with special focus on Chinese and Vietnamese populations of the monotypic C. hainanus and polytypic C. rubeculoides. We found no support for inclusion of C. concretus in Cyornis. Deep divergences were observed among different subspecies of C. banyumas and C. rubeculoides. C. rubeculoides glaucicomans was also shown to have a highly distinctive song, and we propose that it is treated as a distinctive Chinese endemic species, C. glaucicomans. In contrast, the south Vietnamese C. rubeculoides klossi, which has a disjunct distribution from the other subspecies of C. rubeculoides, along with a recently discovered population in Guangdong Province (China) with several plumage features reminiscent of C. r. klossi, were indistinguishable in all loci analyzed from the phenotypically markedly different C. hainanus. More research is needed to elucidate the reasons for this unexpected pattern.

  2. A high-precision chronology for the rapid extinction of New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, George L. W.; Wheeler, Andrew B.; Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-12-01

    Megafaunal extinction followed the prehistoric human settlement of islands across the globe, but the exact duration and dynamics of the extinction processes are difficult to determine. The New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes) are a prime example, where, despite an extensive fossil and archaeological record, debate continues about their extinction chronology and how extinction timings varied among regions and species. We apply probabilistic sightings methods to 111 high-quality radiocarbon dates (from a pool of 653 dates) on moa remains from natural and archaeological sites to provide a high-resolution spatio-temporal chronology of moa extinction. We interpret this alongside an estimated time for the onset of hunting pressure, obtained by applying the same methods to the most reliable proxies for initial human settlement of New Zealand: coprolites of and seeds gnawed by the commensal Pacific rat (Rattus exulans). By comparing local and national extinction times, we discriminate between the point at which hunting stopped (economic extinction) and the total extinction of moa (ca 150 and 200 years after settlement, respectively). Extinction occurred contemporaneously at sites separated by hundreds of kilometres. There was little difference between the extinction times of the smallest (20-50 kg) and largest (200+ kg) moa species. Our results demonstrate how rapidly megafauna were exterminated from even large, topographically- and ecologically-diverse islands such as New Zealand, and highlight the fragility of such ecosystems in the face of human impacts.

  3. A molecular phylogeny of Pacific honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) reveals extensive paraphyly and an isolated Polynesian radiation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Michael J; Naikatini, Alivereti; Moyle, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the molecular phylogenetic placement of 14 species of Pacific island honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) in the broader context of an existing family-level phylogeny. We examined the evolutionary history of Pacific honeyeater lineages to assess the accuracy of current taxonomies and to evaluate their biogeographic history. We compare these biogeographic patterns to other Pacific birds to identify emergent patterns across lineages. We found strong support for a previously unknown endemic radiation in central Polynesia, which comprises five genera: Meliarchus, Guadalcanaria, Gymnomyza, Xanthotis, and Foulehaio. Conversely, other Pacific lineages were found to be strongly allied with continental radiations (e.g., Philemon eichhorni, P. cockerelli, and Lichmera incana). Our results necessitated taxonomic changes, both at the generic level (e.g., Xanthotis, Melidectes/Vosea, and Glycifohia/Gliciphila) and regarding species limits within polytypic species. Here, we discuss species limits in Foulehaio and Gymnomyza and recommend elevating three nominal subspecies of Foulehaio to species status, each of which forms well-differentiated clades.

  4. A molecular phylogeny of Pacific honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) reveals extensive paraphyly and an isolated Polynesian radiation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Michael J; Naikatini, Alivereti; Moyle, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the molecular phylogenetic placement of 14 species of Pacific island honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) in the broader context of an existing family-level phylogeny. We examined the evolutionary history of Pacific honeyeater lineages to assess the accuracy of current taxonomies and to evaluate their biogeographic history. We compare these biogeographic patterns to other Pacific birds to identify emergent patterns across lineages. We found strong support for a previously unknown endemic radiation in central Polynesia, which comprises five genera: Meliarchus, Guadalcanaria, Gymnomyza, Xanthotis, and Foulehaio. Conversely, other Pacific lineages were found to be strongly allied with continental radiations (e.g., Philemon eichhorni, P. cockerelli, and Lichmera incana). Our results necessitated taxonomic changes, both at the generic level (e.g., Xanthotis, Melidectes/Vosea, and Glycifohia/Gliciphila) and regarding species limits within polytypic species. Here, we discuss species limits in Foulehaio and Gymnomyza and recommend elevating three nominal subspecies of Foulehaio to species status, each of which forms well-differentiated clades. PMID:24315868

  5. Breeding erect plant type sweetpotato lines using cross breeding and gamma-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kuranouchi, Toshikazu; Kumazaki, Tadashi; Kumagai, Toru; Nakatani, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Few sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars with erect plant type are available despite their advantages over spreading type, such as simplicity of cultivation and ability to adapt to limited space. One of the reasons is insufficiency of their agronomic characteristics for table use. So, it is important to overcome these drawbacks of ER-type lines. We attempted to breed new erect plant type sweetpotato lines having good agronomic traits using cross breeding and mutation breeding with gamma-ray irradiation. With cross breeding we successfully developed new erect plant type lines with almost equal levels of yield as compared to 'Beniazuma', one of the leading cultivars in Japan. However, mutation breeding failed to develop any promising lines because we could not obtain distinct erect plant type lines. In the future larger numbers of plants should be used for mutation breeding, and irradiation methods should be improved. PMID:27436957

  6. The ascent of cat breeds: genetic evaluations of breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.

    PubMed

    Lipinski, Monika J; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C; Billings, Nicholas C; Leutenegger, Christian M; Levy, Alon M; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R; Pedersen, Niels C; Lyons, Leslie A

    2008-01-01

    The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing 17 random-bred populations from five continents and 22 breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese bobtail were more aligned with European/American than with Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity; however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age.

  7. Breeding erect plant type sweetpotato lines using cross breeding and gamma-ray irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kuranouchi, Toshikazu; Kumazaki, Tadashi; Kumagai, Toru; Nakatani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Few sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars with erect plant type are available despite their advantages over spreading type, such as simplicity of cultivation and ability to adapt to limited space. One of the reasons is insufficiency of their agronomic characteristics for table use. So, it is important to overcome these drawbacks of ER-type lines. We attempted to breed new erect plant type sweetpotato lines having good agronomic traits using cross breeding and mutation breeding with gamma-ray irradiation. With cross breeding we successfully developed new erect plant type lines with almost equal levels of yield as compared to ‘Beniazuma’, one of the leading cultivars in Japan. However, mutation breeding failed to develop any promising lines because we could not obtain distinct erect plant type lines. In the future larger numbers of plants should be used for mutation breeding, and irradiation methods should be improved. PMID:27436957

  8. Equine post-breeding endometritis: A review

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The deposition of semen, bacteria and debris in the uterus of the mare after breeding normally induces a self-limiting endometritis. The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover. Mares that are susceptible to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBEM) have impaired uterine defence and clearance mechanisms, making them unable to resolve this inflammation within the normal time. This persists beyond 48 hours post-breeding and causes persistent fluid accumulation within the uterus. Mares with PPBEM have an increased rate of embryonic loss and a lower overall pregnancy rate than those without the condition. To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate treatment. This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PPBEM and the management of affected mares. PMID:21851709

  9. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality.

  10. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. PMID:26893165

  11. [Pain caused by breeding: definition, judgment, pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Herzog, A

    1997-02-01

    Special terms of the "German Animal Protection Law (section 11b)"and the "European Agreement for Protection of Domestic Animals" particularly "torture-breeding, genetic characteristics, well-being, soundness, pains, injuries and specific use" are commented. Examples of torture-breedings are discussed: Dog (Merle-faktor, brachycephalie, atrichosis), cat (Mans-factor, W-gene, folded-ears), birds (tuffs, ear-drops, tailesness, hypertrophy of bill-warts, abnormal position of tarsal-joints, hypertrophy of imposing behavior).

  12. Prunus transcription factors: breeding perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Valmor J.; Rubio, Manuel; Trainotti, Livio; Verde, Ignazio; Bonghi, Claudio; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs). In peach, 1533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA, and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing) may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci) map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome. PMID:26124770

  13. Prunus transcription factors: breeding perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Valmor J; Rubio, Manuel; Trainotti, Livio; Verde, Ignazio; Bonghi, Claudio; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs). In peach, 1533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA, and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing) may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci) map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome. PMID:26124770

  14. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  15. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  16. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  17. Application of Genomics Tools to Animal Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Dekkers, Jack C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal in animal breeding is to select individuals that have high breeding values for traits of interest as parents to produce the next generation and to do so as quickly as possible. To date, most programs rely on statistical analysis of large data bases with phenotypes on breeding populations by linear mixed model methodology to estimate breeding values on selection candidates. However, there is a long history of research on the use of genetic markers to identify quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection but with limited implementation in practical breeding programs. The advent of high-density SNP genotyping, combined with novel statistical methods for the use of this data to estimate breeding values, has resulted in the recent extensive application of genomic or whole-genome selection in dairy cattle and research to implement genomic selection in other livestock species is underway. The high-density SNP data also provides opportunities to detect QTL and to encover the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, in terms of the distribution of the size of genetic effects that contribute to trait differences in a population. Results show that this genetic architecture differs between traits but that for most traits, over 50% of the genetic variation resides in genomic regions with small effects that are of the order of magnitude that is expected under a highly polygenic model of inheritance. PMID:23115522

  18. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  19. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  20. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2009 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 11 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  1. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2011 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  2. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2012 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  3. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2010 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  4. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2016 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of progeny of 18 breeds were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight, among 15 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling and ribeye area and among 14 of the 18 breeds for fat depth and carcass weight. The r...

  5. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  6. Identification of Specialists and Abundance-Occupancy Relationships among Intestinal Bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jenny C.; McLellan, Sandra L.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Shanks, Orin C.

    2015-01-01

    The coalescence of next-generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineation of host-microbe associations has applied benefits ranging from clinical treatments to protecting our natural waters. Microbial communities follow some broad-scale patterns observed for macroorganisms, but it remains unclear how the specialization of intestinal vertebrate-associated communities to a particular host environment influences broad-scale patterns in microbial abundance and distribution. We analyzed the V6 region of 16S rRNA genes amplified from 106 fecal samples spanning Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish). We investigated the interspecific abundance-occupancy relationship, where widespread taxa tend to be more abundant than narrowly distributed taxa, among operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within and among host species. In a separate analysis, we identified specialist OTUs that were highly abundant in a single host and rare in all other hosts by using a multinomial model without excluding undersampled OTUs a priori. We show that intestinal microbes in humans and other vertebrates display abundance-occupancy relationships, but because intestinal host-associated communities have undergone intense specialization, this trend is violated by a disproportionately large number of specialist taxa. Although it is difficult to distinguish the effects of dispersal limitations, host selection, historical contingency, and stochastic processes on community assembly, results suggest that intestinal bacteria can be shared among diverse hosts in ways that resemble the distribution of “free-living” bacteria in the extraintestinal environment. PMID:26712546

  7. High-speed video analysis of wing-snapping in two manakin clades (Pipridae: Aves).

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Kimberly S; Prum, Richard O

    2003-10-01

    Basic kinematic and detailed physical mechanisms of avian, non-vocal sound production are both unknown. Here, for the first time, field-generated high-speed video recordings and acoustic analyses are used to test numerous competing hypotheses of the kinematics underlying sonations, or non-vocal communicative sounds, produced by two genera of Pipridae, Manacus and Pipra (Aves). Eleven behaviorally and acoustically distinct sonations are characterized, five of which fall into a specific acoustic class of relatively loud, brief, broad-frequency sound pulses, or snaps. The hypothesis that one kinematic mechanism of snap production is used within and between birds in general, and manakins specifically, is rejected. Instead, it is verified that three of four competing hypotheses of the kinematic mechanisms used for producing snaps, namely: (1). above-the-back wing-against-wing claps, (2). wing-against-body claps and (3). wing-into-air flicks, are employed between these two clades, and a fourth mechanism, (4). wing-against-tail feather interactions, is discovered. The kinematic mechanisms used to produce snaps are invariable within each identified sonation, despite the fact that a diversity of kinematic mechanisms are used among sonations. The other six sonations described are produced by kinematic mechanisms distinct from those used to create snaps, but are difficult to distinguish from each other and from the kinematics of flight. These results provide the first detailed kinematic information on mechanisms of sonation in birds in general, and the Pipridae specifically. Further, these results provide the first evidence that acoustically similar avian sonations, such as brief, broad frequency snaps, can be produced by diverse kinematic means, both among and within species. The use of high-speed video recordings in the field in a comparative manner documents the diversity of kinematic mechanisms used to sonate, and uncovers a hidden, sexually selected radiation of

  8. In Situ Observations of the Microphysical Properties of Subvisible Cirrus during CR- AVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P.; Baker, B.; Pilson, B.; Mo, Q.; Jensen, E.

    2006-12-01

    In situ microphysical observations of subvisible cirrus between 8 degrees north latitude and the equator were collected using the NASA WB-57F research aircraft during the Costa Rica - Aura Validation Experiment (CR- AVE) in January 2006. Subvisible cirrus was commonly observed between 75 and 85 C (about 16 and 18 km). The observations included ice particle size, shape, concentration and relative humidity. Instrumentation included a cloud particle imager (CPI), a 2D-S (stereo) probe, a forward and backward scattering probe (CAS) and a tunable diode laser (TDL) water vapor probe. These are the first in situ observations that include a large dataset of digital images of the size and shape of ice particles in tropical subvisible cirrus. The images reveal that 84 percent of the ice particles are quasi-spherical in shape, with only a small percentage of the crystals exhibiting crystalline shapes (e.g., plates and columns), and virtually no trigonal particles, contrary to the only other crystal shape measurements collected in 1973. The particle size distribution suggests a monotonic distribution ranging from a few microns out to 120 microns in diameter. In the denser regions of cloud, mean particle concentrations were on the order of 20 to 40 per liter, mean extinction 0.004 inverse kilometers, and mean ice water content 0.02 mg per cubic meter. The ice particles are almost always observed when the ambient relative humidity is between 140 and 200 percent w.r.t. ice. Particle growth simulations suggest that ice particles in subvisible cirrus require very high (order 200 percent ice saturation) relative humidity to grow to 100 microns. The unique ice particle measurements in subvisible cirrus are useful in constraining water vapor measurements, validation of satellite retrievals and in parameterizations of radiation models.

  9. [Reproductive activity of Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) in Isla de Aves, Venezuela (2001-2008)].

    PubMed

    Vera, Vicente; Buitrago, Joaquín

    2012-06-01

    The second major nesting-site for green turtles in the Caribbean is Isla de Aves, an island protected as a wildlife refuge since 1972, located at 650km Northeast from La Guaira, Venezuela. In this island, the nesting population monitoring started in 1972 and in a more continuous way after 1978, when a Scientific-Naval Station was established and scientific observations started. Since historical data show that female captures had severely affected population levels in this island before 1978, this study aim to describe recent reproductive activities. For this, during the nesting seasons of 2001-2002 and 2005-2008, nesting females were measured and tagged using metal flipper tags. A total of 458 nights were sampled observing 5 154 female emergences, with a maximum of 53 in a single night. Non-observed emergences were calculated fitting the temporal distribution of observed emergences to a normal curve. Total emergences estimated varied from X=637.1+/-106.6 in 2001 to X =2 853+/-42.5 in 2008 (ANOVA F(6.5df)=60.37, p<0.0001). Internesting interval in the same season was estimated in X=10.71+/-1.32 days. Clutch frequency in a nesting season was calculated as X=1.71+/-1.6 times per female and season. Estimated number of nesting females per year varied from X=373+/-12.5 females in 2001 to X=l 669+/-56.1 females in 2008 (ANOVA F 55.6df)=89.42, p<0.0001); with a positive and significant trend (r=0.842, p=0.036). Results show that nesting females numbers are increasing. We suggest that the protection of the nesting area for more than 30 years, has contributed with this population increase. PMID:23894943

  10. [Reproductive activity of Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) in Isla de Aves, Venezuela (2001-2008)].

    PubMed

    Vera, Vicente; Buitrago, Joaquín

    2012-06-01

    The second major nesting-site for green turtles in the Caribbean is Isla de Aves, an island protected as a wildlife refuge since 1972, located at 650km Northeast from La Guaira, Venezuela. In this island, the nesting population monitoring started in 1972 and in a more continuous way after 1978, when a Scientific-Naval Station was established and scientific observations started. Since historical data show that female captures had severely affected population levels in this island before 1978, this study aim to describe recent reproductive activities. For this, during the nesting seasons of 2001-2002 and 2005-2008, nesting females were measured and tagged using metal flipper tags. A total of 458 nights were sampled observing 5 154 female emergences, with a maximum of 53 in a single night. Non-observed emergences were calculated fitting the temporal distribution of observed emergences to a normal curve. Total emergences estimated varied from X=637.1+/-106.6 in 2001 to X =2 853+/-42.5 in 2008 (ANOVA F(6.5df)=60.37, p<0.0001). Internesting interval in the same season was estimated in X=10.71+/-1.32 days. Clutch frequency in a nesting season was calculated as X=1.71+/-1.6 times per female and season. Estimated number of nesting females per year varied from X=373+/-12.5 females in 2001 to X=l 669+/-56.1 females in 2008 (ANOVA F 55.6df)=89.42, p<0.0001); with a positive and significant trend (r=0.842, p=0.036). Results show that nesting females numbers are increasing. We suggest that the protection of the nesting area for more than 30 years, has contributed with this population increase.

  11. The Sub-Annual Breeding Cycle of a Tropical Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, S. James; Martin, Graham R.; Dawson, Alistair; Wearn, Colin P.; Hughes, B. John

    2014-01-01

    Breeding periodicity allows organisms to synchronise breeding attempts with the most favourable ecological conditions under which to raise offspring. For most animal species, ecological conditions vary seasonally and usually impose an annual breeding schedule on their populations; sub-annual breeding schedules will be rare. We use a 16-year dataset of breeding attempts by a tropical seabird, the sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), on Ascension Island to provide new insights about this classical example of a population of sub-annually breeding birds that was first documented in studies 60 years previously on the same island. We confirm that the breeding interval of this population has remained consistently sub-annual. By ringing >17000 birds and re-capturing a large sample of them at equivalent breeding stages in subsequent seasons, we reveal for the first time that many individual birds also consistently breed sub-annually (i.e. that sub-annual breeding is an individual as well as a population breeding strategy). Ascension Island sooty terns appear to reduce their courtship phase markedly compared with conspecifics breeding elsewhere. Our results provide rare insights into the ecological and physiological drivers of breeding periodicity, indicating that reduction of the annual cycle to just two life-history stages, breeding and moult, is a viable life-history strategy and that moult may determine the minimum time between breeding attempts. PMID:24714514

  12. The sub-annual breeding cycle of a tropical seabird.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S James; Martin, Graham R; Dawson, Alistair; Wearn, Colin P; Hughes, B John

    2014-01-01

    Breeding periodicity allows organisms to synchronise breeding attempts with the most favourable ecological conditions under which to raise offspring. For most animal species, ecological conditions vary seasonally and usually impose an annual breeding schedule on their populations; sub-annual breeding schedules will be rare. We use a 16-year dataset of breeding attempts by a tropical seabird, the sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), on Ascension Island to provide new insights about this classical example of a population of sub-annually breeding birds that was first documented in studies 60 years previously on the same island. We confirm that the breeding interval of this population has remained consistently sub-annual. By ringing >17,000 birds and re-capturing a large sample of them at equivalent breeding stages in subsequent seasons, we reveal for the first time that many individual birds also consistently breed sub-annually (i.e. that sub-annual breeding is an individual as well as a population breeding strategy). Ascension Island sooty terns appear to reduce their courtship phase markedly compared with conspecifics breeding elsewhere. Our results provide rare insights into the ecological and physiological drivers of breeding periodicity, indicating that reduction of the annual cycle to just two life-history stages, breeding and moult, is a viable life-history strategy and that moult may determine the minimum time between breeding attempts.

  13. Miniaturized GPS Tags Identify Non-breeding Territories of a Small Breeding Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Hallworth, Michael T.; Marra, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we use a small archival global positioning system (GPS) tag to identify and characterize non-breeding territories, quantify migratory connectivity, and identify population boundaries of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), a small migratory songbird, captured at two widely separated breeding locations. We recovered 15 (31%) GPS tags with data and located the non-breeding territories of breeding Ovenbirds from Maryland and New Hampshire, USA (0.50 ± 0.15 ha, mean ± SE). All non-breeding territories had similar environmental attributes despite being distributed across parts of Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola. New Hampshire and Maryland breeding populations had non-overlapping non-breeding population boundaries that encompassed 114,803 and 169,233 km2, respectively. Archival GPS tags provided unprecedented pinpoint locations and associated environmental information of tropical non-breeding territories. This technology is an important step forward in understanding seasonal interactions and ultimately population dynamics of populations throughout the annual cycle. PMID:26057892

  14. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes.

    PubMed

    Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O

    2014-10-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems.

  15. Breeding Plants for Resistance to Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, H. Roger; Hussey, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    Plant breeders and nematologists have developed improved cultivars of important crop species with resistance to plant-parasitic nematodes. The effectiveness of these breeding efforts has depended on the availability of efficient screening procedures, identification of adequate sources of durable resistance, nature of the nematode feeding habit, and knowledge of the inheritance of resistance. These factors determine to a large degree the breeding method and potential success of the research. Systematic searches for nematode resistance have identified resistant germplasm lines within crop species or from related species. When the resistance gene(s) is from related species, incongruity barriers or sterility of the resulting hybrids often must be overcome. In these situations, backcrossing is usually necessary to incorporate the resistance gene(s) and recover the desirable commercial traits of the crop species. If the resistance gene(s) is present within the crop species, the choice of breeding method depends on the inheritance of the resistance, type of screening procedure, and other important breeding objectives for the species. In the future, plant molecular biologists and geneticists will make available novel sources of nematode resistance through incorporation of transgenes from other genera. These efforts will likely require conventional breeding strategies before commercial utilization of an improved resistant cultivar. PMID:19282990

  16. Breeding for abiotic stresses for sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Witcombe, J R; Hollington, P A; Howarth, C J; Reader, S; Steele, K A

    2008-02-27

    Using cereal crops as examples, we review the breeding for tolerance to the abiotic stresses of low nitrogen, drought, salinity and aluminium toxicity. All are already important abiotic stress factors that cause large and widespread yield reductions. Drought will increase in importance with climate change, the area of irrigated land that is salinized continues to increase, and the cost of inorganic N is set to rise. There is good potential for directly breeding for adaptation to low N while retaining an ability to respond to high N conditions. Breeding for drought and salinity tolerance have proven to be difficult, and the complex mechanisms of tolerance are reviewed. Marker-assisted selection for component traits of drought in rice and pearl millet and salinity tolerance in wheat has produced some positive results and the pyramiding of stable quantitative trait locuses controlling component traits may provide a solution. New genomic technologies promise to make progress for breeding tolerance to these two stresses through a more fundamental understanding of underlying processes and identification of the genes responsible. In wheat, there is a great potential of breeding genetic resistance for salinity and aluminium tolerance through the contributions of wild relatives.

  17. Behavioral profiles of feline breeds in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2009-08-01

    To clarify the behavioral profiles of 9 feline purebreds, 2 Persian subbreeds and the Japanese domestic cat, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 67 small-animal veterinarians. We found significant differences among breeds in all behavioral traits examined except for "inappropriate elimination". In addition, sexual differences were observed in certain behaviors, including "aggression toward cats", "general activity", "novelty-seeking", and "excitability". These behaviors were more common in males than females, whereas "nervousness" and "inappropriate elimination" were rated higher in females. When all breeds were categorized into four groups on the basis of a cluster analysis using the scores of two behavioral trait factors called "aggressiveness/sensitivity" and "vivaciousness", the group including Abyssinian, Russian Blue, Somali, Siamese, and Chinchilla breeds showed high aggressiveness/sensitivity and low vivaciousness. In contrast, the group including the American Shorthair and Japanese domestic cat displayed low aggressiveness/sensitivity and high vivaciousness, and the Himalayan and Persian group showed mild aggressiveness/sensitivity and very low vivaciousness. Finally, the group containing Maine Coon, Ragdoll, and Scottish Fold breeds displayed very low aggressiveness/sensitivity and low vivaciousness. The present results demonstrate that some feline behavioral traits vary by breed and/or sex. PMID:19721357

  18. Breed-specific reference intervals for assessing thyroid function in seven dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Hegstad-Davies, Rebecca L; Torres, Sheila M F; Sharkey, Leslie C; Gresch, Sarah C; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia A; Davies, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Thyroxine (T4), free T4 (FT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations were measured in serum from 693 healthy representatives from 7 dog breeds (Alaskan Malamute, Collie, English Setter, Golden Retriever, Keeshond, Samoyed, or Siberian Husky) to determine whether breed-specific reference intervals (RIs) are warranted. Veterinarians reviewed the health history, performed a physical examination, and approved laboratory data for the enrolled dogs. Many purebred dogs had T4 and FT4 concentrations that were at, or below, the lower limits previously determined for non-breed-specific RIs. Mean concentrations of T4, FT4, and TSH varied significantly among breeds. The range of mean concentration of T4 (19.7 nmol/L [1.53 µg/dL] in English Setters to 29.0 nmol/L [2.25 µg/dL] in Keeshonds) and FT4 (12.6 pmol/L [0.98 ng/dL] in English Setters to 20.2 pmol/L [1.57 ng/dL] in Samoyeds) was considerable. Median TSH values ranged from 6.10 mIU/L (0.07 ng/mL; Alaskan Malamute and Golden Retriever) to 17.6 mIU/L (0.26 ng/mL; Collie). Mean T4 and FT4 concentrations were higher in females. Increasing age was associated with decreasing T4 and FT4, and increasing TSH concentration. The substantial ranges across breeds of measures of central tendency (mean, median) for all hormones indicate that breed-specific RIs are warranted. RIs encompassing the central 95% of reference values for all breeds combined, and for individual breeds, were calculated using nonparametric (TSH) and robust (T4, FT4) methods. Use of breed-specific RIs in combination with careful attention to the potential for pre-analytical and analytical variability in test results will improve thyroid function assessment in these breeds.

  19. Genetic stability in the Icelandic horse breed.

    PubMed

    Campana, M G; Stock, F; Barrett, E; Benecke, N; Barker, G W W; Seetah, K; Bower, M A

    2012-08-01

    Despite the Icelandic horse enjoying great popularity worldwide, the breed's gene pool is small. This is because of a millennium of isolation on Iceland, population crashes caused by natural disasters and selective breeding. Populations with small effective population sizes are considered to be more at risk of selection pressures such as disease and environmental change. By analysing historic and modern mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear coat colour genes, we examined real-time population dynamics in the Icelandic horse over the last 150 years. Despite the small gene pool of this breed, we found that the effective population size and genetic profile of the Icelandic horse have remained stable over the studied time period.

  20. Relationships between convective storms and their environment in AVE IV determined from a three-dimensional subsynoptic-scale, trajectory model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes interrelationships between synoptic-scale and convective-scale systems obtained by following individual air parcels as they traveled within the convective storm environment of AVE IV. (NASA's fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment, AVE IV, was a 36-hour study in April 1975 of the atmospheric variability and structure in regions of convective storms.) A three-dimensional trajectory model was used to calculate parcel paths, and manually digitized radar was employed to locate convective activity of various intensities and to determine those trajectories that traversed the storm environment. Spatial and temporal interrelationships are demonstrated by reference to selected time periods of AVE IV which contain the development and movement of the squall line in which the Neosho tornado was created.

  1. TOMS ozone data compared at mesoscale resolution to tropopause heights from the AVE radiosonde network and to VAS radiances over the south-central United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Uccellini, Louis; Larko, David

    1987-01-01

    Observations from 1982 are being compared between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE), and the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) across Texas and Oklahoma. TOMS data show a significant ozone maximum over northeastern Texas. AVE radiosonde analysis shows tropopause heights with the highest pressure (lowest altitudes) over central Oklahoma accompanied by a mid-level jet across northern Mexico exiting above the Texas-Gulf coast. Corresponding VAS radiances show a dry slot in the middle tropopause across central Texas accompanied by a secondary slot over Oklahoma. The maxima are separated by 100 to 500 km. The impact of TOMS data on tropopause analysis is preliminarily seen as insignificant because TOMS data is not registered with respect to AVE tropopause heights.

  2. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  3. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events.

    PubMed

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F; Schreiber, E A; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-04-23

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), using a 19 year mark-recapture dataset involving more than 11,000 birds. We showed that skipping breeding was more likely in El-Niño years, correlated with an increase in the local sea surface temperature, supporting the hypothesis that it may be partly an adaptive strategy of birds to face the trade-off between survival and reproduction owing to environmental constraints. We also showed that the age-specific probability of first breeding attempt was synchronized among different age-classes and higher in El-Niño years. This result suggested that pre-breeders may benefit from lowered competition with experienced breeders in years of high skipping probabilities.

  4. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events.

    PubMed

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F; Schreiber, E A; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-04-23

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), using a 19 year mark-recapture dataset involving more than 11,000 birds. We showed that skipping breeding was more likely in El-Niño years, correlated with an increase in the local sea surface temperature, supporting the hypothesis that it may be partly an adaptive strategy of birds to face the trade-off between survival and reproduction owing to environmental constraints. We also showed that the age-specific probability of first breeding attempt was synchronized among different age-classes and higher in El-Niño years. This result suggested that pre-breeders may benefit from lowered competition with experienced breeders in years of high skipping probabilities. PMID:20943677

  5. Estimating superpopulation size and annual probability of breeding for pond-breeding salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinkead, K.E.; Otis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    It has long been accepted that amphibians can skip breeding in any given year, and environmental conditions act as a cue for breeding. In this paper, we quantify temporary emigration or nonbreeding probability for mole and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum). We estimated that 70% of mole salamanders may skip breeding during an average rainfall year and 90% may skip during a drought year. Spotted salamanders may be more likely to breed, with only 17% avoiding the breeding pond during an average rainfall year. We illustrate how superpopulations can be estimated using temporary emigration probability estimates. The superpopulation is the total number of salamanders associated with a given breeding pond. Although most salamanders stay within a certain distance of a breeding pond for the majority of their life spans, it is difficult to determine true overall population sizes for a given site if animals are only captured during a brief time frame each year with some animals unavailable for capture at any time during a given year. ?? 2007 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  6. Cisgenesis strongly improves introgression breeding and induced translocation breeding of plants.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Evert; Schouten, Henk J

    2007-05-01

    There are two ways for genetic improvement in classical plant breeding: crossing and mutation. Plant varieties can also be improved through genetic modification; however, the present GMO regulations are based on risk assessments with the transgenes coming from non-crossable species. Nowadays, DNA sequence information of crop plants facilitates the isolation of cisgenes, which are genes from crop plants themselves or from crossable species. The increasing number of these isolated genes, and the development of transformation protocols that do not leave marker genes behind, provide an opportunity to improve plant breeding while remaining within the gene pool of the classical breeder. Compared with induced translocation and introgression breeding, cisgenesis is an improvement for gene transfer from crossable plants: it is a one-step gene transfer without linkage drag of other genes, whereas induced translocation and introgression breeding are multiple step gene transfer methods with linkage drag. The similarity of the genes used in cisgenesis compared with classical breeding is a compelling argument to treat cisgenic plants as classically bred plants. In the case of the classical breeding method induced translocation breeding, the insertion site of the genes is a priori unknown, as it is in cisgenesis. This provides another argument to treat cisgenic plants as classically bred plants, by exempting cisgenesis of plants from the GMO legislations.

  7. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  8. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-02-01

    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology. PMID:25595050

  9. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-02-01

    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology.

  10. Combination solar hothouse and silkworm breeding house

    SciTech Connect

    Vardiashvili, A.B.; Muradov, M.; Kim, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    The basic arrangement is shown for a combination silkworm breeding house and solar hothouse with subsoil irrigation and accumulation of heat; it employs a semicylindrical film covering. The process of accumulation of solar heat in the subsoil pebble stores, in water-heater banks, and in the soil is described.

  11. A brief genomic history of tomato breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report a brief genomic history of tomato breeding by analyzing the genomes of 360 diverse accessions collected all over the world. These included 333 accessions from the red fruited clade (S. pimpinellifolium, S. l. var. cerasiforme, and S. lycopersicum) that represent various geographical o...

  12. Marker-Assisted Selection in Soybean Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the late 1990's Nevin Young expressed a cautious optimism for the future of marker-assisted breeding. Although marker-assisted selection (MAS) for soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) was offered as a case study on how genotype-based selection could be useful and cost-effective to a p...

  13. Breeding for phytonutrient content; examples from watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for high phytonutrient fruits and vegetables can be a fairly straightforward endeavor when the compounds of interest produce a visible effect or the methods for quantifying the compounds simple and inexpensive. Lycopene in tomatoes and watermelon is one such compound, since the amount of r...

  14. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  15. Marketing Potential of Advanced Breeding Clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  16. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  17. [Bayesian methods for genomic breeding value estimation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chonglong; Ding, Xiangdong; Liu, Jianfeng; Yin, Zongjun; Zhang, Qin

    2014-02-01

    Estimation of genomic breeding values is the key step in genomic selection. The successful application of genomic selection depends on the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values, which is mostly determined by the estimation method. Bayes-type and BLUP-type methods are the two main methods which have been widely studied and used. Here, we systematically introduce the currently proposed Bayesian methods, and summarize their effectiveness and improvements. Results from both simulated and real data showed that the accuracies of Bayesian methods are higher than those of BLUP methods, especially for the traits which are influenced by QTL with large effect. Because the theories and computation of Bayesian methods are relatively complicated, their use in practical breeding is less common than BLUP methods. However, with the development of fast algorithms and the improvement of computer hardware, the computational problem of Bayesian methods is expected to be solved. In addition, further studies on the genetic architecture of traits will provide Bayesian methods more accurate prior information, which will make their advantage in accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values more prominent. Therefore, the application of Bayesian methods will be more extensive.

  18. Genomics to feed a switchgrass breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of improved cultivars is one of three pillars, along with sustainable production and efficient conversion, required for dedicated cellulosic bioenergy crops to succeed. Breeding new cultivars is a long, slow process requiring patience, dedication, and motivation to realize gains and adva...

  19. Breed differences in behavioural development in kittens.

    PubMed

    Marchei, P; Diverio, S; Falocci, N; Fatjó, J; Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J L; Manteca, X

    2009-03-23

    Differences in behaviour of pure breed cats have been suggested but not wholly investigated. Oriental/Siamese/Abyssinian (OSA) kittens (n=43) were weekly compared with Norwegian Forest (NFO) kittens (n=39) from the 4th to the 10th week of age in a repeated Open Field Test (OFT) paradigm. Heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) before and after the test, and behavioural responses during the OFT were recorded. Behaviours registered were analysed by focal animal sampling. Significant breed differences were found; cats of the northern zones (NFO) seem to develop earlier thermoregulatory abilities. Precocious opening of eyes, higher locomotion scores and longer time spent standing, observed in OSA kittens may indicate an earlier neurological development. Inter breed differences recorded for exploration and locomotion seem to indicate coping style divergences: in the OFT challenging situation OSA kittens presented higher emotional tachycardia and performed more passively, with a faster decline in exploration and locomotion scores. NFO kittens exerted a more active behaviour as they spent more time exploring the arena and in escape attempts. Notwithstanding OSA and NFO cat selection was mainly aimed to improve divergent morphological traits, some different behavioural and physiological traits seem to have been maintained or co-selected within each breed.

  20. Stamina and Clout Define This Rare Breed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1991-01-01

    Takeover artists are a rare breed. Persons hired to put bankrupt school systems back on the road to academic solvency need stamina, clout, and plenty of experience. For all their state-given powers, takeover superintendents must identify key constituencies, build bridges, and promote belief in change from within. (MLH)

  1. Recent advances in peanut breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most previous advances in peanut cultivar development have been made using conventional breeding methods for self-pollinated crops. Peanut has lagged behind many other crops on use of molecular genetic technology for cultivar development in part due to lack of investment, but also because of low le...

  2. Breeding lettuce for fresh-cut processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed in fresh-cut packaged salads. New cultivars specifically bred for this use can enhance production and processing efficiency and extend shelf life. Cultivars with novel head architectures and leaf traits are being released by private and public breeding programs with ...

  3. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  4. A New Breed of Environmental Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamud, Randy

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how today's environmental film festivals feature a new breed of documentary that offer nuanced narratives about intricate technologies. The author relates that the environmental films he grew up with sedately depicted the quiet sublimity of the wilderness. Today's films, the author observes, aim far beyond a…

  5. Busting the New Breed of Plagiarist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The new breed of plagiarists knows that stealing from the World Wide Web is quicker than stealing from the library at universities that typically provide online services. The new plagiarists have been weaned on chat rooms, guest books, news groups, mailing lists, MOOs, and MUDs--myriad online ways to procrastinate when final papers are due. The…

  6. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  7. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  8. Simulation of charge breeding of rubidium using Monte Carlo charge breeding code and generalized ECRIS model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, L.; Cluggish, B.; Kim, J. S.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2010-02-15

    A Monte Carlo charge breeding code (MCBC) is being developed by FAR-TECH, Inc. to model the capture and charge breeding of 1+ ion beam in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) device. The ECRIS plasma is simulated using the generalized ECRIS model which has two choices of boundary settings, free boundary condition and Bohm condition. The charge state distribution of the extracted beam ions is calculated by solving the steady state ion continuity equations where the profiles of the captured ions are used as source terms. MCBC simulations of the charge breeding of Rb+ showed good agreement with recent charge breeding experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). MCBC correctly predicted the peak of highly charged ion state outputs under free boundary condition and similar charge state distribution width but a lower peak charge state under the Bohm condition. The comparisons between the simulation results and ANL experimental measurements are presented and discussed.

  9. Breeding season of wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12 deg. and 80 deg. N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

  10. Breeding season of Wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12?? and 80??N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

  11. Paraliga charadrii n. sp. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) from the semipalmated plover, Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte (Aves: Charadriiformes).

    PubMed

    Didyk, A S; Burt, M D

    1998-08-01

    Paraliga charadrii n. sp. (Dilepididae) is described from the small intestine of the semipalmated plover Charadrius semipalmatus (Charadriidae) collected from the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada. The new species is distinguished from the type species Paraliga oophorae (Belopolskaya, 1971) Belopolskaya and Kulachkova, 1973, by having 2 identical rows of rostellar hooks and fewer testes and from the more similar Paraliga celermaturus (Deblock and Rosé, 1962) Bona, 1994, by its shorter and less robust rostellar hooks (18-19 microm vs. 24-26 microm). This is the first record of a species of Paraliga in the New World. Paraliga charadrii n. sp. was present in semipalmated plovers collected on their breeding grounds in Manitoba, on staging grounds in the Bay of Fundy, during southward migration, on wintering grounds in Venezuela, and on spring staging grounds at Delaware Bay, during northward migration, suggesting that transmission is ubiquitous.

  12. A new extinct species of Snipe (Aves: Scolopacidae: Gallinago) from the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Steadman, David W; Takano, Oona M

    2016-01-01

    We describe an extinct species of snipe (Gallinago kakuki, new species) from late Quaternary fossils in the Bahamian Archipelago (Abaco, New Providence, Little Exuma, Long, and Middle Caicos islands). The new species is known as well from fossils on Cuba, and Cayman Brac in the Cayman Islands. This rather large species of snipe was volant, although because of its relatively short carpometacarpus, the primary flight feathers probably were short. The only other species of Gallinago from the West Indies is the extant, migratory G. delicata, which breeds only in North America. Gallinago kakuki shares more osteological characters with two Eurasian species (G. media, G. hardwickii) than with either of the New World species we examined (G. delicata, G. paraguaiae). A possible inter-hemispherical relationship has been proposed as well for the two extinct, late Quaternary species of woodcocks from the West Indies (Scolopax anthonyi of Puerto Rico, S. brachycarpa of Hispaniola). PMID:27394869

  13. DNA fingerprinting in the rare black-fronted piping guan Pipile jacutinga (Cracidae, Aves).

    PubMed

    Pereira, S L; Miyaki, C Y; Wajntal, A

    1996-11-01

    Brazilian Cracidae are threatened by heavy environmental degradation and hunting. The Black-fronted piping-guan (Pipile jacutinga) used to inhabit the Atlantic coastal highland forests. Now it occurs in limited forest areas where it is rarely seen. Interative management, including captive breeding, might be an important action for its survival. We present data on DNA fingerprinting using Jeffreys' human minisatellite probes 33.6 and 33.15. Our results show that this technique is useful for estimating the genetic variability of natural populations and may help to maintain the genetic variability of captive bred individuals of this species. A linkage analysis of the fingerprint profiles in a family with 7 chicks was performed (to estimate the number of independently segregating loci detected in this species) and at least 16 highly polymorphic independent loci were identified for each probe. PMID:9253205

  14. Phylogeography and genetic structure of two Patagonian shag species (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae).

    PubMed

    Calderón, Luciano; Quintana, Flavio; Cabanne, Gustavo S; Lougheed, Stephen C; Tubaro, Pablo L

    2014-03-01

    We compared the phylogeographic and genetic structure of two sympatric shag species, Phalacrocorax magellanicus (rock shag) and Phalacrocorax atriceps (imperial shag), from Patagonia (southern South America). We used multilocus genotypes of nuclear DNA (microsatellite loci) from 324 individuals and mitochondrial DNA sequences (ATPase) from 177 individuals, to evaluate hypotheses related to the effect of physical and non-physical barriers on seabird evolution. Despite sharing many ecological traits, the focal species strongly differ in two key aspects: P. magellanicus has a strong tendency to remain at/near their breeding colonies during foraging trips and the non-breeding season, while P. atriceps exhibits the converse pattern. Both species showed similar mtDNA genetic structure, where colonies from the Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast and Fuegian region were genetically divergent. We also found similarities in the results of Bayesian clustering analysis of microsatellites, with both species having four clusters. However population differentiation (e.g. Fst, Φst) was higher in P. magellanicus compared to P. atriceps, and average membership probabilities of individuals to specific clusters (Q-values) were also higher in the former. Phalacrocorax magellanicus has strong phylogeographic structure, consistent with the impact of Pleistocene glaciations, with diagnostic haplotypes associated with each of the three mentioned regions. The same pattern was not as evident for P. atriceps. Migration rate estimators were higher for P. atriceps than for P. magellanicus; however both species followed an n-island-like model of gene flow, this implies that dispersal occurs across the continental land mass that separates Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Our results supported the hypothesis that non-physical barriers are important drivers of the genetic and phylogeographic structure in seabirds, and also that physical barriers constitute effective but not absolute impediments to gene flow.

  15. Mitochondrial phylogeography, subspecific taxonomy, and conservation genetics of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; Aves: Gruidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhymer, J.M.; Fain, M.G.; Austin, J.E.; Johnson, D.H.; Krajewski, C.

    2001-01-01

    Six subspecies of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) have been denoted based on perceived morphological and/or breeding locality differences among them. Three subspecies are migratory, breeding from the high arctic in North America and Siberia (lesser sandhill, G. c. canadensis), south through central Canada (Canadian sandhill, G. c. rowani) and into the northern United States (greater sandhill, G. c. tabida). A review of sandhill crane taxonomy indicates that the size variation, on the basis of which these subspecies were named, may be clinal and not diagnostic. The other three subspecies, all listed as endangered or threatened, are non-migratory, resident in Florida (G. c. pratensis), Mississippi (G. c. pulla), and Cuba (G. c. nesiotes). We used analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) sequences to determine whether haplotypes representing current subspecies show any genetic cohesion or are more consistent with a pattern of clinal variation in morphology. CR sequences indicate that only two highly divergent (5.3%) lineages of sandhill cranes occur in North America: one lineage composed only of arctic-nesting G. c. canadensis, the other of the remaining North American subspecies (we lack data on the Cuban population). The deep split between lineages is consistent with an estimated isolation of approximately 1.5 Mya (mid-Pleistocene), while the distribution of mutational changes within lineages is consistent with an hypothesis of rapid, post-Pleistocene population expansions. No other phylogeographic structuring is concordant with subspecific boundaries, however, analysis of molecular variance indicates that there is significant population genetic differentiation among all subspecies except G. c. tabida and G. c. rowani, which are indistinguishable. We suggest that recognition of the recently named G. c. rowani be abandoned.

  16. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. PMID:26991480

  17. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  18. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe.

  19. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  20. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  1. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  2. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  3. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  4. Effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist treatment on elemental and biomolecular content and distribution in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, J.; Gajda, M.; Jawień, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Appel, K.; Dumas, P.

    2013-12-01

    Gene-targeted apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice display early and highly progressive vascular lesions containing lipid deposits and they became a reliable animal model to study atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist on the distribution of selected pro- and anti- inflammatory elements as well as biomolecules in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared (micro-FTIR) microspectroscopies were applied. Two-month-old apoE-KO mice were fed for following four months diet supplemented with AVE 0991 (0.58 μmol/kg b.w. per day). Histological sections of ascending aortas were analyzed spectroscopically. The distribution of P, Ca, Fe and Zn were found to correspond with histological structure of the lesion. Significantly lower contents of P, Ca, Zn and significantly higher content of Fe were observed in animals treated with AVE 0991. Biomolecular analysis showed lower lipids saturation level and lower lipid to protein ratio in AVE 0991 treated group. Protein secondary structure was studied according to the composition of amide I band (1660 cm-1) and it demonstrated higher proportion of β-sheet structure as compared to α-helix in both studied groups.

  5. The effect of AVE 0991, nebivolol and doxycycline on inflammatory mediators in an apoE-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jawien, Jacek; Toton-Zuranska, Justyna; Kus, Katarzyna; Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether the 3 different substances that can decrease the development of atherosclerosis – nebivolol, AVE 0991 and doxycycline – could at the same time diminish the level of inflammatory indicators interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12), serum amyloid A (SAA), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Material/Methods Forty 8-week-old female apoE–knockout mice on the C57BL/6J background were divided into 4 groups and put on chow diet for 4 months. Three experimental groups received the same diet as a control group, mixed with AVE 0991 at a dose 0.58 μmol per kg of body weight per day, nebivolol at a dose 2.0 μmol per kg of body weight per day, and doxycycline at a dose 1.5 mg per kg of body weight per day. At the age of 6 months, the mice were sacrificed. Results All inflammatory indicators (MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12 and SAA) were diminished by AVE 0991. There was also a tendency to lower MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12 and SAA levels by nebivolol and doxycycline; however, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Of the 3 presented substances, only AVE 0991 was able to diminish the rise of inflammatory markers. Therefore, drug manipulations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis seem to be the most promising in the future treatment of atherogenesis. PMID:23018345

  6. Using the Spanish Online Resource "Aula Virtual de Espanol" (AVE) to Promote a Blended Teaching Approach in High School Spanish Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellerin, Martine; Montes, Carlos Soler

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the implementation of blended teaching (BT) by combining the Spanish online resource "Aula Virtual de Espanol" (AVE) with the face-to-face (F2F) delivery approach in second language Spanish programs in two high schools in Alberta, Canada. Findings demonstrate the effectiveness of combining the online…

  7. The effects of sex, age and breeding success on breeding dispersal of pied flycatchers along a pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Ahola, Markus; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2008-08-01

    We modelled breeding dispersal of an insectivorous bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) around a point source of heavy metals (a copper smelter). We tested for the effects of sex, age, breeding success and environmental pollution on breeding dispersal distances of F. hypoleuca females and males. Unlike many earlier studies on breeding dispersal, we took into account distance-dependent sampling bias by including in our model the recapture probabilities at different distances from the site of origin. Our results show that F. hypoleuca females disperse much farther (on average 7.9 km) from their breeding sites than what was previously thought. In contrast, males only disperse short distances (on average 190 m). Breeding success affected female breeding dispersal distances depending on female age: young females moved on average 8 km from their previous breeding place irrespective of their breeding success, while old females only seemed to move this far when their fledgling production was good. Females successful in their breeding dispersed as far as less successful females, or, among old birds, even farther. Females which dispersed long distances produced more fledglings after the movement than those staying near their previous breeding site. Degree of environmental pollution had no effect on female or male breeding dispersal distances. A polluted and unproductive environment does not seem to stimulate F. hypoleuca parents to move to more profitable territories. PMID:18543001

  8. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2008 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 16 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight and among 8 of the 16 breeds for carcass marbling, ribeye area, and f...

  9. Breeding bird response to juniper woodland expansion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenstock, Steven S.; van Riper, Charles

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have expanded into large portions of the Southwest historically occupied by grassland vegetation. From 1997a??1998, we studied responses of breeding birds to one-seed juniper (J. monosperma) woodland expansion at 2 grassland study areas in northern Arizona. We sampled breeding birds in 3 successional stages along a grassland-woodland gradient: un-invaded grassland, grassland undergoing early stages of juniper establishment, and developing woodland. Species composition varied greatly among successional stages and was most different between endpoints of the gradient. Ground-nesting grassland species predominated in uninvaded grassland but declined dramatically as tree density increased. Tree- and cavity-nesting species increased with tree density and were most abundant in developing woodland. Restoration of juniper-invaded grasslands will benefit grassland-obligate birds and other wildlife.

  10. Breeding population inventories and measures of recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Blohm, R.J.; Batt, D.J.; Afton, A.D.; Anderson, M.G.; Ankney, C.D.; Johnson, D.H.; Kadlec, J.A.; Krapu, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter we review the techniques used to measure two important parameters of waterfowl populations, size of breeding population and recruitment. If waterfowl are to be managed toward goals defined in terms of population sizes such as those in the recently signed North American Waterfowl Management Plan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [USFWS] and Canadian Wildlife Service [CWS] 1986), there must be some measure of population size for the various species. Waterfowl managers usually measure population size during the breeding season, although for some species and in some areas winter inventories may be used. Population size is a function of natality and mortality. Other chapters in this volume deal in detail with the biology of those processes. This chapter discusses procedural aspects of measurement and reviews some of the operational systems that have been used to estimate population size and recruitment, especially in North America.

  11. [Review of transgenic crop breeding in China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dafang

    2015-06-01

    The development history and fundamental experience of transgenic crops (Genetically modified crops) breeding in China for near 30 years were reviewed. It was illustrated that a scientific research, development and industrialization system of transgenic crops including gene discovery, transformation, variety breeding, commercialization, application and biosafety assessment has been initially established which was few in number in the world. The research innovative capacity of transgenic cotton, rice and corn has been lifted. The research features as well as relative advantages have been initially formed. The problems and challenges of transgenic crop development were discussed. In addition, three suggestions of promoting commercialization, speeding up implementation of the Major National Project of GM Crops, and enhancing science communication were made. PMID:26672365

  12. Breed differences in the frequency of bovine lymphocyte antigens.

    PubMed

    Stear, M J; Brown, S C; Dimmock, C K; Dufty, J H; Hetzel, D J; Mackie, J T; Nicholas, F W; Tierney, T J; Wetherall, J D

    1987-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 1,564 cattle of 18 breeds and cross-bred groups in Australia were tested for major histocompatibility system class 1 antigens. Gene frequencies were calculated for the Angus, Belmont Red, Brahman, Hereford and Holstein-Friesian breeds. There were substantial differences among these breeds in antigen and gene frequency. There were striking differences among all 18 breeds in the presence or absence of certain antigens. Two antigens, CA13 and CA36, were strongly associated in Hereford cattle but occurred independently of each other in the other breeds. PMID:3273412

  13. Reduction of foraging work and cooperative breeding.

    PubMed

    Toyoizumi, Hiroshi; Field, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    Using simple stochastic models, we discuss how cooperative breeders, especially wasps and bees, can improve their productivity by reducing foraging work. In a harsh environment, where foraging is the main cause of mortality, such breeders achieve greater productivity by reducing their foraging effort below full capacity, and they may thrive by adopting cooperative breeding. This could prevent the population extinction of cooperative breeders under conditions where a population of lone breeders cannot be maintained.

  14. Determinants of breeding distributions of ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Grier, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The settling of breeding habitat by migratory waterfowl is a topic of both theoretical and practical interest. We use the results of surveys conducted annually during 1955-81 in major breeding areas to examine the factors that affect the distributions of 10 common North American duck species. Three patterns of settling are described: homing, opportunistic, and flexible. Homing is generally more pronounced among species that use more stable (more predictable) wetlands, such as the redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (Anas strepera), and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). Opportunistic settling is more prevalent among species that use less stable (less predictable) wetlands, such as northern pintail (Anas acuta) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors). Flexible settling is exhibited to various degrees by most species.The 10 species are shown to fall along a natural ordination reflecting different life history characteristics. Average values of indices of r- and K-selection indicated that pintail, mallard, blue-winged teal, and shoveler have the most features associated with unstable or unpredictable environments. Gadwall, American wigeon (Anas americana), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were intermediate, and attributes of the diving ducks were associated with the use of stable or predictable environments.Some species--notably mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, redhead, and canvasback--tend to fill available breeding habitat first in the central portions of their range, and secondly in peripheral areas. Other species--American wigeon, green-winged teal, northern shoveler, northern pintail, and lesser scaup--fill their habitat in the order it is encountered during spring migration.Age and sex classes within species vary in their settling pattern. Some of this variation can be predicted from the mating systems of ducks in which breeding females, especially successful ones, have a

  15. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations.

  16. Beef cattle breeding à la Jefferson.

    PubMed

    Hohenboken, W D

    1982-03-01

    ?Even more than most disciplines in the Animal Sciences, quantitative genetics is dependent upon models. Models, by definition, are abstractions of reality. Invariably they require simplifying assumptions, which should be but sometimes are not clearly specified. One thesis of this article, illustrated by examples, is that many of the assumptions upon which animal breeding theory and practice are based are not valid. Some proportion of research resources should be devoted to challenging or verifying those assumptions and following up those areas of enquiry suggested by the outcome of such research. A further thesis is that the selection of topics and priorities for animal breeding research should be a matter of choice by individual scientists and should not be determined by steering committees or directed by administrative fiat. Hopefully, the resultant mutation, cross-fertilization, assortment, recombination and selection of ideas that would result would bestow upon our discipline higher fitness from multiple-peak epistasis, and minimal danger of extinction (or petrification) from over-specialization. A final thesis is that true creativity by research scientists should be nurtured and rewarded and that work in traditional areas of breeding and quantitative genetics should be continued-but done better.

  17. Breeding ecology of the Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snetsinger, T.J.; Herrmann, C.M.; Holmes, D.E.; Hayward, C.D.; Fancy, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the breeding ecology of the critically endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), a poorly known Hawaiian thrush endemic to the island of Kauai. From 1996 through 1998, we monitored 96 active nests over the course of three breeding seasons. Mean clutch size was 2.0, and pairs produced an average of 1.5 fledglings/successful nest. Pairs renested after failure and some raised multiple broods. The mean annual reproductive effort was 2.1 nesting attempts/territory, and pairs produced a mean 1.1 fledglings/attempt. Large differences in nesting effort and productivity occurred among years, with mean number of fledglings/territory ranging from 0.4 to 4.9. Predation by owls (probably Short-eared Owls, Asia flammeus) and introduced rats (probably black rats, Rattus rattus) accounted for most nest failures. The presence of non-breeding floaters in the population and their largely unsuccessful attempts to gain territories in the study area suggest that the population is near carrying capacity. The high reproductive potential of the Puaiohi may help explain its persistence despite the species' historical rarity.

  18. Reproductive senescence in a cooperatively breeding mammal.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Stuart P; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2010-01-01

    1. Senescence (or 'ageing') is a widespread and important process in wild animal populations, but variation in ageing patterns within and between species is poorly understood. 2. In cooperatively breeding species, the costs of reproduction are shared between breeders and one or more helpers. The effects of ageing in breeders may therefore be moderated by the presence of helpers, but there have been very few studies of senescence patterns in natural populations of cooperative breeders. 3. Here, we use 13 years of data from a long-term study population of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) to investigate age-related changes in several traits known to be key components of reproductive success in females of this species. 4. Four of the six traits studied exhibited significant declines with age, indicating senescence. Litter size, the number of litters produced per year and the number of pups that survived to emergence from the natal burrow per year all increased with female age up to a peak at c. 4 years, and declined steeply thereafter; the mean pup weight at emergence in a given litter declined steadily from age zero. 5. These results provide the first evidence of reproductive senescence in a wild population of a cooperatively breeding vertebrate. Breeding success declined with age despite the sharing of reproductive costs in this species, but further study is needed to investigate whether helping affects other aspects of senescence, including survival.

  19. The North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bystrak, D.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    A brief history of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and a discussion of the technique are presented. The approximately 2000 random roadside routes conducted yearly during the breeding season throughout North America produce an enormous bank of data on distribution and abundance of breeding birds with great potential use. Data on about one million total birds of 500 species per year are on computer tape to facilitate accessibility and are available to any serious investigator. The BBS includes the advantages of wide geographic coverage, sampling of most habitat types, standardization of data collection, and a relatively simple format. The Survey is limited by placement of roads (e.g., marshes and rugged mountainous areas are not well sampled), traffic noise interference in some cases and preference of some bird species for roadside habitats. These and other problems and biases of the BBS are discussed. The uniformity of the technique allows for detecting changes in populations and for creation of maps of relative abundance. Examples of each are presented.

  20. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  1. Reproductive senescence in a cooperatively breeding mammal.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Stuart P; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2010-01-01

    1. Senescence (or 'ageing') is a widespread and important process in wild animal populations, but variation in ageing patterns within and between species is poorly understood. 2. In cooperatively breeding species, the costs of reproduction are shared between breeders and one or more helpers. The effects of ageing in breeders may therefore be moderated by the presence of helpers, but there have been very few studies of senescence patterns in natural populations of cooperative breeders. 3. Here, we use 13 years of data from a long-term study population of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) to investigate age-related changes in several traits known to be key components of reproductive success in females of this species. 4. Four of the six traits studied exhibited significant declines with age, indicating senescence. Litter size, the number of litters produced per year and the number of pups that survived to emergence from the natal burrow per year all increased with female age up to a peak at c. 4 years, and declined steeply thereafter; the mean pup weight at emergence in a given litter declined steadily from age zero. 5. These results provide the first evidence of reproductive senescence in a wild population of a cooperatively breeding vertebrate. Breeding success declined with age despite the sharing of reproductive costs in this species, but further study is needed to investigate whether helping affects other aspects of senescence, including survival. PMID:19758306

  2. Breeding quantum error-correcting codes

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ying; Hu Dan; Yu Sixia

    2010-02-15

    The stabilizer code, one major family of quantum error-correcting codes (QECC), is specified by the joint eigenspace of a commuting set of Pauli observables. It turns out that noncommuting sets of Pauli observables can be used to construct more efficient QECCs, such as the entanglement-assisted QECCs, which are built directly from any linear classical codes whose detailed properties are needed to determine the parameters of the resulting quantum codes. Here we propose another family of QECCs, namely, the breeding QECCs, that also employ noncommuting sets of Pauli observables and can be built from any classical additive codes, either linear or nonlinear, with the advantage that their parameters can be read off directly from the corresponding classical codes. Besides, since nonlinear codes are generally more efficient than linear codes, our breeding codes have better parameters than those codes built from linear codes. The terminology is justified by the fact that our QECCs are related to the ordinary QECCs in exactly the same way that the breeding protocols are related to the hashing protocols in the entanglement purification.

  3. The effects of dog breed development on genetic diversity and the relative influences of performance and conformation breeding.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N; Liu, H; Theilen, G; Sacks, B

    2013-06-01

    Genetic diversity was compared among eight dog breeds selected primarily for conformation (Standard Poodle, Italian Greyhound and show English Setter), conformation and performance (Brittany), predominantly performance (German Shorthaired and Wirehaired Pointers) or solely performance (field English Setter and Red Setter). Modern village dogs, which better reflect ancestral genetic diversity, were used as the standard. Four to seven maternal and one to two Y haplotypes were found per breed, with one usually dominant. Diversity of maternal haplotypes was greatest in village dogs, intermediate in performance breeds and lowest in conformation breeds. Maternal haplotype sharing occurred across all breeds, while Y haplotypes were more breed specific. Almost all paternal haplotypes were identified among village dogs, with the exception of the dominant Y haplotype in Brittanys, which has not been identified heretofore. The highest heterozygosity based on 24 autosomal microsatellites was found in village dogs and the lowest in conformation (show) breeds. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that conformation-type breeds were distinct from breeds heavily used for performance, the latter clustering more closely with village dogs. The Brittany, a well-established dual show and field breed, was also genetically intermediate between the conformation and performance breeds. The number of DLA-DRB1 alleles varied from 3 to 10 per breed with extensive sharing. SNPs across the wider DLA region were more frequently homozygous in all pure breeds than in village dogs. Compared with their village dog relatives, all modern breed dogs exhibit reduced genetic diversity. Genetic diversity was even more reduced among breeds under selection for show/conformation.

  4. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Óscar

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino. PMID:23271940

  5. The different breeding strategies of penguins: a review.

    PubMed

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Gilbert, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The 18 penguin species are exclusively and widely distributed in the Southern hemisphere, from the Equator to the Antarctic continent, and are thus submitted to various ecological constraints in their reproductive strategy. This results in a high variability in all aspects of the breeding biology of the different species. Although penguins appear primarily adapted for a marine existence, they remain dependent on land for breeding, rearing young, and moulting. Here we describe and compare the breeding cycle of all the penguin species, highlighting the characteristics of each species in terms of breeding range, population status, threats induced by environmental changes, duration of the different phases of the breeding cycle, mate fidelity, body mass, body height, egg mass and duration of egg formation. We also focus on the breeding cycle of the genus Aptenodytes, since it largely differs from the breeding cycle of most of the other penguin species.

  6. Numerical simulations of the subsynoptic features associated with the AVE-SESAME I case. I - The preconvective environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zack, John W.; Kaplan, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The extensive diagnostic calculations made possible by the AVE-SESAME I database are used in combination with numerical simulations from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) model to examine the dynamics of the meso-alpha-scale features during the preconvective period from 1130 to 2030 UTC on April 10, 1979. The version of the MASS model used in this investigation is presented, and an overview of the general synoptic conditions present at the time of model initialization is presented along with the data used to initialize the model. The dynamical processes present in the numerical simulations are presented and compared with analyses of the observational data from this and other investigations of this case. The relative importance of the adiabatic and diabatic processes in creating and then initiating the release of the convective instability is discussed.

  7. Meso beta-scale thunderstorm/environment interactions during AVE-SESAME V (20-21 May 1979)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Printy, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The atmospheric variability in a convective area was examined with data from the AVE-SESAME V experiment. Temperature increases were observed in the upper troposphere during storm development, coupled with cooling near the surface and in the lower stratosphere. A mesohigh was detected at 200 mb over the convected area, and upper level winds increased speed north of the area. Wind velocity decreases occurred at the 200 mb level, reaching a 50 percent decrease, during the 3 hr period coinciding with most storms, and a simultaneous increase (doubling) was found in the wind speeds at the 400 mb level. Other phenomena present after the storms began included low-level convergence, upper level divergence, and ascending motion.

  8. The enigmatic monotypic crab plover Dromas ardeola is closely related to pratincoles and coursers (Aves, Charadriiformes, Glareolidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sergio L; Baker, Allan J

    2010-07-01

    The phylogenetic placement of the monotypic crab plover Dromasardeola (Aves, Charadriiformes) remains controversial. Phylogenetic analysis of anatomical and behavioral traits using phenetic and cladistic methods of tree inference have resulted in conflicting tree topologies, suggesting a close association of Dromas to members of different suborders and lineages within Charadriiformes. Here, we revisited the issue by applying Bayesian and parsimony methods of tree inference to 2,012 anatomical and 5,183 molecular characters to a set of 22 shorebird genera (including Turnix). Our results suggest that Bayesian analysis of anatomical characters does not resolve the phylogenetic relationship of shorebirds with strong statistical support. In contrast, Bayesian and parsimony tree inference from molecular data provided much stronger support for the phylogenetic relationships within shorebirds, and support a sister relationship of Dromas to Glareolidae (pratincoles and coursers), in agreement with previously published DNA-DNA hybridization studies.

  9. Spatial scale of local breeding habitat quality and adjustment of breeding decisions.

    PubMed

    Doligez, Blandine; Berthouly, Anne; Doligez, Damien; Tanner, Marion; Saladin, Verena; Bonfils, Danielle; Richner, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Experimental studies provide evidence that, in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, individuals track variation in breeding habitat quality to adjust breeding decisions to local conditions. However, most experiments consider environmental variation at one spatial scale only, while the ability to detect the influence of a factor depends on the scale of analysis. We show that different breeding decisions by adults are based on information about habitat quality at different spatial scales. We manipulated (increased or decreased) local breeding habitat quality through food availability and parasite prevalence at a small (territory) and a large (patch) scale simultaneously in a wild population of Great Tits (Parus major). Females laid earlier in high-quality large-scale patches, but laying date did not depend on small-scale territory quality. Conversely, offspring sex ratio was higher (i.e., biased toward males) in high-quality, small-scale territories but did not depend on large-scale patch quality. Clutch size and territory occupancy probability did not depend on our experimental manipulation of habitat quality, but territories located at the edge of patches were more likely to be occupied than central territories. These results suggest that integrating different decisions taken by breeders according to environmental variation at different spatial scales is required to understand patterns of breeding strategy adjustment.

  10. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life.

  11. Genetic differentiation among populations of the Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja; Aves: Pelecaniformes) in three Brazilian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Miño, Carolina Isabel; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2014-08-01

    Effective population size, levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and genetic structuring were assessed in 205 colonial Roseate spoonbills from 11 breeding colonies from north, central west, and south Brazil. Colonies and regions exhibited similar moderate levels of diversity at five microsatellite loci (mean expected heterozygosity range 0.50-0.62; allelic richness range 3.17-3.21). The central west region had the highest Ne (59). F ST values revealed low but significant genetic structuring among colonies within the north and within the south regions. Significant global genetic structuring was found between the northern and central western populations as well as between the northern and southern populations. An individual-based Bayesian clustering method inferred three population clusters. Assignment tests correctly allocated up to 64% of individuals to their source regions. Collectively, results revealed complex demographic dynamics, with ongoing gene flow on a local scale, but genetic differentiation on a broader scale. Populations in the three regions may all be conserved, but special concern should be given to central western ones, which can significantly contribute to the species' gene pool in Brazil. PMID:24737052

  12. Genetic differentiation among populations of the Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja; Aves: Pelecaniformes) in three Brazilian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Miño, Carolina Isabel; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2014-08-01

    Effective population size, levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and genetic structuring were assessed in 205 colonial Roseate spoonbills from 11 breeding colonies from north, central west, and south Brazil. Colonies and regions exhibited similar moderate levels of diversity at five microsatellite loci (mean expected heterozygosity range 0.50-0.62; allelic richness range 3.17-3.21). The central west region had the highest Ne (59). F ST values revealed low but significant genetic structuring among colonies within the north and within the south regions. Significant global genetic structuring was found between the northern and central western populations as well as between the northern and southern populations. An individual-based Bayesian clustering method inferred three population clusters. Assignment tests correctly allocated up to 64% of individuals to their source regions. Collectively, results revealed complex demographic dynamics, with ongoing gene flow on a local scale, but genetic differentiation on a broader scale. Populations in the three regions may all be conserved, but special concern should be given to central western ones, which can significantly contribute to the species' gene pool in Brazil.

  13. Phylogeny and evolutionary history of Old World suboscine birds (Aves: Eurylaimides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, R.G.; Chesser, R.T.; Prum, R.O.; Schikler, P.; Cracraft, J.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular and morphological data were used to derive a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Eurylaimides, an Old World bird group now known to be distributed pantropically, and to investigate the evolution and biogeography of the group. Phylogenetic results indicated that the Eurylaimides consist of two monophyletic groups, the pittas (Pittidae) and the broadbills (Eurylaimidae sensu lato), and that the broadbills consist of two highly divergent clades, one containing the sister genera Smithornis and Calyptomena, the other containing Pseudocalyptomena graueri, Sapayoa aenigma, the asity genera Philepitta and Neodrepanis, and five Asian genera. Our results indicate that over a ~10 million year time span in the early Tertiary, the Eurylaimides came to inhabit widely disjunct tropical regions and evolved disparate morphology, diet, and breeding behavior. Biogeographically, although a southern origin for the lineage is likely, time estimates for major lineage splitting do not correspond to Gondwanan vicariance events, and the biogeographic history of the crown clade is better explained by Laurasian climatic and geological processes. In particular, the timing and phylogenetic pattern suggest a likely Laurasian origin for the sole New World representative of the group, Sapayoa aenigma.

  14. Natural breeding places of phlebotomine sandflies.

    PubMed

    Feliciangeli, M D

    2004-03-01

    Methods of finding larvae and pupae of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are described and the known types of breeding sites used by sandflies are listed. Three ways of detecting sandfly breeding places are the use of emergence traps placed over potential sources to catch newly emerged adult sandflies; flotation of larvae and pupae from soil, etc., and desiccation of media to drive out the larvae. Even so, remarkably little information is available on the ecology of the developmental stages of sandflies, despite their importance as vectors of Leishmania, Bartonella and phleboviruses affecting humans and other vertebrates in warmers parts of the world. Regarding the proven or suspected vectors of leishmaniases, information on breeding sites is available for only 15 out of 29 species of sandflies involved in the Old World and 12 out of 44 species of sandflies involved in the Americas, representing approximately 3% of the known species of Phlebotominae. Ecotopes occupied by immature phlebotomines are usually organically rich moist soils, such as the rain forest floor (Lutzomyia intermedia, Lu. umbratilis, Lu. whitmani in the Amazon; Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. trapidoi in Panama), or contaminated soil of animal shelters (Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America, Phlebotomus argentipes in India; P. chinensis in China; P. ariasi, P. perfiliewi, P. perniciosus in Europe). Developmental stages of some species (P. langeroni and P. martini in Africa; P. papatasi in Eurasia; Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America), have been found in a wide range of ecotopes, and many species of sandflies employ rodent burrows as breeding sites, although the importance of this niche is unclear. Larvae of some phlebotomines have been found in what appear to be specialized niches such as Lu. ovallesi on buttress roots of trees in Panama; P. celiae in termite hills in Kenya; P. longipes and P. pedifer in caves and among rocks in East Africa. Old World species found as immatures in

  15. Breeding without Mendelism: theory and practice of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the basis of outward characteristics. An objective verdict on the qualities of breeding stock could only be obtained by progeny testing, the scientists contended: the best animals were those that produced the most productive offspring. Some scientists had been making this claim since the beginning of the twentieth century. Why was it that their advice was apparently not heeded by breeders for so long? And what were the methods and beliefs that guided their practices? In this paper I intend to answer these questions by analysing the practical realities of dairy farming and stock breeding in The Netherlands between 1900 and 1950. Breeders continued to employ traditional breeding methods that had proven their effectiveness since the late eighteenth century. Their methods consisted in inbreeding--breeding in 'bloodlines,' as they called it--and selection on the basis of pedigree, conformation and milk recording data. Their aims were 'purity' and 'uniformity' of type. Progeny testing was not practiced due to practical difficulties. Before World War II, scientists acknowledged that genetic theory was of little practical use to breeders of livestock. Still, hereditary theory was considered to be helpful to assess the value of the breeders' methods. For instance, striving for purity was deemed to be consistent with Mendelian theory. Yet the term purity had different connotations for scientists and practical workers. For the former, it referred to homozygosity; for the latter, it rather buttressed the constancy of a distinct commercial 'brand.' Until the 1940s, practical breeders and most scientists were agreed that selecting animals purely for production was ill-advised. Cows of

  16. Use of microsatellite markers to assign goats to their breeds.

    PubMed

    Aljumaah, R S; Alobre, M M; Al-Atiyat, R M

    2015-08-07

    We investigated the potential of 17 microsatellite markers for assigning Saudi goat individuals to their breeds. Three local breeds, Bishi, Jabali, and Tohami were genotyped using these markers, and Somali goats were used as a reference breed. The majority of alleles were shared between the breeds, except for some that were specific to each breed. The Garza-Williamson index was lowest in the Bishi breed, indicating that a recent bottleneck event occurred. The overall results assigned the goat individuals (based on their genotypes) to the same breeds from which they were sampled, except in a few cases. The individuals' genotypes were sufficient to provide a clear distinction between the Somali goat breed and the others. In three factorial dimensions, the results of a correspondence analysis indicated that the total variation for the first and second factors was 48.85 and 31.43%, respectively. Consequently, Jabali, Bishi, and Tohami goats were in separate groups. The Jabali goat was closely related to the Bishi goat. Somali goats were distinguished from each other and from individuals of the other three goat breeds. The markers were successful in assigning individual goats to their breeds, based on the likelihood of a given individual's genotype.

  17. Admixture and local breed marginalization threaten Algerian sheep diversity.

    PubMed

    Gaouar, Samir Bachir Souheil; Da Silva, Anne; Ciani, Elena; Kdidi, Samia; Aouissat, Miloud; Dhimi, Laziz; Lafri, Mohamed; Maftah, Abderrahman; Mehtar, Nadhira

    2015-01-01

    Due to its geo-climatic conditions, Algeria represents a biodiversity hotspot, with sheep breeds well adapted to a patchwork of extremely heterogeneous harsh habitats. The importance of this peculiar genetic reservoir increases as climate change drives the demand for new adaptations. However, the expansion of a single breed (Ouled-Djellal) which occurred in the last decades has generated a critical situation for the other breeds; some of them are being subjected to uncontrolled cross-breeding with the favored breed and/or to marginalization (effective size contraction). This study investigated genetic diversity within and among six of the nine Algerian breeds, by use of 30 microsatellite markers. Our results showed that, in spite of the census contraction experienced by most of the considered breeds, genetic diversity is still substantial (average gene diversity ranging 0.68 to 0.76) and inbreeding was not identified as a problem. However, two breeds (Rembi and Taâdmit) appeared to have lost most of their genetic originality because of intensive cross-breeding with Ouled-Djellal. Based on the above evidence, we suggest Hamra, Sidaoun, and D'man as breeds deserving the highest priority for conservation in Algeria.

  18. Admixture and Local Breed Marginalization Threaten Algerian Sheep Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Elena; Kdidi, Samia; Aouissat, Miloud; Dhimi, Laziz; Lafri, Mohamed; Maftah, Abderrahman; Mehtar, Nadhira

    2015-01-01

    Due to its geo-climatic conditions, Algeria represents a biodiversity hotspot, with sheep breeds well adapted to a patchwork of extremely heterogeneous harsh habitats. The importance of this peculiar genetic reservoir increases as climate change drives the demand for new adaptations. However, the expansion of a single breed (Ouled-Djellal) which occurred in the last decades has generated a critical situation for the other breeds; some of them are being subjected to uncontrolled cross-breeding with the favored breed and/or to marginalization (effective size contraction). This study investigated genetic diversity within and among six of the nine Algerian breeds, by use of 30 microsatellite markers. Our results showed that, in spite of the census contraction experienced by most of the considered breeds, genetic diversity is still substantial (average gene diversity ranging 0.68 to 0.76) and inbreeding was not identified as a problem. However, two breeds (Rembi and Taâdmit) appeared to have lost most of their genetic originality because of intensive cross-breeding with Ouled-Djellal. Based on the above evidence, we suggest Hamra, Sidaoun, and D’man as breeds deserving the highest priority for conservation in Algeria. PMID:25875832

  19. Challenges and opportunities in genetic improvement of local livestock breeds.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Filippo; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Stella, Alessandra; Boettcher, Paul J; Gandini, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Sufficient genetic variation in livestock populations is necessary both for adaptation to future changes in climate and consumer demand, and for continual genetic improvement of economically important traits. Unfortunately, the current trend is for reduced genetic variation, both within and across breeds. The latter occurs primarily through the loss of small, local breeds. Inferior production is a key driver for loss of small breeds, as they are replaced by high-output international transboundary breeds. Selection to improve productivity of small local breeds is therefore critical for their long term survival. The objective of this paper is to review the technology options available for the genetic improvement of small local breeds and discuss their feasibility. Most technologies have been developed for the high-input breeds and consequently are more favorably applied in that context. Nevertheless, their application in local breeds is not precluded and can yield significant benefits, especially when multiple technologies are applied in close collaboration with farmers and breeders. Breeding strategies that require cooperation and centralized decision-making, such as optimal contribution selection, may in fact be more easily implemented in small breeds.

  20. Challenges and opportunities in genetic improvement of local livestock breeds

    PubMed Central

    Biscarini, Filippo; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Stella, Alessandra; Boettcher, Paul J.; Gandini, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Sufficient genetic variation in livestock populations is necessary both for adaptation to future changes in climate and consumer demand, and for continual genetic improvement of economically important traits. Unfortunately, the current trend is for reduced genetic variation, both within and across breeds. The latter occurs primarily through the loss of small, local breeds. Inferior production is a key driver for loss of small breeds, as they are replaced by high-output international transboundary breeds. Selection to improve productivity of small local breeds is therefore critical for their long term survival. The objective of this paper is to review the technology options available for the genetic improvement of small local breeds and discuss their feasibility. Most technologies have been developed for the high-input breeds and consequently are more favorably applied in that context. Nevertheless, their application in local breeds is not precluded and can yield significant benefits, especially when multiple technologies are applied in close collaboration with farmers and breeders. Breeding strategies that require cooperation and centralized decision-making, such as optimal contribution selection, may in fact be more easily implemented in small breeds. PMID:25763010

  1. Sexual selection and the evolution of mechanical sound production in manakins (Aves: Pipridae).

    PubMed

    Prum

    1998-04-01

    I surveyed and described modulated, non-vocal, mechanical sounds of the lek-breeding Neotropical manakins (Pipridae). Variation among manakin species in mechanical sound production, repertoire size, acoustic structure, associated feather specialization, and mechanical sound production mechanisms were analysed comparatively in the context of a phylogenetic hypothesis for the family. Mechanical sound production has probably evolved five or six times independently and been lost once within the 42 species of manakins. Complex mechanical sound repertoires have also evolved independently several times. Acoustic structure of these sounds indicates that at least four different physical mechanisms of mechanical sound production have evolved: short, broad-frequency spectrum pulses; short, low-frequency pulses; aerodynamic vortices; and harmonic oscillations. All well-known mechanical sounds in manakins are associated with obvious wing movements and sexually dimorphic wing feather specializations. Both primary and secondary wing feather specializations have evolved convergently within the family for the production of short, broad-frequency mechanical sound pulses. Two less well-known manakin clades also have tail feather specializations that may function in mechanical sound production. A concentrated-changes test documented that the dynamic patterns of evolution in mechanical sound production in the polygynous manakins are highly unlikely by chance alone. Intersexual selection for acrobatic display may have created subsequent opportunities for the evolution of novel preferences for incidental non-vocal sounds produced by acrobatic movements. Novel female preferences for these mechanical sounds led to further elaboration of these sounds and to the evolution of complex mechanical sound repertoires in independent lineages of the family. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9632483

  2. Paraphyly of Cinclodes fuscus (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae): Implications for taxonomy and biogeography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanin, Camilo; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Maley, James M.; Lijtmaer, Dario A.; Tubaro, Pablo L.; Chesser, R. Terry

    2009-01-01

    The Andes are a hotspot of global avian diversity, but studies on the historical diversification of Andean birds remain relatively scarce. Evolutionary studies on avian lineages with Andean–Patagonian distributions have focused on reconstructing species-level phylogenies, whereas no detailed phylogeographic studies on widespread species have been conducted. Here, we describe phylogeographic patterns in the Bar-winged Cinclodes (Cinclodes fuscus), a widespread and common species of ovenbird (Furnariidae) that breeds from Tierra del Fuego to the northern Andes. Traditionally, C. fuscus has been considered a single species composed of nine subspecies, but its long and narrow range suggests the possibility of considerable genetic variation among populations. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes revealed three discrete and geographically coherent groups of C. fuscus, occupying the southern, central, and northern Andes. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that these groups were more closely related to other species of Cinclodes than to each other. Relationships of the southern and northern C. fuscus clades to other species of Cinclodes were straightforward; in combination with available information on plumage, behavioral, and vocal variation, this suggests that each should be recognized as a distinct biological species. The central Andean group was paraphyletic with respect to C. oustaleti, and relationships among these taxa and C. olrogi were poorly resolved. We suggest that the central Andean C. fuscus should also be considered a different species, pending new information to clarify species limits in this group. These new phylogenetic data, along with recently developed methods, allowed us to review the biogeography of the genus, confirming southern South America and the central Andes as important areas for the diversification of these birds.

  3. A suite of microsatellite markers for genetic management of captive cracids (Aves, Galliformes).

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Camargo, C; Laganaro, N M; Oliveira, P R R; Davanço, P V; Azeredo, R M A; Simpson, J G P; Silveira, L F; Francisco, M R

    2014-11-27

    Cracids are medium to large frugivorous birds that are endemic to the Neotropics. Because of deforestation and overhunting, many species are threatened. The conservation of several species has relied on captive breeding and reintroduction in the wild, but captive populations may be inbred. Microsatellite tools can permit the construction of genetic pedigrees to reduce inbreeding, but only a few loci are available for this group of birds. Here, we present 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci and the cross-amplification of these and of 10 additional loci available in the literature in a panel of 5 cracid species, including 3 species with high conservation concern. We provide the first polymorphic loci for the jacutinga, Aburria jacutinga (N = 8), and red-billed curassow, Crax blumenbachii (N = 9), and additional loci for bare-faced curassow, C. fasciolata (N = 8), Alagoas curassow, Pauxi mitu (N = 5), and razor-billed curassow, P. tuberosa (N = 5). The average number of alleles was 2.9 for A. jacutinga, 2.7 for C. blumenbachii, 3.5 for C. fasciolata, 2.6 for P. mitu, and 5.7 for P. tuberosa. The mean expected heterozygosities were 0.42, 0.40, 0.48, 0.37, and 0.59, respectively. The average probabilities that the set of loci would not exclude a pair of parents of an arbitrary offspring were 2.9% in A. jacutinga, 1% in C. blumenbachii, 0.5% in C. fasciolata, 0.4% in P. mitu, and 0.002% in P. tuberosa suggesting that these loci may be adequate for parentage analysis and to implement ex situ genetic management plans.

  4. Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Foolad, Majid R.

    2007-01-01

    The cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide and a well-studied crop species in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding. It is one of the earliest crop plants for which a genetic linkage map was constructed, and currently there are several molecular maps based on crosses between the cultivated and various wild species of tomato. The high-density molecular map, developed based on an L. esculentum × L. pennellii cross, includes more than 2200 markers with an average marker distance of less than 1 cM and an average of 750 kbp per cM. Different types of molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs, CAPS, RGAs, ESTs, and COSs have been developed and mapped onto the 12 tomato chromosomes. Markers have been used extensively for identification and mapping of genes and QTLs for many biologically and agriculturally important traits and occasionally for germplasm screening, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted breeding. The utility of MAS in tomato breeding has been restricted largely due to limited marker polymorphism within the cultivated species and economical reasons. Also, when used, MAS has been employed mainly for improving simply-inherited traits and not much for improving complex traits. The latter has been due to unavailability of reliable PCR-based markers and problems with linkage drag. Efforts are being made to develop high-throughput markers with greater resolution, including SNPs. The expanding tomato EST database, which currently includes ∼214 000 sequences, the new microarray DNA chips, and the ongoing sequencing project are expected to aid development of more practical markers. Several BAC libraries have been developed that facilitate map-based cloning of genes and QTLs. Sequencing of the euchromatic portions of the tomato genome is paving the way for comparative and functional analysis of important genes and QTLs. PMID:18364989

  5. Local breeds, livelihoods and livestock keepers' rights in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse; Rathore, H S; Mathias, E

    2009-10-01

    In South Asia, and throughout the developing world, the predominant official approach to livestock development has been improvement of production by means of upgrading local breeds via cross-breeding with exotic animals. This strategy has led to the replacement and dilution of locally adapted breeds with non-native ones. This has resulted in an alarming loss that has been estimated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to amount to one breed every two weeks. Based on selected case studies this paper argues that development strategies using locally adapted breeds and species are much more likely to benefit livestock keepers whilst also maintaining domestic animal diversity and bearing a smaller ecological footprint. It also analyses the rationale for "Livestock Keepers' Rights", a principle that grew out of the struggle of traditional livestock keepers to retain control over their production resources, such as grazing areas and breeding stock, in the face of unfavourable policy environments.

  6. Genetic diversity in Swiss goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Saitbekova, N; Gaillard, C; Obexer-Ruff, G; Dolf, G

    1999-02-01

    Genetic diversity in eight Swiss goat breeds was estimated using PCR amplification of 20 bovine microsatellites on 20-40 unrelated animals per breed. In addition, the Creole breed from the Caribbean and samples of Ibex and Bezoar goat were included. A total of 352 animals were tested. The bovine microsatellites chosen amplified well in goat. The average heterozygosity within population was higher in domestic goat (0.51-0.58) than in Ibex (0.17) and Bezoar goat (0.19). Twenty-seven per cent of the genetic diversity in the total population could be attributed to differences between the populations. However, with the exclusion of Ibex from the total population, this proportion dropped to 17%. Principal component analysis showed that all Swiss goat breeds are closely related, whereas the Creole breed, Ibex and Bezoar goat are clearly distinct from all eight Swiss breeds.

  7. Genome-wide genetic changes during modern breeding of maize.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yinping; Zhao, Hainan; Ren, Longhui; Song, Weibin; Zeng, Biao; Guo, Jinjie; Wang, Baobao; Liu, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Mei; Xie, Shaojun; Lai, Jinsheng

    2012-06-03

    The success of modern maize breeding has been demonstrated by remarkable increases in productivity over the last four decades. However, the underlying genetic changes correlated with these gains remain largely unknown. We report here the sequencing of 278 temperate maize inbred lines from different stages of breeding history, including deep resequencing of 4 lines with known pedigree information. The results show that modern breeding has introduced highly dynamic genetic changes into the maize genome. Artificial selection has affected thousands of targets, including genes and non-genic regions, leading to a reduction in nucleotide diversity and an increase in the proportion of rare alleles. Genetic changes during breeding happen rapidly, with extensive variation (SNPs, indels and copy-number variants (CNVs)) occurring, even within identity-by-descent regions. Our genome-wide assessment of genetic changes during modern maize breeding provides new strategies as well as practical targets for future crop breeding and biotechnology.

  8. To breed or not to breed: endocrine response to mercury contamination by an Arctic seabird

    PubMed Central

    Tartu, Sabrina; Goutte, Aurélie; Bustamante, Paco; Angelier, Frédéric; Moe, Børge; Clément-Chastel, Céline; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Mercury, a ubiquitous toxic element, is known to alter expression of sex steroids and to impair reproduction across vertebrates but the mechanisms underlying these effects are not clearly identified. We examined whether contamination by mercury predicts the probability to skip reproduction in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Svalbard. We also manipulated the endocrine system to investigate the mechanism underlying this relationship. During the pre-laying period, we injected exogenous GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) to test the ability of the pituitary to release luteinizing hormone (LH, a key hormone for the release of sex steroids and hence breeding) in relation to mercury burden. Birds that skipped reproduction had significantly higher mercury concentration in blood than breeders. Endocrine profiles of these birds also varied based on breeding status (breeders versus non-breeders), mercury contamination and sex. Specifically, in skippers (birds that did not breed), baseline LH decreased with increasing mercury concentration in males, whereas it increased in females. GnRH-induced LH levels increased with increasing mercury concentration in both sexes. These results suggest that mercury contamination may disrupt GnRH input to the pituitary. Thus, high mercury concentration could affect the ability of long-lived birds to modulate their reproductive effort (skipping or breeding) according to ongoing environmental changes in the Arctic, thereby impacting population dynamics. PMID:23720523

  9. To breed or not to breed: endocrine response to mercury contamination by an Arctic seabird.

    PubMed

    Tartu, Sabrina; Goutte, Aurélie; Bustamante, Paco; Angelier, Frédéric; Moe, Børge; Clément-Chastel, Céline; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2013-08-23

    Mercury, a ubiquitous toxic element, is known to alter expression of sex steroids and to impair reproduction across vertebrates but the mechanisms underlying these effects are not clearly identified. We examined whether contamination by mercury predicts the probability to skip reproduction in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Svalbard. We also manipulated the endocrine system to investigate the mechanism underlying this relationship. During the pre-laying period, we injected exogenous GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) to test the ability of the pituitary to release luteinizing hormone (LH, a key hormone for the release of sex steroids and hence breeding) in relation to mercury burden. Birds that skipped reproduction had significantly higher mercury concentration in blood than breeders. Endocrine profiles of these birds also varied based on breeding status (breeders versus non-breeders), mercury contamination and sex. Specifically, in skippers (birds that did not breed), baseline LH decreased with increasing mercury concentration in males, whereas it increased in females. GnRH-induced LH levels increased with increasing mercury concentration in both sexes. These results suggest that mercury contamination may disrupt GnRH input to the pituitary. Thus, high mercury concentration could affect the ability of long-lived birds to modulate their reproductive effort (skipping or breeding) according to ongoing environmental changes in the Arctic, thereby impacting population dynamics.

  10. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and distance sampling to estimate density of migrant and breeding birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.; Reid, B.

    2006-01-01

    We combined Breeding Bird Survey point count protocol and distance sampling to survey spring migrant and breeding birds in Vicksburg National Military Park on 33 days between March and June of 2003 and 2004. For 26 of 106 detected species, we used program DISTANCE to estimate detection probabilities and densities from 660 3-min point counts in which detections were recorded within four distance annuli. For most species, estimates of detection probability, and thereby density estimates, were improved through incorporation of the proportion of forest cover at point count locations as a covariate. Our results suggest Breeding Bird Surveys would benefit from the use of distance sampling and a quantitative characterization of habitat at point count locations. During spring migration, we estimated that the most common migrant species accounted for a population of 5000-9000 birds in Vicksburg National Military Park (636 ha). Species with average populations of 300 individuals during migration were: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Of 56 species that bred in Vicksburg National Military Park, we estimated that the most common 18 species accounted for 8150 individuals. The six most abundant breeding species, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, White-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), accounted for 5800 individuals.

  11. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in large breed dogs: chromosomal and breed variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Understanding extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a crucial component for successful utilization of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The extent of LD in the dog has been described based upon small marker sets in multiple breeds and studies. Understanding variation in LD on a per...

  12. Simulated breeding with QU-GENE graphical user interface.

    PubMed

    Hathorn, Adrian; Chapman, Scott; Dieters, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Comparing the efficiencies of breeding methods with field experiments is a costly, long-term process. QU-GENE is a highly flexible genetic and breeding simulation platform capable of simulating the performance of a range of different breeding strategies and for a continuum of genetic models ranging from simple to complex. In this chapter we describe some of the basic mechanics behind the QU-GENE user interface and give a simplified example of how it works.

  13. Uncertain breeding: a short history of reproduction in monotremes.

    PubMed

    Temple-Smith, P; Grant, T

    2001-01-01

    Although much is known about the biology of monotremes, many important aspects of their reproduction remain unclear. Studies over the last century have provided valuable information on various aspects of monotreme reproduction including the structure and function of their reproductive system, breeding behaviour, sex determination and seasonality. All three living genera of monotremes have been successfully maintained in captivity, often for long periods, yet breeding has been rare and unpredictable. When breeding has occurred, however, significant gains in knowledge have ensued; for example a more accurate estimate of the gestation period of the platypus and the incubation period for the Tachyglossus egg. One of the great challenges for zoos has been to understand why breeding of monotremes is difficult to achieve. Analysis of breeding successes of platypuses and short-beaked echidnas provides some insights. The evidence suggests that although annual breeding seasons are regionally predictable, individual adult females breed unpredictably, with some showing breeding intervals of many years. The reason for this variation in individual breeding intervals may be resource-dependant, influenced by social factors or may even be genetically induced. Better knowledge of factors that influence breeding intervals may improve the success of monotreme captive breeding programmes. More certainty in captive breeding is also an important issue for enterprises wishing to trade in Australian wildlife since current legislation limits export of Australian fauna for display to at least second-generation captive-bred individuals. Given their unique evolutionary position, knowledge of reproduction in monotremes needs to be gained in advance of any future population declines so that appropriate strategies can be developed to ensure their survival.

  14. The development of a new breed of sheep in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Scott, H M; Ospina, O; Williams, H L

    1990-01-01

    A new breed of sheep has been developed in Colombia by crossing Scottish Blackface rams with the indigenous Criolla ewes and then interbreeding the progeny, with selection based on performance. It has been given the name Manchada Paramuna. The breed has been developed to provide the small producer (campesino) with a breeding ewe which has a high level of fertility, a good fleece, and which produces lambs with high survival rate and good growth rate. PMID:2331588

  15. [Linkage disequilibrium analysis for microsatellite loci in six cattle breeds].

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, T Iu; Kantanen, J; Vorob'ev, N I; Podoba, B E; Terletskiĭ, V P

    2014-04-01

    Autosomal microsatellites are valuable tools for investigating genetic diversity and population structure and making conservation decisions to preserve valuable breeds of domestic animals. We carried out a linkage disequilibrium analysis using 29 microsatellite markers in six cattle populations: Suksun, Istoben, Yaroslavl, Kholmogory, Grey Ukrainian and Pechora type Kholmogory breeds. We discovered a significant linkage between microsatellites INRA037 and CSRM60 in Grey Ukrainian breed.

  16. Uncertain breeding: a short history of reproduction in monotremes.

    PubMed

    Temple-Smith, P; Grant, T

    2001-01-01

    Although much is known about the biology of monotremes, many important aspects of their reproduction remain unclear. Studies over the last century have provided valuable information on various aspects of monotreme reproduction including the structure and function of their reproductive system, breeding behaviour, sex determination and seasonality. All three living genera of monotremes have been successfully maintained in captivity, often for long periods, yet breeding has been rare and unpredictable. When breeding has occurred, however, significant gains in knowledge have ensued; for example a more accurate estimate of the gestation period of the platypus and the incubation period for the Tachyglossus egg. One of the great challenges for zoos has been to understand why breeding of monotremes is difficult to achieve. Analysis of breeding successes of platypuses and short-beaked echidnas provides some insights. The evidence suggests that although annual breeding seasons are regionally predictable, individual adult females breed unpredictably, with some showing breeding intervals of many years. The reason for this variation in individual breeding intervals may be resource-dependant, influenced by social factors or may even be genetically induced. Better knowledge of factors that influence breeding intervals may improve the success of monotreme captive breeding programmes. More certainty in captive breeding is also an important issue for enterprises wishing to trade in Australian wildlife since current legislation limits export of Australian fauna for display to at least second-generation captive-bred individuals. Given their unique evolutionary position, knowledge of reproduction in monotremes needs to be gained in advance of any future population declines so that appropriate strategies can be developed to ensure their survival. PMID:11999298

  17. A comparison between Nimbus 5 THIR and ITPR temperatures and derived winds with rawinsonde data obtained in the AVE II experiment. [Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer and Infrared Temperature Profile Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.; Scoggins, J. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    During the second Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II), atmospheric temperature profiles were computed from Nimbus 5 data, which comprised ITPR, NEMS, and SCR measurements. Rawinsonde data were obtained from NWS stations in the AVE II network and processed for each pressure contact; the soundings closest in space and time were interpolated to the Nimbus 5 sounding points for comparison purposes. Cross sections of thermal and geostrophic winds were computed from satellite-derived cross sections of temperature along the Nimbus orbital track.

  18. Impact of cloning on cattle breeding systems.

    PubMed

    McClintock, A E

    1998-01-01

    The concept of clone-family testing is compared with existing progeny testing systems. The critical factors that will decide how cloning is utilized are the potential size of cloned families, and the cost per embryo (or per calf born). If family sizes of 100,000 become routinely achievable (cheaply), then clone testing becomes viable. In rough figures, cloned embryos costing $30 with a 50% calving rate would be attractive to farmers and would be cheap enough that farmers would buy more (crossbred) embryos in order to breed further replacement cows. At $300 per embryo, farmers would be more inclined to buy a number of cloned pure-bred female embryos and then to use conventional artificial insemination to breed further replacements from these superior cows. At $3000 per embryo, farmers would probably only be interested in very small numbers of cloned animals, most of which would be males. The relative importance of adult versus fetal cloning is discussed. The need for gene banks to preserve genetic variation is emphasized; both gametes and somatic tissue cultures should be considered.

  19. Circannual Testis Changes in Seasonally Breeding Mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Rafael; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    In the non-equatorial zones of the Earth, species concentrate their reproductive effort in the more favorable season. A consequence of seasonal breeding is seasonal testis regression, which implies the depletion of the germinative epithelium, permeation of the blood-testis barrier, and reduced androgenic function. This process has been studied in a number of vertebrates, but the mechanisms controlling it are not yet well understood. Apoptosis was assumed for years to be an important effector of seasonal germ cell depletion in all vertebrates, including mammals, but an alternative mechanism has recently been reported in the Iberian mole as well as in the large hairy armadillo. It is based on the desquamation of meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells as a consequence of altered Sertoli-germ cell adhesion molecule expression and distribution. Desquamated cells are either discarded alive through the epididymis, as in the mole, or subsequently die by apoptosis, as in the armadillo. Also, recent findings on the reproductive cycle of the greater white-toothed shrew at the meridional limits of its distribution area have revealed that the mechanisms controlling seasonal breeding are in fact far more plastic and versatile than initially suspected. Perhaps these higher adaptive capacities place mammals in a better position to face the ongoing climate change. PMID:26375035

  20. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds.

    PubMed

    Streby, Henry M; Kramer, Gunnar R; Peterson, Sean M; Lehman, Justin A; Buehler, David A; Andersen, David E

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  1. Targeted Proteomics Approach for Precision Plant Breeding.

    PubMed

    Chawade, Aakash; Alexandersson, Erik; Bengtsson, Therese; Andreasson, Erik; Levander, Fredrik

    2016-02-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a targeted mass spectrometry technique that enables precise quantitation of hundreds of peptides in a single run. This technique provides new opportunities for multiplexed protein biomarker measurements. For precision plant breeding, DNA-based markers have been used extensively, but the potential of protein biomarkers has not been exploited. In this work, we developed an SRM marker panel with assays for 104 potato (Solanum tuberosum) peptides selected using univariate and multivariate statistics. Thereafter, using random forest classification, the prediction markers were identified for Phytopthora infestans resistance in leaves, P. infestans resistance in tubers, and plant yield in potato leaf secretome samples. The results suggest that the marker panel has the predictive potential for three traits, two of which have no commercial DNA markers so far. Furthermore, the marker panel was also tested and found to be applicable to potato clones not used during the marker development. The proposed workflow is thus a proof-of-concept for targeted proteomics as an efficient readout in accelerated breeding for complex and agronomically important traits.

  2. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds.

    PubMed

    Streby, Henry M; Kramer, Gunnar R; Peterson, Sean M; Lehman, Justin A; Buehler, David A; Andersen, David E

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research. PMID:25532897

  3. Promiscuity and the evolution of cooperative breeding.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Helen C; El Mouden, Claire; Wild, Geoff; West, Stuart

    2012-04-01

    Empirical data suggest that low levels of promiscuity have played a key role in the evolution of cooperative breeding and eusociality. However, from a theoretical perspective, low levels of promiscuity can favour dispersal away from the natal patch, and have been argued to select against cooperation in a way that cannot be explained by inclusive fitness theory. Here, we use an inclusive fitness approach to model selection to stay and help in a simple patch-structured population, with strict density dependence, where helping increases the survival of the breeder on the patch. Our model predicts that the level of promiscuity has either no influence or a slightly positive influence on selection for helping. This prediction is driven by the fact that, in our model, staying to help leads to increased competition between relatives for the breeding position-when promiscuity is low (and relatedness is high), the best way to aid relatives is by dispersing to avoid competing with them. Furthermore, we found the same results with an individual-based simulation, showing that this is not an area where inclusive fitness theory 'gets it wrong'. We suggest that our predicted influence of promiscuity is sensitive to biological assumptions, and that if a possibly more biologically relevant scenario were examined, where helping provided fecundity benefits and there was not strict density dependence, then low levels of promiscuity would favour helping, as has been observed empirically. PMID:21993501

  4. The Breeding Bird Survey, 1967 and 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Van Velzen, W.T.

    1969-01-01

    In the Breeding Bird Survey of North America, cooperators ran 982 survey routes in 1967 and 1,174 in 1968. All States except Hawaii and all Canadian Provinces except Newfoundland were included. Roadside routes are selected at random within 1-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 24 1/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced half a mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms, and the data are transferred to magnetic tape for analysis. The average number of birds of each species per route is tabulated by State and Province, presenting for the first time a record of the comparative abundance of each species across the continent. The sample size is given for each species recorded. A sophisticated analysis program, here employed for the first time, is used to compute weighted mean values of the survey results for selected species at the State, stratum, regional, and continental level. The statistical significance of year-to-year changes at the 80, 90, 95, and 99 percent levels of probability are part of the computer output. An index for comparing populations of each species from year to year is established, with 1968 as the base year. Maps show the breeding range and comparative abundance of selected species.

  5. Vertebral heart scores in eight dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Jepsen-Grant, K; Pollard, R E; Johnson, L R

    2013-01-01

    The vertebral heart score (VHS) measurement is commonly used to provide a more objective measurement of cardiomegaly in canines. However, several studies have shown significant breed variations from the value previously established by Buchanan and Bücheler (9.7 ± 0.5). This study describes VHS measurements in Pug, Pomeranian, Yorkshire Terrier, Dachshund, Bulldog, Shih Tzu, Lhasa Apso, and Boston Terrier dog breeds. Dogs with two or three view thoracic radiographs, no subjective radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly, and no physical examination findings of heart murmurs or gallop rhythms were included in the study. The Pug, Pomeranian, Bulldog, and Boston Terrier groups were found to have a VHS significantly greater than 9.7 ± 0.5 (P < 0.00001, P = 0.0014, P < 0.0001, P < 0.00001, respectively). Body condition score (BCS) was found to have a significant effect on the VHS of Lhasa Apso group. Anomalous vertebrae in the thoracic column were associated with a significant increase in VHS of the Bulldog (P = 0.028) and Boston Terrier (P = 0.0004) groups. Thoracic depth to width ratio did not have a significant effect on VHS.

  6. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

  7. Paramutation in evolution, population genetics and breeding.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan M; McGinnis, Karen M

    2015-08-01

    Paramutation is a fascinating phenomenon in which directed allelic interactions result in heritable changes in the state of an allele. Paramutation has been carefully characterized at a handful of loci but the prevalence of paramutable/paramutagenic alleles is not well characterized within genomes or populations. In order to consider the role of paramutation in evolutionary processes and plant breeding, we focused on several questions. First, what causes certain alleles to become subject to paramutation? While paramutation clearly involves epigenetic regulation it is also true that only certain alleles defined by genetic sequences are able to participate in paramutation. Second, what is the prevalence of paramutation? There are only a handful of well-documented examples of paramutation. However, there is growing evidence that many loci may undergo changes in chromatin state or expression that are similar to changes observed as a result of paramutation. Third, how will paramutation events be inherited in natural or artificial populations? Many factors, including stability of epigenetic state, mating style and ploidy, may influence the prevalence of paramutation states within populations. Developing a clear understanding of the mechanisms and frequency of paramutation in crop plant genomes will facilitate new opportunities in genetic manipulation, and will also enhance plant breeding programs and our understanding of genome evolution.

  8. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  9. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  10. Evaluation of Egyptian sheep production systems: II. Breeding objectives for purebred and composite breeds.

    PubMed

    Almahdy, H; Tess, M W; El-Tawil, E; Shehata, E; Mansour, H

    2000-02-01

    Objectives for this study were to estimate relative economic weights for performance traits for two native and two composite sheep breeds under two management systems in Egypt. Breeds studied were Rahmani (R), Ossimi (O), 3/4R-1/4Finnish Landrace (RFR), and 3/4O-1/4Finn (OFO); OFO and RFR were composite breeds. Management systems were one mating season per year (1M) and three mating seasons per 2 yr (3M). A dynamic computer model was used to simulate animal performance and enterprise efficiency and profit. Input parameters for the model were obtained from published results and analyses of data collected from experimental flocks of the same genetic stocks in Egypt. Responses for two measures of life-cycle feed conversion and one measure of enterprise profit were evaluated. Life-cycle feed conversion was calculated as kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of empty body weight output (TDN/EBW) and kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of carcass lean output (TDN/CLN). Profit was measured as annual gross margin/ewe (GM/EWE). Traits evaluated were conception rate (CR), lambing rate (LR), mortality rate (MR), mature weight (MW), and milk production (MK). Based on responses to percentage changes in trait means, CR was most important for TDN/EBW, followed by LR and MR. For TDN/CLN, LR, MR, and CR were most important. For GM/EWE, CR was most important, followed by LR, MW, and MR. In the systems studied, there was little response to changes in MK. Based on changes in GM/EWE per genetic standard deviation change, LR was most important, followed by CR, MR, MW, and MK in all systems. Relative economic weights for O and OFO were similar, as were weights for R and RFR. Differences in economic weights between management systems for the same breed were not large enough to justify separate selection lines within breeds.

  11. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes.

    PubMed

    Gizaw, S; Rischkowsky, B; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-10-01

    Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei scheme (Scheme-3), conventional 2-tier central nucleus-based scheme (Scheme-4), and schemes linking a central nucleus and village multiplier nuclei with selection in central nucleus (Scheme-5) or in both central and village nuclei (Scheme-6). Among village-based schemes, Scheme-1 gave the highest genetic progress, while Scheme-2 was economically the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 5.6 and a profit of Birr 37.2/ewe/year. The central nucleus schemes were more efficient than the village schemes. Scheme-4 was the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 13.5 and a profit of Birr 71.2, but is operationally more difficult as it requires a very large central nucleus. The choice between village and central nucleus-based schemes would depend on local conditions (availability of infrastructure, logistics and technical knowhow and support). Linking central nucleus with village-based nuclei (Scheme-6) would be a feasible option to overcome the operational difficulties of the conventional central nucleus scheme. If a village-based breeding program is envisaged as should be the 1st step in most low-input systems, then Scheme-2 is the most efficient. To scale out to an entire Menz breed level, Scheme-3 would be recommended.

  12. Evaluation of Egyptian sheep production systems: II. Breeding objectives for purebred and composite breeds.

    PubMed

    Almahdy, H; Tess, M W; El-Tawil, E; Shehata, E; Mansour, H

    2000-02-01

    Objectives for this study were to estimate relative economic weights for performance traits for two native and two composite sheep breeds under two management systems in Egypt. Breeds studied were Rahmani (R), Ossimi (O), 3/4R-1/4Finnish Landrace (RFR), and 3/4O-1/4Finn (OFO); OFO and RFR were composite breeds. Management systems were one mating season per year (1M) and three mating seasons per 2 yr (3M). A dynamic computer model was used to simulate animal performance and enterprise efficiency and profit. Input parameters for the model were obtained from published results and analyses of data collected from experimental flocks of the same genetic stocks in Egypt. Responses for two measures of life-cycle feed conversion and one measure of enterprise profit were evaluated. Life-cycle feed conversion was calculated as kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of empty body weight output (TDN/EBW) and kilograms of TDN input per kilogram of carcass lean output (TDN/CLN). Profit was measured as annual gross margin/ewe (GM/EWE). Traits evaluated were conception rate (CR), lambing rate (LR), mortality rate (MR), mature weight (MW), and milk production (MK). Based on responses to percentage changes in trait means, CR was most important for TDN/EBW, followed by LR and MR. For TDN/CLN, LR, MR, and CR were most important. For GM/EWE, CR was most important, followed by LR, MW, and MR. In the systems studied, there was little response to changes in MK. Based on changes in GM/EWE per genetic standard deviation change, LR was most important, followed by CR, MR, MW, and MK in all systems. Relative economic weights for O and OFO were similar, as were weights for R and RFR. Differences in economic weights between management systems for the same breed were not large enough to justify separate selection lines within breeds. PMID:10709919

  13. Breeding productivity and adult survival in nongame birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; DeSante, David F.; Paine, Charles R.; Donovan, Therese M.; Dettmers, Randy; Manolis, J.C.; Burton, K.

    1995-01-01

    Demographic data (breeding productivity and adult survival) provide the kind of early warning signal that allows detection of unhealthy populations in terms of productivity or survival problems (Martin and Guepel 1993). In addition, demographic data can help determine whether population declines are the result of low breeding productivity or low survival in migration or winter. Breeding productivity data also can help identify habitat conditions associated with successful and failed breeding attempts. Such information is critical for developing habitat- and land-management practices (Martin 1992). Here, we provide examples of the kinds of information that can be obtained by broad-scale demographic studies.

  14. Allele mining and enhanced genetic recombination for rice breeding.

    PubMed

    Leung, Hei; Raghavan, Chitra; Zhou, Bo; Oliva, Ricardo; Choi, Il Ryong; Lacorte, Vanica; Jubay, Mona Liza; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Gregorio, Glenn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ulat, Victor Jun; Borja, Frances Nikki; Mauleon, Ramil; Alexandrov, Nickolai N; McNally, Kenneth L; Sackville Hamilton, Ruaraidh

    2015-12-01

    Traditional rice varieties harbour a large store of genetic diversity with potential to accelerate rice improvement. For a long time, this diversity maintained in the International Rice Genebank has not been fully used because of a lack of genome information. The publication of the first reference genome of Nipponbare by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) marked the beginning of a systematic exploration and use of rice diversity for genetic research and breeding. Since then, the Nipponbare genome has served as the reference for the assembly of many additional genomes. The recently completed 3000 Rice Genomes Project together with the public database (SNP-Seek) provides a new genomic and data resource that enables the identification of useful accessions for breeding. Using disease resistance traits as case studies, we demonstrated the power of allele mining in the 3,000 genomes for extracting accessions from the GeneBank for targeted phenotyping. Although potentially useful landraces can now be identified, their use in breeding is often hindered by unfavourable linkages. Efficient breeding designs are much needed to transfer the useful diversity to breeding. Multi-parent Advanced Generation InterCross (MAGIC) is a breeding design to produce highly recombined populations. The MAGIC approach can be used to generate pre-breeding populations with increased genotypic diversity and reduced linkage drag. Allele mining combined with a multi-parent breeding design can help convert useful diversity into breeding-ready genetic resources.

  15. Initial results from a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system and comparisons with the AVE-SESAME I data set. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms And Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; Zack, J. W.; Wong, V. C.; Tuccillo, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive mesoscale atmospheric simulation system (MASS) is described in detail. The modeling system is designed for both research and real-time forecast applications. The 14-level numerical model, which has a 48 km grid mesh, can be run over most of North America and the adjacent oceanic regions. The model employs sixth-order accurate numerics, generalized similarity theory boundary-layer physics, a sophisticated cumulus parameterization scheme, and state of the art analysis and initialization techniques. Examples of model output on the synoptic and subsynoptic scales are presented for the AVE-SESAME I field experiment on 10-11 April 1979. The model output is subjectively compared to the observational analysis and the LFM II output on the synoptic scale. Subsynoptic model output is compared to analyses generated from the AVE-SESAME I data set.

  16. Evaluation of breeding objectives for purebred and crossbred selection schemes for adoption in indigenous chicken breeding programmes.

    PubMed

    Okeno, T O; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74 g average daily gain and 57·96 g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme. PMID:23444855

  17. Evaluation of breeding objectives for purebred and crossbred selection schemes for adoption in indigenous chicken breeding programmes.

    PubMed

    Okeno, T O; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74 g average daily gain and 57·96 g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme.

  18. The development of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in relation to convection activity and synoptic systems in AVE 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the Fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment were used to investigate conditions/factors responsible for the development (local time rate-of-change) of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in areas with varying degrees of convective activity. AVE IV sounding data were taken at 3 or 6 h intervals during a 36 h period on 24-25 April 1975 over approximately the eastern half of the United States. An error analysis was performed for each variable studied.

  19. Genetic structure of goat breeds from Brazil and the United States: Implications for conservation and breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, G M C; Paiva, S R; Araújo, A M; Mariante, A; Blackburn, H D

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess genetic diversity among 5 Brazilian (155 animals) and 5 U.S. goat (120 animals) breeds using 23 microsatellite markers. Samples from the United States represented a broad geographic distribution whereas Brazilian samples were from the northeast region. Samples from Boer were common to each country's breed count. Expected and observed heterozygosity among breeds ranged from 0.55 to 0.72, suggesting ample genetic diversity in the breeds evaluated. United States Angora, U.S. Spanish, and Brazilian Nambi ranked highest for allelic richness, averaging 6.1, 7.1, and 6.5 alleles per locus, respectively. Angora and Spanish also ranked highest in private alleles (7 and 9, respectively). Using STRUCTURE, the U.S. Spanish were also found to share a common cluster assignment with Brazilian Nambi, suggesting that progenitor breeds may have been the same and passed through the Canary Islands or Cape Verde in route to the New World. When non-Boer breeds were pooled by country, the effect of the subpopulation compared with total population () = 0.05, suggesting minor genetic differences exist between countries. The lack of genetic structure among goat breeds when compared with other species (e.g., vs. ) suggests goat breeds may exhibit a plasticity that facilitates productivity across a wide range of countries and environments. Taken a step further, the concept of breed for meat goats may not be as relevant for goat production. PMID:26523555

  20. Efficiency of multi-breed genomic selection for dairy cattle breeds with different sizes of reference population.

    PubMed

    Hozé, C; Fritz, S; Phocas, F; Boichard, D; Ducrocq, V; Croiseau, P

    2014-01-01

    Single-breed genomic selection (GS) based on medium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density (~50,000; 50K) is now routinely implemented in several large cattle breeds. However, building large enough reference populations remains a challenge for many medium or small breeds. The high-density BovineHD BeadChip (HD chip; Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) containing 777,609 SNP developed in 2010 is characterized by short-distance linkage disequilibrium expected to be maintained across breeds. Therefore, combining reference populations can be envisioned. A population of 1,869 influential ancestors from 3 dairy breeds (Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Normande) was genotyped with the HD chip. Using this sample, 50K genotypes were imputed within breed to high-density genotypes, leading to a large HD reference population. This population was used to develop a multi-breed genomic evaluation. The goal of this paper was to investigate the gain of multi-breed genomic evaluation for a small breed. The advantage of using a large breed (Normande in the present study) to mimic a small breed is the large potential validation population to compare alternative genomic selection approaches more reliably. In the Normande breed, 3 training sets were defined with 1,597, 404, and 198 bulls, and a unique validation set included the 394 youngest bulls. For each training set, estimated breeding values (EBV) were computed using pedigree-based BLUP, single-breed BayesC, or multi-breed BayesC for which the reference population was formed by any of the Normande training data sets and 4,989 Holstein and 1,788 Montbéliarde bulls. Phenotypes were standardized by within-breed genetic standard deviation, the proportion of polygenic variance was set to 30%, and the estimated number of SNP with a nonzero effect was about 7,000. The 2 genomic selection (GS) approaches were performed using either the 50K or HD genotypes. The correlations between EBV and observed daughter yield deviations (DYD) were computed

  1. A comparison between Nimbus 5 THIR and ITPR temperatures and derived winds with rawinsonde data obtained in the AVE 2 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.; Scoggins, J. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    During the period of May 11 and 12, 1974, NASA conducted its second Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) over the eastern United States. In this time interval, two Nimbus 5 orbits crossed the AVE II area, providing a series of ITPR soundings as well as THIR data. Horizontal temperature mapping of the AVE II cloud field is examined using two grid print map scales. Implied cloud top heights are compared with maximum radar-echo top reports. In addition, shelter temperatures in areas of clear sky are compared with the surface temperatures as determined from 11.5 micrometer radiometer data of the THIR experiment. The ITPR sounding accuracy is evaluated using interpolated radiosonde temperatures at times nearly coincident with the ITPR soundings. It was found that mean differences between the two data sets were as small as 1.3 C near 500 mb and as large as 2.9 C near the tropopause. The differences between ITPR and radiosonde temperatures at constant pressure levels were sufficient to induce significant differences in the horizontal temperature gradient. Cross sections of geostrophic wind along the orbital tracks were developed using a thermal wind buildup based on the ITPR temperature data and the radiosonde temperature data. Differences between the radiosonde and ITPR geostrophic winds could be explained on the basis of differences in the ITPR and radiosonde temperature gradients.

  2. Is income breeding an appropriate construct for waterfowl?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janke, Adam K.; Anteau, Michael J.; Markl, Nicholas; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding birds use a range of nutrient accumulation and allocation strategies to meet the nutritional demands of clutch formation and incubation. On one end of the spectrum, capital breeders use stored nutrients acquired prior to clutch formation and incubation to sustain metabolism during reproduction, while on the opposite end, income breeders derive nutrients solely from exogenous sources on the breeding grounds. Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) are an ideal candidate to test for adoption of an income strategy among migratory waterfowl because of their small body size, temperate breeding range, and timing of reproduction relative to pulses in nutrient availability within breeding habitats. We collected migrating and pre-breeding Blue-winged Teal (n = 110) during the warmest spring in over a century in the southern edge of the species’ breeding range, which produced ideal conditions to test for adoption of an income breeding strategy among migratory waterfowl. Regression analyses revealed that females accumulated protein and fat reserves early in follicle development and appeared to mobilize at least some reserves coincident with the onset of clutch formation. Accumulation and subsequent mobilization of nutrient reserves was inconsistent with adherence to an income breeding strategy and suggested breeding Blue-winged Teal used capital (albeit locally acquired) for reproduction. Our results add to existing knowledge on the ubiquity of endogenous nutrient reserve accumulation prior to and during reproduction by waterfowl, perhaps suggesting endogenous nutrient reserves are universally used for clutch formation or incubation to some degree. If indeed Blue-winged Teal and other waterfowl universally use capital for breeding, research and conservation efforts should shift from evaluating whether an income breeding strategy is used and focus on when and where necessary capital is acquired prior to clutch formation.

  3. Breeding for high water-use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Condon, A G; Richards, R A; Rebetzke, G J; Farquhar, G D

    2004-11-01

    There is a pressing need to improve the water-use efficiency of rain-fed and irrigated crop production. Breeding crop varieties with higher water-use efficiency is seen as providing part of the solution. Three key processes can be exploited in breeding for high water-use efficiency: (i) moving more of the available water through the crop rather than it being wasted as evaporation from the soil surface or drainage beyond the root zone or being left behind in the root zone at harvest; (ii) acquiring more carbon (biomass) in exchange for the water transpired by the crop, i.e. improving crop transpiration efficiency; (iii) partitioning more of the achieved biomass into the harvested product. The relative importance of any one of these processes will vary depending on how water availability varies during the crop cycle. However, these three processes are not independent. Targeting specific traits to improve one process may have detrimental effects on the other two, but there may also be positive interactions. Progress in breeding for improved water-use efficiency of rain-fed wheat is reviewed to illustrate the nature of some of these interactions and to highlight opportunities that may be exploited in other crops as well as potential pitfalls. For C3 species, measuring carbon isotope discrimination provides a powerful means of improving water-use efficiency of leaf gas exchange, but experience has shown that improvements in leaf-level water-use efficiency may not always translate into higher crop water-use efficiency or yield. In fact, the reverse has frequently been observed. Reasons for this are explored in some detail. Crop simulation modelling can be used to assess the likely impact on water-use efficiency and yield of changing the expression of traits of interest. Results of such simulations indicate that greater progress may be achieved by pyramiding traits so that potential negative effects of individual traits are neutralized. DNA-based selection techniques may

  4. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recognition of additional breeds and... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  5. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recognition of additional breeds and... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  6. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recognition of additional breeds and... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  7. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recognition of additional breeds and... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  8. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recognition of additional breeds and... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  9. Breeding biology and nesting success of palila

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pletschet, S.M.; Kelly, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the breeding biology of Palila (Loxioides bailleui ) at 85 nests from 20 April to 14 September 1988. Eggs were laid over a 139-day period and incubation averaged 16.6 days. The female incubated 85.2% of daylight hours and males fed incubating females. Modal clutch size was 2 (x super(-) = 2.0) and an average of 1.4 nestlings fledged per successful nest. Nestlings were in the nest an average of 25.3 days. Both females and males fed nestlings with the rate of feeding decreasing as the nestlings grew older. Palila nesting success was 25%, reduced primarily by hatching failure and depredation of nestlings. Hatching failure, due to inviable eggs or desertion, occurred in 41% of nests with eggs (55% of nest mortality). Egg depredation was rare (5% of nest mortality). Inbreeding and low food availability are postulated as the major causes for poor hatching success.

  10. Radiation-induced mutations and plant breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, S.H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ionizing radiation could cause genetic changes in an organism and could modify gene linkages. The induction of mutation through radiation is random and the probability of getting the desired genetic change is low but can be increased by manipulating different parameters such as dose rate, physical conditions under which the material has been irradiated, etc. Induced mutations have been used as a supplement to conventional plant breeding, particularly for creating genetic variability for specific characters such as improved plant structure, pest and disease resistance, and desired changes in maturity period; more than 200 varieties of crop plants have been developed by this technique. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has used this technique fruitfully to evolve better germplasm in cotton, rice, chickpea, wheat and mungbean; some of the mutants have become popular commercial varieties. This paper describes some uses of radiation induced mutations and the results achieved in Pakistan so far.

  11. Relationship between bone growth rate and the thickness of calcified cartilage in the long bones of the Galloanserae (Aves)

    PubMed Central

    Montes, L; de Margerie, E; Castanet, J; de Ricqlès, A; Cubo, J

    2005-01-01

    The histological features of mineralized tissues can be preserved for hundreds of millions of years, and are therefore important potential sources of information for reconstructing the life history traits of extinct species. Bone growth rates and the duration of the growth period have recently been estimated in fossil archosaurs from periosteal ossification (a mechanism responsible for bone diametral growth). Similarly, data on endochondral ossification (the mechanism responsible for bone longitudinal growth) may also yield information on growth duration and rate among extinct vertebrates, as long as potentially informative structures are preserved. However, in order to carry out palaeobiological estimations of growth rate and/or the duration of growth, it is first necessary to quantify in extant species the relationship between these life history traits and the histological features of endochondral ossification that are potentially preserved in the fossil record. Here we analyse the ontogenetic variation of both bone longitudinal growth rate and the thickness of the calcified cartilage in the femora of two Galloanserae (Aves) and find a significant positive relationship between these variables in both species. We discuss possible factors underlying interspecific differences in this relationship, and conclude that it could be applied with caution to draw palaeobiological inferences. PMID:15857365

  12. Tilting at windmills: 20 years of Hippeastrum breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hippeastrum Herbert, amaryllis, has yielded popular large-flowered hybrids over a 200-year breeding history, with the Netherlands and South Africa currently dominating the market. The USDA breeding program is now almost ten years old, built upon a ten-year previous history at the University of Flori...

  13. The dwarf saltwort (Salicornia bigelovii Torr.): Evaluation of breeding populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding populations of the dwarf saltwort (Salicornia bigelovii Torr. [Chenopodiaceae]) have been evaluated under high seawater salinity (45 dS m-1) for phenotypic, morphometric, biomass and seed traits in an effort to select suitable families and genotypes within families for breeding purposes and...

  14. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  15. Sugar Beet Breeding - Where are We Going from Here?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-Agricultural Research Service plant breeders generally do pre-breeding, but today we will talk a little about what the future holds for new varieties and directions in commercial plant breeding. This presentation is my vision, not a presentation from a seed company, and we will talk about trend...

  16. Integration of DNA marker information into breeding value predictions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves from seven breeds including 20 herds were genotyped with a reduced DNA marker panel for weaning weight. The marker panel used was derived using USMARC Cycle VII animals. The results from the current study suggest marker effects are not robust across breeds and that methodology exists to integ...

  17. Status of genetic diversity of U. S. dairy goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity underpins the livestock breeders’ ability to improve the production potential of their livestock. Therefore, it is important to periodically assess genetic diversity within a breed. Such an analysis was conducted on U.S. dairy goat breeds: Alpine, LaMancha, Nigerian Dwarf, Nubian, ...

  18. Signatures of Diversifying Selection in European Pig Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Samantha; Lu, Zen H.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Archibald, Alan L.; Haley, Chris; Jackson, Ian J.; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Ogden, Rob; Wiener, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Following domestication, livestock breeds have experienced intense selection pressures for the development of desirable traits. This has resulted in a large diversity of breeds that display variation in many phenotypic traits, such as coat colour, muscle composition, early maturity, growth rate, body size, reproduction, and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, the genomes of 13 traditional and commercial European pig breeds were scanned for signatures of diversifying selection using the Porcine60K SNP chip, applying a between-population (differentiation) approach. Signatures of diversifying selection between breeds were found in genomic regions associated with traits related to breed standard criteria, such as coat colour and ear morphology. Amino acid differences in the EDNRB gene appear to be associated with one of these signatures, and variation in the KITLG gene may be associated with another. Other selection signals were found in genomic regions including QTLs and genes associated with production traits such as reproduction, growth, and fat deposition. Some selection signatures were associated with regions showing evidence of introgression from Asian breeds. When the European breeds were compared with wild boar, genomic regions with high levels of differentiation harboured genes related to bone formation, growth, and fat deposition. PMID:23637623

  19. Acceleration of peanut breeding programs by molecular marker assisted selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut breeding has played a significant role in yield increases and disease control. Conventional breeding focuses on field selection and phenotypic analysis and it typically takes 12-15 years before a new cultivar can be released. Molecular markers developed from sequencing data can be of great ...

  20. Status of genetic diversity of U. S. dairy goat breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity underpins the livestock breeders’ ability to improve the production potential of their livestock. Therefore, it is important to periodically assess genetic diversity within a breed. Such an analysis was conducted on U.S. dairy goat breeds and this article is an overview of that wo...

  1. Breeding return times and abundance in capture-recapture models.

    PubMed

    Pledger, Shirley; Baker, Edward; Scribner, Kim

    2013-12-01

    For many long-lived animal species, individuals do not breed every year, and are often not accessible during non-breeding periods. Individuals exhibit site fidelity if they return to the same breeding colony or spawning ground when they breed. If capture and recapture is only possible at the breeding site, temporary emigration models are used to allow for only a subset of the animals being present in any given year. Most temporary emigration models require the use of the robust sampling design, and their focus is usually on probabilities of annual survival and of transition between breeding and non-breeding states. We use lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) data from a closed population where only a simple (one sample per year) sampling scheme is possible, and we also wish to estimate abundance as well as sex-specific survival and breeding return time probabilities. By adding return time parameters to the Schwarz-Arnason version of the Jolly-Seber model, we have developed a new likelihood-based model which yields plausible estimates of abundance, survival, transition and return time parameters. An important new finding from investigation of the model is the overestimation of abundance if a Jolly-Seber model is used when Markovian temporary emigration is present.

  2. Modern biotechnology and the future of plant breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of crop plants has been traditionally achieved through conventional plant breeding. The art of plant breeding was developed long before the laws of genetics (the science of heredity) became known. The discovery of the principles of genetics at the turn of the last century boosted...

  3. Chewing rates among domestic dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Geoffrey E.; Cooper, Meghan; Helvie, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian masticatory rhythm is produced by a brainstem timing network. The rhythm is relatively fixed within individual animals but scales allometrically with body mass (Mb) across species. It has been hypothesized that sensory feedback and feed-forward adjust the rhythm to match the jaw's natural resonance frequency, with allometric scaling being an observable consequence. However, studies performed with adult animals show that the rhythm is not affected by jaw mass manipulations, indicating that either developmental or evolutionary mechanisms are required for allometry to become manifest. The present study was performed to tease out the relative effects of development versus natural selection on chewing rate allometry. Thirty-one dog breeds and 31 mass-matched non-domestic mammalian species with a range in Mb from ∼2 kg to 50 kg were studied. Results demonstrated that the chewing rhythm did not scale with Mb among dog breeds (R=0.299, P>0.10) or with jaw length (Lj) (R=0.328, P>0.05). However, there was a significant relationship between the chewing rhythm and Mb among the non-domestic mammals (R=0.634, P<0.001). These results indicate that scaling is not necessary in the adult animal. We conclude that the central timing network and related sensorimotor systems may be necessary for rhythm generation but they do not explain the 1/3rd to 1/4th allometric scaling observed among adult mammals. The rhythm of the timing network is either adjusted to the physical parameters of the jaw system during early development only, is genetically determined independently of the jaw system or is uniquely hard-wired among dogs and laboratory rodents. PMID:20543125

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: American eider (breeding)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blumton, Arlene K.; Owen, Ray B.; Krohn, William B.

    1988-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The common eider (Somateria mollissima) consists of five subspecies; four are found in North America (Palmer 1976). Six management populations of common eiders have recently been defined in eastern Canada and the United States (Reed and Erskine 1986). The American edier (S. mollissima dresseri), of which three populations are recognized (Reed and Erskine 1986), is the southernmost subspecies and the focus of this paper. The common eider is a member of the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae, and the tribe Mergini. A seabird of the northern latitudes of the world, the common eider is the largest duck of North America, ranging in weight from 1.2 to 2.8 kg and having a total length from 53.3 to 68.6 cm (Bellrose 1980). The American subspecies averages 2.0 kg and 61.0 cm for males, and 1.5 kg and 57.0 cm for females (Bellrose 1980). The drake is distinctly patterned,, having a white back and breast and a black belly and sides. The smaller female is brown and heavily barred with dark brown. Both sexes have a leathery extension of the bill which forms a Y-shaped frontal shield that reaches almost to the eyes. Maine, which supports part of the Atlantic population of common eiders (Reed and Erskine 1986), is the only major eider breeding population in the lower 48 States. American eiders are colonial nesters and use a variety of nesting sites, but they prefer relatively small, uninhabited islands (Mendall 1976). The coastal islands of Maine, which are essential to the eider's life cycle, are increasingly subjected to recreation and development, creating potential disturbances to eider breeding colonies. During recent years, aesthetic and sporting interest in eiders has increased. Sea ducks in Maine are experiencing increased hunting pressure. Compared to hunting seasons and bag limits for inland ducks, sea duck seasons and limits are liberal (Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife [MDIFW] 1983).

  5. Effects of breeding success, mate fidelity and senescence on breeding dispersal of male and female blue-footed boobies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2007-05-01

    1. Understanding the effects of individual and population factors on variation in breeding dispersal (the movement of individuals between successive breeding sites) is key to identifying the strategies behind breeders' movements. Dispersal is often influenced by multiple factors and these can be confounded with each other. We used 13 years of data on the locations, mates, breeding success and ages of individuals to tease apart the factors influencing breeding dispersal in a colonially breeding long-lived seabird, the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii. 2. Breeding dispersal varied among and within years. Males dispersed further in years of higher population density, and late breeding males and females dispersed further than early breeders. This temporal variation related to changes in competition for territory was taken into account in all tests of individual factors influencing breeding dispersal. 3. Individuals that retained their mates from the previous year dispersed shorter distances than those that changed their mates. 4. The effect of previous breeding success depended on mate fidelity. Unsuccessful breeding induced greater dispersal in birds that changed their mates but not in birds that retained their mates, indicating that breeders who change mates may take their own previous breeding experience into account during habitat selection. Faithful individuals may have to stay close to their previous sites to encounter their mates. 5. Male divorcees dispersed over shorter distances than their former mates, possibly because males contribute more than females to establishing territories. 6. Dispersal of males and females declined with increasing age over the first 10-11 years of life, then increased in old age, possibly due to senescent decay in the ability to compete for mates and territories.

  6. Effects of breeding success, mate fidelity and senescence on breeding dispersal of male and female blue-footed boobies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Yeon; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2007-05-01

    1. Understanding the effects of individual and population factors on variation in breeding dispersal (the movement of individuals between successive breeding sites) is key to identifying the strategies behind breeders' movements. Dispersal is often influenced by multiple factors and these can be confounded with each other. We used 13 years of data on the locations, mates, breeding success and ages of individuals to tease apart the factors influencing breeding dispersal in a colonially breeding long-lived seabird, the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii. 2. Breeding dispersal varied among and within years. Males dispersed further in years of higher population density, and late breeding males and females dispersed further than early breeders. This temporal variation related to changes in competition for territory was taken into account in all tests of individual factors influencing breeding dispersal. 3. Individuals that retained their mates from the previous year dispersed shorter distances than those that changed their mates. 4. The effect of previous breeding success depended on mate fidelity. Unsuccessful breeding induced greater dispersal in birds that changed their mates but not in birds that retained their mates, indicating that breeders who change mates may take their own previous breeding experience into account during habitat selection. Faithful individuals may have to stay close to their previous sites to encounter their mates. 5. Male divorcees dispersed over shorter distances than their former mates, possibly because males contribute more than females to establishing territories. 6. Dispersal of males and females declined with increasing age over the first 10-11 years of life, then increased in old age, possibly due to senescent decay in the ability to compete for mates and territories. PMID:17439464

  7. Genetic comparison of breeding schemes based on semen importation and local breeding schemes: framework and application to Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vargas, B; van Arendonk, J A M

    2004-05-01

    Local breeding schemes for Holstein cattle of Costa Rica were compared with the current practice based on continuous semen importation (SI) by deterministic simulation. Comparison was made on the basis of genetic response and correlation between breeding goals. A local breeding goal was defined on the basis of prevailing production circumstances and compared against a typical breeding goal for an exporting country. Differences in genetic response were <3%, and the correlation between breeding goals was 0.99. Therefore, difference between breeding objectives proved negligible. For the evaluation of genetic response, the current scheme based on SI was evaluated against a progeny testing (PT) scheme and a closed nucleus (CN) breeding scheme, both local. Selection intensities and accuracy of selection were defined according to current population size and reproduction efficiency parameters. When genotype x environment interaction (G x E) was ignored, SI was the strategy with the highest genetic response: 5.0% above the CN breeding scheme and 33.2% above PT. A correlation between breeding values in both countries lower than one was assumed to assess the effect of G x E. This resulted in permanent effects on the relative efficiencies of breeding strategies because of the reduction in the rate of genetic response when SI was used. When the genetic correlation was assumed equal to 0.75, the genetic response achieved with SI was reduced at the same level as local PT. When an initial difference in average genetic merit of the populations was assumed, this only had a temporal effect on the relative ranking of strategies, which is reverted after some years of selection because the rate of change in genetic responses remains unchanged. Given that the actual levels of genetic correlation between countries may be around 0.60, it was concluded that a local breeding scheme based on a nucleus herd could provide better results than the current strategy based on SI. PMID:15290999

  8. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Results Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds- Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken - the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds - the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD= 0.341, LK= 0.357, DA=0.349 and CH= 0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The FST values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The FST values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. Conclusion These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken

  9. Plant breeding on the front: imperialism, war, and exploitation.

    PubMed

    Elina, Olga; Heim, Susanne; Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the development of plant-breeding science in the context of the booming genetic research and autarky policy of the 1930s as well as during World War II in National Socialist-occupied Europe. Soviet scientists, especially Nikolai Vavilov and his VIR institute, had a leading position in the international plant-breeding science of the 1920s. During World War II, German scientists, namely experts from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Plant Breeding, usurped Soviet institutes and valuable seed collections. In contrast, plant-breeding research in occupied Scandinavia continued with relatively little disturbance. The paper compares behavior of German, Soviet, and Norwegian plant-breeding scientists under the Nazi regime. PMID:20503762

  10. Natural immunity factors in Polish mixed breed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-breed rabbits in Poland are widely used for diagnostic and scientific research and as utility animals, therefore there is a need to know their immunological status, as well as their haematological status. In this study natural immunity factors were analyzed in Polish mixed-breed rabbits and Polish mixed-breed rabbits with addition of blood of meet-breed, considering the impact of sex and season of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) using measurement of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity parameters in peripheral blood. The study has revealed that there is a variety between the two commonly used mixed-breed types of rabbits, especially when sex and season is concerned, which is crucial for using these animals in experiments.

  11. RAPD analysis of DNA polymorphism in Turkish sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Elmaci, Cengiz; Oner, Yasemin; Ozis, Seniz; Tuncel, Erdogan

    2007-10-01

    The genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 108 individual sheep from three Turkish sheep breeds (Kivircik, Gökçeada, and Sakiz) were studied using RAPD analysis. Polymorphisms within and between populations were assayed using 15 random primers, and 82 loci were amplified ranging from 250 to 2,500 bp. The percentage of polymorphic loci was found to be 80.49, 78.05, and 73.17%, for Kivircik, Gökçeada, and Sakiz sheep breeds, respectively. Total genetic diversity was 0.2265, and the average coefficient of genetic differentiation was 0.1181. Genetically, the Gökçeada breed was more closely related to the Sakiz breed than to the Kivircik breed.

  12. Estimating survival and breeding probability for pond-breeding amphibians: a modified robust design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, L.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Church, D.R.; Wilbur, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Many studies of pond-breeding amphibians involve sampling individuals during migration to and from breeding habitats. Interpreting population processes and dynamics from these studies is difficult because (1) only a proportion of the population is observable each season, while an unknown proportion remains unobservable (e.g., non-breeding adults) and (2) not all observable animals are captured. Imperfect capture probability can be easily accommodated in capture?recapture models, but temporary transitions between observable and unobservable states, often referred to as temporary emigration, is known to cause problems in both open- and closed-population models. We develop a multistate mark?recapture (MSMR) model, using an open-robust design that permits one entry and one exit from the study area per season. Our method extends previous temporary emigration models (MSMR with an unobservable state) in two ways. First, we relax the assumption of demographic closure (no mortality) between consecutive (secondary) samples, allowing estimation of within-pond survival. Also, we add the flexibility to express survival probability of unobservable individuals (e.g., ?non-breeders?) as a function of the survival probability of observable animals while in the same, terrestrial habitat. This allows for potentially different annual survival probabilities for observable and unobservable animals. We apply our model to a relictual population of eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). Despite small sample sizes, demographic parameters were estimated with reasonable precision. We tested several a priori biological hypotheses and found evidence for seasonal differences in pond survival. Our methods could be applied to a variety of pond-breeding species and other taxa where individuals are captured entering or exiting a common area (e.g., spawning or roosting area, hibernacula).

  13. [Characteristics of pedigree cat breeding in the Netherlands: breeds, population increase and litter size].

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O; Huisman, T; Knol, B W

    1999-03-01

    A survey of the Dutch Cat Fancy was carried out to determine reproductive, patterns of pedigree cats. The data of the present study were obtained by questioning the pedigree registers of the cat clubs participating in the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy'. The Dutch Cat Fancy registers 34 different cat breeds. From 1992 up to 1996 a total of 25.985 litters were registered. Over this period the number of litters increased from 4989 to 5313. Litters from Longhair and Exotic Shorthair cats comprised the biggest group and accounted for 55% of the total number of litters. However, over this period, the number of Longhair and Exotic Shorthair litters decreased by 9%. Litters from British Shorthair, Birman, Maine Coon and Norwegian Forrest Cat increased in number as did litters from small breeds such as Ragdoll, Bengal and Sphynx. Litters from Abyssinian, Siamese, Oriental Shorthair cats remained relatively the same. The average litter size of the total cat population, based on pedigree certificates, was calculated at 3.3 kittens per litter. For different breeds litter size varied from 2.7 (Longhair and Exotic Shorthair) to 4.3 (Burmese and Maine Coon). Taking into account an average age of 14 years, the total Dutch pedigree cat population was estimated at 240,000 viz. about 10% of the total cat population.

  14. Habitat selection by breeding red-winged blackbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Habitat preferences of breeding Red-winged Blackbirds in an agricultural area were determined by comparing population density, landscape characteristics, and vegetational descriptions. Observations were made throughout the breeding season. Preferred breeding habitats of Red-wings, in order of preference, were wetlands, hayfields, old fields, and pastures. Males and females occupied old fields and wetlands first, then hayfields, and finally, pastures. Cutting of hayfields caused territorial abandonment by both sexes within 48 h. The apparent movement of displaced females from cut hayfields to uncut hayfields suggests that habitat fidelity of females is strong after the breeding effort has begun. Breeding Red-wings exhibited general preferences for trees, large amounts of habitat edge, erect old vegetation, and sturdy, tall, and dense vegetation. Vegetative forms and species, such as upland grasses, broad- and narrow-leafed monocots in wetlands, and forbs were important to the Red-wing at various times during the breeding season. Landscape and vegetational preferences of breeding adults were easier to observe early in the breeding season (March through May) than later. Vegetational growth and increases in the size of the breeding population probably make these preferences more difficult to detect. Territory size was poorly correlated with landscape and vegetational characteristics in uplands but strongly correlated with broad- and narrow-leafed mono cots and vegetative height in wetlands. Wetland territories were smaller than upland territories. Territories increased in size during the middle and late portions of the breedi g season. Habitat selection by the Red-winged Blackbird can best be studied by evaluating vegetative preferences throughout the breeding season.

  15. Domestic estimated breeding values and genomic enhanced breeding values of bulls in comparison with their foreign genomic enhanced breeding values.

    PubMed

    Přibyl, J; Bauer, J; Čermák, V; Pešek, P; Přibylová, J; Šplíchal, J; Vostrá-Vydrová, H; Vostrý, L; Zavadilová, L

    2015-10-01

    Estimated breeding values (EBVs) and genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBVs) for milk production of young genotyped Holstein bulls were predicted using a conventional BLUP - Animal Model, a method fitting regression coefficients for loci (RRBLUP), a method utilizing the realized genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP), by a single-step procedure (ssGBLUP) and by a one-step blending procedure. Information sources for prediction were the nation-wide database of domestic Czech production records in the first lactation combined with deregressed proofs (DRP) from Interbull files (August 2013) and domestic test-day (TD) records for the first three lactations. Data from 2627 genotyped bulls were used, of which 2189 were already proven under domestic conditions. Analyses were run that used Interbull values for genotyped bulls only or that used Interbull values for all available sires. Resultant predictions were compared with GEBV of 96 young foreign bulls evaluated abroad and whose proofs were from Interbull method GMACE (August 2013) on the Czech scale. Correlations of predictions with GMACE values of foreign bulls ranged from 0.33 to 0.75. Combining domestic data with Interbull EBVs improved prediction of both EBV and GEBV. Predictions by Animal Model (traditional EBV) using only domestic first lactation records and GMACE values were correlated by only 0.33. Combining the nation-wide domestic database with all available DRP for genotyped and un-genotyped sires from Interbull resulted in an EBV correlation of 0.60, compared with 0.47 when only Interbull data were used. In all cases, GEBVs had higher correlations than traditional EBVs, and the highest correlations were for predictions from the ssGBLUP procedure using combined data (0.75), or with all available DRP from Interbull records only (one-step blending approach, 0.69). The ssGBLUP predictions using the first three domestic lactation records in the TD model were correlated with GMACE predictions by 0.69, 0.64 and 0

  16. Evaluation of winter wheat breeding lines for traits related to nitrogen use under organic management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest in breeding crop cultivars specifically for organic agriculture, based on recognized differences in environmental and management conditions. This study evaluated 12 diverse winter wheat breeding lines chosen from conventional and organic breeding nurseries, six historic var...

  17. Optimum contribution selection using traditional best linear unbiased prediction and genomic breeding values in aquaculture breeding schemes.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H M; Sonesson, A K; Meuwissen, T H E

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare genetic gain for a traditional aquaculture sib breeding scheme with breeding values based on phenotypic data (TBLUP) with a breeding scheme with genome-wide (GW) breeding values. Both breeding schemes were closed nuclei with discrete generations modeled by stochastic simulation. Optimum contribution selection was applied to restrict pedigree-based inbreeding to either 0.5 or 1% per generation. There were 1,000 selection candidates and a sib test group of either 4,000 or 8,000 fish. The number of selected dams and sires to create full sib families in each generation was determined from the optimum contribution selection method. True breeding values for a trait were simulated by summing the number of each QTL allele and the true effect of each of the 1,000 simulated QTL. Breeding values in TBLUP were predicted from phenotypic and pedigree information, whereas genomic breeding values were computed from genetic markers whose effects were estimated using a genomic BLUP model. In generation 5, genetic gain was 70 and 74% greater for the GW scheme than for the TBLUP scheme for inbreeding rates of 0.5 and 1%. The reduction in genetic variance was, however, greater for the GW scheme than for the TBLUP scheme due to fixation of some QTL. As expected, accuracy of selection increased with increasing heritability (e.g., from 0.77 with a heritability of 0.2 to 0.87 with a heritability of 0.6 for GW, and from 0.53 and 0.58 for TBLUP in generation 5 with sib information only). When the trait was measured on the selection candidate compared with only on sibs and the heritability was 0.4, accuracy increased from 0.55 to 0.69 for TBLUP and from 0.83 to 0.86 for GW. The number of selected sires to get the desired rate of inbreeding was in general less in GW than in TBLUP and was 33 for GW and 83 for TBLUP (rate of inbreeding 1% and heritability 0.4). With truncation selection, genetic gain for the scheme with GW breeding values was nearly twice as

  18. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  19. Brain size-related breeding strategies in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Kim; Öst, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The optimal compromise between decision speed and accuracy may depend on cognitive ability, associated with the degree of encephalization: larger brain size may select for accurate but slow decision-making, beneficial under challenging conditions but costly under benign ones. How this brain size-dependent selection pressure shapes avian breeding phenology and reproductive performance remains largely unexplored. We predicted that (1) large-brained individuals have a delayed breeding schedule due to thorough nest-site selection and/or prolonged resource acquisition, (2) good condition facilitates early breeding independent of relative brain size, and (3) large brain size accrues benefits mainly to individuals challenged by environmental or intrinsic constraints. To test these predictions, we examined how the relative head volume of female eiders (Somateria mollissima) of variable body condition correlated with their breeding schedule, hatching success and offspring quality. The results were consistent with our predictions. First, large head size was associated with a progressively later onset of breeding with increasing breeding dispersal distance. Second, increasing body condition advanced the timing of breeding, but this effect was significantly weaker in large-brained females. Third, larger head volume was associated with increased hatching success mainly among late breeders and those in poor body condition, and duckling body condition was positively related to maternal head volume, but only in poor-condition mothers. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate the presence of brain size-related differences in reproductive strategies within a single natural population.

  20. Breed effects on crossbred cow-calf performance.

    PubMed

    Setshwaelo, L L; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1990-06-01

    Effects of seven breeds of cow's sire and 12 breeds of cow's maternal grandsire on preweaning performance of crossbred cows and their calves were examined in data from two experiments conducted at the Roman L. Hruska U.S. Mean Animal Research Center. Data included 1,836 records over three to five parities for 516 cows by 143 sires and by 307 maternal grandsires. The statistical model fitted effects of calf sex, parity, cow birth-breeding year or cow-calf birth year, the breed effects and their interactions. Deviations of breed of sire or equivalent grandsire effects on each trait from the mean for Hereford x Angus cows ranged from -1.6 to 5.5 kg (P less than .001) for calf birth weights, -15 to 1% (P less than .001) for calving difficulty, nonsignificant for preweaning calf mortality and -2 to 27 kg (P less than .001) for calf weaning weight. Deviations were nonsignificant for conception rate and calves weaned per cow exposed to breeding, but -2 to 40 kg (P less than .001) for calf weight weaned per cow exposed for breeding, -7 to 78 kg (P less than .001) for cow weight and -20 to 2% (P less than .001) for body condition score. The advantages of Holstein and Brahman cross over Hereford x Angus cows of 23 and 13% in weight of calf weaned/cow-breeding exposure must be compared with the expected greater feed requirements from 7 or 8% heavier cows and at least 50% higher milk production, which emphasizes the need to include input measures and costs in breed evaluation schemes. PMID:2384359

  1. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication. PMID:26956354

  2. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  3. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication.

  4. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-03-17

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild.

  5. Impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Incorporated under the Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Dixon, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system (RCS) recently installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Inc. (Vitamilk) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The RCS installation at Vitamilk uses microcomputer- based controls to automate refrigeration equipment previously controlled manually. This impact evaluation assessed how much electricity is being saved at Vitamilk as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. On a unit savings basis, this project will save 9.7 kWh/tonne (8-8 kWh/ton) of milk and ice cream produced, based on the product mix for June 1992 through May 1993, representing a 28% reduction in energy consumption. The project was installed in 1992 for a total cost of $129,330, and Vitamilk received payment of $62,974 from Bonneville in 1993 for the acquisition of energy savings. The real levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville is 8.5 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars) over the project`s assumed 15-year life, and the real levelized cost to the region is 17.9 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars), not including transmission and distribution effects. Based on the expected project installation costs and energy savings benefits, the RCS would not have been implemented by Vitamilk without the E$P acquisition payment. The expected acquisition payment reduced the estimated payback period from 7.0 to 2.8 years. Although Vitamilk would generally require an energy conservation project to have a payback period of two years or less, the slightly longer payback period was accepted in this case.

  6. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-04-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  7. Osteological histology of the Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): correlates of wing-propelled diving and flightlessness.

    PubMed

    Smith, N Adam; Clarke, Julia A

    2014-02-01

    Although studies of osteological morphology, gross myology, myological histology, neuroanatomy, and wing-scaling have all documented anatomical modifications associated with wing-propelled diving, the osteohistological study of this highly derived method of locomotion has been limited to penguins. Herein we present the first osteohistological study of the derived forelimbs and hind limbs of wing-propelled diving Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes). In addition to detailing differences between wing-propelled diving charadriiforms and nondiving charadriiforms, microstructural modifications to the humeri, ulnae and femora of extinct flightless pan-alcids are contrasted with those of volant alcids. Histological thin-sections of four species of pan-alcids (Alca torda, †Alca grandis, †Pinguinus impennis, †Mancalla cedrosensis) and one outgroup charadriiform (Stercorarius longicaudus) were compared. The forelimb bones of wing-propelled diving charadriiforms were found to have significantly thicker (∼22%) cortical bone walls. Additionally, as in penguins, the forelimbs of flightless pan-alcids are found to be osteosclerotic. However, unlike the pattern documented in penguins that display thickened cortices in both forelimbs and hind limbs, the forelimb and hind limb elements of pan-alcids display contrasting microstructural morphologies with thickened forelimb cortices and relatively thinner femoral cortices. Additionally, the identification of medullary bone in the sampled †Pinguinus impennis specimen suggests that further osteohistological investigation could provide an answer to longstanding questions regarding sexual dimorphism of Great Auks. Finally, these results suggest that it is possible to discern volant from flightless wing-propelled divers from fragmentary fossil remains.

  8. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n=38), Aves (n=8) and Reptilia (n=8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large ‘unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  9. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  10. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  11. New biotechnology enhances the application of cisgenesis in plant breeding

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hongwei; Atlihan, Neslihan; Lu, Zhen-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Cisgenesis is genetic modification to transfer beneficial alleles from crossable species into a recipient plant. The donor genes transferred by cisgenesis are the same as those used in traditional breeding. It can avoid linkage drag, enhance the use of existing gene alleles. This approach combines traditional breeding techniques with modern biotechnology and dramatically speeds up the breeding process. This allows plant genomes to be modified while remaining plants within the gene pool. Therefore, cisgenic plants should not be assessed as transgenics for environmental impacts. PMID:25157261

  12. Fission-suppressed blankets for fissile fuel breeding fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. D.; Moir, R. W.

    1981-07-01

    Two blanket concepts for deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactors are presented which maximize fissile fuel production while at the same time suppress fission reactions. By suppressing fission reactions, the reactor will be less hazardous, and therefore easier to design, develop, and license. A fusion breeder operating a given nuclear power level can produce much more fissile fuel by suppressing fission reactions. The two blankets described use beryllium for neutron multiplication. One blanket uses two separate circulating molten salts: one salt for tritium breeding and the other salt for U-233 breeding. The other uses separate solid forms of lithium and thorium for breeding and helium for cooling.

  13. New biotechnology enhances the application of cisgenesis in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hongwei; Atlihan, Neslihan; Lu, Zhen-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Cisgenesis is genetic modification to transfer beneficial alleles from crossable species into a recipient plant. The donor genes transferred by cisgenesis are the same as those used in traditional breeding. It can avoid linkage drag, enhance the use of existing gene alleles. This approach combines traditional breeding techniques with modern biotechnology and dramatically speeds up the breeding process. This allows plant genomes to be modified while remaining plants within the gene pool. Therefore, cisgenic plants should not be assessed as transgenics for environmental impacts.

  14. Genome-assisted Breeding For Drought Resistance.

    PubMed

    Khan, Awais; Sovero, Valpuri; Gemenet, Dorcus

    2016-08-01

    Drought stress caused by unpredictable precipitation poses a major threat to food production worldwide, and its impact is only expected to increase with the further onset of climate change. Understanding the effect of drought stress on crops and plants' response is critical for developing improved varieties with stable high yield to fill a growing food gap from an increasing population depending on decreasing land and water resources. When a plant encounters drought stress, it may use multiple response types, depending on environmental conditions, drought stress intensity and duration, and the physiological stage of the plant. Drought stress responses can be divided into four broad types: drought escape, drought avoidance, drought tolerance, and drought recovery, each characterized by interacting mechanisms, which may together be referred to as drought resistance mechanisms. The complex nature of drought resistance requires a multi-pronged approach to breed new varieties with stable and enhanced yield under drought stress conditions. High throughput genomics and phenomics allow marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS), which offer rapid and targeted improvement of populations and identification of parents for rapid genetic gains and improved drought-resistant varieties. Using these approaches together with appropriate genetic diversity, databases, analytical tools, and well-characterized drought stress scenarios, weather and soil data, new varieties with improved drought resistance corresponding to grower preferences can be introduced into target regions rapidly. PMID:27499682

  15. Breeding racehorses: what price good genes?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alastair J; Rambaut, Andrew

    2008-04-23

    Horse racing is a multi-million pound industry, in which genetic information is increasingly used to optimize breeding programmes. To maximize the probability of producing a successful offspring, the owner of a mare should mate her with a high-quality stallion. However, stallions with big reputations command higher stud fees and paying these is only a sensible strategy if, (i) there is a genetic variation for success on the racecourse and (ii) stud fees are an honest signal of a stallion's genetic quality. Using data on thoroughbred racehorses, and lifetime earnings from prize money (LE) as a measure of success, we performed quantitative genetic analyses within an animal model framework to test these two conditions. Although LE is heritable (VA=0.299+/-0.108, Pr=0.002), there is no genetic variance for stud fee and the genetic correlation between traits is therefore zero. This result is supported by an absence of any relationship between stud fees for currently active stallions and the predicted LE for their (hypothetical) offspring. Thus, while there are good genes to be bought, a stallion's fees are not an honest signal of his genetic quality and are a poor predictor of a foal's prize winning potential.

  16. SED Alumni---breeding ground for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2006-04-01

    In 1943 the US Army established the Special Engineering Detachment (SED), in which mostly drafted young soldiers possessing some scientific credentials (though usually quite minimal) were reassigned from other duties to the Manhattan Project to assist in various research and development aspects of nuclear weapons. The Los Alamos contingent, never more than a few hundred GIs, worked with more senior scientists and engineers, often assuming positions of real responsibility. An unintended consequence of this circumstance was the fact that being in the SEDs turned out to be a fortuitous breeding ground for future physicists, chemists, and engineers. SEDs benefited from their close contacts with established scientists, working with them side by side, attended lectures by luminaries, and gained invaluable experience that would help them establish academic and industrial careers later in life. I will discuss some of these individuals (I list only those of whom I am personally aware). These include Henry ``Heinz'' Barschall*, Richard Bellman*-RAND Corporation, Murray Peshkin-ANL, Peter Lax-Courant Institute, NYU, William Spindel*-NRC,NAS, Bernard Waldman- Notre Dame, Richard Davisson*-U of Washington, Arnold Kramish- RAND, UNESCO, Josef Hofmann- Acoustic Research Corp, Val Fitch- Princeton U. *deceased

  17. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  18. Breeding racehorses: what price good genes?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alastair J; Rambaut, Andrew

    2008-04-23

    Horse racing is a multi-million pound industry, in which genetic information is increasingly used to optimize breeding programmes. To maximize the probability of producing a successful offspring, the owner of a mare should mate her with a high-quality stallion. However, stallions with big reputations command higher stud fees and paying these is only a sensible strategy if, (i) there is a genetic variation for success on the racecourse and (ii) stud fees are an honest signal of a stallion's genetic quality. Using data on thoroughbred racehorses, and lifetime earnings from prize money (LE) as a measure of success, we performed quantitative genetic analyses within an animal model framework to test these two conditions. Although LE is heritable (VA=0.299+/-0.108, Pr=0.002), there is no genetic variance for stud fee and the genetic correlation between traits is therefore zero. This result is supported by an absence of any relationship between stud fees for currently active stallions and the predicted LE for their (hypothetical) offspring. Thus, while there are good genes to be bought, a stallion's fees are not an honest signal of his genetic quality and are a poor predictor of a foal's prize winning potential. PMID:18089517

  19. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  20. Foods of breeding pintails in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Food habits of breeding pintails (Anas acuta) were studied relative to sex, land use, and reproductive condition during the spring and summer of 1969, 1970, and 1971 in eastern North Dakota. Hens and drakes, respectively, consumed 79.2 percent and 30.0 percent animal matter on nontilled wetlands and consumed 16.6 percent and 1.1 percent animal matter on tilled wetlands. Aquatic dipterans (primarily larval forms), snails, fairy shrimp, and earthworms accounted for 71 percent of the diet of hens on nontilled wetlands, while barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds formed 71 percent of the diet of hens on tilled wetlands. Cereal grain seeds formed 84 percent of the diet of 10 hens feeding on cropland. The diet of hens was influenced by reproductive status. Animal foods were predominant during the laying period (77.1 percent) but were less important in the postlaying diet (28.9 percent). Invertebrates formed 83.9 percent of the diet of renesting hens, 61.0 percent were dipteran larvae and snails. High consumption of animal foods during egg formation presumably is related to invertebrates being superior to plants in providing certain nutrients required for production of viable eggs. Research findings suggest that food requirements of prairie-nesting pintails can be met most effectively by providing pairs access to shallow, nontilled wetland habitat subject to periodic drawdowns.

  1. Breeding for nobility or for production? Cultures of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands, 1945-1995.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Bert

    2012-06-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s Dutch farmers replaced their dual-purpose Friesian cows with Holsteins, a highly specialized American dairy breed. The changeover was related to a major turnabout in breeding practices that involved the adoption of quantitative genetics. Dutch commercial breeders had long resisted the quantitative approach to breeding that scientists had been recommending since World War II. After about 1970, however, they gave up their resistance: the art of breeding, it was said, finally became a science. In historical overviews this turnabout is seen as part of what is called the "modernization project" in Dutch agriculture that the government instigated after the war. Economic developments are assumed to have necessitated this project, and specialization of production is seen as a natural consequence. This essay argues that the idea that the art of breeding was turned into a science is to a certain extent misleading. Furthermore, it aims to show that economic pressures and government policies cannot adequately explain the turn toward Holsteins. A better understanding can be obtained by framing the Holsteinization process as the result of a changeover in breeding culture--that is, in the ensemble of shared convictions, beliefs, conventions, methods, practices, and the like that characterized practical cattle breeding and that involved scientific, technical, economic, aesthetic, normative, and commercial considerations. PMID:22908422

  2. Antagonistic effect of helpers on breeding male and female survival in a cooperatively breeding bird

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Matthieu; Doutrelant, Claire; Hatchwell, Ben J; Spottiswoode, Claire N; Covas, Rita

    2015-01-01

    1. Cooperatively breeding species are typically long lived and hence, according to theory, are expected to maximize their lifetime reproductive success through maximizing survival. Under these circumstances, the presence of helpers could be used to lighten the effort of current reproduction for parents to achieve higher survival. 2. In addition, individuals of different sexes and ages may follow different strategies, but whether male and female breeders and individuals of different ages benefit differently from the presence of helpers has often been overlooked. Moreover, only one study that investigated the relationship between parental survival and the presence of helpers used capture–mark–recapture analyses (CMR). These methods are important since they allow us to account for the non-detection of individuals that are alive in the population but not detected, and thus, the effects on survival and recapture probability to be disentangled. 3. Here, we used multi-event CMR methods to investigate whether the number of helpers was associated with an increase in survival probability for male and female breeders of different ages in the sociable weaver Philetairus socius. In this species, both sexes reduce their feeding rate in the presence of helpers. We therefore predicted that the presence of helpers should increase the breeders' survival in both sexes, especially early in life when individuals potentially have more future breeding opportunities. In addition, sociable weaver females reduce their investment in eggs in the presence of helpers, so we predicted a stronger effect of helpers on female than male survival. 4. As expected we found that females had a higher survival probability when breeding with more helpers. Unexpectedly, however, male survival probability decreased with increasing number of helpers. This antagonistic effect diminished as the breeders grew older. 5. These results illustrate the complexity of fitness costs and benefits underlying

  3. Persistency of accuracy of genomic breeding values for different simulated pig breeding programs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Akanno, E C; Schenkel, F S; Sargolzaei, M; Friendship, R M; Robinson, J A B

    2014-10-01

    Genetic improvement of pigs in tropical developing countries has focused on imported exotic populations which have been subjected to intensive selection with attendant high population-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD). Presently, indigenous pig population with limited selection and low LD are being considered for improvement. Given that the infrastructure for genetic improvement using the conventional BLUP selection methods are lacking, a genome-wide selection (GS) program was proposed for developing countries. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the option of using 60 K SNP panel and observed amount of LD in the exotic and indigenous pig populations. Several scenarios were evaluated including different size and structure of training and validation populations, different selection methods and long-term accuracy of GS in different population/breeding structures and traits. The training set included previously selected exotic population, unselected indigenous population and their crossbreds. Traits studied included number born alive (NBA), average daily gain (ADG) and back fat thickness (BFT). The ridge regression method was used to train the prediction model. The results showed that accuracies of genomic breeding values (GBVs) in the range of 0.30 (NBA) to 0.86 (BFT) in the validation population are expected if high density marker panels are utilized. The GS method improved accuracy of breeding values better than pedigree-based approach for traits with low heritability and in young animals with no performance data. Crossbred training population performed better than purebreds when validation was in populations with similar or a different structure as in the training set. Genome-wide selection holds promise for genetic improvement of pigs in the tropics. PMID:24628765

  4. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus.

  5. Breeding in high-elevation habitat results in shift to slower life-history strategy within a single species.

    PubMed

    Bears, H; Martin, K; White, G C

    2009-03-01

    1. Elevational gradients create environmental variation that is hypothesized to promote variation in life-history strategies. We tested whether differences in life-history strategies were associated with elevation in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis; Aves; A.O.U. 1998). 2. We monitored birds in four replicated sites per elevation, at 2000 m a.s.l. (high elevation) and 1000 m a.s.l. (low elevation), in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. 3. Over 5 years, we measured the following traits and vital rates: egg-laying schedules, morphological indicators of reproductive stage, seasonal reproductive success, indicators of competitive class (age, size, arrival time), and survival rates. 4. We found two main patterns: with an increase in breeding elevation, dark-eyed juncos delayed the development of structures necessary for reproduction (e.g. cloacal protuberance in males) and reduced the duration of their reproductive period to less than half of the time used by low-elevation birds; and 5. Juncos at high-elevation sites had 55-61% lower annual reproductive success and 15 to 20% higher survival rates. While adult juncos at high elevations produced fewer offspring, those offspring were in better condition. Proportions of age and size classes in high- compared to low-elevation populations were similar, suggesting that a life-history trade-off is present, rather than competition forcing inferior competitors to breed in a peripheral habitat. The apparent trade-off between reproduction and survival corresponded to a shorter period of favourable weather and available food in high- compared to low-elevation habitats. 6. Thus, elevation had a strong influence on life-history characteristics of a single species over a short spatial distance, suggesting a shift in life history from a high reproductive strategy at lower elevations to a high survivor strategy at high elevations. 7. This is the first paper to show a shift in avian life-history strategies along an elevational

  6. Hybrid recreation by reverse breeding in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wijnker, Erik; Deurhof, Laurens; van de Belt, Jose; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Blankestijn, Hetty; Becker, Frank; Ravi, Maruthachalam; Chan, Simon W L; van Dun, Kees; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; de Jong, Hans; Dirks, Rob; Keurentjes, Joost J B

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid crop varieties are traditionally produced by selecting and crossing parental lines to evaluate hybrid performance. Reverse breeding allows doing the opposite: selecting uncharacterized heterozygotes and generating parental lines from them. With these, the selected heterozygotes can be recreated as F1 hybrids, greatly increasing the number of hybrids that can be screened in breeding programs. Key to reverse breeding is the suppression of meiotic crossovers in a hybrid plant to ensure the transmission of nonrecombinant chromosomes to haploid gametes. These gametes are subsequently regenerated as doubled-haploid (DH) offspring. Each DH carries combinations of its parental chromosomes, and complementing pairs can be crossed to reconstitute the initial hybrid. Achiasmatic meiosis and haploid generation result in uncommon phenotypes among offspring owing to chromosome number variation. We describe how these features can be dealt with during a reverse-breeding experiment, which can be completed in six generations (∼1 year). PMID:24603935

  7. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  8. Competition, breeding success and ageing rates in female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2011-08-01

    Competition between females is particularly intense in cooperatively breeding mammals, where one female monopolises reproduction in each group. Chronic competition often affects stress and may therefore have long-term consequences for fitness, but no studies have yet investigated whether intrasexual competition has effects of this kind and, in particular, whether it affects rates of reproductive senescence. Here, we use long-term data from a wild population of meerkats to test whether reproductive success and senescence in dominant females are affected by the degree of intrasexual competition experienced prior to dominance acquisition. Females that experienced greater competition had lower breeding success and higher rates of reproductive senescence. Furthermore, females that were evicted from the group more frequently as subordinates had lower breeding success when dominant. We conclude that the intense intrasexual competition between females in cooperatively breeding groups may carry fitness costs over a longer period than is usually recognised.

  9. Clonal forestry, heterosis and advanced-generation breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report discusses the clonal planting stock offers many advantages to the forest products industry. Advanced-generation breeding strategies should be designed to maximize within-family variance and at the same time allow the capture of heterosis. Certainly there may be a conflict in the choice of breeding strategy based on the trait of interest. It may be that the majority of the traits express heterosis due to overdominance. Alternatively, disease resistance is expressed as the lack of a specific metabolite or infection court then the homozygous recessive genotype may be the most desirable. Nonetheless, as the forest products industry begins to utilize the economic advantages of clonal forestry, breeding strategies will have to be optimized for these commercial plant materials. Here, molecular markers can be used to characterize the nature of heterosis and therefore define the appropriate breeding strategy.

  10. Breeding nursery tissue collection for possible genomic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotyping is considered a major bottleneck in breeding programs. With new genomic technologies, high throughput genotype schemes are constantly being developed. However, every genomic technology requires phenotypic data to inform prediction models generated from the technology. Forage breeders con...

  11. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  12. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin’s specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins. PMID:26155072

  13. Breed-Predispositions to Cancer in Pedigree Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies. PMID:23738139

  14. Competition, breeding success and ageing rates in female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2011-08-01

    Competition between females is particularly intense in cooperatively breeding mammals, where one female monopolises reproduction in each group. Chronic competition often affects stress and may therefore have long-term consequences for fitness, but no studies have yet investigated whether intrasexual competition has effects of this kind and, in particular, whether it affects rates of reproductive senescence. Here, we use long-term data from a wild population of meerkats to test whether reproductive success and senescence in dominant females are affected by the degree of intrasexual competition experienced prior to dominance acquisition. Females that experienced greater competition had lower breeding success and higher rates of reproductive senescence. Furthermore, females that were evicted from the group more frequently as subordinates had lower breeding success when dominant. We conclude that the intense intrasexual competition between females in cooperatively breeding groups may carry fitness costs over a longer period than is usually recognised. PMID:21599775

  15. PRESENT STATUS OF CHARGE-BREEDING IN KEKCB AT TRIAC

    SciTech Connect

    Oyaizu, M.; Jeong, S. C.; Imai, N.; Fuchi, Y.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Ichikawa, S.; Kabumoto, H.; Matsuda, M.; Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.

    2009-05-04

    We report a recent experiment about the measurement of wall distribution of ions externally injected for charge-breeding in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The ions, radioactive and singly charged {sup 111}In, were injected into the ECR ion source (ECRIS) for breeding their charge states at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC). The residual radioactivity on the wall of the ECR plasma chamber of the source was measured, giving a two-dimensional distribution of the ions failed to be re-extracted during charge breeding. The distribution was decomposed, according to azimuthal symmetry, into three components, asymmetric, 120-degree symmetric, and isotropic ones, whose origins were qualitatively discussed for clarifying ion-losses in the course of charge breeding in ECRIS.

  16. Does genomic selection have a future in plant breeding?

    PubMed

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection in plots and only for some, often disease-resistance-related traits, uses genetic markers. The more recently developed concept of genomic selection, using a black box approach with no need of prior knowledge about the effect or function of individual markers, has also been proposed as a great opportunity for plant breeding. Several empirical and theoretical studies have focused on the possibility to implement this as a novel molecular method across various species. Although we do not question the potential of genomic selection in general, in this Opinion, we emphasize that genomic selection approaches from dairy cattle breeding cannot be easily applied to complex plant breeding.

  17. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  18. Larvivorous fishes in controlling mosquito breeding from draw wells.

    PubMed

    Joshi, R D; Chakraverty, R K; Rai, R N; Dey, K P; Sharma, R S

    1989-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus have been found to breed in about 29 per cent of the wells in semi-urban area and 14 per cent of the wells in rural areas of Varanasi at one time or other. Majority of such wells are used-ones. Effectiveness of Poecillia reticulata, Esomus danrica and Trichogaster fasciatus in controlling well breeding is evaluated in the present study with successful results.

  19. A method for trapping breeding adult American Oystercatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Simons, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    We present an efficient and effective method for trapping adult, breeding American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) that minimizes disturbance to nesting birds and the risk of trapping injuries. We used a remote controlled mechanical decoy to lure territorial adults to a leg-hold noose-mat trap. We trapped 25 birds over two seasons and were successful on 54% of our trapping attempts in 2003. We only trapped birds before the breeding season or between nesting attempts to reduce nest-site disturbance.

  20. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  1. Observations on mosquito breeding in wells and its control.

    PubMed

    Rajnikant; Bhatt, R M; Gupta, D K; Sharma, R C; Srivastava, H C; Gautam, A S

    1993-12-01

    Studies on mosquito breeding in wells revealed the dominance of An. stephensi among the malaria vectors, whereas Cx. quinquefasciatus was most abundant in disused wells and was present in wells of all depths. None of the anopheline species was encountered when well depth up to water level exceeded 12 m. Larval breeding was effectively controlled through the introduction of larvivorous fish Poecilia reticulata and expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads in comparison to untreated control wells. PMID:8034110

  2. Helium-3 blankets for tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, Don; Embrechts, Mark; Varsamis, Georgios; Vesey, Roger; Gierszewski, Paul

    1988-01-01

    It is concluded that He-3 blankets offers considerable promise for tritium breeding in fusion reactors: good breeding potential, low operational risk, and attractive safety features. The availability of He-3 resources is the key issue for this concept. There is sufficient He-3 from decay of military stockpiles to meet the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor needs. Extraterrestrial sources of He-3 would be required for a fusion power economy.

  3. One hundred years of statistical developments in animal breeding.

    PubMed

    Gianola, Daniel; Rosa, Guilherme J M

    2015-01-01

    Statistical methodology has played a key role in scientific animal breeding. Approximately one hundred years of statistical developments in animal breeding are reviewed. Some of the scientific foundations of the field are discussed, and many milestones are examined from historical and critical perspectives. The review concludes with a discussion of some future challenges and opportunities arising from the massive amount of data generated by livestock, plant, and human genome projects.

  4. Plasma hormone levels and semen quality in male cats during non-breeding and breeding seasons.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Onodera, F; Oba, H; Mizutani, T; Hori, T

    2009-07-01

    Female cats are known to be seasonal breeders and male cats annual breeders. Despite this, there are limited data on the influence of breeding season (BS) on hormone concentration and semen quality in the male cat. This study compared plasma concentrations of LH and testosterone (T), and semen quality during the non-breeding season (NBS) and BS in five male cats subject to natural hours of daylight but a constant environmental temperature. Plasma LH and T concentrations were higher during the BS in 2/35 and 3/5 cats, respectively, although when comparing both hormones combined, values were higher during the BS than the NBS in all cats (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the percentage of abnormal sperm between the cats. Overall, semen quality was superior during the BS with larger semen volume in 2/5, sperm motility in 2/5 and sperm viability in 3/5 cats. Although there was a clear seasonal effect on hormone secretion and semen quality, during the NBS all cats were likely to have been fertile.

  5. Preweaning breed-of-sire comparisons involving the Senepol breed of cattle.

    PubMed

    Thrift, F A; Franke, D E; Aaron, D K

    1986-05-01

    Preweaning data collected at two locations (Kentucky, Louisiana) were utilized to evaluate breed-of-sire comparisons involving the Senepol breed of cattle. For the Kentucky study, calves sired by Senepol bulls were 1.3 kg heavier (P less than .05) at birth than calves sired by Hereford bulls; however, weaning weights were similar for the two sire groups. For the Louisiana study, calves sired by Longhorn bulls were 5.3 kg lighter (P less than .01) at birth, 20 kg lighter (P less than .01) at weaning and had weaning condition scores .5 unit less (P less than .01) than the average of calves sired by Red Poll and Senepol bulls. Also, heifers exposed to Longhorn bulls weaned 23 kg less (P less than .01) calf per heifer exposed than the average of heifers exposed to Red Poll and Senepol bulls. Calves sired by Red Poll bulls were 1.2 kg heavier (P less than .01) at birth and 12 kg heavier (P less than .01) at weaning than those sired by Senepol bulls; however, the Senepol-sired calves received higher (P less than .01) condition scores at weaning. Heifers exposed to Red Poll bulls weaned 20 kg more (P less than .05) calf per heifer exposed than did heifers exposed to Senepol bulls. PMID:3722017

  6. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  7. Analysis for an environmental friendly seedling breeding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Y. H.; Wei, X. M.; Hou, Y. F.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.; Lin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Most seedlings of crops are produced in solar greenhouse or nursery, from which some problems about energy waste and environment pollution arise. This study aims at investigating the characteristics and effect of an environmental friendly type seedling breeding system. The results demonstrate that crops can grow with a short period and little pollution in the new seedling breeding system with total manpower controllable environment that is not influenced by geography, climate and other natural conditions. By multilayer, nonplanar seedling breeding and annual batches arrangement, utilization ratio of unit area land and seedlings yield can be improved for several times and even more than 10 times. Conclusions can be obtained from the tomato seedling breeding experiments: (1) each growth index of tomato seedlings that are under the conditions of 291 μmol/m2 s artificial illumination intensity is remarkably better than those produced in greenhouse with natural lights. (2) The environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled. The segmented temperature changed management can be applied according to the photosynthetic characteristics of plants, and not affected by the outside environment, which makes each growth index of tomato seedling constant in different seasons. The seedlings thus grow strong and can achieve the level of commodity seedlings after 20-30 days. (3) The temperature and humidity environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled according to plants growth demands.

  8. Breeding bird diversity in relation to environmental gradients in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong; Wang, Silong; Li, Yuanliang; Wang, Xihua

    2009-11-01

    Geographic variation in species richness has been explained by different theories such as energy, productivity, energy-water balance, habitat heterogeneity, and freezing tolerance. This study determines which of these theories best account for gradients of breeding bird richness in China. In addition, we develop a best-fit model to account for the relationship between breeding bird richness and environment in China. Breeding bird species richness in 207 localities (3271 km 2 per locality on average) from across China was related to thirteen environmental variables after accounting for sampling area. The Akaike's information criterion (AIC) was used to evaluate model performance. We used Moran's I to determine the magnitude of spatial autocorrelation in model residuals, and used simultaneous autoregressive model to determine coefficients of determination and AIC of explanatory variables after accounting for residual spatial autocorrelation. Of all environmental variables examined, normalized difference vegetation index, a measure of plant productivity, is the best variable to explain the variance in breeding bird richness. We found that species richness of breeding birds at the scale examined is best predicted by a combination of plant productivity, elevation range, seasonal variation in potential evapotranspiration, and mean annual temperature. These variables explained 47.3% of the variance in breeding bird richness after accounting for sampling area; most of the explained variance in richness is attributable to the first two of the four variables.

  9. Dog Breed Differences in Visual Communication with Humans

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Akitsugu; Romero, Teresa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the ‘visual contact task’ and the ‘unsolvable task’. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds. PMID:27736990

  10. Population size of snowy plovers breeding in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Susan M.; Lyons, James E.; Andres, Brad A.; T-Smith, Elise Elliot; Palacios, Eduardo; Cavitt, John F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Fellows, Suzanne D.; Maty, Kendra; Howe, William H.; Mellink, Eric; Melvin, Stefani; Zimmerman, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Snowy Plovers (Charadrius nivosus) may be one of the rarest shorebirds in North America yet a comprehensive assessment of their abundance and distribution has not been completed. During 2007 and 2008, 557 discrete wetlands were surveyed and nine additional large wetland complexes sampled in México and the USA. From these surveys, a population of 23,555 (95% CI = 17,299 – 29,859) breeding Snowy Plovers was estimated. Combining the estimate with information from areas not surveyed, the total North American population was assessed at 25,869 (95% CI = 18,917 – 32,173). Approximately 42% of all breeding Snowy Plovers in North America resided at two sites (Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma), and 33% of all these were on wetlands in the Great Basin (including Great Salt Lake). Also, coastal habitats in central and southern Texas supported large numbers of breeding plovers. New breeding sites were discovered in interior deserts and highlands and along the Pacific coast of México; approximately 9% of the North American breeding population occurred in México. Because of uncertainties about effects of climate change and current stresses to breeding habitats, the species should be a management and conservation priority. Periodic monitoring should be undertaken at important sites to ensure high quality habitat is available to support the Snowy Plover population.

  11. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted. PMID:27127342

  12. Genetic diversity in Spanish donkey breeds using microsatellite DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Aranguren-Méndez, José; Jordana, Jordi; Gomez, Mariano

    2001-01-01

    Genetic diversity at 13 equine microsatellite loci was compared in five endangered Spanish donkey breeds: Andaluza, Catalana, Mallorquina, Encartaciones and Zamorano-Leonesa. All of the equine microsatellites used in this study were amplified and were polymorphic in the domestic donkey breeds with the exception of HMS1, which was monomorphic, and ASB2, which failed to amplify. Allele number, frequency distributions and mean heterozygosities were very similar among the Spanish donkey breeds. The unbiased expected heterozygosity (HE) over all the populations varied between 0.637 and 0.684 in this study. The low GST value showed that only 3.6% of the diversity was between breeds (P < 0.01). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were shown for a number of locus-population combinations, except HMS5 that showed agreement in all analysed populations. The cumulative exclusion probability (PE) was 0.999 in each breed, suggesting that the loci would be suitable for donkey parentage testing. The constructed dendrogram from the DA distance matrix showed little differentiation between Spanish breeds, but great differentiation between them and the Moroccan ass and also with the horse, used as an outgroup. These results confirm the potential use of equine microsatellite loci as a tool for genetic studies in domestic donkey populations, which could also be useful for conservation plans. PMID:11559485

  13. Opposing selection and environmental variation modify optimal timing of breeding.

    PubMed

    Tarwater, Corey E; Beissinger, Steven R

    2013-09-17

    Studies of evolution in wild populations often find that the heritable phenotypic traits of individuals producing the most offspring do not increase proportionally in the population. This paradox may arise when phenotypic traits influence both fecundity and viability and when there is a tradeoff between these fitness components, leading to opposing selection. Such tradeoffs are the foundation of life history theory, but they are rarely investigated in selection studies. Timing of breeding is a classic example of a heritable trait under directional selection that does not result in an evolutionary response. Using a 22-y study of a tropical parrot, we show that opposing viability and fecundity selection on the timing of breeding is common and affects optimal breeding date, defined by maximization of fitness. After accounting for sampling error, the directions of viability (positive) and fecundity (negative) selection were consistent, but the magnitude of selection fluctuated among years. Environmental conditions (rainfall and breeding density) primarily and breeding experience secondarily modified selection, shifting optimal timing among individuals and years. In contrast to other studies, viability selection was as strong as fecundity selection, late-born juveniles had greater survival than early-born juveniles, and breeding later in the year increased fitness under opposing selection. Our findings provide support for life history tradeoffs influencing selection on phenotypic traits, highlight the need to unify selection and life history theory, and illustrate the importance of monitoring survival as well as reproduction for understanding phenological responses to climate change.

  14. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted. PMID:27127342

  15. Opposing selection and environmental variation modify optimal timing of breeding.

    PubMed

    Tarwater, Corey E; Beissinger, Steven R

    2013-09-17

    Studies of evolution in wild populations often find that the heritable phenotypic traits of individuals producing the most offspring do not increase proportionally in the population. This paradox may arise when phenotypic traits influence both fecundity and viability and when there is a tradeoff between these fitness components, leading to opposing selection. Such tradeoffs are the foundation of life history theory, but they are rarely investigated in selection studies. Timing of breeding is a classic example of a heritable trait under directional selection that does not result in an evolutionary response. Using a 22-y study of a tropical parrot, we show that opposing viability and fecundity selection on the timing of breeding is common and affects optimal breeding date, defined by maximization of fitness. After accounting for sampling error, the directions of viability (positive) and fecundity (negative) selection were consistent, but the magnitude of selection fluctuated among years. Environmental conditions (rainfall and breeding density) primarily and breeding experience secondarily modified selection, shifting optimal timing among individuals and years. In contrast to other studies, viability selection was as strong as fecundity selection, late-born juveniles had greater survival than early-born juveniles, and breeding later in the year increased fitness under opposing selection. Our findings provide support for life history tradeoffs influencing selection on phenotypic traits, highlight the need to unify selection and life history theory, and illustrate the importance of monitoring survival as well as reproduction for understanding phenological responses to climate change. PMID:24003118

  16. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. Results We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Conclusions Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding. PMID:26083354

  17. Charge breeding simulations for radioactive ion beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Variale, V.; Raino, A. C.; Clauser, T.

    2012-02-15

    The charge breeding technique is used for radioactive ion beam (RIB) production in order of optimizing the re-acceleration of the radioactive element ions produced by a primary beam in a thick target. Charge breeding is achieved by means of a device capable of increasing the ion charge state from 1+ to a desired value n+. In order to get high intensity RIB, experiments with charge breeding of very high efficiency could be required. To reach this goal, the charge breeding simulation could help to optimize the high charge state production efficiency by finding more proper parameters for the radioactive 1+ ions. In this paper a device based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS) is considered. In order to study that problem, a code already developed for studying the ion selective containment in an EBIS with RF quadrupoles, BRICTEST, has been modified to simulate the ion charge state breeding rate for different 1+ ion injection conditions. Particularly, the charge breeding simulations for an EBIS with a hollow electron beam have been studied.

  18. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  19. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  20. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  1. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  2. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  3. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  4. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  5. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  6. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  7. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  8. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  9. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ritu; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Sannat, C.; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry, viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p<0.01) was reported in yolk weight. The weight of egg yolk significantly affects the total protein and IgY concentration although these levels per unit of volume did not differ. Total protein was significantly higher (p<0.01) in KalingaBrown and Gramapriya as compared to Vanraja and BlackRock. Non-significant (p>0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63-5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No

  10. Diversifying Selection Between Pure-Breed and Free-Breeding Dogs Inferred from Genome-Wide SNP Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Kamiński, Stanisław; Fadel, Fernanda Ruiz; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Domesticated species are often composed of distinct populations differing in the character and strength of artificial and natural selection pressures, providing a valuable model to study adaptation. In contrast to pure-breed dogs that constitute artificially maintained inbred lines, free-ranging dogs are typically free-breeding, i.e., unrestrained in mate choice. Many traits in free-breeding dogs (FBDs) may be under similar natural and sexual selection conditions to wild canids, while relaxation of sexual selection is expected in pure-breed dogs. We used a Bayesian approach with strict false-positive control criteria to identify FST-outlier SNPs between FBDs and either European or East Asian breeds, based on 167,989 autosomal SNPs. By identifying outlier SNPs located within coding genes, we found four candidate genes under diversifying selection shared by these two comparisons. Three of them are associated with the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway regulating vertebrate morphogenesis. A comparison between FBDs and East Asian breeds also revealed diversifying selection on the BBS6 gene, which was earlier shown to cause snout shortening and dental crowding via disrupted HH signaling. Our results suggest that relaxation of natural and sexual selection in pure-breed dogs as opposed to FBDs could have led to mild changes in regulation of the HH signaling pathway. HH inhibits adhesion and the migration of neural crest cells from the neural tube, and minor deficits of these cells during embryonic development have been proposed as the underlying cause of "domestication syndrome." This suggests that the process of breed formation involved the same genetic and developmental pathways as the process of domestication. PMID:27233669

  11. Production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle keepers in Kenya and implications for a breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Ilatsia, Evans D; Roessler, Regina; Kahi, Alexander K; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Zárate, Valle

    2012-03-01

    The Sahiwal breed has been used for upgrading the East African Zebu (EAZ) for improved milk production and growth performance in the southern rangelands of Kenya. Main users of this breed are Maasai pastoralists. Until now, there has been no deliberate effort to understand why these pastoralists specifically prefer to keep Sahiwal genetic resources as well as which traits are considered important by them and what is the underlying reason for this. However, this information is regarded vital for further development of the breed. A survey was conducted between May and October 2009 among Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado and Narok counties in the Southern part of Kenya, and private ranches and government farms to identify production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle producers. Sahiwal genetic resources were mainly kept for domestic milk production and for revenue generation through milk sales and live animals. To a limited extent, they were kept for breeding and also for multiple objectives that included insurance against risks and social functions. Production aims were influenced to varying extents by various household and farmer characteristics. Sahiwal cattle and their crosses were generally perceived to be better with respect to productive traits and fertility traits when compared to the EAZ. However, the EAZ was rated higher with respect to adaptation traits. The breeding objective traits of primary importance were high milk yield and big body size, good reproductive efficiency and relatively good adaptation to local production conditions. Performance and functional traits are important breeding goals that play a major role in fulfilling the multiple production objectives. This forms the basis for the optimisation of a breeding programme for sustainable utilisation to meet the needs of Sahiwal cattle producers.

  12. Diversifying Selection Between Pure-Breed and Free-Breeding Dogs Inferred from Genome-Wide SNP Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E.; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Kamiński, Stanisław; Fadel, Fernanda Ruiz; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N.; Mohammed, Osama B.; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Domesticated species are often composed of distinct populations differing in the character and strength of artificial and natural selection pressures, providing a valuable model to study adaptation. In contrast to pure-breed dogs that constitute artificially maintained inbred lines, free-ranging dogs are typically free-breeding, i.e., unrestrained in mate choice. Many traits in free-breeding dogs (FBDs) may be under similar natural and sexual selection conditions to wild canids, while relaxation of sexual selection is expected in pure-breed dogs. We used a Bayesian approach with strict false-positive control criteria to identify FST-outlier SNPs between FBDs and either European or East Asian breeds, based on 167,989 autosomal SNPs. By identifying outlier SNPs located within coding genes, we found four candidate genes under diversifying selection shared by these two comparisons. Three of them are associated with the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway regulating vertebrate morphogenesis. A comparison between FBDs and East Asian breeds also revealed diversifying selection on the BBS6 gene, which was earlier shown to cause snout shortening and dental crowding via disrupted HH signaling. Our results suggest that relaxation of natural and sexual selection in pure-breed dogs as opposed to FBDs could have led to mild changes in regulation of the HH signaling pathway. HH inhibits adhesion and the migration of neural crest cells from the neural tube, and minor deficits of these cells during embryonic development have been proposed as the underlying cause of “domestication syndrome.” This suggests that the process of breed formation involved the same genetic and developmental pathways as the process of domestication. PMID:27233669

  13. The Influence of Deep Cumulus Convection on Larger - Flow during Ave/sesame i, 10-11 April 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Thomas Quentin

    A new formulation of the Eulerian kinetic energy budget equation which contains terms representing interactions between features on different scales of motion is developed and applied to a high-resolution upper air data set. The data were observed in the central United States over a 24-h period during the Atmospheric Variability Experiment -Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE/SESAME) on 10-11 April 1979. Three-hourly soundings were taken. Two data sets were produced using Barnes' (1964, 1973) objective analysis scheme: one based on observations from 39 stations (SES), which included 23 NWS and 16 supplementary stations, and the other based on observations only at the NWS stations. Kinetic energy budget results are examined for five regions: the total analysis area; the whole convection area which is fixed and contains most of the convective activity during the 24-h period; and three sub-areas, one containing the most intense convection (CB1), one containing weaker convection downwind of CB1 (CB2), and one containing no convection downwind of CB2 (NC). Results are produced for the total (SES) and large-scale (NWS) fields, and for the interacting scale between these two ((delta)-scale). The most energetically-active regions are those containing convective systems. In most cases, large-scale processes dominate; however, scale-interaction processes are important in the generation and dissipation terms throughout the period and in the horizontal transport term after intense convection is occurring. Furthermore, the significant scale-interaction effects generally occur in the upper troposphere (400-100 mb). Results show that scale-interaction processes are causing significant generation of kinetic energy in CB1 and CB2, as well as dissipation of energy to subgrid scales. The major interaction horizontal advection term is contributing to export of energy away from CB1 and CB2. The NC area is characterized by much weaker scale-interaction processes

  14. Experience-dependent natal philopatry of breeding greater flamingos.

    PubMed

    Balkiz, Ozge; Béchet, Arnaud; Rouan, Lauriane; Choquet, Rémi; Germain, Christophe; Amat, Juan A; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Baccetti, Nicola; Nissardi, Sergio; Ozesmi, Uygar; Pradel, Roger

    2010-09-01

    1. Contrary to the generally high level of natal philopatry (i.e. likelihood that individuals breed at their natal colony) found in first-breeding colonial birds, little is known of natal philopatry later in life. Most hypotheses advanced to explain natal philopatry are valid at all ages. However, for young and inexperienced birds, the benefits of natal philopatry may be counterbalanced by the costs of intraspecific competition at the natal colony making dispersal temporarily advantageous. In turn, experience may increase competitive ability and make natal philopatry advantageous again. 2. We evaluated this hypothesis on the large-scale dispersal of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus breeding among three colonies comprising >85% of the Western Mediterranean metapopulation. The Camargue (France) and Fuente de Piedra (Spain) are large and saturated colonies while Molentargius (Sardinia) is a recent and growing colony. 3. We used a 20-year capture-mark-resighting dataset of 4900 flamingos ringed as chicks in Camargue and Fuente de Piedra and breeding at the three colonies. We assessed the effects of natal colony and breeding experience (first-time observed breeders versus confirmed experienced breeders) on dispersal using multistate capture-recapture models. Dispersal to an unobservable state accounted for temporary emigration. 4. Fidelity was higher at the natal colony (>84%) than elsewhere. Fidelity increased with experience in the two large colonies (Camargue and Fuente de Piedra) suggesting a large-scale experience-related despotic distribution. Breeding dispersal was significant (up to 61% and 52% for first-time breeders and experienced breeders, respectively) so that colony dynamics is affected by exchanges with other colonies. Except for Fuente-born breeders leaving Molentargius, dispersal to the natal colony was higher than to any other colonies. 5. Survival was not higher at the natal colony. Inexperienced birds likely had lower breeding success at the

  15. Simultaneous DNA-based diet analysis of breeding, non-breeding and chick Adélie penguins

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Julie C.; Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin; Faux, Cassandra; Jarman, Simon N.

    2016-01-01

    As central place foragers, breeding penguins are restricted in foraging range by the need to return to the colony to feed chicks. Furthermore, breeding birds must balance energetic gain from self-feeding with the costs of returning to provision young. Non-breeding birds, however, are likely to be less restricted in foraging range and lack the high energy demands of provisioning, therefore may consume different prey to breeders. We used DNA dietary analysis to determine whether there was a difference in provisioning and self-feeding diet by identifying prey DNA in scat samples from breeding and chick Adélie penguins at two locations in East Antarctica. We also investigated diet differences between breeders and non-breeders at one site. Although previous work shows changing foraging behaviour between chick provisioning and self-feeding, our results suggest no significant differences in the main prey groups consumed by chicks and breeders at either site or between breeding stages. This may reflect the inability of penguins to selectively forage when provisioning, or resources were sufficient for all foraging needs. Conversely, non-breeders were found to consume different prey groups to breeders, which may reflect less restricted foraging ranges, breeders actively selecting particular prey during breeding or reduced foraging experience of non-breeders. PMID:26909171

  16. Post-breeding migration of Dutch-breeding black-tailed godwits: timing, routes, use of stopovers, and nonbreeding destinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Senner, Nathan R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Douglas, David C.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Wymenga, Eddy; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of long-distance migratory shorebirds is complex because these species use habitats spread across continents and hemispheres, making identification of critical habitats and potential bottlenecks in the annual cycle especially difficult. The population of Black-tailed Godwits that breeds in Western Europe, Limosa limosa limosa, has declined precipitously over the past few decades. Despite significant efforts to identify the root causes of this decline, much remains unclear. To better understand the migratory timing, use of stopover and nonbreeding sites, and the potential impact of breeding success on these parameters, we attached 15 Argos satellite transmitters and 10 geolocation tracking devices to adult godwits nearing completion of incubation at breeding sites in southwest Friesland, The Netherlands during the spring of 2009. We successfully tracked 16 adult godwits for their entire southward migration and two others for part of it. Three migration patterns and four regions of use were apparent. Most godwits left their breeding sites and proceeded south directly to stopover sites in the Mediterranean — e.g. Spain, Portugal, and Morocco — before flying on to non-breeding sites in West Africa. Other individuals spent the entire nonbreeding season in the Mediterranean. A third pattern included a few individuals that flew nonstop from their Dutch breeding sites to nonbreeding sites in West Africa. Tracking data from this study will be immediately useful for conservation efforts focused on preserving the dispersed network of sites used by godwits during their southward migration.

  17. [Prediction of retained heterosis and evaluation on breeding effects of composite livestock populations].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2009-08-01

    A composite population is a breed made up of two or more component breeds and designed to benefit from hybrid vigor without crossing with other breeds, and is thus regarded as an alternative method for heterosis utilization. The breeding effects depend on retained heterosis in livestock composites. This paper reviews prediction methods of retained heterosis, relative production efficiency and production performance, and evaluation methods of breeding effects of composite populations. A composite population contains all three types of heterosis. If inbreeding can be avoided, it can retain heterosis to a certain extent. The retained heterosis depends on the number of contributing breeds and their proportions in the composite. The production performance rests both on average breeding values of contributing breeds and on retained heterosis of the composite itself. Breeding effects of composite population can be evaluated by theoretical prediction, actual estimation of retained heterosis, examination of genetic variation and/or comparison with other relevant breeds. PMID:19689939

  18. Recoil Based Fuel Breeding Fuel Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear transmutation reactions are based on the absorption of a smaller particle as neutron, proton, deuteron, alpha, etc. The resulting compound nucleus gets out of its initial lattice mainly by taking the recoil, also with help from its sudden change in chemical properties. The recoil implantation is used in correlation with thin and ultra thin materials mainly for producing radiopharmaceuticals and ultra-thin layer radioactive tracers. In nuclear reactors, the use of nano-particulate pellets could facilitate the recoil implantation for breeding, transmutation and partitioning purposes. Using enriched {sup 238}U or {sup 232}Th leads to {sup 239}Pu and {sup 233}U production while using other actinides as {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am etc. leads to actinide burning. When such a lattice is immersed into a radiation resistant fluid (water, methanol, etc.), the recoiled product is transferred into the flowing fluid and removed from the hot area using a concentrator/purifier, preventing the occurrence of secondary transmutation reactions. The simulation of nuclear collision and energy transfer shows that the impacted nucleus recoils in the interstitial space creating a defect or lives small lattices. The defect diffuses, and if no recombination occurs it stops at the lattices boundaries. The nano-grains are coated in thin layer to get a hydrophilic shell to be washed by the collection liquid the particle is immersed in. The efficiency of collection depends on particle magnitude and nuclear reaction channel parameters. For {sup 239}Pu the direct recoil extraction rate is about 70% for {sup 238}UO{sub 2} grains of 5 nm diameters and is brought up to 95% by diffusion due to {sup 239}Neptunium incompatibility with Uranium dioxide lattice. Particles of 5 nm are hard to produce so a structure using particles of 100 nm have been tested. The particles were obtained by plasma sputtering in oxygen atmosphere. A novel effect as nano-cluster radiation damage robustness and cluster

  19. Cooperative breeding in birds: a comparative test of the life history hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, K. E.; Owens, I. P. F.

    1998-01-01

    In approximately 3.2% of bird species individuals regularly forgo the opportunity to breed independently and instead breed cooperatively with other conspecifics, either as non-reproductive 'helpers' or as co-breeders. The traditional explanation for cooperative breeding is that the opportunities for breeding independently are limited owing to peculiar features of the species' breeding ecology. However, it has proved remarkably difficult to find any common ecological correlates of cooperative breeding in birds. This difficulty has led to the 'life history hypothesis', which suggests that the common feature of cooperatively breeding birds is their great longevity, rather than any particular feature of their breeding ecology. Here, we use a comparative method to test the life history hypothesis by looking for correlations between life history variation and variation in the frequency of cooperative breeding. First, we find that cooperative breeding in birds is not randomly distributed, but concentrated in certain families, thus supporting the idea that there may be a common basis to cooperative breeding in birds. Second, increases in the level of cooperative breeding are strongly associated with decreases in annual adult mortality and modal clutch size. Third, the proportion of cooperatively breeding species per family is correlated with a low family-typical value of annual mortality, suggesting that low mortality predisposes cooperative breeding rather than vice versa. Finally, the low rate of mortality typically found in cooperatively breeding species is associated with increasing sedentariness, lower latitudes, and decreased environmental fluctuation. We suggest that low annual mortality is the key factor that predisposes avian lineages to cooperative breeding, then ecological changes, such as becoming sedentary, further slow population turnover and reduce opportunities for independent breeding. As the traditional explanation suggests, the breeding habitat of

  20. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  1. Analysis of copy number variations among diverse cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, George E.; Hou, Yali; Zhu, Bin; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Jiang, Lu; Cellamare, Angelo; Mitra, Apratim; Alexander, Leeson J.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Gasbarre, Lou C.; Lacalandra, Gianni; Li, Robert W.; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K.; Nonneman, Dan; de A. Regitano, Luciana C.; Smith, Tim P.L.; Song, Jiuzhou; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Van Tassell, Curt P.; Ventura, Mario; Eichler, Evan E.; McDaneld, Tara G.; Keele, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. Here, we describe the first systematic and genome-wide analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) in modern domesticated cattle using array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The array CGH panel included 90 animals from 11 Bos taurus, three Bos indicus, and three composite breeds for beef, dairy, or dual purpose. We identified over 200 candidate CNV regions (CNVRs) in total and 177 within known chromosomes, which harbor or are adjacent to gains or losses. These 177 high-confidence CNVRs cover 28.1 megabases or ∼1.07% of the genome. Over 50% of the CNVRs (89/177) were found in multiple animals or breeds and analysis revealed breed-specific frequency differences and reflected aspects of the known ancestry of these cattle breeds. Selected CNVs were further validated by independent methods using qPCR and FISH. Approximately 67% of the CNVRs (119/177) completely or partially span cattle genes and 61% of the CNVRs (108/177) directly overlap with segmental duplications. The CNVRs span about 400 annotated cattle genes that are significantly enriched for specific biological functions, such as immunity, lactation, reproduction, and rumination. Multiple gene families, including ULBP, have gone through ruminant lineage-specific gene amplification. We detected and confirmed marked differences in their CNV frequencies across diverse breeds, indicating that some cattle CNVs are likely to arise independently in breeds and contribute to breed differences. Our results provide a valuable resource beyond microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the full dimension of genetic variability for future cattle genomic research. PMID:20212021

  2. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Bosch, G; Hendriks, W H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November 2011. In the collected samples, free felinine and creatinine concentrations were measured. Free felinine concentrations were expressed relative to the urinary creatinine concentration to compensate for possible variations in renal output. The mean (±SD) felinine:creatinine (Fel:Cr) ratio as measured over all cats was 0.702 (±0.265). Both the Abyssinian and Sphynx breeds showed the highest Fel:Cr ratio (0.878 ± 0.162 and 0.878 ± 0.341 respectively) which significantly differed from the ratios of the British Shorthairs (0.584 ± 0.220), Birmans (0.614 ± 0.266), Norwegian Forest cats (0.566 ± 0.296) and Siberian cats (0.627 ± 0.124). The Fel:Cr ratios of the Persians (0.792 ± 0.284) and Ragdolls (0.673 ± 0.256) showed no statistical difference with either of the other breeds. A significant proportion of the observed variation between the different feline breeds could be explained by hair growth, as both hair growth and felinine production compete for available cysteine. Shorthaired and hairless cat breeds generally showed a higher Fel:Cr ratio compared to longhaired cat breeds, with the exception of Persian cats. Further research is warranted to more closely study the effect of hair growth on felinine production. PMID:23819478

  3. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  4. Definition of animal breeding goals for sustainable production systems.

    PubMed

    Olesen, I; Groen, A F; Gjerde, B

    2000-03-01

    What we do is determined by the way we "view" a complex issue and what sample of issues or events we choose to deal with. In this paper, a model based on a communal, cultural, or people-centered worldview, informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology, is considered. Definitions and interpretations of sustainable agriculture are reviewed. Common elements in published definitions of sustainable agriculture and animal production among those who seek long-term and equitable solutions for food production are resource efficiency, profitability, productivity, environmental soundness, biodiversity, social viability, and ethical aspects. Possible characteristics of future sustainable production systems and further development are presented. The impact of these characteristics on animal breeding goals is reviewed. The need for long-term biologically, ecologically, and sociologically sound breeding goals is emphasized, because animal breeding determined only by short-term market forces leads to unwanted side effects. Hence, a procedure for defining animal breeding goals with ethical priorities and weighing of market and non-market values is suggested. Implementation of non-market as well as market economic trait values in the aggregate genotype, as suggested, may allow for breeding programs that contribute to sustainable production systems. Examples of breeding goals in salmon, cattle, and pigs are given, and the resulting genetic responses are evaluated with respect to economic profit (or costs) and other criteria of sustainability. Important prerequisites for breeding programs for sustainable production are appropriate governmental policies, awareness of our way of thinking, and a more communal worldview informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology.

  5. An Overview of Ten Italian Horse Breeds through Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Capodiferro, Marco Rosario; Capomaccio, Stefano; Buttazzoni, Luca; Biggio, Giovanni Paolo; Cherchi, Raffaele; Albertini, Emidio; Olivieri, Anna; Cappelli, Katia; Achilli, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background The climatic and cultural diversity of the Italian Peninsula triggered, over time, the development of a great variety of horse breeds, whose origin and history are still unclear. To clarify this issue, analyses on phenotypic traits and genealogical data were recently coupled with molecular screening. Methodology To provide a comprehensive overview of the horse genetic variability in Italy, we produced and phylogenetically analyzed 407 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region sequences from ten of the most important Italian riding horse and pony breeds: Bardigiano, Esperia, Giara, Lipizzan, Maremmano, Monterufolino, Murgese, Sarcidano, Sardinian Anglo-Arab, and Tolfetano. A collection of 36 Arabian horses was also evaluated to assess the genetic consequences of their common use for the improvement of some local breeds. Conclusions In Italian horses, all previously described domestic mtDNA haplogroups were detected as well as a high haplotype diversity. These findings indicate that the ancestral local mares harbored an extensive genetic diversity. Moreover, the limited haplotype sharing (11%) with the Arabian horse reveals that its impact on the autochthonous mitochondrial gene pools during the final establishment of pure breeds was marginal, if any. The only significant signs of genetic structure and differentiation were detected in the geographically most isolated contexts (i.e. Monterufolino and Sardinian breeds). Such a geographic effect was also confirmed in a wider breed setting, where the Italian pool stands in an intermediate position together with most of the other Mediterranean stocks. However, some notable exceptions and peculiar genetic proximities lend genetic support to historical theories about the origin of specific Italian breeds. PMID:27054850

  6. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  7. Frequency of micronuclei and of other nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of the grey mullet from the Mondego, Douro and Ave estuaries--Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carrola, João; Santos, Nádia; Rocha, Maria J; Fontainhas-Fernandes, António; Pardal, Miguel A; Monteiro, Rogério A F; Rocha, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Fish are bioindicators of water pollution, and an increased rate of their erythrocyte nuclear morphological abnormalities (ENMAs)-and particularly of erythrocyte micronuclei (EMN)-is used as a genotoxicity biomarker. Despite the potential value of ENMAs and MN, there is scarce information about fish captured in Iberian estuaries. This is the case of the Portuguese estuaries of the Mondego, Douro and Ave, suffering from different levels of environmental stress and where chemical surveys have been disclosing significant amounts of certain pollutants. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicants impacts and infer about the exposure at those ecosystems, using the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) as bioindicator and considering the type and frequency of nuclear abnormalities of erythrocytes as proxies of genotoxicity. Sampling of mullets was done throughout the year in the important Mondego, Douro and Ave River estuaries (centre and north-western Portugal). The fish (total n = 242) were caught in campaigns made in spring-summer and autumn-winter, using nets or fishing rods. The sampled mullets were comparable between locations in terms of the basic biometric parameters. Blood smears were stained with Diff-Quik to assess the frequencies of six types of ENMAs and MN (given per 1,000 erythrocytes). Some basic water physicochemical parameters were recorded to search for fluctuations matching the ENMAs. Overall, the most frequent nucleus abnormality was the polymorphic type, sequentially followed by the blebbed/lobed/notched, segmented, kidney shaped, vacuolated, MN and binucleated. The total average frequency of the ENMAs ranged from 73 ‰ in the Mondego to 108 ‰ in the Ave. The polymorphic type was typically ≥50 % of the total ENMAs, averaging about 51 ‰, when considering all three estuaries. The most serious lesion-the MN-in fish from Mondego and Douro had a similar frequency (≈0.38 ‰), which was significantly lower than that in the Ave (0

  8. Breed and other effects on reproductive traits and breeding soundness categorization in young beef bulls in Florida.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, P J; Chase, C C; Thatcher, M J; Wilcox, C J; Larsen, R E

    1996-11-01

    Yearling, grass-fed, beef bulls at the USDA Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, Brooksville, Florida, were assessed for physical and semen traits in January, April, July and October of 1991 (Trial 1) and 1992 (Trial 2). Bulls were given a breeding soundness evaluation (BSE) using revised semen and scrotal circumference (SC) criteria. In Trial 1, the bulls consisted of Angus (n = 15), Brahman (n = 14), Hereford (n = 15) and Senepol (n = 14). In Trial 2, the breeds were Angus (n = 15), Brahman (n = 16), Romosinuano (n = 13) and Nellore x Brahman (n = 9). Trial bulls generally showed delayed growth compared with grain-fed bulls in temperate environments. Breed influenced semen traits (percentage sperm motility, normal spermatozoa and those with primary abnormalities) in both trials. Temperate Bos taurus breeds (Angus, Hereford) were generally superior to Bos indicus breeds (Brahman, Nellore x Brahman). Tropically-adapted Bos taurus breeds (Senepol, Romosinuano) were intermediate for those traits tested. In general, tropically-adapted Bos taurus breeds were more similar in reproductive development to temperate Bos taurus than to Bos indicus breeds. Breed by test period interactions occurred and were mainly influenced by delayed sexual maturity of Bos indicus bulls. Qualitative semen traits increased with bull age, particularly from 12 to 18 mo. Scrotal circumference development was slower in the Bos indicus breeds. Bulls of satisfactory BSE status at 18.1 to 22 mo of age were 73.9% in Trial 1 and 58.5% in Trial 2. Brahman bulls had the least satisfactory BSE scores in both years (Trial 1, 44.4%; Trial 2, 22.2%). Most bulls failed to achieve satisfactory BSE status due to a small SC relative to age (Trial 1, 66%; Trial 2, 72%). The most efficacious use of the BSE was > or = 15 mo in Bos taurus bulls and > 18 mo for Bos indicus bulls. Although the BSE has proven to be useful for the assessment of young, pasture-raised bulls in semi-tropical environments, use of SC

  9. Breeding habitat associations and predicted distribution of an obligate tundra-breeding bird, Smith's Longspur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Teri C.; Kendall, Steven J.; Guldager, Nikki; Powell, Abby N.

    2015-01-01

    Smith's Longspur (Calcarius pictus) is a species of conservation concern which breeds in Arctic habitats that are expected to be especially vulnerable to climate change. We used bird presence and habitat data from point-transect surveys conducted at 12 sites across the Brooks Range, Alaska, 2003–2009, to identify breeding areas, describe local habitat associations, and identify suitable habitat using a predictive model of Smith's Longspur distribution. Smith's Longspurs were observed at seven sites, where they were associated with a variety of sedge–shrub habitats composed primarily of mosses, sedges, tussocks, and dwarf shrubs; erect shrubs were common but sparse. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination of ground cover revealed positive associations of Smith's Longspur presence with sedges and mosses and a negative association with high cover of shrubs. To model predicted distribution, we used boosted regression trees to relate landscape variables to occurrence. Our model predicted that Smith's Longspurs may occur in valleys and foothills of the northeastern and southeastern mountains and in upland plateaus of the western mountains, and farther west than currently documented, over a predicted area no larger than 15% of the Brooks Range. With climate change, shrubs are expected to grow larger and denser, while soil moisture and moss cover are predicted to decrease. These changes may reduce Smith's Longspur habitat quality and limit distribution in the Brooks Range to poorly drained lowlands and alpine plateaus where sedge–shrub tundra is likely to persist. Conversely, northward advance of shrubs into sedge tundra may create suitable habitat, thus supporting a northward longspur distribution shift.

  10. Genetic similarity, breeding distribution range and sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P; Garamszegi, L Z; Spottiswoode, C N

    2008-01-01

    Large populations with extensive breeding distributions may sustain greater genetic variability, thus producing a positive relationship between genetic variation and population size. Levels of genetic variability may also be affected by sexual selection, which could either reduce levels because a small fraction of males contribute to the following generation, or augment them by generating genetic variability through elevated rates of mutations. We investigated to what extent genetic variability, as estimated from band sharing coefficients for minisatellite markers, could be predicted by breeding distribution range, population size and intensity of sexual selection (as reflected by degree of polygyny and extra-pair paternity). Across a sample of 62 species of birds in the Western Palearctic, we found extensive interspecific variation in band sharing coefficients. High band sharing coefficients (implying low local genetic variability among individuals) were associated with restricted breeding distributions, a conclusion confirmed by analysis of statistically independent linear contrasts. Independently, species with large population sizes had small band sharing coefficients. Furthermore, bird species with a high richness of subspecies for their breeding distribution range had higher band sharing coefficients. Finally, bird species with high levels of polygyny and extra-pair paternity had small band sharing coefficients. These results suggest that breeding distribution range, population size and intensity of sexual selection are important predictors of levels of genetic variability in extant populations.

  11. Corticosterone mediated costs of reproduction link current to future breeding.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael; Williams, Tony D

    2013-11-01

    Life-history theory predicts that costs are associated with reproduction. One possible mediator of costs involves the secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which in birds can be measured in feathers grown during the breeding period. Glucocorticoids mediate physiological responses to unpredictable environmental or other stressors, but they can also function as metabolic regulators during more predictable events such as reproduction. Here we show that corticosterone ("Cort") in feathers grown during the breeding season reflects reproductive effort in two Antarctic seabird species (giant petrels, Macronectes spp.). In females of both species, but not males, feather Cort ("fCort") was nearly 1.5-fold higher in successful than failed breeders (those that lost their eggs/chicks), suggesting a cost of successful reproduction, i.e., high fCort levels in females reflect the elevated plasma Cort levels required to support high metabolic demands of chick-rearing. Successful breeding also led to delayed moult prior to winter migration. The fCort levels and pre-migration moult score that we measured at the end of current breeding were predictive of subsequent reproductive effort in the following year. Birds with high fCort and a delayed initiation of moult were much more likely to defer breeding in the following year. Cort levels and the timing of moult thus provide a potential mechanism for the tradeoff between current and future reproduction.

  12. Exploitation of induced 2n-gametes for plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Younis, Adnan; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-02-01

    Unreduced gamete formation derived via abnormal meiotic cell division is an important approach to polyploidy breeding. This process is considered the main driving force in spontaneous polyploids formation in nature, but the potential application of these gametes to plant breeding has not been fully exploited. An effective mechanism for their artificial induction is needed to attain greater genetic variation and enable efficient use of unreduced gametes in breeding programs. Different approaches have been employed for 2n-pollen production including interspecific hybridization, manipulation of environmental factors and treatment with nitrous oxide, trifluralin, colchicine, oryzalin and other chemicals. These chemicals can act as a stimulus to produce viable 2n pollen; however, their exact mode of action, optimum concentration and developmental stages are still not known. Identification of efficient methods of inducing 2n-gamete formation will help increase pollen germination of sterile interspecific hybrids for inter-genomic recombination and introgression breeding to develop new polyploid cultivars and increase heterozygosity among plant populations. Additionally, the application of genomic tools and identification and isolation of genes and mechanisms involved in the induction of 2n-gamete will enable increased exploitation in different plant species, which will open new avenues for plant breeding. PMID:24311154

  13. Rat Breeding Parameters According to Floor Space Available in Cage.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kenneth P; Dwinell, Melinda R; Zappa, Allison M; Michaels, Andrea M; Murray, Kathleen M; Thulin, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    The cage floor space recommended for a female rat with a litter is greater in the 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals than in previous editions. As a result, research institutions using commonly available cages to house rats may not offer the recommended amount of space for a breeding pair and litter housed in the same cage. We evaluated breeding parameters in rats housed in cages with 143 in(2) (922.6 cm(2)) compared with 210 in(2) (1355 cm(2)) of floor space. Given the strains of rats typically used at our institution, a monogamous breeding pair and litter requires 164 in(2) (1058.1 cm(2)) of floor space according to the Guide. Pairs of breeding animals were housed in each type of cage; and average time between litters, number of litters born, percentage of litter weaned, numbers of pups born and weaned, and average weaning weights were evaluated. None of the breeding parameters evaluated differed according to the floor space of the cage in which the rats were housed.

  14. Rat Breeding Parameters According to Floor Space Available in Cage

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kenneth P; Dwinell, Melinda R; Zappa, Allison M; Michaels, Andrea M; Murray, Kathleen M; Thulin, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    The cage floor space recommended for a female rat with a litter is greater in the 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals than in previous editions. As a result, research institutions using commonly available cages to house rats may not offer the recommended amount of space for a breeding pair and litter housed in the same cage. We evaluated breeding parameters in rats housed in cages with 143 in2 (922.6 cm2) compared with 210 in2 (1355 cm2) of floor space. Given the strains of rats typically used at our institution, a monogamous breeding pair and litter requires 164 in2 (1058.1 cm2) of floor space according to the Guide. Pairs of breeding animals were housed in each type of cage; and average time between litters, number of litters born, percentage of litter weaned, numbers of pups born and weaned, and average weaning weights were evaluated. None of the breeding parameters evaluated differed according to the floor space of the cage in which the rats were housed. PMID:26817975

  15. North European short-tailed breeds of sheep: a review.

    PubMed

    Dýrmundsson, O R; Niżnikowski, R

    2010-08-01

    The short-tailed sheep, native of an area stretching from Russia to Iceland, are generally considered a primitive type. These robust northern sheep seem to have been spread by Norse vikings to several countries in this area from the late eighth century to the middle of the eleventh century ad. They have several common characteristics in addition to the fluke-shaped and tapered short tail, such as a wide range of colour patterns, dual-coated wool and the ability to thrive under harsh environmental conditions, often in isolated marginal areas. While 34 short-tailed breeds of North European origin can still be identified, it is clear that their population sizes have declined in most cases and several of them are now rare and endangered. Although these breeds have mainly been confined to certain localities, some of them have gained considerable distribution due to their genetic merits, such as prolificacy. Of these, the Finnsheep and the Romanov are best known being exported to several countries in the world where their genetic material has been utilized through crossbreeding with local sheep. This has resulted in the production of some new synthetic breeds. Meat is now generally the main product of the North European short-tailed breeds and their crossbreds, whereas wool, skins and milk are normally regarded as byproducts, yet of considerable economic importance in some cases. Such breeds have clearly a role to play in sustainable grassland-based production systems in the future.

  16. Proximate drivers of spatial segregation in non-breeding albatrosses

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Thomas A.; Manica, Andrea; Ryan, Peter G.; Silk, Janet R. D.; Croxall, John P.; Ireland, Louise; Phillips, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Many animals partition resources to avoid competition, and in colonially-breeding species this often leads to divergent space or habitat use. During the non-breeding season, foraging constraints are relaxed, yet the patterns and drivers of segregation both between and within populations are poorly understood. We modelled habitat preference to examine how extrinsic (habitat availability and intra-specific competition) and intrinsic factors (population, sex and breeding outcome) influence the distributions of non-breeding grey-headed albatrosses Thalassarche chrysostoma tracked from two major populations, South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) and the Prince Edward Islands (Indian Ocean). Spatial segregation was greater than expected, reflecting distinct seasonal differences in habitat selection and accessibility, and avoidance of intra-specific competition with local breeders. Previously failed birds segregated spatially from successful birds during summer, when they used less productive waters, suggesting a link between breeding outcome and subsequent habitat selection. In contrast, we found weak evidence of sexual segregation, which did not reflect a difference in habitat use. Our results indicate that the large-scale spatial structuring of albatross distributions results from interactions between extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with important implications for population dynamics. As habitat preferences differed substantially between colonies, populations should be considered independently when identifying critical areas for protection. PMID:27443877

  17. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops.

    PubMed

    Krannich, Christoph Tim; Maletzki, Lisa; Kurowsky, Christina; Horn, Renate

    2015-07-17

    Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a great deal of research is ongoing, especially in cereals, in this regard, not all mechanisms involved in drought tolerance are yet understood. The identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance that have a high potential to be used for breeding drought tolerant crops represents a challenge. Breeding for drought tolerant crops has to focus on acceptable yields under water-limited conditions and not on survival. However, as more and more knowledge about the complex networks and the cross talk during drought is available, more options are revealed. In addition, it has to be considered that conditioning a crop for drought tolerance might require the production of metabolites and might cost the plants energy and resources that cannot be used in terms of yield. Recent research indicates that yield penalty exists and efficient breeding for drought tolerant crops with acceptable yields under well-watered and drought conditions might require uncoupling yield penalty from drought tolerance.

  18. Genotype by environment interaction and breeding for robustness in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy M.; Gomez-Raya, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of the human population is projected to result in an increase in meat consumption. However, at the same time, the dominant position of meat as the center of meals is on the decline. Modern objections to the consumption of meat include public concerns with animal welfare in livestock production systems. Animal breeding practices have become part of the debate since it became recognized that animals in a population that have been selected for high production efficiency are more at risk for behavioral, physiological and immunological problems. As a solution, animal breeding practices need to include selection for robustness traits, which can be implemented through the use of reaction norms analysis, or though the direct inclusion of robustness traits in the breeding objective and in the selection index. This review gives an overview of genotype × environment interactions (the influence of the environment, reaction norms, phenotypic plasticity, canalization, and genetic homeostasis), reaction norms analysis in livestock production, options for selection for increased levels of production and against environmental sensitivity, and direct inclusion of robustness traits in the selection index. Ethical considerations of breeding for improved animal welfare are discussed. The discussion on animal breeding practices has been initiated and is very alive today. This positive trend is part of the sustainable food production movement that aims at feeding 9.15 billion people not just in the near future but also beyond. PMID:26539207

  19. Proximate drivers of spatial segregation in non-breeding albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Clay, Thomas A; Manica, Andrea; Ryan, Peter G; Silk, Janet R D; Croxall, John P; Ireland, Louise; Phillips, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Many animals partition resources to avoid competition, and in colonially-breeding species this often leads to divergent space or habitat use. During the non-breeding season, foraging constraints are relaxed, yet the patterns and drivers of segregation both between and within populations are poorly understood. We modelled habitat preference to examine how extrinsic (habitat availability and intra-specific competition) and intrinsic factors (population, sex and breeding outcome) influence the distributions of non-breeding grey-headed albatrosses Thalassarche chrysostoma tracked from two major populations, South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) and the Prince Edward Islands (Indian Ocean). Spatial segregation was greater than expected, reflecting distinct seasonal differences in habitat selection and accessibility, and avoidance of intra-specific competition with local breeders. Previously failed birds segregated spatially from successful birds during summer, when they used less productive waters, suggesting a link between breeding outcome and subsequent habitat selection. In contrast, we found weak evidence of sexual segregation, which did not reflect a difference in habitat use. Our results indicate that the large-scale spatial structuring of albatross distributions results from interactions between extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with important implications for population dynamics. As habitat preferences differed substantially between colonies, populations should be considered independently when identifying critical areas for protection. PMID:27443877

  20. Complete migration cycle of golden eagles breeding in northern Quebec

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodeur, Serge; DeCarie, R.; Bird, D.M.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Radio tracking via satellite was initiated to study the year-round movements of Golden Eagles(Aquila chrysaetosc anadensis) breeding on the east coast of Hudson Bay, Quebec. In June and August 1992, six Golden Eagles(five adults and one juvenile) were marked, three of which completed their year-round movements. The eagles left their breeding area in mid- to late October and migrated to known wintering areas in the eastern United States. They used different routes but each followed the same general path during fall and spring migrations which lasted between 26 and 40 days,and 25 and 51 days, respectively. Eagles wintered from 93 to 135 days in areas located 1,650 to 3,000 km south of their breeding territory. In spring 1993, satellite telemetry located the eagles in their former breeding territory in late March, mid-April and early May. This study confirms previous suggestion that some breeding Golden Eagles wintering in eastern United States come from northern Quebec and describes the first successful tracking of the complete yearly migration cycle of a bird of prey.

  1. Selection for avian immune response: a commercial breeding company challenge.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E

    2004-04-01

    Selection for immune function in the commercial breeding environment is a challenging proposition for commercial breeding companies. Immune response is only one of many traits that are under intensive selection, thus selection pressure needs to be carefully balanced across multiple traits. The selection environment (single bird cages, biosecure facilities, controlled environment) is a very different environment than the commercial production facilities (multiple bird cages, potential disease exposure, variable environment) in which birds are to produce. The testing of individual birds is difficult, time consuming, and expensive. It is essential that the results of any tests be relevant to actual disease or environmental challenge in the commercial environment. The use of genetic markers as indicators of immune function is being explored by breeding companies. Use of genetic markers would eliminate many of the limitations in enhancing immune function currently encountered by commercial breeding companies. Information on genetic markers would allow selection to proceed without subjecting breeding stock to disease conditions and could be done before production traits are measured. These markers could be candidate genes with known interaction or involvement with disease pathology or DNA markers that are closely linked to genetic regions that influence the immune response. The current major limitation to this approach is the paucity of mapped chicken immune response genes and the limited number of DNA markers mapped on the chicken genome. These limitations should be eliminated once the chicken genome is sequenced.

  2. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops

    PubMed Central

    Krannich, Christoph Tim; Maletzki, Lisa; Kurowsky, Christina; Horn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a great deal of research is ongoing, especially in cereals, in this regard, not all mechanisms involved in drought tolerance are yet understood. The identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance that have a high potential to be used for breeding drought tolerant crops represents a challenge. Breeding for drought tolerant crops has to focus on acceptable yields under water-limited conditions and not on survival. However, as more and more knowledge about the complex networks and the cross talk during drought is available, more options are revealed. In addition, it has to be considered that conditioning a crop for drought tolerance might require the production of metabolites and might cost the plants energy and resources that cannot be used in terms of yield. Recent research indicates that yield penalty exists and efficient breeding for drought tolerant crops with acceptable yields under well-watered and drought conditions might require uncoupling yield penalty from drought tolerance. PMID:26193269

  3. Community-based alternative breeding plans for indigenous sheep breeds in four agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Willam, A; Wurzinger, M; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Solkner, J

    2012-06-01

    Based on the results of participatory approaches to define traits in the breeding objectives, four scenarios of ram selection and ram use were compared via deterministic modelling of breeding plans for community-based sheep breeding programmes in four diverse agro-ecological regions of Ethiopia. The regions (and production systems) were Afar (pastoral/agro-pastoral), Bonga and Horro (both mixed crop-livestock) and Menz (sheep-barley). The schemes or scenarios differed in terms of selection intensity and duration of ram use. The predicted genetic gains per year in yearling weight (kilograms) were comparable across the schemes but differed among the breeds and ranged from 0.399 to 0.440 in Afar, 0.813 to 0.894 in Bonga, 0.850 to 0.940 in Horro, and 0.616 to 0.699 in Menz. The genetic gains per year in number of lambs born per ewe bred ranged from 0.009 to 0.010 in both Bonga and Horro. The predicted genetic gain in the proportion of lambs weaned per ewe joined was nearly comparable in all breeds ranging from 0.008 to 0.011. The genetic gain per year in milk yield of Afar breed was in the order of 0.018 to 0.020 kg, while the genetic gain per generation for greasy fleece weight (kg) ranged from 0.016 to 0.024 in Menz. Generally, strong selection and shorter duration of ram use for breeding were the preferred options. The expected genetic gains are satisfactory but largely rely on accurate and continuous pedigree and performance recording.

  4. Breeding of ozone resistant rice: relevance, approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Frei, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have been rising across Asia, and will continue to rise during the 21st century. Ozone affects rice yields through reductions in spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and grain size. Moreover, ozone leads to changes in rice grain and straw quality. Therefore the breeding of ozone tolerant rice varieties is warranted. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using bi-parental populations identified several tolerance QTL mitigating symptom formation, grain yield losses, or the degradation of straw quality. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated substantial natural genotypic variation in ozone tolerance in rice, and revealed that the genetic architecture of ozone tolerance in rice is dominated by multiple medium and small effect loci. Transgenic approaches targeting tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant capacity are also discussed. It is concluded that the breeding of ozone tolerant rice can contribute substantially to the global food security, and is feasible using different breeding approaches. PMID:25528448

  5. Prevalence of feline infectious peritonitis in specific cat breeds.

    PubMed

    Pesteanu-Somogyi, Loretta D; Radzai, Christina; Pressler, Barrak M

    2006-02-01

    Although known that purebreed cats are more likely to develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), previous studies have not examined the prevalence of disease in individual breeds. All cats diagnosed with FIP at a veterinary teaching hospital over a 16-year period were identified. Breed, sex and reproductive status of affected cats were compared to the general cat population and to mixed breed cats evaluated during the same period. As with previous studies sexually intact cats and purebreed cats were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with FIP; males and young cats also had a higher prevalence of disease. Abyssinians, Bengals, Birmans, Himalayans, Ragdolls and Rexes had a significantly higher risk, whereas Burmese, Exotic Shorthairs, Manxes, Persians, Russian Blues and Siamese cats were not at increased risk for development of FIP. Although additional factors doubtlessly influence the relative prevalence of FIP, this study provides additional guidance when prioritizing differentials in ill purebreed cats. PMID:15994104

  6. Opportunities for Products of New Plant Breeding Techniques.

    PubMed

    Schaart, Jan G; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Lotz, Lambertus A P; Smulders, Marinus J M

    2016-05-01

    Various new plant breeding techniques (NPBT) have a similar aim, namely to produce improved crop varieties that are difficult to obtain through traditional breeding methods. Here, we review the opportunities for products created using NPBTs. We categorize products of these NPBTs into three product classes with a different degree of genetic modification. For each product class, recent examples are described to illustrate the potential for breeding new crops with improved traits. Finally, we touch upon the future applications of these methods, such as cisgenic potato genotypes in which specific combinations of Phytophthora infestans resistance genes have been stacked for use in durable cultivation, or the creation of new disease resistances by knocking out or removing S-genes using genome-editing techniques. PMID:26654659

  7. Evidence for frequent incest in a cooperatively breeding mammal.

    PubMed

    Nichols, H J; Cant, M A; Hoffman, J I; Sanderson, J L

    2014-12-01

    As breeding between relatives often results in inbreeding depression, inbreeding avoidance is widespread in the animal kingdom. However, inbreeding avoidance may entail fitness costs. For example, dispersal away from relatives may reduce survival. How these conflicting selection pressures are resolved is challenging to investigate, but theoretical models predict that inbreeding should occur frequently in some systems. Despite this, few studies have found evidence of regular incest in mammals, even in social species where relatives are spatio-temporally clustered and opportunities for inbreeding frequently arise. We used genetic parentage assignments together with relatedness data to quantify inbreeding rates in a wild population of banded mongooses, a cooperatively breeding carnivore. We show that females regularly conceive to close relatives, including fathers and brothers. We suggest that the costs of inbreeding avoidance may sometimes outweigh the benefits, even in cooperatively breeding species where strong within-group incest avoidance is considered to be the norm.

  8. Molecular Breeding of Sorghum bicolor, A Novel Energy Crop.

    PubMed

    Ordonio, Reynante; Ito, Yusuke; Morinaka, Yoichi; Sazuka, Takashi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Currently, molecular breeding is regarded as an important tool for the improvement of many crop species. However, in sorghum, recently heralded as an important bioenergy crop, progress in this field has been relatively slow and limited. In this review, we present existing efforts targeted at genetic characterization of sorghum mutants. We also comprehensively review the different attempts made toward the isolation of genes involved in agronomically important traits, including the dissection of some sorghum quantitative trait loci (QTLs). We also explore the current status of the use of transgenic techniques in sorghum, which should be crucial for advancing sorghum molecular breeding. Through this report, we provide a useful benchmark to help assess how much more sorghum genomics and molecular breeding could be improved.

  9. Breeding of ozone resistant rice: relevance, approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Frei, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have been rising across Asia, and will continue to rise during the 21st century. Ozone affects rice yields through reductions in spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and grain size. Moreover, ozone leads to changes in rice grain and straw quality. Therefore the breeding of ozone tolerant rice varieties is warranted. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using bi-parental populations identified several tolerance QTL mitigating symptom formation, grain yield losses, or the degradation of straw quality. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated substantial natural genotypic variation in ozone tolerance in rice, and revealed that the genetic architecture of ozone tolerance in rice is dominated by multiple medium and small effect loci. Transgenic approaches targeting tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant capacity are also discussed. It is concluded that the breeding of ozone tolerant rice can contribute substantially to the global food security, and is feasible using different breeding approaches.

  10. Conservation priorities of Iberoamerican pig breeds and their ancestors based on microsatellite information.

    PubMed

    Cortés, O; Martinez, A M; Cañon, J; Sevane, N; Gama, L T; Ginja, C; Landi, V; Zaragoza, P; Carolino, N; Vicente, A; Sponenberg, P; Delgado, J V

    2016-07-01

    Criollo pig breeds are descendants from pigs brought to the American continent starting with Columbus second trip in 1493. Pigs currently play a key role in social economy and community cultural identity in Latin America. The aim of this study was to establish conservation priorities among a comprehensive group of Criollo pig breeds based on a set of 24 microsatellite markers and using different criteria. Spain and Portugal pig breeds, wild boar populations of different European geographic origins and commercial pig breeds were included in the analysis as potential genetic influences in the development of Criollo pig breeds. Different methods, differing in the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic variability, were used in order to estimate the contribution of each breed to global genetic diversity. As expected, the partial contribution to total heterozygosity gave high priority to Criollo pig breeds, whereas Weitzman procedures prioritized Iberian Peninsula breeds. With the combined within- and between-breed approaches, different conservation priorities were achieved. The Core Set methodologies highly prioritized Criollo pig breeds (Cr. Boliviano, Cr. Pacifico, Cr. Cubano and Cr. Guadalupe). However, weighing the between- and within-breed components with FST and 1-FST, respectively, resulted in higher contributions of Iberian breeds. In spite of the different conservation priorities according to the methodology used, other factors in addition to genetic information also need to be considered in conservation programmes, such as the economic, cultural or historical value of the breeds involved.

  11. A review of the mite subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)--parasites of New World birds (Aves: Neognathae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; OConnor, Barry M; Klompen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Mites of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Harpirhynchidae) associated with neognathous birds (Aves: Neognathae) in the New World are revised. In all, 68 species in 8 genera are recorded. Among them, 27 new species and 1 new genus are described as new for science: Harpyrhynchoides gallowayi Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Columba livia (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from Canada (Manitoba), H. zenaida Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Zenaida macroura (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from USA (Michigan), H. calidris Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Calidris minutilla (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from USA (Kansas), H. actitis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Actitis macularius (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from Canada (British Columbia), H. charadrius Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Charadrius vociferus (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Texas), H. pluvialis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Pluvialis dominica (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Ohio), H. bubulcus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Bubulcus ibis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Florida), H. ixobrychus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Ixobrychus exilis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Michigan), H. puffinus Mertins sp. nov. from Puffinus gravis (Procellariformes: Procellariidae) from USA (Florida), H. megascops Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Megascops asio (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Michigan), H. athene Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Athene canicularia (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Texas), H. coccyzus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Coccyzus americanus (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from USA (Michigan), H. crotophaga Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from Suriname; Crassacarus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen, gen. nov.: Crassacarus alexfaini Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. (type of genus

  12. Limitations of captive breeding in endangered species recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Derrickson, S.R.; Beissenger, S.R.; Wiley, J.W.; Smith, T.B.; Toone, W.D.; Miller, B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of captive breeding in species recovery has grown enormously in recent years, but without a concurrent growth in appreciation of its limitations. Problems with (1) establishing self-sufficient captive populations, (2) poor success in reintroductions, (3.) high costs, (4) domestication, (5) preemption of other recovery techniques, (6) disease outbreaks, and (7) maintaining administrative continuity have all been significant. The technique has often been invoked prematurely and should not normally be employed before a careful field evaluation of costs and benefits of all conservation alternatives has been accomplished and a determination made that captive breeding is essential for species survival. Merely demonstrating that a species population is declining or bas fallen below what may be a minimum viable size does not constitute enough analysis to justify captive breeding as a recovery measure. Captive breeding should be reviewed as a last resort in species recovery and not a prophylactic or long-term solution because of the inexorable genetic and phenotypic changes that occur in captive environments. Captive breeding can play a crucial role in recovery of some species for witch effective alternatives are unavailable in the short term. However, it should not displace habitat and ecosystem protection nor should it be invoked in the absence of comprehensive efforts to maintain or restore populations in wild habitats. Zoological institutions with captive breeding programs should operate under carefully defined conditions of disease prevention and genetic/behavioral management. More important, these institutions should help preserve biodiversity through their capacities for public education, professional training, research, and support of in situ conservation efforts.

  13. A multiscaled model of southwestern willow flycatcher breeding habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, J.R.; Paradzick, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (SWFL; Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered songbird whose habitat has declined dramatically over the last century. Understanding habitat selection patterns and the ability to identify potential breeding areas for the SWFL is crucial to the management and conservation of this species. We developed a multiscaled model of SWTL breeding habitat with a Geographic Information System (GIS), survey data, GIS variables, and multiple logistic regressions. We obtained presence and absence survey data from a riverine ecosystem and a reservoir delta in south-central Arizona, USA, in 1999. We extracted the GIS variables from satellite imagery and digital elevation models to characterize vegetation and floodplain within the project area. We used multiple logistic regressions within a cell-based (30 X 30 m) modeling environment to (1) determine associations between GIS variables and breeding-site occurrence at different spatial scales (0.09-72 ha), and (2) construct a predictive model. Our best model explained 54% of the variability in breeding-site occurrence with the following variables: vegetation density at the site (0.09 ha), proportion of dense vegetation and variability in vegetation density within a 4.5-ha neighborhood, and amount of floodplain or flat terrain within a 41-ha neighborhood. The density of breeding sites was highest in areas that the model predicted to be most suitable within the project area and at an external test site 200 km away. Conservation efforts must focus on protecting not only occupied patches, but also surrounding riparian forests and floodplain to ensure long-term viability of SWTL. We will use the multiscaled model to map SWTL breeding habitat in Arizona, prioritize future survey effort, and examine changes in habitat abundance and quality over time.

  14. Evolutionary routes to non-kin cooperative breeding in birds

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Cooperatively breeding animals live in social groups in which some individuals help to raise the offspring of others, often at the expense of their own reproduction. Kin selection—when individuals increase their inclusive fitness by aiding genetic relatives—is a powerful explanation for the evolution of cooperative breeding, particularly because most groups consist of family members. However, recent molecular studies have revealed that many cooperative groups also contain unrelated immigrants, and the processes responsible for the formation and maintenance of non-kin coalitions are receiving increasing attention. Here, I provide the first systematic review of group structure for all 213 species of cooperatively breeding birds for which data are available. Although the majority of species (55%) nest in nuclear family groups, cooperative breeding by unrelated individuals is more common than previously recognized: 30% nest in mixed groups of relatives and non-relatives, and 15% nest primarily with non-relatives. Obligate cooperative breeders are far more likely to breed with non-kin than are facultative cooperators, indicating that when constraints on independent breeding are sufficiently severe, the direct benefits of group membership can substitute for potential kin-selected benefits. I review three patterns of dispersal that give rise to social groups with low genetic relatedness, and I discuss the selective pressures that favour the formation of such groups. Although kin selection has undoubtedly been crucial to the origin of most avian social systems, direct benefits have subsequently come to play a predominant role in some societies, allowing cooperation to persist despite low genetic relatedness. PMID:24132311

  15. Sources of variation in survival of breeding female wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartke, Kevin M.; Grand, J.B.; Hepp, G.R.; Folk, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    In waterfowl, reproduction is physiologically demanding and females are exposed to varying risks of mortality at different periods of the breeding cycle. Moreover, differences among females may influence survival within breeding periods. We captured and fitted female Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with radio-transmitters before nest initiation during two breeding seasons to estimate survival and investigate sources of variation in survival. We partitioned the breeding season into three periods (preincubation, incubation, postnesting) according to breeding status of individual females, and used information-theoretic methods to compare models in which daily survival varied among periods, between successful and failed nesting females, and with parameters describing individual heterogeneity. Our analysis suggested that daily survival was best modeled as a function of breeding period, differences between successful and failed nesting females during postnesting, and early incubation body condition of successful females during post-nesting. Model-averaged daily survival was 0.9988 (95% CL: 0.9963-0.9996) during preincubation and 1.0 during incubation. Postnesting daily survival was 1.0 for failed nesting females and 0.9948 (0.9773-0.9988) for successful females, suggesting a trade-off between current reproduction and survival. Female age, body condition at capture, nest initiation date, and brood size generally were not useful for explaining variation in survival. Only early incubation body condition was important for modeling survival of successful females during postnesting; however, weight of evidence was limited and the effect on survival was weak. Mortality was greatest for females during preincubation and for females that nested successfully. Results support the hypothesis that brood care is costly for females. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  16. The Yellow-green Bush-tanager is neither a bush-tanager nor a sparrow:
    Molecular phylogenetics reveals that Chlorospingus flavovirens is a tanager (Aves: Passeriformes; Thraupidae).

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Barker, F Keith; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2016-07-06

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the genus Chlorospingus (Aves: Emberizidae) indicate that the genus is not monophyletic because Chlorospingus flavovirens is actually a member of the tanager family (Thraupidae), in which its closest relatives are members of the genus Bangsia. We thus propose that C. flavovirens be transferred to Thraupidae and to the genus Bangsia.

  17. The Yellow-green Bush-tanager is neither a bush-tanager nor a sparrow:
    Molecular phylogenetics reveals that Chlorospingus flavovirens is a tanager (Aves: Passeriformes; Thraupidae).

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Barker, F Keith; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the genus Chlorospingus (Aves: Emberizidae) indicate that the genus is not monophyletic because Chlorospingus flavovirens is actually a member of the tanager family (Thraupidae), in which its closest relatives are members of the genus Bangsia. We thus propose that C. flavovirens be transferred to Thraupidae and to the genus Bangsia. PMID:27395721

  18. Random drift and large shifts in popularity of dog breeds.

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Harold A; Bentley, R Alexander; Hahn, Matthew W

    2004-01-01

    A simple model of random copying among individuals, similar to the population genetic model of random drift, can predict the variability in the popularity of cultural variants. Here, we show that random drift also explains a biologically relevant cultural phenomenon--changes in the distributions of popularity of dog breeds in the United States in each of the past 50 years. There are, however, interesting deviations from the model that involve large changes in the popularity of certain breeds. By identifying meaningful departures from our null model, we show how it can serve as a foundation for studying culture change quantitatively, using the tools of population genetics. PMID:15504016

  19. Population dynamics of mallards breeding in eastern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugger, Bruce D.; Coluccy, John M.; Dugger, Katie M.; Fox, Trevor T.; Kraege, Donald K.; Petrie, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Variation in regional population trends for mallards breeding in the western United States indicates that additional research into factors that influence demographics could contribute to management and understanding the population demographics of mallards across North America. We estimated breeding incidence and adult female, nest, and brood survival in eastern Washington in 2006 and 2007 by monitoring female mallards with radio telemetry and tested how those parameters were influenced by study year (2006 vs. 2007), landscape type (agricultural vs. natural), and age (second year [SY] vs. after second year [ASY]). We also investigated the effects of female body condition and capture date on breeding incidence, and nest initiation date and hatch date on nest and brood survival, respectively. We included population parameters in a stage-based demographic model and conducted a perturbation analysis to identify which vital rates were most influential on population growth rate (λ). Adult female survival was best modeled with a constant weekly survival rate (0.994, SE = 0.003). Breeding incidence differed between years and was higher for birds in better body condition. Nest survival was higher for ASY females (0.276, SE = 0.118) than SY females (0.066, SE = 0.052), and higher on publicly managed lands (0.383, SE = 0.212) than agricultural (0.114, SE = 0.058) landscapes. Brood survival was best modeled with a constant rate for the 7-week monitoring period (0.50, SE = 0.155). The single variable having the greatest influence on λ was non-breeding season survival, but the combination of parameters from the breeding grounds explained a greater percent of the variance in λ. Mallard population growth rate was most sensitive to changes in non-breeding survival, nest success, brood survival, and breeding incidence. Future management decisions should focus on activities that improve these vital rates if managers want to increase the production of

  20. Participatory definition of breeding objectives for sheep breeds under pastoral systems--the case of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep in Kenya.

    PubMed

    König, Emelie Zonabend; Mirkena, Tadele; Strandberg, Erling; Audho, James; Ojango, Julie; Malmfors, Birgitta; Okeyo, Ally Mwai; Philipsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing local breeds with exotic breeds may be an option for increased livestock productivity. However, there is a risk for endangerment of the local breeds. One such case is in Kenya where the imported Dorper breed is used for crossbreeding with Red Maasai sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate farmers' trait preferences as a basis for determination of breeding objectives for Red Maasai and Dorper sheep at two sites, Amboseli and Isinya, in Kenya. Within their own flock, each farmer identified three ewes representing the best, average and poorest within each breed group: Red Maasai, Dorper and Crosses. Farmers gave reasons for their ranking. Body measurements and weights were also taken. At the harshest site, Amboseli, differences between breed groups in body weight were small and breeds were equally preferred. In Isinya, where environmental conditions are better and farmers are more market oriented, Dorper and Crosses had significantly higher body weights and market prices and were thus preferred by the farmers. Red Maasai were preferred for their maternal and adaptive traits. Breeding objectives should emphasize growth traits and milk production in both breeds at both sites. Body condition needs to be specifically considered in the breeding objectives for sheep in Amboseli, whereas adaptive traits need to be generally emphasized in Dorper. PMID:26374208

  1. Participatory definition of breeding objectives for sheep breeds under pastoral systems--the case of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep in Kenya.

    PubMed

    König, Emelie Zonabend; Mirkena, Tadele; Strandberg, Erling; Audho, James; Ojango, Julie; Malmfors, Birgitta; Okeyo, Ally Mwai; Philipsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing local breeds with exotic breeds may be an option for increased livestock productivity. However, there is a risk for endangerment of the local breeds. One such case is in Kenya where the imported Dorper breed is used for crossbreeding with Red Maasai sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate farmers' trait preferences as a basis for determination of breeding objectives for Red Maasai and Dorper sheep at two sites, Amboseli and Isinya, in Kenya. Within their own flock, each farmer identified three ewes representing the best, average and poorest within each breed group: Red Maasai, Dorper and Crosses. Farmers gave reasons for their ranking. Body measurements and weights were also taken. At the harshest site, Amboseli, differences between breed groups in body weight were small and breeds were equally preferred. In Isinya, where environmental conditions are better and farmers are more market oriented, Dorper and Crosses had significantly higher body weights and market prices and were thus preferred by the farmers. Red Maasai were preferred for their maternal and adaptive traits. Breeding objectives should emphasize growth traits and milk production in both breeds at both sites. Body condition needs to be specifically considered in the breeding objectives for sheep in Amboseli, whereas adaptive traits need to be generally emphasized in Dorper.

  2. A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting quality traits in barley. The breeding lines were six-row and two-row barley advanced breeding lines from eight barley breeding populations established at six pub...

  3. Fashion vs. function in cultural evolution: the case of dog breed popularity.

    PubMed

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold; Serpell, James A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between characteristics of dog breeds and their popularity between years 1926 and 2005. We consider breed health, longevity, and behavioral qualities such as aggressiveness, trainability, and fearfulness. We show that a breed's overall popularity, fluctuations in popularity, and rates of increase and decrease around popularity peaks show typically no correlation with these breed characteristics. One exception is the finding that more popular breeds tend to suffer from more inherited disorders. Our results support the hypothesis that dog breed popularity has been primarily determined by fashion rather than function. PMID:24040341

  4. Fashion vs. Function in Cultural Evolution: The Case of Dog Breed Popularity

    PubMed Central

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold; Serpell, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between characteristics of dog breeds and their popularity between years 1926 and 2005. We consider breed health, longevity, and behavioral qualities such as aggressiveness, trainability, and fearfulness. We show that a breed's overall popularity, fluctuations in popularity, and rates of increase and decrease around popularity peaks show typically no correlation with these breed characteristics. One exception is the finding that more popular breeds tend to suffer from more inherited disorders. Our results support the hypothesis that dog breed popularity has been primarily determined by fashion rather than function. PMID:24040341

  5. Population dynamics in a long-lived seabird: I. Impact of breeding activity on survival and breeding probability in unbanded king penguins.

    PubMed

    Le Bohec, Céline; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Grémillet, David; Pradel, Roger; Béchet, Arnaud; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Le Maho, Yvon

    2007-11-01

    Understanding the trade-off between current reproductive effort, future survival and future breeding attempts is crucial for demographic analyses and life history studies. We investigated this trade-off in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) marked individually with transponders using multistate capture-recapture models. This colonial seabird species has a low annual proportion of non-breeders (13%), despite a breeding cycle which lasts over 1 year. To draw inferences about the consequences of non-breeding, we tested for an effect of reproductive activity on survival and on the probability of subsequent breeding. We found that birds non-breeding in year t show the same survival rate as breeders (two-states analysis: breeding and non-breeding). However, breeders had a lower probability of breeding again the following year. This negative phenotypic correlation suggests the existence of reproductive costs affecting future breeding probability, but it might also be strengthened by late arrival for courtship in year t. A three-state analysis including breeding success revealed that failed breeders in year t have a lower probability to reproduce successfully in year t + 1 than non-breeders in year t, providing some evidence for the existence of reproductive costs. Moreover, successful breeders showed higher survival probability. This positive phenotypic correlation between current reproduction and subsequent survival supports the hypothesis of an heterogeneity in individual quality. Males breeding in year t had a lower probability to breed again in year t + 1 than females, suggesting higher reproductive costs for this sex. Such additional costs might be due to higher male parental investment in the final phase of chick-rearing, which also delays the arrival of males in year t + 1, and decreases their breeding probability. Our study is the first to explore the breeding biology and the demography of penguins without the disturbance of flipper

  6. Use of the superpopulation approach to estimate breeding population size: An example in asynchronously breeding birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, K.A.; Frederick, P.C.; Nichols, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Many populations of animals are fluid in both space and time, making estimation of numbers difficult. Much attention has been devoted to estimation of bias in detection of animals that are present at the time of survey. However, an equally important problem is estimation of population size when all animals are not present on all survey occasions. Here, we showcase use of the superpopulation approach to capture-recapture modeling for estimating populations where group membership is asynchronous, and where considerable overlap in group membership among sampling occasions may occur. We estimate total population size of long-legged wading bird (Great Egret and White Ibis) breeding colonies from aerial observations of individually identifiable nests at various times in the nesting season. Initiation and termination of nests were analogous to entry and departure from a population. Estimates using the superpopulation approach were 47-382% larger than peak aerial counts of the same colonies. Our results indicate that the use of the superpopulation approach to model nesting asynchrony provides a considerably less biased and more efficient estimate of nesting activity than traditional methods. We suggest that this approach may also be used to derive population estimates in a variety of situations where group membership is fluid. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. A kinetic energy study of the meso beta-scale storm environment during AVE-SESAME 5 (20-21 May 1979)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Printy, M. F.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Kinetic energy of the near storm environment was analyzed by meso beta scale data. It was found that horizontal winds in the 400 to 150 mb layer strengthen rapidly north of the developing convection. Peak values then decrease such that the maximum disappears 6 h later. Southeast of the storms, wind speeds above 300 mb decrease nearly 50% during the 3 h period of most intense thunderstorm activity. When the convection dissipates, wind patterns return to prestorm conditions. The mesoscale storm environment of AVE-SESAME 5 is characterized by large values of cross contour generation of kinetic energy, transfers of energy to nonresolvable scales of motion, and horizontal flux divergence. These processes are maximized within the upper troposphere and are greatest during times of strongest convection. It is shown that patterns agree with observed weather features. The southeast area of the network is examined to determine causes for vertical wind variations.

  8. Cystoidosoma hermaphroditus sp. n., the first representative of the quill mite family Ascouracaridae (Acari: Astigmata: Pterolichoidea) from an owl (Aves: Strigiformes).

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; OConnor, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    The mite family Ascouracaridae Gaud et Atyeo, 1976 contains large-sized mites (mostly > 1 mm) which live inside the quills of birds of several orders. To date, no representative of this family has been found associated with the order Strigiformes (owls). In this paper, a new species of this family, Cystoidosoma hermaphroditus sp. n., is described from the tropical screech owl, Megascops choliba (Vieillot) (Aves: Strigiformes) from Brazil. This species is unique in having an external spermaduct, a primary duct and a rudimentary bursa copulatrix present in males. This is the first astigmatan feather mite described from the order Strigiformes in this country. A key to adults of the genus Cystoidosoma Gaud et Atyeo, 1976 of the world is presented.

  9. An analysis of the AVE-SESAME I period using statistical structure and correlation functions. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Meyer, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Structure and correlation functions are used to describe atmospheric variability during the 10-11 April day of AVE-SESAME 1979 that coincided with the Red River Valley tornado outbreak. The special mesoscale rawinsonde data are employed in calculations involving temperature, geopotential height, horizontal wind speed and mixing ratio. Functional analyses are performed in both the lower and upper troposphere for the composite 24 h experiment period and at individual 3 h observation times. Results show that mesoscale features are prominent during the composite period. Fields of mixing ratio and horizontal wind speed exhibit the greatest amounts of small-scale variance, whereas temperature and geopotential height contain the least. Results for the nine individual times show that small-scale variance is greatest during the convective outbreak. The functions also are used to estimate random errors in the rawinsonde data. Finally, sensitivity analyses are presented to quantify confidence limits of the structure functions.

  10. Cucolepis cincta gen.n. et sp.n. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from the squirrel cuckoo Piaya cayana lesson (Aves: Cuculiformes) from Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna J; Mariaux, Jean; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2012-12-01

    Cucolepis gen. n. is erected as monotypic for Cucolepis cincta sp. n., a new species of cyclophyllidean cestode of the family Paruterinidae. The new species is described from the squirrel cuckoo, Piaya cayana Lesson (Aves: Cuculiformes), taken from two localities in Paraguay in 1984 and 1985. This new genus is most similar to the genus Triaenorhina Spasskii et Shumilo, 1965 in terms of the hook morphology and large epiphyseal structures extending from both the handle and guard, but differs in several aspects of the strobilar morphology, such as the shape of the cirrus sac, genital atrium, uterus and paruterine organ. The strobilar morphology of the new genus strongly resembles that of the genus Francobona Georgiev et Kornyushin, 1994, especially the shape of the cirrus sac and genital atrium, yet Francobona spp. lack, the developed epiphyseal structures observed in species of Cucolepis and Triaenorhina. Previous records and the nature of parasite-host associations between cuculiform birds and their cestode parasites are discussed.

  11. Species of Strigea (Digenea: Strigeidae), parasites of the savanna hawk Buteogallus meridionalis (Aves: Accipitridae) from Argentina, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Lunaschi, Lía i; Drago, Fabiana B

    2009-12-01

    A new strigeid digenean, Strigea meridionalis sp. n., is described from the small intestine of the savanna hawk, Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham) (Aves: Accipitridae), from Formosa Province, Argentina. This species is characterised by the absence of a neck region in the hindbody, the presence of entire testes, a copulatory bursa with a membranous fold originated from the muscular ring (Ringnapf) and by the arrangement of vitelline follicles in the forebody. Other two strigeid species collected from the savanna hawk, Strigea elliptica (Brandes, 1888) and Strigea microbursa Pearson et Dubois, 1985, are described and illustrated. Strigea microbursa is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region and B. meridionalis represents a new host record for S. elliptica. These findings allow us to increase the knowledge of these species, adding new metric and morphological data. A key to the species of the Neotropical Strigea Abildgaard, 1790 is presented including data on their geographical distribution.

  12. Adults and larvae of Skrjabinocerca canutus n. sp. (Nematoda: Acuariidae) from Calidris canutus rufa (Aves: Scolopacidae) on the southern Southwest Atlantic coast of South America.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Julia I; Cremonte, Florencia; Navone, Graciela T; Laurenti, Sonia

    2005-02-01

    Adults and larvae of a new species of Skrjabinocerca Shikhobalova, 1930 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) are described on the basis of light and scanning electron microscope studies. Specimens were recovered from Calidris canutus rufa Wilson (Aves: Scolopacidae) from the Southwest Atlantic coast of Uruguay. Data on the hosts, localities and main features of the four previously described species of the genus are provided. S. canutus n. sp. can be distinguished its congeners by a combination of the following characters: non-recurrent cordons, shorter right spicule and possession of a delicate finger-like projection on the distal end of the left spicule. S. prima Shikhobalova, 1930 has a left spicule which is stilletto-shaped and sharply pointed, S. europaea Wong & Anderson, 1993 has recurrent cordons, S. americana Wong & Anderson, 1993 possesses two delicate digitiform projections on the distal end of its left spicule and S. bennetti Bartlett & Anderson, 1996 has subequal spicules.

  13. Scientific Objectives and Design Study of an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) for the NAOS Visitor Focus at the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Zerbi, Filippo; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Bonanno, Giovanni; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Delabre, Bernard; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Marcantonio, Paolo Di; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Molaro, Paolo; Pasquini, Luca; Santin, Paolo

    We present the scientific case for an Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and Imager Coronograph (AVES-IMCO) that we propose as a visitor instrument for the secondary port of NAOS at the VLT. We show that such an instrument would be ideal for intermediate resolution (R=16,000) spectroscopy of faint sky-limited objects down to a magnitude of V=24.0 and will complement very effectively the near-IR imaging capabilities of CONICA. We present examples of science programmes that could be carried out with such an instrument and which cannot be addressed with existing VLT instruments. We also report on the result of a two-year design study of the instrument, with specific reference to its use as parallel instrument of NAOS.

  14. Interspecific synchrony of seabird population growth rate and breeding success

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, James P W; Dornelas, Maria; Ojanguren, Alfredo F

    2013-01-01

    Environmental variability can destabilize communities by causing correlated interspecific fluctuations that weaken the portfolio effect, yet evidence of such a mechanism is rare in natural systems. Here, we ask whether the population dynamics of similar sympatric species of a seabird breeding community are synchronized, and if these species have similar exceptional responses to environmental variation. We used a 24-year time series of the breeding success and population growth rate of a marine top predator species group to assess the degree of synchrony between species demography. We then developed a novel method to examine the species group – all species combined – response to environmental variability, in particular, whether multiple species experience similar, pronounced fluctuations in their demography. Multiple species were positively correlated in breeding success and growth rate. Evidence of “exceptional” years was found, where the species group experienced pronounced fluctuations in their demography. The synchronous response of the species group was negatively correlated with winter sea surface temperature of the preceding year for both growth rate and breeding success. We present evidence for synchronous, exceptional responses of a species group that are driven by environmental variation. Such species covariation destabilizes communities by reducing the portfolio effect, and such exceptional responses may increase the risk of a state change in this community. Our understanding of the future responses to environmental change requires an increased focus on the short-term fluctuations in demography that are driven by extreme environmental variability. PMID:23919147

  15. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  16. Charge Breeding Application of EBIS/T Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kester, Oliver

    2009-03-01

    The demand of highly charged ions of isotopes from all mass regions of the nuclear chart for low energy experiment or for the post acceleration has driven the development of different charge breeding methods. Charge state breeder employ high charge state ion sources like the Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) and the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS). Existing radioactive beam facilities like REX-ISOLDE or ISAC (TRIUMF) are already using charge state boosters for the post acceleration of radioactive ions. Upcoming facilities like the MSU re-accelerator project, SPIRAL II, SPES, EURISOL and MATS within FAIR have identified the need of a breeding system, because of the demand for highly charged ions at low energies and due to the available budget. Charge state breeding with EBIS/T devices requires several steps, which need to be optimized. A beam of singly charged ions must be prepared prior to injection into an EBIS/T in order to match the acceptance of the electron beam. An efficient injection and short breeding times are required as well as a high abundance in one specific charge state, which can be manipulated in EBIS/T devices. Further issues of charge breeder development are extraction and purification of the wanted highly charged ion species. The present paper will review the efforts of the EBIS/T community and will give an overview of the planned and running facilities.

  17. Milk Oligosaccharides over Time of Lactation from Different Dog Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Macias Rostami, Shirin; Bénet, Thierry; Spears, Julie; Reynolds, Arleigh; Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Sprenger, Norbert; Austin, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The partnership of humans and dogs goes back to over 10'000 years, yet relatively little is known about a dog's first extra-uterine nutrition particularly when it comes to milk oligosaccharides. We set out to identify and quantify milk oligosaccharides over the course of lactation from different dog breeds (Labrador retriever, Schnauzer and 3 Alaskan husky crossbreeds). To this end, 2 different chromatographic methods with fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection were developed and one was validated for quantification. Besides lactose and lactose-sulphate, we identified 2 different trisaccharides composed of 3 hexose units, 3′sialyllactose (3′SL), 6′sialyllactose (6′SL), 2′fucosyllactose (2′FL), and a tetrasaccharide composed of 2 hexoses, an N-acetylhexosamine and a deoxyhexose. 3′SL was present at the highest levels in milk of all dog breeds starting at around 7.5 g/L and dropping to about 1.5 g/L in the first 10 days of lactation. 6′SL was about 10 times less abundant and 2′FL and the tetrasaccharide had rather varying levels in the milk of the different breeds with the tetrasaccharide only detectable in the Alaskan husky crossbreeds. The longitudinal and quantitative data of milk oligosaccharides from different dog breeds are an important basis to further our understanding on their specific biological roles and also on the specific nutritional requirements of lactating puppies. PMID:24924915

  18. Canine gastrointestinal physiology: Breeds variations that can influence drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Hayley; Sharkey, Michele; Pade, Devendra; Martinez, Marilyn N

    2015-11-01

    Although all dogs belong to Canis lupus familiaris, the physiological diversity resulting from selective breeding can lead to wide interbreed variability in drug pharmacokinetics (PK) or in oral drug product performance. It is important to understand this diversity in order to predict the impact of drug product formulation attributes on in vivo dissolution and absorption characteristics across the canine population when the dog represents the targeted patient population. Based upon published information, this review addresses breed differences in gastrointestinal (GI) physiology and discusses the in vivo implications of these differences. In addition to the importance of such information for understanding the variability that may exist in the performance of oral dosage forms in dogs for the purpose of developing canine therapeutics, an appreciation of breed differences in GI physiology can improve our prediction of oral drug formulation performance when we extrapolate bioavailability results from the dog to the humans, and vice versa. In this literature review, we examine reports of breed associated diversity in GI anatomy and morphology, gastric emptying time (GET), oro-cecal transit time (OCTT), small intestinal transit time (SITT), large intestinal transit time (LITT), intestinal permeability, sodium/potassium fecal concentrations, intestinal flora, and fecal moisture content.

  19. Molecular marker-assisted breeding for maize improvement in Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is one of the most important food and feed crops in Asia, and is a source of income for several million farmers. Despite impressive progress made in the last few decades through conventional breeding in the “Asia-7” (China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam), average m...

  20. Canine gastrointestinal physiology: Breeds variations that can influence drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Hayley; Sharkey, Michele; Pade, Devendra; Martinez, Marilyn N

    2015-11-01

    Although all dogs belong to Canis lupus familiaris, the physiological diversity resulting from selective breeding can lead to wide interbreed variability in drug pharmacokinetics (PK) or in oral drug product performance. It is important to understand this diversity in order to predict the impact of drug product formulation attributes on in vivo dissolution and absorption characteristics across the canine population when the dog represents the targeted patient population. Based upon published information, this review addresses breed differences in gastrointestinal (GI) physiology and discusses the in vivo implications of these differences. In addition to the importance of such information for understanding the variability that may exist in the performance of oral dosage forms in dogs for the purpose of developing canine therapeutics, an appreciation of breed differences in GI physiology can improve our prediction of oral drug formulation performance when we extrapolate bioavailability results from the dog to the humans, and vice versa. In this literature review, we examine reports of breed associated diversity in GI anatomy and morphology, gastric emptying time (GET), oro-cecal transit time (OCTT), small intestinal transit time (SITT), large intestinal transit time (LITT), intestinal permeability, sodium/potassium fecal concentrations, intestinal flora, and fecal moisture content. PMID:26409436