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Sample records for aves laridae breeding

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Saunders's gull Chroicocephalus saundersi (Charadriiformes, Laridae).

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2012-04-01

    Saunders's gull Chroicocephalus saundersi (Aves, Charadriiformes, Laridae) is a small-sized gull having black-colored head. In this study, the entire mitochondrial genome of C. saundersi is sequenced, which is 16,725 bp in length. The detailed characteristics of the mitochondrial genome are described here.

  2. Food partitioning between breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scheibler, D R

    2007-02-01

    I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal), share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Piankas index was 0.98). Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81%) and White-tailed Kites (63%). This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets.

  3. Breeding system evolution influenced the geographic expansion and diversification of the core Corvoidea (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Marki, Petter Z; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Jønsson, Knud A; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon; Kennedy, Jonathan D

    2015-07-01

    Birds vary greatly in their life-history strategies, including their breeding systems, which range from brood parasitism to a system with multiple nonbreeding helpers at the nest. By far the most common arrangement, however, is where both parents participate in raising the young. The traits associated with parental care have been suggested to affect dispersal propensity and lineage diversification, but to date tests of this potential relationship at broad temporal and spatial scales have been limited. Here, using data from a globally distributed group of corvoid birds in concordance with state-dependent speciation and extinction models, we suggest that pair breeding is associated with elevated speciation rates. Estimates of transition between breeding systems imply that cooperative lineages frequently evolve biparental care, whereas pair breeders rarely become cooperative. We further highlight that these groups have differences in their spatial distributions, with pair breeders overrepresented on islands, and cooperative breeders mainly found on continents. Finally, we find that speciation rates appear to be significantly higher on islands compared to continents. These results imply that the transition from cooperative breeding to pair breeding was likely a significant contributing factor facilitating dispersal across tropical archipelagos, and subsequent world-wide phylogenetic expansion among the core Corvoidea.

  4. Waterbirds (other than Laridae) nesting in the middle section of Laguna Cuyutlán, Colima, México.

    PubMed

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E

    2008-03-01

    Laguna de Cuyutlán, in the state of Colima, Mexico, is the only large coastal wetland in a span of roughly 1150 km. Despite this, the study of its birds has been largely neglected. Between 2003 and 2006 we assessed the waterbirds nesting in the middle portion of Laguna Cuyutlán, a large tropical coastal lagoon, through field visits. We documented the nesting of 15 species of non-Laridae waterbirds: Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), Tricolored Egret (Egretta tricolor), Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea), Great Egret (Ardea alba), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Black-crowned Night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), Yellow-crowned Night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea), Green Heron (Butorides virescens), Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja), White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), Black-bellied Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis), Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris), Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus), and Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus). These add to six species of Laridae known to nest in that area: Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla), Royal Terns (Thalasseus maximus), Gull-billed Terns (Gelochelidon nilotica), Forster's Terns (S. forsteri), Least Terns (Sternula antillarum), and Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and to at least 57 species using it during the non-breeding season. With such bird assemblages, Laguna Cuyutlán is an important site for waterbirds, which should be given conservation status.

  5. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny of the Neotropical cotingas (Cotingidae, Aves) with a comparative evolutionary analysis of breeding system and plumage dimorphism and a revised phylogenetic classification.

    PubMed

    Berv, Jacob S; Prum, Richard O

    2014-12-01

    The Neotropical cotingas (Cotingidae: Aves) are a group of passerine birds that are characterized by extreme diversity in morphology, ecology, breeding system, and behavior. Here, we present a comprehensive phylogeny of the Neotropical cotingas based on six nuclear and mitochondrial loci (∼7500 bp) for a sample of 61 cotinga species in all 25 genera, and 22 species of suboscine outgroups. Our taxon sample more than doubles the number of cotinga species studied in previous analyses, and allows us to test the monophyly of the cotingas as well as their intrageneric relationships with high resolution. We analyze our genetic data using a Bayesian species tree method, and concatenated Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, and present a highly supported phylogenetic hypothesis. We confirm the monophyly of the cotingas, and present the first phylogenetic evidence for the relationships of Phibalura flavirostris as the sister group to Ampelion and Doliornis, and the paraphyly of Lipaugus with respect to Tijuca. In addition, we resolve the diverse radiations within the Cotinga, Lipaugus, Pipreola, and Procnias genera. We find no support for Darwin's (1871) hypothesis that the increase in sexual selection associated with polygynous breeding systems drives the evolution of color dimorphism in the cotingas, at least when analyzed at a broad categorical scale. Finally, we present a new comprehensive phylogenetic classification of all cotinga species.

  6. Comparisons of host specificity in feather louse genera (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) parasitizing gulls (Aves: Laridae: Larus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species.

  7. Cestode communities in non-breeding populations of four grebe species (Aves: Podicipedidae) from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, G P; Georgiev, B B

    1999-09-01

    Cestode communities in Podiceps cristatus, P. grisegena, P. nigricollis and Tachybaptus ruficollis during their migrations and overwintering are studied at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The infracommunities exhibit high richness, abundance and dominance, and low diversity and similarity. The component communities have a similar taxonomic structure at the levels higher than species, a small number of core species and a high portion of grebe specialists in the richness and abundance. The comparison with cestode communities in grebes from Canada (Stock & Holmes, 1987) reveals several differences and similarities. The higher richness and abundance of the infracommunities in Canada are explained by the constant conditions of breeding habitats enhancing higher transmission rates. At the component community level, there is a significant difference between the two species lists. The degree of parasite exchange among the grebe species in Bulgaria is lower. Several characters of cestode component communities in grebes do not depend on either historical factors or different habitats. These are the similar patterns of the taxonomic structure at the levels higher than species, almost the same list of generalists, the participation of specialists of anatids, and the leading role of grebe specialists in the structure.

  8. 32. 1700 BLOCK OF JEFFERSON AVE. 172125 JEFFERSON AVE., DOUGAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 1700 BLOCK OF JEFFERSON AVE. 1721-25 JEFFERSON AVE., DOUGAN BUILDING (1891), PICKLES & SUTTON, ARCHITECTS. 1735 JEFFERSON AVE., MOFFITT & TOWNE COMPANY BUILDING (1910). - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  9. [Effect of gene disruption of aveD on avermectins production in Streptomyces avermitilis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Song, Y; Wen, Y; Li, J

    2001-08-01

    Recombinant plasmid pCZ2(pKC1139::475 bp aveD) was used for aveD gene disruption in Streptomyces avermitilis 76-9. The plasmid was inserted into the chromosome by homogenous recombination between partial aveD gene in the plasmid and aveD in the chromosome. Disruptants were confirmed by Southern blotting. Shaking flask experiments and HPLC analysis showed that the disruptant produced only four components, which were C5-oxo-avermectin B1a, B1b, B2a, B2b as identified by UV, IR, NMR, and MS. This revealed that both aveD and aveF were not expressed in the disruptant. This is consistent with that aveD and aveF are in a transcription unit. This paper also provided a new genetic method to obtain C5-oxo-avermectin B-producing strain.

  10. Multilocus perspectives on the monophyly and phylogeny of the order Charadriiformes (Aves)

    PubMed Central

    Fain, Matthew G; Houde, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background The phylogeny of shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) and their putative sister groups was reconstructed using approximately 5 kilobases of data from three nuclear loci and two mitochondrial genes, and compared to that based on two other nuclear loci. Results Charadriiformes represent a monophyletic group that consists of three monophyletic suborders Lari (i.e., Laridae [including Sternidae and Rynchopidae], Stercorariidae, Alcidae, Glareolidae, Dromadidae, and Turnicidae), Scolopaci (i.e., Scolopacidae [including Phalaropidae], Jacanidae, Rostratulidae, Thinocoridae, Pedionomidae), and Charadrii (i.e., Burhinidae, Chionididae, Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae, and presumably Ibidorhynchidae). The position of purported "gruiform" buttonquails within Charadriiformes is confirmed. Skimmers are most likely sister to terns alone, and plovers may be paraphyletic with respect to oystercatchers and stilts. The Egyptian Plover is not a member of the Glareolidae, but is instead relatively basal among Charadrii. None of the putative sisters of Charadriiformes were recovered as such. Conclusion Hypotheses of non-monophyly and sister relationships of shorebirds are tested by multilocus analysis. The monophyly of and interfamilial relationships among shorebirds are confirmed and refined. Lineage-specific differences in evolutionary rates are more consistent across loci in shorebirds than other birds and may contribute to the congruence of locus-specific phylogenetic estimates in shorebirds. PMID:17346347

  11. Programa de conservacion para aves migratorias neotropicales

    Treesearch

    Deborah Finch; Marcia Wilson; Roberto Roca

    1992-01-01

    Mas de 250 especies de aves terrestres migran a Norte America durante la epoca reproductiva para aprovechar los sistemas templados. No obstante, las aves migratorias neotropicales pasan la mayor parte de su ciclo de vida en los habitat tropicales y subtropicales de paises latinoamericanos y caribefios donde viven en una asociacion cercana con las aves residentes. Para...

  12. NASA's atmospheric variability experiments /AVE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, K.; Turner, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of seven mesoscale experiments were conducted under the NASA program, Atmospheric Variability Experiments (AVE). Rawinsonde, satellite, aircraft, and ground observations were recorded during specially selected meteorological periods lasting from 1 to 3 days. Details are presented for each AVE relative to observation times, experiment size and location, and significant weather. Some research results based on the use of these AVE data are referenced. These include contributions to regional numerical prediction; relations between wind shears, instability, and thunderstorm motion and development; relations between moisture and temperature and the probability of convection; retrieval of tropospheric temperature profiles from cloud-contaminated satellite data; variation of convection intensity as a result of atmospheric variability; and effects of cloud rotation on their trajectories.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Charadriiformes: Laridae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuanqiu; Zhou, Lizhi; Li, Bo; Zhao, Guanghong

    2016-05-01

    The Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus is a waterbird, which breeds from north-east North America and across much of Europe and Asia. In this study, we determined its complete mitochondrial DNA sequence by PCR-based approach. The complete mtDNA sequence is 16,807 bp in size. The overall-based composition was 30.8% A, 31.1% T, 14.2% C, 24.0% G, with an A + T content (54.8%) rich feature. The mitochondrial genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. All protein coding genes use the typical intiation codon ATN, except for COI. TAN is the most frequent stop codon, and AGG and T- - are also occurred very common. The tRNA(Ser(AGN)) and tRNA(Lys(CUN)) lacked the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and formed a simple loop.

  14. NASA's AVE/VAS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented concerning the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE) which was conducted during the spring of 1982 as part of NASA's Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) demonstration. The AVE/VAS Ground Truth Field Experiment is examined in detail, which comprised the obtaining of rawinsonde observations during various meteorological conditions on four different days when VAS data were obtained. These experiments were performed over 24 hr periods in a mesoscale network of 24 National Weather Service rawinsonde sites and 13 NASA and NOAA special sites. The VAS, operating as a part of the GOES satellite system, was employed to provide two-dimensional cloud mapping capability during each of the AVE/VAS experiment periods. Among the goals of this AVE/VAS program, in addition to management of the acquisition and processing of the data, were to perform the research and development needed to produce data products from VAS radiances, to validate the data, and to assess the impact of the data on mesoscale meteorological forecasting and research requirements.

  15. 15. WEST SIDE OF 1900 BLOCK, PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. WEST SIDE OF 1900 BLOCK, PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; 1920-22 PACIFIC AVE., WIEGAL COMPANY CANDY FACTORY (1904); 1924-26 PACIFIC AVE., CAMPBELL BUILDING (DAVIS BUILDING) (1890); 1928-30 PACIFIC AVE., REESE-CRANDALL & REDMAN BUILDING, (1890); 1932-36 PACIFIC AVE., MC DONALD & SMITH BUILDING (1890); 1938-48 PACIFIC AVE., F.S. HARMON COMPANY WAREHOUSE (1908), DESIGNED BY CARL AUGUST DARMER. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  16. 17. WEST SIDE OF 2100 BLOCK OF PACIFIC AVE. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WEST SIDE OF 2100 BLOCK OF PACIFIC AVE. FROM RIGHT; 2102-2106 PACIFIC AVE., MORRIS MILLER BUILDING (1906), FREDERICK HEATH, ARCHITECT; 2110 PACIFIC AVE., TACOMA DRY GOODS BUILDING (1906), FREDERICK HEATH, ARCHITECT; 2114-16 PACIFIC AVE., HUNT & MOTTET COMPANY HEADQUARTERS (1907), BULLARD & HILL, ARCHITECTS. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  17. Description of Sarcocystis lari sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the great black-backed gull, Larus marinus (Charadriiformes: Laridae), on the basis of cyst morphology and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Prakas, Petras; Kutkiené, Liuda; Butkauskas, Dalius; Sruoga, Aniolas; Zalakevicius, Mecislovas

    2014-02-01

    A morphological type of Sarcocystis cysts found in one of two examined great black-backed gull, Larus marinus (Linnaeus) (Laridae), is considered to represent a new species for which the name Sarcocystis lari sp. n. is proposed and its description is provided. The cysts are ribbon-shaped, very long (the largest fragment found was 6 mm long) and relatively narrow (up to 75 microm). Under a light microscope the cyst wall reaches up to 1 microm and seems to be smooth. Using a computerized image analysis system, knolls, which resemble protrusions on the wall surface, are visible. Lancet-shaped cystozoites measure in average 6.9 x 1.4 microm (range 6.3-7.9 microm x 1.2-1.5 microm) in length. Observed using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the cyst wall is wavy and measures up to 1.2 microm in thickness. The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane has regularly arranged small invaginations. Cyst content is divided into large chambers by septa. Sarcocystis lari sp. n. has type-1 tissue cyst wall and is morphologically indistinguishable from other bird Sarcocystis species characterized by the same type of the wall. On the basis of 18S rRNA gene, 28S rRNA gene and ITS-1 region sequences, S. lari is a genetically distinct species, being most closely related to avian Sarcocystis species whose definitive hosts are predatory birds.

  18. Aves municipales oficiales de Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Carlos M. Domínguez Cristóbal

    2009-01-01

    Las aves constituyen uno de los recursos de muy poco uso como símbolo oficial representativo de los municipios en Puerto Rico. Es muy probable que la decisión que màs pueda influenciar en esa selección esté relacionada con la movilidad de las aves ya que éstas no se limitan a una municipalidad en específico...

  19. Seabirds and chronic oil pollution: self-cleaning properties of gulls, Laridae, as revealed from colour-ring sightings.

    PubMed

    Camphuysen, Kees C J

    2011-03-01

    Mystery oil spills off the Dutch coast affected colonial, adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls prior to and within the breeding season. From colour-ringed individuals, it was demonstrated that most oiled birds survived and were clean within a few weeks and often bred successfully. Further evidence of self-cleaning properties of Larus-gulls is provided from a long-term colour-ringing project (1984-2009). In total 46 birds were reported 'oiled', two died, but the majority cleaned itself and survived for up to 20 years after being oiled. From colour-ring data and 30 years of beached bird surveys (1980-2010) it is demonstrated that the effects of chronic oil pollution is larger in winter than in summer; a reflection of seasonal differences in exposure and environmental conditions. The self-cleaning properties of gulls are such that long-term survival is not necessarily jeopardized and even in a breeding season, not all is lost in case of a spill. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Apricot Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apricot orchard area and fruit production are increasing worldwide. Breeding programs engage in apricot development to provide new varieties to meet needs of producers and consumers. Over the last 20 years, breeders have used new techniques to assist in variety development and to increase breeding...

  1. Molecular breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Use of molecular and genomic tools to assist selection of parents or progeny has become an integral part of modern cotton breeding. In this chapter, the basic components of molecular cotton breeding are described. These components include: molecular marker development, genetic and physical map const...

  2. Ave Maria: A 'Seriously Catholic' Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the founding of Ave Maria School of Law (Michigan), opening in 2000, which plans to integrate Catholic teachings into every course. Focus is on the school's founder, Thomas S. Monaghan, and the school's first dean, Bernard Dobranski, who suggest that the new school can avoid difficulties with tenured liberal professors and attract top…

  3. Ave Maria: A 'Seriously Catholic' Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the founding of Ave Maria School of Law (Michigan), opening in 2000, which plans to integrate Catholic teachings into every course. Focus is on the school's founder, Thomas S. Monaghan, and the school's first dean, Bernard Dobranski, who suggest that the new school can avoid difficulties with tenured liberal professors and attract top…

  4. Simulated Breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  5. Blackberry breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Successful blackberry production and marketing depends on planting cultivars that are adapted to the region, efficiently produce high yields, and have the fruit quality the market, whether local or distant, demands. Blackberry breeding programs have developed cultivars that consumers like to eat and...

  6. GRANT AVE., FROM SOUTHEAST OF BUILDING #191 (NORTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRANT AVE., FROM SOUTHEAST OF BUILDING #191 (NORTHWEST CORNER OF POPE & GRANT AVENUES), LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Fort Leavenworth, Metropolitan Avenue & Seventh Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  7. AVE-SESAME program for the REEDA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDA system software was modified and improved to process the AVE-SESAME severe storm data. A random access file system for the AVE storm data was designed, tested, and implemented. The AVE/SESAME software was modified to incorporate the random access file input and to interface with new graphics hardware/software now available on the REEDA system. Software was developed to graphically display the AVE/SESAME data in the convention normally used by severe storm researchers. Software was converted to AVE/SESAME software systems and interfaced with existing graphics hardware/software available on the REEDA System. Software documentation was provided for existing AVE/SESAME programs underlining functional flow charts and interacting questions. All AVE/SESAME data sets in random access format was processed to allow developed software to access the entire AVE/SESAME data base. The existing software was modified to allow for processing of different AVE/SESAME data set types including satellite surface and radar data.

  8. 8. Wabash Ave. North. View of Loop and Dan Ryan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Wabash Ave. North. View of Loop and Dan Ryan Line. Curve at Van Buren St. and Wabash Ave. at center. Dan Ryan line starts at center and runs south (toward bottom of picture). Photo by Jet Lowe. - Union Elevated Railroad, Union Loop, Wells, Van Buren, Lake Streets & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. AVE 0991 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuedong; Huang, Huiling; Jiang, Jingzhou; Wu, Lingling; Lin, Chunxi; Tang, Anli; Dai, Gang; He, Jiangui; Chen, Yili

    2016-06-10

    AVE 0991, the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) analog, is recognized as having beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AVE 0991 on cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanisms involved. Mice were underwent aortic banding to induce cardiac hypertrophy followed by the administration of AVE 0991 (20 mg kg·day (-1)) for 4 weeks. It was shown that AVE 0991 reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and improved heart function, characterized by decreases in left ventricular weight and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and increases in ejection fraction. Moreover, AVE 0991 significantly down-regulated mean myocyte diameter and attenuate the gene expression of the hypertrophic markers. Furthermore, AVE 0991 inhibited the expression of NOX 2 and NOX 4, meaning that AVE 0991 reduced oxidative stress of cardiac hypertrophy mice. Our data showed that AVE 0991 treatment could attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and improve heart function, which may be due to reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Atmospheric variability experiment /AVE II/ pilot experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Scroggins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) was conducted in May 1974. Rawinsonde releases were made at 54 upper-air stations in two thirds of the eastern U.S. at 3-hr intervals for a 24-hr period. Radar data were obtained from 11 stations located near the center of the observational area, and as many data as possible were collected from the Nimbus 5, NOAA 2, ATS-3, and DMSP satellites. The present paper provides an overview of the experiment and describes how the user community can obtain copies of the data.

  11. A phylogenetic test of sympatric speciation in the Hydrobatinae (Aves: Procellariiformes).

    PubMed

    Wallace, S J; Morris-Pocock, J A; González-Solís, J; Quillfeldt, P; Friesen, V L

    2017-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among species can provide insight into how new species arise. For example, careful consideration of both the phylogenetic and geographic distributions of species in a group can reveal the geographic models of speciation within the group. One such model, sympatric speciation, may be more common than previously thought. The Hydrobatinae (Aves: Procellariformes) is a diverse subfamily of Northern Hemisphere storm-petrels for which the taxonomy is unclear. Previous studies showed that Hydrobates (formally Oceanodroma) castro breeding in the Azores during the cool season is sister species to H. monteiroi, a hot season breeder at the same locations, which suggests sympatric speciation by allochrony. To test whether other species within the subfamily arose via sympatric speciation by allochrony, we sequenced the cytochrome b gene and five nuclear introns to estimate a phylogenetic tree using multispecies coalescent methods, and to test whether species breeding in the same geographic area are monophyletic. We found that speciation within the Hydrobatinae appears to have followed several geographic modes of divergence. Sympatric seasonal species in Japan likely did not arise through sympatric speciation, but allochrony may have played a role in the divergence of H. matsudairae, a cool season breeder, and H. monorhis, a hot season breeder. No other potential cases of sympatric speciation were discovered within the subfamily. Despite breeding in the same geographic area, hydrobatine storm-petrels breeding in Baja California (H. microsoma and H. melania) are each sister to a species breeding off the coast of Peru (H. tethys and H. markhami, respectively). In fact, antitropical sister species appear to have diverged at multiple times, suggesting allochronic divergence might be common. In addition, allopatry has likely played a role in divergence of H. furcata, a north Pacific breeder, and H. pelagius, a north Atlantic breeder. This study demonstrates

  12. VIEW OF THE INTERSECTION OF JULIAN AVE AND MONTHAN STREET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE INTERSECTION OF JULIAN AVE AND MONTHAN STREET. THE WATERS OF THE PEARL HARBOR CHANNEL ARE IN THE BACKGROUND AT LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Hickam Historic Housing, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 4. 150105 PACIFIC AVE. SPRAGUE BUILDING (1889). THIS BUILDING SERVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 1501-05 PACIFIC AVE. SPRAGUE BUILDING (1889). THIS BUILDING SERVED AS A MODEL FOR MOST OF THE 'JOBBERS' (FOODSTUFF WHOLESALERS) BUILDING IN TACOMA. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  14. View of twofamily house at 520522 Rison Ave., NE, originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of two-family house at 520-522 Rison Ave., NE, originally occupied by workers in nearby mills. Note original asbestos shingle roof - 520-522 Rison Avenue, Northeast (House), Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  17. 167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN 5TH AVE. SHOWING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 504, 436, 11, AND 155. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  18. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 2 conducted on 19-20 April 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Horvath, N.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary information on data collected, synoptic conditions, and severe and unusual weather reported during the AVE-SESAME 2 period is presented. The information provides researchers a preliminary look at conditions during the AVE-SESAME 2 period.

  19. AVE-SESAME 1: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhard, M. L.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Williams, S. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seven atmospheric variability experiments (AVE), two atmospheric variability and severe storms experiments (AVSSE), and six atmospheric variability experiment-severe environmental storm and mesoscale experiments (AVE-SESAME) conducted by NASA are discussed. The dates, observation times, and data reports for each of the experiments for which data was processed are listed. The AVE experiments were conducted primarily to study atmospheric variability with emphasis on spatial and temporal in atmospheric structure that can be detected from soundings taken at 3 hr intervals but not seen in soundings taken at 12 hr intervals. The AVSSE experiments were conducted to study atmospheric structure and variability associated with severe storms combining both rawinsonde and aircraft data to provide information on near storm environments. The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, an example of contact data is given, and soundings are listed which exhibited abnormal characteristics.

  20. NASA's AVE 7 experiment: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The AVE 7 Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25 mb internals from the surface to 25 mb for the 24 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000GMT May 2 and 1200 GMT May 3, 1978. The methods of data processing and the accuracy are briefly discussed. Selected synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented as well as an example of contact data. A tabulation of adverse weather events that occured during the AVE 7 period, including freezing temperature, snow, tornadoes, damaging winds, and flooding, is presented.

  1. From the corner of E. Harlow Ave. and S. Cooper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of E. Harlow Ave. and S. Cooper St. looking west with building 633 at the left, part of building 226 at the right and then buildings #225-221 farther along E. Harlow Ave. on the right side. Beyond them is the smokestack of the steam plant (building 215). - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  2. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma Irene

    After establishing reliability for an associative verbal encoding (a/v/e) test, the relationship between children's a/v/e and their reading achievement was investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) a/v/e will improve with training, and (2) associated with improved a/v/e will be concomitant improvement in reading achievement. The subjects…

  3. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma Irene

    After establishing reliability for an associative verbal encoding (a/v/e) test, the relationship between children's a/v/e and their reading achievement was investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) a/v/e will improve with training, and (2) associated with improved a/v/e will be concomitant improvement in reading achievement. The subjects…

  4. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  5. 1. 133842 PACIFIC AVE. ITALIANATE BUILDING ON LEFT IS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 1338-42 PACIFIC AVE. ITALIANATE BUILDING ON LEFT IS THE CITIZENS BANK AND THE IRVING BUILDING (1888-89). A HOMOGENEOUS DESIGN FOR THREE SEPERATE PROPERTY OWNERS, DESIGNED BY CARL AUGUST DARMER. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  6. Looking west along W. Mcafee Ave., building 509 is to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west along W. Mcafee Ave., building 509 is to the right, building 507 is to the left and at the end of the block is building 506. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. Looking northeast along E. Mcafee Ave. From the corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast along E. Mcafee Ave. From the corner of S. Page St. towards building 618, with the water tower (building 239) in the background. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  8. AVES: A Computer Cluster System approach for INTEGRAL Scientific Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federici, M.; Martino, B. L.; Natalucci, L.; Umbertini, P.

    The AVES computing system, based on an "Cluster" architecture is a fully integrated, low cost computing facility dedicated to the archiving and analysis of the INTEGRAL data. AVES is a modular system that uses the software resource manager (SLURM) and allows almost unlimited expandibility (65,536 nodes and hundreds of thousands of processors); actually is composed by 30 Personal Computers with Quad-Cores CPU able to reach the computing power of 300 Giga Flops (300x10{9} Floating point Operations Per Second), with 120 GB of RAM and 7.5 Tera Bytes (TB) of storage memory in UFS configuration plus 6 TB for users area. AVES was designed and built to solve growing problems raised from the analysis of the large data amount accumulated by the INTEGRAL mission (actually about 9 TB) and due to increase every year. The used analysis software is the OSA package, distributed by the ISDC in Geneva. This is a very complex package consisting of dozens of programs that can not be converted to parallel computing. To overcome this limitation we developed a series of programs to distribute the workload analysis on the various nodes making AVES automatically divide the analysis in N jobs sent to N cores. This solution thus produces a result similar to that obtained by the parallel computing configuration. In support of this we have developed tools that allow a flexible use of the scientific software and quality control of on-line data storing. The AVES software package is constituted by about 50 specific programs. Thus the whole computing time, compared to that provided by a Personal Computer with single processor, has been enhanced up to a factor 70.

  9. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements.

  10. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  11. Tritium breeding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.

  12. Breeding and genetic diversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn breeding has been historically remarkably successful. Much research has investigated optimal breeding procedures, which are detailed here. A smaller effort has been put into identifying useful genetic resources for maize and how to best use them, but results from long-term base broadening effor...

  13. Breeding bird communities

    Treesearch

    Vanessa L. Artman; Randy Dettmers

    2003-01-01

    Prescribed burning is being applied on an experimental basis to restore and maintain mixed-oak communities in southern Ohio. This chapter describes baseline conditions for the breeding bird community prior to prescribed burning. We surveyed breeding bird populations at four study areas using the territory-mapping method. We observed 35 bird species during the surveys....

  14. AVE/VAS experiment: Synoptic summary and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The AVE/VAS ground truth field experiment was conducted during the Spring of 1982 severe storms and weather research program. The experiment consisted of acquiring correlative ground truth measurements of rawinsonde data, corresponding to the time and space resolutions of VAS sounding data. The objectives of the AVE/VAS experiment are: (1) to acquire four dimensional data sets of the actual atmospheric structure down to the mesoscale; (2) to provide measurements for quantitative comparisons between ground based and VAS-derived atmospheric parameters; (3) to evaluate the impact of VAS data on diagnostic analysis of structural features and dynamical processes important to the development of mesoscale phenomena; (4) to evaluate the impact of VAS data on numerical model simulations, nowcasting, and other mesoscale forecasting systems.

  15. Can non-breeding be a cost of breeding dispersal?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danchin, E.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Breeding habitat selection and dispersal are crucial processes that affect many components of fitness. Breeding dispersal entails costs, one of which has been neglected: dispersing animals may miss breeding opportunities because breeding dispersal requires finding a new nesting site and mate, two time- and energy-consuming activities. Dispersers are expected to be prone to non-breeding. We used the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) to test whether breeding dispersal influences breeding probability. Breeding probability was associated with dispersal, in that both were negatively influenced by private information (previous individual reproductive success) and public information (average reproductive success of conspecifics) about patch quality. Furthermore, the probability of skipping breeding was 1.7 times higher in birds that settled in a new patch relative to those that remained on the same patch. Finally, non-breeders that resumed breeding were 4.4 times more likely to disperse than birds that bred in successive years. Although private information may influence breeding probability directly, the link between breeding probability and public information may be indirect, through the influence of public information on breeding dispersal, non-breeding thus being a cost of dispersal. These results support the hypothesis that dispersal may result in not being able to breed. More generally, non-breeding (which can be interpreted as an extreme form of breeding failure) may reveal costs of various previous activities. Because monitoring the non-breeding portion of a population is difficult, non-breeders have been neglected in many studies of reproduction trade-offs.

  16. Evolution of leaf warbler songs (Aves: Phylloscopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Martens, Jochen; Fischer, Balduin S; Sun, Yue-Hua; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Päckert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Songs in passerine birds are important for territory defense and mating. Speciation rates in oscine passerines are so high, due to cultural evolution, that this bird lineage makes up half of the extant bird species. Leaf warblers are a speciose Old-World passerine family of limited morphological differentiation, so that songs are even more important for species delimitation. We took 16 sonographic traits from song recordings of 80 leaf warbler taxa and correlated them with 15 potentially explanatory variables, pairwise, and in linear models. Based on a well-resolved molecular phylogeny of the same taxa, all pairwise correlations were corrected for relatedness with phylogenetically independent contrasts and phylogenetic generalized linear models were used. We found a phylogenetic signal for most song traits, but a strong one only for the duration of the longest and of the shortest element, which are presumably inherited instead of learned. Body size of a leaf warbler species is a constraint on song frequencies independent of phylogeny. At least in this study, habitat density had only marginal impact on song features, which even disappeared through phylogenetic correction. Maybe most leaf warblers avoid the deterioration through sound propagation in dense vegetation by singing from exposed perches. Latitudinal (and longitudinal) extension of the breeding ranges was correlated with most song features, especially verse duration (longer polewards and westwards) and complexity (lower polewards). Climate niche or expansion history might explain these correlations. The number of different element types per verse decreases with elevation, possibly due to fewer resources and congeneric species at higher elevations. PMID:25691998

  17. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  18. What drives cooperative breeding?

    PubMed

    Koenig, Walter D

    2017-06-01

    Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  19. 169. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 6TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 6TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN 6TH AVE. SHOWING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 8 (HOSPITAL) WITH PART OF ONE OF ITS 1-STORY WARD WINGS, AND THE 3 ORIGINAL DORMITORY WINGS OF BUILDING 9 (BOQ). - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  20. 1. VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 502 ASKEW AVE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 502 ASKEW AVE. HOUSE IS 1 1/2 STORY, 3 BAY SIDE GABLE WITH REAR KITCHEN ELL AND PORCH EXTENDING FROM FRONT. LOCKWOOD GREENE ENGINEERS BUILT THIS AND 128 OTHER NEW HOUSES FOR NEW ENGLAND SOUTHERN MILLS IN 1923-1924. THE PREEXISTING MILL VILLAGE NEEDED TO BE EXPANDED TO ACCOMODATE WORKERS FOR THEIR NEW STARK MILL IN HOGANSVILLE. THIS HOUSE WAS BUILT WITH INDOOR PLUMBING, AND ELECTRICITY AT A COST OF APPROXIMATELY $430 PER ROOM. - 502 Askew Avenue (House), 502 Askew Avenue, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  1. The AVE/VAS 2: The 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS II experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals, was an 18 hour period. An additional sounding was taken at the normal synoptic observation time. The processing soundings method is discussed, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the meso-beta-scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  2. AVE/VAS 1: 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS I (shakedown) experiment is described. Tabulated data at 25-mb intervals for the 13 special rawinsonde stations and 1 National Weather Service station participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 1200 and 1800 GMT on February 6, 1982, and at 0000 GMT on February 7, 1982. The method of processing soundings is discussed briefly, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  3. AVE-SESAME IV: 25 mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 4 experiment is descirbed and tabulated data at 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 20 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on May 9, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on May 10, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Reasons are given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  4. AVE-SESAME 6: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 6 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 15 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 h intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on June 7, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on June 8, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  5. AVE-SESAME 2: The 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Gerhard, M. L.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME II experiment is described. Data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 19, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 20, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  6. AVE-Sesame 3: 25-MB sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. T.; Gerhard, M. L.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 3 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 25, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 26, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  7. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    PubMed

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 1980 breeding bird censuses

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and the surrounding region, the two breeding bird censuses originated in 1977 were continued in 1980. Coverage was below that of previous years due to illness and travel of some participants, but 11 trips were made to the BNL plot and 8 to the Westhampton plot. Each was censused by separate teams of three volunteer observers. The number of breeding species and number of territorial males on the BNL plot have progressively declined since 1977 but little change has taken place in either number of territories or species composition on the Westhampton plot.

  9. NASA's participation in the AVE-SESAME '79 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, K.; Turner, R. E.; Wilson, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center participated with its AVE (Atmospheric Variability Experiment) in a large interagency mesoscale and severe storms experiment identified herein as AVE-SESAME '79 (Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment 1979). A primary objective of NASA was to support an effort to acquire carefully edited sets of rawinsonde data during selected severe weather events for use in correlative and diagnostic studies with satellite and radar data obtained at approximately the same times. Data were acquired during six individual 24-h experiments on both the regional and storm scales over a network in the central United States that utilized approximately 20 supplemental rawinsonde sites meshed among 23 standard National Weather Service sites. Included among the six experiments are data obtained between 1200 GMT on April 10 and 1200 GMT on April 11, encompassing the formation and development period for the tornado-producing systems that devastated Wichita Falls, Texas, and other sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The other dates for which data sets are available are April 19-20 and 25-26, May 9-10 and 20-21, and June 7-8, 1979.

  10. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges. This report to the California Leafy Greens Research Program annual meeting provides an update by the ‘Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species’ project at Salinas on the genetics and breeding...

  11. Raspberry Breeding and Genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter describes the origin, speciation, and history of improvement of the raspberries, Rubus section idaeobatus. The world industry in North America, Australasia, China, Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America and the breeding objectives of programs in those areas are discussed. Ger...

  12. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges. This report to the California Leafy Greens Research Program annual meeting provides an update by the ‘Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species’ project at Salinas on the genetics and breeding...

  13. Plant breeding and genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  14. Hop Cultivars and Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pest management decision making in hops varies among cultivars. Historically, the primary objective of hop breeding programs has been to increase the yield or characteristics associated with either bittering (high alpha-acids) or aroma (unique volatile oil profiles) cultivars. Other factors consid...

  15. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  16. Accelerating plant breeding.

    PubMed

    De La Fuente, Gerald N; Frei, Ursula K; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The growing demand for food with limited arable land available necessitates that the yield of major food crops continues to increase over time. Advances in marker technology, predictive statistics, and breeding methodology have allowed for continued increases in crop performance through genetic improvement. However, one major bottleneck is the generation time of plants, which is biologically limited and has not been improved since the introduction of doubled haploid technology. In this opinion article, we propose to implement in vitro nurseries, which could substantially shorten generation time through rapid cycles of meiosis and mitosis. This could prove a useful tool for speeding up future breeding programs with the aim of sustainable food production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. AVE/VAS 3: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS 3 experiment is described. Tabulated data are presented at 25-mb intervals for the 24 National Weather Service stations and 14 special stations participating in the experiment. Soundings were taken at 3-hr intervals, beginning at 1200 GMT on March 27, 1982, and ending at 0600 GMT on March 28, 1982 (7 sounding times). An additional sounding was taken at the National Weather Service stations at 1200 GMT on March 28, 1982, at the normal synoptic observation time. The method of processing soundings is briefly discussed, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the mesos-beta-scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  18. Quill mites in Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Jardim, Cassius Catão Gomes; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Rezende, Leandro do Carmo; Teixeira, Cristina Mara; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2012-09-01

    The primary and secondary feathers of 170 Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes) were examined in order to identify feather quill mite fauna. Birds were held captive in two locations in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), and two in the state of Espirito Santo (ES). The quills were cut longitudinally and were examined under optical microscopy. The genus of quill mites most frequently found was Paralgopsis (Astigmata: Pyrogliphidae), followed by Cystoidosoma (Astigmata: Syringobiidae). Astigmata: Syringophilidae mites were sporadically observed. After analyzing the data using logistic regression models, it was determined that there was higher infestation risk for psittacines in ES state, as compared with those in MG, and a significant increase in risk depending on the psittacine host species. However, the location of captivity did not have a significant effect. Lesions were observed in infested feathers. Cystoidosoma sp. and Paralgopsis sp. were always observed together, with parts of Paralgopsis found inside Cystoidosoma sp., suggesting thanatochresis or predation.

  19. AVE-SEASAME 5: 25-mb sounding data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rewinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 5 experiment is described and tubulated data at 25 mb intervals are presented for the 23 National Weather Service stations and 20 special stations participating in the experiment. Soundings were taken at 3-hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on May 20, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on may 21, 1979 (nine sounding times). A tenth sounding was teken at many special stations between 2100 and 0000 GMT on May 20. The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Reasons are given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings with abnormal characteristics are listed.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus olor (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Hong, Sung-Jun; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kwon; Park, Yeong-Jun; Kim, Jong-Guk; Park, Hee Cheon; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Cygnus olor (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae) was revealed in this study. Total 16 739 base pairs (bp) of this mitogenome encoded genes for 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a D-loop (control region). The 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes are located between tRNA-Phe and tRNA-Leu (UUR) and segmentalized by the tRNA-Val. D-loop is located between tRNA-Glu and tRNA-Phe. The overall base composition of C. olor is G + C: 47.8%, A + T: 52.2%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Following the phylogenetic analysis, the C. olor was closed to Anser cygnoides.

  1. The AVES adaptive optics spectrograph for the VLT: status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Delabre, Bernard; Pasquini, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Santin, Paolo; Damiani, Francesco; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Spano, Paolo; Bonifacio, P.; Catalano, Santo; Molaro, Paolo P.; Randich, S.; Rodono, Marcello

    2003-03-01

    We report on the status of AVES, the Adaptive-optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph proposed for the secondary port of the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) recently installed at the VLT. AVES is an intermediate resolution (R ≍ 16,000) high-efficiency fixed- format echelle spectrograph which operates in the spectral band 500 - 1,000 nm. In addition to a high intrinsic efficiency, comparable to that of ESI at Keck II, it takes advantage of the adaptive optics correction provided by NAOS to reduce the sky and detector contribution in background-limited observations of weak sources, thus allowing a further magnitude gain with respect to comparable non-adaptive optics spectrographs. Simulations show that the instrument will be capable of reaching a magnitude V = 22.5 at S/N > 10 in two hours, two magnitudes weaker than GIRAFFE at the same resolution and 3 magnitudes weaker than the higher resolution UVES spectrograph. Imaging and coronographic functions have also been implemented in the design. We present the results of the final design study and we dicuss the technical and operational issues related to its implementation at the VLT as a visitor instrument. We also discuss the possibility of using a scaled-up non-adaptive optics version of the same design as an element of a double- or triple-arm intermediate-resolution spectrograph for the VLT. Such an option looks attractive in the context of a high-efficiency large-bandwidth (320 - 1,500 nm) spectrograph ("fast-shooter") being considered by ESO as a 2nd-generation VLT instrument.

  2. Precision animal breeding.

    PubMed

    Flint, A P F; Woolliams, J A

    2008-02-12

    We accept that we are responsible for the quality of life of animals in our care. We accept that the activities of man affect all the living things with which we share this planet. But we are slow to realize that as a result we have a duty of care for all living things. That duty extends to the breeding of animals for which we are responsible. When animals are bred by man for a purpose, the aim should be to meet certain goals: to improve the precision with which breeding outcomes can be predicted; to avoid the introduction and advance of characteristics deleterious to well-being; and to manage genetic resources and diversity between and within populations as set out in the Convention on Biological Diversity. These goals are summed up in the phrase precision animal breeding. They should apply whether animals are bred as sources of usable products or services for medical or scientific research, for aesthetic or cultural considerations, or as pets. Modern molecular and quantitative genetics and advances in reproductive physiology provide the tools with which these goals can be met.

  3. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  4. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 3 conducted on 25-26 April 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. F.; Horvath, N.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    General weather conditions, including synoptic maps, radar reports, satellite photographs, precipitation areas and amounts, and a summary of severe weather reports are presented. These data provide researchers a preliminary look at conditions during the AVE-SESAME 3 period.

  5. Ecohealth System Dynamic Model as a Planning Tool for the Reduction of Breeding Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Respati, T.; Raksanagara, A.; Djuhaeni, H.; Sofyan, A.; Shandriasti, A.

    2017-03-01

    Dengue is still one of major health problem in Indonesia. Dengue transmission is influenced by dengue prevention and eradication program, community participation, housing environment and climate. The complexity of the disease coupled with limited resources necessitates different approach for prevention methods that include factors contribute to the transmission. One way to prevent the dengue transmission is by reducing the mosquito’s breeding sites. Four factors suspected to influence breeding sites are dengue prevention and eradication program, community participation, housing environment, and weather condition. In order to have an effective program in reducing the breeding site it is needed to have a model which can predict existence of the breeding sites while the four factors under study are controlled. The objective of this study is to develop an Ecohealth model using system dynamic as a planning tool for the reduction of breeding sites to prevent dengue transmission with regard to dengue prevention and eradication program, community participation, housing environment, and weather condition. The methodology is a mixed method study using sequential exploratory design. The study comprised of 3 stages: first a qualitative study to 14 respondents using in-depth interview and 6 respondents for focus group discussion. The results from the first stage was used to develop entomology and household survey questionnaires for second stage conducted in 2036 households across 12 sub districts in Bandung City. Ecohealth system dynamic model was developed using data from first and second stages. Analyses used are thematic analysis for qualitative data; spatial, generalized estimating equation (GEE) and structural equation modeling for quantitative data; also average mean error (AME) and average variance error (AVE) for dynamic system model validation. System dynamic model showed that the most effective approach to eliminate breeding places was by ensuring the availability

  6. AVE 0991, a non-peptide Mas-receptor agonist, facilitates penile erection.

    PubMed

    da Costa Gonçalves, Andrey C; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Leite, Romulo; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in erectile function. It has been shown that elevated levels of angiotensin II contribute to the development of erectile dysfunction both in humans and in aminals. On the contrary, the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) appears to mediate penile erection by activation of the Mas receptor. Recently, we have shown that the erectile function of Mas gene-deleted mice was substantially reduced, which was associated with a marked increase in fibrous tissue in the corpus cavernosum. We have hypothesized that the synthetic non-peptide Mas agonist, AVE 0991, would potentiate penile erectile function. We showed that intracavernosal injection of AVE 0991 potentiated the erectile response of anaesthetized Wistar rats, measured as the ratio between corpus cavernosum pressure and mean arterial pressure, upon electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion. The facilitatory effect of AVE 0991 on erectile function was dose dependent and completely blunted by the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, l-NAME. Importantly, concomitant intracavernosal infusion of the specific Mas receptor blocker, A-779, abolished the effect of AVE 0991. We demonstrated that AVE 0991 potentiates the penile erectile response through Mas in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, these results suggest that Mas agonists, such as AVE 0991, might have significant therapeutic benefits for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  7. Canine Breed-Specific Hepatopathies.

    PubMed

    Watson, Penny

    2017-05-01

    Canine hepatopathies, both congenital and acquired, arise from an interaction between genes and environment. Many show increased breed prevalences. This article reviews the current understanding on breed predispositions for congenital portosystemic shunts; microvascular dysplasia and portal vein hypoplasia; ductal plate abnormalities (congenital hepatic fibrosis and Caroli disease); chronic hepatitis (both copper associated and idiopathic); vacuolar hepatopathies; and gallbladder mucocele. Although all these diseases can occur in many breeds and crossbreeds, understanding breed predispositions helps recognition and will guide future research to improve understanding of causes and treatments. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Population Genetic Structure of the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens (Aves, Suliformes) Breeding Colonies in the Western Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Andressa; Carlos, Caio J.; Moreno, Ignacio B.; Fagundes, Nelson J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens has a pantropical distribution, nesting on islands along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. In the Caribbean, there is little genetic structure among colonies; however, the genetic structure among the colonies off Brazil and its relationship with those in the Caribbean are unknown. In this study, we used mtDNA and microsatellite markers to infer population structure and evolutionary history in a sample of F. magnificens individuals collected in Brazil, Grand Connétable (French Guyana), and Barbuda. Virtually all Brazilian individuals had the same mtDNA haplotype. There was no haplotype sharing between Brazil and the Caribbean, though Grand Connétable shared haplotypes with both regions. A Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data found two genetic clusters: one associated with Barbuda and the other with the Brazilian populations. Grand Connétable was more similar to Barbuda but had ancestry from both clusters, corroborating its “intermediate” position. The Caribbean and Grand Connétable populations showed higher genetic diversity and effective population size compared to the Brazilian population. Overall, our results are in good agreement with an effect of marine winds in isolating the Brazilian meta-population. PMID:26901878

  9. Population Genetic Structure of the Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens (Aves, Suliformes) Breeding Colonies in the Western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Andressa; Carlos, Caio J; Moreno, Ignacio B; Fagundes, Nelson J R

    2016-01-01

    The Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens has a pantropical distribution, nesting on islands along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. In the Caribbean, there is little genetic structure among colonies; however, the genetic structure among the colonies off Brazil and its relationship with those in the Caribbean are unknown. In this study, we used mtDNA and microsatellite markers to infer population structure and evolutionary history in a sample of F. magnificens individuals collected in Brazil, Grand Connétable (French Guyana), and Barbuda. Virtually all Brazilian individuals had the same mtDNA haplotype. There was no haplotype sharing between Brazil and the Caribbean, though Grand Connétable shared haplotypes with both regions. A Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data found two genetic clusters: one associated with Barbuda and the other with the Brazilian populations. Grand Connétable was more similar to Barbuda but had ancestry from both clusters, corroborating its "intermediate" position. The Caribbean and Grand Connétable populations showed higher genetic diversity and effective population size compared to the Brazilian population. Overall, our results are in good agreement with an effect of marine winds in isolating the Brazilian meta-population.

  10. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding In Rosaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RosBREED will create a national, dynamic, sustained effort in research, infrastructure establishment, training, and extension for applying marker-assisted breeding (MAB) to deliver improved plant materials more efficiently and rapidly. The Rosaceae family (including apple, peach, sweet and tart cher...

  11. Skeletogenesis of Myiopsitta monachus (Psittaciformes) and sequence heterochronies in Aves.

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2017-01-01

    The ossification sequence of Myiopsitta monachus was determined. Myiopsitta has a similar sequence to other altricial birds, with delayed skeletons compared to precocial species. The hindlimbs ossify before the forelimbs, a condition that could be linked to altriciality. To determine the stability of the sequences of ossification across birds, we selected species of different groups of Aves and used event-pairing method and character mapping on a phylogeny. Our results show that the homogeneity in the development of birds was supported by 56.77% of the character states. Event-pair cracking phylogenetic method was applied to identify sequence heterochronies. Results reveal a high number of heterochronies and show that the long bones in limbs may behave as modules. In Myiopsitta, the ossa ectethmoidale and mesethmoidale ossify early. These bones provide the origin site of the Psittaciformes' novel adductor m. ethmomandibularis, associated with strong bite forces, and its acceleration in the sequence may correspond to the functional hypothesis. Also, the early appearance of some hyoid apparatus elements occurs, and could be related to the development of tongue in Psittaciformes and its role in handling food, and is in concordance with the functional and size hypothesis.

  12. AVES: an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Luca; Delabre, Bernard; Avila, Gerardo; Bonaccini, Domenico

    1998-07-01

    We present the preliminary study of a low cost, high performance spectrograph for the VLT, for observations in the V, R and I bands. This spectrograph is meant for intermediate (R equals 16,000) resolution spectroscopy of faint (sky and/or detector limited) sources, with particular emphasis on the study of solar-type (F-G) stars belonging to the nearest galaxies and to distant (or highly reddened) galactic clusters. The spectrograph is designed to use the adaptive optics (AO) systems at the VLT Telescope. Even if these AO systems will not provide diffraction limited images in the V, R and I bands, the photon concentration will still be above approximately 60% of the flux in an 0.3 arcsecond aperture for typical Paranal conditions. This makes the construction of a compact, cheap and efficient echelle spectrograph possible. AVES will outperform comparable non adaptive optic instruments by more than one magnitude for sky- and/or detector-limited observations, and it will be very suitable for observations in crowded fields.

  13. AveBoost2: Boosting for Noisy Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    AdaBoost is a well-known ensemble learning algorithm that constructs its constituent or base models in sequence. A key step in AdaBoost is constructing a distribution over the training examples to create each base model. This distribution, represented as a vector, is constructed to be orthogonal to the vector of mistakes made by the pre- vious base model in the sequence. The idea is to make the next base model's errors uncorrelated with those of the previous model. In previous work, we developed an algorithm, AveBoost, that constructed distributions orthogonal to the mistake vectors of all the previous models, and then averaged them to create the next base model s distribution. Our experiments demonstrated the superior accuracy of our approach. In this paper, we slightly revise our algorithm to allow us to obtain non-trivial theoretical results: bounds on the training error and generalization error (difference between training and test error). Our averaging process has a regularizing effect which, as expected, leads us to a worse training error bound for our algorithm than for AdaBoost but a superior generalization error bound. For this paper, we experimented with the data that we used in both as originally supplied and with added label noise-a small fraction of the data has its original label changed. Noisy data are notoriously difficult for AdaBoost to learn. Our algorithm's performance improvement over AdaBoost is even greater on the noisy data than the original data.

  14. ITER breeding blanket design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Cardella, A.; Ioki, K.; Lousteau, D.; Mohri, K.; Raffray, R.; Zolti, E.

    1995-12-31

    A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.

  15. Breeding cassava for higher yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cassava is a root crop grown for food and for starch production. Breeding progress is slowed by asexual production and high levels of heterozygosity. Germplasm resources are rich and accessible to breeders through genebanks worldwide. Breeding objectives include high root yield, yield stability, dis...

  16. Persian walnut breeding in California

    Treesearch

    Charles A. Leslie; Gale H. McGranahan

    2004-01-01

    For over 50 years the University of California Davis Walnut Breeding Program has worked to address the needs of California walnut growers by identifying genetic approaches to problems and developing improved cultivars. The breeding program is a cooperative endeavor that draws on the efforts and resources of university researchers and facilities, USDA germplasm programs...

  17. Safety and efficacy of AVE gfx stent implantation via 6 Fr guiding catheters.

    PubMed

    Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J; Odekerken, D; Slagboom, T; van der Wieken, R

    1999-08-01

    This prospective study was designed to determine the feasibility of AVE gfx premounted stent systems in combination with 6 Fr guides. Between 1 April and 12 August 1997, 230 patients underwent AVE gfx coronary stent implantation via 6 Fr guides. The radial approach was used in 146 patients (63.5%). In 230 procedures (293 lesions), 237 guiding catheters were used. A total of 331 AVE gfx stents were implanted, 1.4 per patient. Backup, opacification, and friction were considered good in 85.8%, 96.4%, and 76.7%, respectively. Slight and severe friction was felt during combined use of long (> or = 18 mm), large-sized (3.5 mm) stents and small-sized guiding catheters (inner diameter, 0.061-0.062"). The presence of a second protecting guidewire impaired passage of the AVE gfx stent, also in large 6 Fr guides (ID 0.064"). Of 331, 320 (96.7%) stents were successfully deployed at the initial attempt. Ten stents (3%) had to be retrieved. Six of these were successfully placed at a second attempt and three slipped off the balloon, all successfully retrieved from the patient's circulation. At 1 month, 217 patients (94.4%) were free of events. The AVE gfx stent is compatible with 6 Fr guiding catheters. Use of new-generation, large-bore 6 Fr gc (> or = 0.064") is recommended.

  18. Multiple cenozoic invasions of Africa by penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes).

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Thomas, Daniel B

    2012-03-07

    Africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern African coastlines. Here, we show that the African penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. Phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four Early Pliocene African penguin species do not represent an endemic radiation or direct ancestors of the living Spheniscus demersus (blackfooted penguin). A minimum of three dispersals to Africa, probably assisted by the eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar and South Atlantic currents, occurred during the Late Cenozoic. As regional sea-level fall eliminated islands and reduced offshore breeding areas during the Pliocene, all but one penguin lineage ended in extinction, resulting in today's depleted fauna.

  19. Multiple cenozoic invasions of Africa by penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Ksepka, Daniel T.; Thomas, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern African coastlines. Here, we show that the African penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. Phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four Early Pliocene African penguin species do not represent an endemic radiation or direct ancestors of the living Spheniscus demersus (blackfooted penguin). A minimum of three dispersals to Africa, probably assisted by the eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar and South Atlantic currents, occurred during the Late Cenozoic. As regional sea-level fall eliminated islands and reduced offshore breeding areas during the Pliocene, all but one penguin lineage ended in extinction, resulting in today's depleted fauna. PMID:21900330

  20. Pressure Contact Sounding Data for NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.; Long, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    The basic rawinsonde data are described at each pressure contact from the surface to sounding termination for the 41 stations participating in the AVE III measurement program that began at 0000 GMT on February 6 and ended at 1200 GMT on February 7, 1975. Soundings were taken at 3-hour intervals during a large period of the experiment from most stations within the United States east of about 105 degrees west longitude. Methods of data processing, change in reduction scheme since the AVE II pilot experiment, and data accuracy are briefly discussed. An example of contact data is presented, and microfiche cards of all the contact data are included in the appendix. The AVE III project was conducted to better understand and establish the extent of applications for meteorological satellite sensor data through correlative ground truth experiments and to provide basic experimental data for use in studies of atmospheric scales of-motion interrelationships.

  1. Reduction and error analysis of the AVE 2 pilot experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction techniques used to process data from the pilot experiment of the second NASA atmospheric variability experiment (AVE IIP), which was conducted during a 24 hour period beginning at 1200 GMT on May 11, 1974, and ending at 1200 GMT on May 12, 1974 are described. Each step of the data handling process is described through the presentation of computer flow charts, programs, equations, and narrative. An error analysis of the final output is presented, and results of the AVE IIP reduction process are compared with results from the National Weather Service. The AVE IIP sounding data contain more detail than National Weather Service data, but the two data sets may be used together without difficulty.

  2. Health assessment of captive tinamids (Aves, Tinamiformes) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marcus Vinícius Romero; Ferreira Júnior, Francisco Carlos; Andery, Danielle de Assis; Fernandes, André Almeida; de Araújo, Alessandra Vitelli; de Resende, José Sérgio; Donatti, Rogério Venâncio; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Ninety-five (95) captive tinamids (Aves, Tinamiformes) of species Crypturellus obsoletus (brown tinamou), Crypturellus parvirostris (small-billed tinamou), Crypturellus tataupa (Tataupa tinamou), Crypturellus undulatus (undulated tinamou), Rhynchotus rufescens (red-winged tinamou), and Tinamus solitarius (solitary tinamou) were evaluated for diseases of mandatory control in the Brazilian Poultry Health Program (PNSA). Antibodies were detected by serum agglutination test (SAT) in 4 birds for Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and in 27 birds for Salmonella Pullorum (SP) and Salmonella Gallinarum (SG). However, by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), sera were negative to MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). Bacteriology was negative for SP and SG. No antibody was detected by HI to avian paramyxovirus type 1. However, antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were detected in 9.4% (9/95) by ELISA. Fecal parasitology and necropsy revealed Capillaria spp. in 44.2% (42/95), Eimeria rhynchoti in 42.1% (40/95), Strongyloides spp. in 100% (20/20), Ascaridia spp., and unknown sporozoa in small-billed tinamou. Ectoparasites were detected in 42.1% (40/95) by inspection, and collected for identification. The louse Strongylocotes lipogonus (Insecta: Phthiraptera) was found on all Rhynchotus rufescens. An additional four lice species were found on 14 individuals. Traumatic lesions included four individual R. rufescens (4/40, 10%) with rhinotheca fracture, one with mandible fracture and three with posttraumatic ocular lesions (3/40, 7.5%). One C. parvirostris had phalangeal loss, another had tibiotarsal joint ankylosis and another had an open wound on the foot. Results suggest that major poultry infections/ diseases may not be relevant in tinamids, and that this group of birds, as maintained within distances for biosecurity purposes, may not represent a risk to commercial poultry. Ecto- and endoparasites were common, disseminated, and varied; regular monitoring of flocks is recommended

  3. A multilocus phylogeny of the Sulidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes).

    PubMed

    Patterson, S A; Morris-Pocock, J A; Friesen, V L

    2011-02-01

    Gene trees will often differ from the true species history, the species tree, as a result of processes such as incomplete lineage sorting. New methods such as Bayesian Estimation of the Species Tree (BEST) use the multispecies coalescent to model lineage sorting, and directly infer the species tree from multilocus DNA sequence data. The Sulidae (Aves: Pelecaniformes) is a family of ten booby and gannet species with a global distribution. We sequenced five nuclear intron loci and one mitochondrial locus to estimate a species tree for the Sulidae using both BEST and by concatenating nuclear loci. We also used fossil calibrated strict and relaxed molecular clocks in BEAST to estimate divergence times for major nodes in the sulid phylogeny. Individual gene trees showed little phylogenetic conflict but varied in resolution. With the exception of the mitochondrial gene tree, no gene tree was completely resolved. On the other hand, both the BEST and concatenated species trees were highly resolved, strongly supported, and topologically consistent with each other. The three sulid genera (Morus, Sula, Papasula) were monophyletic and the relationships within genera were mostly consistent with both a previously estimated mtDNA gene tree and the mtDNA gene tree estimated here. However, our species trees conflicted with the mtDNA gene trees in the relationships among the three genera. Most notably, we find that the endemic and endangered Abbott's booby (Papasula abbotti) is likely basal to all other members of the Sulidae and diverged from them approximately 22 million years ago. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  5. Best of Breed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    No team of engineers, no matter how much time they took or how many bottles of cabernet they consumed, would dream up an antenna that looked like a deer antler on steroids. Yet that's what a group at NASA Ames Research Center came up with-thanks to a little help from Darwin. NASA's Space Technology 5 nanosatellites, which are scheduled to start measuring Earth's magnetosphere in late 2004, requires an antenna that can receive a wide range of frequencies regardless of the spacecraft's orientation. Rather than leave such exacting requirements in the hands of a human, the engineers decided to breed a design using genetic algorithms and 32 Linux PCs. The computers generated small antenna-constructing programs (the genotypes) and executed them to produce designs (the phenotypes). Then the designs were evaluated using an antenna simulator. The team settled on the form pictured here. You won't find this kind of antenna in any textbook, design guide, or research paper. But its innovative structure meets a challenging set of specifications. If successfully deployed, it will be the first evolved antenna to make it out of the lab and the first piece of evolved hardware ever to fly in space.

  6. Best of Breed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    No team of engineers, no matter how much time they took or how many bottles of cabernet they consumed, would dream up an antenna that looked like a deer antler on steroids. Yet that's what a group at NASA Ames Research Center came up with-thanks to a little help from Darwin. NASA's Space Technology 5 nanosatellites, which are scheduled to start measuring Earth's magnetosphere in late 2004, requires an antenna that can receive a wide range of frequencies regardless of the spacecraft's orientation. Rather than leave such exacting requirements in the hands of a human, the engineers decided to breed a design using genetic algorithms and 32 Linux PCs. The computers generated small antenna-constructing programs (the genotypes) and executed them to produce designs (the phenotypes). Then the designs were evaluated using an antenna simulator. The team settled on the form pictured here. You won't find this kind of antenna in any textbook, design guide, or research paper. But its innovative structure meets a challenging set of specifications. If successfully deployed, it will be the first evolved antenna to make it out of the lab and the first piece of evolved hardware ever to fly in space.

  7. Animal breeding and disease

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Frank W

    2005-01-01

    Single-locus disorders in domesticated animals were among the first Mendelian traits to be documented after the rediscovery of Mendelism, and to be included in early linkage maps. The use of linkage maps and (increasingly) comparative genomics has been central to the identification of the causative gene for single-locus disorders of considerable practical importance. The ‘score-card’ in domestic animals is now more than 100 disorders for which the molecular lesion has been identified and hence for which a DNA test is available. Because of the limited lifespan of any such test, a cost-effective and hence popular means of protecting the intellectual property inherent in a DNA test is not to publish the discovery. While understandable, this practice creates a disconcerting precedent. For multifactorial disorders that are scored on an all-or-none basis or into many classes, the effectiveness of control schemes could be greatly enhanced by selection on estimated breeding values for liability. Genetic variation for resistance to pathogens and parasites is ubiquitous. Selection for resistance can therefore be successful. Because of the technical and welfare challenges inherent in the requirement to expose animals to pathogens or parasites in order to be able to select for resistance, there is a very active search for DNA markers for resistance. The first practical fruits of this research were seen in 2002, with the launch of a national scrapie control programme in the UK. PMID:16048793

  8. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  9. Mutation breeding by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

    1991-07-01

    Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

  10. [Rice breeding by space technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-xiang; Li, Jin-guo; Liu, Han-dong; Jiang, Xing-cun; Hua, Yu-jian; Zhou, Huo-liang; Che, Xin-ming

    2002-07-01

    In order to inquire into the influences of space conditions on rice breeding,the dry seeds of 12 rice varieties were carried by recoverable satellite. After recovery,these seeds were showed in the yield, the inheritance and variation of the characters of their progenies were observed and analysed. The results showed that the characters of the progenies mutated under space conditions segregated and varied in many aspects and directions,and the segregated and varied characters were heritable. These progenies posoessed significant transgressive inheritance, a plenty of variation types and variation was characterized by short breeding period. The results in this study indicated that space technology breeding could be developed and used as a new method of mutation breeding.

  11. Breeding gravitational lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesenborgs, J.; de Rijcke, S.; Dejonghe, H.; Bekaert, P.

    2011-03-01

    Gravitational lenses are a spectacular astrophysical phenomenon, a cosmic mirage caused by the gravitational deflection of light in which multiple images of a same background object can be seen. Their beauty is only exceeded by their usefulness, as the gravitational lens effect is a direct probe of the total mass of the deflecting object. Furthermore, since the image configuration arising from the gravitational lens effect depends on the exact gravitational potential of the deflector, it even holds the promise of learning about the distribution of the mass. In this presentation, a method for extracting the information encoded in the images and reconstructing the mass distribution is presented. Being a non-parametric method, it avoids making a priori assumptions about the shape of the mass distribution. At the core of the procedure lies a genetic algorithm, an optimization strategy inspired by Darwin's principle of ``survival of the fittest''. One only needs to specify a criterion to decide if one particular trial solution is deemed better than another, and the genetic algorithm will ``breed'' appropriate solutions to the problem. In a similar way, one can create a multi-objective genetic algorithm, capable of optimizing several fitness criteria at the same time. This provides a very flexible way to incorporate all the available information in the gravitational lens system: not only the positions and shapes of the multiple images are used, but also the so-called ``null space'', i.e. the area in which no such images can be seen. The effectiveness of this approach is illustrated using simulated data, which allows one to compare the reconstruction to the true mass distribution.

  12. Efficient Breeding by Genomic Mating.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Deniz; Sánchez, Julio I

    2016-01-01

    Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We used a genetic algorithm to find solutions to this optimization problem and the results from our simulations comparing genomic selection, phenotypic selection and the mating approach indicate that current approach for breeding complex traits is more favorable than phenotypic and genomic selection. Genomic mating is similar to genomic selection in terms of estimating marker effects, but in genomic mating the genetic information and the estimated marker effects are used to decide which genotypes should be crossed to obtain the next breeding population.

  13. Efficient Breeding by Genomic Mating

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Deniz; Sánchez, Julio I.

    2016-01-01

    Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We used a genetic algorithm to find solutions to this optimization problem and the results from our simulations comparing genomic selection, phenotypic selection and the mating approach indicate that current approach for breeding complex traits is more favorable than phenotypic and genomic selection. Genomic mating is similar to genomic selection in terms of estimating marker effects, but in genomic mating the genetic information and the estimated marker effects are used to decide which genotypes should be crossed to obtain the next breeding population. PMID:27965707

  14. Hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals.

    PubMed

    Longin, Carl Friedrich Horst; Mühleisen, Jonathan; Maurer, Hans Peter; Zhang, Hongliang; Gowda, Manje; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2012-10-01

    Hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals has a long history of attempts with moderate success. There is a vast amount of literature investigating the potential problems and solutions, but until now, market share of hybrids is still a niche compared to line varieties. Our aim was to summarize the status quo of hybrid breeding efforts for the autogamous cereals wheat, rice, barley, and triticale. Furthermore, the research needs for a successful hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals are intensively discussed. To our opinion, the basic requirements for a successful hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals are fulfilled. Nevertheless, optimization of the existing hybridization systems is urgently required and should be coupled with the development of clear male and female pool concepts. We present a quantitative genetic framework as a first step to compare selection gain of hybrid versus line breeding. The lack of precise empirical estimates of relevant quantitative genetic parameters, however, is currently the major bottleneck for a robust evaluation of the potential of hybrid breeding in autogamous cereals.

  15. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  16. Factors affecting germline mutations in a hypervariable microsatellite: a comparative analysis of six species of swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae).

    PubMed

    Anmarkrud, Jarl A; Kleven, Oddmund; Augustin, Jakob; Bentz, Kristofer H; Blomqvist, Donald; Fernie, Kim J; Magrath, Michael J L; Pärn, Henrik; Quinn, James S; Robertson, Raleigh J; Szép, Tibor; Tarof, Scott; Wagner, Richard H; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2011-03-15

    Microsatellites mutate frequently by replication slippage. Empirical evidence shows that the probability of such slippage mutations may increase with the length of the repeat region as well as exposure to environmental mutagens, but the mutation rate can also differ between the male and female germline. It has been hypothesized that more intense sexual selection or sperm competition can also lead to elevated mutation rates, but the empirical evidence is inconclusive. Here, we analyzed the occurrence of germline slippage mutations in the hypervariable pentanucleotide microsatellite locus HrU10 across six species of swallow (Aves: Hirundinidae). These species exhibit marked differences in the length range of the microsatellite, as well as differences in the intensity of sperm competition. We found a strong effect of microsatellite length on the probability of mutation, but no residual effect of species or their level of sperm competition when the length effect was accounted for. Neither could we detect any difference in mutation rate between tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, an industrial site with previous documentation of elevated mutation rates for minisatellite DNA, and a rural reference population. However, our cross-species analysis revealed two significant patterns of sex differences in HrU10 germline mutations: (1) mutations in longer alleles occurred typically in the male germline, those in shorter alleles in the female germline, and (2) male germline mutations were more often expansions than contractions, whereas no directional bias was evident in the female germline. These results indicate some fundamental differences in male and female gametogenesis affecting the probability of slippage mutations. Our study also reflects the value of a comparative, multi-species approach for locus-specific mutation analyses, through which a wider range of influential factors can be assessed than in single-species studies.

  17. [Prospects of molecular breeding in medical plants].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Chang-Ming

    2017-06-01

    The molecular-assisted breeding, transgenic breeding and molecular designing breeding are three development directions of plant molecular breeding. Base on these three development directions, this paper summarizes developing status and new tendency of research field of genetic linkage mapping, QTL mapping, association mapping, molecular-assisted selections, pollen-mediated transformations, agrobacterium-mediated transformations, particle gun-mediated transformations, genome editing technologies, whole-genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, proteome sequencing and varietal molecular designing. The objective and existing problem of medical plant molecular breeding were discussed the prospect of these three molecular breeding technologies application on medical plant molecular breeding was outlooked. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  19. Data for NASA's AVE 5 experiment: 25 mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humbert, M. E.; Hill, K.

    1977-01-01

    The AVE V Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, June 11, and 1200 GMT, June 12, 1976. The methods of data processing and accuracy are briefly discussed. An example of contact data is also included.

  20. MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN GATE, INTERSECTION OF 4TH AVE (200 NORTH) AND N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH MAIN CEMETERY GATE TO CEMETERY'S MAIN STREET, REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18276, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  1. Genetic evidence for the origin and relationships of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Aves: Fringillidae)

    Treesearch

    Ned K. Johnson; Jill A. Marten; C. John Ralph

    1989-01-01

    Using starch gel electrophoresis of proteins, we examined variation at 36 genetic loci in nine species (eight genera) of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Class Aves; Family Fringillidae; Subfamily Drepanidinae). Two species of cardueline finches and two emberizids served as outgroup taxa. Twenty-three loci (64%) were either polymorphic within taxa and/or were fixed at...

  2. A preliminary look at AVE-SESAME 4 conducted on 9-10 May 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    July, M.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains information on data collected, symptotic conditions, and severe and unusual weather reported during the Atmospheric Variability Experiment Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME) 4 period. The information provides researchers a look at conditions during the period.

  3. 14. 19th ST. AND PACIFIC AVE., SHAUB AND ELLISON BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. 19th ST. AND PACIFIC AVE., SHAUB AND ELLISON BUILDING (1931) AT CENTER; WALSH AND GARDNER BUILDING (AMERICAN SUPPLY BUILDING) (1911), DESIGNED BY CARL AUGUST DARMER ON LEFT. SNOQUALMIE FALLS POWER COMPANY TRANSFORMER BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  4. Studies of vorticity imbalance and stability, moisture budget, atmospheric energetics, and gradients of meteorological parameters during AVE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Four diagnostic studies of AVE 3. are presented. AVE 3 represents a high wind speed wintertime situation, while most AVE's analyzed previously represented springtime conditions with rather low wind speeds. The general areas of analysis include the examination of budgets of vorticity, moisture, kinetic energy, and potential energy and a synoptic and statistical study of the horizontal gradients of meteorological parameters. Conclusions are integrated with and compared to those obtained in previously analyzed experiments (mostly springtime weather situations) so as to establish a more definitive understanding of the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere under a wide range of synoptic conditions.

  5. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  6. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  7. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    PubMed

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  8. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  9. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  10. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  11. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kachman, Stephen D; Spangler, Matthew L; Bennett, Gary L; Hanford, Kathryn J; Kuehn, Larry A; Snelling, Warren M; Thallman, R Mark; Saatchi, Mahdi; Garrick, Dorian J; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Pollak, E John

    2013-08-16

    Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained

  12. Hemodynamic Effects of the Non-Peptidic Angiotensin-(1-7) Agonist AVE0991 in Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Schierwagen, Robert; Grace, Josephine; Haltenhof, Tom; Uschner, Frank E.; Strassburg, Christian P.; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Walther, Thomas; Angus, Peter W.; Trebicka, Jonel

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Although in cirrhosis with portal hypertension levels of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II are increased, this is accompanied by increased production of angiotensin (Ang)-(1–7), the endogenous ligand of the Mas receptor (MasR), which blunts hepatic fibrosis and decreases hepatic vascular resistance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the non-peptidic Ang-(1–7) agonist, AVE0991, in experimental cirrhosis. Methods Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication. The coloured microsphere technique assessed portal and systemic hemodynamic effects of AVE0991 in vivo. Hepatic expression of eNOS, p-eNOS, iNOS, JAK2, ROCK and p-Moesin were analyzed by western blots. Activities of ACE and ACE2 were investigated fluorometrically. Moreover, fibrosis was assessed in BDL rats receiving AVE0991. Results In vivo, AVE0991 decreased portal pressure (PP) in both rat models of cirrhosis. Importantly, systemic effects were not observed. The hepatic effects of AVE0991 were based on upregulation of vasodilating pathways involving p-eNOS and iNOS, as well as by downregulation of the vasoconstrictive pathways (ROCK, p-Moesin). Short-term treatment with AVE0991 decreased the activity of ACE2, long-term treatment did not affect hepatic fibrosis in BDL rats. Conclusions The non-peptidic agonist of Ang-(1–7), AVE0991, decreases portal pressure without influencing systemic pressure. Thus, although it does not inhibit fibrosis, AVE0991 may represent a promising new therapeutic strategy for lowering portal pressure. PMID:26406236

  13. Chapter 6: Breeding season ecology

    Treesearch

    Mark K. Sogge

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) breeds across much of the conterminous United States and in portions of extreme southern Canada. As might be expected in such a wide-ranging species, willow flycatchers in different portions of the range exhibit differences in appearance, song, and ecological characteristics. The intent of this chapter is to...

  14. Breeding and propagating oakleaf hydrangeas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An oakleaf hydrangea breeding program at the U.S. National Arboretum’s worksite in McMinnville, Tenn. was started in 1996 for the purpose of developing attractive, compact oakleaf hydrangea cultivars suitable for use in small residential gardens. ‘Ruby Slippers’ and ‘Munchkin’ oakleaf hydrangeas we...

  15. USDA lettuce breeding and genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The lettuce industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The USDA lettuce breeding and genetics project aims to incorporate valuable traits into crisphead, mixed...

  16. The evolution of potato breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  17. Improving the breeding bird survey

    Treesearch

    Jonathan Bart; Joseph B. Buchanan; Bob Altman

    2005-01-01

    We investigated increasing the number of Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes and reducing potential bias as ways to increase the number of species adequately monitored by the BBS in the Pacific Northwest. Estimates of place-to-place variance in trends were used to assess the effects of increasing the number of additional BBS routes. Increasing the number of BBS routes...

  18. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J; Tier, Bruce

    2014-10-24

    The major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Brahman, Belmont Red, Santa Gertrudis and Tropical Composite. This paper presents accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) that were calculated from these PE in the commercial pure-breed beef cattle seed stock sector. PE derived by the Beef CRC from multi-breed and pure-breed training populations were applied to genotyped Angus, Limousin and Brahman sires and young animals, but with no pure-breed Limousin in the training population. The accuracy of the resulting GEBV was assessed by their genetic correlation to their phenotypic target trait in a bi-variate REML approach that models GEBV as trait observations. Accuracies of most GEBV for Angus and Brahman were between 0.1 and 0.4, with accuracies for abattoir carcass traits generally greater than for live animal body composition traits and reproduction traits. Estimated accuracies greater than 0.5 were only observed for Brahman abattoir carcass traits and for Angus carcass rib fat. Averaged across traits within breeds, accuracies of GEBV were highest when PE from the pooled across-breed training population were used. However, for the Angus and Brahman breeds the difference in accuracy from using pure-breed PE was small. For the Limousin breed no reasonable results could be achieved for any trait. Although accuracies were generally low compared to published accuracies estimated within breeds, they are in line with those derived in other multi-breed populations. Thus PE developed by the Beef CRC can contribute to the implementation of genomic selection in

  19. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Gizaw, Solomon; Komen, Hans; Windig, Jack J; Hanotte, Olivier; van Arendonk, Johan AM

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits) and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers) and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits). Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04) as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83). We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan. PMID:18558075

  20. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  1. Rescue AVE Stent Placement for Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Occlusion During Diagnostic Angiography.

    PubMed

    van Dijk D; Ernst; Six; Plokker

    1996-06-01

    In a 65-year-old male with coronary artery disease a proximal occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery occurred during diagnostic coronary angiography. The most likely cause was an occlusive dissection. This resulted in acute myocardial ischemia and immediate cardiogenic shock. The decision was made to proceed to emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). After balloon dilatation, a 3.5 mm AVE stent was deployed successfully at the site of the lesion. This resulted in a satisfactory angiographic result and an immediate improvement of the clinical picture. We conclude that placement of an AVE stent can provide a means for restoring flow in case of acute occlusive dissection during coronary angiography.

  2. Large-scale vertical motion calculations in the AVE IV Experiment. [of atmospheric wind velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    Using 3- and 6-h consecutive rawinsonde and surface data from NASA's AVE IV Experiment, synoptic-scale vertical motion calculations are made using an adiabatic technique and three variations of the kinematic technique. Both subjective and objective comparisons in space and time between the sign and magnitude of the computed vertical velocities and precipitation intensities are made. These comparisons are conducted to determine which method would consistently produce realistic magnitudes, patterns, and vertical profiles of vertical velocity essential to the diagnostic study of the relationship between severe convective storms and their environment in AVE IV. The kinematic method, adjusted to the adiabatic value at 100 mb, proved to produce the best overall vertical velocities.

  3. Pressure contact sounding data for NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 2). [rawinsondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The basic rawinsonde data are described at each pressure contact from the surface to sounding termination for the 54 stations participating in the AVE 2 pilot experiment. Soundings were taken at three-hour intervals from stations within the United States east of about 105 degrees west longitude. Methods of data reduction and estimates of data accuracy are discussed. Examples of the data records produced are shown. The AVE 2 pilot experiment was conducted as part of NASA's program to better understand and establish the extent of applications for meteorological satellite sensor data through correlative ground truth experiments and to provide basic experimental data for use in studies of atmospheric scales-of-motion interrelationships.

  4. Data for NASA's AVE 4 experiment: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucik, N. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The AVE 4 Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 42 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, April 24 and 1200 GMT, April 25, 1975. The methods of data processing and accuracy are discussed. Synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented, as well as an example of contact data.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of Germain's Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron germaini (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Omeire, Destiny; Abdin, Shaunte; Brooks, Daniel M; Miranda, Hector C

    2015-04-01

    The Germain's Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron germaini (Aves, Galliformes, Phasianidae) is classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. germaini is 16,699 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. All of the 13 protein-coding genes have ATG as start codon. Eight of the 13 protein-coding genes have TAA as stop codon.

  6. Data for NASA's AVE 4 experiment: 25 mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucik, N. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The AVE IV Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 42 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, April 24, and 1,200 GMT, April 25, 1975. The methods of data processing and accuracy are briefly discussed. Synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented, as well as an example of contact data.

  7. Can I compare EPD's across breeds?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper comparison of the genetic merit of animals across breeds can be difficult and confusion for beef cattle producers. With the advent of a new genetic evaluation system where several breeds are evaluated in the same genetic analysis, confusion on direct comparison of animals across breeds has i...

  8. Population structure of ice-breeding seals.

    PubMed

    Davis, Corey S; Stirling, Ian; Strobeck, Curtis; Coltman, David W

    2008-07-01

    The development of population genetic structure in ice-breeding seal species is likely to be shaped by a combination of breeding habitat and life-history characteristics. Species that return to breed on predictable fast-ice locations are more likely to exhibit natal fidelity than pack-ice-breeding species, which in turn facilitates the development of genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Other aspects of life history such as geographically distinct vocalizations, female gregariousness, and the potential for polygynous breeding may also facilitate population structure. Based on these factors, we predicted that fast-ice-breeding seal species (the Weddell and ringed seal) would show elevated genetic differentiation compared to pack-ice-breeding species (the leopard, Ross, crabeater and bearded seals). We tested this prediction using microsatellite analysis to examine population structure of these six ice-breeding species. Our results did not support this prediction. While none of the Antarctic pack-ice species showed statistically significant population structure, the bearded seal of the Arctic pack ice showed strong differentiation between subpopulations. Again in contrast, the fast-ice-breeding Weddell seal of the Antarctic showed clear evidence for genetic differentiation while the ringed seal, breeding in similar habitat in the Arctic, did not. These results suggest that the development of population structure in ice-breeding phocid seals is a more complex outcome of the interplay of phylogenetic and ecological factors than can be predicted on the basis of breeding substrate and life-history characteristics.

  9. Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

  10. [The evaluation of breed-specific defects in dog breeds from an animal welfare viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Peyer, N; Steiger, A

    1998-01-01

    Issues of breed defects such as morphology, physiology or behaviour in pure-breed dogs, are briefly discussed. Suggestions for various kinds of improvements are made, particularly concerning legislation, analysis of pedigree to avoid undesirable breed characteristics and what breeding clubs, individual breeders, judges, future dog owners and veterinarians could and should do about these problems; these are followed by summary conclusions.

  11. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  12. Emperor Penguins Breeding on Iceshelves

    PubMed Central

    Fretwell, Peter T.; Trathan, Phil N.; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin’s reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as “near threatened” in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  13. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Björnerfeldt, Susanne; Hailer, Frank; Nord, Maria; Vilà, Carles

    2008-01-28

    There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have

  14. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same

  15. [Habitat selection and metapopulation structure: a multi-year study of distribution of the Hodgson's pipit, Anthus Hodgsoni Richm. (Aves, Passeriformes)].

    PubMed

    Burskiĭ, O V

    2008-01-01

    Numbers and distribution of the Hodgson's pipit (Anthus hodgson Richm.: Aves, Passeriformes) were studied in the Yenissei middle taiga region over an area of about 450 sq km. Distribution of breeding pairs was mapped on fixed study plots (up to 450 ha in total) annually during 15 years. Habitat properties were described and measured in detail on 53 4-ha homogeneous plots within the area. It is shown by means of multiple regression, an average bird abundance over these plots depends on five habitat features (R2 = 0.74) including development and accessibility of moss cover and absence of a potential competitor, the tree pipit (A. trivialis L.). Correlation with these factors ruterated every year, therefore the average bird abundance was used as an index of habitat favourability. Density deviations from the mean in years of high and low numbers appeared to be closely related to habitat favourability; in particular, the relationship can alter the sign depending on the spatial scale of population structures. Changes in abundance reversely related to favourability in adjacent habitats, according to the prediction of despotic distribution hypothesis (Fretwell, Lucas, 1970), strictly indicating dominance behaviour during selection of a breeding territory. The numbers in larger population groups occupying a patchy habitat complex changed synchronously and proportionally to their average habitat quality. This assumes another mechanism governing the distribution of individuals, requiring no local knowledge and no dominance relationships. Dynamics and distribution of individuals among population groups of different hierarchic ranks agree with investigations on establishing of individual site fixation in birds and allow splitting the process into four consecutive steps. 1. During the juvenile dispersal, birds spread around quite evenly, disregarding of habitat quality. This maintains entirety of the metapopulation and occupation of isolated habitat spots. 2. The juvenile

  16. Evaluation of the stallion for breeding soundness.

    PubMed

    Hurtgen, J P

    1992-04-01

    The breeding soundness evaluation of a stallion is a thorough investigation of a stallion's libido, mating ability, and semen quality. The evaluation should include historical data about the medical aspects of the horse's performance and breeding career, observations and breeding behavior characteristics, collection and evaluation of semen, tests to determine freedom from infectious or contagious disease, and production of foals free of genetic defects. This information should allow the examiner to anticipate the impact of the stallion on the reproductive efficiency of a group of mares. The breeding soundness evaluation should also assist farm management in optimizing stallion, mare, veterinary, and management influences on total herd breeding performance.

  17. Migratory double breeding in Neotropical migrant birds

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.

    2009-01-01

    Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers south in midsummer to breed a second time during the same summer in coastal west Mexico or Baja California Sur. They then migrate further south to their final wintering areas in the Neotropics. Our discovery of dual breeding ranges in Neotropical migrants reveals a hitherto unrealized flexibility in life-history strategies for these species and underscores that demographic models and conservation plans must consider dual breeding for these migrants. PMID:19858484

  18. Migratory double breeding in Neotropical migrant birds.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A; Rohwer, Vanya G

    2009-11-10

    Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers south in midsummer to breed a second time during the same summer in coastal west Mexico or Baja California Sur. They then migrate further south to their final wintering areas in the Neotropics. Our discovery of dual breeding ranges in Neotropical migrants reveals a hitherto unrealized flexibility in life-history strategies for these species and underscores that demographic models and conservation plans must consider dual breeding for these migrants.

  19. Breeding without breeding: is a complete pedigree necessary for efficient breeding?

    PubMed

    El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Cappa, Eduardo P; Liewlaksaneeyanawin, Cherdsak; Klápště, Jaroslav; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called "Breeding without Breeding" (BwB) that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS) and incomplete (half-sib: HS) analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors), growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP) or complete (FS) pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB.

  20. Novel transient outward and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier current antagonist, AVE0118, protects against ventricular fibrillation induced by myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Billman, George E; Kukielka, Monica

    2008-04-01

    AVE0118 is a novel drug that blocks the transient outward current (Ito), the ultra rapid component of the delayed rectifier current (IKur), and the acetylcholine dependent potassium channel (IKach). The latter 2 channels are more abundant in atrial tissue. It is possible that AVE0118 could reduce regional differences in repolarization and thereby prevent malignant arrhythmias provoked by ischemia. To test this hypothesis, ventricular fibrillation was induced by a 2-minute occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery during the last min of exercise in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions (n = 9). On a subsequent day, this exercise plus ischemia test was repeated after pretreatment with AVE0118 (1.0 mg/kg, IV). AVE0118 did not change QTc (Van de Water's correction) interval [245 +/- 6.0 ms (control) versus 242 +/- 2.3 ms (AVE)] and attenuated the dispersion of repolarization as measured by the duration of the descending portion of the T wave (Tpeak - Tend) induced by ischemia [ischemic changes: +11.1 +/- 2.4 ms (no drug) versus +2.2 +/- 3.7 ms (AVE)]. AVE0118 also significantly reduced the incidence of ventricular fibrillation, protecting 7 of 9 animals. Thus, AVE0118 abolished ischemically induced repolarization abnormalities and prevented malignant arrhythmias induced by ischemia without altering QTc interval.

  1. [Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

    2013-02-01

    The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out.

  2. Data for first NASA Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 1). Part 1: Data tabulation. [rawindsonde data for eastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.; Smith, O. E.

    1973-01-01

    A tablulation is given of rawinsonde data for NASA's first Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 1) conducted during the period February 19-22, 1964. Methods of data handling and processing, and estimates of error magnitudes are also given. Data taken on the AVE 1 project in 1964 enabled an analysis of a large sector of the eastern United States on a fine resolution time scale. This experiment was run in February 1964, and data were collected as a wave developed in the East Gulf on a frontal system which extended through the eastern part of the United States. The primary objective of AVE 1 was to investigate the variability of parameters in space and over time intervals of three hours, and to integrate the results into NASA programs which require this type of information. The results presented are those from one approach, and represent only a portion of the total research effort that can be accomplished.

  3. Population trends and survival of nesting green sea turtles Chelonia mydas on Aves Island, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia-Cruz, Marco A.; Lampo, Margarita; Peñaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William; Solé, Genaro; Rodriguez-Clark, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term demographic data are valuable for assessing the effect of anthropogenic impacts on endangered species and evaluating recovery programs. Using a 2-state open robust design model, we analyzed mark-recapture data from green turtles Chelonia mydas sighted between 1979 and 2009 on Aves Island, Venezuela, a rookery heavily impacted by human activities before it was declared a wildlife refuge in 1972. Based on the encounter histories of 7689 nesting females, we estimated the abundance, annual survival, and remigration intervals for this population. Female survival varied from 0.14-0.91, with a mean of 0.79, which is low compared to survival of other populations from the Caribbean (mean = 0.84) and Australia (mean = 0.95), even though we partially corrected for tag loss, which is known to negatively bias survival estimates. This supports prior suggestions that Caribbean populations in general, and the Aves Island population in particular, may be more strongly impacted than populations elsewhere. It is likely that nesters from this rookery are extracted while foraging in remote feeding grounds where hunting still occurs. Despite its relatively low survival, the nesting population at Aves Island increased during the past 30 years from approx. 500 to >1000 nesting females in 2009. Thus, this population, like others in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, seems to be slowly recovering following protective management. Although these findings support the importance of long-term conservation programs aimed at protecting nesting grounds, they also highlight the need to extend management actions to foraging grounds where human activities may still impact green turtle populations.

  4. Synonymous codon usage pattern in mitochondrial CYB gene in pisces, aves, and mammals.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-03-01

    Cytochrome b (CYB) protein plays an important role in complex III of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Codon usage is the phenomenon of non-uniform usage of synonymous codons. In the present study, we report the pattern of codon usage in MT-CYB gene using various codon usage parameters. Nucleotide composition such as % of C and T was higher than A and G in pisces. In aves, % of A and C was higher than T and G but in mammals, A and T was higher than C and G. Heat map shows that AT-ending codons were mostly negative and GC-ending codons were mostly positive. From the heat map based on RSCU values, it is evident that codon usage prefers A/C at the third codon position and it was less towards T/G in its third codon position. The codons absent in pisces were AGT (except Toxotes chatareus), TGT, and CAG (except Elasma zonatum). The codons such as AGT (except Falco peregrinus), CGT (except Vidua chalybeata), and ACG (except Aythya americana) were absent in aves whereas, in mammals, the absent codons were namely CAG (except Canis familiaris) and ACG (except Rattus norvegicus). Codon usage bias was low in pisces, aves, and mammals. The frequency of leucine was the highest in the amino acid and cysteine was the lowest. Correlation analysis further suggests that mutation pressure is mainly responsible for codon usage pattern. Natural selection might also play a vital role in codon usage pattern but it was weaker than mutation pressure.

  5. [Pain caused by breeding in dogs].

    PubMed

    Reetz, I C

    1997-02-01

    According to German animal protection law it is not aloud to breed animals if it has to be expected that the offspring will suffer pain caused by hereditary characters. This paper deals with those hereditary defects which are used directly or indirectly (because of linkage to other desirable traits) in dog breeding. By the patho-physiological symptoms and the genetics of selected hereditary defects recommendations are exemplified how these defects should be handled in breeding that pain can be avoided.

  6. Molecular tools for breeding basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, L; Larraya, L M; Pisabarro, A G

    2000-09-01

    The industrial production of edible basidiomycetes is increasing every year as a response to the increasing public demand of them because of their nutritional properties. About a dozen of fungal species can be currently produced for food with sound industrial and economic bases. Notwithstanding, this production is threatened by biotic and abiotic factors that make it necessary to improve the fungal strains currently used in industry. Breeding of edible basidiomycetes, however, has been mainly empirical and slow since the genetic tools useful in the selection of the new genetic material to be introduced in the commercial strains have not been developed for these fungi as it was for other organisms. In this review we will discuss the main genetic factors that should be considered to develop breeding approaches and tools for higher basidiomycetes. These factors are (i) the genetic system controlling fungal mating; (ii) the genomic structure and organisation of these fungi; and (iii) the identification of genes involved in the control of quantitative traits. We will discuss the weight of these factors using the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus as a model organism for most of the edible fungi cultivated industrially.

  7. [New technology in maize breeding].

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, K; Mladenović, S; Stojkov, S; Delić, N; Gosić, S; Petrović, R; Lević, J; Denić, M

    1992-01-01

    Results obtained by several approaches in the application of Biotechnology in maize breeding are reviewed. RFLP technology in the determination of genetic variation; gene transfer by the use of different methods of gene delivery and the determination of gene integration. Three technologies for foreign gene introduction have been applied; injection of plasmid pRT100 neo into archesporial tissue before micro and macro sporogenesis, slightly modified pollen-tube pathway technology and dry seed incubation in plasmid DNA solution. NPTII gene integration was followed by dot-blot and Southern blot analysis of plant DNA of both T1 and T2 plants. Gene expression was analysed by neomycin phosphotransferase activity. Transformed plants contained the selective NPTII gene sequence in an active form. Bacterial gene integration induced several heritable changes of plant phenotype. As an important change, alteration of the flowering time has been used as a criterion for selection and plant propagation to keep transformed progeny. Besides plant genome transformation, endogenous bacteria living in different maize tissue were found. As a perspective approach for biotechnology application in maize breeding biological vaccine construction has been selected. Therefore, antagonistic effect of gram positive bacterial strains to several pathogenic fungi was investigated. Results obtained after in vivo experiments are discussed.

  8. Integrating genomics into Eucalyptus breeding.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, Dario

    2004-09-30

    The advent of high throughput genomic technologies has opened new perspectives in the speed, scale and detail with which one can investigate genes, genomes and complex traits in Eucalyptus species. A genomic approach to a more detailed understanding of important metabolic and physiological processes, which affect tree growth and stress resistance, and the identification of genes and their allelic variants, which determine the major chemical and physical features of wood properties, should eventually lead to new opportunities for directed genetic modifications of far-reaching economic impact in forest industry. It should be kept in mind, however, that basic breeding strategies, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods, breeder's experience and breeder's intuition, will continue to generate significant genetic gains and have a clear measurable impact on production forestry. Even with a much more global view of genetic processes, genomics will only succeed in contributing to the development of improved industrial forests if it is strongly interconnected with intensive fieldwork and creative breeding. Integrated genomic projects involving multi-species expressed sequence tag sequencing and quantitative trait locus detection, single nucleotide polymorphism discovery for association mapping, and the development of a gene-rich physical map for the Eucalyptus genome will quickly move toward linking phenotypes to genes that control the wood formation processes that define industrial-level traits. Exploiting the full power of the superior natural phenotypic variation in wood properties found in Eucalyptus genetic resources will undoubtedly be a key factor to reach this goal.

  9. The breeding bird survey, 1966

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Chandler S.; Van Velzen, Willet T.

    1967-01-01

    A Breeding Bird Survey of a large section on North America was conducted during June 1966. Cooperators ran a total of 585 Survey routes in 26 eastern States and 4 Canadian Provinces. Future coverage of established routes will enable changes in the abundance of North American breeding birds to be measured. Routes are selected at random on the basis of one-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 241/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced one-half mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms and the data are then transferred to machine punch cards. The average number of birds per route is tabulated by State, along with the total number of each species and the percent of routes and stops upon which they were recorded. Maps are presented showing the range and abundance of selected species. Also, a year-to-year comparison is made of populations of selected species on Maryland routes in 1965 and 1966.

  10. The Breeding Bird Survey, 1966

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Van Velzen, W.T.

    1967-01-01

    A Breeding Bird Survey of a large section on North America was conducted during June 1966. Cooperators ran a total of 585 Survey routes in 26 eastern States and 4 Canadian Provinces. Future coverage of established routes will enable changes in the abundance of North American breeding birds to be measured. Routes are selected at random on the basis of one-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 241/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced one-half mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms and the data are then transferred to machine punch cards. The average number of birds per route is tabulated by State, along with the total number of each species and the percent of routes and stops upon which they were recorded. Maps are presented showing the range and abundance of selected species. Also, a year-to-year comparison is made of populations of selected species on Maryland routes in 1965 and 1966.

  11. Breeding without Breeding: Is a Complete Pedigree Necessary for Efficient Breeding?

    PubMed Central

    El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Cappa, Eduardo P.; Liewlaksaneeyanawin, Cherdsak; Klápště, Jaroslav; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called “Breeding without Breeding” (BwB) that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS) and incomplete (half-sib: HS) analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors), growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP) or complete (FS) pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB. PMID:21991342

  12. A revised classification of the Icteridae (Aves) based on DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Remsen, J V Jr; Powell, Alexis F L A; Schodde, Richard; Barker, F Keith; Lanyon, Scott M

    2016-03-21

    The higher-level classification of the New World blackbirds (Icteridae; Aves) has remained relatively stable for nearly a half-century, with most currently used classifications (e.g. Sibley & Monroe 1990; Jaramillo & Burke 1999; Fraga 2011; Remsen et al. 2015) following Blake's (1968) delimitation and sequence of genera in the Peters Check-list of Birds of the World series. Early molecular studies (e.g., Lanyon 1992, 1994; Johnson & Lanyon 1999; Price & Lanyon 2002; Cadena et al. 2004) produced only minor modifications.

  13. Improved COI barcoding primers for Southeast Asian perching birds (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Lohman, David J; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M; Meier, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The All Birds Barcoding Initiative aims to assemble a DNA barcode database for all bird species, but the 648-bp 'barcoding' region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can be difficult to amplify in Southeast Asian perching birds (Aves: Passeriformes). Using COI sequences from complete mitochondrial genomes, we designed a primer pair that more reliably amplifies and sequences the COI barcoding region of Southeast Asian passerine birds. The 655-bp region amplified with these primers overlaps the COI region amplified with other barcoding primer pairs, enabling direct comparison of sequences with previously published DNA barcodes. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. AVES-IMCO: an adaptive optics visible spectrograph and imager/coronograph for NAOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Lagrange, A.-M.; Mouillet, D.; Chauvin, G.; Stadler, E.; Charton, J.; Lacombe, F.; AVES-IMCO Team

    2001-05-01

    The NAOS adaptive optics system will very soon provide diffraction-limited images on the VLT, down to the visible wavelengths (0.020 arcseconds at 0.83 micron for instance). At the moment, the only instrument dedicated to NAOS is the CONICA spectro-imager, operating in the near-infrared from 1 to 5 microns. We are now proposing to ESO, in collaboration with an Italian group, the development of a visible spectrograph/imager/coronograph, AVES-IMCO (Adaptive Optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph and IMager/COronograph). We present here the general concept of the new instrument as well as its expected performances in the different modes.

  15. Manual de métodos de campo para el monitoreo de aves terrestres

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph; Geoffrey R. Geupel; Peter Pyle; Thomas E. Martin; David F DeSante; Borja Milá

    1996-01-01

    El presente manual es una recopilación de métodos de campo para la determinación de índices de abundancia y datos demográficos de poblaciones de aves terrestres en una amplia variedad de hábitats. Está dirigido a biólogos, técnicos de campo, e investigadores de cualquier parte del Continente Americano. Los métodos descritos incluyen cuatro tipos de censos...

  16. The Chewing Lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) Fauna of the Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (Aves, Parulidae).

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Reiley, Bryan M

    2015-09-01

    We examined Swainson's warblers (Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon, 1834), Aves: Parulidae) for lice fauna during 2 yr at three study sites in Arkansas, USA. A total of 66 individuals were examined; eight birds (10.6%) were parasitized with 16 lice of two new species belonging to two genera Myrsidea Waterson, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Parasitological parameter data are given on the prevalence of lice on Swainson's warblers. Species descriptions and illustrations are provided for Myrsidea bensoni sp. nov. and Brueelia limnothlypiae sp. nov.; including a key for females of the genus Myrsidea that parasitize Parulidae (Passeriformes).

  17. From the corner of E. Mccloskey Ave. and N. 10th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of E. Mccloskey Ave. and N. 10th St., looking west with building 135 (gas station) on the left. Beyond it is building 119 and to the right of 119 is the gable end of the north side of 120. Beyond and perpendicular to building 120 are 118 and 117. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding. PMID:27069395

  19. Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Juan-José; Bayón, Yolanda; Primitivo, Fermín San

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units. PMID:11712973

  20. Fish genome manipulation and directional breeding.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ding; Zhu, ZuoYan; Sun, YongHua

    2015-02-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest developing agricultural industries worldwide. One of the most important factors for sustainable aquaculture is the development of high performing culture strains. Genome manipulation offers a powerful method to achieve rapid and directional breeding in fish. We review the history of fish breeding methods based on classical genome manipulation, including polyploidy breeding and nuclear transfer. Then, we discuss the advances and applications of fish directional breeding based on transgenic technology and recently developed genome editing technologies. These methods offer increased efficiency, precision and predictability in genetic improvement over traditional methods.

  1. Chemical classification of cattle. 1. Breed groups.

    PubMed

    Baker, C M; Manwell, C

    1980-01-01

    From approximately 1000 papers with data on protein polymorphism in some 216 breeds of cattle, 10 polymorphic proteins were compared in means and variances of gene frequencies (arcsin p 1/2) for ten well-recognized breed groups for 196 of the breeds. The polymorphic proteins were alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins (alpha s1, beta and chi), serum albumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, amylase I and carbonic anhydrase II. The breed groups were North European, Pied Lowland, European Red brachyceros, Channel Island brachyceros, Upland brachyceros, primigenius-brachyceros mixed, primigenius, Indian Zebu, African Humped (with Zebu admixture), and African Humped (Sanga). The coherence within groups and the differences between groups are often impressive. Only carbonic anhydrase II fails to differentiate at least some of the major breed groups. In some cases paradoxical distributions of rare genetic variants can be explained by a more detailed inspection of breed history. The chemical data support the morphological and geographical divisions of cattle into major breed groups. There are three distinct but related brachyceros groups; for some polymorphisms the two Channel Island breeds, the Jersey and the Guernsey, are quite divergent. Although some authorities have considered the Pied Lowland as primigenius, it is a very distinct breed group.

  2. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  3. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized ...

  4. 78 FR 45494 - Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting ACTION: Notice of a Plant Breeding... Agriculture (USDA) announces a Plant Breeding Listening Session stakeholder meeting for all interested plant breeding and cultivar development stakeholders. DATES: The Plant Breeding Listening Session will be held...

  5. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) agonist, AVE8134, attenuates the progression of heart failure and increases survival in rats.

    PubMed

    Linz, Wolfgang; Wohlfart, Paulus; Baader, Manuel; Breitschopf, Kristin; Falk, Eugen; Schäfer, Hans-Ludwig; Gerl, Martin; Kramer, Werner; Rütten, Hartmut

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) agonist, AVE8134, in cellular and experimental models of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. In Sprague Dawley rats with permanent ligation of the left coronary artery (post-MI), AVE8134 was compared to the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone and in a second study to the ACE inhibitor ramipril. In DOCA-salt sensitive rats, efficacy of AVE8134 on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis was investigated. Finally, AVE8134 was administered to old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at a non-blood pressure lowering dose with survival as endpoint. In cellular models, we studied AVE8134 on hypertrophy in rat cardiomyocytes, nitric oxide signaling in human endothelial cells (HUVEC) and LDL-uptake in human MonoMac-6 cells. In post-MI rats, AVE8134 dose-dependently improved cardiac output, myocardial contractility and relaxation and reduced lung and left ventricular weight and fibrosis. In contrast, rosiglitazone exacerbated cardiac dysfunction. Treatment at AVE8134 decreased plasma proBNP and arginine and increased plasma citrulline and urinary NOx/creatinine ratio. In DOCA rats, AVE8134 prevented development of high blood pressure, myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis, and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction. Compound treatment increased cardiac protein expression and phosphorylation of eNOS. In old SHR, treatment with a low dose of AVE8134 improved cardiac and vascular function and increased life expectancy without lowering blood pressure. AVE8134 reduced phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes. In HUVEC, Ser-1177-eNOS phosphorylation but not eNOS expression was increased. In monocytes, AVE8134 increased the expression of CD36 and the macrophage scavenger receptor 1, resulting in enhanced uptake of oxidized LDL. The PPARalpha agonist AVE8134 prevents post-MI myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction. AVE8134 has beneficial effects against

  6. Comparative morphometric study of the vestibular system of the vertebrata: reptilia, aves, amphibia, and pisces.

    PubMed

    Ramprashad, F; Landolt, J P; Money, K E; Laufer, J

    1986-01-01

    Morphometric measurements were made from serial sections of the vestibular system in four classes of vertebrates: Reptilia, Aves, Amphibia, and Pisces. Representative species of reptile studied were the lizard (Gekko gecko), the common garter snake (Thamnophis sp.), and the common turtle (Chelonia sp.). The budgie (Melopsittacus undulatas), the common pigeon (Columba domestica), the yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius), and the horned owl (Bubo virginianus) were chosen as representative of the bird. For the amphibian, the leopard frog (Rana pipiens), and the mud puppy (Necturus maculatus) were chosen for study. As representative of the fish, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), the tilapia (Tilapia mossambica), the guppy (Lebistes sp.), and the sea horse (Hippocampus sp.) were used in these measurements. The morphometric data obtained were then used in estimates of the time constants in the Steinhausen equation which describes the biophysics of fluid flow in the semicircular canals. In general, the time constants (theta/II in the Steinhausen equation) of these representatives of Reptilia, Aves, and Amphibia were of magnitude similar to those reported in mammals, despite the dissimilarities in the diameters of the ducts, the duct radii of curvature, the dimensions of the cristae ampullares and the utricle, and volumes of endolymph within the vestibular system. However, the short-time constants in Pisces were larger (therefore providing a slower response) than those in other vertebrates, and were similar to that of the turtle and the mud puppy.

  7. Radiological verification survey results at 15 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ005V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 15 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 15 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  8. Radiological verification survey results at 14 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ001V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W. R. Grace facility. The property at 14 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 14 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  9. Radiological verification survey results at 3 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ002V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 3 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 3 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  10. Radiological verification survey results at 7 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ003V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 7 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 7 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  11. Radiological verification survey results at 17 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ006V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 17 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 17 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  12. Radiological verification survey results as 13 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ004V)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 13 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 13 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives.

  13. Breed-specific dog-dandruff allergens.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, S; Belin, L; Dreborg, S; Einarsson, R; Påhlman, I

    1988-08-01

    Fifty-one patients with clinical history of dog allergy were skin prick tested with eight individual standardized dog breed-allergen preparations, one mixed breed-allergen preparation (Poodle/Alsatian), dog-serum albumin, and histamine hydrochloride, 1 mg/ml. All extracts were characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis with a pool of sera from patients clinically sensitive to dog. The dog-breed extracts contained common antigens/allergens, as well as components represented only in one or two dog-breed extracts. The concentration corresponding 1000 BU/ml varied from 16 to 100 micrograms of protein per milliliter. The sensitivity of skin prick test was 67% to 88% for the various dog breed-allergen preparations, but only 18% for dog-serum albumin. Significant difference between the skin test response to different dog breed-allergen preparations indicating dog breed-specific allergens was obtained in 15% of the patients. There was no significant correlation between skin prick test results and symptoms related to a specific dog breed.

  14. Mean EPDs reported by different breeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breeding stock against their ...

  15. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  16. Breeding Perspectives and Programs at East Lansing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    USDA-ARS sugar beet breeding activities for both Aphanomyces resistance and CMS/O-type conversion at East Lansing reach back to the 1940’s, with variety testing activities at Michigan State University reaching back to circa 1911. Many of those contributions are well known in the sugar beet breeding ...

  17. Breeding sugarcane for temperate and cold environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Louisiana represents one of the world’s more temperate environments where sugarcane is commercially grown. Since its inception in the 1920s, The USDA-ARS breeding program at the Sugarcane Research Laboratory in Houma, Louisiana, U.S.A. has focused on breeding varieties adapted to this unique envir...

  18. Breeding commercial sugarcane varieties for the industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent literature suggests that sugarcane breeding in the United States has reached a sugar yield plateau. If so, this could have huge implications for the future of the industry and breeding per se because yield improvement might have to be achieved through secondary, non-sugar-related traits, or t...

  19. Genetic conservation in applied tree breeding programs.

    Treesearch

    R. Johnson; B. St. Clair; S. Lipow

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews how population size and structure impacts the maintenance of genetic variation in breeding and gene resource populations. We discuss appropriate population sizes for low frequency alleles and point out some examples of low frequency alleles in the literature. Development of appropriate breeding populations and gene resource populations are discussed...

  20. Endometritis: Managing Persistent Post-Breeding Endometritis.

    PubMed

    Canisso, Igor F; Stewart, Jamie; Coutinho da Silva, Marco A

    2016-12-01

    Endometritis was rated as the third most common medical problem encountered in adult horses in North America. It is the leading cause of subfertility in broodmares and is a major contributor to economic loss in the horse breeding industry, with pregnancy rates reported to be as low as 21% in mares with severe endometritis. Endometritis may be categorized as: endometrosis (chronic degenerative endometritis), acute, chronic, active, dormant, subclinical, clinical, and persistent post-breeding. These classifications are not mutually exclusive, and mares may change categories within breeding seasons or estrous cycles or may fit in multiple classifications. This chapter will focus on discussing etiology and management strategies for mares affected by persistent post-breeding endometritis. Overall, these mares are considered subfertile but acceptable pregnancy and foaling rates can be achieved with appropriate breeding management.

  1. Genomic selection in animal breeding programs.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection can have a major impact on animal breeding programs, especially where traits that are important in the breeding objective are hard to select for otherwise. Genomic selection provides more accurate estimates for breeding value earlier in the life of breeding animals, giving more selection accuracy and allowing lower generation intervals. From sheep to dairy cattle, the rates of genetic improvement could increase from 20 to 100 % and hard-to-measure traits can be improved more effectively.Reference populations for genomic selection need to be large, with thousands of animals measured for phenotype and genotype. The smaller the effective size of the breeding population, the larger the DNA segments they potentially share and the more accurate genomic prediction will be. The relative contribution of information from relatives in the reference population will be larger if the baseline accuracy is low, but such information is limited to closely related individuals and does not last over generations.

  2. Within-breed heterozygosity of canine single nucleotide polymorphisms identified by across-breed comparison.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, J A; Venta, P J

    2002-12-01

    Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by DNA sequence comparison across breeds is a strategy for developing genetic markers that are useful for many breeds. However, the heterozygosity of SNPs identified in this way might be severely reduced within breeds by inbreeding or genetic drift in the small effective population size of a breed (population subdivision). The effect of inbreeding and population subdivision on heterozygosity of SNPs in dog breeds has never been investigated in a systematic way. We determined the genotypes of dogs from three divergent breeds for SNPs in four canine genes (ACTC, LMNA, SCGB, and TYMS) identified by across-breed DNA sequence comparison, and compared the genotype frequencies to those expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Although population subdivision significantly skewed allele frequencies across breeds for two of the SNPs, the deviations of observed heterozygosities compared with those expected within breeds were minimal. These results indicate that across-breed DNA sequence comparison is a reasonable strategy for identifying SNPs that are useful within many canine breeds.

  3. Genomic evaluation of regional dairy cattle breeds in single-breed and multibreed contexts.

    PubMed

    Jónás, D; Ducrocq, V; Fritz, S; Baur, A; Sanchez, M-P; Croiseau, P

    2017-02-01

    An important prerequisite for high prediction accuracy in genomic prediction is the availability of a large training population, which allows accurate marker effect estimation. This requirement is not fulfilled in case of regional breeds with a limited number of breeding animals. We assessed the efficiency of the current French routine genomic evaluation procedure in four regional breeds (Abondance, Tarentaise, French Simmental and Vosgienne) as well as the potential benefits when the training populations consisting of males and females of these breeds are merged to form a multibreed training population. Genomic evaluation was 5-11% more accurate than a pedigree-based BLUP in three of the four breeds, while the numerically smallest breed showed a < 1% increase in accuracy. Multibreed genomic evaluation was beneficial for two breeds (Abondance and French Simmental) with maximum gains of 5 and 8% in correlation coefficients between yield deviations and genomic estimated breeding values, when compared to the single-breed genomic evaluation results. Inflation of genomic evaluation of young candidates was also reduced. Our results indicate that genomic selection can be effective in regional breeds as well. Here, we provide empirical evidence proving that genetic distance between breeds is only one of the factors affecting the efficiency of multibreed genomic evaluation.

  4. Patterns of molecular genetic variation among cat breeds.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Pflueger, Solveig M; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation in cat breeds was assessed utilizing a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) loci genotyped in 38 cat breeds and 284 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 24 breeds. Population structure in cat breeds generally reflects their recent ancestry and absence of strong breed barriers between some breeds. There is a wide range in the robustness of population definition, from breeds demonstrating high definition to breeds with as little as a third of their genetic variation partitioning into a single population. Utilizing the STRUCTURE algorithm, there was no clear demarcation of the number of population subdivisions; 16 breeds could not be resolved into independent populations, the consequence of outcrossing in established breeds to recently developed breeds with common ancestry. These 16 breeds were divided into 6 populations. Ninety-six percent of cats in a sample set of 1040 were correctly assigned to their classified breed or breed group/population. Average breed STR heterozygosities ranged from moderate (0.53; Havana, Korat) to high (0.85; Norwegian Forest Cat, Manx). Most of the variation in cat breeds was observed within a breed population (83.7%), versus 16.3% of the variation observed between populations. The hierarchical relationships of cat breeds is poorly defined as demonstrated by phylogenetic trees generated from both STR and SNP data, though phylogeographic grouping of breeds derived completely or in part from Southeast Asian ancestors was apparent.

  5. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma I.

    This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…

  6. Pelecitus tercostatus (Molin, 1960) (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) in Amazona vinacea (Aves, Psittaciformes) from Argentina: morphological details and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Julia I; Di Nucci, Dante L; Falzone, Martín P; Demergassi, Natalia M; Fernanda Lois, M; Zalazar, Raúl O; Navone, Graciela T; Gachen, Gustavo G

    2012-06-01

    Pelecitus tercostatus (Molin, 1860) (Onchocercidae, Dirofilariinae) was found in the leg of a Vinaceous-breasted Parrot Amazona vinacea (Aves, Psittaciformes) from Misiones, Argentina. The present report enlarges the host distribution of the species and represents the first record of any nematode in A. vinacea. The macroscopic lesions produced in the bird are also described.

  7. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    PubMed

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  8. Comunidades de aves y lepidopteros diurnos y las relaciones entre ellas en bosque nuboso y cafetal de Finca Santa Maura, Jinotega

    Treesearch

    M. Torrez; W. Arendt; J. M. Maes

    2013-01-01

    Para evaluar la diversidad de aves y mariposas ninfálidas visitamos la Estación Biológica Juan Roberto Zarruk en Jinotega, donde colectamos datos en todos los hábitats presentes en la finca. Obtuvimos 123 especies de aves y 29 especies de ninfálidos. El hábitat con mayor riqueza para aves fue el cafetal y para ninfálidos el tacotal. Entre las especies más comunes...

  9. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress.

  10. Breeding bald eagles in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestrelli, J.R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1975-01-01

    A 7-year-old female Bald Eagle from Alabama was paired with a 4-year-old Alaskan male in a large flight pen during December 1969. Both birds were free of physical defects when originally placed in the pen but the female was blind in one eye prior to the 1973 breeding season.....Nesting first occurred during 1971 when at least two eggs were laid; all but one, which showed no sign of embryonic development after being incubated for 56 days, were broken by the adult birds. Two of three eggs laid in 1972 hatched. Both young died a few days after hatching following a period of inclement weather. Three eggs were laid and hatched during 1973. Antagonism between the nestlings was observed soon after hatching and may have been responsible for the unobserved death of one nestling, two days after the third young hatched. The two remaining young were raised by the adult birds and eventually left the nest 85 days after the first egg hatched. Incubation periods for the 1972-73 clutches averaged 35 days. No renesting attempts were made by the eagles during the 3.year period.

  11. Flow cytometry in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Ochatt, Sergio J

    2008-07-01

    Since the first report on the flow cytometric study of plant material 35 years ago, analyzing the nuclear DNA content of field bean, an ever increasing number of applications of FCM has been developed and applied in plant science and industry, but a similar length of time elapsed before the appearance of the first complete volume devoted to FCM of plant cells. Most published information on the uses of FCM addresses various aspects of animal (including human) cell biology, thus failing to provide a pertinent substitute. FCM represents an ideal means for the analysis of both cells and subcellular particles, with a potentially large number of parameters analyzed both rapidly, simultaneously, and quantitatively, thereby furnishing statistically exploitable data and allowing for an accurate and facilitated detection of subpopulations. It is, indeed, the summation of these facts that has established FCM as an important, and sometimes essential, tool for the understanding of fundamental mechanisms and processes underlying plant growth, development, and function. In this review, special attention is paid to FCM as applied to plant cells in the context of plant breeding, and some new and less well-known uses of it for plants will be discussed.

  12. Breeding season survival and breeding incidence of female Mottled Ducks on the upper Texas gulf coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Haukos, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula) studies suggested that high female breeding season survival may be caused by low nesting effort, but few breeding season estimates of survival associated with nesting effort exist on the western Gulf Coast. Here, breeding season survival (N = 40) and breeding incidence (N = 39) were estimated for female Mottled Ducks on the upper Texas coast, 2006–2008. Females were fitted with backpack radio transmitters and visually relocated every 3–4 days. Weekly survival was estimated using the Known Fate procedure of program MARK with breeding incidence estimated as the annual proportion of females observed nesting or with broods. The top-ranked survival model included a body mass covariate and held weekly female survival constant across weeks and years (SW = 0.986, SE = 0.006). When compared to survival across the entire year estimated from previous band recovery and age ratio analysis, survival rate during the breeding season did not differ. Breeding incidence was well below 100% in all years and highly variable among years (15%–63%). Breeding season survival and breeding incidence were similar to estimates obtained with implant transmitters from the mid-coast of Texas. The greatest breeding incidence for both studies occurred when drought indices indicated average environmental moisture during the breeding season. The observed combination of low breeding incidence and high breeding season survival support the hypothesis of a trade-off between the ecological cost of nesting effort and survival for Mottled Duck females. Habitat cues that trigger nesting are unknown and should be investigated.

  13. First charge breeding results at CARIBU EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S. Barcikowski, A. Dickerson, C. Ostroumov, P. N. Sharamentov, S. Vondrasek, R.; Pikin, A.

    2015-01-09

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed to breed CARIBU radioactive beams at ATLAS is currently in the off-line commissioning stage. The beam commissioning is being performed using a low emittance surface ionization source producing singly-charged cesium ions. The primary goal of the off-line commissioning is the demonstration of high-efficiency charge breeding in the pulsed injection mode. An overview of the final design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder, the off-line commissioning installation and the first results on charge breeding of stable cesium ions are presented and discussed.

  14. Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.

    1966-01-01

    Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

  15. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  16. Book review: Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2004-01-01

    The first North American breeding bird atlases were initiated during the 1970s. With atlases completed or ongoing in more than 40 U.S. states and most Canadian provinces, these projects are now familiar to professional ornithologists and amateur birders. This book provides the results of the Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas, the data for which were collected during 1997–2001. Its appearance less than 3 years after completing fieldwork is remarkable and everyone associated with its timely publication should be congratulated for their efforts.Review info: Oklahoma Breeding Bird Atlas. By Dan L. Reinking, 2004. ISBN: 0806136146, 528 pp.

  17. Empirical determination of breed-of-origin of alleles in three-breed cross pigs.

    PubMed

    Sevillano, Claudia A; Vandenplas, Jeremie; Bastiaansen, John W M; Calus, Mario P L

    2016-08-04

    Although breeding programs for pigs and poultry aim at improving crossbred performance, they mainly use training populations that consist of purebred animals. For some traits, e.g. residual feed intake, the genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred performance is low and thus including crossbred animals in the training population is required. With crossbred animals, the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be breed-specific because linkage disequilibrium patterns between a SNP and a quantitative trait locus (QTL), and allele frequencies and allele substitution effects of a QTL may differ between breeds. To estimate the breed-specific effects of alleles in a crossbred population, the breed-of-origin of alleles in crossbred animals must be known. This study was aimed at investigating the performance of an approach that assigns breed-of-origin of alleles in real data of three-breed cross pigs. Genotypic data were available for 14,187 purebred, 1354 F1, and 1723 three-breed cross pigs. On average, 93.0 % of the alleles of three-breed cross pigs were assigned a breed-of-origin without using pedigree information and 94.6 % with using pedigree information. The assignment percentage could be improved by allowing a percentage (fr) of the copies of a haplotype to be observed in a purebred population different from the assigned breed-of-origin. Changing fr from 0 to 20 %, increased assignment of breed-of-origin by 0.6 and 0.7 % when pedigree information was and was not used, respectively, which indicates the benefit of setting fr to 20 %. Breed-of-origin of alleles of three-breed cross pigs can be derived empirically without the need for pedigree information, with 93.7 % of the alleles assigned a breed-of-origin. Pedigree information is useful to reduce computation time and can slightly increase the percentage of assignments. Knowledge on the breed-of-origin of alleles allows the use of models that implement breed-specific effects of SNP

  18. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  19. A Megafauna’s Microfauna: Gastrointestinal Parasites of New Zealand’s Extinct Moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Bonner, Karen I.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Kinsella, John M.; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We perform the first multidisciplinary study of parasites from an extinct megafaunal clade using coprolites from the New Zealand moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). Ancient DNA and microscopic analyses of 84 coprolites deposited by four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; little bush moa, Anomalopteryx didiformis; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus; and upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus) reveal an array of gastrointestinal parasites including coccidians (Cryptosporidium and members of the suborder Eimeriorina), nematodes (Heterakoidea, Trichostrongylidae, Trichinellidae) and a trematode (Echinostomida). Parasite eggs were most prevalent and diverse in coprolites from lowland sites, where multiple sympatric moa species occurred and host density was therefore probably higher. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence supports a possible vicariant Gondwanan origin for some of the moa parasites. The discovery of apparently host-specific parasite taxa suggests paleoparasitological studies of megafauna coprolites may provide useful case-studies of coextinction. PMID:23451203

  20. Characteristics of ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of a severe weather outbreak - AVE-SESAME I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    GOES satellite data was used to examine the ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of severe weather outbreaks along the Red River between Texas and Oklahoma in April 1979. The observations were part of the NASA AVE-SESAME I data on atmospheric states close to severe weather conditions. The Barnes Objective Analysis Technique was employed to analyze the data on a 100 km grid. The ageostrophic wind was defined on a regional scale from satellite data on different levels of cloud wind vectors, with a height change signalling a short-wave system in a long-wave trough. The percentage of deviation of the subgeostrophic winds from the geostrophic wind was calculated, and maximum departure corresponded with the region of greatest storm development. Time cross sections of additions to the ageostrophic flow were made as a function of pressure at 100 mb intervals from 900-100 mb. The ageostrophic acceleration was consistently twice the geostrophic acceleration.

  1. Impact evaluation of lighting retrofit projects at Boeing Commercial Airplane Group under The Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, G.P.; Oens, M.A.; Spanner, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    This impact evaluation of two lighting retrofit projects that were recently installed at Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (Boeing) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The first project was a light-fixture and lighting control retrofit, consisting of five individual measures installed in Building 40-05. The second project was a retrofit of all parking lot lighting on the site. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Boeing as a result of the E$P projects and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the project was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Boeing`s proposals and completion reports).

  2. A megafauna's microfauna: gastrointestinal parasites of New Zealand's extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes).

    PubMed

    Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Bonner, Karen I; Worthy, Trevor H; Kinsella, John M; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    WE PERFORM THE FIRST MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF PARASITES FROM AN EXTINCT MEGAFAUNAL CLADE USING COPROLITES FROM THE NEW ZEALAND MOA (AVES: Dinornithiformes). Ancient DNA and microscopic analyses of 84 coprolites deposited by four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; little bush moa, Anomalopteryx didiformis; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus; and upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus) reveal an array of gastrointestinal parasites including coccidians (Cryptosporidium and members of the suborder Eimeriorina), nematodes (Heterakoidea, Trichostrongylidae, Trichinellidae) and a trematode (Echinostomida). Parasite eggs were most prevalent and diverse in coprolites from lowland sites, where multiple sympatric moa species occurred and host density was therefore probably higher. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence supports a possible vicariant Gondwanan origin for some of the moa parasites. The discovery of apparently host-specific parasite taxa suggests paleoparasitological studies of megafauna coprolites may provide useful case-studies of coextinction.

  3. Multi-scale habitat selection in highly territorial bird species: Exploring the contribution of nest, territory and landscape levels to site choice in breeding rallids (Aves: Rallidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Chibowski, Piotr; Karasek, Tomasz; Brambilla, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection often involves choices made at different spatial scales, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, and studies that investigate the relative importance of individual scales are rare. We investigated the effect of three spatial scales (landscape, territory, nest-site) on the occurrence pattern of little crake Zapornia parva and water rail Rallus aquaticus at 74 ponds in the Masurian Lakeland, Poland. Habitat structure, food abundance and water chemical parameters were measured at nests and random points within landscape plots (from 300-m to 50-m radius), territory (14-m) and nest-site plots (3-m). Regression analyses suggested that the most relevant scale was territory level, followed by landscape, and finally by nest-site for both species. Variation partitioning confirmed this pattern for water rail, but also highlighted the importance of nest-site (the level explaining the highest share of unique variation) for little crake. The most important variables determining the occurrence of both species were water body fragmentation (landscape), vegetation density (territory) and water depth (at territory level for little crake, and at nest-site level for water rail). Finally, for both species multi-scale models including factors from different levels were more parsimonious than single-scale ones, i.e. habitat selection was likely a multi-scale process. The importance of particular spatial scales seemed more related to life-history traits than to the extent of the scales considered. In the case of our study species, the territory level was highly important likely because both rallids have to obtain all the resources they need (nest site, food and mates) in relatively small areas, the multi-purpose territories they defend.

  4. The Ascent of Cat Breeds: Genetic Evaluations of Breeds and Worldwide Random Bred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, Monika J.; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C.; Billings, Nicholas C.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Levy, Alon M.; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2008-01-01

    The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing seventeen random bred populations from five continents and twenty-two breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese Bobtail were more aligned with European/American than Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity, however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age. PMID:18060738

  5. The ascent of cat breeds: genetic evaluations of breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.

    PubMed

    Lipinski, Monika J; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C; Billings, Nicholas C; Leutenegger, Christian M; Levy, Alon M; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R; Pedersen, Niels C; Lyons, Leslie A

    2008-01-01

    The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing 17 random-bred populations from five continents and 22 breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese bobtail were more aligned with European/American than with Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity; however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age.

  6. Motion Rehab AVE 3D: A VR-based exergame for post-stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Mateus; Bazzanello Henrique, Patrícia Paula; Brum, Manoela Rogofski; Colussi, Eliane Lucia; De Marchi, Ana Carolina Bertoletti; Rieder, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    Recent researches about games for post-stroke rehabilitation have been increasing, focusing in upper limb, lower limb and balance situations, and showing good experiences and results. With this in mind, this paper presents Motion Rehab AVE 3D, a serious game for post-stroke rehabilitation of patients with mild stroke. The aim is offer a new technology in order to assist the traditional therapy and motivate the patient to execute his/her rehabilitation program, under health professional supervision. The game was developed with Unity game engine, supporting Kinect motion sensing input device and display devices like Smart TV 3D and Oculus Rift. It contemplates six activities considering exercises in a tridimensional space: flexion, abduction, shoulder adduction, horizontal shoulder adduction and abduction, elbow extension, wrist extension, knee flexion, and hip flexion and abduction. Motion Rehab AVE 3D also report about hits and errors to the physiotherapist evaluate the patient's progress. A pilot study with 10 healthy participants (61-75 years old) tested one of the game levels. They experienced the 3D user interface in third-person. Our initial goal was to map a basic and comfortable setup of equipment in order to adopt later. All the participants (100%) classified the interaction process as interesting and amazing for the age, presenting a good acceptance. Our evaluation showed that the game could be used as a useful tool to motivate the patients during rehabilitation sessions. Next step is to evaluate its effectiveness for stroke patients, in order to verify if the interface and game exercises contribute into the motor rehabilitation treatment progress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Familiar neighbors enhance breeding success in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Beletsky, L D; Orians, G H

    1989-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that long-term familiarity with neighbors is advantageous by determining whether male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) breeding adjacent to familiar neighbors have better reproductive success than other males. Using data gathered during a 10-yr study of breeding success, we found that males with familiar neighbors fledged, on average, significantly more offspring annually than males without familiar neighbors. We also found that the same males, breeding in different years on the same territories, had significantly larger harems in the years they had familiar neighbors. Improved reproductive success was due to the males' abilities to attract more females to nest in their territories. Alternative hypotheses to explain the positive relationship between familiar neighbors and breeding success were not supported by our data. Relatively high reproductive success for breeders with long-term neighbors may provide a basis for the evolution of cooperative behavior in this and other species. PMID:2813369

  8. Cooperative breeding and monogamy in mammalian societies

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Comparative studies of social insects and birds show that the evolution of cooperative and eusocial breeding systems has been confined to species where females mate completely or almost exclusively with a single male, indicating that high levels of average kinship between group members are necessary for the evolution of reproductive altruism. In this paper, we show that in mammals, the evolution of cooperative breeding has been restricted to socially monogamous species which currently represent 5 per cent of all mammalian species. Since extra-pair paternity is relatively uncommon in socially monogamous and cooperatively breeding mammals, our analyses support the suggestion that high levels of average kinship between group members have played an important role in the evolution of cooperative breeding in non-human mammals, as well as in birds and insects. PMID:22279167

  9. Economic evaluation of genomic breeding programs.

    PubMed

    König, S; Simianer, H; Willam, A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a conventional dairy cattle breeding program characterized by a progeny testing scheme with different scenarios of genomic breeding programs. The ultimate economic evaluation criterion was discounted profit reflecting discounted returns minus discounted costs per cow in a balanced breeding goal of production and functionality. A deterministic approach mainly based on the gene flow method and selection index calculations was used to model a conventional progeny testing program and different scenarios of genomic breeding programs. As a novel idea, the modeling of the genomic breeding program accounted for the proportion of farmers waiting for daughter records of genotyped young bulls before using them for artificial insemination. Technical and biological coefficients for modeling were chosen to correspond to a German breeding organization. The conventional breeding program for 50 test bulls per year within a population of 100,000 cows served as a base scenario. Scenarios of genomic breeding programs considered the variation of costs for genotyping, selection intensity of cow sires, proportion of farmers waiting for daughter records of genotyped young bulls, and different accuracies of genomic indices for bulls and cows. Given that the accuracies of genomic indices are greater than 0.70, a distinct economic advantage was found for all scenarios of genomic breeding programs up to factor 2.59, mainly due to the reduction in generation intervals. Costs for genotyping were negligible when focusing on a population-wide perspective and considering additional costs for herdbook registration, milk recording, or keeping of bulls, especially if there is no need for yearly recalculation of effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Genomic breeding programs generated a higher discounted profit than a conventional progeny testing program for all scenarios where at least 20% of the inseminations were done by genotyped young bulls without

  10. Prunus transcription factors: breeding perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Valmor J.; Rubio, Manuel; Trainotti, Livio; Verde, Ignazio; Bonghi, Claudio; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs). In peach, 1533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA, and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing) may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci) map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome. PMID:26124770

  11. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality.

  12. [Pain caused by breeding: definition, judgment, pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Herzog, A

    1997-02-01

    Special terms of the "German Animal Protection Law (section 11b)"and the "European Agreement for Protection of Domestic Animals" particularly "torture-breeding, genetic characteristics, well-being, soundness, pains, injuries and specific use" are commented. Examples of torture-breedings are discussed: Dog (Merle-faktor, brachycephalie, atrichosis), cat (Mans-factor, W-gene, folded-ears), birds (tuffs, ear-drops, tailesness, hypertrophy of bill-warts, abnormal position of tarsal-joints, hypertrophy of imposing behavior).

  13. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  14. TES Carbon Monoxide Validation during the Two AVE Campaigns using the Argus and ALIAS Instruments on NASA's WB-57F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jinena P.; Luo, Ming; Christensen, Lance E.; Loewenstein, Max; Jost, Hansjurg; Webster, Christopher R.; Osterman, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) focuses on validating Aura satellite measurements of important atmospheric trace gases using ground-based, aircraft, and balloon-borne instruments. Global satellite observations of CO from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS Aura satellite have been ongoing since September 2004. This paper discusses CO validation experiments during the Oct-AVE (2004 Houston, Texas) and CR-AVE (2006 San Jose, Costa Rica) campaigns. The coincidences in location and time between the satellite observations and the available in situ profiles for some cases are not ideal. However, the CO distribution patterns in the two validation flight areas are shown to have very little variability in the aircraft and satellite . observations, thereby making them suitable for validation comparisons. TES CO profiles, which typically have a retrieval uncertainty of 10-20%, are compared with in situ CO measurements from NASA Ames Research Center's Argus instrument taken on board the WB-57F aircraft during Oct-AVE. TES CO retrievals during CR-AVE are compared with in situ measurements from Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS) instrument as well as with the Argus instrument, both taken on board the WB-57F aircraft. During CR-AVE, the average overall difference between ALIAS and Argus CO was 4%, with the ALIAS measurement higher. During individual flights, 2-min time-averaged differences between the two in situ instruments had standard deviation of 14%. The TES averaging kernels and a priori constraint profiles for CO are applied to the in situ data for proper comparisons to account for the reduced vertical resolution and the influence of the a priori in the satellite-derived profile. In the TES sensitive pressure range, approx.700-200 hPa, the in situ profiles and TES profiles agree within 5-10%, less than the variability in CO distributions obtained by both TES and the aircraft instruments in the two

  15. TES Carbon Monoxide Validation during the Two AVE Campaigns using the Argus and ALIAS Instruments on NASA's WB-57F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jinena P.; Luo, Ming; Christensen, Lance E.; Loewenstein, Max; Jost, Hansjurg; Webster, Christopher R.; Osterman, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) focuses on validating Aura satellite measurements of important atmospheric trace gases using ground-based, aircraft, and balloon-borne instruments. Global satellite observations of CO from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the EOS Aura satellite have been ongoing since September 2004. This paper discusses CO validation experiments during the Oct-AVE (2004 Houston, Texas) and CR-AVE (2006 San Jose, Costa Rica) campaigns. The coincidences in location and time between the satellite observations and the available in situ profiles for some cases are not ideal. However, the CO distribution patterns in the two validation flight areas are shown to have very little variability in the aircraft and satellite . observations, thereby making them suitable for validation comparisons. TES CO profiles, which typically have a retrieval uncertainty of 10-20%, are compared with in situ CO measurements from NASA Ames Research Center's Argus instrument taken on board the WB-57F aircraft during Oct-AVE. TES CO retrievals during CR-AVE are compared with in situ measurements from Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Aircraft Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS) instrument as well as with the Argus instrument, both taken on board the WB-57F aircraft. During CR-AVE, the average overall difference between ALIAS and Argus CO was 4%, with the ALIAS measurement higher. During individual flights, 2-min time-averaged differences between the two in situ instruments had standard deviation of 14%. The TES averaging kernels and a priori constraint profiles for CO are applied to the in situ data for proper comparisons to account for the reduced vertical resolution and the influence of the a priori in the satellite-derived profile. In the TES sensitive pressure range, approx.700-200 hPa, the in situ profiles and TES profiles agree within 5-10%, less than the variability in CO distributions obtained by both TES and the aircraft instruments in the two

  16. Data for NASA's AVE 3 experiment: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts. [investigation of atmospheric parameters detected from satellite data under conditions of heavy snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The atmospheric variability experiment (AVE 3) is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 41 stations is presented. The experiment was conducted between February 6 and February 7, 1975. Brief discussions are given on methods of data processing, changes in the reduction scheme since the AVE 2 pilot experiment, and data accuracy. An example of contact data is presented as well as synoptic charts prepared from the data.

  17. AVE 0991, a non-peptide mimic of angiotensin-(1–7) effects, attenuates pulmonary remodelling in a model of chronic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Machado, M G; Magalhães, G S; Cardoso, J A; Kangussu, L M; Murari, A; Caliari, M V; Oliveira, M L; Cara, D C; Noviello, M L M; Marques, F D; Pereira, J M; Lautner, R Q; Santos, R A S; Campagnole-Santos, M J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE AVE 0991 (AVE) is a non-peptide compound, mimic of the angiotensin (Ang)-(1–7) actions in many tissues and pathophysiological states. Here, we have investigated the effect of AVE on pulmonary remodelling in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic allergic lung inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used BALB/c mice (6–8 weeks old) and induced chronic allergic lung inflammation by OVA sensitization (20 μg·mouse−1, i.p., four times, 14 days apart) and OVA challenge (1%, nebulised during 30 min, three times per·week, for 4 weeks). Control and AVE groups were given saline i.p and challenged with saline. AVE treatment (1 mg·kg−1·per day, s.c.) or saline (100 μL·kg−1·per day, s.c.) was given during the challenge period. Mice were anaesthetized 72 h after the last challenge and blood and lungs collected. In some animals, primary bronchi were isolated to test contractile responses. Cytokines were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung homogenates. KEY RESULTS Treatment with AVE of OVA sensitised and challenged mice attenuated the altered contractile response to carbachol in bronchial rings and reversed the increased airway wall and pulmonary vasculature thickness and right ventricular hypertrophy. Furthermore, AVE reduced IL-5 and increased IL-10 levels in the BAL, accompanied by decreased Ang II levels in lungs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS AVE treatment prevented pulmonary remodelling, inflammation and right ventricular hypertrophy in OVA mice, suggesting that Ang-(1–7) receptor agonists are a new possibility for the treatment of pulmonary remodelling induced by chronic asthma. PMID:23889691

  18. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  19. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  20. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  1. Breeding strategies for north central tree improvement programs

    Treesearch

    Ronald P. Overton; Hyun Kang

    1985-01-01

    The rationales and concepts of long-term tree breeding are discussed and compared with those for short-term breeding. A model breeding program is reviewed which maximizes short-term genetic gain for currently important traits and provides genetic resources that can be used effectively in future short-term breeding. The resources of the north-central region are examined...

  2. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding. Each... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24...

  3. Evolution of seasonal ecological niches in the Passerina buntings (Aves: Cardinalidae).

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of migration has long been considered complex and recent work has demonstrated additional complexity: some species follow the same ecological conditions throughout the year, whereas others 'switch niches' between breeding and wintering ranges. Hypotheses regarding the evolution of migration would generally predict niche-following as primitive, and niche-switching as derived. However, no test has, to our knowledge, yet determined the directionality of evolution of these states within a lineage. We present an analysis of phylogenetic dimensions of seasonal niches in the Passerina buntings that indicates greater evolutionary change in the niches of breeding populations than among those of wintering populations. These results are consistent with hypotheses of (i) niche conservatism (in winter, at least) across a recently speciated lineage; and (ii) the derived state of the breeding (rather than winter) ecological niches of each species. PMID:15306365

  4. Evolution of seasonal ecological niches in the Passerina buntings (Aves: Cardinalidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A Townsend; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2004-06-07

    The evolution of migration has long been considered complex and recent work has demonstrated additional complexity: some species follow the same ecological conditions throughout the year, whereas others 'switch niches' between breeding and wintering ranges. Hypotheses regarding the evolution of migration would generally predict niche-following as primitive, and niche-switching as derived. However, no test has, to our knowledge, yet determined the directionality of evolution of these states within a lineage. We present an analysis of phylogenetic dimensions of seasonal niches in the Passerina buntings that indicates greater evolutionary change in the niches of breeding populations than among those of wintering populations. These results are consistent with hypotheses of (i) niche conservatism (in winter, at least) across a recently speciated lineage; and (ii) the derived state of the breeding (rather than winter) ecological niches of each species.

  5. Cognitive consequences of cooperative breeding in primates?

    PubMed

    Burkart, Judith Maria; van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-01-01

    Several hypotheses propose that cooperative breeding leads to increased cognitive performance, in both nonhuman and human primates, but systematic evidence for such a relationship is missing. A causal link might exist because motivational and cognitive processes necessary for the execution and coordination of helping behaviors could also favor cognitive performance in contexts not directly related to caregiving. In callitrichids, which among primates rely most strongly on cooperative breeding, these motivational and cognitive processes include attentional biases toward monitoring others, the ability to coordinate actions spatially and temporally, increased social tolerance, increased responsiveness to others' signals, and spontaneous prosociality. These processes are likely to enhance performance particularly in socio-cognitive contexts. Therefore, cooperatively breeding primates are expected to outperform their independently breeding sister taxa in socio-cognitive tasks. We evaluate this prediction by reviewing the literature and comparing cognitive performance in callitrichids with that of their sister taxa, i.e. squirrel monkeys, which are independent breeders, and capuchin monkeys, which show an intermediate breeding system. Consistent with our prediction, this review reveals that callitrichids systematically and significantly outperform their sister taxa in the socio-cognitive, but not in the non-social domain. This comparison is complemented with more qualitative evaluations of prosociality and cognitive performance in non-primate cooperative breeders, which suggest that among mammals, cooperative breeding generally produces conditions conducive to socio-cognitive performance. In the hominid lineage, however, the adoption of extensive allomaternal care presumably resulted in more pervasive cognitive consequences, because the motivational consequences of cooperative breeding was added to an ape-level cognitive system already capable of understanding simple

  6. Precocious breeding by yearling Giant Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drobney, R.D.; Checkett, J.M.; Coluccy, J.M.; Graber, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Many species of waterfowl are capable of breeding as yearlings. In the subfamily Anserinae, however, reproduction normally does not commence until individuals reach two to four years of age (Rohwer 1992). Most published accounts indicate that Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) conform to the pattern typically found in other geese, deferring reproduction as yearlings and initiating breeding when birds are two years of age or older (Hanson 1962, Brakhage 1965, Bellrose 1980, Moser and Rusch 1989). The few documented exceptions (Brakhage 1965, Cooper 1978, MacInnes and Dunn 1988) suggest that the likelihood of a successful breeding attempt is higher for yearling males than females and that when early breeding occurs, one member of the pair is often at least two years old. Only two records of nesting attempts by yearling female Canada Geese have been published (Hall and McGilvrey 1971, Mickelson, 1975). In each case, the female produced some fertile eggs but deserted the nest before the eggs hatched.The observations noted above demonstrate that reproduction by yearling Canada Geese is physiolog ically possible for both sexes, but they also raise a number of interesting questions regarding why most individuals defer breeding during their first year. Energetic or nutritional constraints, and the inability of yearlings to secure and successfully defend a territory, are likely physiological (Elder 1946) and social (Brakhage 1965) impediments to early breeding From an evolutionary perspective, reduced reproductive success of yearlings relative to adults, and increased mortality associated with early breeding. also may contribute to deferred sexual maturity in waterfowl (Rohwer 1992).

  7. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  8. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2016 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Records of progeny of 18 breeds were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight, among 15 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling and ribeye area and among 14 of the 18 breeds for fat depth and carcass weight. The r...

  9. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2011 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2009

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  10. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2012 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  11. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes.

    PubMed

    Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O

    2014-10-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems.

  12. The sub-annual breeding cycle of a tropical seabird.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S James; Martin, Graham R; Dawson, Alistair; Wearn, Colin P; Hughes, B John

    2014-01-01

    Breeding periodicity allows organisms to synchronise breeding attempts with the most favourable ecological conditions under which to raise offspring. For most animal species, ecological conditions vary seasonally and usually impose an annual breeding schedule on their populations; sub-annual breeding schedules will be rare. We use a 16-year dataset of breeding attempts by a tropical seabird, the sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), on Ascension Island to provide new insights about this classical example of a population of sub-annually breeding birds that was first documented in studies 60 years previously on the same island. We confirm that the breeding interval of this population has remained consistently sub-annual. By ringing >17,000 birds and re-capturing a large sample of them at equivalent breeding stages in subsequent seasons, we reveal for the first time that many individual birds also consistently breed sub-annually (i.e. that sub-annual breeding is an individual as well as a population breeding strategy). Ascension Island sooty terns appear to reduce their courtship phase markedly compared with conspecifics breeding elsewhere. Our results provide rare insights into the ecological and physiological drivers of breeding periodicity, indicating that reduction of the annual cycle to just two life-history stages, breeding and moult, is a viable life-history strategy and that moult may determine the minimum time between breeding attempts.

  13. The Sub-Annual Breeding Cycle of a Tropical Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, S. James; Martin, Graham R.; Dawson, Alistair; Wearn, Colin P.; Hughes, B. John

    2014-01-01

    Breeding periodicity allows organisms to synchronise breeding attempts with the most favourable ecological conditions under which to raise offspring. For most animal species, ecological conditions vary seasonally and usually impose an annual breeding schedule on their populations; sub-annual breeding schedules will be rare. We use a 16-year dataset of breeding attempts by a tropical seabird, the sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), on Ascension Island to provide new insights about this classical example of a population of sub-annually breeding birds that was first documented in studies 60 years previously on the same island. We confirm that the breeding interval of this population has remained consistently sub-annual. By ringing >17000 birds and re-capturing a large sample of them at equivalent breeding stages in subsequent seasons, we reveal for the first time that many individual birds also consistently breed sub-annually (i.e. that sub-annual breeding is an individual as well as a population breeding strategy). Ascension Island sooty terns appear to reduce their courtship phase markedly compared with conspecifics breeding elsewhere. Our results provide rare insights into the ecological and physiological drivers of breeding periodicity, indicating that reduction of the annual cycle to just two life-history stages, breeding and moult, is a viable life-history strategy and that moult may determine the minimum time between breeding attempts. PMID:24714514

  14. [Historic treasures of Swiss horse breeding].

    PubMed

    Meier, H

    2017-01-01

    Both a mandate of the Bernese Government (1705) and statements in the Georgica Helvetica of 1706 prove that Swiss horse breeding was lucrative and of good quality at that time. However, the political turmoil at the transition from the 18th to 19th century and excessive sales to France and Italy led to a severe drop in quantity as well in quality. The exhibition of horses in Aarau in 1865 showed a wretched state of the material. In the same year, Rudolf Zangger wrote a guide for the discussion of horse breeding in Switzerland. In the following year (1866), Johann Jakob Rychner published a report on horse breeding, and a further treatise on Swiss horse breeding by Johann Heinrich Hirzel followed in 1883. These publications created good and comprehensive fundamentals, which can still be considered valid. However history shows that the results and recommendations of these analyses barely led to improvements. Todays genomics with their possibilities open up a new era of animal breeding and raise bigger demands than ever.

  15. Resistance Genes in Global Crop Breeding Networks.

    PubMed

    Garrett, K A; Andersen, K F; Asche, F; Bowden, R L; Forbes, G A; Kulakow, P A; Zhou, B

    2017-08-31

    Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks. Here, we evaluate the general structure of crop breeding networks for cassava, potato, rice, and wheat. All four are clustered due to phytosanitary and intellectual property regulations, and linked through CGIAR hubs. Cassava networks primarily include public breeding groups, whereas others are more mixed. These systems must adapt to global change in climate and land use, the emergence of new diseases, and disruptive breeding technologies. Research priorities to support policy include how best to maintain both diversity and redundancy in the roles played by individual crop breeding groups (public versus private and global versus local), and how best to manage connectivity to optimize resistance gene deployment while avoiding risks to the useful life of resistance genes. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  16. Behavioral profiles of feline breeds in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2009-08-01

    To clarify the behavioral profiles of 9 feline purebreds, 2 Persian subbreeds and the Japanese domestic cat, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 67 small-animal veterinarians. We found significant differences among breeds in all behavioral traits examined except for "inappropriate elimination". In addition, sexual differences were observed in certain behaviors, including "aggression toward cats", "general activity", "novelty-seeking", and "excitability". These behaviors were more common in males than females, whereas "nervousness" and "inappropriate elimination" were rated higher in females. When all breeds were categorized into four groups on the basis of a cluster analysis using the scores of two behavioral trait factors called "aggressiveness/sensitivity" and "vivaciousness", the group including Abyssinian, Russian Blue, Somali, Siamese, and Chinchilla breeds showed high aggressiveness/sensitivity and low vivaciousness. In contrast, the group including the American Shorthair and Japanese domestic cat displayed low aggressiveness/sensitivity and high vivaciousness, and the Himalayan and Persian group showed mild aggressiveness/sensitivity and very low vivaciousness. Finally, the group containing Maine Coon, Ragdoll, and Scottish Fold breeds displayed very low aggressiveness/sensitivity and low vivaciousness. The present results demonstrate that some feline behavioral traits vary by breed and/or sex.

  17. Genetic stability in the Icelandic horse breed.

    PubMed

    Campana, M G; Stock, F; Barrett, E; Benecke, N; Barker, G W W; Seetah, K; Bower, M A

    2012-08-01

    Despite the Icelandic horse enjoying great popularity worldwide, the breed's gene pool is small. This is because of a millennium of isolation on Iceland, population crashes caused by natural disasters and selective breeding. Populations with small effective population sizes are considered to be more at risk of selection pressures such as disease and environmental change. By analysing historic and modern mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear coat colour genes, we examined real-time population dynamics in the Icelandic horse over the last 150 years. Despite the small gene pool of this breed, we found that the effective population size and genetic profile of the Icelandic horse have remained stable over the studied time period.

  18. Breeding and genetics--historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Rishell, W A

    1997-08-01

    This paper is a review of selection methods that have been used in commercial breeding of table egg stocks, broilers, and turkeys, based on the author's experience. In addition, a number of historic developments that have shaped or influenced the selection process are listed and the significance of each is discussed. The merits of mass selection are noted and compared with the multiple forms of family selection, e.g., full or half sibs, progeny testing, and recurrent methods. Each of these methods is believed to have nearly universal application in applied breeding programs being practiced today. This review concludes that a combination of individual and family selection practices aimed at improving multiple traits simultaneously is required to remain a successful supplier of breeding stock to the current commercial industry.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    PubMed

    Must, Kärt; Hytönen, Marjo K; Orro, Toomas; Lohi, Hannes; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82%) and the Persian had the highest (60.00%). According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  20. Breeding Astyanax mexicanus through Natural Spawning.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, Richard

    2008-11-01

    INTRODUCTIONMale and female Astyanax mexicanus can be bred successfully in tanks under appropriate conditions. Females should be maintained on a diet high in fats for 10-14 d before breeding. The transfer of a male and female into clean water in a fresh tank and a change (increase) in water temperature are cues for breeding. Newly fertilized eggs may also be obtained through in vitro fertilization. Note that blind fish should never be paired with eyed fish in illuminated aquaria, because the eyed fish are aggressive and will kill even much larger blind fish. Such matings must be carried out in the dark or by using in vitro fertilization.

  1. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  2. Pathology-specific effects of the IKur/Ito/IK,ACh blocker AVE0118 on ion channels in human chronic atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Christ, T; Wettwer, E; Voigt, N; Hála, O; Radicke, S; Matschke, K; Várro, A; Dobrev, D; Ravens, U

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose This study was designed to establish the pathology-specific inhibitory effects of the IKur/Ito/IK,ACh blocker AVE0118 on atrium-selective channels and its corresponding effects on action potential shape and effective refractory period in patients with chronic AF (cAF). Experimental approach Outward K+-currents of right atrial myocytes and action potentials of atrial trabeculae were measured with whole-cell voltage clamp and microelectrode techniques, respectively. Outward currents were dissected by curve fitting. Key results Four components of outward K+-currents and AF-specific alterations in their properties were identified. Ito was smaller in cAF than in SR, and AVE0118 (10 μM) apparently accelerated its inactivation in both groups without reducing its amplitude. Amplitudes of rapidly and slowly inactivating components of IKur were lower in cAF than in SR. The former was abolished by AVE0118 in both groups, the latter was partially blocked in SR, but not in cAF, even though its inactivation was apparently accelerated in cAF. The large non-inactivating current component was similar in magnitude in both groups, but decreased by AVE0118 only in SR. AVE0118 strongly suppressed AF-related constitutively active IK,ACh and prolonged atrial action potential and effective refractory period exclusively in cAF. Conclusions and implications In atrial myocytes of cAF patients, we detected reduced function of distinct IKur components that possessed decreased component-specific sensitivity to AVE0118 most likely as a consequence of AF-induced electrical remodelling. Inhibition of profibrillatory constitutively active IK,ACh may lead to pathology-specific efficacy of AVE0118 that is likely to contribute to its ability to convert AF into SR. PMID:18536759

  3. Estimating superpopulation size and annual probability of breeding for pond-breeding salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinkead, K.E.; Otis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    It has long been accepted that amphibians can skip breeding in any given year, and environmental conditions act as a cue for breeding. In this paper, we quantify temporary emigration or nonbreeding probability for mole and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum). We estimated that 70% of mole salamanders may skip breeding during an average rainfall year and 90% may skip during a drought year. Spotted salamanders may be more likely to breed, with only 17% avoiding the breeding pond during an average rainfall year. We illustrate how superpopulations can be estimated using temporary emigration probability estimates. The superpopulation is the total number of salamanders associated with a given breeding pond. Although most salamanders stay within a certain distance of a breeding pond for the majority of their life spans, it is difficult to determine true overall population sizes for a given site if animals are only captured during a brief time frame each year with some animals unavailable for capture at any time during a given year. ?? 2007 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  4. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events

    PubMed Central

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F.; Schreiber, E. A.; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), using a 19 year mark–recapture dataset involving more than 11 000 birds. We showed that skipping breeding was more likely in El-Niño years, correlated with an increase in the local sea surface temperature, supporting the hypothesis that it may be partly an adaptive strategy of birds to face the trade-off between survival and reproduction owing to environmental constraints. We also showed that the age-specific probability of first breeding attempt was synchronized among different age-classes and higher in El-Niño years. This result suggested that pre-breeders may benefit from lowered competition with experienced breeders in years of high skipping probabilities. PMID:20943677

  5. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events.

    PubMed

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F; Schreiber, E A; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-04-23

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), using a 19 year mark-recapture dataset involving more than 11,000 birds. We showed that skipping breeding was more likely in El-Niño years, correlated with an increase in the local sea surface temperature, supporting the hypothesis that it may be partly an adaptive strategy of birds to face the trade-off between survival and reproduction owing to environmental constraints. We also showed that the age-specific probability of first breeding attempt was synchronized among different age-classes and higher in El-Niño years. This result suggested that pre-breeders may benefit from lowered competition with experienced breeders in years of high skipping probabilities.

  6. Accuracy of genotype imputation in sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B J; Bowman, P J; Daetwyler, H D; Kijas, J W; van der Werf, J H J

    2012-02-01

    Although genomic selection offers the prospect of improving the rate of genetic gain in meat, wool and dairy sheep breeding programs, the key constraint is likely to be the cost of genotyping. Potentially, this constraint can be overcome by genotyping selection candidates for a low density (low cost) panel of SNPs with sparse genotype coverage, imputing a much higher density of SNP genotypes using a densely genotyped reference population. These imputed genotypes would then be used with a prediction equation to produce genomic estimated breeding values. In the future, it may also be desirable to impute very dense marker genotypes or even whole genome re-sequence data from moderate density SNP panels. Such a strategy could lead to an accurate prediction of genomic estimated breeding values across breeds, for example. We used genotypes from 48 640 (50K) SNPs genotyped in four sheep breeds to investigate both the accuracy of imputation of the 50K SNPs from low density SNP panels, as well as prospects for imputing very dense or whole genome re-sequence data from the 50K SNPs (by leaving out a small number of the 50K SNPs at random). Accuracy of imputation was low if the sparse panel had less than 5000 (5K) markers. Across breeds, it was clear that the accuracy of imputing from sparse marker panels to 50K was higher if the genetic diversity within a breed was lower, such that relationships among animals in that breed were higher. The accuracy of imputation from sparse genotypes to 50K genotypes was higher when the imputation was performed within breed rather than when pooling all the data, despite the fact that the pooled reference set was much larger. For Border Leicesters, Poll Dorsets and White Suffolks, 5K sparse genotypes were sufficient to impute 50K with 80% accuracy. For Merinos, the accuracy of imputing 50K from 5K was lower at 71%, despite a large number of animals with full genotypes (2215) being used as a reference. For all breeds, the relationship of

  7. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  8. Resolving lost herbivore community structure using coprolites of four sympatric moa species (Aves: Dinornithiformes).

    PubMed

    Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Richardson, Sarah J; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Wagstaff, Steven J; Worthy, Trevor H; Cooper, Alan

    2013-10-15

    Knowledge of extinct herbivore community structuring is essential for assessing the wider ecological impacts of Quaternary extinctions and determining appropriate taxon substitutes for rewilding. Here, we demonstrate the potential for coprolite studies to progress beyond single-species diet reconstructions to resolving community-level detail. The moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) of New Zealand are an intensively studied group of nine extinct herbivore species, yet many details of their diets and community structuring remain unresolved. We provide unique insights into these aspects of moa biology through analyses of a multispecies coprolite assemblage from a rock overhang in a montane river valley in southern New Zealand. Using ancient DNA (aDNA), we identified 51 coprolites, which included specimens from four sympatric moa species. Pollen, plant macrofossils, and plant aDNA from the coprolites chronicle the diets and habitat preferences of these large avian herbivores during the 400 y before their extinction (∼1450 AD). We use the coprolite data to develop a paleoecological niche model in which moa species were partitioned based on both habitat (forest and valley-floor herbfield) and dietary preferences, the latter reflecting allometric relationships between body size, digestive efficiency, and nutritional requirements. Broad ecological niches occupied by South Island giant moa (Dinornis robustus) and upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus) may reflect sexual segregation and seasonal variation in habitat use, respectively. Our results show that moa lack extant ecological analogs, and their extinction represents an irreplaceable loss of function from New Zealand's terrestrial ecosystems.

  9. Coprolite deposits reveal the diet and ecology of the extinct New Zealand megaherbivore moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Jamie R.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Rogers, Geoffery M.; Austin, Jeremy J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Cooper, Alan

    2008-12-01

    The discovery in New Zealand of Late Holocene deposits of coprolites from extinct avian megaherbivores has provided a unique opportunity to gain a detailed insight into the ecology of these birds across ecologically diverse habitats. Macrofossil analysis of 116 coprolites of the giant ratite moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes) reveals a diverse diet of herbs and low shrubs in both semi-arid and high rainfall ecological zones, overturning previous models of moa as dominantly browsers of trees and shrubs. Ancient DNA analysis identified coprolites from four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus and stout-legged moa, Euryapteryx gravis), revealing a larger dietary variation between habitat types than between species. The new data confirm that moa fed on a variety of endemic plant taxa with unusual growth forms previously suggested to have co-evolved with moa. Lastly, the feeding ecologies of moa are shown to be widely different to introduced mammalian herbivores.

  10. Embodying animals: Body-part compatibility in mammalian, reptile and aves classes.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Sandra M; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how humans code homologous body parts of nonhuman mammal, reptilian, and aves animals with respect to the representation of the human body. To this end, participants completed body-part compatibility tasks in which responses were executed to colored targets that were superimposed over the upper limbs, lower limbs or head of different animals in different postures. In Experiment 1, the images were of meekats and lizards in bipedal and quadrupedal postures. In Experiment 2, the images were of a human, a penguin, and an owl in a bipedal posture with upper limbs stretched out. Overall, the results revealed that the limbs of nonhuman mammals (meerkat and human) were consistently mapped onto the homologous human body parts only when the mammals were in a bipedal posture. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects emerged for the human and the meerkat in a bipedal posture, but not the meerkat in the quadrupedal posture. Further, consistent body-part compatibility effects were not observed for the lizard in the quadrupedal posture or for the lizard, penguin, or owl in a bipedal posture. The pattern of results suggests that the human bipedal body representation may distinguish taxonomical classes and is most highly engaged when viewing homologous body parts of mammalian animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A high-precision chronology for the rapid extinction of New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, George L. W.; Wheeler, Andrew B.; Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-12-01

    Megafaunal extinction followed the prehistoric human settlement of islands across the globe, but the exact duration and dynamics of the extinction processes are difficult to determine. The New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes) are a prime example, where, despite an extensive fossil and archaeological record, debate continues about their extinction chronology and how extinction timings varied among regions and species. We apply probabilistic sightings methods to 111 high-quality radiocarbon dates (from a pool of 653 dates) on moa remains from natural and archaeological sites to provide a high-resolution spatio-temporal chronology of moa extinction. We interpret this alongside an estimated time for the onset of hunting pressure, obtained by applying the same methods to the most reliable proxies for initial human settlement of New Zealand: coprolites of and seeds gnawed by the commensal Pacific rat (Rattus exulans). By comparing local and national extinction times, we discriminate between the point at which hunting stopped (economic extinction) and the total extinction of moa (ca 150 and 200 years after settlement, respectively). Extinction occurred contemporaneously at sites separated by hundreds of kilometres. There was little difference between the extinction times of the smallest (20-50 kg) and largest (200+ kg) moa species. Our results demonstrate how rapidly megafauna were exterminated from even large, topographically- and ecologically-diverse islands such as New Zealand, and highlight the fragility of such ecosystems in the face of human impacts.

  12. Beyond a morphological paradox: complicated phylogenetic relationships of the parrotbills (Paradoxornithidae, Aves).

    PubMed

    Yeung, Carol K L; Lin, Rong-Chien; Lei, Fumin; Robson, Craig; Hung, Le Manh; Liang, Wei; Zhou, Fasheng; Han, Lingxian; Li, Shou-Hsien; Yang, Xiaojun

    2011-10-01

    The parrotbills (Paradoxornithidae, meaning "birds of paradox," Aves) are a group of Old World passerines with perplexing taxonomic histories due to substantial morphological and ecological variation at various levels. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of the parrotbills were reconstructed based on sequences of two mitochondrial segments and three nuclear coding regions. Three major clades with characteristic body size and plumage coloration were found in both mtDNA and nuclear gene trees. However, mtDNA phylogeny suggested that the Paradoxornithidae is paraphyletic and relationships among three major parrotbill clades were poorly resolved. On the contrary, apparent and well-supported monophyletic relationships among the three major clades of Paradoxornithidae were revealed by concatenated nuclear dataset. Since paraphyly based on mtDNA data has commonly been found within avian taxa, the conflicting phylogenetic signal between mtDNA and nuclear loci revealed in this study indicates that results obtained from mtDNA dataset alone need to be evaluated with caution. Taxonomic implications of our phylogenetic findings are discussed. These phylogenies also point out areas for future investigation regarding the rapid diversification, morphological evolution and environmental adaptation of various parrotbill species or species complexes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radar analyses of mesoscale meteorological phenomena during the AVE/VAS correlation field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Radar data were collected during the selected critical times of the field experiment and subsequently analyzed for specific items. The analyses of the radar data for the AVE/VAS experiment provided statistically significant values for each of the 10 Km by 10 Km grids within radar range. The resulting information for correlation with satellite data included the following derived items that were averaged for each grid area: (1) rainfall rate in mm/hr; (2) dBZ (reflectivity) values; (3) accumulated rainfall values per hour; (4) accumulated rainfall values for a 6-hour period; (5) vertically integrated liquid water content per square meter; and (6) vertical height of the radar axis at the midpoint of each grid. Additional products derived from radar data are being investigated. An example of one such product is the derivation of the errors in integrated rainfall with different sampling periods. This is of significance for correlation with satellite data in that normally a step-function type of rainfall rate is used to derive the total rainfall over a period.

  14. A novel Haemosporida clade at the rank of genus in North American cranes (Aves: Gruiformes).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Miranda R; Hamer, Sarah A; Hartup, Barry K; Snowden, Karen F; Medeiros, Matthew C; Outlaw, Diana C; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2017-04-01

    The unicellular blood parasites in the order Haemosporida are highly diverse, infect many vertebrates, are responsible for a large disease burden among humans and animals, and have reemerged as an important model system to understand the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of host-parasite interactions. The phylogenetics and systematics of Haemosporida are limited by poor sampling of different vertebrate host taxa. We surveyed the Haemosporida of wild whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) (Aves: Gruiformes) using a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. We identified Haemoproteus antigonis in blood smears based on published morphological descriptions. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome oxidase (coI) sequences placed H. antigonis parasites in a novel clade, distinct from all avian Haemosporida genera for which cytb and/or coI sequences are available. Molecular clock and divergence estimates suggest this crane clade may represent a new genus. This is the first molecular description of H. antigonis and the first report of H. antigonis in wild whooping cranes, an endangered bird in North America. Further sampling of Haemosporida, especially from hosts of the Gruiformes and other poorly sampled orders, will help to resolve the relationship of the H. antigonis clade to other avian Haemosporida genera. Our study highlights the potential of sampling neglected host species to discover novel lineages of diverse parasite groups. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A synoptic analysis of the first AVE-SESAME '79 period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. T.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    Key features of a severe convection observed during April 10-11, 1979 as part of the Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (AVE-SESAME) are examined. Three-hourly rawinsonde readings from 23 stations were taken, and vertical motion and divergence parameters are considered. The data were converted into a 127 km grid at the surface, and at 50 mb intervals from 900 mb to 100 mb by an objective analysis scheme, while a kinematic method was used to compute vertical motion. A weak upper tropospheric short wave trough was found to propagate from New Mexico into the Texas panhandle, while a jet maximum propagated eastward. The development of a strong wind maximum over Oklahoma and Kansas was associated with a rapid increase in upper-level divergence and the development of a small-scale pressure perturbation in the Texas panhandle, as well as a low-level jet and convergence, which led to rapid changes over the Red River Valley, where stability was decreased.

  16. Patterns of genetic variation in the adaptive radiation of New World crossbills (Aves: Loxia).

    PubMed

    Parchman, Thomas L; Benkman, Craig W; Britch, Seth C

    2006-06-01

    Incipient species groups or young adaptive radiations such as crossbills (Aves: Loxia) present the opportunity to investigate directly the processes occurring during speciation. New World crossbills include white-winged crossbills (Loxia leucoptera), Hispaniolan crossbills (Loxia megaplaga), and red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex), the last of which is comprised of at least nine morphologically and vocally differentiated forms ('call types') where divergent natural selection for specialization on different conifer resources has been strongly implicated as driving diversification. Here we use amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to investigate patterns of genetic variation across populations, call types, and species of New World crossbills. Tree-based analyses using 440 AFLP loci reveal strongly supported clustering of the formally recognized species, but did not separate individuals from the eight call types in the red crossbill complex, consistent with recent divergence and ongoing gene flow. Analyses of genetic differentiation based on inferred allele frequency variation however, reveal subtle but significant levels of genetic differentiation among the different call types of the complex and indicate that between call-type differentiation is greater than that found among different geographic locations within call types. Interpreted in light of evidence of divergent natural selection and strong premating reproductive isolation, the observed genetic differentiation suggests restricted gene flow among sympatric call types consistent with the early stages of ecological speciation.

  17. Niche evolution and diversification in a Neotropical radiation of birds (Aves: Furnariidae).

    PubMed

    Seeholzer, Glenn F; Claramunt, Santiago; Brumfield, Robb T

    2017-03-01

    Rapid diversification may be caused by ecological adaptive radiation via niche divergence. In this model, speciation is coupled with niche divergence and lineage diversification is predicted to be correlated with rates of niche evolution. Studies of the role of niche evolution in diversification have generally focused on ecomorphological diversification but climatic-niche evolution may also be important. We tested these alternatives using a phylogeny of 298 species of ovenbirds (Aves: Furnariidae). We found that within Furnariidae, variation in species richness and diversification rates of subclades were best predicted by rate of climatic-niche evolution than ecomorphological evolution. Although both are clearly important, univariate regression and multivariate model averaging more consistently supported the climatic-niche as the best predictor of lineage diversification. Our study adds to the growing body of evidence, suggesting that climatic-niche divergence may be an important driver of rapid diversification in addition to ecomorphological evolution. However, this pattern may depend on the phylogenetic scale at which rate heterogeneity is examined. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of the spoonbills (Aves: Threskiornithidae) based on mitochondrial DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R. Terry; Yeung, Carol K.L.; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    Spoonbills (genus Platalea) are a small group of wading birds, generally considered to constitute the subfamily Plataleinae (Aves: Threskiornithidae). We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among the six species of spoonbills using variation in sequences of the mitochondrial genes ND2 and cytochrome b (total 1796 bp). Topologies of phylogenetic trees reconstructed using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses were virtually identical and supported monophyly of the spoonbills. Most relationships within Platalea received strong support: P. minor and P. regia were closely related sister species, P. leucorodia was sister to the minor-regia clade, and P. alba was sister to the minor-regia-leucorodia clade. Relationships of P. flavipes and P. ajaja were less well resolved: these species either formed a clade that was sister to the four-species clade, or were successive sisters to this clade. This phylogeny is consistent with ideas of relatedness derived from spoonbill morphology. Our limited sampling of the Threskiornithinae (ibises), the putative sister group to the spoonbills, indicated that this group is paraphyletic, in agreement with previous molecular data; this suggests that separation of the Threskiornithidae into subfamilies Plataleinae and Threskiornithinae may not be warranted.

  19. A molecular phylogeny of Pacific honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) reveals extensive paraphyly and an isolated Polynesian radiation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Michael J; Naikatini, Alivereti; Moyle, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the molecular phylogenetic placement of 14 species of Pacific island honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) in the broader context of an existing family-level phylogeny. We examined the evolutionary history of Pacific honeyeater lineages to assess the accuracy of current taxonomies and to evaluate their biogeographic history. We compare these biogeographic patterns to other Pacific birds to identify emergent patterns across lineages. We found strong support for a previously unknown endemic radiation in central Polynesia, which comprises five genera: Meliarchus, Guadalcanaria, Gymnomyza, Xanthotis, and Foulehaio. Conversely, other Pacific lineages were found to be strongly allied with continental radiations (e.g., Philemon eichhorni, P. cockerelli, and Lichmera incana). Our results necessitated taxonomic changes, both at the generic level (e.g., Xanthotis, Melidectes/Vosea, and Glycifohia/Gliciphila) and regarding species limits within polytypic species. Here, we discuss species limits in Foulehaio and Gymnomyza and recommend elevating three nominal subspecies of Foulehaio to species status, each of which forms well-differentiated clades.

  20. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  1. A New Breed of Environmental Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamud, Randy

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how today's environmental film festivals feature a new breed of documentary that offer nuanced narratives about intricate technologies. The author relates that the environmental films he grew up with sedately depicted the quiet sublimity of the wilderness. Today's films, the author observes, aim far beyond a…

  2. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  3. New Brahman breed improvement program at STARS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    At the USDA, ARS, Subtropical Agricultural Research Station (STARS) in Brooksville, Florida we have initiated a new ambitious research project that many believe will have a positive influence on the Brahman breed. This research was developed from a meeting held at STARS that included past and prese...

  4. Traditional breeding and cultivar development (potato)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional breeding allows for the genetic ‘reshuffling’ of genes and their recombination into new genotypes that may carry the desired assemblage of resistance and agronomic traits necessary for release as a new cultivar. While molecular biology techniques can be useful for improving upon a weakne...

  5. Breeding red-winged blackbirds in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Know, C.J.; Stickley, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    Ability to establish and maintain self-sustaining breeding colonies of captive Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) would facilitate long-term studies designed to develop methods for alleviating blackbird depredations as well as provide basic life history data. To be most useful, the colonies should be established in pens near laboratory facilities; this frequently involves putting colonies in unnatural nesting habitat. This paper describes a 5-year effort at Gainesville, Florida, to induce captive Red-wings, most of them taken from the wild as nestlings and then hand-reared in our laboratory, to breed regularly under such conditions. Except for an undocumented report of two young fully reared at the London Zoo in 1913 (Prestwick per. comm.), captive Red-wings have not been induced to breed successfully under avicultural conditions. In 1969, captive Red-wings, wild-trapped as adults, were induced to breed and to rear young successfully in large pens over normal marsh and hayfield nesting habitat in Ohio (Jackson pers. comm.). Earlier, a pair of Red-wings that had been caught as adults and kept together for a year hatched two young in a 40- X 20- X 6-foot cage in Massachusetts (Wetherbee 1960, Wilson Bull. 74: 90), but the nestlings died soon after hatching.

  6. Recent advances in peanut breeding and genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most previous advances in peanut cultivar development have been made using conventional breeding methods for self-pollinated crops. Peanut has lagged behind many other crops on use of molecular genetic technology for cultivar development in part due to lack of investment, but also because of low le...

  7. Breeding for phytonutrient content; examples from watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeding for high phytonutrient fruits and vegetables can be a fairly straightforward endeavor when the compounds of interest produce a visible effect or the methods for quantifying the compounds simple and inexpensive. Lycopene in tomatoes and watermelon is one such compound, since the amount of r...

  8. Linkage Drag: Implication for Plant Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Linkage drag is commonly observed in plant breeding, yet the molecular mechanisms controlling this is unclear. The Pi-ta gene, a single copy gene near the centromere region of chromosome 12, confers resistance to races of Magnaporthe oryzae that contain AVR-Pita. The Pi-ta gene in Tetep has been su...

  9. Genomics to feed a switchgrass breeding program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of improved cultivars is one of three pillars, along with sustainable production and efficient conversion, required for dedicated cellulosic bioenergy crops to succeed. Breeding new cultivars is a long, slow process requiring patience, dedication, and motivation to realize gains and adva...

  10. Impacts of the basic breeding program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDAs basic sugarcane breeding program began in the mid 1950s with the objective of moving genes from wild sugarcane germplasm into commercial cane. Several releases have been made from this program, but it is a very long process. To date, the pedigree of seven commercial Louisiana varieties ca...

  11. Wheat breeding for quality: an historical review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat (Triticum spp. L.) is a leading cereal contributing to the nourishment of humankind. Since its domestication ca. 12 000 years ago, humans have profoundly influenced its evolution. In the more recent past, breeding via cross-hybridization and the selection of progeny with superior end-use quali...

  12. Combination solar hothouse and silkworm breeding house

    SciTech Connect

    Vardiashvili, A.B.; Muradov, M.; Kim, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    The basic arrangement is shown for a combination silkworm breeding house and solar hothouse with subsoil irrigation and accumulation of heat; it employs a semicylindrical film covering. The process of accumulation of solar heat in the subsoil pebble stores, in water-heater banks, and in the soil is described.

  13. Validating selective breeding approaches for disease resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selective breeding of rainbow trout at the USDA/ARS National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA) in Leetown, West Virginia is designed to accomplish four goals: 1) define commercially important traits such as disease resistance, growth rate, stress response, and feed efficiency; 2) d...

  14. Mary Bidwell Breed: The Educator as Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fley, Jo Ann; Jaramillo, George R.

    1979-01-01

    Mary Bidwell Breed predicted that midwestern universities would probably "pass through a stage of educational development in which the liberal arts are entirely feminized, the men are entirely commercialized." We can appreciate how close she came to pinpointing trends which did not begin to be reversed until sixty years later.…

  15. Breeding lettuce for fresh-cut processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed in fresh-cut packaged salads. New cultivars specifically bred for this use can enhance production and processing efficiency and extend shelf life. Cultivars with novel head architectures and leaf traits are being released by private and public breeding programs with ...

  16. Guayule: Culture, breeding and rubber production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pressure on worldwide Hevea rubber supplies and other factors are renewing interest in guayule rubber. The objective of this chapter is to review recent and past research dealing with guayule production, breeding, and product development. Production research continues to show that although guayule i...

  17. Breeding System of Ruellia succulenta Small (Acanthaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examines the breeding system of Ruellia succulenta (Acanthaceae), an herbaceous perennial found in the pine rockland habitat of southern Florida. Hand pollination treatments were performed on 75 plants, 25 from each of three sites. Treatments applied to test plants included: 1) control ...

  18. Marketing Potential of Advanced Breeding Clones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  19. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  20. Founding concepts for tree breeding and research

    Treesearch

    Hyun Kang

    1983-01-01

    Forestry research is a multidisciplinary venture and is typically a long-term effort with relatively low funding. The success of forestry research and tree breeding depends greatly on the coordination among forestry practitioners, research managers, and researchers. To coordinate they must have a common understanding of the research process. Therefore, the common...

  1. Breed differences in behavioural development in kittens.

    PubMed

    Marchei, P; Diverio, S; Falocci, N; Fatjó, J; Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J L; Manteca, X

    2009-03-23

    Differences in behaviour of pure breed cats have been suggested but not wholly investigated. Oriental/Siamese/Abyssinian (OSA) kittens (n=43) were weekly compared with Norwegian Forest (NFO) kittens (n=39) from the 4th to the 10th week of age in a repeated Open Field Test (OFT) paradigm. Heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) before and after the test, and behavioural responses during the OFT were recorded. Behaviours registered were analysed by focal animal sampling. Significant breed differences were found; cats of the northern zones (NFO) seem to develop earlier thermoregulatory abilities. Precocious opening of eyes, higher locomotion scores and longer time spent standing, observed in OSA kittens may indicate an earlier neurological development. Inter breed differences recorded for exploration and locomotion seem to indicate coping style divergences: in the OFT challenging situation OSA kittens presented higher emotional tachycardia and performed more passively, with a faster decline in exploration and locomotion scores. NFO kittens exerted a more active behaviour as they spent more time exploring the arena and in escape attempts. Notwithstanding OSA and NFO cat selection was mainly aimed to improve divergent morphological traits, some different behavioural and physiological traits seem to have been maintained or co-selected within each breed.

  2. Impacts of the basic breeding program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDAs basic sugarcane breeding program began in the mid 1950s with the objective of moving genes from wild sugarcane germplasm into commercial cane. Several releases have been made from this program, but it is a very long process. To date, the pedigree of seven commercial Louisiana varieties ca...

  3. Impacts of the USDA basic breeding program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDAs basic sugarcane breeding program began in the mid 1950s with the objective of moving genes from wild sugarcane germplasm into commercial cane. Several releases have been made from this program, but it is a very long process. To date, the pedigree of seven commercial Louisiana varieties can...

  4. A brief genomic history of tomato breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we report a brief genomic history of tomato breeding by analyzing the genomes of 360 diverse accessions collected all over the world. These included 333 accessions from the red fruited clade (S. pimpinellifolium, S. l. var. cerasiforme, and S. lycopersicum) that represent various geographical o...

  5. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-02-01

    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology.

  6. Relationships among and variation within rare breeds of swine.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K S; Lamberson, W R

    2015-08-01

    Extinction of rare breeds of livestock threatens to reduce the total genetic variation available for selection in the face of the changing environment and new diseases. Swine breeds facing extinction typically share characteristics such as small size, slow growth rate, and high fat percentage, which limit them from contributing to commercial production. Compounding the risk of loss of variation is the lack of pedigree information for many rare breeds due to inadequate herd books, which increases the chance that producers are breeding closely related individuals. By making genetic data available, producers can make more educated breeding decisions to preserve genetic diversity in future generations, and conservation organizations can prioritize investments in breed preservation. The objective of this study was to characterize genetic variation within and among breeds of swine and prioritize heritage breeds for preservation. Genotypes from the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip (GeneSeek, Lincoln, NE) were obtained for Guinea, Ossabaw Island, Red Wattle, American Saddleback, Mulefoot, British Saddleback, Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, and Tamworth pigs. A whole-genome analysis toolset was used to construct a genomic relationship matrix and to calculate inbreeding coefficients for the animals within each breed. Relatedness and average inbreeding coefficient differed among breeds, and pigs from rare breeds were generally more closely related and more inbred ( < 0.05). A multidimensional scaling diagram was constructed based on the SNP genotypes. Animals within breeds clustered tightly together except for 2 Guinea pigs. Tamworth, Duroc, and Mulefoot tended to not cluster with the other 7 breeds.

  7. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, Dennis G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  8. Application of Genomic Tools in Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-de-Castro, A.M.; Vilanova, S.; Cañizares, J.; Pascual, L.; Blanca, J.M.; Díez, M.J.; Prohens, J.; Picó, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, ‘breeding by design’, or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the ‘superdomestication’ of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits. PMID:23115520

  9. Simulation of charge breeding of rubidium using Monte Carlo charge breeding code and generalized ECRIS model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, L.; Cluggish, B.; Kim, J. S.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2010-02-15

    A Monte Carlo charge breeding code (MCBC) is being developed by FAR-TECH, Inc. to model the capture and charge breeding of 1+ ion beam in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) device. The ECRIS plasma is simulated using the generalized ECRIS model which has two choices of boundary settings, free boundary condition and Bohm condition. The charge state distribution of the extracted beam ions is calculated by solving the steady state ion continuity equations where the profiles of the captured ions are used as source terms. MCBC simulations of the charge breeding of Rb+ showed good agreement with recent charge breeding experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). MCBC correctly predicted the peak of highly charged ion state outputs under free boundary condition and similar charge state distribution width but a lower peak charge state under the Bohm condition. The comparisons between the simulation results and ANL experimental measurements are presented and discussed.

  10. Genetic trends and breed overlap derived from multiple-breed genetic evaluations of beef cattle for growth traits.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P G; Wilton, J W; Miller, S P; Banks, L R

    1999-08-01

    Genetic evaluations for a multiple-breed population of beef cattle were used to estimate genetic trends for five breeds, and genetic differences and overlap among 14 breeds. Genetic evaluations studied were for direct contributions to birth weight, gain from birth to 200 and 365 d, and maternal contribution to gain from birth to 200 d. Almost all genetic trends were positive, but the magnitude of the trends varied among breeds. Trends were nonlinear between 1985 and 1995 for most breed and trait combinations. The rates of increase in genetic trends were generally higher for the lighter weight breeds, and lighter weight breeds had faster growth rate genetic trends at 1995 than the heavier breeds. Genetic trend estimates for yearling gain at 1995 were 2.46, 2.23, 1.73, 1.70, and 1.46 kg/yr for Angus, Hereford, Limousin, Charolais, and Simmental, respectively. Corresponding birth weight genetic trends were .130, .226, .049, .130, and .048 kg/yr. Mean genetic differences between breeds have been decreasing in magnitude due to these differences in genetic trends between heavier and lighter breeds. Genetic variation for the traits studied seemed to be greater within than between breeds for calves born and cows calving between 1993 and 1995. Genetic trends at 1995 suggest that ratios of within:between breed variation will increase and that across-breed genetic improvement initiatives for growth traits will become more important in the future.

  11. Genetic diversity analyses reveal first insights into breed-specific selection signatures within Swiss goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Burren, A; Neuditschko, M; Signer-Hasler, H; Frischknecht, M; Reber, I; Menzi, F; Drögemüller, C; Flury, C

    2016-12-01

    We used genotype data from the caprine 50k Illumina BeadChip for the assessment of genetic diversity within and between 10 local Swiss goat breeds. Three different cluster methods allowed the goat samples to be assigned to the respective breed groups, whilst the samples of Nera Verzasca and Tessin Grey goats could not be differentiated from each other. The results of the different genetic diversity measures show that Appenzell, Toggenburg, Valais and Booted goats should be prioritized in future conservation activities. Furthermore, we examined runs of homozygosity (ROH) and compared genomic inbreeding coefficients based on ROH (FROH ) with pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients (FPED ). The linear relationship between FROH and FPED was confirmed for goats by including samples from the three main breeds (Saanen, Chamois and Toggenburg goats). FROH appears to be a suitable measure for describing levels of inbreeding in goat breeds with missing pedigree information. Finally, we derived selection signatures between the breeds. We report a total of 384 putative selection signals. The 25 most significant windows contained genes known for traits such as: coat color variation (MITF, KIT, ASIP), growth (IGF2, IGF2R, HRAS, FGFR3) and milk composition (PITX2). Several other putative genes involved in the formation of populations, which might have been selected for adaptation to the alpine environment, are highlighted. The results provide a contemporary background for the management of genetic diversity in local Swiss goat breeds. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  14. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  15. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  16. Breeding design considerations for coastal Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Randy. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    The basic principles of designing forest tree breeding programs are reviewed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Pacific Northwest. Breeding populations are discussed given current and future breeding zone sizes and seed orchard designs. Seed orchard composition is discussed for potential genetic gain and maintaining...

  17. Genomic predictions for crossbreds from all-breed data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic predictions of transmitting ability (GPTAs) for crossbred animals were computed from marker effects of 5 dairy breeds weighted by each breed’s genomic contribution to the crossbreds. Estimates of genomic breed composition are labeled breed base representation (BBR) and are reported since May...

  18. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Altarriba, Juan; Díaz, Clara; Quintanilla, Raquel; Cañón, Javier; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds) of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds), Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination), and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127), especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163). PMID:12605850

  19. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the Director... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs...

  20. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the Director... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs...

  1. Haploids: Constraints and opportunities in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Britt, Anne B; Tripathi, Leena; Sharma, Shivali; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of haploids in higher plants led to the use of doubled haploid (DH) technology in plant breeding. This article provides the state of the art on DH technology including the induction and identification of haploids, what factors influence haploid induction, molecular basis of microspore embryogenesis, the genetics underpinnings of haploid induction and its use in plant breeding, particularly to fix traits and unlock genetic variation. Both in vitro and in vivo methods have been used to induce haploids that are thereafter chromosome doubled to produce DH. Various heritable factors contribute to the successful induction of haploids, whose genetics is that of a quantitative trait. Genomic regions associated with in vitro and in vivo DH production were noted in various crops with the aid of DNA markers. It seems that F2 plants are the most suitable for the induction of DH lines than F1 plants. Identifying putative haploids is a key issue in haploid breeding. DH technology in Brassicas and cereals, such as barley, maize, rice, rye and wheat, has been improved and used routinely in cultivar development, while in other food staples such as pulses and root crops the technology has not reached to the stage leading to its application in plant breeding. The centromere-mediated haploid induction system has been used in Arabidopsis, but not yet in crops. Most food staples are derived from genomic resources-rich crops, including those with sequenced reference genomes. The integration of genomic resources with DH technology provides new opportunities for the improving selection methods, maximizing selection gains and accelerate cultivar development. Marker-aided breeding and DH technology have been used to improve host plant resistance in barley, rice, and wheat. Multinational seed companies are using DH technology in large-scale production of inbred lines for further development of hybrid cultivars, particularly in maize. The public sector provides support to

  2. Relationships between convective storms and their environment in AVE IV determined from a three-dimensional subsynoptic-scale, trajectory model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes interrelationships between synoptic-scale and convective-scale systems obtained by following individual air parcels as they traveled within the convective storm environment of AVE IV. (NASA's fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment, AVE IV, was a 36-hour study in April 1975 of the atmospheric variability and structure in regions of convective storms.) A three-dimensional trajectory model was used to calculate parcel paths, and manually digitized radar was employed to locate convective activity of various intensities and to determine those trajectories that traversed the storm environment. Spatial and temporal interrelationships are demonstrated by reference to selected time periods of AVE IV which contain the development and movement of the squall line in which the Neosho tornado was created.

  3. TOMS ozone data compared at mesoscale resolution to tropopause heights from the AVE radiosonde network and to VAS radiances over the south-central United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Uccellini, Louis; Larko, David

    1987-01-01

    Observations from 1982 are being compared between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE), and the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) across Texas and Oklahoma. TOMS data show a significant ozone maximum over northeastern Texas. AVE radiosonde analysis shows tropopause heights with the highest pressure (lowest altitudes) over central Oklahoma accompanied by a mid-level jet across northern Mexico exiting above the Texas-Gulf coast. Corresponding VAS radiances show a dry slot in the middle tropopause across central Texas accompanied by a secondary slot over Oklahoma. The maxima are separated by 100 to 500 km. The impact of TOMS data on tropopause analysis is preliminarily seen as insignificant because TOMS data is not registered with respect to AVE tropopause heights.

  4. Identification of Specialists and Abundance-Occupancy Relationships among Intestinal Bacteria of Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii.

    PubMed

    Green, Hyatt C; Fisher, Jenny C; McLellan, Sandra L; Sogin, Mitchell L; Shanks, Orin C

    2015-12-28

    The coalescence of next-generation DNA sequencing methods, ecological perspectives, and bioinformatics analysis tools is rapidly advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of vertebrate-associated bacterial communities. Delineation of host-microbe associations has applied benefits ranging from clinical treatments to protecting our natural waters. Microbial communities follow some broad-scale patterns observed for macroorganisms, but it remains unclear how the specialization of intestinal vertebrate-associated communities to a particular host environment influences broad-scale patterns in microbial abundance and distribution. We analyzed the V6 region of 16S rRNA genes amplified from 106 fecal samples spanning Aves, Mammalia, and Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish). We investigated the interspecific abundance-occupancy relationship, where widespread taxa tend to be more abundant than narrowly distributed taxa, among operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within and among host species. In a separate analysis, we identified specialist OTUs that were highly abundant in a single host and rare in all other hosts by using a multinomial model without excluding undersampled OTUs a priori. We show that intestinal microbes in humans and other vertebrates display abundance-occupancy relationships, but because intestinal host-associated communities have undergone intense specialization, this trend is violated by a disproportionately large number of specialist taxa. Although it is difficult to distinguish the effects of dispersal limitations, host selection, historical contingency, and stochastic processes on community assembly, results suggest that intestinal bacteria can be shared among diverse hosts in ways that resemble the distribution of "free-living" bacteria in the extraintestinal environment. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. [Reproductive activity of Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) in Isla de Aves, Venezuela (2001-2008)].

    PubMed

    Vera, Vicente; Buitrago, Joaquín

    2012-06-01

    The second major nesting-site for green turtles in the Caribbean is Isla de Aves, an island protected as a wildlife refuge since 1972, located at 650km Northeast from La Guaira, Venezuela. In this island, the nesting population monitoring started in 1972 and in a more continuous way after 1978, when a Scientific-Naval Station was established and scientific observations started. Since historical data show that female captures had severely affected population levels in this island before 1978, this study aim to describe recent reproductive activities. For this, during the nesting seasons of 2001-2002 and 2005-2008, nesting females were measured and tagged using metal flipper tags. A total of 458 nights were sampled observing 5 154 female emergences, with a maximum of 53 in a single night. Non-observed emergences were calculated fitting the temporal distribution of observed emergences to a normal curve. Total emergences estimated varied from X=637.1+/-106.6 in 2001 to X =2 853+/-42.5 in 2008 (ANOVA F(6.5df)=60.37, p<0.0001). Internesting interval in the same season was estimated in X=10.71+/-1.32 days. Clutch frequency in a nesting season was calculated as X=1.71+/-1.6 times per female and season. Estimated number of nesting females per year varied from X=373+/-12.5 females in 2001 to X=l 669+/-56.1 females in 2008 (ANOVA F 55.6df)=89.42, p<0.0001); with a positive and significant trend (r=0.842, p=0.036). Results show that nesting females numbers are increasing. We suggest that the protection of the nesting area for more than 30 years, has contributed with this population increase.

  6. Comparative cophylogenetics of Australian phabine pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their feather lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, Andrew D.; Chesser, R. Terry; Johnson, Kevin P.

    2017-01-01

    Host–parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions. Using molecular sequence data for most phabine species and their lice, we estimated phylogenetic trees for all three groups (pigeons and doves, wing lice and body lice), and compared the phabine (host) tree with both parasite trees using multiple cophylogenetic methods. We found a pattern opposite to that found for New World pigeons and doves, with Australian wing lice showing congruence with their hosts, and body lice exhibiting a lack of congruence. There are no documented records of hippoboscid flies associated with Australian phabines, thus these lice may lack the opportunity to disperse among host species by attaching to hippoboscid flies (phoresis), which could explain these patterns. However, additional sampling for flies is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Large differences in body size among phabine pigeons and doves may also help to explain the congruence of the wing lice with their hosts. It may be more difficult for wing lice than body lice to switch among hosts that vary more dramatically in size. The results from this study highlight how host–parasite coevolutionary histories can vary by region, and how local factors can shape the relationship.

  7. High-speed video analysis of wing-snapping in two manakin clades (Pipridae: Aves).

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Kimberly S; Prum, Richard O

    2003-10-01

    Basic kinematic and detailed physical mechanisms of avian, non-vocal sound production are both unknown. Here, for the first time, field-generated high-speed video recordings and acoustic analyses are used to test numerous competing hypotheses of the kinematics underlying sonations, or non-vocal communicative sounds, produced by two genera of Pipridae, Manacus and Pipra (Aves). Eleven behaviorally and acoustically distinct sonations are characterized, five of which fall into a specific acoustic class of relatively loud, brief, broad-frequency sound pulses, or snaps. The hypothesis that one kinematic mechanism of snap production is used within and between birds in general, and manakins specifically, is rejected. Instead, it is verified that three of four competing hypotheses of the kinematic mechanisms used for producing snaps, namely: (1). above-the-back wing-against-wing claps, (2). wing-against-body claps and (3). wing-into-air flicks, are employed between these two clades, and a fourth mechanism, (4). wing-against-tail feather interactions, is discovered. The kinematic mechanisms used to produce snaps are invariable within each identified sonation, despite the fact that a diversity of kinematic mechanisms are used among sonations. The other six sonations described are produced by kinematic mechanisms distinct from those used to create snaps, but are difficult to distinguish from each other and from the kinematics of flight. These results provide the first detailed kinematic information on mechanisms of sonation in birds in general, and the Pipridae specifically. Further, these results provide the first evidence that acoustically similar avian sonations, such as brief, broad frequency snaps, can be produced by diverse kinematic means, both among and within species. The use of high-speed video recordings in the field in a comparative manner documents the diversity of kinematic mechanisms used to sonate, and uncovers a hidden, sexually selected radiation of

  8. Comparative cophylogenetics of Australian phabine pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their feather lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Chesser, R Terry; Johnson, Kevin P

    2017-02-10

    Host-parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions. Using molecular sequence data for most phabine species and their lice, we estimated phylogenetic trees for all three groups (pigeons and doves, wing lice and body lice), and compared the phabine (host) tree with both parasite trees using multiple cophylogenetic methods. We found a pattern opposite to that found for New World pigeons and doves, with Australian wing lice showing congruence with their hosts, and body lice exhibiting a lack of congruence. There are no documented records of hippoboscid flies associated with Australian phabines, thus these lice may lack the opportunity to disperse among host species by attaching to hippoboscid flies (phoresis), which could explain these patterns. However, additional sampling for flies is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Large differences in body size among phabine pigeons and doves may also help to explain the congruence of the wing lice with their hosts. It may be more difficult for wing lice than body lice to switch among hosts that vary more dramatically in size. The results from this study highlight how host-parasite coevolutionary histories can vary by region, and how local factors can shape the relationship.

  9. Breeding population inventories and measures of recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Blohm, R.J.; Batt, D.J.; Afton, A.D.; Anderson, M.G.; Ankney, C.D.; Johnson, D.H.; Kadlec, J.A.; Krapu, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter we review the techniques used to measure two important parameters of waterfowl populations, size of breeding population and recruitment. If waterfowl are to be managed toward goals defined in terms of population sizes such as those in the recently signed North American Waterfowl Management Plan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [USFWS] and Canadian Wildlife Service [CWS] 1986), there must be some measure of population size for the various species. Waterfowl managers usually measure population size during the breeding season, although for some species and in some areas winter inventories may be used. Population size is a function of natality and mortality. Other chapters in this volume deal in detail with the biology of those processes. This chapter discusses procedural aspects of measurement and reviews some of the operational systems that have been used to estimate population size and recruitment, especially in North America.

  10. Novel Technologies for Optimal Strain Breeding.

    PubMed

    Bott, Michael; Eggeling, Lothar

    The implementation of a knowledge-based bioeconomy requires the rapid development of highly efficient microbial production strains that are able to convert renewable carbon sources to value-added products, such as bulk and fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, or proteins at industrial scale. Starting from classical strain breeding by random mutagenesis and screening in the 1950s via rational design by metabolic engineering initiated in the 1970s, a range of powerful new technologies have been developed in the past two decades that can revolutionize future strain engineering. In particular, next-generation sequencing technologies combined with new methods of genome engineering and high-throughput screening based on genetically encoded biosensors have allowed for new concepts. In this chapter, selected new technologies relevant for breeding microbial production strains with a special emphasis on amino acid producers will be summarized.

  11. Breeding bird response to juniper woodland expansion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenstock, Steven S.; van Riper, Charles

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have expanded into large portions of the Southwest historically occupied by grassland vegetation. From 1997a??1998, we studied responses of breeding birds to one-seed juniper (J. monosperma) woodland expansion at 2 grassland study areas in northern Arizona. We sampled breeding birds in 3 successional stages along a grassland-woodland gradient: un-invaded grassland, grassland undergoing early stages of juniper establishment, and developing woodland. Species composition varied greatly among successional stages and was most different between endpoints of the gradient. Ground-nesting grassland species predominated in uninvaded grassland but declined dramatically as tree density increased. Tree- and cavity-nesting species increased with tree density and were most abundant in developing woodland. Restoration of juniper-invaded grasslands will benefit grassland-obligate birds and other wildlife.

  12. Determinants of breeding distributions of ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Grier, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The settling of breeding habitat by migratory waterfowl is a topic of both theoretical and practical interest. We use the results of surveys conducted annually during 1955-81 in major breeding areas to examine the factors that affect the distributions of 10 common North American duck species. Three patterns of settling are described: homing, opportunistic, and flexible. Homing is generally more pronounced among species that use more stable (more predictable) wetlands, such as the redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (Anas strepera), and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). Opportunistic settling is more prevalent among species that use less stable (less predictable) wetlands, such as northern pintail (Anas acuta) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors). Flexible settling is exhibited to various degrees by most species.The 10 species are shown to fall along a natural ordination reflecting different life history characteristics. Average values of indices of r- and K-selection indicated that pintail, mallard, blue-winged teal, and shoveler have the most features associated with unstable or unpredictable environments. Gadwall, American wigeon (Anas americana), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were intermediate, and attributes of the diving ducks were associated with the use of stable or predictable environments.Some species--notably mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, redhead, and canvasback--tend to fill available breeding habitat first in the central portions of their range, and secondly in peripheral areas. Other species--American wigeon, green-winged teal, northern shoveler, northern pintail, and lesser scaup--fill their habitat in the order it is encountered during spring migration.Age and sex classes within species vary in their settling pattern. Some of this variation can be predicted from the mating systems of ducks in which breeding females, especially successful ones, have a

  13. Reduction of foraging work and cooperative breeding.

    PubMed

    Toyoizumi, Hiroshi; Field, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    Using simple stochastic models, we discuss how cooperative breeders, especially wasps and bees, can improve their productivity by reducing foraging work. In a harsh environment, where foraging is the main cause of mortality, such breeders achieve greater productivity by reducing their foraging effort below full capacity, and they may thrive by adopting cooperative breeding. This could prevent the population extinction of cooperative breeders under conditions where a population of lone breeders cannot be maintained.

  14. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  15. The North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bystrak, D.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    A brief history of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and a discussion of the technique are presented. The approximately 2000 random roadside routes conducted yearly during the breeding season throughout North America produce an enormous bank of data on distribution and abundance of breeding birds with great potential use. Data on about one million total birds of 500 species per year are on computer tape to facilitate accessibility and are available to any serious investigator. The BBS includes the advantages of wide geographic coverage, sampling of most habitat types, standardization of data collection, and a relatively simple format. The Survey is limited by placement of roads (e.g., marshes and rugged mountainous areas are not well sampled), traffic noise interference in some cases and preference of some bird species for roadside habitats. These and other problems and biases of the BBS are discussed. The uniformity of the technique allows for detecting changes in populations and for creation of maps of relative abundance. Examples of each are presented.

  16. Reproductive senescence in a cooperatively breeding mammal.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Stuart P; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2010-01-01

    1. Senescence (or 'ageing') is a widespread and important process in wild animal populations, but variation in ageing patterns within and between species is poorly understood. 2. In cooperatively breeding species, the costs of reproduction are shared between breeders and one or more helpers. The effects of ageing in breeders may therefore be moderated by the presence of helpers, but there have been very few studies of senescence patterns in natural populations of cooperative breeders. 3. Here, we use 13 years of data from a long-term study population of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) to investigate age-related changes in several traits known to be key components of reproductive success in females of this species. 4. Four of the six traits studied exhibited significant declines with age, indicating senescence. Litter size, the number of litters produced per year and the number of pups that survived to emergence from the natal burrow per year all increased with female age up to a peak at c. 4 years, and declined steeply thereafter; the mean pup weight at emergence in a given litter declined steadily from age zero. 5. These results provide the first evidence of reproductive senescence in a wild population of a cooperatively breeding vertebrate. Breeding success declined with age despite the sharing of reproductive costs in this species, but further study is needed to investigate whether helping affects other aspects of senescence, including survival.

  17. Breeding quantum error-correcting codes

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ying; Hu Dan; Yu Sixia

    2010-02-15

    The stabilizer code, one major family of quantum error-correcting codes (QECC), is specified by the joint eigenspace of a commuting set of Pauli observables. It turns out that noncommuting sets of Pauli observables can be used to construct more efficient QECCs, such as the entanglement-assisted QECCs, which are built directly from any linear classical codes whose detailed properties are needed to determine the parameters of the resulting quantum codes. Here we propose another family of QECCs, namely, the breeding QECCs, that also employ noncommuting sets of Pauli observables and can be built from any classical additive codes, either linear or nonlinear, with the advantage that their parameters can be read off directly from the corresponding classical codes. Besides, since nonlinear codes are generally more efficient than linear codes, our breeding codes have better parameters than those codes built from linear codes. The terminology is justified by the fact that our QECCs are related to the ordinary QECCs in exactly the same way that the breeding protocols are related to the hashing protocols in the entanglement purification.

  18. Breeding ecology of the Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snetsinger, T.J.; Herrmann, C.M.; Holmes, D.E.; Hayward, C.D.; Fancy, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the breeding ecology of the critically endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), a poorly known Hawaiian thrush endemic to the island of Kauai. From 1996 through 1998, we monitored 96 active nests over the course of three breeding seasons. Mean clutch size was 2.0, and pairs produced an average of 1.5 fledglings/successful nest. Pairs renested after failure and some raised multiple broods. The mean annual reproductive effort was 2.1 nesting attempts/territory, and pairs produced a mean 1.1 fledglings/attempt. Large differences in nesting effort and productivity occurred among years, with mean number of fledglings/territory ranging from 0.4 to 4.9. Predation by owls (probably Short-eared Owls, Asia flammeus) and introduced rats (probably black rats, Rattus rattus) accounted for most nest failures. The presence of non-breeding floaters in the population and their largely unsuccessful attempts to gain territories in the study area suggest that the population is near carrying capacity. The high reproductive potential of the Puaiohi may help explain its persistence despite the species' historical rarity.

  19. The northeastern states' waterfowl breeding population survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heusmann, H.W.; Sauer, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to tailor waterfowl hunting regulations to conditions in the Atlantic Flyway have been hampered by lack of information on local breeding populations. The Atlantic Flyway Council's technical section voted at its 1987 winter meeting (Atlantic Flyway Council Technical Section, Toronto, Canada) to establish a regional waterfowl breeding survey. Consequently, an annual survey was started in 1989 and further refined in 1993 using results from 1989 to 1992. During 1993-1997, annual spring surveys of more than 1,450 randomly selected 1-km2 plots, stratified by physiographic strata, were conducted in the Atlantic Flyway from New Hampshire to Virginia to estimate breeding populations of mallards (Arias platyrhynchos), American black ducks (A. rubripes), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Ground crews systematically surveyed all potential waterfowl habitat for these species in each plot. The adjusted mean mallard pair estimate over the 5-year period was 375,962 (range 310,299-415,182, mean SE 25,761) for the region surveyed. The estimate for black duck pairs was 31,1 54 (range 27,164'37,521, mean SE 4,978), and for wood duck pairs it was 240,473 (range 218,959-281,916, mean SE 25,408). Total number of Canada geese increased from 526,663 in 1993 to 892,278 in 1997. Population estimates for other species had unacceptably large standard errors.

  20. The development of beef breeding bulls.

    PubMed

    Engelken, T J

    2008-08-01

    Management of the bull battery will have a dramatic impact on profitability of the cow/calf enterprise. It is critical that young bulls be selected and developed to maximize longevity and productivity for the eventual buyer. Bulls must be structurally sound, healthy, and have adequate libido in order to service the required number of females. Once bulls complete their first breeding season, special care must be taken in order to ensure that they recover and regain needed body condition and pass a bull breeding soundness examination (BBSE). Mature bulls that have reached their genetic potential for growth require less intensive management, but the health program and annual BBSE cannot be overlooked. Mature bulls are also more likely to carry venereal disease and should be screened according to local disease incidence and state regulations. All bulls, regardless of age, should be observed early during the breeding season to ensure that they are physically capable of mounting and servicing females. The establishment of a complete management program, especially for young bulls, is essential to ensure that ranch resources are used efficiently, including maintenance of a high level of reproductive performance of the cow herd.

  1. Bull breeding soundness evaluation in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Irons, P C; Nöthling, J O; Bertschinger, H J

    2007-10-01

    The motivation for and process leading up to the publication of a new bull breeding soundness certification standard endorsed by the South African Veterinary Association is described. The veterinary certificate of bull breeding soundness and explanatory notes and minimum standards are shown. The first component of the certificate is a declaration by the veterinarian that the bull complies with the minimum standards set for examinations for the selected purpose, these being for use as a natural service sire, as a donor of semen for distribution, and for insurance purposes. This is followed by the details of the bull and owner, and a list of the recommended examinations and tests for the bull with provision for which were performed. Certificates are available in book form with the explanatory notes and minimum standards on the reverse, and a carbon copy which remains in the book. The clarity and ease of completion of the document are regarded as being positive features. Bulls are either classified as breeding sound or not, with no actual parameters indicated on the document and no certificate issued for those which do not meet the set criteria. Contact details of the parties involved are shown on the certificate to allow for communication as a means of avoiding disputes.

  2. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs.

    PubMed

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world's dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). Mixed-breeds and purebreds were similar in trainability and boldness scores. However, twelve out of 20 demographic and dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p < 0.001 for both), which could result in the observed behaviour differences. After controlling for the distribution of the demographic and dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). We discuss that these differences at least partly might be due to selective forces. Our results suggest that instead of being the "average" dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits.

  3. Why breed every other year? The case of albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2002-09-22

    Albatrosses exhibit extremely low reproductive rates, each pair brooding only one egg and subsequent chick at a time. Furthermore, in several of the species, the majority of successful pairs breed only once every second year (termed 'biennial' breeding). Thus, on average, these latter species have an annual fecundity of about half an offspring per year, while other albatrosses produce an egg and chick every year. Using our 40-year bank of demographic data, we compared 12 species of albatrosses according to these two breeding strategies to examine potential causes of biennial breeding. Biennial breeding could be due to physiological constraints, larger animals breeding more slowly, or ecological constraints, more distant pelagic feeding trips being energetically costly, or both. We tested these hypotheses by looking for predicted associations between the duration of the rearing period, the distance to the oceanic feeding zone and breeding frequency. We also looked for associations of these variables with other life-history traits. Body size had a strong influence on the duration of the rearing period, but not on the distance that birds travelled to the feeding zone. Both the duration of the rearing period and distance to the feeding zone appeared to have direct influences on breeding frequency, as revealed by a path analysis, and thus both hypotheses to explain biennial breeding were supported. Finally, breeding frequency exhibited a strong trade-off with adult survival and age at maturity, indicating that slower breeders live through more breeding seasons, perhaps mitigating their lower annual reproductive output.

  4. Why breed every other year? The case of albatrosses.

    PubMed Central

    Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Albatrosses exhibit extremely low reproductive rates, each pair brooding only one egg and subsequent chick at a time. Furthermore, in several of the species, the majority of successful pairs breed only once every second year (termed 'biennial' breeding). Thus, on average, these latter species have an annual fecundity of about half an offspring per year, while other albatrosses produce an egg and chick every year. Using our 40-year bank of demographic data, we compared 12 species of albatrosses according to these two breeding strategies to examine potential causes of biennial breeding. Biennial breeding could be due to physiological constraints, larger animals breeding more slowly, or ecological constraints, more distant pelagic feeding trips being energetically costly, or both. We tested these hypotheses by looking for predicted associations between the duration of the rearing period, the distance to the oceanic feeding zone and breeding frequency. We also looked for associations of these variables with other life-history traits. Body size had a strong influence on the duration of the rearing period, but not on the distance that birds travelled to the feeding zone. Both the duration of the rearing period and distance to the feeding zone appeared to have direct influences on breeding frequency, as revealed by a path analysis, and thus both hypotheses to explain biennial breeding were supported. Finally, breeding frequency exhibited a strong trade-off with adult survival and age at maturity, indicating that slower breeders live through more breeding seasons, perhaps mitigating their lower annual reproductive output. PMID:12350259

  5. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

  6. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Óscar

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino. PMID:23271940

  7. Life histories and the evolution of cooperative breeding in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2012-01-01

    While the evolution of cooperative breeding systems (where non-breeding helpers participate in rearing young produced by dominant females) has been restricted to lineages with socially monogamous mating systems where coefficients of relatedness between group members are usually high, not all monogamous lineages have produced species with cooperative breeding systems, suggesting that other factors constrain the evolution of cooperative breeding. Previous studies have suggested that life-history parameters, including longevity, may constrain the evolution of cooperative breeding. Here, we show that transitions to cooperative breeding across the mammalian phylogeny have been restricted to lineages where females produce multiple offspring per birth. We find no support for effects of longevity or of other life-history parameters. We suggest that the evolution of cooperative breeding has been restricted to monogamous lineages where helpers have the potential to increase the reproductive output of breeders. PMID:22874752

  8. Individual variation in behavior and breeding success of Northern Fulmars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.

    1990-01-01

    In a sample of breeding Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) observed in 4-5 years, up to 43% of the variability in 13 attributes of breeding behavior was consistent among individuals or pairs. Sample means for most attributes were correlated in a predictable way with annual levels of breeding success. Except for laying dates, there was little evidence that individual differences in these attributes contributed to variation in breeding success. A test of breeding experience as a contributing factor revealed an interaction between individual and annual components of variation. During years when the whole population did relatively poorly, pairs with no previous breeding experience were affected disproportionately. Late-nesting fulmars were more successful than early layers, possibly because delayed breeding ensured that food availability was adequate for successful incubation.

  9. Using 2-DE for the differentiation of local chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Enrico; Molette, Caroline; Chambon, Christophe; Pinguet, Jeremy; Rémignon, Hervé; Cassandro, Martino

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a proteomic approach for the characterisation of local chicken breeds. The experiment involved a total of 29 males of three local Italian chicken breeds: Pépoi, Padovana and Ermellinata di Rovigo. Sarcoplasmic protein fractions of breast muscle were analysed by 2-DE. Image analysis followed by statistical analysis enabled to differentiate groups of individuals based on the similarities of protein expression. Individuals were distinguished into clusters and groups, corresponding to the breed of origin. Distances among individuals, calculated using data on spot volumes, were used to draw a neighbour-joining tree, showing clear individual and breed grouping. The most relevant spots regarding breed differentiation were detected; 11 were identified by MS revealing preliminary evidences on the mechanisms of the breed differentiation process. The results evidenced the ability of proteomic analyses for the characterisation of chicken breeds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Life histories and the evolution of cooperative breeding in mammals.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2012-10-07

    While the evolution of cooperative breeding systems (where non-breeding helpers participate in rearing young produced by dominant females) has been restricted to lineages with socially monogamous mating systems where coefficients of relatedness between group members are usually high, not all monogamous lineages have produced species with cooperative breeding systems, suggesting that other factors constrain the evolution of cooperative breeding. Previous studies have suggested that life-history parameters, including longevity, may constrain the evolution of cooperative breeding. Here, we show that transitions to cooperative breeding across the mammalian phylogeny have been restricted to lineages where females produce multiple offspring per birth. We find no support for effects of longevity or of other life-history parameters. We suggest that the evolution of cooperative breeding has been restricted to monogamous lineages where helpers have the potential to increase the reproductive output of breeders.

  11. Spatial scale of local breeding habitat quality and adjustment of breeding decisions.

    PubMed

    Doligez, Blandine; Berthouly, Anne; Doligez, Damien; Tanner, Marion; Saladin, Verena; Bonfils, Danielle; Richner, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Experimental studies provide evidence that, in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, individuals track variation in breeding habitat quality to adjust breeding decisions to local conditions. However, most experiments consider environmental variation at one spatial scale only, while the ability to detect the influence of a factor depends on the scale of analysis. We show that different breeding decisions by adults are based on information about habitat quality at different spatial scales. We manipulated (increased or decreased) local breeding habitat quality through food availability and parasite prevalence at a small (territory) and a large (patch) scale simultaneously in a wild population of Great Tits (Parus major). Females laid earlier in high-quality large-scale patches, but laying date did not depend on small-scale territory quality. Conversely, offspring sex ratio was higher (i.e., biased toward males) in high-quality, small-scale territories but did not depend on large-scale patch quality. Clutch size and territory occupancy probability did not depend on our experimental manipulation of habitat quality, but territories located at the edge of patches were more likely to be occupied than central territories. These results suggest that integrating different decisions taken by breeders according to environmental variation at different spatial scales is required to understand patterns of breeding strategy adjustment.

  12. Hormones and territorial behavior during breeding in snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis): an Arctic-breeding songbird.

    PubMed

    Romero, L M; Soma, K K; O'Reilly, K M; Suydam, R; Wingfield, J C

    1998-02-01

    We examined hormonal profiles and behavior associated with maintaining a single-purpose territory in an Arctic-breeding songbird-the snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis). Snow buntings differ from many other Arctic-breeding passerines by using nest cavities, an uncommon and defended resource, but not relying upon the surrounding territory for forage. Circulating levels of testosterone in males were high when territories were established and then decreased over the breeding season. LH secretion was enhanced in females while laying eggs, followed by detectable levels of estradiol during incubation. Both sexes showed equivalent corticosterone responses to the stress of being captured and held. Male snow buntings vigorously defended territories in response to a simulated territorial intrusion both when initiating breeding and when feeding young. Exogenous testosterone implants surprisingly inhibited physical aggression but enhanced singing when birds were feeding young, thus suggesting that song and physical aggression are mediated by different hormonal mechanisms at this time of year. Together, these results contrast with hormonal profiles and behavior in other Arctic-breeding passerines.

  13. Natural breeding places of phlebotomine sandflies.

    PubMed

    Feliciangeli, M D

    2004-03-01

    Methods of finding larvae and pupae of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are described and the known types of breeding sites used by sandflies are listed. Three ways of detecting sandfly breeding places are the use of emergence traps placed over potential sources to catch newly emerged adult sandflies; flotation of larvae and pupae from soil, etc., and desiccation of media to drive out the larvae. Even so, remarkably little information is available on the ecology of the developmental stages of sandflies, despite their importance as vectors of Leishmania, Bartonella and phleboviruses affecting humans and other vertebrates in warmers parts of the world. Regarding the proven or suspected vectors of leishmaniases, information on breeding sites is available for only 15 out of 29 species of sandflies involved in the Old World and 12 out of 44 species of sandflies involved in the Americas, representing approximately 3% of the known species of Phlebotominae. Ecotopes occupied by immature phlebotomines are usually organically rich moist soils, such as the rain forest floor (Lutzomyia intermedia, Lu. umbratilis, Lu. whitmani in the Amazon; Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. trapidoi in Panama), or contaminated soil of animal shelters (Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America, Phlebotomus argentipes in India; P. chinensis in China; P. ariasi, P. perfiliewi, P. perniciosus in Europe). Developmental stages of some species (P. langeroni and P. martini in Africa; P. papatasi in Eurasia; Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America), have been found in a wide range of ecotopes, and many species of sandflies employ rodent burrows as breeding sites, although the importance of this niche is unclear. Larvae of some phlebotomines have been found in what appear to be specialized niches such as Lu. ovallesi on buttress roots of trees in Panama; P. celiae in termite hills in Kenya; P. longipes and P. pedifer in caves and among rocks in East Africa. Old World species found as immatures in

  14. A new genus for the American Tree Sparrow (Aves: Passeriformes: Passerellidae).

    PubMed

    Slager, David L

    2014-06-23

    The genus Spizella (Bonaparte) contains seven species of North American sparrows in the recently resurrected family Passerellidae (Bock 1994; Barker et al. 2013), formerly placed in the Emberizidae, and includes a few of the region's most common and familiar bird species. Spizella sparrows occupy more or less open habitats; most species are at least partially migratory and form small flocks when not breeding. On the basis of their similar morphology and behavior, they have long been treated as a natural group (Ridgway 1901; American Ornithologists' Union 1998). 

  15. Molecular Genetics of Sex Identification, Breed Ancestry and Polydactyly in the Norwegian Lundehund Breed.

    PubMed

    Kropatsch, Regina; Melis, Claudia; Stronen, Astrid V; Jensen, Henrik; Epplen, Joerg T

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Lundehund breed of dog has undergone a severe loss of genetic diversity as a result of inbreeding and epizootics of canine distemper. As a consequence, the breed is extremely homogeneous and accurate sex identification is not always possible by standard screening of X-chromosomal loci. To improve our genetic understanding of the breed we genotyped 17 individuals using a genome-wide array of 170 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Standard analyses based on expected homozygosity of X-chromosomal loci failed in assigning individuals to the correct sex, as determined initially by physical examination and confirmed with the Y-chromosomal marker, amelogenin. This demonstrates that identification of sex using standard SNP assays can be erroneous in highly inbred individuals.

  16. Biological parameters used in setting captive-breeding quotas for Indonesia's breeding facilities.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Jordi; Chng, Serene C L

    2017-07-03

    The commercial captive breeding of wildlife is often seen as a potential conservation tool to relieve pressure on wild populations, but laundering of wild-sourced specimens as captive bred can seriously undermine conservation efforts and provide a false sense of sustainability. Indonesia is at the center of such controversy; therefore, we examined Indonesia's captive-breeding production plan (CBPP) for 2016. We compared the biological parameters used in the CBPP with parameters in the literature and with parameters suggested by experts on each species and identified shortcomings of the CBPP. Production quotas for 99 out of 129 species were based on inaccurate or unrealistic biological parameters and production quotas deviated more than 10% from what parameters in the literature allow for. For 38 species, the quota exceeded the number of animals that can be bred based on the biological parameters (range 100-540%) calculated with equations in the CBPP. We calculated a lower reproductive output for 88 species based on published biological parameters compared with the parameters used in the CBPP. The equations used in the production plan did not appear to account for other factors (e.g., different survival rate for juveniles compared to adult animals) involved in breeding the proposed large numbers of specimens. We recommend the CBPP be adjusted so that realistic published biological parameters are applied and captive-breeding quotas are not allocated to species if their captive breeding is unlikely to be successful or no breeding stock is available. The shortcomings in the current CBPP create loopholes that mean mammals, reptiles, and amphibians from Indonesia declared captive bred may have been sourced from the wild. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Breeding without Mendelism: theory and practice of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the basis of outward characteristics. An objective verdict on the qualities of breeding stock could only be obtained by progeny testing, the scientists contended: the best animals were those that produced the most productive offspring. Some scientists had been making this claim since the beginning of the twentieth century. Why was it that their advice was apparently not heeded by breeders for so long? And what were the methods and beliefs that guided their practices? In this paper I intend to answer these questions by analysing the practical realities of dairy farming and stock breeding in The Netherlands between 1900 and 1950. Breeders continued to employ traditional breeding methods that had proven their effectiveness since the late eighteenth century. Their methods consisted in inbreeding--breeding in 'bloodlines,' as they called it--and selection on the basis of pedigree, conformation and milk recording data. Their aims were 'purity' and 'uniformity' of type. Progeny testing was not practiced due to practical difficulties. Before World War II, scientists acknowledged that genetic theory was of little practical use to breeders of livestock. Still, hereditary theory was considered to be helpful to assess the value of the breeders' methods. For instance, striving for purity was deemed to be consistent with Mendelian theory. Yet the term purity had different connotations for scientists and practical workers. For the former, it referred to homozygosity; for the latter, it rather buttressed the constancy of a distinct commercial 'brand.' Until the 1940s, practical breeders and most scientists were agreed that selecting animals purely for production was ill-advised. Cows of

  18. Admixture and local breed marginalization threaten Algerian sheep diversity.

    PubMed

    Gaouar, Samir Bachir Souheil; Da Silva, Anne; Ciani, Elena; Kdidi, Samia; Aouissat, Miloud; Dhimi, Laziz; Lafri, Mohamed; Maftah, Abderrahman; Mehtar, Nadhira

    2015-01-01

    Due to its geo-climatic conditions, Algeria represents a biodiversity hotspot, with sheep breeds well adapted to a patchwork of extremely heterogeneous harsh habitats. The importance of this peculiar genetic reservoir increases as climate change drives the demand for new adaptations. However, the expansion of a single breed (Ouled-Djellal) which occurred in the last decades has generated a critical situation for the other breeds; some of them are being subjected to uncontrolled cross-breeding with the favored breed and/or to marginalization (effective size contraction). This study investigated genetic diversity within and among six of the nine Algerian breeds, by use of 30 microsatellite markers. Our results showed that, in spite of the census contraction experienced by most of the considered breeds, genetic diversity is still substantial (average gene diversity ranging 0.68 to 0.76) and inbreeding was not identified as a problem. However, two breeds (Rembi and Taâdmit) appeared to have lost most of their genetic originality because of intensive cross-breeding with Ouled-Djellal. Based on the above evidence, we suggest Hamra, Sidaoun, and D'man as breeds deserving the highest priority for conservation in Algeria.

  19. Admixture and Local Breed Marginalization Threaten Algerian Sheep Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Elena; Kdidi, Samia; Aouissat, Miloud; Dhimi, Laziz; Lafri, Mohamed; Maftah, Abderrahman; Mehtar, Nadhira

    2015-01-01

    Due to its geo-climatic conditions, Algeria represents a biodiversity hotspot, with sheep breeds well adapted to a patchwork of extremely heterogeneous harsh habitats. The importance of this peculiar genetic reservoir increases as climate change drives the demand for new adaptations. However, the expansion of a single breed (Ouled-Djellal) which occurred in the last decades has generated a critical situation for the other breeds; some of them are being subjected to uncontrolled cross-breeding with the favored breed and/or to marginalization (effective size contraction). This study investigated genetic diversity within and among six of the nine Algerian breeds, by use of 30 microsatellite markers. Our results showed that, in spite of the census contraction experienced by most of the considered breeds, genetic diversity is still substantial (average gene diversity ranging 0.68 to 0.76) and inbreeding was not identified as a problem. However, two breeds (Rembi and Taâdmit) appeared to have lost most of their genetic originality because of intensive cross-breeding with Ouled-Djellal. Based on the above evidence, we suggest Hamra, Sidaoun, and D’man as breeds deserving the highest priority for conservation in Algeria. PMID:25875832

  20. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    PubMed

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL.

  1. Challenges and opportunities in genetic improvement of local livestock breeds

    PubMed Central

    Biscarini, Filippo; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Stella, Alessandra; Boettcher, Paul J.; Gandini, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Sufficient genetic variation in livestock populations is necessary both for adaptation to future changes in climate and consumer demand, and for continual genetic improvement of economically important traits. Unfortunately, the current trend is for reduced genetic variation, both within and across breeds. The latter occurs primarily through the loss of small, local breeds. Inferior production is a key driver for loss of small breeds, as they are replaced by high-output international transboundary breeds. Selection to improve productivity of small local breeds is therefore critical for their long term survival. The objective of this paper is to review the technology options available for the genetic improvement of small local breeds and discuss their feasibility. Most technologies have been developed for the high-input breeds and consequently are more favorably applied in that context. Nevertheless, their application in local breeds is not precluded and can yield significant benefits, especially when multiple technologies are applied in close collaboration with farmers and breeders. Breeding strategies that require cooperation and centralized decision-making, such as optimal contribution selection, may in fact be more easily implemented in small breeds. PMID:25763010

  2. Use of microsatellite markers to assign goats to their breeds.

    PubMed

    Aljumaah, R S; Alobre, M M; Al-Atiyat, R M

    2015-08-07

    We investigated the potential of 17 microsatellite markers for assigning Saudi goat individuals to their breeds. Three local breeds, Bishi, Jabali, and Tohami were genotyped using these markers, and Somali goats were used as a reference breed. The majority of alleles were shared between the breeds, except for some that were specific to each breed. The Garza-Williamson index was lowest in the Bishi breed, indicating that a recent bottleneck event occurred. The overall results assigned the goat individuals (based on their genotypes) to the same breeds from which they were sampled, except in a few cases. The individuals' genotypes were sufficient to provide a clear distinction between the Somali goat breed and the others. In three factorial dimensions, the results of a correspondence analysis indicated that the total variation for the first and second factors was 48.85 and 31.43%, respectively. Consequently, Jabali, Bishi, and Tohami goats were in separate groups. The Jabali goat was closely related to the Bishi goat. Somali goats were distinguished from each other and from individuals of the other three goat breeds. The markers were successful in assigning individual goats to their breeds, based on the likelihood of a given individual's genotype.

  3. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    PubMed

    Gienapp, Phillip; Bregnballe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark). Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  4. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  5. Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Foolad, Majid R.

    2007-01-01

    The cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide and a well-studied crop species in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding. It is one of the earliest crop plants for which a genetic linkage map was constructed, and currently there are several molecular maps based on crosses between the cultivated and various wild species of tomato. The high-density molecular map, developed based on an L. esculentum × L. pennellii cross, includes more than 2200 markers with an average marker distance of less than 1 cM and an average of 750 kbp per cM. Different types of molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs, CAPS, RGAs, ESTs, and COSs have been developed and mapped onto the 12 tomato chromosomes. Markers have been used extensively for identification and mapping of genes and QTLs for many biologically and agriculturally important traits and occasionally for germplasm screening, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted breeding. The utility of MAS in tomato breeding has been restricted largely due to limited marker polymorphism within the cultivated species and economical reasons. Also, when used, MAS has been employed mainly for improving simply-inherited traits and not much for improving complex traits. The latter has been due to unavailability of reliable PCR-based markers and problems with linkage drag. Efforts are being made to develop high-throughput markers with greater resolution, including SNPs. The expanding tomato EST database, which currently includes ∼214 000 sequences, the new microarray DNA chips, and the ongoing sequencing project are expected to aid development of more practical markers. Several BAC libraries have been developed that facilitate map-based cloning of genes and QTLs. Sequencing of the euchromatic portions of the tomato genome is paving the way for comparative and functional analysis of important genes and QTLs. PMID:18364989

  6. Vulnerability of Subarctic and Arctic breeding birds.

    PubMed

    Hof, Anouschka R; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Allen, Andrew M; Jansson, Roland; Nilsson, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Recent research predicts that future climate change will result in substantial biodiversity loss associated with loss of habitat for species. However, the magnitude of the anticipated biodiversity impacts are less well known. Studies of species vulnerability to climate change through species distribution models are often limited to assessing the extent of species' exposure to the consequences of climate change to their local environment, neglecting species sensitivity to global change. The likelihood that species or populations will decline or go extinct due to climate change also depends on the general sensitivity and adaptive capacity of species. Hence, analyses should also obtain more accurate assessments of their vulnerability. We addressed this by constructing a vulnerability matrix for 180 bird species currently breeding in Subarctic and Arctic Europe that integrates a climatic exposure-based vulnerability index and a natural-history trait-based vulnerability index. Species that may need extra conservation attention based on our matrix include the Great Snipe (Gallinago media), the Rough-legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus), the Red-throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus), the Common Swift (Apus apus), the Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), and the Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica). Our vulnerability matrix stresses the importance of looking beyond exposure to climate change when species conservation is the aim. For the species that scored high in our matrix the future in the region looks grim and targeted conservation actions, incorporating macroecological and global perspectives, may be needed to alleviate severe population declines. We further demonstrate that climate change is predicted to significantly reduce the current breeding range of species adapted to cold climates in Subarctic and Arctic Europe. The number of incubation days and whether the species was a habitat specialist or not were also among the variables most strongly related to predicted contraction

  7. The effect of AVE 0991, nebivolol and doxycycline on inflammatory mediators in an apoE-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jawien, Jacek; Toton-Zuranska, Justyna; Kus, Katarzyna; Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether the 3 different substances that can decrease the development of atherosclerosis – nebivolol, AVE 0991 and doxycycline – could at the same time diminish the level of inflammatory indicators interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12), serum amyloid A (SAA), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Material/Methods Forty 8-week-old female apoE–knockout mice on the C57BL/6J background were divided into 4 groups and put on chow diet for 4 months. Three experimental groups received the same diet as a control group, mixed with AVE 0991 at a dose 0.58 μmol per kg of body weight per day, nebivolol at a dose 2.0 μmol per kg of body weight per day, and doxycycline at a dose 1.5 mg per kg of body weight per day. At the age of 6 months, the mice were sacrificed. Results All inflammatory indicators (MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12 and SAA) were diminished by AVE 0991. There was also a tendency to lower MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12 and SAA levels by nebivolol and doxycycline; however, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Of the 3 presented substances, only AVE 0991 was able to diminish the rise of inflammatory markers. Therefore, drug manipulations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis seem to be the most promising in the future treatment of atherogenesis. PMID:23018345

  8. Using the Spanish Online Resource "Aula Virtual de Espanol" (AVE) to Promote a Blended Teaching Approach in High School Spanish Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellerin, Martine; Montes, Carlos Soler

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the effectiveness of the implementation of blended teaching (BT) by combining the Spanish online resource "Aula Virtual de Espanol" (AVE) with the face-to-face (F2F) delivery approach in second language Spanish programs in two high schools in Alberta, Canada. Findings demonstrate the effectiveness of combining the…

  9. Effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist treatment on elemental and biomolecular content and distribution in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, J.; Gajda, M.; Jawień, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Appel, K.; Dumas, P.

    2013-12-01

    Gene-targeted apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice display early and highly progressive vascular lesions containing lipid deposits and they became a reliable animal model to study atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist on the distribution of selected pro- and anti- inflammatory elements as well as biomolecules in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared (micro-FTIR) microspectroscopies were applied. Two-month-old apoE-KO mice were fed for following four months diet supplemented with AVE 0991 (0.58 μmol/kg b.w. per day). Histological sections of ascending aortas were analyzed spectroscopically. The distribution of P, Ca, Fe and Zn were found to correspond with histological structure of the lesion. Significantly lower contents of P, Ca, Zn and significantly higher content of Fe were observed in animals treated with AVE 0991. Biomolecular analysis showed lower lipids saturation level and lower lipid to protein ratio in AVE 0991 treated group. Protein secondary structure was studied according to the composition of amide I band (1660 cm-1) and it demonstrated higher proportion of β-sheet structure as compared to α-helix in both studied groups.

  10. A new species of Acroleptus Bourgeois (Coleoptera: Lycidae) from the Brazilian Amazonian rainforest, with a note on its homonymy with Acroleptus Cabanis (Aves).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vinicius S

    2015-04-24

    Acroleptus costae sp. nov. is described from the Brazilian Amazonian rainforest, raising the diversity of the formerly monotypic genus to two known species. The validity of Acroleptus Bourgeois, 1886 (Insecta) is maintained while Acroleptus Cabanis, 1861 (Aves) is considered to be an incorrect subsequent spelling.

  11. Management and breeding of Aotus trivirgatus.

    PubMed

    Elliott, M W; Sehgal, P K; Chalifoux, L V

    1976-12-01

    Attempts to establish successful breeding colonies of Aotus trivirgatus at this and other laboratories have largely been unsuccessful, resulting in only occasional pregnancies and a rare live birth. After the recognition of seven different karyotypes of owl monkeys, animals were paired on this basis and resulted in a marked increase in conceptions. From 1971 to 1975 only 10 pregnancies occurred but during 1975, there were 19 pregnancies. In addition to proper karyotyping, a period of acclimation and conditioning was required. Mean body measurements and weights of infants were established.

  12. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  13. [Molecular genetic diversity of Fujian domestic duck breeds].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-fang; Li, Bi-chun; Ma, Yue-hui; Tang, Qing-ping; Chen, Kuan-wei; Tu, Yun-jie

    2007-02-01

    By using 28 micro-satellite markers with better polymorphism, this paper studied the genetic diversity of four Fujian provincial domestic duck breeds Jinding, Putian black, Liancheng white, and Shanma. According to the alleles frequencies, the polymorphic information content, average heterozygosity, anaqular genetic distance (DA) and Nei' s standard genetic distance (DS) for each breed were calculated. Based on DA and DS, four dendrograms were obtained by neighbor-joining (NJ) and UPGMA methods. The results showed that the average heterozygosity of the four duck breeds was 0. 5353, indicating that the protection of the genetic diversity of these breeds should be strengthened. The orders of the two types of genetic distances among the breeds were accordant, and the dendrograms were the same, reflecting that much more micro-satellite loci should be adopted to obtain more universal conclusions when the genetic diversity was analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships among the four duck breeds were in accordance with their economic types and ecological localities.

  14. Local breeds, livelihoods and livestock keepers' rights in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Köhler-Rollefson, Ilse; Rathore, H S; Mathias, E

    2009-10-01

    In South Asia, and throughout the developing world, the predominant official approach to livestock development has been improvement of production by means of upgrading local breeds via cross-breeding with exotic animals. This strategy has led to the replacement and dilution of locally adapted breeds with non-native ones. This has resulted in an alarming loss that has been estimated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to amount to one breed every two weeks. Based on selected case studies this paper argues that development strategies using locally adapted breeds and species are much more likely to benefit livestock keepers whilst also maintaining domestic animal diversity and bearing a smaller ecological footprint. It also analyses the rationale for "Livestock Keepers' Rights", a principle that grew out of the struggle of traditional livestock keepers to retain control over their production resources, such as grazing areas and breeding stock, in the face of unfavourable policy environments.

  15. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and distance sampling to estimate density of migrant and breeding birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.; Reid, B.

    2006-01-01

    We combined Breeding Bird Survey point count protocol and distance sampling to survey spring migrant and breeding birds in Vicksburg National Military Park on 33 days between March and June of 2003 and 2004. For 26 of 106 detected species, we used program DISTANCE to estimate detection probabilities and densities from 660 3-min point counts in which detections were recorded within four distance annuli. For most species, estimates of detection probability, and thereby density estimates, were improved through incorporation of the proportion of forest cover at point count locations as a covariate. Our results suggest Breeding Bird Surveys would benefit from the use of distance sampling and a quantitative characterization of habitat at point count locations. During spring migration, we estimated that the most common migrant species accounted for a population of 5000-9000 birds in Vicksburg National Military Park (636 ha). Species with average populations of 300 individuals during migration were: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Of 56 species that bred in Vicksburg National Military Park, we estimated that the most common 18 species accounted for 8150 individuals. The six most abundant breeding species, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, White-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), accounted for 5800 individuals.

  16. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in large breed dogs: chromosomal and breed variation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Understanding extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a crucial component for successful utilization of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The extent of LD in the dog has been described based upon small marker sets in multiple breeds and studies. Understanding variation in LD on a per...

  17. Reproductive characteristics of stallions during the breeding and non-breeding season in a tropical region.

    PubMed

    Leme, Denise Pereira; Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Roser, Janet F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate reproductive characteristics of stallions at a tropical zone in the breeding and non-breeding seasons. The following parameters were assessed: testicular volume; semen quality; and serum concentrations of LH, FSH, and testosterone; in addition to the percentages of germ cells and proportions of germ cells/Sertoli cells by testicular cytology in stallions. Semen was collected from eight adult stallions twice a week during a 12-week period in both seasons (6 weeks before and 6 weeks after the summer and winter solstices). Jugular blood samples were collected periodically for hormone analysis by radioimmunoassay during the same periods. Testicular measures and cytological samples were taken at the end of each period. Mean concentration of testosterone was significantly higher (P = 0.04) during the breeding season and the proportion of Sertoli cells/100 germ cells in cytological smears was significantly lower during the breeding season (P = 0.0001). Effects of season were not significant either for testicular volume or for any semen parameter (P > 0.05). Seasonal changes in the mean concentrations of LH and FSH were not observed (P > 0.05). There were also no significant differences in the mean percentages of germ cell types between both seasons (P > 0.05). Lack of seasonal differences in the testicular volume and semen parameters of tropical stallions are probably due to the small variation in duration of natural light between the observed periods, slightly under 3 h.

  18. The biotron breeding system: a rapid and reliable procedure for genetic studies and breeding in rice.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Mihoko; Yamakawa, Hiromoto; Kinoshita, Tetsu

    2011-07-01

    Oryza sativa is widely used as a model organism for many aspects of research in monocots and cereals. However, it has certain disadvantages as a model species compared with Arabidopsis thaliana, the eudicot species most widely used in plant sciences: first, it has a long cultivation time; and second, it requires considerably more space for growth. Here, we introduce a biotron breeding system, which allows rapid and reliable rice cultivation using a well-equipped artificial environmental chamber. This system involves use of regulation of CO₂ levels, removal of tillers and embryo rescue to overcome the disadvantages of rice cultivation. The rice cultivars Nipponbare, Koshihikari, Taichung 65 and Kasalath all showed vigorous growth and sufficient seed production in the biotron breeding system with accelerated flowering time. Nipponbare, which was the earliest among these cultivars, flowered at about 50 d after sowing. The life cycle of these plants could be further shortened using an embryo rescue technique on immature seeds at 7 d after pollination, thereby avoiding the lengthy process of seed maturation. Overall, it was possible to shorten the life cycle of Nipponbare to about 2 months under the controlled conditions. Furthermore, controlled crosses, which can be difficult with conventional cultivation methods, were easy to perform as we could control the exact timing of anther dehiscence. Thus, our biotron breeding system offers a valuable new approach to genetic and breeding studies in rice.

  19. To breed or not to breed: endocrine response to mercury contamination by an Arctic seabird.

    PubMed

    Tartu, Sabrina; Goutte, Aurélie; Bustamante, Paco; Angelier, Frédéric; Moe, Børge; Clément-Chastel, Céline; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2013-08-23

    Mercury, a ubiquitous toxic element, is known to alter expression of sex steroids and to impair reproduction across vertebrates but the mechanisms underlying these effects are not clearly identified. We examined whether contamination by mercury predicts the probability to skip reproduction in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) from Svalbard. We also manipulated the endocrine system to investigate the mechanism underlying this relationship. During the pre-laying period, we injected exogenous GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) to test the ability of the pituitary to release luteinizing hormone (LH, a key hormone for the release of sex steroids and hence breeding) in relation to mercury burden. Birds that skipped reproduction had significantly higher mercury concentration in blood than breeders. Endocrine profiles of these birds also varied based on breeding status (breeders versus non-breeders), mercury contamination and sex. Specifically, in skippers (birds that did not breed), baseline LH decreased with increasing mercury concentration in males, whereas it increased in females. GnRH-induced LH levels increased with increasing mercury concentration in both sexes. These results suggest that mercury contamination may disrupt GnRH input to the pituitary. Thus, high mercury concentration could affect the ability of long-lived birds to modulate their reproductive effort (skipping or breeding) according to ongoing environmental changes in the Arctic, thereby impacting population dynamics.

  20. Breeding practices, growth, and carcass potential of fat-tailed Washera sheep breed in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Tesfaye; Gizaw, Solomon; Lemma, Sisay; Taye, Mengistie

    2011-10-01

    On-farm survey of farmers' breeding practices, breeding objectives, and selection criteria and on-station feedlot performance evaluation of Washera sheep were undertaken in Ethiopia. The survey revealed that most (79.8%) of the farmers had no breeding ram. The mating system was predominantly uncontrolled. A majority (75.5%) of the sheep owners reported that they herded their sheep flock by mixing with other livestock species mainly with cattle. During grazing, 44.6% of the farmers mix their sheep flock with neighboring sheep flocks. The major sheep production objective was to generate income from the sale of live sheep. Fast growth, appearance, coat color, and pedigree performance were important ram selection criteria, respectively. Ability to breed at early age, pedigree information, mothering ability, and lambing interval were important selection criteria for ewe, respectively. The on-station performance study involved evaluation of feedlot gains and carcass production under five levels of feeding regimes (300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 g day(-1) of concentrate feed) for a period of 93 days. The results indicated that the feedlot growth and carcass performance of Washera sheep were very high, with average daily weight gains of up to 126 g and carcass weight of 16 kg, with the optimal level of supplementation for Washera sheep being at 500 g of concentrate per day for a period of 93 days.

  1. Breeding phenology and winter activity predict subsequent breeding success in a trans-global migratory seabird.

    PubMed

    Shoji, A; Aris-Brosou, S; Culina, A; Fayet, A; Kirk, H; Padget, O; Juarez-Martinez, I; Boyle, D; Nakata, T; Perrins, C M; Guilford, T

    2015-10-01

    Inter-seasonal events are believed to connect and affect reproductive performance (RP) in animals. However, much remains unknown about such carry-over effects (COEs), in particular how behaviour patterns during highly mobile life-history stages, such as migration, affect RP. To address this question, we measured at-sea behaviour in a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) and obtained data for individual migration cycles over 5 years, by tracking with geolocator/immersion loggers, along with 6 years of RP data. We found that individual breeding and non-breeding phenology correlated with subsequent RP, with birds hyperactive during winter more likely to fail to reproduce. Furthermore, parental investment during one year influenced breeding success during the next, a COE reflecting the trade-off between current and future RP. Our results suggest that different life-history stages interact to influence RP in the next breeding season, so that behaviour patterns during winter may be important determinants of variation in subsequent fitness among individuals. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: Climate change and selective breeding in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lim, P; Kause, A; Mulder, H A; Olesen, I

    2017-04-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector and it contributes significantly to global food security. Based on Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, aquaculture production must increase significantly to meet the future global demand for aquatic foods in 2050. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and FAO, climate change may result in global warming, sea level rise, changes of ocean productivity, freshwater shortage, and more frequent extreme climate events. Consequently, climate change may affect aquaculture to various extents depending on climatic zones, geographical areas, rearing systems, and species farmed. There are 2 major challenges for aquaculture caused by climate change. First, the current fish, adapted to the prevailing environmental conditions, may be suboptimal under future conditions. Fish species are often poikilothermic and, therefore, may be particularly vulnerable to temperature changes. This will make low sensitivity to temperature more important for fish than for livestock and other terrestrial species. Second, climate change may facilitate outbreaks of existing and new pathogens or parasites. To cope with the challenges above, 3 major adaptive strategies are identified. First, general 'robustness' will become a key trait in aquaculture, whereby fish will be less vulnerable to current and new diseases while at the same time thriving in a wider range of temperatures. Second, aquaculture activities, such as input power, transport, and feed production contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Selection for feed efficiency as well as defining a breeding goal that minimizes greenhouse gas emissions will reduce impacts of aquaculture on climate change. Finally, the limited adoption of breeding programs in aquaculture is a major concern. This implies inefficient use of resources for feed, water, and land. Consequently, the carbon footprint per kg fish produced is greater than when fish from

  3. Uncertain breeding: a short history of reproduction in monotremes.

    PubMed

    Temple-Smith, P; Grant, T

    2001-01-01

    Although much is known about the biology of monotremes, many important aspects of their reproduction remain unclear. Studies over the last century have provided valuable information on various aspects of monotreme reproduction including the structure and function of their reproductive system, breeding behaviour, sex determination and seasonality. All three living genera of monotremes have been successfully maintained in captivity, often for long periods, yet breeding has been rare and unpredictable. When breeding has occurred, however, significant gains in knowledge have ensued; for example a more accurate estimate of the gestation period of the platypus and the incubation period for the Tachyglossus egg. One of the great challenges for zoos has been to understand why breeding of monotremes is difficult to achieve. Analysis of breeding successes of platypuses and short-beaked echidnas provides some insights. The evidence suggests that although annual breeding seasons are regionally predictable, individual adult females breed unpredictably, with some showing breeding intervals of many years. The reason for this variation in individual breeding intervals may be resource-dependant, influenced by social factors or may even be genetically induced. Better knowledge of factors that influence breeding intervals may improve the success of monotreme captive breeding programmes. More certainty in captive breeding is also an important issue for enterprises wishing to trade in Australian wildlife since current legislation limits export of Australian fauna for display to at least second-generation captive-bred individuals. Given their unique evolutionary position, knowledge of reproduction in monotremes needs to be gained in advance of any future population declines so that appropriate strategies can be developed to ensure their survival.

  4. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  6. Breeding habitats of mosquitoes in Goa.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S M; Naik, P S

    1989-03-01

    Studies carried out in Goa from 1986 to 1987 revealed immature stages of 43 species of mosquitoes. Breeding habitats were divided into three categories, viz., (i) Ground water habitats consisting of ground pools and tanks, rocky pools, paddy fields and stream beds, yielding 30 species; (ii) Plant habitats consisting of tree holes and fallen coconut shells and leaf sheaths yielding 20 species; and (iii) Domestic/peridomestic habitats consisting of cement tanks, glass, earthen, metallic containers and tyres yielding 11 species. Five species viz., Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. pallidothorax were found in all three types of habitats. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus preferred to breed in ground pools and paddy fields but was found in domestic cement tanks and ground tanks in adverse season. Majority of the anophelines and culicines were found in ground water habitats. Five out of 11 species of Aedes were found in tree holes. Aedes aegypti and Toxorhynchites splendens were found only in discarded tyres. Three species of the genus Uranotaenia, viz., U. bicolor, U. stricklandi and U. campestris were recorded from stream beds and plant containers.

  7. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds.

    PubMed

    Streby, Henry M; Kramer, Gunnar R; Peterson, Sean M; Lehman, Justin A; Buehler, David A; Andersen, David E

    2015-01-05

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  8. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

  9. Paramutation in evolution, population genetics and breeding.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan M; McGinnis, Karen M

    2015-08-01

    Paramutation is a fascinating phenomenon in which directed allelic interactions result in heritable changes in the state of an allele. Paramutation has been carefully characterized at a handful of loci but the prevalence of paramutable/paramutagenic alleles is not well characterized within genomes or populations. In order to consider the role of paramutation in evolutionary processes and plant breeding, we focused on several questions. First, what causes certain alleles to become subject to paramutation? While paramutation clearly involves epigenetic regulation it is also true that only certain alleles defined by genetic sequences are able to participate in paramutation. Second, what is the prevalence of paramutation? There are only a handful of well-documented examples of paramutation. However, there is growing evidence that many loci may undergo changes in chromatin state or expression that are similar to changes observed as a result of paramutation. Third, how will paramutation events be inherited in natural or artificial populations? Many factors, including stability of epigenetic state, mating style and ploidy, may influence the prevalence of paramutation states within populations. Developing a clear understanding of the mechanisms and frequency of paramutation in crop plant genomes will facilitate new opportunities in genetic manipulation, and will also enhance plant breeding programs and our understanding of genome evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barzen, Jeb A.; Serie, Jerome R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily-but not protein or calcium-as the breeding season progressed.

  11. Impact of cloning on cattle breeding systems.

    PubMed

    McClintock, A E

    1998-01-01

    The concept of clone-family testing is compared with existing progeny testing systems. The critical factors that will decide how cloning is utilized are the potential size of cloned families, and the cost per embryo (or per calf born). If family sizes of 100,000 become routinely achievable (cheaply), then clone testing becomes viable. In rough figures, cloned embryos costing $30 with a 50% calving rate would be attractive to farmers and would be cheap enough that farmers would buy more (crossbred) embryos in order to breed further replacement cows. At $300 per embryo, farmers would be more inclined to buy a number of cloned pure-bred female embryos and then to use conventional artificial insemination to breed further replacements from these superior cows. At $3000 per embryo, farmers would probably only be interested in very small numbers of cloned animals, most of which would be males. The relative importance of adult versus fetal cloning is discussed. The need for gene banks to preserve genetic variation is emphasized; both gametes and somatic tissue cultures should be considered.

  12. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  13. The Breeding Bird Survey, 1967 and 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Van Velzen, W.T.

    1969-01-01

    In the Breeding Bird Survey of North America, cooperators ran 982 survey routes in 1967 and 1,174 in 1968. All States except Hawaii and all Canadian Provinces except Newfoundland were included. Roadside routes are selected at random within 1-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 24 1/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced half a mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms, and the data are transferred to magnetic tape for analysis. The average number of birds of each species per route is tabulated by State and Province, presenting for the first time a record of the comparative abundance of each species across the continent. The sample size is given for each species recorded. A sophisticated analysis program, here employed for the first time, is used to compute weighted mean values of the survey results for selected species at the State, stratum, regional, and continental level. The statistical significance of year-to-year changes at the 80, 90, 95, and 99 percent levels of probability are part of the computer output. An index for comparing populations of each species from year to year is established, with 1968 as the base year. Maps show the breeding range and comparative abundance of selected species.

  14. [Book review] Massachusetts breeding bird atlas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2005-01-01

    A glance at the dust jacket of this handsome volume drives home the conservation message that breeding bird atlases are designed to promote—that bird populations are changing over vast areas and, unless we become aware of changes in status and take remedial action, some species will disappear from our neighborhoods and even our county or state. A case in point involves the closely related Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) and Blue- winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus). The males are shown in the atlas with their breeding distribution maps. When I was an active birder in the Boston suburbs in the 1930s, the Golden-winged Warbler was a common breeder and it was a treat to find a Blue-winged Warbler. The atlas map 40 years later (1974–1979) shows only five confirmed records statewide for the Golden-winged Warbler, compared with 73 for the Blue-winged Warbler, and the Golden-winged Warbler is now listed as endangered by the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Nationally, it is a species of management concern.

  15. Targeted Proteomics Approach for Precision Plant Breeding.

    PubMed

    Chawade, Aakash; Alexandersson, Erik; Bengtsson, Therese; Andreasson, Erik; Levander, Fredrik

    2016-02-05

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a targeted mass spectrometry technique that enables precise quantitation of hundreds of peptides in a single run. This technique provides new opportunities for multiplexed protein biomarker measurements. For precision plant breeding, DNA-based markers have been used extensively, but the potential of protein biomarkers has not been exploited. In this work, we developed an SRM marker panel with assays for 104 potato (Solanum tuberosum) peptides selected using univariate and multivariate statistics. Thereafter, using random forest classification, the prediction markers were identified for Phytopthora infestans resistance in leaves, P. infestans resistance in tubers, and plant yield in potato leaf secretome samples. The results suggest that the marker panel has the predictive potential for three traits, two of which have no commercial DNA markers so far. Furthermore, the marker panel was also tested and found to be applicable to potato clones not used during the marker development. The proposed workflow is thus a proof-of-concept for targeted proteomics as an efficient readout in accelerated breeding for complex and agronomically important traits.

  16. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes.

    PubMed

    Gizaw, S; Rischkowsky, B; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-10-01

    Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei scheme (Scheme-3), conventional 2-tier central nucleus-based scheme (Scheme-4), and schemes linking a central nucleus and village multiplier nuclei with selection in central nucleus (Scheme-5) or in both central and village nuclei (Scheme-6). Among village-based schemes, Scheme-1 gave the highest genetic progress, while Scheme-2 was economically the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 5.6 and a profit of Birr 37.2/ewe/year. The central nucleus schemes were more efficient than the village schemes. Scheme-4 was the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 13.5 and a profit of Birr 71.2, but is operationally more difficult as it requires a very large central nucleus. The choice between village and central nucleus-based schemes would depend on local conditions (availability of infrastructure, logistics and technical knowhow and support). Linking central nucleus with village-based nuclei (Scheme-6) would be a feasible option to overcome the operational difficulties of the conventional central nucleus scheme. If a village-based breeding program is envisaged as should be the 1st step in most low-input systems, then Scheme-2 is the most efficient. To scale out to an entire Menz breed level, Scheme-3 would be recommended.

  17. A new extinct species of Snipe (Aves: Scolopacidae: Gallinago) from the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Steadman, David W; Takano, Oona M

    2016-05-09

    We describe an extinct species of snipe (Gallinago kakuki, new species) from late Quaternary fossils in the Bahamian Archipelago (Abaco, New Providence, Little Exuma, Long, and Middle Caicos islands). The new species is known as well from fossils on Cuba, and Cayman Brac in the Cayman Islands. This rather large species of snipe was volant, although because of its relatively short carpometacarpus, the primary flight feathers probably were short. The only other species of Gallinago from the West Indies is the extant, migratory G. delicata, which breeds only in North America. Gallinago kakuki shares more osteological characters with two Eurasian species (G. media, G. hardwickii) than with either of the New World species we examined (G. delicata, G. paraguaiae). A possible inter-hemispherical relationship has been proposed as well for the two extinct, late Quaternary species of woodcocks from the West Indies (Scolopax anthonyi of Puerto Rico, S. brachycarpa of Hispaniola).

  18. DNA fingerprinting in the rare black-fronted piping guan Pipile jacutinga (Cracidae, Aves).

    PubMed

    Pereira, S L; Miyaki, C Y; Wajntal, A

    1996-11-01

    Brazilian Cracidae are threatened by heavy environmental degradation and hunting. The Black-fronted piping-guan (Pipile jacutinga) used to inhabit the Atlantic coastal highland forests. Now it occurs in limited forest areas where it is rarely seen. Interative management, including captive breeding, might be an important action for its survival. We present data on DNA fingerprinting using Jeffreys' human minisatellite probes 33.6 and 33.15. Our results show that this technique is useful for estimating the genetic variability of natural populations and may help to maintain the genetic variability of captive bred individuals of this species. A linkage analysis of the fingerprint profiles in a family with 7 chicks was performed (to estimate the number of independently segregating loci detected in this species) and at least 16 highly polymorphic independent loci were identified for each probe.

  19. D-loop haplotype diversity in Brazilian horse breeds

    PubMed Central

    Ianella, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Maria do Socorro Maués; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; do Egito, Andréa Alves; Almeida, Leonardo Daniel; Sereno, Fabiana T. P. S.; Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; Mariante, Arthur da Silva; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The first horses were brought to Brazil by the colonizers after 1534. Over the centuries, these animals evolved and adapted to local environmental conditions usually unsuitable for exotic breeds, thereby originating locally adapted Brazilian breeds. The present work represents the first description of maternal genetic diversity in these horse breeds based on D-loop sequences. A D-Loop HSV-I fragment of 252 bp, from 141 horses belonging to ten Brazilian breeds / genetic groups (locally adapted and specialized breeds) were analysed. Thirty-five different haplotypes belonging to 18 haplogroups were identified with 33 polymorphic sites. Haplotype diversity (varying from 0.20 to 0.96) and nucleotide diversity (varying from 0.0039 to 0.0239) was lower for locally adapted than for specialized breeds, with the same pattern observed for FST values. Haplogroups identified in Brazilian breeds are in agreement with previous findings in South American samples. The low variability observed mainly in locally adapted breeds, indicates that, to ensure conservation of these breeds, careful reproductive management is needed. Additional genetic characterization studies are required to support accurate decision-making. PMID:28863209

  20. Fast and Efficient Charge Breeding of the CARIBU EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Pikin, A. I.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P.

    2015-08-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed CARIBU radioactive beams at ATLAS, is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The offline charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly-charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20±0.7)% breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this paper we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz.

  1. Allele mining and enhanced genetic recombination for rice breeding.

    PubMed

    Leung, Hei; Raghavan, Chitra; Zhou, Bo; Oliva, Ricardo; Choi, Il Ryong; Lacorte, Vanica; Jubay, Mona Liza; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Gregorio, Glenn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ulat, Victor Jun; Borja, Frances Nikki; Mauleon, Ramil; Alexandrov, Nickolai N; McNally, Kenneth L; Sackville Hamilton, Ruaraidh

    2015-12-01

    Traditional rice varieties harbour a large store of genetic diversity with potential to accelerate rice improvement. For a long time, this diversity maintained in the International Rice Genebank has not been fully used because of a lack of genome information. The publication of the first reference genome of Nipponbare by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) marked the beginning of a systematic exploration and use of rice diversity for genetic research and breeding. Since then, the Nipponbare genome has served as the reference for the assembly of many additional genomes. The recently completed 3000 Rice Genomes Project together with the public database (SNP-Seek) provides a new genomic and data resource that enables the identification of useful accessions for breeding. Using disease resistance traits as case studies, we demonstrated the power of allele mining in the 3,000 genomes for extracting accessions from the GeneBank for targeted phenotyping. Although potentially useful landraces can now be identified, their use in breeding is often hindered by unfavourable linkages. Efficient breeding designs are much needed to transfer the useful diversity to breeding. Multi-parent Advanced Generation InterCross (MAGIC) is a breeding design to produce highly recombined populations. The MAGIC approach can be used to generate pre-breeding populations with increased genotypic diversity and reduced linkage drag. Allele mining combined with a multi-parent breeding design can help convert useful diversity into breeding-ready genetic resources.

  2. Breeding productivity and adult survival in nongame birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; DeSante, David F.; Paine, Charles R.; Donovan, Therese M.; Dettmers, Randy; Manolis, J.C.; Burton, K.

    1995-01-01

    Demographic data (breeding productivity and adult survival) provide the kind of early warning signal that allows detection of unhealthy populations in terms of productivity or survival problems (Martin and Guepel 1993). In addition, demographic data can help determine whether population declines are the result of low breeding productivity or low survival in migration or winter. Breeding productivity data also can help identify habitat conditions associated with successful and failed breeding attempts. Such information is critical for developing habitat- and land-management practices (Martin 1992). Here, we provide examples of the kinds of information that can be obtained by broad-scale demographic studies.

  3. D-loop haplotype diversity in Brazilian horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Ianella, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Maria do Socorro Maués; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Egito, Andréa Alves do; Almeida, Leonardo Daniel; Sereno, Fabiana T P S; Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; Mariante, Arthur da Silva; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2017-01-01

    The first horses were brought to Brazil by the colonizers after 1534. Over the centuries, these animals evolved and adapted to local environmental conditions usually unsuitable for exotic breeds, thereby originating locally adapted Brazilian breeds. The present work represents the first description of maternal genetic diversity in these horse breeds based on D-loop sequences. A D-Loop HSV-I fragment of 252 bp, from 141 horses belonging to ten Brazilian breeds / genetic groups (locally adapted and specialized breeds) were analysed. Thirty-five different haplotypes belonging to 18 haplogroups were identified with 33 polymorphic sites. Haplotype diversity (varying from 0.20 to 0.96) and nucleotide diversity (varying from 0.0039 to 0.0239) was lower for locally adapted than for specialized breeds, with the same pattern observed for FST values. Haplogroups identified in Brazilian breeds are in agreement with previous findings in South American samples. The low variability observed mainly in locally adapted breeds, indicates that, to ensure conservation of these breeds, careful reproductive management is needed. Additional genetic characterization studies are required to support accurate decision-making.

  4. Mitochondrial phylogeography, subspecific taxonomy, and conservation genetics of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; Aves: Gruidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhymer, J.M.; Fain, M.G.; Austin, J.E.; Johnson, D.H.; Krajewski, C.

    2001-01-01

    Six subspecies of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) have been denoted based on perceived morphological and/or breeding locality differences among them. Three subspecies are migratory, breeding from the high arctic in North America and Siberia (lesser sandhill, G. c. canadensis), south through central Canada (Canadian sandhill, G. c. rowani) and into the northern United States (greater sandhill, G. c. tabida). A review of sandhill crane taxonomy indicates that the size variation, on the basis of which these subspecies were named, may be clinal and not diagnostic. The other three subspecies, all listed as endangered or threatened, are non-migratory, resident in Florida (G. c. pratensis), Mississippi (G. c. pulla), and Cuba (G. c. nesiotes). We used analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) sequences to determine whether haplotypes representing current subspecies show any genetic cohesion or are more consistent with a pattern of clinal variation in morphology. CR sequences indicate that only two highly divergent (5.3%) lineages of sandhill cranes occur in North America: one lineage composed only of arctic-nesting G. c. canadensis, the other of the remaining North American subspecies (we lack data on the Cuban population). The deep split between lineages is consistent with an estimated isolation of approximately 1.5 Mya (mid-Pleistocene), while the distribution of mutational changes within lineages is consistent with an hypothesis of rapid, post-Pleistocene population expansions. No other phylogeographic structuring is concordant with subspecific boundaries, however, analysis of molecular variance indicates that there is significant population genetic differentiation among all subspecies except G. c. tabida and G. c. rowani, which are indistinguishable. We suggest that recognition of the recently named G. c. rowani be abandoned.

  5. Phylogeography and genetic structure of two Patagonian shag species (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae).

    PubMed

    Calderón, Luciano; Quintana, Flavio; Cabanne, Gustavo S; Lougheed, Stephen C; Tubaro, Pablo L

    2014-03-01

    We compared the phylogeographic and genetic structure of two sympatric shag species, Phalacrocorax magellanicus (rock shag) and Phalacrocorax atriceps (imperial shag), from Patagonia (southern South America). We used multilocus genotypes of nuclear DNA (microsatellite loci) from 324 individuals and mitochondrial DNA sequences (ATPase) from 177 individuals, to evaluate hypotheses related to the effect of physical and non-physical barriers on seabird evolution. Despite sharing many ecological traits, the focal species strongly differ in two key aspects: P. magellanicus has a strong tendency to remain at/near their breeding colonies during foraging trips and the non-breeding season, while P. atriceps exhibits the converse pattern. Both species showed similar mtDNA genetic structure, where colonies from the Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast and Fuegian region were genetically divergent. We also found similarities in the results of Bayesian clustering analysis of microsatellites, with both species having four clusters. However population differentiation (e.g. Fst, Φst) was higher in P. magellanicus compared to P. atriceps, and average membership probabilities of individuals to specific clusters (Q-values) were also higher in the former. Phalacrocorax magellanicus has strong phylogeographic structure, consistent with the impact of Pleistocene glaciations, with diagnostic haplotypes associated with each of the three mentioned regions. The same pattern was not as evident for P. atriceps. Migration rate estimators were higher for P. atriceps than for P. magellanicus; however both species followed an n-island-like model of gene flow, this implies that dispersal occurs across the continental land mass that separates Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Our results supported the hypothesis that non-physical barriers are important drivers of the genetic and phylogeographic structure in seabirds, and also that physical barriers constitute effective but not absolute impediments to gene flow

  6. Evaluation of breeding objectives for purebred and crossbred selection schemes for adoption in indigenous chicken breeding programmes.

    PubMed

    Okeno, T O; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74 g average daily gain and 57·96 g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme.

  7. Efficiency of multi-breed genomic selection for dairy cattle breeds with different sizes of reference population.

    PubMed

    Hozé, C; Fritz, S; Phocas, F; Boichard, D; Ducrocq, V; Croiseau, P

    2014-01-01

    Single-breed genomic selection (GS) based on medium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density (~50,000; 50K) is now routinely implemented in several large cattle breeds. However, building large enough reference populations remains a challenge for many medium or small breeds. The high-density BovineHD BeadChip (HD chip; Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) containing 777,609 SNP developed in 2010 is characterized by short-distance linkage disequilibrium expected to be maintained across breeds. Therefore, combining reference populations can be envisioned. A population of 1,869 influential ancestors from 3 dairy breeds (Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Normande) was genotyped with the HD chip. Using this sample, 50K genotypes were imputed within breed to high-density genotypes, leading to a large HD reference population. This population was used to develop a multi-breed genomic evaluation. The goal of this paper was to investigate the gain of multi-breed genomic evaluation for a small breed. The advantage of using a large breed (Normande in the present study) to mimic a small breed is the large potential validation population to compare alternative genomic selection approaches more reliably. In the Normande breed, 3 training sets were defined with 1,597, 404, and 198 bulls, and a unique validation set included the 394 youngest bulls. For each training set, estimated breeding values (EBV) were computed using pedigree-based BLUP, single-breed BayesC, or multi-breed BayesC for which the reference population was formed by any of the Normande training data sets and 4,989 Holstein and 1,788 Montbéliarde bulls. Phenotypes were standardized by within-breed genetic standard deviation, the proportion of polygenic variance was set to 30%, and the estimated number of SNP with a nonzero effect was about 7,000. The 2 genomic selection (GS) approaches were performed using either the 50K or HD genotypes. The correlations between EBV and observed daughter yield deviations (DYD) were computed

  8. Coccidia of New World passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes): a review of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    PubMed

    Berto, Bruno P; Flausino, Walter; McIntosh, Douglas; Teixeira-Filho, Walter L; Lopes, Carlos W G

    2011-11-01

    In the New World, the avian order Passeriformes comprises 47 families and 2,453 species, yet to date only 21 (45%) of the families and 58 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only two species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and 81 species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 have been described. This review contributes to our understanding of the morphology and systematics of coccidian parasites of passeriforms, providing a scientific basis for the identification of sporulated oöcysts recovered from the faeces of passerine birds from North, Central and South America. To this end, the coccidia were organised and grouped according to the family of the host, following the widely recognised concept of family-specificity and the updated systematics of the class Aves. Details of 83 eimeriid species are presented along with an illustration and tabulated data.

  9. Numerical simulations of the subsynoptic features associated with the AVE-SESAME I case. I - The preconvective environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zack, John W.; Kaplan, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The extensive diagnostic calculations made possible by the AVE-SESAME I database are used in combination with numerical simulations from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) model to examine the dynamics of the meso-alpha-scale features during the preconvective period from 1130 to 2030 UTC on April 10, 1979. The version of the MASS model used in this investigation is presented, and an overview of the general synoptic conditions present at the time of model initialization is presented along with the data used to initialize the model. The dynamical processes present in the numerical simulations are presented and compared with analyses of the observational data from this and other investigations of this case. The relative importance of the adiabatic and diabatic processes in creating and then initiating the release of the convective instability is discussed.

  10. Meso beta-scale thunderstorm/environment interactions during AVE-SESAME V (20-21 May 1979)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Printy, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The atmospheric variability in a convective area was examined with data from the AVE-SESAME V experiment. Temperature increases were observed in the upper troposphere during storm development, coupled with cooling near the surface and in the lower stratosphere. A mesohigh was detected at 200 mb over the convected area, and upper level winds increased speed north of the area. Wind velocity decreases occurred at the 200 mb level, reaching a 50 percent decrease, during the 3 hr period coinciding with most storms, and a simultaneous increase (doubling) was found in the wind speeds at the 400 mb level. Other phenomena present after the storms began included low-level convergence, upper level divergence, and ascending motion.

  11. Numerical simulations of the subsynoptic features associated with the AVE-SESAME I case. I - The preconvective environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zack, John W.; Kaplan, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    The extensive diagnostic calculations made possible by the AVE-SESAME I database are used in combination with numerical simulations from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) model to examine the dynamics of the meso-alpha-scale features during the preconvective period from 1130 to 2030 UTC on April 10, 1979. The version of the MASS model used in this investigation is presented, and an overview of the general synoptic conditions present at the time of model initialization is presented along with the data used to initialize the model. The dynamical processes present in the numerical simulations are presented and compared with analyses of the observational data from this and other investigations of this case. The relative importance of the adiabatic and diabatic processes in creating and then initiating the release of the convective instability is discussed.

  12. Microsatellite usefulness is independent of phylogenetic distance in Tyrant flycatchers (Aves: Tyrannidae): a test using two globally threatened species.

    PubMed

    Mahler, B; Schneider, A R R; Di Giacomo, A S; Di Giacomo, A G; Reboreda, J C; Tiedemann, R

    2013-08-12

    Tyrant flycatchers (Aves: Tyrannidae) are endemic to the New World, and many species of this group are threatened or near-threatened at the global level. The aim of this study was to test the 18 microsatellite markers that have been published for other Tyrant flycatchers in the Strange-tailed Tyrant (Alectrurus risora) and the Sharp-tailed Tyrant (Culicivora caudacuta), two endemic species of southern South American grasslands that are classified as vulnerable. We also analyzed the usefulness of loci in relation to phylogenetic distance to the source species. Amplification success was high in both species (77 to 83%) and did not differ between the more closely and more distantly related species to the source species. Polymorphism success was also similar for both species, with 9 and 8 loci being polymorphic, respectively. An increased phylogenetic distance thus does not gradually lead to allelic or locus dropouts, implying that in Tyrant flycatchers, the published loci are useful independent of species relatedness.

  13. Breeding for high water-use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Condon, A G; Richards, R A; Rebetzke, G J; Farquhar, G D

    2004-11-01

    There is a pressing need to improve the water-use efficiency of rain-fed and irrigated crop production. Breeding crop varieties with higher water-use efficiency is seen as providing part of the solution. Three key processes can be exploited in breeding for high water-use efficiency: (i) moving more of the available water through the crop rather than it being wasted as evaporation from the soil surface or drainage beyond the root zone or being left behind in the root zone at harvest; (ii) acquiring more carbon (biomass) in exchange for the water transpired by the crop, i.e. improving crop transpiration efficiency; (iii) partitioning more of the achieved biomass into the harvested product. The relative importance of any one of these processes will vary depending on how water availability varies during the crop cycle. However, these three processes are not independent. Targeting specific traits to improve one process may have detrimental effects on the other two, but there may also be positive interactions. Progress in breeding for improved water-use efficiency of rain-fed wheat is reviewed to illustrate the nature of some of these interactions and to highlight opportunities that may be exploited in other crops as well as potential pitfalls. For C3 species, measuring carbon isotope discrimination provides a powerful means of improving water-use efficiency of leaf gas exchange, but experience has shown that improvements in leaf-level water-use efficiency may not always translate into higher crop water-use efficiency or yield. In fact, the reverse has frequently been observed. Reasons for this are explored in some detail. Crop simulation modelling can be used to assess the likely impact on water-use efficiency and yield of changing the expression of traits of interest. Results of such simulations indicate that greater progress may be achieved by pyramiding traits so that potential negative effects of individual traits are neutralized. DNA-based selection techniques may

  14. Deriving Temporal Height Information for Maize Breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malambo, L.; Popescu, S. C.; Murray, S.; Sheridan, R.; Richardson, G.; Putman, E.

    2016-12-01

    Phenotypic data such as height provide useful information to crop breeders to better understand their field experiments and associated field variability. However, the measurement of crop height in many breeding programs is done manually which demands significant effort and time and does not scale well when large field experiments are involved. Through structure from motion (SfM) techniques, small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUAV) or drones offer tremendous potential for generating crop height data and other morphological data such as canopy area and biomass in cost-effective and efficient way. We present results of an on-going UAV application project aimed at generating temporal height metrics for maize breeding at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research farm in Burleson County, Texas. We outline the activities involved from the drone aerial surveys, image processing and generation of crop height metrics. The experimental period ran from April (planting) through August (harvest) 2016 and involved 36 maize hybrids replicated over 288 plots ( 1.7 Ha). During the time, crop heights were manually measured per plot at weekly intervals. Corresponding aerial flights were carried out using a DJI Phantom 3 Professional UAV at each interval and images captured processed into point clouds and image mosaics using Pix4D (Pix4D SA; Lausanne, Switzerland) software. LiDAR data was also captured at two intervals (05/06 and 07/29) to provide another source of height information. To obtain height data per plot from SfM point clouds and LiDAR data, percentile height metrics were then generated using FUSION software. Results of the comparison between SfM and field measurement height show high correlation (R2 > 0.7), showing that use of sUAV can replace laborious manual height measurement and enhance plant breeding programs. Similar results were also obtained from the comparison of SfM and LiDAR heights. Outputs of this project are helping plant breeders at Texas A&M automate routine height

  15. Is income breeding an appropriate construct for waterfowl?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janke, Adam K.; Anteau, Michael J.; Markl, Nicholas; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding birds use a range of nutrient accumulation and allocation strategies to meet the nutritional demands of clutch formation and incubation. On one end of the spectrum, capital breeders use stored nutrients acquired prior to clutch formation and incubation to sustain metabolism during reproduction, while on the opposite end, income breeders derive nutrients solely from exogenous sources on the breeding grounds. Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) are an ideal candidate to test for adoption of an income strategy among migratory waterfowl because of their small body size, temperate breeding range, and timing of reproduction relative to pulses in nutrient availability within breeding habitats. We collected migrating and pre-breeding Blue-winged Teal (n = 110) during the warmest spring in over a century in the southern edge of the species’ breeding range, which produced ideal conditions to test for adoption of an income breeding strategy among migratory waterfowl. Regression analyses revealed that females accumulated protein and fat reserves early in follicle development and appeared to mobilize at least some reserves coincident with the onset of clutch formation. Accumulation and subsequent mobilization of nutrient reserves was inconsistent with adherence to an income breeding strategy and suggested breeding Blue-winged Teal used capital (albeit locally acquired) for reproduction. Our results add to existing knowledge on the ubiquity of endogenous nutrient reserve accumulation prior to and during reproduction by waterfowl, perhaps suggesting endogenous nutrient reserves are universally used for clutch formation or incubation to some degree. If indeed Blue-winged Teal and other waterfowl universally use capital for breeding, research and conservation efforts should shift from evaluating whether an income breeding strategy is used and focus on when and where necessary capital is acquired prior to clutch formation.

  16. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs

    PubMed Central

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world’s dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). Mixed-breeds and purebreds were similar in trainability and boldness scores. However, twelve out of 20 demographic and dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p < 0.001 for both), which could result in the observed behaviour differences. After controlling for the distribution of the demographic and dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). We discuss that these differences at least partly might be due to selective forces. Our results suggest that instead of being the “average” dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits. PMID:28222103

  17. Radiation-induced mutations and plant breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, S.H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ionizing radiation could cause genetic changes in an organism and could modify gene linkages. The induction of mutation through radiation is random and the probability of getting the desired genetic change is low but can be increased by manipulating different parameters such as dose rate, physical conditions under which the material has been irradiated, etc. Induced mutations have been used as a supplement to conventional plant breeding, particularly for creating genetic variability for specific characters such as improved plant structure, pest and disease resistance, and desired changes in maturity period; more than 200 varieties of crop plants have been developed by this technique. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has used this technique fruitfully to evolve better germplasm in cotton, rice, chickpea, wheat and mungbean; some of the mutants have become popular commercial varieties. This paper describes some uses of radiation induced mutations and the results achieved in Pakistan so far.

  18. Breeding biology and nesting success of palila

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pletschet, S.M.; Kelly, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the breeding biology of Palila (Loxioides bailleui ) at 85 nests from 20 April to 14 September 1988. Eggs were laid over a 139-day period and incubation averaged 16.6 days. The female incubated 85.2% of daylight hours and males fed incubating females. Modal clutch size was 2 (x super(-) = 2.0) and an average of 1.4 nestlings fledged per successful nest. Nestlings were in the nest an average of 25.3 days. Both females and males fed nestlings with the rate of feeding decreasing as the nestlings grew older. Palila nesting success was 25%, reduced primarily by hatching failure and depredation of nestlings. Hatching failure, due to inviable eggs or desertion, occurred in 41% of nests with eggs (55% of nest mortality). Egg depredation was rare (5% of nest mortality). Inbreeding and low food availability are postulated as the major causes for poor hatching success.

  19. Thermomechanical analysis of the ITER breeding blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Gruhn, H.; Gohar, Y.; Giegerich, M.

    1997-03-01

    Thermomechanical performance of the ITER breeding blanket is an important design issue because it requires first, that the thermal expansion mismatch between the blanket structure and the blankets internals (such as, beryllium multiplier and tritium breeders) can be accommodated without creating high stresses, and second, that the thermomechanical deformation of various interfaces within the blanket does not create high resistance to heat flow and consequent unacceptably high temperatures in the blanket materials. Thermomechanical analysis of a single beryllium block sandwiched between two stainless steel plates was carried out using the finite element code ABAQUS to illustrate the importance of elastic deformation on the temperature distributions. Such an analysis for the whole ITER blanket needs to be conducted in the future. Uncertainties in the thermomechanical contact analysis can be reduced by bonding the beryllium blocks to the stainless steel plates by a thin soft interfacial layer.

  20. Producer breeding objectives and optimal sire selection.

    PubMed

    Tozer, P R; Stokes, J R

    2002-12-01

    Information from an online survey of dairy producers was used to determine how important producers perceived three different objectives in the breeding problem. The objectives were: maximizing expected net merit of the progeny, minimizing the expected progeny inbreeding coefficient, and minimizing semen expenditure. Producers were asked to rank the three objectives and then to weight the importance of each objective relative to the others. This information was then used to determine weights to be used in a multiple-objective integer program designed to select individual mates for a herd of 76 Jersey cows with known genetic background and cow net merit. The results of the multiple-objective models show that rank and relative importance of producer objectives can affect the portfolio of sires selected. Producers whose primary objective was to maximize expected net merit had a range of average expected progeny net merit of $306 to $310, but the level of expected progeny inbreeding was from 6.99 to 10.45%, with a semen cost per conception of $35 to $41. For producers who selected minimizing progeny inbreeding as the primary goal in their breeding programs, the range of inbreeding was from 6.11 to 6.60%, with lower net merit range of $274 to $301 and semen expenditure of $30 to $37 per conception. One producer selected minimizing semen cost as the primary objective. For that producer's portfolio, the semen cost was $27 per conception and net merit was $288, with a progeny inbreeding coefficient of 10.68%. The results of this research suggest that producer information and goals have a substantial impact on the portfolio of sires selected by that producer to attain these goals.

  1. Chewing rates among domestic dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Geoffrey E.; Cooper, Meghan; Helvie, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian masticatory rhythm is produced by a brainstem timing network. The rhythm is relatively fixed within individual animals but scales allometrically with body mass (Mb) across species. It has been hypothesized that sensory feedback and feed-forward adjust the rhythm to match the jaw's natural resonance frequency, with allometric scaling being an observable consequence. However, studies performed with adult animals show that the rhythm is not affected by jaw mass manipulations, indicating that either developmental or evolutionary mechanisms are required for allometry to become manifest. The present study was performed to tease out the relative effects of development versus natural selection on chewing rate allometry. Thirty-one dog breeds and 31 mass-matched non-domestic mammalian species with a range in Mb from ∼2 kg to 50 kg were studied. Results demonstrated that the chewing rhythm did not scale with Mb among dog breeds (R=0.299, P>0.10) or with jaw length (Lj) (R=0.328, P>0.05). However, there was a significant relationship between the chewing rhythm and Mb among the non-domestic mammals (R=0.634, P<0.001). These results indicate that scaling is not necessary in the adult animal. We conclude that the central timing network and related sensorimotor systems may be necessary for rhythm generation but they do not explain the 1/3rd to 1/4th allometric scaling observed among adult mammals. The rhythm of the timing network is either adjusted to the physical parameters of the jaw system during early development only, is genetically determined independently of the jaw system or is uniquely hard-wired among dogs and laboratory rodents. PMID:20543125

  2. Periclinal chimera technique: new plant breeding approach.

    PubMed

    Gakpetor, P M; Mohammed, H; Moreti, D; Nassar, N M A

    2017-09-21

    Plant interspecific periclinal chimeras are a mosaic formed by tissues from two species. They are manipulated here as an efficient plant breeding tool for cassava root yields. In this study, plants synthesized from two chimeras, designated as chimera 2 and chimera 4, were characterized morphologically and cytologically to unravel the origin of their tissue layers (L2 and L3). Root yield of the two chimeras was also evaluated. Chimera 2 that was developed from graft union between Manihot fortalezensis (F) as scion and M. esculenta (E) as rootstock and the same in chimera 4 was developed from grafting triploid cassava cultivar (2n = 54) (C) as scion and M. pohlii (P) (2n = 36) as rootstock. A new method of inducing interspecific chimeras without using hormones was also tested in this study. Five combinations between four cassava cultivars on one side and M. fortalezensis and an interspecific hybrid (M. glaziovii x M. esculenta) on the other side were experimented to determine compatibility between the parents. Wild species always gave L2 and L3, independent of being used as rootstock or scion. L3 is responsible for producing pericycle. Thus, its performance was different in each chimera due to specific epigenetic interaction. Of 48 grafts, it was obtained one chimera giving a percentage of 2.1% that is little lower than using hormones but much efficient to use. Chimera induction efficiency in this investigation was the same when using hormones. Thus, our new, less labor, and more cost-effective technique is as much efficient as hormones and is much potential to employ as an effective plant breeding method boosting cassava root yield.

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: American eider (breeding)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blumton, Arlene K.; Owen, Ray B.; Krohn, William B.

    1988-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The common eider (Somateria mollissima) consists of five subspecies; four are found in North America (Palmer 1976). Six management populations of common eiders have recently been defined in eastern Canada and the United States (Reed and Erskine 1986). The American edier (S. mollissima dresseri), of which three populations are recognized (Reed and Erskine 1986), is the southernmost subspecies and the focus of this paper. The common eider is a member of the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae, and the tribe Mergini. A seabird of the northern latitudes of the world, the common eider is the largest duck of North America, ranging in weight from 1.2 to 2.8 kg and having a total length from 53.3 to 68.6 cm (Bellrose 1980). The American subspecies averages 2.0 kg and 61.0 cm for males, and 1.5 kg and 57.0 cm for females (Bellrose 1980). The drake is distinctly patterned,, having a white back and breast and a black belly and sides. The smaller female is brown and heavily barred with dark brown. Both sexes have a leathery extension of the bill which forms a Y-shaped frontal shield that reaches almost to the eyes. Maine, which supports part of the Atlantic population of common eiders (Reed and Erskine 1986), is the only major eider breeding population in the lower 48 States. American eiders are colonial nesters and use a variety of nesting sites, but they prefer relatively small, uninhabited islands (Mendall 1976). The coastal islands of Maine, which are essential to the eider's life cycle, are increasingly subjected to recreation and development, creating potential disturbances to eider breeding colonies. During recent years, aesthetic and sporting interest in eiders has increased. Sea ducks in Maine are experiencing increased hunting pressure. Compared to hunting seasons and bag limits for inland ducks, sea duck seasons and limits are liberal (Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife [MDIFW] 1983).

  4. Wolf nipple measurements as indices of age and breeding status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Meier, T.J.; Seal, U.S.

    1993-01-01

    We measured nipple sizes of 29 captive wolves (Canis lupus), of known breeding histories, throughout the year and tested distinctions among various known breeding statuses of 20 wild wolves examined in northeastern Minnesota from May through September. For ca. 8 mo of the year only breeders and nonbreeders can be classified. Distinctions between current and former breeders were not reliable.

  5. Sugar Beet Breeding - Where are We Going from Here?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    USDA-Agricultural Research Service plant breeders generally do pre-breeding, but today we will talk a little about what the future holds for new varieties and directions in commercial plant breeding. This presentation is my vision, not a presentation from a seed company, and we will talk about trend...

  6. Status of genetic diversity of U. S. dairy goat breeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic diversity underpins the livestock breeders’ ability to improve the production potential of their livestock. Therefore, it is important to periodically assess genetic diversity within a breed. Such an analysis was conducted on U.S. dairy goat breeds and this article is an overview of that wo...

  7. Status of genetic diversity of U. S. dairy goat breeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic diversity underpins the livestock breeders’ ability to improve the production potential of their livestock. Therefore, it is important to periodically assess genetic diversity within a breed. Such an analysis was conducted on U.S. dairy goat breeds: Alpine, LaMancha, Nigerian Dwarf, Nubian, ...

  8. Breeding return times and abundance in capture-recapture models.

    PubMed

    Pledger, Shirley; Baker, Edward; Scribner, Kim

    2013-12-01

    For many long-lived animal species, individuals do not breed every year, and are often not accessible during non-breeding periods. Individuals exhibit site fidelity if they return to the same breeding colony or spawning ground when they breed. If capture and recapture is only possible at the breeding site, temporary emigration models are used to allow for only a subset of the animals being present in any given year. Most temporary emigration models require the use of the robust sampling design, and their focus is usually on probabilities of annual survival and of transition between breeding and non-breeding states. We use lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) data from a closed population where only a simple (one sample per year) sampling scheme is possible, and we also wish to estimate abundance as well as sex-specific survival and breeding return time probabilities. By adding return time parameters to the Schwarz-Arnason version of the Jolly-Seber model, we have developed a new likelihood-based model which yields plausible estimates of abundance, survival, transition and return time parameters. An important new finding from investigation of the model is the overestimation of abundance if a Jolly-Seber model is used when Markovian temporary emigration is present.

  9. Signatures of Diversifying Selection in European Pig Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Samantha; Lu, Zen H.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Archibald, Alan L.; Haley, Chris; Jackson, Ian J.; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Ogden, Rob; Wiener, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Following domestication, livestock breeds have experienced intense selection pressures for the development of desirable traits. This has resulted in a large diversity of breeds that display variation in many phenotypic traits, such as coat colour, muscle composition, early maturity, growth rate, body size, reproduction, and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, the genomes of 13 traditional and commercial European pig breeds were scanned for signatures of diversifying selection using the Porcine60K SNP chip, applying a between-population (differentiation) approach. Signatures of diversifying selection between breeds were found in genomic regions associated with traits related to breed standard criteria, such as coat colour and ear morphology. Amino acid differences in the EDNRB gene appear to be associated with one of these signatures, and variation in the KITLG gene may be associated with another. Other selection signals were found in genomic regions including QTLs and genes associated with production traits such as reproduction, growth, and fat deposition. Some selection signatures were associated with regions showing evidence of introgression from Asian breeds. When the European breeds were compared with wild boar, genomic regions with high levels of differentiation harboured genes related to bone formation, growth, and fat deposition. PMID:23637623

  10. Selection methods in forage breeding: a quantitative appraisal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forage breeding can be extraordinarily complex because of the number of species, perenniality, mode of reproduction, mating system, and the genetic correlation for some traits evaluated in spaced plants vs. performance under cultivation. Aiming to compare eight forage breeding methods for direct sel...

  11. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  12. The contribution of traditional potato breeding to scientific potato improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional potato breeding refers to development of new cultivars from sexual crosses followed by clonal propagation and selection. Nearly all new varieties of potato still emerge from this process free from modern technologies of gene insertion. Conventional breeding remains the most important ...

  13. Developing resources for diploid potato breeding and genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum Gp. tuberosum) is an asexually propagated cross-pollinated autotetraploid crop, for which breeding methodology has not changed in 100 years. Current methods for breeding potato cultivars are genetically inefficient due to polyploidy, resource intensive due to...

  14. Practical breeding of cottonwood in the north-central region

    Treesearch

    Carl A. Mohn

    1973-01-01

    More than 20 years ago Scott Pauley (1949) designated the genus Populus as the "guinea pig of forest-tree breeding. This designation is still appropriate as evidenced by the steady, almost overwhelming, stream of publications related to the genetics and breeding of poplars. A good indication of the scope and depth of genetic work with poplars...

  15. The development of genomics applied to dairy breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic selection (GS) has profoundly changed dairy cattle breeding in the last decade and can be defined as the use of genomic breeding values (GEBV) in selection programs. The GEBV is the sum of the effects of dense DNA markers across the whole genome, capturing all the quantitative trait loci (QT...

  16. Tilting at windmills: 20 years of Hippeastrum breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hippeastrum Herbert, amaryllis, has yielded popular large-flowered hybrids over a 200-year breeding history, with the Netherlands and South Africa currently dominating the market. The USDA breeding program is now almost ten years old, built upon a ten-year previous history at the University of Flori...

  17. Heritability and intertrait correlations in breeding subpopulations of jack pine

    Treesearch

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1985-01-01

    Twenty breeding populations of jack pine were established in 1979 and 1980 in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Four populations were index populations and were each established at 4 locations by research cooperators. Sixteen populations were applied breeding populations and were established at single locations by public and private cooperators. Combined analysis of...

  18. Acceleration of peanut breeding programs by molecular marker assisted selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut breeding has played a significant role in yield increases and disease control. Conventional breeding focuses on field selection and phenotypic analysis and it typically takes 12-15 years before a new cultivar can be released. Molecular markers developed from sequencing data can be of great ...

  19. Multi-trait, multi-breed conception rate evaluations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heifer and cow conception rates (HCR and CCR) were evaluated with multi-trait, multi-breed models including crossbred cows instead of the previous single-trait, single-breed models. Fertility traits benefit from multi-trait processing because of high genetic correlations and many missing observation...

  20. Characteristics of urban woodlands affecting breeding bird diversity and abundance

    Treesearch

    N.G. Tilghman

    1987-01-01

    Breeding bird communities were studied in 32 forest islands surrounded by urban development. These isolated woodlands in Springfield, Massachusetts, provided breeding habitats for a wider variety of birds (77 species) than previously described for other urban habitats (e.g. four times as many species as found in urban residential areas in the same city in a...

  1. Prevalence of hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    Treesearch

    William H. Barnard; Claudia Mettke-Hofmann; Steven M. Matsuoka

    2010-01-01

    The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) has declined precipitously over the past several decades,and stressors on both the breeding and wintering grounds are suspected causes. Over 3 years, we collected blood samples from breeding birds in Alaska and Maine and from wintering birds in Mississippi and Arkansas to determine the prevalence of hematozoan infections at...

  2. Strategies for selecting and breeding EAB-resistant ash

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Koch; Kathleen Knight; Therese Poland; David W. Carey; Daniel A. Herms; Mary E. Mason

    2011-01-01

    Breeding for pest resistance in forest trees is a proven approach for managing both native and nonnative insects and diseases. A recent study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports 255 forest tree breeding programs for insect or disease resistance in 33 diff erent countries (http://www.fao.org/forestry/26445/en/). Advantages to...

  3. The chapter breeding program of the American Chestnut Foundation

    Treesearch

    Sara Fitzsimmons; Kendra Gurney; William White; Katy McCune

    2012-01-01

    A unique feature of the American Chestnut Foundation breeding program is the use of volunteers to conduct most of the regional breeding that will help increase genetic diversity and preserve local adaptation in the products of our program. This effort is coordinated by the four authors of this abstract, who are employees of the Foundation. The Foundation has...

  4. The dwarf saltwort (Salicornia bigelovii Torr.): Evaluation of breeding populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeding populations of the dwarf saltwort (Salicornia bigelovii Torr. [Chenopodiaceae]) have been evaluated under high seawater salinity (45 dS m-1) for phenotypic, morphometric, biomass and seed traits in an effort to select suitable families and genotypes within families for breeding purposes and...

  5. Occasional cooperative breeding in birds and the robustness of comparative analyses concerning the evolution of cooperative breeding.

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michael; Suzuki, Toshitaka N

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is a widespread and intense form of cooperation, in which individuals help raise offspring that are not their own. This behaviour is particularly well studied in birds, using both long-term and comparative studies that have provided insights into the evolution of reproductive altruism. In most cooperatively breeding species, helpers are offspring that remain with their parents beyond independency and help in the raising of younger siblings. However, many cooperatively breeding species are poorly studied, and in 152 species, this behaviour only has been observed infrequently (i.e., occasional cooperative breeding). Here we argue that the parental care mode of these 152 species needs to be treated with caution, as factors associated with occasional cooperative breeding may differ from those associated with "regular" cooperative breeding. In most cooperatively breeding species, helpers provide alloparental care at the nests of their parents or close relatives; however, only in one occasionally cooperatively breeding species do offspring remain into the next breeding season with their parents. Accordingly, different factors are likely to be associated with regular and occasional cooperative breeding. The latter behaviour resembles interspecific feeding (i.e., individuals feed offspring of another species), which occurs when birds lose their brood and begin feeding at a nearby nest, or when birds mistakenly feed at another nest. Thus, we advise researchers to exclude occasional cooperative breeders in comparative analyses until their status is clarified, or to categorize them separately or according to the typically observed parental care mode. This approach will increase the robustness of comparative analyses and thereby improve our understanding of factors that drive the evolution of cooperative breeding.

  6. Genetic comparison of breeding schemes based on semen importation and local breeding schemes: framework and application to Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vargas, B; van Arendonk, J A M

    2004-05-01

    Local breeding schemes for Holstein cattle of Costa Rica were compared with the current practice based on continuous semen importation (SI) by deterministic simulation. Comparison was made on the basis of genetic response and correlation between breeding goals. A local breeding goal was defined on the basis of prevailing production circumstances and compared against a typical breeding goal for an exporting country. Differences in genetic response were <3%, and the correlation between breeding goals was 0.99. Therefore, difference between breeding objectives proved negligible. For the evaluation of genetic response, the current scheme based on SI was evaluated against a progeny testing (PT) scheme and a closed nucleus (CN) breeding scheme, both local. Selection intensities and accuracy of selection were defined according to current population size and reproduction efficiency parameters. When genotype x environment interaction (G x E) was ignored, SI was the strategy with the highest genetic response: 5.0% above the CN breeding scheme and 33.2% above PT. A correlation between breeding values in both countries lower than one was assumed to assess the effect of G x E. This resulted in permanent effects on the relative efficiencies of breeding strategies because of the reduction in the rate of genetic response when SI was used. When the genetic correlation was assumed equal to 0.75, the genetic response achieved with SI was reduced at the same level as local PT. When an initial difference in average genetic merit of the populations was assumed, this only had a temporal effect on the relative ranking of strategies, which is reverted after some years of selection because the rate of change in genetic responses remains unchanged. Given that the actual levels of genetic correlation between countries may be around 0.60, it was concluded that a local breeding scheme based on a nucleus herd could provide better results than the current strategy based on SI.

  7. Estimating survival and breeding probability for pond-breeding amphibians: a modified robust design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, L.L.; Kendall, W.L.; Church, D.R.; Wilbur, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Many studies of pond-breeding amphibians involve sampling individuals during migration to and from breeding habitats. Interpreting population processes and dynamics from these studies is difficult because (1) only a proportion of the population is observable each season, while an unknown proportion remains unobservable (e.g., non-breeding adults) and (2) not all observable animals are captured. Imperfect capture probability can be easily accommodated in capture?recapture models, but temporary transitions between observable and unobservable states, often referred to as temporary emigration, is known to cause problems in both open- and closed-population models. We develop a multistate mark?recapture (MSMR) model, using an open-robust design that permits one entry and one exit from the study area per season. Our method extends previous temporary emigration models (MSMR with an unobservable state) in two ways. First, we relax the assumption of demographic closure (no mortality) between consecutive (secondary) samples, allowing estimation of within-pond survival. Also, we add the flexibility to express survival probability of unobservable individuals (e.g., ?non-breeders?) as a function of the survival probability of observable animals while in the same, terrestrial habitat. This allows for potentially different annual survival probabilities for observable and unobservable animals. We apply our model to a relictual population of eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum). Despite small sample sizes, demographic parameters were estimated with reasonable precision. We tested several a priori biological hypotheses and found evidence for seasonal differences in pond survival. Our methods could be applied to a variety of pond-breeding species and other taxa where individuals are captured entering or exiting a common area (e.g., spawning or roosting area, hibernacula).

  8. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  9. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Results Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds- Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken - the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds - the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD= 0.341, LK= 0.357, DA=0.349 and CH= 0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The FST values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The FST values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. Conclusion These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken

  10. A comparison between Nimbus 5 THIR and ITPR temperatures and derived winds with rawinsonde data obtained in the AVE II experiment. [Temperature-Humidity Infrared Radiometer and Infrared Temperature Profile Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.; Scoggins, J. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    During the second Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II), atmospheric temperature profiles were computed from Nimbus 5 data, which comprised ITPR, NEMS, and SCR measurements. Rawinsonde data were obtained from NWS stations in the AVE II network and processed for each pressure contact; the soundings closest in space and time were interpolated to the Nimbus 5 sounding points for comparison purposes. Cross sections of thermal and geostrophic winds were computed from satellite-derived cross sections of temperature along the Nimbus orbital track.

  11. Plant breeding on the front: imperialism, war, and exploitation.

    PubMed

    Elina, Olga; Heim, Susanne; Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the development of plant-breeding science in the context of the booming genetic research and autarky policy of the 1930s as well as during World War II in National Socialist-occupied Europe. Soviet scientists, especially Nikolai Vavilov and his VIR institute, had a leading position in the international plant-breeding science of the 1920s. During World War II, German scientists, namely experts from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Plant Breeding, usurped Soviet institutes and valuable seed collections. In contrast, plant-breeding research in occupied Scandinavia continued with relatively little disturbance. The paper compares behavior of German, Soviet, and Norwegian plant-breeding scientists under the Nazi regime.

  12. Natural immunity factors in Polish mixed breed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-breed rabbits in Poland are widely used for diagnostic and scientific research and as utility animals, therefore there is a need to know their immunological status, as well as their haematological status. In this study natural immunity factors were analyzed in Polish mixed-breed rabbits and Polish mixed-breed rabbits with addition of blood of meet-breed, considering the impact of sex and season of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) using measurement of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity parameters in peripheral blood. The study has revealed that there is a variety between the two commonly used mixed-breed types of rabbits, especially when sex and season is concerned, which is crucial for using these animals in experiments.

  13. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Williams, Sartor O.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered bird that breeds only in dense riparian habitats in six southwestern states (southern California, extreme southern Nevada, southern Utah, southwestern Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico). Since 1993, hundreds of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher surveys have been conducted each year, and many new flycatcher breeding sites located. This document synthesizes information on all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites. This rangewide data synthesis was designed to meet these objectives: * identify all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites, and * assemble data on population size, location, habitat, and other information for all breeding sites, for as many years as possible, from 1993 through 2006. This report provides data summaries in terms of the number of flycatcher sites and the number of territories.

  14. Brood parasitism and the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds.

    PubMed

    Feeney, W E; Medina, I; Somveille, M; Heinsohn, R; Hall, M L; Mulder, R A; Stein, J A; Kilner, R M; Langmore, N E

    2013-12-20

    The global distribution of cooperatively breeding birds is highly uneven, with hotspots in Australasia and sub-Saharan Africa. The ecological drivers of this distribution remain enigmatic yet could yield insights into the evolution and persistence of cooperative breeding. We report that the global distributions of avian obligate brood parasites and cooperatively breeding passerines are tightly correlated and that the uneven phylogenetic distribution of cooperative breeding is associated with the uneven targeting of hosts by brood parasites. With a long-term field study, we show that brood parasites can acquire superior care for their young by targeting cooperative breeders. Conversely, host defenses against brood parasites are strengthened by helpers at the nest. Reciprocally selected interactions between brood parasites and cooperative breeders may therefore explain the close association between these two breeding systems.

  15. A practical, rapid generation-advancement system for rice breeding using simplified biotron breeding system

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junichi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new plant breeding method—the biotron breeding system (BBS)—can rapidly produce advanced generations in rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding. This method uses a growth chamber (biotron) with CO2 control, accompanied by tiller removal and embryo rescue to decrease the period before seed maturity. However, tiller removal and embryo rescue are laborious and impractical for large populations. We investigated the influences of increased CO2, tiller removal, and root restriction on the days to heading (DTH) from seeding in growth chambers. The higher CO2 concentration significantly decreased DTH, but tiller removal and root restriction had little effect on DTH and drastically reduced seed yield. Based on these findings, we propose a simplified BBS (the sBBS) that eliminates the need for tiller removal and embryo rescue, but controls CO2 levels and day-length and maintains an appropriate root volume. Using the sBBS, we could reduce the interval between generations in ‘Nipponbare’ to less than 3 months, without onerous manipulations. To demonstrate the feasibility of the sBBS, we used it to develop isogenic lines using ‘Oborozuki’ as the donor parent for the low-amylose allele Wx1-1 and ‘Akidawara’ as the recipient. We were able to perform four crossing cycles in a year. PMID:27795679

  16. [Characteristics of pedigree cat breeding in the Netherlands: breeds, population increase and litter size].

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O; Huisman, T; Knol, B W

    1999-03-01

    A survey of the Dutch Cat Fancy was carried out to determine reproductive, patterns of pedigree cats. The data of the present study were obtained by questioning the pedigree registers of the cat clubs participating in the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy'. The Dutch Cat Fancy registers 34 different cat breeds. From 1992 up to 1996 a total of 25.985 litters were registered. Over this period the number of litters increased from 4989 to 5313. Litters from Longhair and Exotic Shorthair cats comprised the biggest group and accounted for 55% of the total number of litters. However, over this period, the number of Longhair and Exotic Shorthair litters decreased by 9%. Litters from British Shorthair, Birman, Maine Coon and Norwegian Forrest Cat increased in number as did litters from small breeds such as Ragdoll, Bengal and Sphynx. Litters from Abyssinian, Siamese, Oriental Shorthair cats remained relatively the same. The average litter size of the total cat population, based on pedigree certificates, was calculated at 3.3 kittens per litter. For different breeds litter size varied from 2.7 (Longhair and Exotic Shorthair) to 4.3 (Burmese and Maine Coon). Taking into account an average age of 14 years, the total Dutch pedigree cat population was estimated at 240,000 viz. about 10% of the total cat population.

  17. Domestic estimated breeding values and genomic enhanced breeding values of bulls in comparison with their foreign genomic enhanced breeding values.

    PubMed

    Přibyl, J; Bauer, J; Čermák, V; Pešek, P; Přibylová, J; Šplíchal, J; Vostrá-Vydrová, H; Vostrý, L; Zavadilová, L

    2015-10-01

    Estimated breeding values (EBVs) and genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBVs) for milk production of young genotyped Holstein bulls were predicted using a conventional BLUP - Animal Model, a method fitting regression coefficients for loci (RRBLUP), a method utilizing the realized genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP), by a single-step procedure (ssGBLUP) and by a one-step blending procedure. Information sources for prediction were the nation-wide database of domestic Czech production records in the first lactation combined with deregressed proofs (DRP) from Interbull files (August 2013) and domestic test-day (TD) records for the first three lactations. Data from 2627 genotyped bulls were used, of which 2189 were already proven under domestic conditions. Analyses were run that used Interbull values for genotyped bulls only or that used Interbull values for all available sires. Resultant predictions were compared with GEBV of 96 young foreign bulls evaluated abroad and whose proofs were from Interbull method GMACE (August 2013) on the Czech scale. Correlations of predictions with GMACE values of foreign bulls ranged from 0.33 to 0.75. Combining domestic data with Interbull EBVs improved prediction of both EBV and GEBV. Predictions by Animal Model (traditional EBV) using only domestic first lactation records and GMACE values were correlated by only 0.33. Combining the nation-wide domestic database with all available DRP for genotyped and un-genotyped sires from Interbull resulted in an EBV correlation of 0.60, compared with 0.47 when only Interbull data were used. In all cases, GEBVs had higher correlations than traditional EBVs, and the highest correlations were for predictions from the ssGBLUP procedure using combined data (0.75), or with all available DRP from Interbull records only (one-step blending approach, 0.69). The ssGBLUP predictions using the first three domestic lactation records in the TD model were correlated with GMACE predictions by 0.69, 0.64 and 0

  18. Understanding crop genetic diversity under modern plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2015-11-01

    Maximizing crop yield while at the same time minimizing crop failure for sustainable agriculture requires a better understanding of the impacts of plant breeding on crop genetic diversity. This review identifies knowledge gaps and shows the need for more research into genetic diversity changes under plant breeding. Modern plant breeding has made a profound impact on food production and will continue to play a vital role in world food security. For sustainable agriculture, a compromise should be sought between maximizing crop yield under changing climate and minimizing crop failure under unfavorable conditions. Such a compromise requires better understanding of the impacts of plant breeding on crop genetic diversity. Efforts have been made over the last three decades to assess crop genetic diversity using molecular marker technologies. However, these assessments have revealed some temporal diversity patterns that are largely inconsistent with our perception that modern plant breeding reduces crop genetic diversity. An attempt was made in this review to explain such discrepancies by examining empirical assessments of crop genetic diversity and theoretical investigations of genetic diversity changes over time under artificial selection. It was found that many crop genetic diversity assessments were not designed to assess diversity impacts from specific plant breeding programs, while others were experimentally inadequate and contained technical biases from the sampling of cultivars and genomes. Little attention has been paid to theoretical investigations on crop genetic diversity changes from plant breeding. A computer simulation of five simplified breeding schemes showed the substantial effects of plant breeding on the retention of heterozygosity over generations. It is clear that more efforts are needed to investigate crop genetic diversity in space and time under plant breeding to achieve sustainable crop production.

  19. Habitat selection by breeding red-winged blackbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Habitat preferences of breeding Red-winged Blackbirds in an agricultural area were determined by comparing population density, landscape characteristics, and vegetational descriptions. Observations were made throughout the breeding season. Preferred breeding habitats of Red-wings, in order of preference, were wetlands, hayfields, old fields, and pastures. Males and females occupied old fields and wetlands first, then hayfields, and finally, pastures. Cutting of hayfields caused territorial abandonment by both sexes within 48 h. The apparent movement of displaced females from cut hayfields to uncut hayfields suggests that habitat fidelity of females is strong after the breeding effort has begun. Breeding Red-wings exhibited general preferences for trees, large amounts of habitat edge, erect old vegetation, and sturdy, tall, and dense vegetation. Vegetative forms and species, such as upland grasses, broad- and narrow-leafed monocots in wetlands, and forbs were important to the Red-wing at various times during the breeding season. Landscape and vegetational preferences of breeding adults were easier to observe early in the breeding season (March through May) than later. Vegetational growth and increases in the size of the breeding population probably make these preferences more difficult to detect. Territory size was poorly correlated with landscape and vegetational characteristics in uplands but strongly correlated with broad- and narrow-leafed mono cots and vegetative height in wetlands. Wetland territories were smaller than upland territories. Territories increased in size during the middle and late portions of the breedi g season. Habitat selection by the Red-winged Blackbird can best be studied by evaluating vegetative preferences throughout the breeding season.

  20. Locus minimization in breed prediction using artificial neural network approach.

    PubMed

    Iquebal, M A; Ansari, M S; Sarika; Dixit, S P; Verma, N K; Aggarwal, R A K; Jayakumar, S; Rai, A; Kumar, D

    2014-12-01

    Molecular markers, viz. microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms, have revolutionized breed identification through the use of small samples of biological tissue or germplasm, such as blood, carcass samples, embryos, ova and semen, that show no evident phenotype. Classical tools of molecular data analysis for breed identification have limitations, such as the unavailability of referral breed data, causing increased cost of collection each time, compromised computational accuracy and complexity of the methodology used. We report here the successful use of an artificial neural network (ANN) in background to decrease the cost of genotyping by locus minimization. The webserver is freely accessible (http://nabg.iasri.res.in/bisgoat) to the research community. We demonstrate that the machine learning (ANN) approach for breed identification is capable of multifold advantages such as locus minimization, leading to a drastic reduction in cost, and web availability of reference breed data, alleviating the need for repeated genotyping each time one investigates the identity of an unknown breed. To develop this model web implementation based on ANN, we used 51,850 samples of allelic data of microsatellite-marker-based DNA fingerprinting on 25 loci covering 22 registered goat breeds of India for training. Minimizing loci to up to nine loci through the use of a multilayer perceptron model, we achieved 96.63% training accuracy. This server can be an indispensable tool for identification of existing breeds and new synthetic commercial breeds, leading to protection of intellectual property in case of sovereignty and bio-piracy disputes. This server can be widely used as a model for cost reduction by locus minimization for various other flora and fauna in terms of variety, breed and/or line identification, especially in conservation and improvement programs.

  1. Genetic differentiation among populations of the Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja; Aves: Pelecaniformes) in three Brazilian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Miño, Carolina Isabel; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2014-08-01

    Effective population size, levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and genetic structuring were assessed in 205 colonial Roseate spoonbills from 11 breeding colonies from north, central west, and south Brazil. Colonies and regions exhibited similar moderate levels of diversity at five microsatellite loci (mean expected heterozygosity range 0.50-0.62; allelic richness range 3.17-3.21). The central west region had the highest Ne (59). F ST values revealed low but significant genetic structuring among colonies within the north and within the south regions. Significant global genetic structuring was found between the northern and central western populations as well as between the northern and southern populations. An individual-based Bayesian clustering method inferred three population clusters. Assignment tests correctly allocated up to 64% of individuals to their source regions. Collectively, results revealed complex demographic dynamics, with ongoing gene flow on a local scale, but genetic differentiation on a broader scale. Populations in the three regions may all be conserved, but special concern should be given to central western ones, which can significantly contribute to the species' gene pool in Brazil.

  2. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogeny and evolutionary history of Old World suboscine birds (Aves: Eurylaimides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, R.G.; Chesser, R.T.; Prum, R.O.; Schikler, P.; Cracraft, J.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular and morphological data were used to derive a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Eurylaimides, an Old World bird group now known to be distributed pantropically, and to investigate the evolution and biogeography of the group. Phylogenetic results indicated that the Eurylaimides consist of two monophyletic groups, the pittas (Pittidae) and the broadbills (Eurylaimidae sensu lato), and that the broadbills consist of two highly divergent clades, one containing the sister genera Smithornis and Calyptomena, the other containing Pseudocalyptomena graueri, Sapayoa aenigma, the asity genera Philepitta and Neodrepanis, and five Asian genera. Our results indicate that over a ~10 million year time span in the early Tertiary, the Eurylaimides came to inhabit widely disjunct tropical regions and evolved disparate morphology, diet, and breeding behavior. Biogeographically, although a southern origin for the lineage is likely, time estimates for major lineage splitting do not correspond to Gondwanan vicariance events, and the biogeographic history of the crown clade is better explained by Laurasian climatic and geological processes. In particular, the timing and phylogenetic pattern suggest a likely Laurasian origin for the sole New World representative of the group, Sapayoa aenigma.

  4. Evaluation of winter wheat breeding lines for traits related to nitrogen use under organic management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is growing interest in breeding crop cultivars specifically for organic agriculture, based on recognized differences in environmental and management conditions. This study evaluated 12 diverse winter wheat breeding lines chosen from conventional and organic breeding nurseries, six historic var...

  5. Initial results from a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system and comparisons with the AVE-SESAME I data set. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms And Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; Zack, J. W.; Wong, V. C.; Tuccillo, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive mesoscale atmospheric simulation system (MASS) is described in detail. The modeling system is designed for both research and real-time forecast applications. The 14-level numerical model, which has a 48 km grid mesh, can be run over most of North America and the adjacent oceanic regions. The model employs sixth-order accurate numerics, generalized similarity theory boundary-layer physics, a sophisticated cumulus parameterization scheme, and state of the art analysis and initialization techniques. Examples of model output on the synoptic and subsynoptic scales are presented for the AVE-SESAME I field experiment on 10-11 April 1979. The model output is subjectively compared to the observational analysis and the LFM II output on the synoptic scale. Subsynoptic model output is compared to analyses generated from the AVE-SESAME I data set.

  6. Initial results from a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system and comparisons with the AVE-SESAME I data set. [Atmospheric Variability Experiment-Severe Environmental Storms And Mesoscale Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, M. L.; Zack, J. W.; Wong, V. C.; Tuccillo, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive mesoscale atmospheric simulation system (MASS) is described in detail. The modeling system is designed for both research and real-time forecast applications. The 14-level numerical model, which has a 48 km grid mesh, can be run over most of North America and the adjacent oceanic regions. The model employs sixth-order accurate numerics, generalized similarity theory boundary-layer physics, a sophisticated cumulus parameterization scheme, and state of the art analysis and initialization techniques. Examples of model output on the synoptic and subsynoptic scales are presented for the AVE-SESAME I field experiment on 10-11 April 1979. The model output is subjectively compared to the observational analysis and the LFM II output on the synoptic scale. Subsynoptic model output is compared to analyses generated from the AVE-SESAME I data set.

  7. Brain size-related breeding strategies in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Kim; Öst, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The optimal compromise between decision speed and accuracy may depend on cognitive ability, associated with the degree of encephalization: larger brain size may select for accurate but slow decision-making, beneficial under challenging conditions but costly under benign ones. How this brain size-dependent selection pressure shapes avian breeding phenology and reproductive performance remains largely unexplored. We predicted that (1) large-brained individuals have a delayed breeding schedule due to thorough nest-site selection and/or prolonged resource acquisition, (2) good condition facilitates early breeding independent of relative brain size, and (3) large brain size accrues benefits mainly to individuals challenged by environmental or intrinsic constraints. To test these predictions, we examined how the relative head volume of female eiders (Somateria mollissima) of variable body condition correlated with their breeding schedule, hatching success and offspring quality. The results were consistent with our predictions. First, large head size was associated with a progressively later onset of breeding with increasing breeding dispersal distance. Second, increasing body condition advanced the timing of breeding, but this effect was significantly weaker in large-brained females. Third, larger head volume was associated with increased hatching success mainly among late breeders and those in poor body condition, and duckling body condition was positively related to maternal head volume, but only in poor-condition mothers. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate the presence of brain size-related differences in reproductive strategies within a single natural population.

  8. Mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation among Italian horse breeds

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi, Maria Cristina; Strillacci, Maria Giuseppina; Valiati, Paolo; Bighignoli, Barbara; Cancedda, Mario; Zanotti, Marta

    2004-01-01

    The genetic variability of the mitochondrial D-loop DNA sequence in seven horse breeds bred in Italy (Giara, Haflinger, Italian trotter, Lipizzan, Maremmano, Thoroughbred and Sarcidano) was analysed. Five unrelated horses were chosen in each breed and twenty-two haplotypes were identified. The sequences obtained were aligned and compared with a reference sequence and with 27 mtDNA D-loop sequences selected in the GenBank database, representing Spanish, Portuguese, North African, wild horses and an Equus asinus sequence as the outgroup. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated and a cluster analysis using the Neighbour-joining method was performed to obtain phylogenetic trees among breeds bred in Italy and among Italian and foreign breeds. The cluster analysis indicates that all the breeds but Giara are divided in the two trees, and no clear relationships were revealed between Italian populations and the other breeds. These results could be interpreted as showing the mixed origin of breeds bred in Italy and probably indicate the presence of many ancient maternal lineages with high diversity in mtDNA sequences. PMID:15496286

  9. Captive Breeding Programs Based on Family Groups in Polyploid Sturgeons

    PubMed Central

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids (“BreedingSturgeons”). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction. PMID:25356794

  10. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    PubMed

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  11. Improving Charging-Breeding Simulations with Space-Charge Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, Ryan; Kwiatkowski, Ania; Steinbrügge, René

    2016-09-01

    Rare-isotope-beam facilities use Highly Charged Ions (HCI) for accelerators accelerating heavy ions and to improve measurement precision and resolving power of certain experiments. An Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is able to create HCI through successive electron impact, charge breeding trapped ions into higher charge states. CBSIM was created to calculate successive charge breeding with an EBIT. It was augmented by transferring it into an object-oriented programming language, including additional elements, improving ion-ion collision factors, and exploring the overlap of the electron beam with the ions. The calculation is enhanced with the effects of residual background gas by computing the space charge due to charge breeding. The program assimilates background species, ionizes and charge breeds them alongside the element being studied, and allows them to interact with the desired species through charge exchange, giving fairer overview of realistic charge breeding. Calculations of charge breeding will be shown for realistic experimental conditions. We reexamined the implementation of ionization energies, cross sections, and ion-ion interactions when charge breeding.

  12. The different breeding strategies of penguins: a review.

    PubMed

    Ancel, André; Beaulieu, Michaël; Gilbert, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The 18 penguin species are exclusively and widely distributed in the Southern hemisphere, from the Equator to the Antarctic continent, and are thus submitted to various ecological constraints in their reproductive strategy. This results in a high variability in all aspects of the breeding biology of the different species. Although penguins appear primarily adapted for a marine existence, they remain dependent on land for breeding, rearing young, and moulting. Here we describe and compare the breeding cycle of all the penguin species, highlighting the characteristics of each species in terms of breeding range, population status, threats induced by environmental changes, duration of the different phases of the breeding cycle, mate fidelity, body mass, body height, egg mass and duration of egg formation. We also focus on the breeding cycle of the genus Aptenodytes, since it largely differs from the breeding cycle of most of the other penguin species. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The development of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in relation to convection activity and synoptic systems in AVE 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the Fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment were used to investigate conditions/factors responsible for the development (local time rate-of-change) of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in areas with varying degrees of convective activity. AVE IV sounding data were taken at 3 or 6 h intervals during a 36 h period on 24-25 April 1975 over approximately the eastern half of the United States. An error analysis was performed for each variable studied.

  14. Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae), parasites of the passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes) in Australia and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae) are described from passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes): Harpirhynchoides artamus n. sp. from Artamus fuscus Vieillot (Artamidae) from an unknown locality in South Asia and Neharpyrhynchus domrowi n. sp. from three host species of the family Meliphagidae, Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (Latham) (type-host) from Australia (New South Walles), Ptiloprora perstriata (De Vis) and Myzomela rosenbergii Schlegel from Papua New Guinea.

  15. A suite of microsatellite markers for genetic management of captive cracids (Aves, Galliformes).

    PubMed

    Costa, M C; Camargo, C; Laganaro, N M; Oliveira, P R R; Davanço, P V; Azeredo, R M A; Simpson, J G P; Silveira, L F; Francisco, M R

    2014-11-27

    Cracids are medium to large frugivorous birds that are endemic to the Neotropics. Because of deforestation and overhunting, many species are threatened. The conservation of several species has relied on captive breeding and reintroduction in the wild, but captive populations may be inbred. Microsatellite tools can permit the construction of genetic pedigrees to reduce inbreeding, but only a few loci are available for this group of birds. Here, we present 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci and the cross-amplification of these and of 10 additional loci available in the literature in a panel of 5 cracid species, including 3 species with high conservation concern. We provide the first polymorphic loci for the jacutinga, Aburria jacutinga (N = 8), and red-billed curassow, Crax blumenbachii (N = 9), and additional loci for bare-faced curassow, C. fasciolata (N = 8), Alagoas curassow, Pauxi mitu (N = 5), and razor-billed curassow, P. tuberosa (N = 5). The average number of alleles was 2.9 for A. jacutinga, 2.7 for C. blumenbachii, 3.5 for C. fasciolata, 2.6 for P. mitu, and 5.7 for P. tuberosa. The mean expected heterozygosities were 0.42, 0.40, 0.48, 0.37, and 0.59, respectively. The average probabilities that the set of loci would not exclude a pair of parents of an arbitrary offspring were 2.9% in A. jacutinga, 1% in C. blumenbachii, 0.5% in C. fasciolata, 0.4% in P. mitu, and 0.002% in P. tuberosa suggesting that these loci may be adequate for parentage analysis and to implement ex situ genetic management plans.

  16. Nesting distributions of Galápagos boobies (Aves: Sulidae): an apparent case of amensalism.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Howard M; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Hodum, Peter J; Anderson, David J

    2002-08-01

    Blue-footed boobies (Sula nebouxii) in the Galápagos Islands nest at coastal sites such as cliff edges if Nazca boobies (S. granti) are absent. However, if sympatric with nesting Nazca boobies, they nest nearby, but farther inland, in areas with little topographical relief. Nazca boobies nest at the coastal sites whether blue-footed boobies are present or not. The segregated nesting pattern of these two species offers a model system to investigate factors influencing community structure. We tested a non-interactive hypothesis, in which different fundamental niches generate the non-overlapping distributions, and an interactive hypothesis, in which the two fundamental niches overlap and an interaction between the two species causes the segregation. Data on three factors considered as likely parameters differentiating fundamental niches (nest microclimate, nature of the nesting substrate, and ease of taking flight from nest sites) failed to support the non-interactive hypothesis. These results suggest that the two species have indistinguishable fundamental niches with respect to these parameters, but different realized niches. Researchers studying resource partitioning by ecologically similar species often only consider competition (a "-/-" interaction) to explain situations like this, ignoring the more parsimonious amensal (0/-) possibility. Nesting segregation in this situation is apparently caused by attacks of non-breeding adult Nazca boobies on blue-footed booby nestlings, injuring nestlings and ultimately preventing them from fledging. The interaction does not result in any discernible costs or benefits (i.e., effects on fecundity or survival) for the adult Nazca boobies, so it is best described as an amensal interaction. This interaction provides a sufficient explanation of the observed nesting segregation, and precludes present competition for nesting space.

  17. Sexual selection and the evolution of mechanical sound production in manakins (Aves: Pipridae).

    PubMed

    Prum

    1998-04-01

    I surveyed and described modulated, non-vocal, mechanical sounds of the lek-breeding Neotropical manakins (Pipridae). Variation among manakin species in mechanical sound production, repertoire size, acoustic structure, associated feather specialization, and mechanical sound production mechanisms were analysed comparatively in the context of a phylogenetic hypothesis for the family. Mechanical sound production has probably evolved five or six times independently and been lost once within the 42 species of manakins. Complex mechanical sound repertoires have also evolved independently several times. Acoustic structure of these sounds indicates that at least four different physical mechanisms of mechanical sound production have evolved: short, broad-frequency spectrum pulses; short, low-frequency pulses; aerodynamic vortices; and harmonic oscillations. All well-known mechanical sounds in manakins are associated with obvious wing movements and sexually dimorphic wing feather specializations. Both primary and secondary wing feather specializations have evolved convergently within the family for the production of short, broad-frequency mechanical sound pulses. Two less well-known manakin clades also have tail feather specializations that may function in mechanical sound production. A concentrated-changes test documented that the dynamic patterns of evolution in mechanical sound production in the polygynous manakins are highly unlikely by chance alone. Intersexual selection for acrobatic display may have created subsequent opportunities for the evolution of novel preferences for incidental non-vocal sounds produced by acrobatic movements. Novel female preferences for these mechanical sounds led to further elaboration of these sounds and to the evolution of complex mechanical sound repertoires in independent lineages of the family. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  18. Paraphyly of Cinclodes fuscus (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae): Implications for taxonomy and biogeography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanin, Camilo; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Maley, James M.; Lijtmaer, Dario A.; Tubaro, Pablo L.; Chesser, R. Terry

    2009-01-01

    The Andes are a hotspot of global avian diversity, but studies on the historical diversification of Andean birds remain relatively scarce. Evolutionary studies on avian lineages with Andean–Patagonian distributions have focused on reconstructing species-level phylogenies, whereas no detailed phylogeographic studies on widespread species have been conducted. Here, we describe phylogeographic patterns in the Bar-winged Cinclodes (Cinclodes fuscus), a widespread and common species of ovenbird (Furnariidae) that breeds from Tierra del Fuego to the northern Andes. Traditionally, C. fuscus has been considered a single species composed of nine subspecies, but its long and narrow range suggests the possibility of considerable genetic variation among populations. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes revealed three discrete and geographically coherent groups of C. fuscus, occupying the southern, central, and northern Andes. Surprisingly, phylogenetic analyses indicated that these groups were more closely related to other species of Cinclodes than to each other. Relationships of the southern and northern C. fuscus clades to other species of Cinclodes were straightforward; in combination with available information on plumage, behavioral, and vocal variation, this suggests that each should be recognized as a distinct biological species. The central Andean group was paraphyletic with respect to C. oustaleti, and relationships among these taxa and C. olrogi were poorly resolved. We suggest that the central Andean C. fuscus should also be considered a different species, pending new information to clarify species limits in this group. These new phylogenetic data, along with recently developed methods, allowed us to review the biogeography of the genus, confirming southern South America and the central Andes as important areas for the diversification of these birds.

  19. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  20. Evidence of selection signatures that shape the Persian cat breed.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesca; Gandolfi, Barbara; Kim, Eui Soo; Haase, Bianca; Lyons, Leslie A; Rothschild, Max F

    2016-04-01

    The Persian cat is mainly characterized by an extremely brachycephalic face as part of the standard body conformation. Despite the popularity, world-wide distribution, and economic importance of the Persian cat as a fancy breed, little is known about the genetics of their hallmark morphology, brachycephaly. Over 800 cats from different breeds including Persian, non-Persian breeds (Abyssinian, Cornish Rex, Bengal, La Perm, Norwegian Forest, Maine Coon, Manx, Oriental, and Siamese), and Persian-derived breeds (British Shorthair, Scottish Fold, Selkirk Rex) were genotyped with the Illumina 63 K feline DNA array. The experimental strategy was composed of three main steps: (i) the Persian dataset was screened for runs of homozygosity to find and select highly homozygous regions; (ii) selected Persian homozygous regions were evaluated for the difference of homozygosity between Persians and those considered non-Persian breeds, and, (iii) the Persian homozygous regions most divergent from the non-Persian breeds were investigated by haplotype analysis in the Persian-derived breeds. Four regions with high homozygosity (H > 0.7) were detected, each with an average length of 1 Mb. Three regions can be considered unique to the Persian breed, with a less conservative haplotype pattern in the Persian-derived breeds. Moreover, two genes, CHL1 and CNTN6 known to determine face shape modification in humans, reside in one of the identified regions and therefore are positional candidates for the brachycephalic face in Persians. In total, the homozygous regions contained several neuronal genes that could be involved in the Persian cat behavior and can provide new insights into cat domestication.

  1. Characterization of local goat breeds using RAP-DNA markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.

  2. Genome-assisted Breeding For Drought Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Awais; Sovero, Valpuri; Gemenet, Dorcus

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress caused by unpredictable precipitation poses a major threat to food production worldwide, and its impact is only expected to increase with the further onset of climate change. Understanding the effect of drought stress on crops and plants' response is critical for developing improved varieties with stable high yield to fill a growing food gap from an increasing population depending on decreasing land and water resources. When a plant encounters drought stress, it may use multiple response types, depending on environmental conditions, drought stress intensity and duration, and the physiological stage of the plant. Drought stress responses can be divided into four broad types: drought escape, drought avoidance, drought tolerance, and drought recovery, each characterized by interacting mechanisms, which may together be referred to as drought resistance mechanisms. The complex nature of drought resistance requires a multi-pronged approach to breed new varieties with stable and enhanced yield under drought stress conditions. High throughput genomics and phenomics allow marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS), which offer rapid and targeted improvement of populations and identification of parents for rapid genetic gains and improved drought-resistant varieties. Using these approaches together with appropriate genetic diversity, databases, analytical tools, and well-characterized drought stress scenarios, weather and soil data, new varieties with improved drought resistance corresponding to grower preferences can be introduced into target regions rapidly. PMID:27499682

  3. SED Alumni---breeding ground for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2006-04-01

    In 1943 the US Army established the Special Engineering Detachment (SED), in which mostly drafted young soldiers possessing some scientific credentials (though usually quite minimal) were reassigned from other duties to the Manhattan Project to assist in various research and development aspects of nuclear weapons. The Los Alamos contingent, never more than a few hundred GIs, worked with more senior scientists and engineers, often assuming positions of real responsibility. An unintended consequence of this circumstance was the fact that being in the SEDs turned out to be a fortuitous breeding ground for future physicists, chemists, and engineers. SEDs benefited from their close contacts with established scientists, working with them side by side, attended lectures by luminaries, and gained invaluable experience that would help them establish academic and industrial careers later in life. I will discuss some of these individuals (I list only those of whom I am personally aware). These include Henry ``Heinz'' Barschall*, Richard Bellman*-RAND Corporation, Murray Peshkin-ANL, Peter Lax-Courant Institute, NYU, William Spindel*-NRC,NAS, Bernard Waldman- Notre Dame, Richard Davisson*-U of Washington, Arnold Kramish- RAND, UNESCO, Josef Hofmann- Acoustic Research Corp, Val Fitch- Princeton U. *deceased

  4. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  5. Breeding racehorses: what price good genes?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alastair J; Rambaut, Andrew

    2008-04-23

    Horse racing is a multi-million pound industry, in which genetic information is increasingly used to optimize breeding programmes. To maximize the probability of producing a successful offspring, the owner of a mare should mate her with a high-quality stallion. However, stallions with big reputations command higher stud fees and paying these is only a sensible strategy if, (i) there is a genetic variation for success on the racecourse and (ii) stud fees are an honest signal of a stallion's genetic quality. Using data on thoroughbred racehorses, and lifetime earnings from prize money (LE) as a measure of success, we performed quantitative genetic analyses within an animal model framework to test these two conditions. Although LE is heritable (VA=0.299+/-0.108, Pr=0.002), there is no genetic variance for stud fee and the genetic correlation between traits is therefore zero. This result is supported by an absence of any relationship between stud fees for currently active stallions and the predicted LE for their (hypothetical) offspring. Thus, while there are good genes to be bought, a stallion's fees are not an honest signal of his genetic quality and are a poor predictor of a foal's prize winning potential.

  6. Dynamics of North American breeding bird populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keitt, Timothy H.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1998-05-01

    Population biologists have long been interested in the variability of natural populations. One approach to dealing with ecological complexity is to reduce the system to one or a few species, for which meaningful equations can be solved. Here we explore an alternative approach, by studying the statistical properties of a data set containing over 600 species, namely the North American breeding bird survey. The survey has recorded annual species abundances over a 31-year period along more than 3,000 observation routes. We now analyse the dynamics of population variability using this data set, and find scaling features in common with inanimate systems composed of strongly interacting subunits. Specifically, we find that the distribution of changes in population abundance over a one-year interval is remarkably symmetrical, with long tails extending over six orders of magnitude. The variance of the population over a time series increases as a power-law with increasing time lag, indicating long-range correlation in population size fluctuations. We also find that the distribution of species lifetimes (the time between colonization and local extinction) within local patches is a power-law with an exponential cutoff imposed by the finite length of the time series. Our results provide a quantitative basis for modelling the dynamics of large species assemblages.

  7. Chimpanzees breed with genetically dissimilar mates

    PubMed Central

    Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Li, Yingying; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Wroblewski, Emily; Pusey, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Inbreeding adversely affects fitness, whereas heterozygosity often augments it. Therefore, mechanisms to avoid inbreeding and increase genetic distance between mates should be advantageous in species where adult relatives reside together. Here we investigate mate choice for genetic dissimilarity in chimpanzees, a species in which many females avoid inbreeding through dispersal, but where promiscuous mating and sexual coercion can limit choice when related adults reside together. We take advantage of incomplete female dispersal in Gombe National Park, Tanzania to compare mate choice for genetic dissimilarity among immigrant and natal females in two communities using pairwise relatedness measures in 135 genotyped chimpanzees. As expected, natal females were more related to adult males in their community than were immigrant females. However, among 62 breeding events, natal females were not more related to the sires of their offspring than immigrant females, despite four instances of close inbreeding. Moreover, females were generally less related to the sires of their offspring than to non-sires. These results demonstrate that chimpanzees may be capable of detecting relatedness and selecting mates on the basis of genetic distance. PMID:28280546

  8. Genetic variation within the Lidia bovine breed.

    PubMed

    Cañón, J; Tupac-Yupanqui, I; García-Atance, M A; Cortés, O; García, D; Fernández, J; Dunner, S

    2008-08-01

    The results of an exhaustive data collection from a bovine population with a low level of exchangeability, the Lidia breed, are presented. A total of 1683 individuals from 79 herds were sampled and genetic diversity within and among lineages was assessed using 24 microsatellite loci on 22 different chromosomes. Expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.46 and 0.68 per lineage and there was significant inbreeding in the lineages, which included several farms [mean F(IS) = 0.11, bootstrap 95% confidence interval (0.09, 0.14)], mainly because of the high genetic divergence between herds within those lineages. High genetic differentiation between lineages was also found with a mean F(ST) of 0.18 [bootstrap 95% confidence interval (0.17, 0.19)], and all pairwise values, which ranged from 0.07 to 0.35, were highly significant. The relationships among lineages showed weak statistical support. Nonetheless, lineages were highly discrete when analysed using correspondence analysis and a great proportion of the individuals were correctly assigned to their own lineage when performing standard assignment procedures.

  9. Breeding for nutritional characteristics in cereals.

    PubMed

    Graham, R D; Gregorio, G

    2001-01-01

    Extensive genetic variation within large species such as the major cereals can be confidently expected for any new trait of interest. This has now been extensively demonstrated for the nutrient content of cereal grains that is of interest under deficient conditions both to human nutritionists and to cereal agronomists. As cereals are eaten in large quantity by practically everyone, they are the ideal vehicles for changing the balance of nutrient intake of the whole human population. Doing so appears to be necessary as the World Health Organization has identified deficient micronutrient intake in well over half of all people globally, notably women and children. Of major concern are iron, zinc, selenium iodine, calcium and vitamin A-related carotenoids. Our results show that for any staple so far studied, the intake of iron, calcium and zinc from cereals can be doubled, and the content/intake of essential carotenoids can be increased by much greater factors. To prove to rigid scientific standards that greater intake results in greater absorption and measurable health benefits is quite difficult, but it is currently being pursued in various ways. This proof of bioavailability is all that impedes implementation in breeding programs.

  10. Breeding and solitary wave behavior of dunes.

    PubMed

    Durán, O; Schwämmle, V; Herrmann, H

    2005-08-01

    Beautiful dune patterns can be found in deserts and along coasts due to the instability of a plain sheet of sand under the action of the wind. Barchan dunes are highly mobile aeolian dunes found in areas of low sand availability and unidirectional wind fields. Up to now modelization mainly focused on single dunes or dune patterns without regarding the mechanisms of dune interactions. We study the case when a small dune bumps into a bigger one. Recently Schwämmle and Herrmann [Nature (London) 426, 610 (2003)] and Katsuki [(e-print cond-mat 0403312)] have shown that under certain circumstances dunes can behave like solitary waves. This means that they can "cross" each other which has been questioned by many researchers before. In other cases we observe coalescence--i.e., both dunes merge into one--breeding--i.e., the creation of three baby dunes at the center and horns of a Barchan dune--or budding--i.e., the small dune, after "crossing" the big one, is unstable and splits into two new dunes.

  11. Foods of breeding pintails in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Food habits of breeding pintails (Anas acuta) were studied relative to sex, land use, and reproductive condition during the spring and summer of 1969, 1970, and 1971 in eastern North Dakota. Hens and drakes, respectively, consumed 79.2 percent and 30.0 percent animal matter on nontilled wetlands and consumed 16.6 percent and 1.1 percent animal matter on tilled wetlands. Aquatic dipterans (primarily larval forms), snails, fairy shrimp, and earthworms accounted for 71 percent of the diet of hens on nontilled wetlands, while barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds formed 71 percent of the diet of hens on tilled wetlands. Cereal grain seeds formed 84 percent of the diet of 10 hens feeding on cropland. The diet of hens was influenced by reproductive status. Animal foods were predominant during the laying period (77.1 percent) but were less important in the postlaying diet (28.9 percent). Invertebrates formed 83.9 percent of the diet of renesting hens, 61.0 percent were dipteran larvae and snails. High consumption of animal foods during egg formation presumably is related to invertebrates being superior to plants in providing certain nutrients required for production of viable eggs. Research findings suggest that food requirements of prairie-nesting pintails can be met most effectively by providing pairs access to shallow, nontilled wetland habitat subject to periodic drawdowns.

  12. A comparison between Nimbus 5 THIR and ITPR temperatures and derived winds with rawinsonde data obtained in the AVE 2 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.; Scoggins, J. R.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    During the period of May 11 and 12, 1974, NASA conducted its second Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE II) over the eastern United States. In this time interval, two Nimbus 5 orbits crossed the AVE II area, providing a series of ITPR soundings as well as THIR data. Horizontal temperature mapping of the AVE II cloud field is examined using two grid print map scales. Implied cloud top heights are compared with maximum radar-echo top reports. In addition, shelter temperatures in areas of clear sky are compared with the surface temperatures as determined from 11.5 micrometer radiometer data of the THIR experiment. The ITPR sounding accuracy is evaluated using interpolated radiosonde temperatures at times nearly coincident with the ITPR soundings. It was found that mean differences between the two data sets were as small as 1.3 C near 500 mb and as large as 2.9 C near the tropopause. The differences between ITPR and radiosonde temperatures at constant pressure levels were sufficient to induce significant differences in the horizontal temperature gradient. Cross sections of geostrophic wind along the orbital tracks were developed using a thermal wind buildup based on the ITPR temperature data and the radiosonde temperature data. Differences between the radiosonde and ITPR geostrophic winds could be explained on the basis of differences in the ITPR and radiosonde temperature gradients.

  13. AVE protein expression and visceral endoderm cell behavior during anterior-posterior axis formation in mouse embryos: Asymmetry in OTX2 and DKK1 expression.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Hideharu; Shioi, Go; Aizawa, Shinichi

    2015-06-15

    The initial landmark of anterior-posterior (A-P) axis formation in mouse embryos is the distal visceral endoderm, DVE, which expresses a series of anterior genes at embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5). Subsequently, DVE cells move to the future anterior region, generating anterior visceral endoderm (AVE). Questions remain regarding how the DVE is formed and how the direction of the movement is determined. This study compares the detailed expression patterns of OTX2, HHEX, CER1, LEFTY1 and DKK1 by immunohistology and live imaging at E4.5-E6.5. At E6.5, the AVE is subdivided into four domains: most anterior (OTX2, HHEX, CER1-low/DKK1-high), anterior (OTX2, HHEX, CER1-high/DKK1-low), main (OTX2, HHEX, CER1, LEFTY1-high) and antero-lateral and posterior (OTX2, HHEX-low). The study demonstrates how this pattern is established. AVE protein expression in the DVE occurs de novo at E5.25-E5.5. Neither HHEX, LEFTY1 nor CER1 expression is asymmetric. In contrast, OTX2 expression is tilted on the future posterior side with the DKK1 expression at its proximal domain; the DVE cells move in the opposite direction of the tilt.

  14. Climate and the distribution of cooperative breeding in mammals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative breeding systems, in which non-breeding individuals provide care for the offspring of dominant group members, occur in less than 1% of mammals and are associated with social monogamy and the production of multiple offspring per birth (polytocy). Here, we show that the distribution of alloparental care by non-breeding subordinates is associated with habitats where annual rainfall is low. A possible reason for this association is that the females of species found in arid environments are usually polytocous and this may have facilitated the evolution of alloparental care. PMID:28280589

  15. New biotechnology enhances the application of cisgenesis in plant breeding

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hongwei; Atlihan, Neslihan; Lu, Zhen-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Cisgenesis is genetic modification to transfer beneficial alleles from crossable species into a recipient plant. The donor genes transferred by cisgenesis are the same as those used in traditional breeding. It can avoid linkage drag, enhance the use of existing gene alleles. This approach combines traditional breeding techniques with modern biotechnology and dramatically speeds up the breeding process. This allows plant genomes to be modified while remaining plants within the gene pool. Therefore, cisgenic plants should not be assessed as transgenics for environmental impacts. PMID:25157261

  16. Climate and the distribution of cooperative breeding in mammals.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Dieter; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative breeding systems, in which non-breeding individuals provide care for the offspring of dominant group members, occur in less than 1% of mammals and are associated with social monogamy and the production of multiple offspring per birth (polytocy). Here, we show that the distribution of alloparental care by non-breeding subordinates is associated with habitats where annual rainfall is low. A possible reason for this association is that the females of species found in arid environments are usually polytocous and this may have facilitated the evolution of alloparental care.

  17. Antagonistic effect of helpers on breeding male and female survival in a cooperatively breeding bird

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Matthieu; Doutrelant, Claire; Hatchwell, Ben J; Spottiswoode, Claire N; Covas, Rita

    2015-01-01

    1. Cooperatively breeding species are typically long lived and hence, according to theory, are expected to maximize their lifetime reproductive success through maximizing survival. Under these circumstances, the presence of helpers could be used to lighten the effort of current reproduction for parents to achieve higher survival. 2. In addition, individuals of different sexes and ages may follow different strategies, but whether male and female breeders and individuals of different ages benefit differently from the presence of helpers has often been overlooked. Moreover, only one study that investigated the relationship between parental survival and the presence of helpers used capture–mark–recapture analyses (CMR). These methods are important since they allow us to account for the non-detection of individuals that are alive in the population but not detected, and thus, the effects on survival and recapture probability to be disentangled. 3. Here, we used multi-event CMR methods to investigate whether the number of helpers was associated with an increase in survival probability for male and female breeders of different ages in the sociable weaver Philetairus socius. In this species, both sexes reduce their feeding rate in the presence of helpers. We therefore predicted that the presence of helpers should increase the breeders' survival in both sexes, especially early in life when individuals potentially have more future breeding opportunities. In addition, sociable weaver females reduce their investment in eggs in the presence of helpers, so we predicted a stronger effect of helpers on female than male survival. 4. As expected we found that females had a higher survival probability when breeding with more helpers. Unexpectedly, however, male survival probability decreased with increasing number of helpers. This antagonistic effect diminished as the breeders grew older. 5. These results illustrate the complexity of fitness costs and benefits underlying

  18. Breeding for nobility or for production? Cultures of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands, 1945-1995.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Bert

    2012-06-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s Dutch farmers replaced their dual-purpose Friesian cows with Holsteins, a highly specialized American dairy breed. The changeover was related to a major turnabout in breeding practices that involved the adoption of quantitative genetics. Dutch commercial breeders had long resisted the quantitative approach to breeding that scientists had been recommending since World War II. After about 1970, however, they gave up their resistance: the art of breeding, it was said, finally became a science. In historical overviews this turnabout is seen as part of what is called the "modernization project" in Dutch agriculture that the government instigated after the war. Economic developments are assumed to have necessitated this project, and specialization of production is seen as a natural consequence. This essay argues that the idea that the art of breeding was turned into a science is to a certain extent misleading. Furthermore, it aims to show that economic pressures and government policies cannot adequately explain the turn toward Holsteins. A better understanding can be obtained by framing the Holsteinization process as the result of a changeover in breeding culture--that is, in the ensemble of shared convictions, beliefs, conventions, methods, practices, and the like that characterized practical cattle breeding and that involved scientific, technical, economic, aesthetic, normative, and commercial considerations.

  19. Morphological and functional changes of stallion spermatozoa after cryopreservation during breeding and non-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Blottner, S; Warnke, C; Tuchscherer, A; Heinen, V; Torner, H

    2001-01-31

    The study compared quality and freezability of stallion semen during breeding and non-breeding seasons. Ejaculates were collected twice per week from four stallions during May (n = 24) and December (n = 24). The semen was mixed with skim milk extender, centrifuged and resuspended in fresh extender. Aliquots of this sperm suspension were separated from extender and diluted in TALP medium for sperm evaluation or with cryoextender (type "Gent" or a combination of Triladyl and skim milk). Samples of 0.5ml were cryopreserved in straws using a programmed freezer. Parameters of sperm quality were evaluated before and after freezing/thawing. These included percentages of motile spermatozoa and of morphological intact sperm. Typical injuries were demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.). The acrosomal status was visualised using FITC-conjugated peanut agglutinin, and the acrosome reaction was induced by calcium ionophore A 23187. The chromatin stability was estimated by acridine orange test. In winter, the average percentages of motile and morphologically normal sperm (67 and 74.3%, respectively) were higher than during the breeding season in May (59 and 65.9%; P < 0.05). After freezing/thawing the proportions of vital and intact sperm decreased significantly. The number of motile sperm declined to 15 and 18% in May and December (range 5-40%), and of morphologically intact sperm to 51% in both seasons. Results of S.E.M. showed typical membrane ruptures in the acrosomal region and some sperm with abnormal necks. The proportion of frozen sperm with spontaneous acrosome reaction was higher during winter (86.5 versus 77.0%), suggesting a higher degree of membrane reactivity. Percentages of spermatozoa with denaturated chromatin were minimal and showed minimal differences between fresh and frozen state, stallions or seasons. An additional decondensation treatment with papain and DTE revealed a slightly enhanced number of spermatozoa with denaturable DNA after

  20. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus.