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Sample records for avian infectious bronchitis

  1. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g. kidney, oviduct and testes. It can be detected in both respiratory and faecal material. There is increasing evidence that IBV can infect species of bird other than the chicken. Interestingly breeds of chicken vary with respect to the severity of infection with IBV, which may be related to the immune response. Probably the major reason for the high profile of IBV is the existence of a very large number of serotypes. Both live and inactivated IB vaccines are used extensively, the latter requiring priming by the former. Their effectiveness is diminished by poor cross-protection. The nature of the protective immune response to IBV is poorly understood. What is known is that the surface spike protein, indeed the amino-terminal S1 half, is sufficient to induce good protective immunity. There is increasing evidence that only a few amino acid differences amongst S proteins are sufficient to have a detrimental impact on cross-protection. Experimental vector IB vaccines and genetically manipulated IBVs--with heterologous spike protein genes--have produced promising results, including in the context of in ovo vaccination.

  2. Ribonucleoprotein of avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Davies, H A; Dourmashkin, R R; Macnaughton, M R

    1981-03-01

    The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was examined by electron microscopy after shadowing with carbon/platinum. Linear RNP strands up to 6.7 microns in length, from three IVB strains, were sensitive to both pancreatic RNase and to proteases. These strands were obtained from spontaneously disrupted complete particles but not from disrupted incomplete particles that lacked RNP. They were also released from Nonidet P40-disrupted particles and could be isolated on sucrose density gradients at a density of 1.27 g/ml. In some cases, helical RNP complexes associated with virus particles were observed that were similar to RNPs of human coronavirus strain 229E and mouse hepatitis virus strain 3.

  3. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Shen, Wei; Liao, Ming; Bartlam, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus main protease has been crystallized; crystals diffract to 2.7 Å resolution. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the prototype of the genus Coronavirus. It causes a highly contagious disease which affects the respiratory, reproductive, neurological and renal systems of chickens, resulting great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The coronavirus (CoV) main protease (M{sup pro}), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through a highly complex cascade involving the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, IBV M{sup pro} was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography have been obtained using microseeding techniques and belong to space group P6{sub 1}22. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.7 Å resolution from a single crystal. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 119.1, c = 270.7 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Three molecules were predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit from a calculated self-rotation function.

  4. Pathogenesis and Diagnostic Approaches of Avian Infectious Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Abubakar, Muhammad Salisu; Abba, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the major economically important poultry diseases distributed worldwide. It is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and affects both galliform and nongalliform birds. Its economic impact includes decreased egg production and poor egg quality in layers, stunted growth, poor carcass weight, and mortality in broiler chickens. Although primarily affecting the respiratory tract, IBV demonstrates a wide range of tissues tropism, including the renal and reproductive systems. Thus, disease outcome may be influenced by the organ or tissue involved as well as pathotypes or strain of the infecting virus. Knowledge on the epidemiology of the prevalent IBV strains in a particular region is therefore important to guide control and preventions. Meanwhile previous diagnostic methods such as serology and virus isolations are less sensitive and time consuming, respectively; current methods, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing, offer highly sensitive, rapid, and accurate diagnostic results, thus enabling the genotyping of new viral strains within the shortest possible time. This review discusses aspects on pathogenesis and diagnostic methods for IBV infection. PMID:26955391

  5. Infectious bronchitis virus in different avian physiological systems-a field study in Brazilian poultry flocks.

    PubMed

    Balestrin, Eder; Fraga, Aline P; Ikuta, Nilo; Canal, Cláudio W; Fonseca, André S K; Lunge, Vagner R

    2014-08-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious viral disease with economic effects on poultry agribusiness. The disease presents multi-systemic clinical signs (respiratory, renal, enteric, and reproductive) and is caused by one coronavirus (infectious bronchitis virus, IBV). Infectious bronchitis virus is classified into different serotypes and genotypes (vaccine strains and field variants). This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of IBV in commercial poultry flocks from 3 important producing regions in Brazil and to determine the tropism of the main circulating genotypes to 3 different avian physiological systems (respiratory, digestive, urinary/reproductive). Clinical samples with suggestive signs of IBV infection were collected from 432 different poultry commercial flocks (198 from broilers and 234 from breeders). The total number of biological samples consisted of organ pools from the 3 above physiological systems obtained of farms from 3 important producing regions: midwest, northeast, and south. Infectious bronchitis virus was detected by reverse-transcription, real-time PCR of the 5' untranslated region. The results showed 179 IBV-positive flocks (41.4% of the flocks), with 107 (24.8%) from broilers and 72 (16.8%) from breeders. There were similar frequencies of IBV-positive flocks in farms from different regions of the country, most often in broilers (average 54%) compared with breeders (average 30.8%). reverse-transcription was more frequently detected in the digestive system of breeders (40%), and in the digestive (43.5%) and respiratory (37.7%) systems of broilers. Infectious bronchitis virus genotyping was performed by a reverse-transcription nested PCR and sequencing of the S1 gene from a selection of 79 IBV-positive flocks (45 from broilers and 34 from breeders). The majority of the flocks were infected with Brazilian variant genotype than with Massachusetts vaccine genotype. These results demonstrate the predominance of the Brazilian variant

  6. Orchitis in roosters with reduced fertility associated with avian infectious bronchitis virus and avian metapneumovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, L Y B; Brandão, P E; Chacón, J L; Assayag, M S; Maiorka, P C; Raffi, P; Saidenberg, A B S; Jones, R C; Ferreira, A J P

    2007-12-01

    The pathogenesis of infection involving both infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes reproductive damage in hens after viral replication in the epithelium of the oviduct, resulting in loss of cilia and degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial and glandular cells. Although IBV has been indicated as a possible cause of the formation of calcium stones in the epididymus of roosters, a definitive association has not been confirmed. This report describes the detection of IBV and aMPV in the testes of roosters from a Brazilian poultry broiler breeder's flock with epididymal stones and low fertility. Samples of testis, trachea, and lungs from breeder males aged 57 wk were positive for IBV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and virus isolation and testis samples were also positive for aMPV by RT-PCR. The inoculation of testis samples into embryonated chicken eggs via the allantoic cavity resulted in curled, hemorrhagic, and stunted embryos typical of IBV infection. The allantoic fluid was positive by RT-PCR aimed to amplify the region coding for the S1 subunit of the IBV S gene, but it was not positive for aMPV. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment revealed a close relationship with European IBV genotype D274, previously unreported in Brazil. These results indicate that IBV and perhaps aMPV are likely to have played a role in the pathogenesis of the testicular disease described and should be regarded as factors that can influence male fertility disease in chickens.

  7. Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus from domestic peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and teal (Anas).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengwang; Chen, Jianfei; Chen, Jinding; Kong, Xiangang; Shao, Yuhao; Han, Zongxi; Feng, Li; Cai, Xuehui; Gu, Shoulin; Liu, Ming

    2005-03-01

    Coronavirus-like viruses, designated peafowl/China/LKQ3/2003 (pf/CH/LKQ3/03) and teal/China/LDT3/2003 (tl/CH/LDT3/03), were isolated from a peafowl and a teal during virological surveillance in Guangdong province, China. Partial genomic sequence analysis showed that these isolates had the S-3-M-5-N gene order that is typical of avian coronaviruses. The spike, membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes of pf/CH/LKQ3/03 had >99 % identity to those of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus H120 vaccine strain (Massachusetts serotype) and other Massachusetts serotype isolates. Furthermore, when pf/CH/LKQ3/03 was inoculated experimentally into chickens (specific-pathogen-free), no disease signs were apparent. tl/CH/LDT3/03 had a spike protein gene with 95 % identity to that of a Chinese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolate, although more extensive sequencing revealed the possibility that this strain may have undergone recombination. When inoculated into chickens, tl/CH/LDT3/03 resulted in the death of birds from nephritis. Taken together, this information suggests that pf/CH/LKQ3/03 might be a revertant, attenuated vaccine IBV strain, whereas tl/CH/LDT3/03 is a nephropathogenic field IBV strain, generated through recombination. The replication and non-pathogenic nature of IBV in domestic peafowl and teal under field conditions raises questions as to the role of these hosts as carriers of IBV and the potential that they may have to transmit virus to susceptible chicken populations.

  8. Synbiotic enhances immune responses against infectious bronchitis, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease and avian influenza in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Alireza; Amani, Amir; Pourmahmod, Masoud; Saghaei, Poya; Rezaie, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility of birds to avian pathogens in intensive husbandry system has emphasized on necessity of improvement of innate and specific immune responses of birds by the fast establishment of a beneficial microflora and immune stimulator factors to guarantee healthy and low-price products. During this study, 192 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross-380) in four groups with three replicates per group were used to investigate effectiveness of synbiotic Biomin Imbo on immune responses of the chickens following routine vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal disease (IBD). The results of this study indicated that supplementation of Biomin Imbo in diet enhanced humoral immune responses significantly in the case of ND, IB, IBD (p = 0.049, p = 0.020, p = 0.036, respectively), but insignificantly in the case of AI (p = 0.160) following vaccination of the chickens against these most common important viral poultry diseases. It was more effective following vaccination with live than killed vaccines. In conclusion, application of synbiotic Biomin Imbo, as a feed-additive adjuvant promotes acquired humoral immune responses of broiler chickens.

  9. Early immune responses and development of pathogenesis of avian infectious bronchitis viruses with different virulence profiles

    PubMed Central

    Mores, Marcos Antônio Zanella; Trevisol, Iara Maria; Coldebella, Arlei; Montassier, Hélio José; Brentano, Liana

    2017-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) primarily replicates in epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract of chickens, inducing both morphological and immune modulatory changes. However, the association between the local immune responses induced by IBV and the mechanisms of pathogenesis has not yet been completely elucidated. This study compared the expression profile of genes related to immune responses in tracheal samples after challenge with two Brazilian field isolates (A and B) of IBV from the same genotype, associating these responses with viral replication and with pathological changes in trachea and kidney. We detected a suppressive effect on the early activation of TLR7 pathway, followed by lower expression levels of inflammatory related genes induced by challenge with the IBV B isolate when compared to the challenge with to the IBV A isolate. Cell-mediated immune (CMI) related genes presented also lower levels of expression in tracheal samples from birds challenged with B isolate at 1dpi. Increased viral load and a higher percentage of birds with relevant lesions were observed in both tracheal and renal samples from chickens exposed to challenge with IBV B isolate. This differential pattern of early immune responses developed after challenge with IBV B isolate, related to the downregulation of TLR7, leading to insufficient pro-inflammatory response and lower CMI responses, seem to have an association with a most severe renal lesion and an enhanced capability of replication of this isolate in chicken. PMID:28199419

  10. Progress and challenges toward the development of vaccines against avian infectious bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Bande, Faruku; Arshad, Siti Suri; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Moeini, Hassan; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a widely distributed poultry disease that has huge economic impact on poultry industry. The continuous emergence of new IBV genotypes and lack of cross protection among different IBV genotypes have been an important challenge. Although live attenuated IB vaccines remarkably induce potent immune response, the potential risk of reversion to virulence, neutralization by the maternal antibodies, and recombination and mutation events are important concern on their usage. On the other hand, inactivated vaccines induce a weaker immune response and may require multiple dosing and/or the use of adjuvants that probably have potential safety risks and increased economic burdens. Consequently, alternative IB vaccines are widely sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology have resulted in experimental IB vaccines that show promise in antibody and T-cells responses, comparable to live attenuated vaccines. Recombinant DNA vaccines have also been enhanced to target multiple serotypes and their efficacy has been improved using delivery vectors, nanoadjuvants, and in ovo vaccination approaches. Although most recombinant IB DNA vaccines are yet to be licensed, it is expected that these types of vaccines may hold sway as future vaccines for inducing a cross protection against multiple IBV serotypes.

  11. Structural basis for dimerization and RNA binding of avian infectious bronchitis virus nsp9.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingting; Chen, Cheng; Li, Huiyan; Dou, Yanshu; Zhou, Ming; Lu, Deren; Zong, Qi; Li, Yulei; Yang, Cheng; Zhong, Zhihui; Singh, Namit; Hu, Honggang; Zhang, Rundong; Yang, Haitao; Su, Dan

    2017-03-03

    The potential for infection by coronaviruses (CoVs) has become a serious concern with the recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the human population. CoVs encode two large polyproteins, which are then processed into 15-16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that make significant contributions to viral replication and transcription by assembling the RNA replicase complex. Among them, nsp9 plays an essential role in viral replication by forming a homodimer that binds single-stranded RNA. Thus, disrupting nsp9 dimerization is a potential anti-CoV therapy. However, different nsp9 dimer forms have been reported for alpha- and beta-CoVs, and no structural information is available for gamma-CoVs. Here we determined the crystal structure of nsp9 from the avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a representative gamma-CoV that affects the economy of the poultry industry because it can infect domestic fowl. IBV nsp9 forms a homodimer via interactions across a hydrophobic interface, which consists of two parallel alpha helices near the carboxy terminus of the protein. The IBV nsp9 dimer resembles that of SARS-CoV nsp9, indicating that this type of dimerization is conserved among all CoVs. This makes disruption of the dimeric interface an excellent strategy for developing anti-CoV therapies. To facilitate this effort, we characterized the roles of six conserved residues on this interface using site-directed mutagenesis and a multitude of biochemical and biophysical methods. We found that three residues are critical for nsp9 dimerization and its abitlity to bind RNA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular characterization of avian infectious bronchitis virus strains isolated in Colombia during 2003.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, I R; Villegas, P; Mossos, N; Jackwood, M W

    2005-12-01

    Sixteen infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates were recovered from broilers and layers from five geographic poultry regions in Colombia. The viruses were isolated from tracheas, lungs, and cecal tonsils of birds, previously vaccinated with the Massachusetts strain, that were showing respiratory signs. Further analysis of the IBV isolates was achieved by phylogenetic analysis comparing their deduced amino acid sequences in the hypervariable region 1 of the S1 gene with reference strains. Four unique genotype clusters containing isolates with indigenous genotypes were observed. One isolate was found to be the Connecticut genotype and three isolates were found to be the Massachusetts genotype.

  13. Identification of sequence changes responsible for the attenuation of avian infectious bronchitis virus strain Arkansas DPI.

    PubMed

    Ammayappan, Arun; Upadhyay, Chitra; Gelb, Jack; Vakharia, Vikram N

    2009-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causal agent of infectious bronchitis, which still remains one of the most important poultry diseases worldwide because of numerous serotypes and variants. A virulent strain of IBV, isolated from Arkansas (Ark), was propagated in embryonated eggs (Ark DPI 11). Following 101 serial passages in embryonated eggs, an attenuated strain of IBV was established (Ark DPI 101) that does not induce histopathological lesions in the tracheae of infected chicks. To identify sequence changes responsible for the attenuation of IBV, complete genome sequences of both virulent and attenuated Ark DPI viruses were obtained. Comparison of the genome sequences of the virulent and attenuated Ark DPI viruses reveals that these viruses are similar and differ only by 21 nucleotides, resulting in 17 amino acids changes. Most of those substitutions are located in the replicase 1a and spike genes. No differences were observed in gene 3, M or 5a, and only one nucleotide substitution each was present in 5b, N and 3'UTR. By comparing the deduced amino acid sequences of virulent and attenuated viruses, we identified sequence changes responsible for the adaptation and attenuation of the IBV-Ark DPI strain.

  14. Prevalence of avian infectious bronchitis virus in broiler chicken farms in south of Iraq, 2014 – 2015

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Waleed; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid; Madadgar, Omid; Vasfi Marandi, Mehdi; Hashemzadeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis (IB), caused by a gammacoronavirus, is an OIE-listed (List B) disease and characterized by respiratory and renal involvements, causing high mortality, and economic loss in both layers and broilers. In comparison with other diagnostic methods, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and conventional RT-PCR are potent, more sensitive and faster techniques for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) detection. This research was conducted to detect IBV using specific primers of IB in three governorates (Basra, Thi-Qar and Muthana) in the south of Iraq. Tracheal specimens were collected from 46 IB suspected commercial broiler flocks. XCE2+ and XCE2- Primers, which amplify all IBV serotypes, were used. Primers MCE1+, BCE1+ and DCE1+ were used to amplify the specific nucleotide sequences of Massachusetts, 793/B and D274 genotypes, respectively. The results of real-time RT-PCR of this study showed that 34 (74.00%) out of 46 infected flocks were positive to IBV. The results of nested PCR showed that 50.00% and 5.89% of positive samples were belonged to genotypes 793/B and Massachusetts, respectively, and the remaining positive (44.11%) were unknown. The results indicate presence of Massachusetts and 793/B IBV strains in commercial broilers in southern Iraq. PMID:28144423

  15. The isolation and characterisation of six avian infectious bronchitis viruses isolated in Morocco.

    PubMed

    El-Houadfi, M; Jones, R C; Cook, J K; Ambali, A G

    1986-01-01

    The first isolation and characterisation of infectious bronchitis (IB) viruses from poultry flocks in Morocco are reported. Five isolates designated D, E, F, H and M were related serologically to the Massachusetts serotype, while the sixth, isolate G, was found to be different from any previously reported serotype of IB virus. Neutralising antibodies to isolate G have been detected in sera collected from commercial flocks in Britain, although the virus has not been isolated. While all six isolates caused respiratory disease typical of IB in experimentally infected 3-week-old specified pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, isolate G was unusual in that it could be isolated from several parts of the alimentary tract for up to 21 days post inoculation, and from the duodenum up to 28 days. H120 vaccines protected chicks challenged with isolates E and F but not isolate G.

  16. Identification of Taiwan and China-like recombinant avian infectious bronchitis viruses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Huang, Yuan-Pin; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2009-03-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infections in poultry cause great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The emergence of viral variants complicates disease control. The IBV strains in Taiwan were clustered into two groups, Taiwan group I and Taiwan group II, based on the S1 gene. A variant was previously identified and showed a distinct S1 gene homology with other local strains. This study investigated the 3' 7.3 kb genome of eight Taiwan strains isolated from 1992 to 2007. The genes of interest were directly sequenced. Sequence analyses were performed to detect any recombination event among IBVs. The results demonstrated that all of the examined viruses maintained the typical IBV genome organization as 5'-S-3a-3b-E-M-5a-5b-N-UTR-3'. In the phylogenetic analyses, various genes from one strain were clustered into separate groups. Moreover, frequent recombination events were identified in the Simplot analyses among the Taiwan and China CK/CH/LDL/97I-type strains. Putative crossover sites were located in the S1, S2, 3b, M genes and the intergenic region between the M and 5a genes. All of the recombinants showed chimeric IBV genome arrangements originated from Taiwan and China-like parental strains. Field IBVs in Taiwan undergo genetic recombination and evolution.

  17. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2003-12-01

    Vaccines against infectious bronchitis of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) have arguably been the most successful, and certainly the most widely used, of vaccines for diseases caused by coronaviruses, the others being against bovine, canine, feline and porcine coronaviruses. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), together with the genetically related coronaviruses of turkey (Meleagris gallopovo) and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a group 3 coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus being tentatively in group 4, the other known mammalian coronaviruses being in groups 1 and 2. IBV replicates not only in respiratory tissues (including the nose, trachea, lungs and airsacs, causing respiratory disease), but also in the kidney (associated with minor or major nephritis), oviduct, and in many parts of the alimentary tract--the oesophagus, proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsils (near the distal end of the tract), rectum and cloaca (the common opening for release of eggs and faeces), usually without clinical effects. The virus can persist, being re-excreted at the onset of egg laying (4 to 5 months of age), believed to be a consequence of the stress of coming into lay. Genetic lines of chickens differ in the extent to which IBV causes mortality in chicks, and in respect of clearance of the virus after the acute phase. Live attenuated (by passage in chicken embryonated eggs) IBV strains were introduced as vaccines in the 1950s, followed a couple of decades later by inactivated vaccines for boosting protection in egg-laying birds. Live vaccines are usually applied to meat-type chickens at 1 day of age. In experimental situations this can result in sterile immunity when challenged by virulent homologous virus. Although 100% of chickens may be protected (against clinical signs and loss of ciliary activity in trachea), sometimes 10% of vaccinated chicks do not respond with a protective immune response

  18. Differential modulation of avian β-defensin and Toll-like receptor expression in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Zhang, Tingting; Xu, Qianqian; Han, Zongxi; Liang, Shuling; Shao, Yuhao; Ma, Deying; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-11-01

    The host innate immune response either clears invading viruses or allows the adaptive immune system to establish an effective antiviral response. In this study, both pathogenic (passage 3, P3) and attenuated (P110) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains were used to study the immune responses of chicken to IBV infection. Expression of avian β-defensins (AvBDs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in 16 tissues of chicken were compared at 7 days PI. The results showed that P3 infection upregulated the expression of AvBDs, including AvBD2, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12, while P110 infection downregulated the expression of AvBDs, including AvBD3, 4, 5, 6, and 9 in most tissues. Meanwhile, the expression level of several TLRs showed a general trend of upregulation in the tissues of P3-infected chickens, while they were downregulated in the tissues of P110-infected chickens. The result suggested that compared with the P110 strain, the P3 strain induced a more pronounced host innate immune response. Furthermore, we observed that recombinant AvBDs (including 2, 6, and 12) demonstrated obvious anti-viral activity against IBV in vitro. Our findings contribute to the proposal that IBV infection induces an increase in the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of some AvBDs and TLRs, which suggests that AvBDs may play significant roles in the resistance of chickens to IBV replication.

  19. Emergence of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus and its variants need better diagnosis, prevention and control strategies: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Desingu, P A; Chakraborty, Sandip; Tiwari, Ruchi; Kumar, M Asok

    2014-06-01

    Growth in poultry sector is being challenged due to increased incidence and re-emergence of diseases caused due to evolution of several viral pathogens and use of live vaccines. Piles of economic losses are encountered due to these diseases. Avian Infectious Bronchitis (IB), caused by Corona virus, is OIE-listed disease and characterized by respiratory, renal and urogenital involvements, causing high mortality. Economic losses are encountered due to loss of productive performance of both egg and meat-type chickens. Variant viruses evolve due to spontaneous mutations and recombinations, causing disease in vaccinated flocks of all ages. Serotyping and genotyping are the common methods of classification of IBV strains. The virus has 4 clusters, grouped into 7 serotypes and the most important strains are Massachusetts, Connecticut, Arkansas, Gray, Holte and Florida along with numerous others, distributed round the globe. Several conventional and molecular diagnostic methods have been described for the diagnosis of IB in chickens. 'All-in/all-out' operations of rearing along with good biosafety measures forms the basis of prevention, whereas vaccination forms the backbone of IB control programme. Both live and inactivated (oil emulsified) conventional vaccines are available. The new generation vaccines (recombinant and vector-based) developed against locally prevailing IBV strains may be more helpful and avoid the reversion of virulence in live vaccine viruses. The present review deals with all these perspectives of this important emerging poultry pathogen.

  20. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in avian influenza negative birds from live bird markets and backyard and commercial farms in Ivory-Coast.

    PubMed

    Kouakou, A V; Kouakou, V; Kouakou, C; Godji, P; Kouassi, A L; Krou, H A; Langeois, Q; Webby, R J; Ducatez, M F; Couacy-Hymann, E

    2015-10-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two major viral diseases affecting the respiratory tracts of birds and whose impact on African poultry is still poorly known. In the present study we aimed at assessing NDV and IBV prevalences in Ivory-Coast by molecular screening of >22,000 avian swabs by nested PCR and by serology testing of close to 2000 avian sera from 2010 through 2012. The NDV and IBV seroprevalences over the study period reached 22% and 72%, respectively. We found 14.7% pooled swabs positive by PCR for NDV and 14.6% for IBV. Both pathogens are therefore endemic in Ivory-Coast. Economic losses associated with NDV and IBV infections still need to be evaluated.

  1. Lactococcus lactis anchoring avian infectious bronchitis virus multi-epitope peptide EpiC induced specific immune responses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hai-Peng; Wang, Hong-Ning; Yang, Xin; Zhang, An-Yun; Li, Xin; Ding, Meng-Die; Liu, Si-Tong; Zhang, Zhi-Kun; Yang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal immunity is critical in preventing infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection. To deliver viral antigens to the mucosal immune system of chickens safely and effectively, we constructed a Lactococcus lactis strain carrying IBV multi-epitope gene EpiC fused with the gene of the cell-wall anchoring domain of Staphylococcus aureus protein A. SDS-PAGE and Western blot results indicated that the fused peptide was located partially on the cell surface. Oral and nasal inoculation with the recombinant L. lactis of chickens elicited significantly high humoral and mucosal immune responses, especially in the nasally immunized group. Eighty percent chickens of the nasally immunized group with recombinant L. lactis did not show any clinical signs after a lethal dose challenge with IBV SAIBk strain, while all the non-recombinant L. lactis immunized chickens exhibited obvious and typical symptoms. These results indicate that needle-free recombinant lactococci anchoring the IBV antigen makes a promising vaccine candidate against the spread of IB.

  2. Immunohistochemistry for detection of avian infectious bronchitis virus strain M41 in the proventriculus and nervous system of experimentally infected chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; Zlotowski, Priscila; Veits, Jutta; Keil, Günther M; Teifke, Jens P

    2009-01-01

    Background Infectious bronchitis virus primarily induces a disease of the respiratory system, different IBV strains may show variable tissue tropisms and also affect the oviduct and the kidneys. Proventriculitis was also associated with some new IBV strains. Aim of this study was to investigate by immunohistochemistry (IHC) the tissue tropism of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain M41 in experimentally infected chicken embryos. Results To this end chicken embryos were inoculated in the allantoic sac with 103 EID50 of IBV M41 at 10 days of age. At 48, 72, and 120 h postinoculation (PI), embryos and chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) were sampled, fixed, and paraffin-wax embedded. Allantoic fluid was also collected and titrated in chicken embryo kidney cells (CEK). The sensitivity of IHC in detecting IBV antigens in the CAM of inoculated eggs matched the virus reisolation and detection in CEK. Using IHC, antigens of IBV were detected in nasal epithelium, trachea, lung, spleen, myocardial vasculature, liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, skin, sclera of the eye, spinal cord, as well as in brain neurons of the inoculated embryos. These results were consistent with virus isolation and denote the wide tissue tropism of IBV M41 in the chicken embryo. Most importantly, we found infection of vasculature and smooth muscle of the proventriculus which has not seen before with IBV strain M41. Conclusion IHC can be an additional useful tool for diagnosis of IBV infection in chickens and allows further studies to foster a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of infections with IBV strains of different virulence. Moreover, these results underline that embryonic tissues in addition to CAM could be also used as possible source to generate IBV antigens for diagnostic purposes. PMID:19196466

  3. Expression of avian infectious bronchitis virus multi-epitope based peptide EpiC in Lactococcus lactis for oral immunization of chickens.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hai-Peng; Wang, Hong-Ning; Zhang, An-Yun; Ding, Meng-Die; Liu, Si-Tong; Cheng, Han; Zhou, Ying-Shun; Li, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) multi-epitope based peptide EpiC was found to be effective in inducing strong humoral and cellular responses against IBV. In this study, the gene EpiC was introduced into Lactococcus lactis NZ3900, and three recombinant strains expressing EpiC in intracellular and extracellular forms were constructed. SDS-PAGE and Western blot results indicated that EpiC was successfully expressed and had good immunoreactivity with chicken anti-IBV serum. Fusion of the signal pepitide gene SPusp45 and the nine-peptide LEISSTCDA encoding oligonucleotide to EpiC increased the secretion of EpiC, but reduced the total yields of EpiC. Oral immunization to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with recombinant strains induced significantly higher levels of humoral immune responses, and provided protection against lethal dose challenge by the IBV SAIBk strain. These results indicate that it is feasible to use L. lactis as an antigen delivery vehicle in developing oral vaccines against IBV infection.

  4. Heterotypic protection to infectious bronchitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing a distinct spike (S) protein gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). This recombinant vaccine technology confers cross-protection among different IBV strains. We also experimentally demonstrated that the recombinant construct main...

  5. Prevalence and molecular characterization of avian infectious bronchitis virus in poultry flocks in Morocco from 2010 to 2014 and first detection of Italy 02 in Africa.

    PubMed

    Fellahi, Siham; Ducatez, Mariette; El Harrak, Mehdi; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Touil, Nadia; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Bouaiti, El Arbi; Khataby, Khadija; Ennaji, My Mustapha; El-Houadfi, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and diversity of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) genotypes in poultry flocks in 16 areas of Morocco between 2010 and 2014. A total of 360 chicken flocks suspected of being infected by IBV were screened for the IBV N gene using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Flocks were classified into four groups according to their IBV vaccination programme. Group 1 contained unvaccinated birds. Group 2 received a single application of live H120 vaccine. Groups 3 and 4 birds received one or two booster vaccination(s), respectively, mostly using the H120 vaccine. The real-time RT-PCR results showed that 51.7% of the flocks were positive for the IBV genome with geographical disparities. Molecular characterization of IBV was performed on 50 RT-PCR positive samples by partially sequencing the S1 gene, including the hypervariable regions (nucleotides 705-1097). Two predominant genotypes were detected, with the Massachusetts type dominating (66%), among which 25% of the samples were identical to the H120 vaccine. The second most common genotype (present in 32% of the flocks) was surprisingly Italy 02, revealing the first detection of this genotype in Morocco and also in Africa. 793B, the predominant genotype in the late 1990s in Morocco, was only detected on one occasion and was identical to the 4/91 vaccine strain. This study highlights the high prevalence of IBV in poultry farms in Morocco and confirms its continuous dynamic changes and evolution.

  6. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  7. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  8. Factors influencing the outcome of infectious bronchitis vaccination and challenge experiments.

    PubMed

    de Wit, J J Sjaak; Cook, Jane K A

    2014-01-01

    The factors influencing the outcome of infectious bronchitis vaccination and challenge experiments regarding the respiratory and renal systems are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of the available techniques for measuring protection against an infectious bronchitis virus challenge are discussed, including the definition of protection itself. Suggestions are made regarding some ways in which progress towards standardization of a recognized protocol for performing experimental challenge studies can be made and areas where more work is needed are indicated.

  9. High-level protein expression following single and dual gene cloning of infectious bronchitis virus N and S genes using baculovirus systems.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; Giesow, Katrin; Keil, Günther M

    2014-03-01

    Baculovirus is an efficient system for the gene expression that can be used for gene transfer to both insect and different vertebrate hosts. The nucleocapsid gene (N) of the infectious bronchitis virus was cloned in a baculovirus expression system for insect cell expression. Dual expression vectors containing IBV N and spike (S) proteins of the avian infectious bronchitis virus were engineered under the control of human and murine cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer/promoter elements in combination with the baculoviral polyhedrin and p10 promoters for simultaneous expression in both vertebrate and insect cells. Transduction of the N gene in the insect Sf9 cells revealed a high level of protein expression. The expressed protein, used in ELISA, effectively detected chicken anti-IBV antibodies with high specificity. Transduction of mammalian and avian cells with BacMam viruses revealed that dual expression cassettes yielded high levels of protein from both transcription units.

  10. Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when symptoms get much worse than usual. Chronic bronchitis is a serious, long-term medical condition. Early diagnosis and treatment, combined with quitting smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke, ...

  11. Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... delicate, mucus-producing lining covers and protects the respiratory system (the organs and tissues involved in breathing). When ... germs get through the cilia and other defense systems in the respiratory tract and can cause illness. Bronchitis can be ...

  12. Neutralization Analysis of a Chicken Single-Chain Variable Fragment Derived from an Immune Antibody Library Against Infectious Bronchitis Virus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Li, Benqiang; Ye, Jiaxin; Wang, Man; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-09-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which is prevalent in many countries causing severe economic loss to the poultry industry, causes infectious bronchitis (IB) in birds. Recombinant single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) have been proven to effectively inhibit many viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, and they could be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic reagent to control IB. In this study, six anti-IBV chicken scFvs, ZL.10, ZL.64, ZL.78, ZL.80, ZL.138, and ZL.256, were obtained by screening random clones from an immune antibody library. An analysis of nucleotide sequences revealed that they represented distinctive genetic sequences and greatly varied in complementarity-determining region three of the heavy chain. Neutralization tests showed that ZL.10, which bound the S1 protein in western blots, inhibited the formation of syncytia in Vero cells 48 h post IBV infection and decreased the transcriptional level of nucleoprotein mRNA to 17.2%, while the other five scFvs, including ZL.78 and ZL.256, that bound the N protein did not. In conclusion, the results suggested that specific and neutralizing chicken scFvs against IBV, which can be safe and economical antibody reagents, can be produced in vitro through prokaryotic expression.

  13. Distribution of infectious bronchitis virus strains in different organs and evidence of vertical transmission in natural infection.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Claiton Gonçalves; Saraiva, Giuliana Loreto; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Bressan, Gustavo Costa; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Júnior, Abelardo Silva

    2016-12-01

    On the basis of partial sequencing of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 gene, this study investigated the molecular diversity of the virus in two life periods of a batch of breeding hens at the field level. The chicks were vaccinated against IBV on the second day of life with the vaccine Ma5, but at the age of 18 days, they exhibited clinical signs and macroscopic lesions compatible with avian infectious bronchitis (IB). In the clinical disease stage, the Ma5 vaccine strain was detected in the trachea, lungs, and small intestine of the chicks, while IBV variants were detected in the bursa of Fabricius and kidneys. Subsequently, new samples were collected from the same batch at the end of the production cycle. In this phase, the Ma5 vaccine strain was detected in the kidneys, small intestine, and oviduct of the hens. However, a previously unidentified IBV variant was found in the cecal tonsils. Additionally, a fragment of viral RNA with that was completely identical to the corresponding region of the Ma5 vaccine was detected in the allantoic fluid of viable embryos from the hens under study after 18 days of incubation. These findings suggest that, in addition to the Ma5 vaccine, other strains of IBV variants can coexist, seeming to establish a chronic infection in the chickens, and that they can potentially be transmitted vertically. These results may assist in immunoprophylaxis control programs against IBV.

  14. S2 expressed from recombinant virus confers broad protection against infectious bronchitis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously demonstrated that overexposing the IBV (infectious bronchitis virus) S2 to the chicken immune system by means of a vectored vaccine, followed by boost with whole virus, protects chickens against IBV showing dissimilar S1. We developed recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (...

  15. Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus Inhibits STAT1 Signaling and Requires Accessory Proteins for Resistance to Type I Interferon Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kint, Joeri; Dickhout, Annemiek; Kutter, Jasmin; Maier, Helena J.; Britton, Paul; Koumans, Joseph; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fros, Jelke J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The innate immune response is the first line of defense against viruses, and type I interferon (IFN) is a critical component of this response. Similar to other viruses, the gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has evolved under evolutionary pressure to evade and counteract the IFN response to enable its survival. Previously, we reported that IBV induces a delayed activation of the IFN response. In the present work, we describe the resistance of IBV to IFN and the potential role of accessory proteins herein. We show that IBV is fairly resistant to the antiviral state induced by IFN and identify that viral accessory protein 3a is involved in resistance to IFN, as its absence renders IBV less resistant to IFN treatment. In addition to this, we found that independently of its accessory proteins, IBV inhibits IFN-mediated phosphorylation and translocation of STAT1. In summary, we show that IBV uses multiple strategies to counteract the IFN response. IMPORTANCE In the present study, we show that infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is resistant to IFN treatment and identify a role for accessory protein 3a in the resistance against the type I IFN response. We also demonstrate that, in a time-dependent manner, IBV effectively interferes with IFN signaling and that its accessory proteins are dispensable for this activity. This study demonstrates that the gammacoronavirus IBV, similar to its mammalian counterparts, has evolved multiple strategies to efficiently counteract the IFN response of its avian host, and it identifies accessory protein 3a as multifaceted antagonist of the avian IFN system. PMID:26401035

  16. Detection and identification of infectious bronchitis virus by RT-PCR in Iran.

    PubMed

    Homayounimehr, Alireza; Pakbin, Ahmad; Momayyez, Reza; Fatemi, Seyyedeh Mahsa Rastegar

    2016-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe diseases in poultry with significant economic consequences to the poultry industry in Iran. The aim of this study was the detection and identification of IBV by reverse transcription(RT)-PCR in Iran. Ten IB virus strains were detected by testing trachea, cecal tonsil, and kidney tissues collected from broiler and layer farms in Iran. In order to detect infectious bronchitis virus, an optimized RT-PCR was used. Primers targeting the conserved region of known IBV serotypes were used in the RT-PCR assay. Primers selectively detecting Massachusetts and 793/B type IB viruses were designed to amplify the S1 gene of the virus and used in the nested PCR test. Our findings indicate the circulation of at least three genotypes of IB viruses (Massachusetts, 793/B, and variant 2) among poultry flocks.

  17. The genotyping of infectious bronchitis virus in Taiwan by a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shr-Wei; Ho, Chia-Fang; Chan, Kun-Wei; Cheng, Min-Chung; Shien, Jui-Hung; Liu, Hung-Jen; Wang, Chi-Young

    2014-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV; Avian coronavirus) causes acute respiratory and reproductive and urogenital diseases in chickens. Following sequence alignment of IBV strains, a combination of selective primer sets was designed to individually amplify the IBV wild-type and vaccine strains using a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (ARMS RT-PCR) approach. This system was shown to discriminate the IBV wild-type and vaccine strains. Moreover, an ARMS real-time RT-PCR (ARMS qRT-PCR) was combined with a high-resolution analysis (HRMA) to establish a melt curve analysis program. The specificity of the ARMS RT-PCR and the ARMS qRT-PCR was verified using unrelated avian viruses. Different melting temperatures and distinct normalized and shifted melting curve patterns for the IBV Mass, IBV H120, IBV TW-I, and IBV TW-II strains were detected. The new assays were used on samples of lung and trachea as well as virus from allantoic fluid and cell culture. In addition to being able to detect the presence of IBV vaccine and wild-type strains by ARMS RT-PCR, the IBV Mass, IBV H120, IBV TW-I, and IBV TW-II strains were distinguished using ARMS qRT-PCR by their melting temperatures and by HRMA. These approaches have acceptable sensitivities and specificities and therefore should be able to serve as options when carrying out differential diagnosis of IBV in Taiwan and China.

  18. Pathogenicity of a TW-Like Strain of Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Evaluation of the Protection Induced against It by a QX-Like Strain

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shi-hong; Chen, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Gang; Zhao, Ye; Zhang, Guo-zhong

    2016-01-01

    Avian infectious bronchitis, a highly contagious disease caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), is of considerable economic importance to the poultry industry. New IBV TW-like strains have increasingly emerged in China in recent years; hence, evaluating their pathogenicity and developing a specific vaccine to guard against their potential threat to the poultry industry is important. Here, we examined the pathogenicity of a TW-like IBV strain (GD), and evaluated the protective efficacy of the QX-like strain (JS) against GD in challenge infections in chickens. The results revealed that strain-GD-infected birds experienced severe respiratory signs, renal lesions, and 30–40% mortality. The GD virus had extensive tissue tropism, especially in the trachea, lungs, kidneys, and bursa of Fabricius, and was continuously shed via the respiratory tract and cloaca. The QX-like IBV strain JS is able to completely protect chickens from challenge with the TW-like IBV GD field strain, with no clinical signs or gross lesions, decreased tissue replication rates, lower ciliostasis score, and reduced virus shedding. These findings indicate that IBV GD is highly virulent, and that QX-like JS may serve as an effective vaccine against the threat posed by IBV TW-like viruses. PMID:27803698

  19. Serotype shift of a 793/B genotype infectious bronchitis coronavirus by natural recombination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Xu, Qianqian; Wang, Qiuling; Gao, Mengying; Wu, Wei; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-06-01

    An infectious bronchitis coronavirus, designated as ck/CH/LHLJ/140906, was isolated from an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain H120-vaccinated chicken flock, which presented with a suspected infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection. A phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 gene clustered ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 with the 793/B group; however, a pairwise comparison showed that the 5' terminal of the S1 gene (containing hypervariable regions I and II) had high sequence identity with the H120 strain, while the 3' terminal sequence was very similar to that of IBV 4/91 strain. A SimPlot analysis of the complete genomic sequence, which was confirmed by a phylogenetic analysis and nucleotide similarities using the corresponding gene fragments, suggested that isolate ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 emerged from multiple recombination events between parental IBV strains 4/91 and H120. Although the isolate ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 had slightly higher S1 amino acid sequence identity to strain 4/91 (88.2%) than to strain H120 (86%), the serotype of the virus was more closely related to that of the H120 strain (32% antigenic relatedness) than to the 4/91 strain (15% antigenic relatedness). Whereas, vaccination of specific pathogen-free chickens with the 4/91 vaccine provided better protection against challenge with ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 than did vaccination with the H120 strain according to the result of virus re-isolation. As the spike protein, especially in the hypervariable regions of the S1 domain, of IBVs contains viral neutralizing epitopes, the results of this study showed that recombination of the S1 domain resulted in the emergence of a new serotype.

  20. Identification of an infectious bronchitis coronavirus strain exhibiting a classical genotype but altered antigenicity, pathogenicity, and innate immunity profile

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Yi; Li, Yao-Tsun; Chen, You-Ting; Chen, Ting-Chih; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Chen, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses economic threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Pathogenic IBV 3575/08 was isolated from broilers vaccinated with the attenuated viral vaccine derived from a Taiwan strain 2575/98. In this study, extensive investigations were conducted on the genome sequences, antigenicity, pathogenicity, and host immune responses of several IBV strains in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Sequence analyses revealed that 3575/08 and 2575/98 shared high homology in their structural genes, but not in non-structural accessory proteins such as 3a, 3b and 5b. Despite a high degree of homology in their spike protein genes, cross neutralization test showed low cross protection between 3575/08 and 2575/98, suggesting distinct antigenicity for the two strains. Animal challenge experiments exhibited strong respiratory and renal pathogenicity for 3575/08. In addition, early and prolonged viral shedding and rapid viral dissemination were observed. Immune gene expression profiling by PCR array showed chickens infected with 3575/08 had delayed expression of a subset of early innate immune genes, whereas chickens infected with the wild-type or attenuated-type 2575/08 revealed quick gene induction and efficient virus control. In summary, this study reveals a new IBV strain, which harbors a known local genotype but displays remarkably altered antigenicity, pathogenicity and host defenses. PMID:27876864

  1. In vivo evaluation of the pathogenicity of field isolates of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Avellaneda, G E; Villegas, P; Jackwood, M W; King, D J

    1994-01-01

    The pathogenicity of 13 field isolates of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolated from Georgia broiler farms from 1989 to 1992 was evaluated using the IBV and Escherichia coli mixed-infection model. Based on the clinical signs, mortality, and lesions, the isolates were classified as high, intermediate, and low in pathogenicity. The in vivo classification was compared with the serotype classification results obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The high-pathogenicity group was composed of five isolates representing three serotypes: Arkansas, Georgia variant (GAV), and Massachusetts. Isolates in the intermediate- and low-pathogenicity groups were all representatives of the Connecticut serotype, except for one isolate, which belonged to the Massachusetts serotype.

  2. The protective immune response against infectious bronchitis virus induced by multi-epitope based peptide vaccines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tai; Wang, Hong-Ning; Wang, Xue; Tang, Jun-Ni; Lu, Dan; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Guo, Zi-Cheng; Li, Yu-Ling; Gao, Rong; Kang, Run-Min

    2009-07-01

    Peptide vaccine was found to be an effective and powerful approach to a variety of pathogens. To explore multi-epitope based peptide vaccines against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the immunogenic peptides were fused to the 3' terminal of glutathione S transferase gene (GST) and expressed in Escherichia coli. ELISA and Western blot analysis showed that the purified fusion proteins had excellent immune activity with chicken anti-IBV serum. During the vaccination course, the candidate peptide vaccines induced strong humoral and cellular response, and provided up to 80.0% immune protection, while all non-immunized chickens in the negative control group manifested obvious typical symptoms and died after virus challenge. Our finding provides a new way to develop multi-epitope based peptide vaccine against IBV.

  3. A novel variant of the infectious bronchitis virus resulting from recombination events in Italy and Spain.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ana; Franzo, G; Massi, P; Tosi, G; Blanco, A; Antilles, N; Biarnes, M; Majó, N; Nofrarías, M; Dolz, R; Lelli, D; Sozzi, E; Lavazza, A; Cecchinato, M

    2017-02-01

    Infectious bronchitis is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases in poultry. Control of its spread is typically attempted through biosecurity measures and extensive vaccination. However, the remarkable genetic and antigenic variability of the virus, which originate from both mutations and recombination events, represents an unsolved challenge for this disease. The present study reports on the emergence and spread of recombinant clusters detected in Italy and Spain between 2012 and 2014. A total of 36 Spanish and Italian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) field strains were investigated and genetically characterized using phylogenetic, molecular, recombination and selection pressure analyses of the complete S1 gene. Based on the partial S1 sequencing, 27 IBV strains originating from Spain and nine from Italy were initially classified as being closely related to the Guandong/Xindadi (XDN) genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete S1 gene revealed that the XDN strains formed a homogeneous clade with the Spanish IBV isolates within the QX genotype, whereas there was higher variability within the Italian strains. Recombination analysis determined that these strains belonged to four groups, which originated from independent recombination events between the QX and 793B IBV genotypes. Our data support the hypothesis of two different scenarios: firstly, in Spain, the large and homogeneous clade probably originated from a single offspring of the recombinant founder, which became dominant and spread throughout the country. Secondly, the nine Italian recombinants, which are characterized by three different recombination patterns, probably represent less fitted strains, because they were less viable with respect to their recombinant parents.

  4. Heterologous live infectious bronchitis virus vaccination in day-old commercial broiler chicks: clinical signs, ciliary health, immune responses and protection against variant infectious bronchitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faez; Hutton, Sally; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Groups of one-day-old broiler chicks were vaccinated via the oculo-nasal route with different live infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines: Massachusetts (Mass), 793B, D274 or Arkansas (Ark). Clinical signs and gross lesions were evaluated. Five chicks from each group were humanely killed at intervals and their tracheas collected for ciliary activity assessment and for the detection of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Blood samples were collected at intervals for the detection of anti-IBV antibodies. At 21 days post-vaccination (dpv), protection conferred by different vaccination regimes against virulent M41, QX and 793B was assessed. All vaccination programmes were able to induce high levels of CD4+, CD8+ and IgA-bearing B cells in the trachea. Significantly higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ expression were observed in the Mass2 + 793B2-vaccinated group compared to the other groups (subscripts indicate different manufacturers). Protection studies showed that the group of chicks vaccinated with Mass2 + 793B2 produced 92% ciliary protection against QX challenge; compared to 53%, 68% and 73% ciliary protection against the same challenge virus by Mass1 + D274, Mass1 + 793B1 and Mass3 + Ark, respectively. All vaccination programmes produced more than 85% ciliary protection against M41 and 793B challenges. It appears that the variable levels of protection provided by different heterologous live IBV vaccinations are dependent on the levels of local tracheal immunity induced by the respective vaccine combination. The Mass2 + 793B2 group showed the worst clinical signs, higher mortality and severe lesions following vaccination, but had the highest tracheal immune responses and demonstrated the best protection against all three challenge viruses.

  5. Infectious bronchitis virus and brown shell colour: Australian strains of infectious bronchitis virus affect brown eggshell colour in commercial laying hens differently.

    PubMed

    Samiullah, Sami; Roberts, Juliet; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess any effect of wild and vaccine Australian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains on shell colour in brown-shelled eggs. In Experiment 1, eggs were collected from day 1 to day 13 post-inoculation (p.i.) from unvaccinated laying hens challenged with IBV wild strains T and N1/88 and from a negative control group of hens. In Experiment 2, eggs were collected from 2 to 22 days p.i. from unvaccinated and vaccinated laying hens challenged with either a wild or a vaccine strain of IBV. In Experiment 1, there was a significant effect (P < 0.05) of day p.i. and of viral strain on shell reflectivity, L* and protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) in eggshells, with and without cuticle. The mean PP IX/g of shell with and without cuticle was significantly higher on day 1 p.i. compared to day 7, after which PP IX increased with day p.i. In Experiment 2, shell reflectivity and L* increased and PP IX decreased with increased day p.i. until day 12. Shell reflectivity and L* decreased slightly after day 12 and increased again towards day 22. Shell reflectivity, L* and PP IX were not significantly different for eggshells from unvaccinated and vaccinated laying hens in the intact eggshell, but were significantly different in shells from which cuticle had been removed. In conclusion, the IBV strains reduced the intensity of brown shell colour to different extents with a lower amount of PP IX in eggshells.

  6. Establishment of reverse genetics system for infectious bronchitis virus attenuated vaccine strain H120.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying Shun; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Hong Ning; Fan, Wen Qiao; Yang, Xin; Zhang, An Yun; Zeng, Fan Ya; Zhang, Zhi Kun; Cao, Hai Peng; Zeng, Cheng

    2013-02-22

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain H120 was successfully rescued as infectious clone by reverse genetics. Thirteen 1.5-2.8 kb fragments contiguously spanning the virus genome were amplified and cloned into pMD19-T. Transcription grade complete length cDNA was acquired by a modified "No See'm" ligation strategy, which employed restriction enzyme Bsa I and BsmB I and ligated more than two fragments in one T4 ligase reaction. The full-length genomic cDNA was transcribed and its transcript was transfected by electroporation into BHK-21 together with the transcript of nucleocapsid gene. At 48 h post transfection, the medium to culture the transfected BHK-21 cells was harvested and inoculated into 10-days old SPF embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) to replicate the rescued virus. After passage of the virus in ECE five times, the rescued H120 virus (R-H120) was successfully recovered. R-H120 was subsequently identified to possess the introduced silent mutation site in its genome. Some biological characteristics of R-H120 such as growth curve, EID50 and HA titers, were tested and all of them were very similar to its parent strain H120. In addition, both R-H120 and H120 induced a comparable titer of HA inhibition (HI) antibody in immunized chickens and also provided up to 85% of immune protection to the chickens that were challenged with Mass41 IBV strain. The present study demonstrated that construction of infectious clone from IBV vaccine strain H120 is possible and IBV-H120 can be use as a vaccine vector for the development of novel vaccines through molecular recombination and the modified reverse genetics approach.

  7. S1 gene-based phylogeny of infectious bronchitis virus: An attempt to harmonize virus classification.

    PubMed

    Valastro, Viviana; Holmes, Edward C; Britton, Paul; Fusaro, Alice; Jackwood, Mark W; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease that results in severe economic losses to the global poultry industry. The virus exists in a wide variety of genetically distinct viral types, and both phylogenetic analysis and measures of pairwise similarity among nucleotide or amino acid sequences have been used to classify IBV strains. However, there is currently no consensus on the method by which IBV sequences should be compared, and heterogeneous genetic group designations that are inconsistent with phylogenetic history have been adopted, leading to the confusing coexistence of multiple genotyping schemes. Herein, we propose a simple and repeatable phylogeny-based classification system combined with an unambiguous and rationale lineage nomenclature for the assignment of IBV strains. By using complete nucleotide sequences of the S1 gene we determined the phylogenetic structure of IBV, which in turn allowed us to define 6 genotypes that together comprise 32 distinct viral lineages and a number of inter-lineage recombinants. Because of extensive rate variation among IBVs, we suggest that the inference of phylogenetic relationships alone represents a more appropriate criterion for sequence classification than pairwise sequence comparisons. The adoption of an internationally accepted viral nomenclature is crucial for future studies of IBV epidemiology and evolution, and the classification scheme presented here can be updated and revised novel S1 sequences should become available.

  8. Comparative anti-infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) activity of (-)-pinene: effect on nucleocapsid (N) protein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiwei; Wu, Nan; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie

    2011-01-25

    In the present study, anti-IBV (infectious bronchitis virus) activities of (-)-pinenes were studied by MTT assay, as well as docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The CC₅₀ values of (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene were above 10 mM. And the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations (TD₀) of (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene were determined as 7.88 ± 0.06 and 6.09 ± 0.31 mM, respectively. The two compounds were found to inhibit IBV with an IC₅₀ of 0.98 ± 0.25 and 1.32 ± 0.11 mM. The MTT assay showed that the inhibitions of (-)-pinenes against IBV appear to occur moderately before entering the cell but are much stronger occur after penetration of the virus into the cell. Molecular simulations indicated that (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene specifically interact with the active site which is located at the N terminus of phosphorylated nucleocapsid (N) protein, with the former being more potent than the latter. The binding energies of them are -36.83 and -35.59 kcal mol-1, respectively. Results presented here may suggest that (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene possess anti-IBV properties, and therefore are a potential source of anti-IBV ingredients for the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Infectious bronchitis viruses with naturally occurring genomic rearrangement and gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Hewson, Kylie A; Ignjatovic, Jagoda; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2011-02-01

    Infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) are group III coronaviruses that infect poultry worldwide. Genetic variations, including whole-gene deletions, are key to IBV evolution. Australian subgroup 2 IBVs contain sequence insertions and multiple gene deletions that have resulted in a substantial genomic divergence from international IBVs. The genomic variations present in Australian IBVs were investigated and compared to those of another group III coronavirus, turkey coronavirus (TCoV). Open reading frames (ORFs) found throughout the genome of Australian IBVs were analogous in sequence and position to TCoV ORFs, except for ORF 4b, which appeared to be translocated to a different position in the subgroup 2 strains. Subgroup 2 strains were previously reported to lack genes 3a, 3b and 5a, with some also lacking 5b. Of these, however, genes 3b and 5b were found to be present but contained various mutations that may affect transcription. In this study, it was found that subgroup 2 IBVs have undergone a more substantial genomic rearrangements than previously thought.

  10. Complete genomic sequence analysis of infectious bronchitis virus Ark DPI strain and its evolution by recombination.

    PubMed

    Ammayappan, Arun; Upadhyay, Chitra; Gelb, Jack; Vakharia, Vikram N

    2008-12-22

    An infectious bronchitis virus Arkansas DPI (Ark DPI) virulent strain was sequenced, analyzed and compared with many different IBV strains and coronaviruses. The genome of Ark DPI consists of 27,620 nucleotides, excluding poly (A) tail, and comprises ten open reading frames. Comparative sequence analysis of Ark DPI with other IBV strains shows striking similarity to the Conn, Gray, JMK, and Ark 99, which were circulating during that time period. Furthermore, comparison of the Ark genome with other coronaviruses demonstrates a close relationship to turkey coronavirus. Among non-structural genes, the 5'untranslated region (UTR), 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro) and the polymerase (RdRp) sequences are 100% identical to the Gray strain. Among structural genes, S1 has 97% identity with Ark 99; S2 has 100% identity with JMK and 96% to Conn; 3b 99%, and 3C to N is 100% identical to Conn strain. Possible recombination sites were found at the intergenic region of spike gene, 3'end of S1 and 3a gene. Independent recombination events may have occurred in the entire genome of Ark DPI, involving four different IBV strains, suggesting that genomic RNA recombination may occur in any part of the genome at number of sites. Hence, we speculate that the Ark DPI strain originated from the Conn strain, but diverged and evolved independently by point mutations and recombination between field strains.

  11. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of air sac lesions induced by two strains of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, A; Mondal, S P; Buckles, E L

    2011-11-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious respiratory coronavirus of domestic chickens. Although mortality is low, infection with IBV results in substantial losses for the egg and meat chicken industries. Despite the economic importance of IBV and decades of research into the pathogenesis of infection, significant gaps in our knowledge exist. The aim of this study was to compare the early progression of air sac lesions in birds receiving a vaccine strain of the virus or a more virulent field strain. The air sacs are lined by different types of epithelia and are relatively isolated from the environment, so they represent a unique tissue in which to study virus-induced lesions. Both the pathogenic and vaccine strains of the virus produced significant lesions; however, the lesions progressed more rapidly in the birds receiving the pathogenic strain. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that in birds infected with the pathogenic strain of virus, IBV spike protein is detected first in the ciliated cells lining the air sac. These preliminary data provide important clues regarding potential mechanisms for IBV tissue tropism and spread and show that the nature of the virus isolate influences the early progression of IBV infection.

  12. Effects of Adaptation of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Arkansas Attenuated Vaccine to Embryonic Kidney Cells.

    PubMed

    Ghetas, A M; Thaxton, G E; Breedlove, C; van Santen, V L; Toro, H

    2015-03-01

    The population structure of an embryo-attenuated infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Arkansas (Ark) Delmarva Poultry Industry (DPI)-derived vaccine was characterized during serial passages in chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cells and after back-passage in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and in chickens. Both conventional and deep-sequencing results consistently showed population changes occurred during adaptation to CEK cells. Specifically, 13 amino acid (aa) positions seemed to be targets of selection when comparing the vaccine genome prior to and after seven passages in CEK (CEKp7). Amino acid changes occurred at four positions in the spike (S) gene and, at two positions in the S gene, large shifts in frequencies of aa encoding were observed. CEK adaptation shifted the virus population towards homogeneity in S. The changes achieved in the S1 gene in CEKp7 were maintained after a back-passage in ECE. Outside the S gene, aa changes at three positions and large shifts in frequencies at four positions were observed. Synonymous nucleotide changes and changes in noncoding regions of the genome were observed at eight genome positions. Inoculation of early CEK passages into chickens induced higher antibody levels and CEKp4 induced increased respiratory signs compared to CEKp7. From an applied perspective, the fact that CEK adaptation of embryo-attenuated Ark vaccines reduces population heterogeneity, and that changes do not revert after one replication cycle in ECE or in chickens, provides an opportunity to improve commercial ArkDPI-derived vaccines.

  13. Manipulation of the infectious bronchitis coronavirus genome for vaccine development and analysis of the accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave; Casais, Rosa; Armesto, Maria; Hodgson, Teri; Izadkhasti, Sousan; Davies, Marc; Lin, Fengsheng; Tarpey, Ian; Britton, Paul

    2007-07-26

    Infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) is the cause of the single most economically costly infectious disease of domestic fowl in the UK--and probably so in many countries that have a developed poultry industry. A major reason for its continued dominance is its existence as many serotypes, determined by the surface spike protein (S), cross-protection being poor. Although controlled to some degree by live and inactivated vaccines, a new generation of IB vaccines is called for. Reverse genetic or 'infectious clone' systems, which allow the manipulation of the IBV genome, are key to this development. New vaccines would ideally be: genetically stable (i.e. maintain a stable attenuated phenotype); administered in ovo; and be flexible with respect to the source of the spike protein gene. Rational attenuation of IBV requires the identification of genes that are simultaneously not essential for replication and whose absence would reduce pathogenicity. Being able to modify a 'core' vaccine strain to make it applicable to a prevailing serotype requires a procedure for doing so, and the demonstration that 'spike-swapping' is sufficient to induce good immunity. We have demonstrated that four small IBV proteins, encoded by genes 3 and 5, are not essential for replication; failure to produce these proteins had little detrimental affect on the titre of virus produced. Our current molecularly cloned IBV, strain Beaudette, is non-pathogenic, so we do not know what effect the absence of these proteins would have on pathogenicity. That said, plaque size and composition of various gene 3/5 recombinant IBVs in cell culture, and reduced output and ciliostasis in tracheal organ cultures, shows that they are less aggressive than the wild-type Beaudette. Consequently these genes remain targets for rational attenuation. We have recently obtained evidence that one or more of the 15 proteins encoded by gene 1 are also determinants of pathogenicity. Hence gene 1 is also a target for rational

  14. Genotyping and pathotyping of diversified strains of infectious bronchitis viruses circulating in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Zanaty, Ali; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Hagag, Naglaa; El-Kady, Magdy

    2016-01-01

    AIM To characterize the circulating infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains in Egypt depending on the sequence of the spike-1 (S1) gene [hypervariable region-3 (HVR-3)] and to study the pathotypic features of these strains. METHODS In this work, twenty flocks were sampled for IBV detection using RRT-PCR and isolation of IBV in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks during the period from 2010 to 2015. Partial sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 400 bp representing the HVR-3 of the S1 gene was conducted. Pathotypic characterization of one selected virus from each group (Egy/Var-I, Egy/Var-II and classic) was evaluated in one day old SPF chicks. The chicks were divided into 4 groups 10 birds each including the negative control group. Birds were inoculated at one day by intranasal instillation of 105EID50/100 μL of IBV viruses [IBV-EG/1212B-2012 (Egy/Var-II), IBV/EG/IBV1-2011 (Egy/Var-I) and IBV-EG/11539F-2011 (classic)], while the remaining negative control group was kept uninfected. The birds were observed for clinical signs, gross lesions and virus pathogenicity. The real-time rRT-PCR test was performed for virus detection in the tissues. Histopathological examinations were evaluated in both trachea and kidneys. RESULTS The results revealed that these viruses were separated into two distinct groups; variant (GI-23) and classic (GI-1), where 16 viruses belonged to a variant group, including 2 subdivisions [Egy/Var-I (6 isolates) and Egy/Var-II (10 isolates)] and 4 viruses clustered to the classic group (Mass-like). IBV isolates in the variant group were grouped with other IBV strains from the Middle East. The variant subgroup (Egy/Var-I) was likely resembling the original Egyptian variant strain (Egypt/Beni-Suif/01) and the Israeli strain (IS/1494/2006). The second subgroup (Egy/Var-II) included the viruses circulating in the Middle East (Ck/EG/BSU-2 and Ck/EG/BSU-3/2011) and the Israeli strain (IS/885/00). The two variant subgroups (Egy/Var-I and Egy

  15. Surveillance of avian coronaviruses in wild bird populations of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-10-01

    We examined the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of avian coronaviruses by studying oropharyngeal swabs from 32 wild bird species. The 14 avian coronaviruses detected belonged to the gamma-coronaviruses and shared high nucleotide sequence identity with some previously identified strains in wild waterfowl, but not with infectious bronchitis viruses.

  16. Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus Limits Interferon Production by Inducing a Host Shutoff That Requires Accessory Protein 5b

    PubMed Central

    Kint, Joeri; Langereis, Martijn A.; Maier, Helena J.; Britton, Paul; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.; Koumans, Joseph; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During infection of their host cells, viruses often inhibit the production of host proteins, a process that is referred to as host shutoff. By doing this, viruses limit the production of antiviral proteins and increase production capacity for viral proteins. Coronaviruses from the genera Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), establish host shutoff via their nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1). The Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus genomes, however, do not encode nsp1, and it has been suggested that these viruses do not induce host shutoff. Here, we show that the Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) does induce host shutoff, and we find that its accessory protein 5b is indispensable for this function. Importantly, we found that 5b-null viruses, unlike wild-type viruses, induce production of high concentrations of type I interferon protein in vitro, indicating that host shutoff by IBV plays an important role in antagonizing the host's innate immune response. Altogether, we demonstrate that 5b is a functional equivalent of nsp1, thereby answering the longstanding question of whether lack of nsp1 in gammacoronaviruses is compensated for by another viral protein. As such, our study is a significant step forward in the understanding of coronavirus biology and closes a gap in the understanding of some IBV virulence strategies. IMPORTANCE Many viruses inhibit protein synthesis by their host cell to enhance virus replication and to antagonize antiviral defense mechanisms. This process is referred to as host shutoff. We studied gene expression and protein synthesis in chicken cells infected with the important poultry pathogen infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). We show that IBV inhibits synthesis of host proteins, including that of type I interferon, a key component of the antiviral response. The IBV-induced host shutoff, however, does not require degradation of host RNA. Furthermore, we

  17. Development and evaluation of a real-time Taqman RT-PCR assay for the detection of infectious bronchitis virus from infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Callison, Scott A; Hilt, Deborah A; Boynton, Tye O; Sample, Brenda F; Robison, Robert; Swayne, David E; Jackwood, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    It is important to rapidly differentiate infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from disease agents like highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and exotic Newcastle disease virus, which can be extremely similar in the early stages of their pathogenesis. In this study, we report the development and testing of a real-time RT-PCR assay using a Taqman-labeled probe for early and rapid detection of IBV. The assay amplifies a 143-bp product in the 5'-UTR of the IBV genome and has a limit of detection and quantification of 100 template copies per reaction. All 15 strains of IBV tested as well as two Turkey coronavirus strains were amplified, whereas none of the other pathogens examined, tested positive. Evaluation of the assay was completed with 1329 tracheal swab samples. A total of 680 samples collected from IBV antibody negative birds were negative for IBV by the real-time RT-PCR assay. We tested 229 tracheal swabs submitted to two different diagnostic laboratories and found 79.04% of the tracheal swabs positive for IBV by real-time RT-PCR, whereas only 27.51% of the samples were positive by virus isolation, which is the reference standard test. We also collected a total of 120 tracheal swabs at six different time points from birds experimentally infected with different dosages of IBV and found that, independent of the dose given, the viral load in the trachea plateau at 5 days post-inoculation. In addition, an inverse relationship between the dose of virus given and the viral load at 14 days post-inoculation was observed. Finally, we tested 300 total tracheal swab samples, from a flock of commercial broilers spray vaccinated for IBV in the field. The percentage of birds infected with the IBV vaccine at 3, 7, and 14 days post-vaccination was 58%, 65%, and 83%, respectively, indicating that only slightly more than half the birds were initially infected then the vaccine was subsequently transmitted to other birds in the flock. This observation is significant because

  18. Development and Application of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Expressed Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Antibodies against Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gibertoni, Aliandra M.; Montassier, Maria de Fátima S.; Sena, Janete A. D.; Givisiez, Patrícia E. N.; Furuyama, Cibele R. A. G.; Montassier, Hélio J.

    2005-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae-expressed nucleocapsid (N) polypeptide of the M41 strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was used as antigen in a recombinant yeast-expressed N protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Y-N-ELISA). The Y-N-ELISA was rapid, sensitive, and specific for detecting chicken serum antibodies to IBV, and it compared favorably with a commercial ELISA. PMID:15815038

  19. Experimental infection of IS/885/00-like infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free and commercial broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Awad, Faez; Chhabra, Rajesh; Forrester, Anne; Chantrey, Julian; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Hussein, Hussein Aly; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenesis of an IS/885/00-like (IS/885) strain of variant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was examined in one day old specific pathogen free (SPF) and commercial broiler chicks. Chicks were humanely euthanized at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 21 and 28 days post infection (dpi) for necropsy examination, and tissues were collected for histopathology and virus detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Respiratory clinical signs and gross lesions consisting of tracheal caseous exudate and plugs, and swollen kidneys (with or without) urate deposits were observed in SPF and broiler chicks. The onset of disease developed more slowly and were of lesser severity in broiler compared to SPF chicks, reflecting the inhibitory effects of the IBV maternal-antibodies in the broiler chicks or genetic/strain susceptibility, or both. Head swelling was observed in one infected broiler chick at 15 dpi and the virus was recovered by RT-PCR and isolation. In the IS/885-infected SPF chicks, cystic oviducts were found in two female chicks. IS/885 was isolated from the cystic fluid. Using ELISA, low to moderate levels of the antibodies to IBV was detected in the SPF compared to broiler infected chicks.

  20. Comparative histopathology and immunohistochemistry of QX-like, Massachusetts and 793/B serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus infection in chickens.

    PubMed

    Benyeda, Zs; Szeredi, L; Mató, T; Süveges, T; Balka, Gy; Abonyi-Tóth, Zs; Rusvai, M; Palya, V

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare experimentally the pathogenicity and tissue distribution of the recently emerged QX-like strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with the widespread M41 and 793/B serotypes of the virus. Histopathological and immunohistochemical methods were employed to define the main sites of virus replication. One-day-old specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated with five different QX-like strains, or with the M41 and 793/B IBV strains and monitored for 42 days post-infection. Tracheal lesions developed in all infected birds, confirming the ability of all of the tested strains to induce respiratory disease. Replication of the isolates in the alimentary tract was detected, but the infection did not cause significant gut lesions. Four of the five QX-like IBV strains induced severe kidney lesions. Dilation of the oviduct with accumulation of serum-like fluid in the lumen of this structure, reported previously from field cases of QX-like IBV infection, was observed following experimental infection with all of the five QX-like strains. Microscopical and immunohistochemical examination of the affected oviducts did not help to elucidate the pathogenesis of this lesion.

  1. The effect of Allium sativum (Garlic) extract on infectious bronchitis virus in specific pathogen free embryonic egg

    PubMed Central

    Mohajer Shojai, Tabassom; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Karimi, Vahid; Barin, Abbas; Sadri, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Garlic is a plant has been used as a flavor, and anti-microbial and anti-diarrheal agent. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus. The available vaccines against IBV cannot cover new variants. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of garlic extract on IBV. Materials and Methods: The constituents of garlic extract were detected by gas chromatography. This study was done in four groups of embryonic SPF eggs; first group was used for virus titration; second group received the mixture of different virus titration and constant amount of garlic extract; third group received 10-3 titration of virus and after 8 hr received garlic extract and the last group received different dilutions of garlic extract. Results: Based on our results, in the second group, IBV vaccine strain (4/91) at all titration and M41 in 10-2 and 10-3 titration and in the third group both variants of virus the embryonic Index (EI) was significantly increased. Conclusion: The garlic extract had inhibitory effects on IBV in the chickens embryo. PMID:27516987

  2. Massachusetts live vaccination protects against a novel infectious bronchitis virus S1 genotype DMV/5642/06.

    PubMed

    Wood, M K; Ladman, B S; Preskenis, L A; Pope, C R; Bautista, D; Gelb, J

    2009-03-01

    Four infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates were recovered from commercial broiler chicken flocks located on the Delmarva Peninsula (east coast of the United States) in the spring of 2006. Sequence analysis of the S1 subunit of the spike glycoprotein gene showed the four isolates were highly related to each other (> or = 99.6% nucleotide identity; > or = 98.9% amino acid identity). Basic local alignment search tool analysis indicated the highest S1 amino acid identity of isolate DMV/5642/06, typical of the four Delmarva (DMV) isolates, was to CA/1737/04, an isolate obtained from broilers in California in 2004. A pathogenicity study conducted, using two-week-old commercial broilers, showed that DMV/5642/06 caused respiratory but not renal (kidney) disease. A vaccination-challenge study in three-week-old specific-pathogen-free leghorn chickens demonstrated that a commercial live attenuated IBV vaccine containing the Massachusetts strain conferred protection against challenge with DMV/5642/06 based on virus reisolation attempts and microscopic pathology.

  3. How the Double Spherules of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Impact Our Understanding of RNA Virus Replicative Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Benjamin W.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Powered by advances in electron tomography, recent studies have extended our understanding of how viruses construct “replication factories” inside infected cells. Their function, however, remains an area of speculation with important implications for human health. It is clear from these studies that whatever their purpose, organelle structure is dynamic (M. Ulasli, M. H. Verheije, C. A. de Haan, and F. Reggiori, Cell. Microbiol. 12:844-861, 2010) and intricate (K. Knoops, M. Kikkert, S. H. Worm, J. C. Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Y. van der Meer, et al., PLOS Biol. 6:e226, 2008). But by concentrating on medically important viruses, these studies have failed to take advantage of the genetic variation inherent in a family of viruses that is as diverse as the archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes combined (C. Lauber, J. J. Goeman, M. del Carmen Parquet, P. T. Nga, E. J. Snijder, et al., PLOS Pathog. 9:e1003500, 2013). In this climate, Maier et al. (H. J. Maier, P. C. Hawes, E. M. Cottam, J. Mantell, P. Verkade, et al., mBio 4:e00801-13, 2013) explored the replicative structures formed by an avian coronavirus that appears to have diverged at an early point in coronavirus evolution and shed light on controversial aspects of viral biology. PMID:24345746

  4. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  5. Infectious bronchitis vaccine virus detection and part-S1 genetic variation following single or dual inoculation in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Ball, Christopher; Awad, Faez; Hutton, Sally; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-12-05

    An investigation was undertaken of the extent of genetic variation occurring within infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine strains following vaccination of day-old broiler chicks. Chicks were divided into seven groups, with two groups receiving single Massachusetts (Mass) vaccinations and the other four were inoculated with combinations of different IBV serotypes; Mass, 793B, D274, and Arkansas (Ark). The remaining group was maintained as an unvaccinated control. Following vaccination, swabs and tissues collected at intervals were pooled and RNA was extracted for detection of IBV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR). Positive amplicons were sequenced for the part-S1 gene and compared to the original vaccine strain sequences. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), amino acid variations and hydrophobicity changes were identified and recorded for each sampling point. A total of 106 SNPs were detected within 28 isolates. The average SNP counts of swab isolates were greater than those found in tissue samples. This translated into 64 amino acid changes, however only six resulted in a change to the hydrophobicity properties. All hydrophobic alterations occurred within swab isolates and the majority were recovered at 3 days post vaccination suggesting such changes to be detrimental to early virus survival. Nucleotide deletions were seen only in the group given the combination of Mass and Ark. Of the 16 sequenced samples in this group, 13 contained the same AAT deletion at position 1033 1035 in the Ark strains. Findings presented in this study demonstrate alteration in the S1 nucleotide sequence following co-administration of live IBV vaccines.

  6. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  7. Recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 vaccine strain expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) protects chickens against IBV and NDV challenge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yingshun; Li, Jianan; Fu, Li; Ji, Gaosheng; Zeng, Fanya; Zhou, Long; Gao, Wenqian; Wang, Hongning

    2016-05-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are common viral diseases of chickens, which are caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), respectively. Vaccination with live attenuated strains of IBV-H120 and NDV-LaSota are important for the control of IB and ND. However, conventional live attenuated vaccines are expensive and result in the inability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated chickens. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new efficacious vaccines. In this study, using a previously established reverse genetics system, we generated a recombinant IBV virus based on the IBV H120 vaccine strain expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV. The recombinant virus, R-H120-HN/5a, exhibited growth dynamics, pathogenicity and viral titers that were similar to those of the parental IBV H120, but it had acquired hemagglutination activity from NDV. Vaccination of SPF chickens with the R-H120-HN/5a virus induced a humoral response at a level comparable to that of the LaSota/H120 commercial bivalent vaccine and provided significant protection against challenge with virulent IBV and NDV. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the IBV H120 strain could serve as an effective tool for designing vaccines against IB and other infectious diseases, and the generation of IBV R-H120-HN/5a provides a solid foundation for the development of an effective bivalent vaccine against IBV and NDV.

  8. Protection conferred by live infectious bronchitis vaccine viruses against variant Middle East IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like isolates in commercial broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Faez; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the infectious bronchitis H120 (a Massachusetts strain) and CR88 (a 793B strain) live attenuated vaccine viruses to protect from two Middle East infectious bronchitis virus isolates, IS/885/00-like (IS/885) and IS/1494/06-like (IS/1494) in broiler chicks was investigated. Day-old chicks were separated into three groups, (I) vaccinated with H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, (II) vaccinated with H120 and CR88 simultaneously at day-old and again with CR88 at 14 days-old, (III) control unvaccinated. At 30 days-old, each of the groups was challenged with virulent IS/885 or IS/1494. Protection was evaluated based on the clinical signs, tracheal and kidney gross lesions and tracheal ciliostasis. Results showed that administering combined live H120 and CR88 vaccines simultaneously at day-old followed by CR88 vaccine at 14 days-old gave more than 80 per cent tracheal ciliary protection from both of the Middle East isolates. In addition, this programme conferred 100 per cent protection from clinical signs and tracheal or kidney lesions. The other vaccination programme, H120 at day-old followed by CR88 at 14 days-old, the tracheal ciliary protection conferred were 60 per cent and 80 per cent from IS/885/00-like and IS/1494/06-like, respectively. PMID:26392909

  9. Glycan-functionalized graphene-FETs toward selective detection of human-infectious avian influenza virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Takao; Oe, Takeshi; Kanai, Yasushi; Ikuta, Takashi; Ohno, Yasuhide; Maehashi, Kenzo; Inoue, Koichi; Watanabe, Yohei; Nakakita, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Kawahara, Toshio; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    There are global concerns about threat of pandemic caused by the human-infectious avian influenza virus. To prevent the oncoming pandemic, it is crucial to analyze the viral affinity to human-type or avian-type sialoglycans with high sensitivity at high speed. Graphene-FET (G-FET) realizes such high-sensitive electrical detection of the targets, owing to graphene’s high carrier mobility. In the present study, G-FET was functionalized using sialoglycans and employed for the selective detection of lectins from Sambucus sieboldiana and Maackia amurensis as alternatives of the human and avian influenza viruses. Glycan-functionalized G-FET selectively monitored the sialoglycan-specific binding reactions at subnanomolar sensitivity.

  10. Bronchitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... to breathe. Other symptoms of bronchitis are a cough and coughing up mucus. Acute means the symptoms ... diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, you must have a cough with mucus on most days for at least ...

  11. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute bronchitis, your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and listen to your breathing. You may also have other tests. Treatments include rest, fluids, and aspirin (for adults) or ...

  12. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is inflammation of your bronchial tree. The bronchial tree consists of tubes that carry air into your ... weeks or months. This happens because the bronchial tree takes a while to heal. A lasting cough ...

  13. Generation and infectivity titration of an infectious stock of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) in chickens and cross-species infection of turkeys with avian HEV.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z F; Larsen, C T; Huang, F F; Billam, P; Pierson, F W; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2004-06-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), a novel virus identified from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States, is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV. In order to further characterize avian HEV, an infectious viral stock with a known infectious titer must be generated, as HEV cannot be propagated in vitro. Bile and feces collected from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens experimentally infected with avian HEV were used to prepare an avian HEV infectious stock as a 10% suspension of positive fecal and bile samples in phosphate-buffered saline. The infectivity titer of this infectious stock was determined by inoculating 1-week-old SPF chickens intravenously with 200 microl of each of serial 10-fold dilutions (10(-2) to 10(-6)) of the avian HEV stock (two chickens were inoculated with each dilution). All chickens inoculated with the 10(-2) to 10(-4) dilutions of the infectious stock and one of the two chickens inoculated with the 10(-5) dilution, but neither of the chickens inoculated with the 10(-6) dilution, became seropositive for anti-avian HEV antibody at 4 weeks postinoculation (wpi). Two serologically negative contact control chickens housed together with chickens inoculated with the 10(-2) dilution also seroconverted at 8 wpi. Viremia and shedding of virus in feces were variable in chickens inoculated with the 10(-2) to 10(-5) dilutions but were not detectable in those inoculated with the 10(-6) dilution. The infectivity titer of the infectious avian HEV stock was determined to be 5 x 10(5) 50% chicken infectious doses (CID(50)) per ml. Eight 1-week-old turkeys were intravenously inoculated with 10(5) CID(50) of avian HEV, and another group of nine turkeys were not inoculated and were used as controls. The inoculated turkeys seroconverted at 4 to 8 wpi. In the inoculated turkeys, viremia was detected at 2 to 6 wpi and shedding of virus in feces was detected at 4 to 7 wpi. A serologically negative contact control turkey housed

  14. Neither the RNA nor the proteins of open reading frames 3a and 3b of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus are essential for replication.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Teri; Britton, Paul; Cavanagh, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Gene 3 of infectious bronchitis virus is tricistronic; open reading frames (ORFs) 3a and 3b encode two small nonstructural (ns) proteins, 3a and 3b, of unknown function, and a third, structural protein E, is encoded by ORF 3c. To determine if either the 3a or the 3b protein is required for replication, we first modified their translation initiation codons to prevent translation of the 3a and 3b proteins from recombinant infectious bronchitis viruses (rIBVs). Replication in primary chick kidney (CK) cells and in chicken embryos was not affected. In chicken tracheal organ cultures (TOCs), the recombinant rIBVs reached titers similar to those of the wild-type virus, but in the case of viruses lacking the 3a protein, the titer declined reproducibly earlier. Translation of the IBV E protein is believed to be initiated by internal entry of ribosomes at a structure formed by the sequences corresponding to ORFs 3a and 3b. To assess the necessity of this mechanism, we deleted most of the sequence representing 3a and 3b to produce a gene in which ORF 3c (E) was adjacent to the gene 3 transcription-associated sequence. Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant IBV produced fivefold less E protein. Nevertheless, titers produced in CK cells, embryos, and TOCs were similar to those of the wild-type virus, although they declined earlier in TOCs, probably due to the absence of the 3a protein. Thus, neither the tricistronic arrangement of gene 3, the internal initiation of translation of E protein, nor the 3a and 3b proteins are essential for replication per se, suggesting that these proteins are accessory proteins that may have roles in vivo.

  15. Plastic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding. PMID:26556975

  16. Heat shock protein 70 in lung and kidney of specific-pathogen-free chickens is a receptor-associated protein that interacts with the binding domain of the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiKun; Yang, Xin; Xu, PengWei; Wu, Xuan; Zhou, Long; Wang, HongNing

    2017-02-21

    Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a member of the family Coronaviridae. A binding domain that mediates the attachment of the virus to its receptor has been identified in the S1 protein of prototype IBV strain M41. In this study, we identified this binding domain in a different strain, as well as the cellular proteins that interact with it. First, we expressed the S1N proteins (residues 19-270) of M41 and another isolate, SCZJ3, and compared the binding capacities of recombinant S1N-M41 and S1N-SCZJ3 to host tissues. Protein histochemistry showed that both S1N-M41 and S1N-SCZJ3 could bind to lung and kidney, and that recombinant S1N-SCZJ3 displayed a distinctive staining pattern in the proventriculus. Recombinant S1N-SCZJ3 was then employed to purify binding-associated proteins in lung, kidney, and proventriculus. Using an affinity chromatography assay, two common bands of about 60 kDa and 70 kDa were obtained from the total tissue proteins. These protein bands were identified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Finally, infection of chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cells by SCZJ3 was found to be inhibited by anti-HSP70 but not anti-PDI polyclonal antibody. These data indicate that HSP70 is part of the receptor complex of IBV and might help to understand the mechanism of S-mediated cell entry of IBV.

  17. Construction and characterization of infectious cDNA clones of a chicken strain of hepatitis E virus (HEV), avian HEV.

    PubMed

    Huang, F F; Pierson, F W; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2005-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, is an important human pathogen. Increasing evidence indicates that hepatitis E is a zoonosis. Avian HEV was recently discovered in chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the USA. Like swine HEV from pigs, avian HEV is also genetically and antigenically related to human HEV. The objective of this study was to construct and characterize an infectious cDNA clone of avian HEV for future studies of HEV replication and pathogenesis. Three full-length cDNA clones of avian HEV, pT7-aHEV-5, pT7G-aHEV-10 and pT7G-aHEV-6, were constructed and their infectivity was tested by in vitro transfection of leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken liver cells and by direct intrahepatic inoculation of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with capped RNA transcripts from the three clones. The results showed that the capped RNA transcripts from each of the three clones were replication competent when transfected into LMH cells as demonstrated by detection of viral antigens with avian HEV-specific antibodies. SPF chickens intrahepatically inoculated with the capped RNA transcripts from each of the three clones developed active avian HEV infections as evidenced by seroconversion to avian HEV antibodies, viraemia and faecal virus shedding. The infectivity was further confirmed by successful infection of naïve chickens with the viruses recovered from chickens inoculated with the RNA transcripts. The results indicated that all three cDNA clones of avian HEV are infectious both in vitro and in vivo. The availability of these infectious clones for a chicken strain of HEV now affords an opportunity to study the mechanisms of HEV cross-species infection and tissue tropism by constructing chimeric viruses among human, swine and avian HEVs.

  18. Securitization of infectious diseases in Vietnam: the cases of HIV and avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Herington, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    The frequent and swift emergence of new and devastating infectious diseases has brought renewed attention to health as an issue of international importance. Some states and regional organizations, including in Asia, have begun to regard infectious disease as a national and international security issue. This article seeks to examine the Vietnamese government's response to the epidemics of avian influenza and Human immunodeficiency virus. Both diseases have been recognized at different times as threats to international security and both are serious infectious disease problems in Vietnam. Yet, the character of the central government's response to these two epidemics has been starkly different. How and why this disparity in policy approaches occurs depends largely on the epidemiological, economic and political context in which they occur. Although epidemiological factors are frequently explored when discussing disease as a security issue, seldom are the political, social and economic characteristics of the state invoked. These dimensions, and their interaction with the epidemiology of the disease, are central to understanding which diseases are ultimately treated by states as security issues. In particular, the role of economic security as a powerful motivator for resistance to control measures and the role that local implementation of policies can have in disrupting the effect of central government policy are explored. In exploring both the outcomes of securitization, and its facilitating conditions, I suggest some preliminary observations on the potential costs and benefits of securitizing infectious disease and its utility as a mechanism for protecting health in Asia.

  19. The sequence of the full spike S1 glycoprotein of infectious bronchitis virus circulating in Egypt reveals evidence of intra-genotypic recombination.

    PubMed

    Zanaty, Ali; Naguib, Mahmoud M; El-Husseiny, Mohamed H; Mady, Wesam; Hagag, Naglaa; Arafa, Abdel-Satar

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) continues to circulate worldwide, with a significant impact on the poultry industry and affecting both vaccinated and unvaccinated flocks. Several studies have focused on the hypervariable regions (HVRs) of the spike gene (S1); however, genetic and bioinformatics studies of the whole S1 gene are limited. In this study, the whole S1 gene of five Egyptian IBVs was genetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Egyptian IBVs are clustered within two distinct groups: the classic group resembling the GI-1 genotype (vaccine strains) and the variant group (field strains) of the GI-23 genotype. The variant genotype was divided into two distinct subgroups (Egy/var I and Egy/var II) resembling the Israeli variants IS/1494 and IS885 strain, respectively. Significant amino acid sequence differences between the two subgroups, especially in the epitope sites, were identified. A deletion at position 63 and an I69A/S substitution mutation associated with virus tropism were detected in the receptor-binding sites. The deduced amino acid sequence of HVRs of the variant subgroups indicated different genetic features in comparison to the classic vaccine group (H120 lineage). The Egyptian variant IBVs also contained additional N-glycosylation sites compared to the classical viruses. Recombination analysis gave evidence for distinct patterns of origin by recombination throughout the S1 gene, suggesting that the recent virus IBV-EG/1586CV-2015 emerged as a recombinant of two viruses from the variant groups Egy/var I and Egy/var II, providing another example of intra-genotypic recombination among IBVs and the first example of recombination within the GI-23 genotype. Our data suggest that both mutation and recombination may be contributing to the emergence of IBV variants. Moreover, we found that the commercially used vaccines are genotypically distant from the circulating field strains. Hence, continuous follow-up of the current vaccine

  20. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... a disease, often call Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) . A person with COPD may have either emphysema or chronic bronchitis, but many have both. Some people with COPD may also have asthma . Let’s take a look ...

  1. The Important Role of Lipid Raft-Mediated Attachment in the Infection of Cultured Cells by Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Beaudette Strain

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huichen; Huang, Mei; Yuan, Quan; Wei, Yanquan; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Lejiao; Gu, Lingjun; Tan, Yong Wah; Zhong, Yanxin; Liu, Dingxiang; Sun, Shiqi

    2017-01-01

    Lipid raft is an important element for the cellular entry of some viruses, including coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). However, the exact role of lipid rafts in the cellular membrane during the entry of IBV into host cells is still unknown. In this study, we biochemically fractionated IBV-infected cells via sucrose density gradient centrifugation after depleting plasma membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin or Mevastatin. Our results demonstrated that unlike IBV non-structural proteins, IBV structural proteins co-localized with lipid raft marker caveolin-1. Infectivity assay results of Vero cells illustrated that the drug-induced disruption of lipid rafts significantly suppressed IBV infection. Further studies revealed that lipid rafts were not required for IBV genome replication or virion release at later stages. However, the drug-mediated depletion of lipid rafts in Vero cells before IBV attachment significantly reduced the expression of viral structural proteins, suggesting that drug treatment impaired the attachment of IBV to the cell surface. Our results indicated that lipid rafts serve as attachment factors during the early stages of IBV infection, especially during the attachment stage. PMID:28081264

  2. Development and immunogenicity of recombinant GapA(+) Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine strain ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein and chicken interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Shil, Pollob K; Kanci, Anna; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F

    2011-04-12

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major pathogen of poultry that causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. A live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of MG in several countries. The efficacy of this vaccine is highly dose dependent and the flock antibody response is weak. To improve the functionality of the vaccine and investigate its potential as a delivery vector for foreign antigens and immunomodulatory proteins, we developed a derivative of ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein (IBV-S1) and releasing chicken interleukin-6 into the extracellular milieu (MG ts-11 C3 (+CS)) using a transposon-based delivery vector. Following administration of MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) to chickens by eye-drop, an antibody response to MG and IBV-S1, as determined by the rapid serum agglutination test (RSA) and Western blotting, respectively, could be detected. Birds inoculated with the recombinant vaccine had significantly enhanced weight gain and were partially protected against damage by pathogenic IBV. These results indicate that the ChIL-6 released by MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) may have had a non-specific effect on growth rate. They also suggest that ts-11 is a promising vaccine vector, capable of delivering heterologous protective antigens, and may also provide non-specific benefits when engineered to express immunomodulatory proteins. With some improvements in the expression system, it could be used to induce a targeted immune response against specific mucosal pathogens, and co-expression of several antigens would allow development of a novel multivalent vaccine.

  3. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) recovered from a clinically healthy chicken in the United States and characterization of its pathogenicity in specific-pathogen-free chickens.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk Moo; LeRoith, Tanya; Pudupakam, R S; Pierson, F William; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-27

    A genetically distinct strain of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV-VA strain) was isolated from a healthy chicken in Virginia, and thus it is important to characterize and compare its pathogenicity with the prototype strain (avian HEV-prototype) isolated from a diseased chicken. Here we first constructed an infectious clone of the avian HEV-VA strain. Capped RNA transcripts from the avian HEV-VA clone were replication-competent after transfection of LMH chicken liver cells. Chickens inoculated intrahepatically with RNA transcripts of avian HEV-VA clone developed active infection as evidenced by fecal virus shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. To characterize the pathogenicity, RNA transcripts of both avian HEV-VA and avian HEV-prototype clones were intrahepatically inoculated into the livers of chickens. Avian HEV RNA was detected in feces, serum and bile samples from 10/10 avian HEV-VA-inoculated and 9/9 avian HEV-prototype-inoculated chickens although seroconversion occurred only in some chickens during the experimental period. The histopathological lesion scores were lower for avian HEV-VA group than avian HEV-prototype group in the liver at 3 and 5 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) and in the spleen at 3 wpi, although the differences were not statistically significant. The liver/body weight ratio, indicative of liver enlargement, of both avian HEV-VA and avian HEV-prototype groups were significantly higher than that of the control group at 5 wpi. Overall, the avian HEV-VA strain still induces histological liver lesions even though it was isolated from a healthy chicken. The results also showed that intrahepatic inoculation of chickens with RNA transcripts of avian HEV infectious clone may serve as an alternative for live virus in animal pathogenicity studies.

  4. Plastic Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments.

  5. Protection of chickens against infectious bronchitis by a recombinant fowlpox virus co-expressing IBV-S1 and chicken IFNgamma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yong-Ke; Tian, Zhan-Cheng; Shi, Xing-Ming; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Liu, Sheng-Wang; Zhi, Hai-Dong; Kong, Xian-Gang; Wang, Mei

    2009-11-23

    A fowlpox virus expressing the chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 gene of the LX4 strain (rFPV-IBVS1) and a fowlpox virus co-expressing the S1 gene and the chicken type II interferon gene (rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma) were constructed. These viruses were assessed for their immunological efficacy on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens challenged with a virulent IBV. Although the antibody levels in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated group were lower than those in the attenuated live IB vaccine H120 group and the rFPV-IBVS1 group, the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma provided the strongest protection against an IBV LX4 virus challenge (15 out of 16 chickens immunized with rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma were protected), followed by the attenuated live IB vaccine (13/16 protected) and the rFPV-IBVS1 (12/16 protected). Compared to those of the rFPV-IBVS1 and the attenuated live IB vaccine groups, chickens in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma group eliminated virus more quickly and decreased the presence of viral antigen more significantly in renal tissue. Examination of affected tissues revealed abnormalities in the liver, spleen, kidney, lung and trachea of chickens vaccinated with the attenuated live IB vaccine and the rFPV-IBVS1 vaccine. In rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated chickens, pathological changes were also observed in those organs, but were milder and lasted shorter. The lesions in the mock control group were the most severe and lasted for at least 20 days. This study demonstrated that chicken type II interferon increased the immunoprotective efficacy of rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma and normal weight gain in vaccinated chickens although it inhibited serum antibody production.

  6. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing. You may also have other tests. Chronic bronchitis is a long-term condition that keeps coming back or never goes away completely. If you smoke, it is important to quit. Treatment can help with your symptoms. It often includes ...

  7. Industrial bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy Bronchitis and normal condition in tertiary bronchus Respiratory system References Lemière C, Vandenplas O. Asthma in the workplace. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  8. Egg whites from eggs of chickens infected experimentally with avian hepatitis E virus contain infectious virus, but evidence of complete vertical transmission is lacking.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X-J

    2007-05-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV. Vertical transmission of HEV has been reported in humans, but not in other animals. In this study, we showed that avian HEV could be detected in chicken egg-white samples. Subsequently, avian HEV in egg white was found to be infectious, as evidenced by the appearance of viraemia, faecal virus shedding and seroconversion in chickens inoculated with avian HEV-positive egg white, but not in chickens inoculated with HEV-negative egg white. To further assess the possibility of vertical transmission of avian HEV, batches of embryonated eggs from infected hens were hatched, and hatched chicks were monitored for evidence of avian HEV infection. However, no virus was detected in samples collected from the hatched chicks throughout this study, suggesting that avian HEV could not complete the vertical transmission cycle. The possible implications of our findings are also discussed.

  9. Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with

  10. A duplex SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Massachusetts and non-Massachusetts serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Ana M; Perera, Carmen L; Vega, Armando; Ríos, Liliam; Coronado, Liani; Relova, Damarys; Frías, Maria T; Ganges, Llilianne; Núñez, José I; Pérez, Lester J

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious viral disease of poultry caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and is considered one of the most economically important viral diseases of chickens. Control of IBV has been attempted using live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines of the Massachusetts (Mass.) serotype are the most commonly used for this purpose. Due to the continuous emergence of new variants of the infectious bronchitis virus, the identification of the type of IBV causing an outbreak in commercial poultry is important in the selection of the appropriate vaccine(s) capable of inducing a protective immune response. The present work was aimed at developing and evaluating a duplex SYBR Green I-based real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Mass. and non-Mass. serotypes of IBV. The duplex rRT-PCR yielded curves of amplification with two specific melting curves (Tm1 = 83 °C ± 0.5 °C and Tm2 = 87 °C ± 0.5 °C) and only one specific melting peak (Tm = 87 °C ± 0.5 °C) when the IBV Mass. serotype and IBV non-Mass. serotype strains were evaluated, respectively. The detection limit of the assay was 8.2 gene copies/μL based on in vitro transcribed RNA and 0.1 EID50/mL. The assay was able to detect all the IBV strains assessed and discriminated well among the IBV Mass. and the IBV non-Mass. serotypes strains. In addition, amplification curves were not obtained with any of the other viruses tested. From the 300 field samples tested, the duplex rRT-PCR yielded a total of 80 samples that were positive for IBV (26.67%), 73 samples identified as the IBV Mass. serotype and seven samples as identified as the IBV non-Mass. serotype. A comparison of the performance of test as assessed with field samples revealed that the duplex rRT-PCR detected a higher number of IBV-positive samples than when conventional RT-PCR or virus isolation tests were used. The duplex rRT-PCR presented here is a

  11. Using mean infectious dose of wild duck-and poultry-origin high and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses as one measure of infectivity and adaptation to poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mean infectious doses of selected avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates, determined in domestic poultry under experimental conditions, were shown to be both host and virus dependent and could be considered one measure of the infectivity and adaptation to a specific host. As such, the mean infect...

  12. How Is Bronchitis Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bronchitis Treated? Explore Bronchitis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics COPD Cough How the Lungs Work Oxygen Therapy Pulmonary ...

  13. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California.

    PubMed

    Straub, Mary H; Kelly, Terra R; Rideout, Bruce A; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats.

  14. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Mary H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce A.; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  15. The effect of infectious bursal disease virus induced immunosuppression on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the field, poultry are exposed to a variety of infectious agents, many of which are immunosuppressive. Co-infections between these agents are common, and these co-infections have effects on disease, immune response, and vaccine efficacy. The effect of co-infections in poultry between immunosupp...

  16. Lack of evidence that avian oncogenic viruses are infectious for humans: a review.

    PubMed

    Schat, Karel A; Erb, Hollis N

    2014-09-01

    Chickens may be infected with three different oncogenic viruses: avian leukosis virus (ALV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and Marek's disease herpesvirus (MDV). Several epidemiological studies have suggested a link between these viruses and different types of cancer in people working in poultry processing plants and with multiple sclerosis. In this article, we analyze the epidemiological evidence that these viruses are causative agents for human cancer, followed by description of the relevant key characteristics of ALV, REV, and MDV. Finally, we discuss the biological evidence or lack thereof that avian tumor viruses are involved in the etiology of human cancer and multiple sclerosis (MS). The recent primary epidemiologic articles that we reviewed as examples were only hypothesis-generating studies examining massive numbers of risk factors for associations with various imprecise, non-viral-specific outcomes. The studies lacked precise evidence of exposure to the relevant viruses and the statistical methods failed to adjust for the large risks of false-positive claims. ALV subgroups A-D and J have been eradicated in the United States from the pure lines down to the parent stocks by the breeder companies, which have greatly reduced the incidence of infection in layer flocks and broilers. As a consequence, potential exposure of humans to these viruses has greatly diminished. Infection of humans working in processing plants with ALV-A and ALV-B is unlikely, because broilers are generally resistant to infection with these two subgroups. Moreover, these viruses enter cells by specific receptors present on chicken, but not on mammalian, cells. Infection of mammalian cell cultures or animals with ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-J has not been reported. Moreover, humans vaccinated with exogenous or endogenous ALV-contaminated vaccines against yellow fever, measles, and mumps did not become antibody- or virus-positive for ALV. The risks for human infection with REV are similarly

  17. How Can Bronchitis Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics » Bronchitis » How Can Bronchitis Be Prevented? Explore Bronchitis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  18. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: Testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recent ideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found that non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  19. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of WNV are poorly understood, but recentideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help account for distribution patterns of this disease. Since wild birds are the primary reservoir hosts for WNV, we tested associations between passerine (Passeriform) bird diversity, non-passerine (all other orders) bird diversity and virus infection rates in mosquitoes and humans to examine the extent to which bird diversity is associated with WNV infection risk. We found t h at non-passerine species richness (number of non-passerine species) was significantly negatively correlated with both mosquito and human infection rates, whereas there was no significant association between passerine species richness and any measure of infection risk. Our findings suggest that non-passerine diversity may play a role in dampening WNV amplification rates in mosquitoes, minimizing human disease risk.

  20. Procedures for identifying infectious prions after passage through the digestive system of an avian species.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Justin W; Nichols, Tracy A; Phillips, Gregory E; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2013-11-06

    Infectious prion (PrP(Res)) material is likely the cause of fatal, neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases(1). Transmission of TSE diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD), is presumed to be from animal to animal(2,3) as well as from environmental sources(4-6). Scavengers and carnivores have potential to translocate PrP(Res) material through consumption and excretion of CWD-contaminated carrion. Recent work has documented passage of PrP(Res) material through the digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a common North American scavenger(7). We describe procedures used to document passage of PrP(Res) material through American crows. Crows were gavaged with RML-strain mouse-adapted scrapie and their feces were collected 4 hr post gavage. Crow feces were then pooled and injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were monitored daily until they expressed clinical signs of mouse scrapie and were thereafter euthanized. Asymptomatic mice were monitored until 365 days post inoculation. Western blot analysis was conducted to confirm disease status. Results revealed that prions remain infectious after traveling through the digestive system of crows and are present in the feces, causing disease in test mice.

  1. In Ovo Delivery of CpG DNA Reduces Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Induced Mortality and Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Simrika; Abdul Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon; Murugananthan, Kalamathy; Nagy, Eva; Sharif, Shayan; Czub, Markus; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2015-01-01

    Endosomal toll-like receptor-21 and -9 sense CpG DNA activating production of pro-inflammatory mediators with antimicrobial effects. Here, we investigated the induction of antiviral response of in ovo delivered CpG DNA against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infection. We found that in ovo delivered CpG DNA significantly reduces ILTV infection pre-hatch correlating with the expression of IL-1β and increase of macrophages in lungs. As assessed in vitro, CpG DNA stimulated avian macrophages could be a potential source of IL-1β and other pro-inflammatory mediators. Since we also found that in ovo CpG DNA delivery maintains increased macrophages in the lungs post-hatch, we infected the chickens on the day of hatch with ILTV. We found that in ovo delivered CpG DNA significantly reduces mortality and morbidity resulting from ILTV infection encountered post-hatch. Thus, CpG DNA can be a candidate innate immune stimulant worthy of further investigation for the control of ILTV infection in chickens. PMID:25856635

  2. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of genotype 1 avian hepatitis E virus: characterization of its pathogenicity in broiler breeders and demonstration of its utility in studying the role of the hypervariable region in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Woo; Moon, Hyun-Woo; Sung, Haan Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Moo

    2015-05-01

    A full-length infectious cDNA clone of the genotype 1 Korean avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) (pT11-aHEV-K) was constructed and its infectivity and pathogenicity were investigated in leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) chicken cells and broiler breeders. We demonstrated that capped RNA transcripts from the pT11-aHEV-K clone were translation competent when transfected into LMH cells and infectious when injected intrahepatically into the livers of chickens. Gross and microscopic pathological lesions underpinned the avian HEV infection and helped characterize its pathogenicity in broiler breeder chickens. The avian HEV genome contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1. To demonstrate the utility of the avian HEV infectious clone, several mutants with various deletions in and beyond the known HVR were derived from the pT11-aHEV-K clone. The HVR-deletion mutants were replication competent in LMH cells, although the deletion mutants extending beyond the known HVR were non-viable. By using the pT11-aHEV-K infectious clone as the backbone, an avian HEV luciferase reporter replicon and HVR-deletion mutant replicons were also generated. The luciferase assay results of the reporter replicon and its mutants support the data obtained from the infectious clone and its derived mutants. To further determine the effect of HVR deletion on virus replication, the capped RNA transcripts from the wild-type pT11-aHEV-K clone and its mutants were injected intrahepatically into chickens. The HVR-deletion mutants that were translation competent in LMH cells displayed in chickens an attenuation phenotype of avian HEV infectivity, suggesting that the avian HEV HVR is important in modulating the virus infectivity and pathogenicity.

  3. Zabofloxacin for chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, B; Szabo, D

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of lower respiratory tract infection poses as an ongoing challenge among respiratory tract diseases. Bacterial infections are causes of acute exacerbations in chronic bronchitis and indications for antibacterial therapy. Several antibiotics were applied to treat bacterial infections in chronic bronchitis, among them fluoroquinolones are considered potent, broad-spectrum agents with excellent tissue penetration. This monograph focuses on zabofloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone agent recently approved and launched in South Korea, and summarizes the drug's antibacterial efficacy, pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity. Recent advances concerning fluoroquinolones in chronic bronchitis will be discussed, along with a comparison between zabofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Zabofloxacin has proved to be noninferior to moxifloxacin against major community-acquired Gram-positive and Gram-negative respiratory tract pathogens and found to be well tolerated in both oral and parenteral administrations. These features can make it a potential antimicrobial agent in therapy of chronic bronchitis and other lower respiratory tract infections.

  4. The roles of the infectious bursal agent and several avian adenoviruses in the hemorrhagic-aplastic-anemia syndrome and gangrenous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, J K; Klopp, S; Eckroade, R J; Krauss, W C

    1975-01-01

    The effect that breeder-flock immune status regarding the infectious bursal agent (IBA) and two avian adenoviruses (DPI-1 and DPI-2) has on the susceptibility of their commercially reared Delmarva broiler progeny to the hemorrhagic-aplastic-anemia syndrome and concurrent gangrenous dermatitis was determined. Lack of immunity to the IBA in breeder flocks was related to an increased susceptibility of progeny to anemia and dermatitis. Breeder-flock immunity to the two adenoviruses tested could not be related to the resistance or susceptibility of their progeny to the hemorrhagic-aplastic-anemia syndrome and gangrenous dermatitis.

  5. Bronchitis and Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... by a health care provider. How serious are bronchitis and pneumonia? Both conditions are more serious if a child has a chronic health condition or if the condition is caused by a bacteria, in which case antibiotics are the treatment of choice. When pneumonia is caused by bacteria, ...

  6. The impact of H9N2 avian influenza virus vaccine antigenic variation on virus infectious dose in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H9 subtype of avian influenza virus is wide-spread in the areas of Asia and Middle East. Selection of effective vaccines that provide effective protection mainly depends on the antigenic match of the hemagglutinin protein (HA), between the vaccine and the field strain. To determine how the ant...

  7. Additional factors in chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K J; Elder, J; Adams, A R; Stenhouse, N S

    1970-02-14

    A review of persons with chronic bronchitis and controls without bronchitis showed several irritants around the home that aggravated cough, such as house dust, flowers and grasses, smoke, strong fumes, hair spray, insecticide, and soap powders. Most subjects with bronchitis were affected by exposure to one or more of these irritants for at least once a day for three months of the year or more. Out of 163 subjects with chronic bronchitis only six non-smokers were free of factors associated with pulmonary irritation. This evidence from non-smokers not exposed to air pollution adds further strength to the hypothesis that daily phlegm is caused by persistent inhalation of irritants.

  8. Avian reovirus-induced syncytium formation is independent of infectious progeny virus production and enhances the rate, but is not essential, for virus-induced cytopathology and virus egress.

    PubMed

    Duncan, R; Chen, Z; Walsh, S; Wu, S

    1996-10-15

    The nonenveloped avian reoviruses represent a distinct antigenic subgroup of orthoreoviruses. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, the avian reoviruses exhibit the unusual property of inducing rapid and extensive syncytium formation in cell cultures, a cytopathic effect more commonly associated with enveloped virus replication. While the syncytium-inducing capability of avian reovirus has been known for quite some time, the relationship between cell fusion and the virus replication cycle has not been determined. The conservation of the syncytial phenotype among all field isolates of avian reovirus suggests that avian reovirus-induced syncytium formation either reflects an essential step in the virus replication cycle involving intracellular membrane interactions or that cell fusion contributes to enhanced virus replication in infected animals. In order to distinguish between these possibilities, we have examined several aspects of virus replication in the presence of inhibitors of syncytium formation. Inhibitors of intracellular vesicle transport and O-linked glycosylation eliminated or markedly reduced syncytium formation with little effect on the rate or extent of virus macromolecular synthesis and infectious progeny virus production. Moreover, syncytium formation was not required for virus-induced cytopathology or virus egress but did significantly enhance the rate of both of these processes. The data indicate that, unlike the syncytium-inducing enveloped viruses, the membrane interactions and protein trafficking required for avian reovirus-induced syncytium formation do not reflect the sequelae of an essential step in the virus replication cycle. These results suggest that the conservation of the avian reovirus syncytial phenotype may reflect a fortuitous aspect of virus replication which confers advantages associated with the rapid spread of the virus within an infected host.

  9. Causes of acute bronchitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the bronchial tubes, the part of the respiratory system that leads into the lungs. Acute bronchitis has a sudden onset and usually appears after a respiratory infection, such as a cold, and can be ...

  10. Plastic bronchitis: a management challenge.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Michael H; Drummond, Michael B; Haponik, Edward F

    2008-02-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and underdiagnosed entity, characterized by recurrent expectoration of large, branching bronchial casts. We describe a 39-year-woman with no prior lung disease who had episodic wheezing, severe dyspnea with expectoration of large and thick secretions, branching in appearance, which she described as resembling squid. A comprehensive evaluation revealed no specific cause and a diagnosis of idiopathic plastic bronchitis was made. In plastic bronchitis the bronchial casts may vary in size from small segmental casts of a bronchus to casts filling the airways of an entire lung. Plastic bronchitis can therefore present as an acute life-threatening emergency if mechanical obstruction of major airways occurs. The casts are differentiated into type I, inflammatory casts, or type II, acellular casts. The type I inflammatory casts are often associated with bronchial disease and often have an acute presentation. The acellular type of cast production is often chronic or recurrent. Numerous systemic illnesses are associated with plastic bronchitis, but often, as in our patient, no underlying cause can be identified. The treatment of plastic bronchitis includes acute therapy to aid the removal and expectoration of casts, and specific short- or long-term treatments attempting to address the underlying hypersecretory process. The therapeutic options are supported only by anecdotal evidence based on case reports as the rarity and heterogeneity of plastic bronchitis confounds systematic investigations of its treatment. Improved understanding of the regulation of mucus production may allow for new treatment options in plastic bronchitis and other chronic lung diseases characterized by hypersecretion of mucus.

  11. Mammalian Innate Resistance to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Infection Is Mediated through Reduced Proinflammation and Infectious Virus Release

    PubMed Central

    Nelli, Rahul K.; Dunham, Stephen P.; Kuchipudi, Suresh V.; White, Gavin A.; Baquero-Perez, Belinda; Chang, Pengxiang; Ghaemmaghami, Amir; Brookes, Sharon M.; Brown, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages are the key innate immune cells that play an important role in the pathogenesis of influenza A virus infection. We found that these two cell types from both human and pig showed comparable susceptibilities to initial infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus (A/turkey/Turkey/1/05) and a moderately pathogenic human influenza H1N1 virus (A/USSR/77), but there were contrasting differences in host innate immune responses. Human cells mounted vigorous cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) and chemokine (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) responses to H5N1 virus infection. However, pig epithelial cells and macrophages showed weak or no TNF-α and chemokine induction with the same infections. The apparent lack of a strong proinflammatory response, corroborated by the absence of TNF-α induction in H5N1 virus-challenged pigs, coincided with greater cell death and the reduced release of infectious virus from infected pig epithelial cells. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a protein suppressor of the JAK-STAT pathway, was constitutively highly expressed and transcriptionally upregulated in H5N1 virus-infected pig epithelial cells and macrophages, in contrast to the corresponding human cells. The overexpression of SOCS3 in infected human macrophages dampened TNF-α induction. In summary, we found that the reported low susceptibility of pigs to contemporary Eurasian HPAI H5N1 virus infections coincides at the level of innate immunity of respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages with a reduced output of viable virus and an attenuated proinflammatory response, possibly mediated in part by SOCS3, which could serve as a target in the treatment or prevention of virus-induced hypercytokinemia, as observed for humans. PMID:22718824

  12. Neuraminidase subtyping of avian influenza viruses with PrimerHunter-designed primers and quadruplicate primer pools.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyan; Khan, Mazhar I; Khan, Mazhar; Măndoiu, Ion; Măndoiu, Ion I

    2013-01-01

    We have previously developed a software package called PrimerHunter to design primers for PCR-based virus subtyping. In this study, 9 pairs of primers were designed with PrimerHunter and successfully used to differentiate the 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in multiple PCR-based assays. Furthermore, primer pools were designed and successfully used to decrease the number of reactions needed for NA subtyping from 9 to 4. The quadruplicate primer-pool method is cost-saving, and was shown to be suitable for the NA subtyping of both cultured AIVs and uncultured AIV swab samples. The primers selected for this study showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in NA subtyping by RT-PCR, SYBR green-based Real-time PCR and Real-time RT-PCR methods. AIV RNA of 2 to 200 copies (varied by NA subtypes) could be detected by these reactions. No unspecific amplification was displayed when detecting RNAs of other avian infectious viruses such as Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus. In summary, this study introduced several sensitive and specific PCR-based assays for NA subtyping of AIVs and also validated again the effectiveness of the PrimerHunter tool for the design of subtyping primers.

  13. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials shall...

  14. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials shall...

  15. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials shall...

  16. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials shall...

  17. 9 CFR 113.327 - Bronchitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bronchitis Vaccine. 113.327 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.327 Bronchitis Vaccine. Bronchitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... section shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials shall...

  18. A ferret model of COPD-related chronic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Raju, S. Vamsee; Kim, Hyunki; Byzek, Stephen A.; Tang, Li Ping; Trombley, John E.; Jackson, Patricia; Rasmussen, Lawrence; Wells, J. Michael; Libby, Emily Falk; Winter, Lindy; Samuel, Sharon L.; Zinn, Kurt R.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Rowe, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the US. The majority of COPD patients have symptoms of chronic bronchitis, which lacks specific therapies. A major impediment to therapeutic development has been the absence of animal models that recapitulate key clinical and pathologic features of human disease. Ferrets are well suited for the investigation of the significance of respiratory diseases, given prior data indicating similarities to human airway physiology and submucosal gland distribution. Here, we exposed ferrets to chronic cigarette smoke and found them to approximate complex clinical features of human COPD. Unlike mice, which develop solely emphysema, smoke-exposed ferrets exhibited markedly higher numbers of early-morning spontaneous coughs and sporadic infectious exacerbations as well as a higher level of airway obstruction accompanied by goblet cell metaplasia/hyperplasia and increased mucus expression in small airways, indicative of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis. Overall, we demonstrate the first COPD animal model exhibiting clinical and pathologic features of chronic bronchitis to our knowledge, providing a key advance that will greatly facilitate the preclinical development of novel treatments for this disease. PMID:27699245

  19. Chronic Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... العربية) Bronchitis (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Bronchitis 支气管炎 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bronchitis and Pneumonia English 支气管炎及肺炎 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) ...

  20. Infectious and lethal doses of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus for house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and rock pigeons (Columbia livia)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terrestrial wild birds commonly associated with poultry farms have the potential to contribute to the spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus within or between poultry facilities or between domesticated and wild bird populations. This potential, however, varies between species and is...

  1. Dynamics of avian coronavirus circulation in commercial and non-commercial birds in Asia--a review.

    PubMed

    Promkuntod, Naruepol

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to understand the latest situation regarding avian coronaviruses (ACoVs), commonly referred to as the well-known avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), given that new and diverse types of IBV are continually being identified worldwide, particularly ones that are isolated from commercial poultry and associated with a wide range of disease conditions. The existing IBVs continue to evolve in various geographic areas in Asia, which results in the recombination and co-circulation between IBV types. This makes it increasingly difficult to prevent and control IBV infections, despite routine vaccination. Some ACoVs have also been identified in other avian species and they may pose a threat of cross-transmission to commercial sectors. The present review provides an overview of IBV circulation and the dynamic emergence of new variants found throughout Asia via the recombination of IBV strains. In addition to commercial poultry, backyard poultry and free-ranging birds may serve as a 'hub' for ACoV transmission within a particular area. These birds may be capable of spreading viruses, either to areas of close proximity, or to remote places via migration and trade.

  2. RT-PCR detection of avian coronaviruses of galliform birds (chicken, turkey, pheasant) and in a parrot.

    PubMed

    Culver, Francesca Anne; Britton, Paul; Cavanagh, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Of the many primer combinations that we have investigated for the detection of avian coronaviruses, two have worked better than any of the others: they worked with the largest number of strains/samples of a given coronavirus and the most species of avian coronavirus, and they also produced the most sensitive detection tests. The primer combinations were: oligonucleotide pair 2Bp/4Bm, which is in a region of gene 1 that is moderately conserved among all species of coronavirus (1); and UTR11-/UTR41+, which are in a highly conserved part of the 3' untranslated region of avian coronaviruses related to infectious bronchitis virus (2). The gene 1 primer pair enabled the detection of a new coronavirus in a green-checked Amazon parrot (Amazon viridigenalis Cassin). In this chapter we describe the use of these oligonucleotides in a one-step (single-tube) RT-PCR, and describe the procedure that we used to extract RNA from turkey feces.

  3. Avian cardiology.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Anneliese; Wilson, G Heather

    2003-01-01

    The field of avian cardiology is continually expanding. Although a great deal of the current knowledge base has been derived from poultry data, research and clinical reports involving companion avian species have been published. This article will present avian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, history and physical examination considerations in the avian cardiac disease patient, specific diagnostic tools, cardiovascular disease processes, and current therapeutic modalities.

  4. Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes germs get through the cilia and other defense systems in the respiratory tract and can cause ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Albert, Ross H

    2010-12-01

    Cough is the most common symptom bringing patients to the primary care physician's office, and acute bronchitis is usually the diagnosis in these patients. Acute bronchitis should be differentiated from other common diagnoses, such as pneumonia and asthma, because these conditions may need specific therapies not indicated for bronchitis. Symptoms of bronchitis typically last about three weeks. The presence or absence of colored (e.g., green) sputum does not reliably differentiate between bacterial and viral lower respiratory tract infections. Viruses are responsible for more than 90 percent of acute bronchitis infections. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for bronchitis, and should be used only if pertussis is suspected to reduce transmission or if the patient is at increased risk of developing pneumonia (e.g., patients 65 years or older). The typical therapies for managing acute bronchitis symptoms have been shown to be ineffective, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends against using cough and cold preparations in children younger than six years. The supplement pelargonium may help reduce symptom severity in adults. As patient expectations for antibiotics and therapies for symptom management differ from evidence-based recommendations, effective communication strategies are necessary to provide the safest therapies available while maintaining patient satisfaction.

  6. Construction and characterization of avian Escherichia coli cya crp mutants.

    PubMed

    Peighambari, S M; Gyles, C L

    1998-01-01

    We constructed delta cya delta crp mutants of two avian septicemic Escherichia coli strains and evaluated their attenuation in virulence. The P1 phage was used to transfer cya::Tn10 from an E. coli K-12 strain into virulent avian O78 and O2 E. coli isolates. Tetracycline-resistant transductants were plated on Bochner-Maloy Medium, and tetracycline-sensitive colonies were selected, then tested by polymerase chain reaction to confirm that they had deletions of the cya gene. Deletions of crp were created by the same technique in isolates with deletions in cya. The delta cya and delta cya delta crp derivatives had slower growth rates, smaller colonies, and impaired fermentation of carbohydrates compared with their wild parents, and they did not revert. Attenuation of the mutant strains was evaluated by subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation of day-old chicks and by intratracheal (i.t.) inoculation of 9-day-old chicks previously inoculated intranasally with infectious bronchitis virus. For the wild O78 strain and its delta cya and delta cya delta crp derivatives, the percentages of chicks that died within 6 days of s.c. injection of approximately 5 x 10(7) organisms were 100, 60, and 0, respectively. The corresponding percentages for wild-type O2 and its delta cya and delta cya delta crp mutants were 100, 70, and 20 at a dose of approximately 2 x 10(5) organisms. Following i.t. inoculation, group scores based on pathologic and bacteriologic findings were 51%, 15%, and 9% for wild, delta cya, and delta crp O78 strains (inoculum approximately 2 x 10(7) organisms) and 98%, 31%, and 11%, respectively, for the corresponding O2 strains (inoculum approximately 4 x 10(6) organisms). This study demonstrated reduced virulence and stability of the double mutant, which may useful as a live attenuated vaccine against poultry colibacillosis.

  7. Avian Astrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian astroviruses comprise a diverse group of viruses affecting many avian species and causing enteritis, hepatitis and nephritis. To date, six different astroviruses have been identified in avian species based on the species of origin and viral genome characteristics: two turkey-origin astroviru...

  8. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Douglas E; Franson, J Christian; Brannian, Roger E; Long, Renee R; Radi, Craig A; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  9. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  10. Occupation and chronic bronchitis among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Krstev, Srmena; Ji, Bu-Tian; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Blair, Aaron; Lubin, Jay; Vermeulen, Roel; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between occupation and chronic bronchitis among a cross-section of Chinese women who participated in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS). Methods Cases were 4,873 women who self-reported a physician-diagnosed bronchitis during adulthood. Controls were 9,746 women randomly selected from SWHS participants and matched to the cases by year of birth and age at diagnosis. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained. Logistic regressions were used to evaluate the association between chronic bronchitis and occupation, adjusting for smoking, education, family income, and concurrent asthma. Results We observed excess prevalence of bronchitis for textile occupation (OR=1.09; 1.01–1.18) and industry (OR=1.11; 1.04–1.25), welders (OR=1.40; 1.01–1.92), packing and baling workers (OR=1.39; 1.15–1.68), and warehousing industry (OR=1.58; 1.08–2.30). We also identified several new associations that may warrant further exploration and confirmation, including employment in some metal fabrication industries, postal and telecommunication industry, and a few white collar occupations and industries. Conclusions Our study indicates that the risk of chronic bronchitis among women may be increased in some occupations and industries. PMID:18188083

  11. Aggressive bronchoscopic management of plastic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Preciado, Diego; Verghese, Susan; Choi, Sukgi

    2010-07-01

    Plastic bronchitis or "Bronchitis Plastica" is a rare disease characterized by the formation of thick, tenacious, arborizing mucofibrinous tracheobronchial casts that result in life-threatening airway obstruction and pulmonary failure. We review three children who developed recurrent plastic bronchitis after undergoing a Fontan procedure for single ventricle physiology. Case series of three patients with plastic bronchitis at a tertiary referral children's hospital. All patients required repeated bronchoscopies, one requiring four separate ones over a week's period, for removal of the rigid casts. Extra-corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was needed in two children because of severe respiratory failure. All were also managed with adjunctive intensive medical support. Pulmonary function returned to normal in all children, but recurred 2 months later in one who subsequently expired due to pulmonary failure. Plastic bronchitis is an unusual condition of unknown cause that occurs in multiple clinical settings, but especially in those children who have undergone a Fontan operation. Management of this distressing situation is difficult and early diagnosis and aggressive measures to remove rigid casts combined with intensive medical care are necessary. The intrinsic cardiopulmonary physiology of children with Fontan procedures, including the risk of arrhythmias, hypo-oxygenation, and pulmonary hypertension make this condition even more complex.

  12. Evidence-based diagnosis and management of acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Hart, Ann Marie

    2014-09-18

    Acute bronchitis is a common respiratory infection seen in primary care settings. This article examines the current evidence for diagnosis and management of acute bronchitis in adults and provides recommendations for primary care clinical practice.

  13. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are the Signs and Symptoms of Bronchitis? Explore Bronchitis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  14. Identification and survey of a novel avian coronavirus in ducks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-Qian; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Shuo; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Hou, Guang-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The rapid discovery of novel viruses using next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies including DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq, has greatly expanded our understanding of viral diversity in recent years. The timely identification of novel viruses using NGS technologies is also important for us to control emerging infectious diseases caused by novel viruses. In this study, we identified a novel duck coronavirus (CoV), distinct with chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), using RNA-Seq. The novel duck-specific CoV was a potential novel species within the genus Gammacoronavirus, as indicated by sequences of three regions in the viral 1b gene. We also performed a survey of CoVs in domestic fowls in China using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), targeting the viral nucleocapsid (N) gene. A total of 102 CoV positives were identified through the survey. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral N sequences suggested that CoVs in domestic fowls have diverged into several region-specific or host-specific clades or subclades in the world, and IBVs can infect ducks, geese and pigeons, although they mainly circulate in chickens. Moreover, this study provided novel data supporting the notion that some host-specific CoVs other than IBVs circulate in ducks, geese and pigeons, and indicated that the novel duck-specific CoV identified through RNA-Seq in this study is genetically closer to some CoVs circulating in wild water fowls. Taken together, this study shed new insight into the diversity, distribution, evolution and control of avian CoVs.

  15. Identification and Survey of a Novel Avian Coronavirus in Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gui-Qian; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Shuo; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Hou, Guang-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The rapid discovery of novel viruses using next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies including DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq, has greatly expanded our understanding of viral diversity in recent years. The timely identification of novel viruses using NGS technologies is also important for us to control emerging infectious diseases caused by novel viruses. In this study, we identified a novel duck coronavirus (CoV), distinct with chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), using RNA-Seq. The novel duck-specific CoV was a potential novel species within the genus Gammacoronavirus, as indicated by sequences of three regions in the viral 1b gene. We also performed a survey of CoVs in domestic fowls in China using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), targeting the viral nucleocapsid (N) gene. A total of 102 CoV positives were identified through the survey. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral N sequences suggested that CoVs in domestic fowls have diverged into several region-specific or host-specific clades or subclades in the world, and IBVs can infect ducks, geese and pigeons, although they mainly circulate in chickens. Moreover, this study provided novel data supporting the notion that some host-specific CoVs other than IBVs circulate in ducks, geese and pigeons, and indicated that the novel duck-specific CoV identified through RNA-Seq in this study is genetically closer to some CoVs circulating in wild water fowls. Taken together, this study shed new insight into the diversity, distribution, evolution and control of avian CoVs. PMID:24023656

  16. [Effectiveness of halotherapy of chronic bronchitis patients].

    PubMed

    Abdrakhmanova, L M; Farkhutdinov, U R; Farkhutdinov, R R

    2000-01-01

    The chemoluminescence test in 49 patients with lingering inflammatory chronic bronchitis has revealed inhibition of generation of active oxygen forms in the whole blood, intensification of lipid peroxidation in the serum, depression of local immunity. Administration of halotherapy to the above patients results in correction of disturbances of free-radical oxidation, improves local immunity and clinical course of the disease.

  17. Avian Reovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian reoviruses (ARV) are widespread worldwide and may infect turkeys, chickens and other avian species, including domestic waterfowl and game birds. The virus is non-enveloped double-stranded RNA, therefore is environmentally stable and due to its segmented genome can generate variants easily. A...

  18. Avian Metapneumoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...

  19. Measurement of airborne influenza virus during hen slaughtering in an ABSL-3E bioBUBBLE®

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several avian viral diseases, including avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis or laryngotracheitis, are transmitted via respiratory droplets or by contact with contaminated fomites. Using high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus as a model, the objective of the present st...

  20. Emerging infectious diseases: Focus on infection control issues for novel coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa and Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9).

    PubMed

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A; Fischer, William A; Kanamori, Hajime; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E

    2016-05-02

    Over the past several decades, we have witnessed the emergence of many new infectious agents, some of which are major public threats. New and emerging infectious diseases which are both transmissible from patient-to-patient and virulent with a high mortality include novel coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CV), hemorrhagic fever viruses (Lassa, Ebola), and highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9). All healthcare facilities need to have policies and plans in place for early identification of patients with a highly communicable diseases which are highly virulent, ability to immediately isolate such patients, and provide proper management (e.g., training and availability of personal protective equipment) to prevent transmission to healthcare personnel, other patients and visitors to the healthcare facility.

  1. Kluver-Bucy syndrome after mycoplasmal bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Auvichayapat, Narong; Auvichayapat, Paradee; Watanatorn, Jintanaporn; Thamaroj, Jureerut; Jitpimolmard, Suthipun

    2006-02-01

    Kluver-Bucy syndrome is a rare neurobehavioral condition characterized by visual agnosia, excessive oral tendencies, hypermetamorphosis, placidity, altered sexual behavior, and changes in dietary habits. This description of a 14-year-old boy presenting with complete Kluver-Bucy syndrome after Mycoplasma pneumoniae bronchitis is the first such case report. MRI revealed left temporal horn dilation and asymmetry of both temporal lobes. We hypothesize that the pathophysiology of our case is immune-mediated damage by M. pneumoniae resulting in vasculopathy.

  2. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  3. Avian Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  4. Avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Locke, Louis N.; Kennelly, James J.

    1985-01-01

    What is avian botulism? Avian botulism, or Western duck sickness, is one of the three most important disease problems of wild migratory birds. Each year, many birds are paralyzed or die after exposure to a toxin produced by the botulinum bacterium. Two of the seven toxin types that have been identifies cause mortality in wild birds; one of these types, type C, is most often associated with dieoffs of ducks, while type E primarily affects gulls and loons.

  5. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  6. Avian Hematology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    Avian veterinarians often rely heavily on the results of various diagnostic tests, including hematology results. As such, cellular identification and evaluation of the cellular response are invaluable tools that help veterinarians understand the health or condition of their patient, as well as to monitor severity and clinical progression of disease and response to treatment. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly understand how to identify and evaluate changes in the avian erythron and leukon, as well as to interpret normal and abnormal results.

  7. Avian hematology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Avian veterinarians often rely heavily on the results of various diagnostic tests, including hematology results. As such, cellular identification and evaluation of the cellular response are invaluable tools that help veterinarians understand the health or condition of their patient, as well as to monitor severity and clinical progression of disease and response to treatment. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly understand how to identify and evaluate changes in the avian erythron and leukon, as well as to interpret normal and abnormal results.

  8. The Relationships Between Weather and Climate and Attacks of Bronchitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talaia, M. A. R.; Saraiva, M. A. C.; Vieira da Cruz, A. A.

    The area of Aveiro, more concretely Aveiro lagoon, a natural laboratory has been con- sidered, for promoting the development and the application of several investigations worked. The importance of the influences of weather and climate on human health has been well known since ancient teams and many decisions concerning human be- haviour it are clearly weather related. However, decisions related to weather criteria can be important and economically significant, but the real economic effect of the weather is difficult to assess. Talaia et al. (2000) and Talaia and Vieira da Cruz (2001) have shown the possible harmful effect of certain meteorological factors on respiratory conditions. Bronchitis is a disease caused by inflammation of the bronchi as a result of infectious agents or air pollutants. In this study our attention is to relate, the be- ginning of bronchitis attacks in the services of urgency of the Hospital of Aveiro with meteorological factors, and the risk group are studied. We used the medical records and the database of meteorological factors. The obtained analysis allows to conclude that some meteorological factors have correlation with the occurrences of the disease and to allow improving the work in the urgency services in the requested periods. The knowledge that will be extracted of this study can be used later in studies that inte- grate other important components for the characterisation of the environmental impact in the area. References: Talaia, M.A.R., Vieira da Cruz, A.A., Saraiva, M.A.C., Amaro, G.S., Oliveira, C.J. and Carvalho, C.F., 2000, The Influence of Meteorological Fac- tors on Pneumonia Emergencies in Aveiro, International Symposium on Human- Biometeorology, St. Petersburg (Pushkin), Russia, pp. 67-68. Talaia, M.A.R. and Vieira of Cruz, A.A., (2001), Meteorological Effects on the Resistance of the Body to Influenza - One Study in Aveiro Region, Proceedings 2nd Symposium of Meteorol- ogy and Geophysics of APMG and 3rd Meeting

  9. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  10. Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French ( ... Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (Українська) Arabic (العربية) Bronchitis (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  11. AVIAN IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for studying the avian immune system have matured during the past two decades, with laboratory studies predominating in earlier years and field studies being conducted only in the past decade. One application has been to determine the potential for environmental contamina...

  12. Infectious Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... something that has bacteria on it. To diagnose infectious arthritis, your health care provider may do tests of your blood, urine, and joint fluid. Treatment includes medicines and sometimes surgery.

  13. Epidemiology of chronic bronchitis in Prague

    PubMed Central

    Boudik, F.; Goldsmith, J. R.; Teichman, V.; Kaufmann, P.-C.

    1970-01-01

    A number of epidemiological studies in several countries have implicated cigarette smoking, occupation, age, sex and air pollution as well as other environmental factors in the epidemiology of chronic respiratory disease. This paper reports the results of a respiratory-symptom and pulmonary-function survey among a large population of men aged 50-65 years in Prague. In general, the findings of other studies have been confirmed, showing that these relationships occur in an even wider range of geographic and cultural backgrounds. In addition, the study uncovered an apparent relationship between the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and a family history of chronic bronchitis and tuberculosis, suggesting that future surveys should include studies of familial aggregations of chronic respiratory disease. Similar studies have been carried out in other parts of Czechoslovakia with different levels of air pollution for comparison with the results of this study. PMID:5311058

  14. Avian Influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  15. Avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary A; Maslow, Melanie J

    2006-03-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004 alone, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate over 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantines, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent increased human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short, interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems offer promise, should a pandemic occur.

  16. [New pharmaceuticals in treatment of chronic dust bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Kosarev, V V; Vakurova, N V; Babanov, S A

    2007-01-01

    The study was dedicated to the assessment of the therapeutic possibilities provided by erespal (fenspirid) as a new class of pharmaceuticals inhibiting the inflammatory process, in patients with chronic dust bronchitis.

  17. [Features of chronic occupational bronchitis in nonferrous metallurgy workers].

    PubMed

    Roslaia, N A; Likhacheva, E I; Vagina, E R; Roslyĭ, O F; Zhovtiak, E P; Iarina, A L; Varzina, N V

    2004-01-01

    The authors summarized results of periodic medical examinations and deep clinical studies of metallurgy workers with bronchial and pulmonary disorders. The article covers clinical and functional characteristics of toxic and dust bronchitis, clinical course and manifestations.

  18. An investigation of renal function in chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed Central

    Daggett, P.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation has been made into various parameters of renal function in patients with chronic bronchitis and in a group of hypoxic controls. Abnormalities of glomerular filtration rate and of water handling have been demostrated in chronic bronchitic patients but not in hypoxic controls. The abnormalities are related to the arterial Pco2. A hypothesis is presented as to the role of CO2 in causing abnormalities of renal function in chronic bronchitis. PMID:17853

  19. A conservative treatment for plastic bronchitis in pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Berlucchi, Marco; Pelucchi, Francesca; Timpano, Silviana; Zorzi, Annalisa; Padoan, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare disorder in pediatric age. This disease can cause life-threatening episodes. Broncoscopy plus bronchial lavage is considered the gold standard therapeutic technique. Knowledge of this disease is mandatory to perform correct diagnosis and provide prompt treatment. The authors report the history of a 5-year-old girl affected by plastic bronchitis who was successfully treated by a conservative therapy avoiding the traditional more invasive management.

  20. Targeted therapy of bronchitis in obstructive airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Angira; Neighbour, Helen; Nair, Parameswaran

    2013-12-01

    Guidelines for the management of obstructive airway diseases do not emphasize the measurement of bronchitis to indicate appropriate treatments or monitor response to treatment. Bronchitis is the central component of airway diseases and contributes to symptoms, physiological and structural abnormalities. It can be measured directly and reliably by quantitative assay of spontaneous or induced sputum. The measurement is reproducible, valid, and responsive to treatment and to changes in disease status. Bronchitis may be eosinophilic, neutrophilic, mixed, or paucigranulocytic (eosinophils and neutrophils not elevated). Eosinophilic bronchitis is usually a Th2 driven process and therefore a sputum eosinophilia of greater than 3% usually indicates a response to treatment with corticosteroids or novel therapies directed against Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Neutrophilic bronchitis which is a non-Th2 driven disease is generally a predictor of response to antibiotics and may be a predictor to therapies targeted at pathways that lead to neutrophil recruitment such as IL-8 (eg anti-CXCR2), IL-17 (eg anti-IL17) etc. Paucigranulocytic disease may not warrant anti-inflammatory therapy. Several novel monoclonals and small molecule antagonists have been evaluated in clinical trials with variable results and several more are likely to be discovered in the near future. The success of these agents will depend on appropriate patient selection by accurate phenotyping or characterization of bronchitis.

  1. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  2. [Levofloxacin and macrolides in chronic bronchitis exacerbation: comparative analysis of the treatment efficacy and nonrelapsing periods].

    PubMed

    Dvoretskiĭ, L I; Dubrovskaia, N V; Grudinina, S A; Filimonova, O Iu; Sidorenko, S V; Iakovlev, S V

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and bacteriological efficacies of levofloxacin versus clarithromycin and azithromycin were evaluated in 41 patients with chronic bronchitis infectious exacerbation in the Respiratory-Recovery Centre of Polyclinic No. 7. The effect of the drugs on the nonrelapsing period was estimated as well. With the use of levofloxacin there was observed a more rapid elimination of the clinical signs of the exacerbation as compared to the use of the macrolides. Levofloxacin provided a more pronounced and stable eradication of the main pathogens of the exacerbation as compared to the macrolide antibiotic. Long-term monitoring for 12 months after discontinuation of the treatment showed that the nonrelapsing period in the patients treated with levofloxacin was higher and the frequency of the relapses and their intensity were lower in comparison to the group of the patients treated with the macrolides.

  3. Nondomestic avian pediatric pathology.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Judy

    2012-05-01

    This is a snapshot of avian neonatal pathology—not an exhaustive review. Through knowledge and recognition of the significant pathogenic challenges of avian neonates and the associated lesions, avian practitioners can improve their diagnostic and therapeutic success. An area of need for avian research is determining the specific pathogenesis of many conditions affecting avian neonates. By narrowing the specific etiologies, we can improve management and reduce neonatal concerns.

  4. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... that contain genetic material, and use your own cells to multiply Fungi - primitive plants, like mushrooms or mildew Protozoa - one-celled animals that use other living things for food and a place to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  5. Chronic Bronchitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Criner, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic bronchitis (CB) is a common but variable phenomenon in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It has numerous clinical consequences, including an accelerated decline in lung function, greater risk of the development of airflow obstruction in smokers, a predisposition to lower respiratory tract infection, higher exacerbation frequency, and worse overall mortality. CB is caused by overproduction and hypersecretion of mucus by goblet cells, which leads to worsening airflow obstruction by luminal obstruction of small airways, epithelial remodeling, and alteration of airway surface tension predisposing to collapse. Despite its clinical sequelae, little is known about the pathophysiology of CB and goblet cell hyperplasia in COPD, and treatment options are limited. In addition, it is becoming increasingly apparent that in the classic COPD spectrum, with emphysema on one end and CB on the other, most patients lie somewhere in the middle. It is known now that many patients with severe emphysema can develop CB, and small airway pathology has been linked to worse clinical outcomes, such as increased mortality and lesser improvement in lung function after lung volume reduction surgery. However, in recent years, a greater understanding of the importance of CB as a phenotype to identify patients with a beneficial response to therapy has been described. Herein we review the epidemiology of CB, the evidence behind its clinical consequences, the current understanding of the pathophysiology of goblet cell hyperplasia in COPD, and current therapies for CB. PMID:23204254

  6. Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infectious uveitis is one of the most common and visually devastating causes of uveitis in the US and worldwide. This review provides a summary of the identification, treatment, and complications associated with certain forms of viral, bacterial, fungal, helminthic, and parasitic uveitis. In particular, this article reviews the literature on identification and treatment of acute retinal necrosis due to herpes simplex virus, varicella virus, and cytomegalovirus. While no agreed-upon treatment has been identified, the characteristics of Ebola virus panuveitis is also reviewed. In addition, forms of parasitic infection such as Toxoplasmosis and Toxocariasis are summarized, as well as spirochetal uveitis. Syphilitic retinitis is reviewed given its increase in prevalence over the last decade. The importance of early identification and treatment of infectious uveitis is emphasized. Early identification can be achieved with a combination of maintaining a high suspicion, recognizing certain clinical features, utilizing multi-modal imaging, and obtaining specimens for molecular diagnostic testing. PMID:26618074

  7. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  8. Infectious and zoonotic disease testing in pet birds.

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn

    2011-03-01

    Pet bird ownership and the veterinary diagnostic market for avian and exotic species testing have grown markedly during the past 20 years. Birds present with both unique infectious diseases and other diseases that are known to the human medical community, including aspergillosis, mycobacteriosis, chlamydophilosis, and bornavirus infection, some of which have clear zoonotic implications. Although diagnostic testing for these avian infectious diseases has grown considerably and includes the newer technology of polymerase chain reaction as well as traditional serologic testing, guidelines for the use and interpretation of these tests and standardization of tests among veterinary laboratories remains an unmet challenge.

  9. Anti-inflammatory drugs and experimental bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, P K

    1986-01-01

    Chronic bronchitis (chronic hypersecretion) and chronic bronchiolitis (small airways disease) are two conditions associated with cigarette smoking: both contribute to airflow obstruction in man, the latter associated with progressive deterioration in lung function. Mucous metaplasia and hyperplasia are characteristic histological changes. Experimentally, cigarette smoke given daily for two weeks, induces similar histological changes in the airways of specific pathogen-free rats, providing a suitable animal model for study: an early proliferation of basal cells, accompanied by mucous metaplasia of surface epithelial serous cells is followed by proliferation of newly formed mucous cells. There is also a significant increase in epithelial thickness due to cell hypertrophy without stratification or prior ulceration. Experimentally, secretory cell hyperplasia is inhibited completely or to varying degrees by prophylactic administration (intraperitoneal injection) of either indomethacin, flurbiprofen, dexamethasone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone (each at 2 or 4 mg/kg body weight) or a mucolytic drug, N-acetylcysteine(Nac), given orally as a 1% solution of the drinking water. Nac also inhibits the associated mucus-hypersecretion. It takes between 21 and 84 days, depending on airway level, for the increase in secretory cell number to return to control values (ie recover). Indomethacin and flurbiprofen (4 mg/kg, by ip injection) shorten recovery to between 4 and 9 days in intrapulmonary airways but have no effect on recovery time in the rat trachea. Nac is effective in 6 of 7 airway levels which showed cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell hyperplasia. In conclusion, in the rat, the response to cigarette smoke is one of mucous cell metaplasia and both basal and mucous cell proliferation. Cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell hyperplasia can be inhibited when selected drugs are given concurrently with the cigarette smoke: indomethacin, fluriprofen and Nac are also therapeutic.

  10. Prevalence of avian respiratory viruses in broiler flocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Kareem E; Shany, Salama A S; Ali, A; Dahshan, Al-Hussien M; El-Sawah, Azza A; El-Kady, Magdy F

    2016-06-01

    In this study, respiratory viral pathogens were screened using real-time RT-PCR in 86 broiler chicken flocks suffering from respiratory diseases problems in 4 Egyptian governorates between January 2012 and February 2014. The mortality rates in the investigated flocks ranged from 1 to 47%. Results showed that mixed infection represented 66.3% of the examined flocks. Mixed infectious bronchitis (IBV) and avian influenza (AI)-H9N2 viruses were the most common infection (41.7%). Lack of AI-H9N2 vaccination and high rates of mixed infections in which AI-H9N2 is involved indicate an early AI-H9N2 infection with a potential immunosuppressive effect that predisposes for other viral infections. High pathogenic AI-H5N1 and virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) infections were also detected (26.7% and 8.1%, respectively). Interestingly, co-infection of AI-H9N2 with either AIV-H5N1 or vNDV rarely resulted in high mortality. Partial cell-mediated immunity against similar internal AI genes, as well as virus interference between AI and vNDV, could be an explanation for this. Highly prevalent IBV and AI-H9N2 were isolated and were molecularly characterized based on S1 gene hypervariable region 3 ( HVR3: ) and hemagglutinin gene (HA) sequences, respectively. IBV strains were related to the variant group of IBV with multiple mutations in HVR3. Though AI-H9N2 viruses showed low rate of evolution in comparison to recent strains, few amino acid substitutions indicative of antibody selection pressure were observed in the HA gene. In conclusion, mixed viral infections, especially with IBV and AI-H9N2 viruses, are the predominant etiology of respiratory disease problems in broiler chickens in Egypt. Further investigations of the role of AI, IBV, and ND viruses' co-infections and interference in terms of altering the severity of clinical signs and lesions and/or generating novel reassortants within each virus are needed.

  11. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Avian Influenza Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  12. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  13. [Clinical and therapeutic management of respiratory tract infections. Consensus document of the Andalusian Infectious Diseases Society and the Andalusian Family and Community Medicine Society].

    PubMed

    Cordero Matía, Elisa; de Dios Alcántara Bellón, Juan; Caballero Granado, Javier; de la Torre Lima, Javier; Girón González, José Antonio; Lama Herrera, Carmen; Morán Rodríguez, Ana; Zapata López, Angel

    2007-04-01

    Respiratory tract infections are frequent and they are one of the commonest causes of antibiotic prescription. However, there are few clinical guidelines that consider this group of infections. This document has been written by the Andalusian Infectious Diseases Society and the Andalusian Family and Community Medicine Society. The primary objective has been to define the recommendations for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections apart from pneumonia. The clinical syndromes evaluated have been: a) pharyngitis; b) sinusitis; c) acute otitis media and otitis externa; d) acute bronchitis, laryngitis, epiglottitis; e) acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis; and f) respiratory infectious in patients with bronchiectasis. This document has focused on immunocompetent patients.

  14. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  15. Host Tissue and Glycan Binding Specificities of Avian Viral Attachment Proteins Using Novel Avian Tissue Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Vries, Robert P.; Eggert, Amber M.; Wandee, Nantaporn; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, Monique H.

    2015-01-01

    The initial interaction between viral attachment proteins and the host cell is a critical determinant for the susceptibility of a host for a particular virus. To increase our understanding of avian pathogens and the susceptibility of poultry species, we developed novel avian tissue microarrays (TMAs). Tissue binding profiles of avian viral attachment proteins were studied by performing histochemistry on multi-species TMA, comprising of selected tissues from ten avian species, and single-species TMAs, grouping organ systems of each species together. The attachment pattern of the hemagglutinin protein was in line with the reported tropism of influenza virus H5N1, confirming the validity of TMAs in profiling the initial virus-host interaction. The previously believed chicken-specific coronavirus (CoV) M41 spike (S1) protein displayed a broad attachment pattern to respiratory tissues of various avian species, albeit with lower affinity than hemagglutinin, suggesting that other avian species might be susceptible for chicken CoV. When comparing tissue-specific binding patterns of various avian coronaviral S1 proteins on the single-species TMAs, chicken and partridge CoV S1 had predominant affinity for the trachea, while pigeon CoV S1 showed marked preference for lung of their respective hosts. Binding of all coronaviral S1 proteins was dependent on sialic acids; however, while chicken CoV S1 preferred sialic acids type I lactosamine (Gal(1-3)GlcNAc) over type II (Gal(1-4)GlcNAc), the fine glycan specificities of pigeon and partridge CoVs were different, as chicken CoV S1-specific sialylglycopolymers could not block their binding to tissues. Taken together, TMAs provide a novel platform in the field of infectious diseases to allow identification of binding specificities of viral attachment proteins and are helpful to gain insight into the susceptibility of host and organ for avian pathogens. PMID:26035584

  16. Predicting 15 year chronic bronchitis mortality in the Whitehall Study.

    PubMed Central

    Ebi-Kryston, K L

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen year chronic bronchitis mortality was investigated among 17,717 male civil servants aged 40-64 years participating in the Whitehall Study. Associations were assessed between mortality and Medical Research Council standardised questions about chronic phlegm production and breathlessness, and a measure of lung function. Low FEV1 was the most powerful single predictor of mortality; controlling for age, smoking habits and employment grade, the relative hazards ratio (RHR) was 20. Using mortality rates standardised for age and smoking, the proportion of mortality in the total population statistically attributable to low FEV1 (population excess fraction) was 57%. Breathlessness while walking on the level was the best predictor among the questions and combinations of questions; the relative hazards ratio was 12 and the population excess fraction, 39%. A Medical Research Council definition of chronic bronchitis including chronic phlegm production and breathlessness was also strongly associated with chronic bronchitis mortality (RHR = 13); however, the population excess fraction was only 20%. This definition identified only 30% of the 64 deaths, and added almost nothing to prediction by FEV1 alone. The results suggest that although the combination of chronic phlegm production and chronic airflow limitation is strongly associated with mortality from chronic bronchitis, the presence of chronic phlegm production alone is not associated with mortality. PMID:2592906

  17. Respiratory symptoms and occupational bronchitis in chromite ore miners, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ballal, S G

    1986-10-01

    Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis was determined in a group of 122 subjects (77 exposed miners, 18 partially exposed, 27 controls) working at chromite ore mines in Sudan. The mean ages (+/- s.d.) of the three groups were 36.4 (+/- 7.8), 35.2 (+/- 6.8) and 34.6 (+/- 7.5) years respectively. Methods included a respiratory symptoms questionnaire based on the British Medical Research Council (MRC 1976) questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, determination of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC%. The majority (66%) of the exposed subjects were non-smokers (NS) and 20 (77%) of the 'ever-smokers' (current and ex-smokers) were smokers of less than 15 cigarettes day-1. Respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, dyspnoea) were more frequent among the miners and so was chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of the latter was 26% among the miners compared to 11% and 7% among the partially exposed and the controls respectively. These differences could not be accounted for by cigarette smoking. Sixty-five per cent of the miners diagnosed as having asthma, chronic bronchitis or both were non-smokers. Although the values for the FEV1/FVC% remained normal or near the lower limits of the normal range, the mean value was significantly lower among the miners. It was concluded that the mine dust was the prime cause of the respiratory symptoms and chronic bronchitis among the miners.

  18. Cerebral Lipiodol Embolism after Lymphatic Embolization for Plastic Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Kirschen, Matthew P.; Dori, Yoav; Itkin, Maxim; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-01-01

    An adolescent with plastic bronchitis due to congenital heart disease had altered mental status after an interventional lymphatic procedure in which lipiodol contrast was used. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral lipiodol embolization due to direct shunting between lymphatic channels and pulmonary veins. Cerebral lipiodol embolization is a potential neurologic morbidity associated with interventional lymphatic procedures. PMID:27297208

  19. Infectious bronchitis virus S2 expressed from recombinant virus confers broad protection against challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota (rLS) expressing the IBV S2 gene (rLS/IBV.S2). The recombinant virus showed reduced pathogenicity compared to the parental LaSota strain but effectively elicited hemagglutination inhibition antibodies and protected chickens against lethal...

  20. Molecular and antigenic characteristics of Massachusetts genotype infectious bronchitis coronavirus in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingfeng; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Liang, Shuling; Xu, Yang; Xu, Qianqian; Chen, Yuqiu; Zhao, Yan; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Wang, Kexiong; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-12-31

    In this study, 418 IBVs were isolated in samples from 1717 chicken flocks. Twenty-nine of the isolates were classified as the Massachusetts genotype. These 29 isolates, as well as two previously isolated Massachusetts genotype IBV strains, were studied further. Of the 31 strains, 24 were H120-like and two were M41-like isolates as determined by complete genomic sequence analysis, indicating that most of the IBV isolates were likely the reisolated vaccine virus. The remaining five IBV isolates, ck/CH/LHB/111172, ck/CH/LSD/111219, ck/CH/LHB/130598, ck/CH/LDL/110931, and ck/CH/LHB/130573, were shown to have originated from natural recombination events between an H120-like vaccine strain and other types of viruses. The virus cross-neutralization test found that the antigenicity of ck/CH/LHB/111172, ck/CH/LSD/111219, and ck/CH/LHB/130598 was similar to that of H120. Vaccination with the H120 vaccine offered complete protection against challenge with these isolates. However, isolates ck/CH/LDL/110931 and ck/CH/LHB/130573 were serotypically different from their parental viruses and from other serotypes in this study. Furthermore, vaccination with the H120 vaccine did not provide protection against challenge with these two isolates. The results of this study demonstrated that recombination is the mechanism that is responsible for the emergence of new serotype strains, and it has the ability to alter virus serotypes. Therefore, IBV surveillance of chicken flocks vaccinated with IBV live vaccines, as well as the consideration of new strategies to effectively control IBV infection using inactivated or/and genetically engineered vaccines, is of great importance.

  1. [Halotherapy in the combined treatment of chronic bronchitis patients].

    PubMed

    Maev, E Z; Vinogradov, N V

    1999-06-01

    Halotherapy proved to be a highly effective method in a complex sanatorium treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. Its use promotes more rapid liquidation of clinical manifestations of disease, improves indices of vent function of lungs, especially those values that characterize bronchial conduction (volume of forced exhalations per second, index Tiffno), increases tolerance to physical load, normalizes indices of reduced immunity and leads to increasing the effectiveness of patient treatment in sanatorium.

  2. [Chronic obstructive bronchitis: definitions, risk factors and prevention (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Brille, D; Kauffmann, F; Oriol, P; Querleux, E

    1976-01-01

    Chronic obstructive bronchitis is defined as persistent diffuse airways obstruction frequently associated with chronic expectoration. This disease is particularly disabling and its medico-social burden implies that measures be taken. Risk factors of chronic obstructive bronchitis can be classified according to their presently known importance: tobacco, professional exposure, air pollution, viral and bacterial respiratory infections, poor socio-economic and cultural conditions, upper and lower airways infections during childhood, other environmental factors, genetic factors. Prevention needs that research be developed, in particular for factors, as hereditary ones, relations between childhood and adult respiratory diseases and characteristics of the "susceptible smokers". Knowledge of risk factors previously quoted allows to propose public-health actions. Firstly, true preventive action of general nature: fight against tobacco consumption, reduce atmospheric pollution, improve work and life conditions. Secondly, in order to prevent the disabling state of chronic bronchitis, it would be necessary to take care of patients at the initial state. A control trial is proposed to determine the level of symptoms and of reduction of ventilatory values at which an action is needed and the best "preventive therapeutical" protocol to be applied to these patients.

  3. Severe obliterative bronchitis associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Woo, Tetsukan; Saito, Haruhiro; Yamakawa, Yasushi; Komatsu, Shigeru; Onuma, Sumi; Okudela, Koji; Nozawa, Akinori; Aihara, Michiko; Ikezawa, Zenro; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) in which the patient had been diagnosed with severe obliterative bronchitis. A 29-year-old woman was admitted with a high fever and a widespread vesicular rash. She was diagnosed with SJS and betamethasone administration was started. After one month, her vesicular skin rash improved; however, she developed respiratory failure and was assisted with mechanical ventilation. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated a hyperlucent lung with narrowing of the peripheral vessels. Bronchoscopy revealed an occlusion of the bronchus when the patient exhaled. The flow-volume curve revealed a severe obstructive pattern. The patient was diagnosed with obliterative bronchitis following SJS. She was treated with a bronchodilator and steroids, but could not breathe adequately without the ventilator. During the following year, her PaCO(2) increased to 100 torr and her heart function also continued to worsen. Despite intensive treatment, she died one year and seven months after the onset of SJS. In SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) patients, chronic pulmonary complications are rare, but there is no effective therapy for obliterative bronchitis following SJS/TEN. Therefore, early awareness of this condition is needed and lung transplantation must be considered at an early stage of this disease.

  4. The Chronic Bronchitis Phenotype in COPD: Features and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Victor; Criner, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major public health problem that is projected to rank fifth worldwide in terms of disease burden and third in terms of mortality. Chronic bronchitis (CB) is associated with multiple clinical consequences, including hastening lung function decline, increasing risk of exacerbations, reducing health related quality of life, and possibly raising all-cause mortality. Recent data suggests greater elucidation on the risk factors, radiologic characteristics, and treatment regimens. Our goal was to review the literature on chronic bronchitis that has been published in the last few years. Recent Findings A growing body of literature that more carefully describes environmental risk factors, epidemiology, and genetics associated with CB. In addition, as computed tomography technology continues to improve, the radiologic phenotype associated with CB is better understood. Summary With these new data, the clinician can recognize the newly described risk factors and the associated phenotype for chronic bronchitis and entertain new treatment options for this high risk population. PMID:25575367

  5. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  7. Avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Won; Saif, Yehia M

    2009-07-01

    Avian influenza viruses do not typically replicate efficiently in humans, indicating direct transmission of avian influenza virus to humans is unlikely. However, since 1997, several cases of human infections with different subtypes (H5N1, H7N7, and H9N2) of avian influenza viruses have been identified and raised the pandemic potential of avian influenza virus in humans. Although circumstantial evidence of human to human transmission exists, the novel avian-origin influenza viruses isolated from humans lack the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person. However, the on-going human infection with avian-origin H5N1 viruses increases the likelihood of the generation of human-adapted avian influenza virus with pandemic potential. Thus, a better understanding of the biological and genetic basis of host restriction of influenza viruses is a critical factor in determining whether the introduction of a novel influenza virus into the human population will result in a pandemic. In this article, we review current knowledge of type A influenza virus in which all avian influenza viruses are categorized.

  8. The propagation of avian viruses in a continuous cell line (QT35) of Japanese quail origin.

    PubMed

    Cowen, B S; Braune, M O

    1988-01-01

    Seven of nine avian virus families tested (Birnaviridae, Coronaviridae, Herpesviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Poxviridae, Reoviridae, and Retroviridae) were found to replicate in a quail fibroblast cell line, designated QT35, resulting in a cytopathic effect (CPE) visible with the naked eye or by low-power microscopy. In comparison, only one (Paramyxoviridae) of seven mammalian virus families tested produced an observable CPE. Cytopathic changes induced by examined viruses were round cell, syncytial, and focus formation. Trypsin did not promote cytopathic changes by selected CPE-negative avian and mammalian viruses in QT35 cells. Several avian viruses (infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, Canary pox virus, and reovirus) formed plaques under agar. Avian reovirus and infectious bursal disease virus produced similar titers in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) and QT35 cell cultures. Chicken-egg-yolk neutralizing-antibody titers to IBDV were comparable in CEF and QT35 cell-culture systems.

  9. Recurrent plastic bronchitis in a child with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) and influenza B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun; Cho, Hwa Jin; Han, Dong Kyun; Choi, Yoo Duk; Yang, Eun Seok; Cho, Young Kuk; Ma, Jae Sook

    2012-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon disorder characterized by the formation of bronchial casts. It is associated with congenital heart disease or pulmonary disease. In children with underlying conditions such as allergy or asthma, influenza can cause severe plastic bronchitis resulting in respiratory failure. A review of the literature showed nine cases of plastic bronchitis with H1N1 including this case. We report a case of a child with recurrent plastic bronchitis with eosinophilic cast associated with influenza B infection, who had recovered from plastic bronchitis associated with an influenza A (H1N1) virus infection 5 months previously. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of recurrent plastic bronchitis related to influenza viral infection. If patients with influenza virus infection manifest acute respiratory distress with total lung atelectasis, clinicians should consider plastic bronchitis and early bronchoscopy should be intervened. In addition, management for underlying disease may prevent from recurrence of plastic bronchitis.

  10. Upper-airway cough syndrome with latent eosinophilic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Wei, Weili; Wang, Lan; Huang, Yang; Shi, Cuiqin; Lü, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2010-01-01

    Upper-airway cough syndrome often coexists with other diseases that elicit chronic cough. However, the concomitant conditions are not always relevant to chronic cough, which complicates the cause diagnosis of chronic cough. The objective of this study was to explore the diagnosis and clinical implication of upper-airway cough syndrome with latent eosinophilic bronchitis. Eleven patients with upper-airway cough syndrome and latent eosinophilic bronchitis were retrospectively analyzed for their clinical manifestations, changes of eosinophilia in induced sputum, and cough threshold with capsaicin defined as capsaicin concentration that elicits two or more coughs (C2) and five or more coughs (C5) between pretreatment and post-treatment. All patients reported a history of allergic rhinitis, showed persistent dry cough or small amounts of viscid sputum with a time course of 2-60 months (median = 7 months), and presented with symptoms and signs of rhinitis, normal lung function, and airway responsiveness. Initial eosinophil percentage in induced sputum was 3.5-8.0%. Cough disappeared after 2-5 (3 +/- 1) weeks of only oral antihistamine. With successful treatment, cough threshold C2 increased from 1.73 +/- 1.45 to 4.43 +/- 4.50 micromol/L (t = 2.64, P = 0.025) and C5 increased from 2.79 +/- 2.16 to 10.10 +/- 8.22 micromol/L (t = 3.10, P = 0.011). However, there was no significant change of eosinophil percentage in induced sputum (4.8 +/- 1.5% vs. 4.4 +/- 1.4%, t = 0.84, P = 0.427). Upper-airway cough syndrome with latent eosinophilic bronchitis is a unique condition. The recognition of the entity may avoid unnecessary use of corticosteroids.

  11. Barotrauma as aetiological cascade of fatal intrapulmonary plastic bronchitis in a post-Fontan child.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Maqsood; Poh, Chin-Leng; Ravindranathan, Hari; Grant, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The role of barotrauma in the exaggeration of plastic bronchitis after Fontan circulation has yet to be examined. We aim to describe a case of a 4-year old post-Fontan circulation girl where barotrauma suffered during commercial air travel played a role in the aetiological cascade of plastic bronchitis.

  12. A Rare Case of Plastic Bronchitis in an Adult Patient After Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Ahmadi-Kashani, Mastaneh; Mohindra, Vibha; Friedenberg, Allison; Pramanik, Sharmila B; Ogden, William D

    2016-03-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare life-threatening complication observed after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We describe a case of a 54-year-old man in whom a fulminant case of plastic bronchitis developed after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and mitral valve repair. A brief review of the literature is also presented.

  13. Infectious mononucleosis #3 (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is a viral infection causing high temperature, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Infectious mononucleosis can be contagious if the infected ...

  14. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend ... with Avian Influenza A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses ...

  15. Avian Influenza in Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Wildlife Health Center website . Avian Influenza in Poultry (Domesticated Birds) Domesticated birds (chickens, turkeys, etc.) may ... direct contact with infected waterfowl or other infected poultry, or through contact with surfaces that have been ...

  16. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  17. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike.

  18. Lesions of the avian pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert E; Reavill, Drury R

    2014-01-01

    Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

  19. Wetland environmental conditions associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks and the abundance of Pasteurella multocida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, Michael D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Shadduck, Daniel J.; Creekmore, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera is a significant infectious disease affecting waterfowl across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Despite the importance of this disease, little is known about the factors that cause avian cholera outbreaks and what management strategies might be used to reduce disease mortality. Previous studies indicated that wetland water conditions may affect survival and transmission of Pasteurella multocida, the agent that causes avian cholera. These studies hypothesized that water conditions affect the likelihood that avian cholera outbreaks will occur in specific wetlands. To test these predictions, we collected data from avian cholera outbreak and non-outbreak (control) wetlands throughout North America (wintera??spring 1995a??1996 to 1998a??1999) to evaluate whether water conditions were associated with outbreaks. Conditional logistic regression analysis on paired outbreak and non-outbreak wetlands indicated no significant association between water conditions and the risk of avian cholera outbreaks. For wetlands where avian cholera outbreaks occurred, linear regression showed that increased eutrophic nutrient concentrations (Potassium [K], nitrate [NO3], phosphorus [P], and phosphate [PO3]) were positively related to the abundance of P. multocida recovered from water and sediment samples. Wetland protein concentration and an El Ni??o event were also associated with P. multocida abundance. Our results indicate that wetland water conditions are not strongly associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks; however, some variables may play a role in the abundance of P. multocida bacteria and might be important in reducing the severity of avian cholera outbreaks.

  20. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    PubMed

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses.

  1. The determinants of chronic bronchitis in Aboriginal children and youth

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Alomgir; Konrad, Stephanie; Dosman, James A; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; McCrosky, Jesse; Pahwa, Punam

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge concerning chronic bronchitis (CB) in Canadian Aboriginal peoples. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence (crude and adjusted) of CB and its associated risk factors in Canadian Aboriginal children and youth six to 14 years of age. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Aboriginal Peoples Survey were analyzed in the present study. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors influencing the prevalence of CB among Aboriginal children and youth. The balanced repeated replication method was used to compute standard errors of regression coefficients to account for clustering inherent in the study design. The outcome of interest was based on the question: “Have you been told by a doctor, nurse or other health professional that you have chronic bronchitis?” Demographics, environment and population characteristics (predisposing and enabling resources) were tested for an association with CB. RESULTS: The prevalence of CB was 3.1% for boys and 2.8% for girls. Other significant risk factors of CB were age (OR 1.38 [95% CI 1.24 to 1.52] for 12 to 14 year olds versus six to eight year olds), income (OR 2.28 [95% CI 2.02 to 2.59] for income category <$25,000/year versus ≥$85,000/year), allergies (OR 1.96 [95% CI 1.78 to 2.16] for having allergies versus no allergies), asthma (OR 7.61 [ 95% CI 6.91 to 8.37] for having asthma versus no asthma) and location of residence (rural/urban and geographical location). A significant two-way interaction between sex and body mass index indicated that the relationship between the prevalence of CB and body mass index was modified by sex. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of CB was related to well-known risk factors among adults, including older age and lower annual income. PMID:23248806

  2. Protracted bacterial bronchitis: The last decade and the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne B; Upham, John W; Masters, I Brent; Redding, Gregory R; Gibson, Peter G; Marchant, Julie M; Grimwood, Keith

    2016-03-01

    Cough is the single most common reason for primary care physician visits and, when chronic, a frequent indication for specialist referrals. In children, a chronic cough (>4 weeks) is associated with increased morbidity and reduced quality of life. One common cause of childhood chronic cough is protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), especially in children aged <6 years. PBB is characterized by a chronic wet or productive cough without signs of an alternative cause and responds to 2 weeks of appropriate antibiotics, such as amoxicillin-clavulanate. Most children with PBB are unable to expectorate sputum. If bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage are performed, evidence of bronchitis and purulent endobronchial secretions are seen. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens typically reveal marked neutrophil infiltration and culture large numbers of respiratory bacterial pathogens, especially Haemophilus influenzae. Although regarded as having a good prognosis, recurrences are common and if these are frequent or do not respond to antibiotic treatments of up to 4-weeks duration, the child should be investigated for other causes of chronic wet cough, such as bronchiectasis. The contribution of airway malacia and pathobiologic mechanisms of PBB remain uncertain and, other than reduced alveolar phagocytosis, evidence of systemic, or local immune deficiency is lacking. Instead, pulmonary defenses show activated innate immunity and increased gene expression of the interleukin-1β signalling pathway. Whether these changes in local inflammatory responses are cause or effect remains to be determined. It is likely that PBB and bronchiectasis are at the opposite ends of the same disease spectrum, so children with chronic wet cough require close monitoring.

  3. Mucoid impaction of the bronchi in relation to asthma and plastic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, A. D.; Bogomoletz, W.

    1968-01-01

    Mucoid impaction of the bronchi is a condition which deserves wider recognition in this country. It should be considered in any asthmatic subject who may be suspected on clinical or radiological grounds to be suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis or neoplasm. Although 120 cases have been reported since 1951, there are no reports from this country in the British literature. As we have seen three cases in one hospital, we believe that mucoid impaction is being diagnosed under other headings, for example plastic bronchitis. Most of the changes in lungs removed for mucoid impaction are those of asthma, although other factors may play a part. We have compared the pathologies of mucoid impaction, asthma, and plastic bronchitis, and conclude that, while they overlap considerably, they are not identical. Mucoid impaction is an uncommon complication of asthma and certain forms of bronchitis; plastic bronchitis has a much wider aetiological background and is not a pathological entity. Images PMID:5736360

  4. [The use of sodium chloride baths in patients with chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Anisimkina, A N; Aĭrapetova, N S; Davydova, O B; Doronina, Iu V; Derevnina, N A; Gontar', E V

    1996-01-01

    80 patients with chronic bronchitis took baths with sodium chloride concentration 20, 40, 60 g/l and temperature 37-38 degrees C. The baths produced a positive effect on central and regional hemodynamics, reduced inflammation and sensitization.

  5. Aerosolised heparin in the treatment of Fontan-related plastic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Eason, Daniel E; Cox, Kristin; Moskowitz, William B

    2014-02-01

    Patients with Fontan palliation and single-ventricle physiology encounter multiple comorbidities including plastic bronchitis, a disease characterised by the plugging of small and large airways by rubbery, white casts. To date, no controlled clinical trials have demonstrated effective treatment of plastic bronchitis. We report the application of aerosolised heparin, which has published success in non-cardiac-related pulmonary disease, for this complication in a Fontan patient.

  6. About Infectious Mononucleosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Epstein-Barr Virus and Infectious Mononucleosis Note: Javascript is disabled or ... About CDC.gov . EBV and Mono Home About Epstein-Barr Virus About Infectious Mononucleosis For Healthcare Providers Laboratory Testing ...

  7. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  8. IL-17A regulates Eimeria tenella schizont maturation and migration in avian coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although IL17A is associated with the immunological control of various infectious diseases, its role in host response to Eimeria infections is not well understood. In an effort to better dissect the role of IL17A in host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis, a neutralizing antibody (Ab) to chi...

  9. Pathogenesis and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAV) periodically transmit between pigs, people, and birds. If two IAV strains infect the same host, genes can reassort to generate progeny virus with potential to be more infectious or avoid immunity. Pigs pose a risk for such reassortment. Highly pathogenic avian ...

  10. Global Health: U.S. Agencies Support Programs to Build Overseas Capacity for Infectious Disease Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    building efforts in programs that focus on specific diseases, namely polio , tuberculosis, malaria, avian influenza, or HIV/AIDS. GAO is not...infectious disease surveillance in developing countries. The Field Epidemiology Training Programs, which CDC and USAID support, are another tool used to... Epidemiology Training Program Brazil, Central America, Central Asia, China, Egypt, Ghana, India, Jordan, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, Sudan, Thailand

  11. Effects of N2-laser radiation on the immune system cells of patients with chronic bronchitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provorov, Alexander S.; Kozhevnikova, T. A.; Salmin, Vladimir V.

    2001-05-01

    In spite of various investigations devoted to a problem of chronic bronchitis, many problems concerning both the reasons of the origin of this disease, and the essence of the processes, explicating in the bronchial tubes, especially on early stages of the disease, remain insufficiently studied. It makes it difficult to use an integrated approach to chronic bronchitis, that would reflect the peculiarities of its etiology, pathogenesis, its clinical course and efficiency of the therapy. During the last years the data of the clinical laboratory analysis of chronic bronchitis in connection with its immune therapy have been accumulated. In the literature there is a lot of information about the violation of immune reactions in the organism of patients, methods of the immune therapy, the data of the successful application of the intravenous laser therapy in the treatment of obstructive chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. However, there is no research explaining the mechanisms of the laser radiation impact on the immune status of patients suffering from chronic bronchitis. According to this it has become extremely urgent to research the mechanisms of the laser radiation impact on immune competent cells of patients suffering from chronic bronchitis.

  12. Chronic exposure to volcanic environments and chronic bronchitis incidence in the Azores, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Amaral, André Filipe Santos; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos

    2007-03-01

    The village of Furnas, like other active volcanic areas in the world, exhibits high levels of hazardous gases. We aimed to investigate the existence of a possible association between chronic exposure to volcanic sulfur gases and chronic bronchitis. To investigate this, we used two populations, one exposed to active manifestations of volcanism (Furnas) and another from an area where no volcanic activity took place for over three million years (Santa Maria), both in the Azores. We used data on the incidence of chronic bronchitis among both populations (1991-2001), obtained from the records of each local health center, and population denominators from censuses carried out in 1991 and 2001, using five age-groups. We also estimated relative risks and mean annual age-standardized rates of chronic bronchitis incidence. Incidence rates were extremely higher in the volcanically active area for both sexes, and especially in the youngest groups. Accordingly, the risk of chronic bronchitis for the people living in the volcanically active area was extremely higher (males RR=3.99; females RR=10.74) when compared to those living in the volcanically inactive area. Comparison of chronic bronchitis incidence rates between both populations suggests an association between this disease and the chronic exposure to the volcanically active environment, with all its hazardous gases like hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. These findings may help health officials to better advice people inhabiting volcanic areas, or others with high levels of sulfur gases, on how to prevent and minimize the risks of chronic bronchitis.

  13. Occupation, chronic bronchitis, and lung function in young adults. An international study.

    PubMed

    Zock, J P; Sunyer, J; Kogevinas, M; Kromhout, H; Burney, P; Antó, J M

    2001-06-01

    We studied the relationship between occupational exposures, chronic bronchitis, and lung function in a general population survey in 14 industrialized countries, including 13,253 men and women aged 20 to 44 yr. We studied associations between occupational group, occupational exposures, bronchitis symptoms (cough and phlegm production for at least 3 mo each year), FEV(1), and nonspecific bronchial responsiveness (NSBR) separately in lifetime nonsmokers, cigarette smokers, and ex-smokers. Occupational exposure to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes, estimated with a job exposure matrix (JEM), was associated with chronic bronchitis among current smokers only (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.2 to 1.7). The interaction of occupational exposure with smoking, however, was not statistically significant (p > 0.1). Self-reported exposure was related to chronic bronchitis in all smoking groups. An increased risk for chronic bronchitis was found in agricultural, textile, paper, wood, chemical, and food processing workers, being more pronounced in smokers. Lung function and NSBR were not clearly related to occupational exposures. Findings were similar for asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects. In conclusion, occupational exposures contributed to the occurrence of chronic (industrial) bronchitis in young adults. Fixed airflow limitation was not evident, probably due to the relatively young age of this population.

  14. Avian influenza control strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control strategies for avian influenza in poultry vary depending on whether the goal is prevention, management, or eradication. Components used in control programs include: 1) education which includes communication, public awareness, and behavioral change, 2) changes to production and marketing sys...

  15. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  16. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AI viruses are serologically categorized into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-N9) subtypes. All subtypes have been identified in birds. Infections by AI viruses have been reported in ...

  17. Avian dark cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  18. [Education of patients with asthma, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema].

    PubMed

    Krstić-Burić, M; Pavicić, F; Rozman, A; Bogić, B; Crc, M; Plesko, N; Sarajlić, N

    1997-02-01

    Patients' education belongs to the most efficient therapeutic measures in the management of asthma, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema. The following paper reports the experience in the educational programme at the Polyclinic for Respiratory Diseases in Zagreb. Each patient's education lasted 5 days, 3 lessons per day, in groups of 10-15 persons. The education was carried out by a teaching team consisting of pulmonologists, psychosomatologist, pharmacist, physiotherapist and biometeterologist. From March 1995 to February 1996 135 persons completed the educational programme, 65 of whom were asthma patients. Data on cough and dyspnoea, skills in inhaler and breathing technique were collected at the beginning and 3 months after the education in all asthma patients. Three months after the education the asthma patients showed a significant decrease in dyspnoea and a significant improvement in inhaler and breathing technique. A standard questionnaire was given to all patients at the end of the education and in more than 80% the education was well accepted by the patients. Initial results are encouraging and the programme should be expanded to all parts of Croatia.

  19. Comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of three avian coronaviruses reveals a novel group 3c coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Lam, Carol S F; Lai, Kenneth K Y; Huang, Yi; Lee, Paul; Luk, Geraldine S M; Dyrting, Kitman C; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-01-01

    In this territory-wide molecular epidemiology study of coronaviruses (CoVs) in Hong Kong involving 1,541 dead wild birds, three novel CoVs were identified in three different bird families (bulbul CoV HKU11 [BuCoV HKU11], thrush CoV HKU12 [ThCoV HKU12], and munia CoV HKU13 [MuCoV HKU13]). Four complete genomes of the three novel CoVs were sequenced. Their genomes (26,396 to 26,552 bases) represent the smallest known CoV genomes. In phylogenetic trees constructed using chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL(pro)), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol), helicase, spike, and nucleocapsid proteins, BuCoV HKU11, ThCoV HKU12, and MuCoV HKU13 formed a cluster distantly related to infectious bronchitis virus and turkey CoV (group 3a CoVs). For helicase, spike, and nucleocapsid, they were also clustered with a CoV recently discovered in Asian leopard cats, for which the complete genome sequence was not available. The 3CL(pro), Pol, helicase, and nucleocapsid of the three CoVs possessed higher amino acid identities to those of group 3a CoVs than to those of group 1 and group 2 CoVs. Unique genomic features distinguishing them from other group 3 CoVs include a distinct transcription regulatory sequence and coding potential for small open reading frames. Based on these results, we propose a novel CoV subgroup, group 3c, to describe this distinct subgroup of CoVs under the group 3 CoVs. Avian CoVs are genetically more diverse than previously thought and may be closely related to some newly identified mammalian CoVs. Further studies would be important to delineate whether the Asian leopard cat CoV was a result of interspecies jumping from birds, a situation analogous to that of bat and civet severe acute respiratory syndrome CoVs.

  20. Heterogeneity of bronchitis in airway diseases in tertiary care clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    D’silva, Liesel; Hassan, Nesreen; Wang, Hong-Yu; Kjarsgaard, Melanie; Efthimiadis, Ann; Hargreave, Frederick E; Nair, Parameswaran

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sputum cell counts have identified inflammatory subtypes of bronchitis in relatively small numbers of subjects with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cough in research studies. The prevalence of different subtypes of bronchitis in routine clinical practice, however, has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To examine the heterogeneity of bronchitis and its relationship to the severity of airflow obstruction. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional survey based on a computerized database of spontaneous or induced sputum cell counts examined in a large university tertiary respiratory outpatient clinic. RESULTS: The database contained 4232 consecutive sputum records from 2443 patients with chronic cough (39%), asthma (37%), asthma with COPD (9%), COPD (13%) and bronchiectasis (3%). Total and differential cell counts were obtained from 86% of successful sputum samples. Induced sputum provided more viable samples than spontaneous expectorate. Approximately one-third of patients with asthma and one-fifth of patients with COPD experience eosinophilic bronchitis. Asthmatic patients with moderate to severe airflow obstruction had a greater number of sputum eosinophils. There was a significantly higher number of total cell counts and percentage of neutrophils in the sputum of COPD patients with moderate and severe airflow obstruction than in those with mild airflow obstruction. CONCLUSION: There is heterogeneity in the cellularity of sputum in various airway diseases. Patients with clinically stable airway diseases may have high sputum cell counts. During exacerbations, more patients may experience neutrophilic bronchitis. Severity of airflow obstruction is associated with eosinophilic bronchitis in patients with asthma, and neutrophilic bronchitis in patients with nonasthmatic COPD. PMID:21766077

  1. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... to worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 ...

  2. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... MIDAS models require a breadth of knowledge, the network draws together an interdisciplinary team of researchers with expertise in epidemiology, infectious diseases, computational biology, statistics, social sciences, physics, computer sciences and informatics. ...

  3. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Non-Infectious Meningitis ... confusion) Top of Page Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis File Formats Help: ...

  4. [Proteomics in infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Quero, Sara; Párraga-Niño, Noemí; García-Núñez, Marian; Sabrià, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases have a high incidence in the population, causing a major impact on global health. In vitro culture of microorganisms is the first technique applied for infection diagnosis which is laborious and time consuming. In recent decades, efforts have been focused on the applicability of "Omics" sciences, highlighting the progress provided by proteomic techniques in the field of infectious diseases. This review describes the management, processing and analysis of biological samples for proteomic research.

  5. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude

  6. Avian influenza in Poland.

    PubMed

    Smietanka, Krzysztof; Minta, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    Poland has experienced four episodes of avian influenza (AI) outbreaks over the past two decades. The first epidemic was caused by a low pathogenicity (LPAIV) H7N7 subtype and occurred in fattening and breeder turkeys in 1995. Two waves of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) took place in 2006 and 2007. In spring 2006, 64 cases of the H5N1 virus were detected, mostly in mute swans. In December 2007, ten outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI were detected in commercial poultry (n = 9) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 1). The outbreaks in 2006 and 2007 were caused by genetically similar but clearly distinguishable viruses of the 2.2 clade. In 2013, an H9N2 avian influenza virus was detected in 4 fattening turkey holdings. The virus was low pathogenic and a phylogenetic study has shown a close relatedness to the Eurasian lineage of AIV of the wild bird origin. Neither preventive nor prophylactic vaccinations have ever been used in poultry or other birds. Emergency vaccinations using autogenous vaccine were introduced only to control the H7N7 LPAI outbreaks in 1995. The baseline surveillance for AI in live migratory birds and poultry provides a valuable insight into the ecology of AIV at the wild and domestic bird interface. Passive surveillance is in place of early detection of HPAIV infection in dead or moribund birds.

  7. Management of plastic bronchitis with topical tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Elizabeth; Blount, Robert; Lewis, Nancy; Nielson, Dennis; Church, Gwynne; Jones, Kirk; Ly, Ngoc

    2012-08-01

    Plastic bronchitis or cast bronchitis is a rare disease of unclear etiology characterized by formation of airway casts that can lead to life-threatening airway obstruction. There is currently limited data regarding optimal treatment of plastic bronchitis. Several therapies have been suggested, but recurrences are common and mortality remains high. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with refractory eosinophilic bronchial casts, unresponsive to low-dose systemic corticosteroids, inhaled corticosteroids, azithromycin, and dornase alfa, who was treated successfully and safely with direct instillation of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) to the obstructing casts during flexible bronchoscopy and inhaled tPA. Our case illustrates that the current therapy for plastic bronchitis remains inadequate. To our knowledge, this case is the first to show that direct instillation of tPA can be used safely for treatment of this disease. The use of tPA via direct administration into the airways during bronchoscopy and via a nebulizer appeared to be a safe and effective therapy for plastic bronchitis and should be considered early in the course of the disease to prevent complications of severe airway obstruction.

  8. Avian Cholera, a Threat to the Viability of an Arctic Seabird Colony?

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, Sébastien; Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Forbes, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that infectious diseases cause wildlife population extirpation or extinction remains anecdotal and it is unclear whether the impacts of a pathogen at the individual level can scale up to population level so drastically. Here, we quantify the response of a Common eider colony to emerging epidemics of avian cholera, one of the most important infectious diseases affecting wild waterfowl. We show that avian cholera has the potential to drive colony extinction, even over a very short period. Extinction depends on disease severity (the impact of the disease on adult female survival) and disease frequency (the number of annual epidemics per decade). In case of epidemics of high severity (i.e., causing >30% mortality of breeding females), more than one outbreak per decade will be unsustainable for the colony and will likely lead to extinction within the next century; more than four outbreaks per decade will drive extinction to within 20 years. Such severity and frequency of avian cholera are already observed, and avian cholera might thus represent a significant threat to viability of breeding populations. However, this will depend on the mechanisms underlying avian cholera transmission, maintenance, and spread, which are currently only poorly known. PMID:22355304

  9. Infectious diarrhea: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Brandon; Surawicz, Christina M

    2014-08-01

    Diarrheal disease, which is most often caused by infectious pathogens, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children. This is particularly true in developing countries. Recent outbreaks of infectious diarrhea in developed countries, including the USA, are often attributed to food handling and distribution practices and highlight the need for continued vigilance in this area. Another common cause of infectious diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), has historically been associated with the use of antibiotics and exposure to a health-care setting but is now increasingly common in the community in persons who lack the typical risk factors. Recent scientific advances have also led to new and proposed new therapies for infectious diarrhea, including fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI), probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and CDI, and the use of zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. Other therapies that have been in use for decades, such as the oral rehydration solution (ORS), continue to be the targets of scientific advancement in an effort to improve delivery and efficacy. Finally, post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is an increasingly recognized occurrence. Attempts to understand the mechanism behind this phenomenon are underway and may provide insight into potential treatment options.

  10. Emergent Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah

    2009-01-01

    Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management. PMID:20404989

  11. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions.

  12. Bronchitis caused by Bordetella holmesii in a child with asthma misdiagnosed as mycoplasmal infection.

    PubMed

    Katsukawa, Chihiro; Kushibiki, Chieko; Nishito, Atsumi; Nishida, Rikou; Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Kawahara, Ryuji; Otsuka, Nao; Miyaji, Yusuke; Toyoizumi-Ajisaka, Hiromi; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of a bronchitis caused by Bordetella holmesii in a 2-year-old girl with asthma. The patient had a moderate fever and productive cough, and her condition was initially diagnosed as mycoplasmal bronchitis on the basis of her clinical symptoms and rapid serodiagnosis of mycoplasmal infection. She was treated with a bronchodilator and clarithromycin, which resulted in complete recovery. However, after the initial diagnosis, nucleic acid amplification tests of her sputum showed the absence of both Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Bordetella pertussis infections. Sputum culture showed the presence of a slow-growing, gram-negative bacillus in pure culture on Bordetella agar plates; the bacillus was later identified as B. holmesii. B. holmesii infection is rare in immunocompetent children; however, the organism is a true pathogen that can cause bronchitis in young children with asthma.

  13. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  14. Effect of infection route and concurrent infectious bronchitis virus vaccination on Mycoplasma gallisepticum disease pathology in an experimental model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections is needed, not only to understand the disease process, but also to understand the mechanisms by which M. gallisepticum vaccines protect the host. Many model systems have been used to study the M. gallisepticum disease process. This work compared two...

  15. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  16. [The local immunity status of patients with chronic dust-induced bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Kuzhko, M M; Kurilo, S M; Kovalenchenko, V F; Podhaievs'kyĭ, S H; Dzhavad, I V

    2000-01-01

    The ratio of cells in the bronchoalveolar washing was studied as was the functional state of phagocytizing cells, with assessment thereof having been done in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis in those workers exposed to quartz-containing dust. The conducted studies showed the endopulmonary cytogram to be characterized by a high degree alveolar neutrophilia (28.2 +/- 1.3) in chronic bronchitis. Disturbances in local immunity were also evidenced by the dysfunction of alveolar macrophages (decline in adhesiveness and absorptivity against the background of apparent activation of intracellular oxygen-dependent metabolism), and by the decrease of the level of secretory immunoglobuline A.

  17. Management of plastic bronchitis with nebulized tissue plasminogen activator: another brick in the wall.

    PubMed

    Colaneri, Massimo; Quarti, Andrea; Pozzi, Marco; Gasparini, Stefano; Carloni, Ines; de Benedictis, Fernando Maria

    2014-02-13

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare complication of a variety of respiratory diseases and congenital heart disease surgery, particularly Fontan procedure. Bronchial casts with rubber-like consistency develop acutely and may cause severe life-threatening respiratory distress. The management of plastic bronchitis is yet not well defined. Early intermittent, self-administered nebulization of tissue plasminogen activator was found to be effective in preventing deterioration of acute respiratory symptoms in a patient with primary ciliary dyskinesia and recurrent cast formation. Further investigation into new therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease is advocated.

  18. Perioperative management of shock in two fontan patients with plastic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Niel Raj; Da Cruz, Eduardo M; Nicolarsen, Jeremy; Schwartz, Lawrence Israel; Merritt, Glenn Richard; Barrett, Cindy; Twite, Mark David; Ing, Richard John

    2013-03-01

    Plastic bronchitis is potentially a life-threatening complication of long-standing surgically palliated single ventricle congenital heart disease. Patients can present with hypoxia requiring urgent bronchoscopy for removal of bronchial casts. Perioperative care for these patients is challenging and anesthesia is associated with significant cardiac risk. As more surgically corrected single ventricle patients survive to adulthood, these patients are expected to present more frequently. This report details the perioperative management of 2 Fontan patients with hypoxia and significant plastic bronchitis disease burden.

  19. Domestic biomass fuel combustion and chronic bronchitis in two rural Bolivian villages

    PubMed Central

    Albalak, R; Frisancho, A; Keeler, G

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Chronic bronchitis is an important public health problem worldwide. A study was undertaken to examine the association between exposure to air pollution from domestic biomass fuel combustion and chronic bronchitis in two rural Bolivian highland villages: a village in which cooking is done exclusively indoors and a village in which cooking is done primarily outdoors. Apart from this difference, the villages were virtually identical in terms of socioeconomic status, climate, altitude, access to health care, and other potential confounders.
METHODS—Pollution exposure was assessed by combining information on concentrations of particulate matter of <10 µm diameter (PM10) in 12 randomly selected households in each village in all potential microenvironments of exposure with time allocation information. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was assessed using the British Medical Research Council's questionnaire on individuals >20 years of age in both villages (n =241).
RESULTS—Daily pollution exposure was significantly higher in the indoor cooking village (range for adults: 9840-15 120 µg-h/m3) than in the outdoor cooking village (range for adults: 5520-6240 µg-h/m3) for both seasons and for men and women. The overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 22% and 13% for the indoor and outdoor cooking villages, respectively. Logistic regression analysis, which excluded the few smokers present in the population, showed a 60% reduced risk of chronic bronchitis in the outdoor cooking village compared with the indoor cooking village (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.8; p = 0.0102) after adjusting for age and sex. Individuals aged >40 years were 4.3 times more likely to have chronic bronchitis than the younger age group (OR = 4.3; 95% CI 2.0 to 9.3; p = 0.0002). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in men and women.
CONCLUSIONS—The results of this study suggest an association between chronic bronchitis and exposure to

  20. Avian Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2016-01-01

    Basic surgical instrumentation for avian soft tissue surgery includes soft tissue retractors, microsurgical instrumentation, surgical loupes, and head-mounted lights. Hemostasis is fundamental during the surgical procedures. The indications, approach, and complications associated with soft tissue surgeries of the integumentary (digit constriction repair, feather cyst excision, cranial wound repair, sternal wound repair, uropygial gland excision), gastrointestinal (ingluviotomy, crop biopsy, crop burn repair, celiotomy, coelomic hernia and pseudohernia repair, proventriculotomy, ventriculotomy, enterotomy, intestinal resection and anastomosis, cloacoplasty, cloacopexy), respiratory (rhinolith removal, sinusotomy, tracheotomy, tracheal resection and anastomosis, tracheostomy, pneumonectomy) and reproductive (ovocentesis, ovariectomy, salpingohysterectomy, cesarean section, orchidectomy, vasectomy, phallectomy) systems are reviewed.

  1. Avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2009-04-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improvement of intensive poultry production systems. The control and eradication measures implemented were based on active surveillance, disease detection, depopulation of infected farms and prevention of possible contacts (identified by epidemiological investigations), improvement of biosecurity measures, and restriction of the movement of live birds, poultry products, by-products and infected material. In addition, Mexico introduced a massive vaccination programme, which resulted in the eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas that had a high density of commercial poultry.

  2. Strong antiviral activity of heated and hydrated dolomite--preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Yamana, Hideaki; Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Murase, Toshiyuki; Motoike, Koichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuo; Otsuki, Koichi

    2007-02-01

    Heated and hydrated naturally occurring dolomite showed very strong antiviral activity. Infectivity of avian and human influenza, avian infectious bronchitis (coronavirus), Newcastle disease (paramyxovirus) and avian laryngotracheitis (herpesvirus) viruses dropped at least 1,000 fold following contact with the dolomite for five minutes at 4 degrees C. Dolomite is expected to be useful to inhibit the incidence of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.

  3. Characterization of avian poxvirus in Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna) in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Loreto A; Dalbeck, Lisa S; Tell, Lisa A; Woods, Leslie W; Colwell, Rita R; Robinson, Barbara; Wethington, Susan M; Moresco, Anneke; Woolcock, Peter R; Ernest, Holly B

    2013-10-01

    Avian poxvirus (genus Avipoxvirus, family Poxviridae) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that may be transmitted to birds by arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles. We characterized the infection in Anna's Hummingbird (Calypte anna; n = 5 birds, n = 9 lesions) by conducting diagnostic tests on skin lesions that were visually similar to avian poxvirus lesions in other bird species. Skin lesions were single or multiple, dry and firm, pink to yellow, with scabs on the surface, and located at the base of the bill, wings, or legs. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and necrosis with ballooning degeneration, and intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes. The 4b core gene sequence of avian poxvirus was detected by PCR in samples prepared from lesions. Nucleotide sequences were 75-94% similar to the sequences of other published avian poxvirus sequences. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the Anna's Hummingbird poxvirus sequence was distinguished as a unique subclade showing similarities with sequences isolated from Ostrich (Struthio camelus), Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), falcons (Falco spp.), Black-browed Albatross (Diomedea melanophris), Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) and White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). To our knowledge this is the first published report of definitive laboratory diagnosis of avian poxvirus in a hummingbird. Our results advance the science of disease ecology in hummingbirds, providing management information for banders, wildlife rehabilitators, and avian biologists.

  4. Plasmodium prevalence across avian host species is positively associated with exposure to mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Matthew C I; Ricklefs, Robert E; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasites varies greatly across host species, and this heterogeneity has been used to relate infectious disease susceptibility to host species traits. However, a few empirical studies have directly associated vector-borne parasite prevalence with exposure to vectors across hosts. Here, we use DNA sequencing of blood meals to estimate utilization of different avian host species by Culex mosquitoes, and relate utilization by these malaria vectors to avian Plasmodium prevalence. We found that avian host species that are highly utilized as hosts by avian malaria vectors are significantly more likely to have Plasmodium infections. However, the effect was not consistent among individual Plasmodium taxa. Exposure to vector bites may therefore influence the relative number of all avian Plasmodium infections among host species, while other processes, such as parasite competition and host-parasite coevolution, delimit the host distributions of individual Plasmodium species. We demonstrate that links between avian malaria susceptibility and host traits can be conditioned by patterns of exposure to vectors. Linking vector utilization rates to host traits may be a key area of future research to understand mechanisms that produce variation in the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens among host species.

  5. Eosinophilia in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    In determining the etiology of eosinophilia, it is necessary to consider the type of patient, including previous travel and exposure history, comorbidities, and symptoms. In this review, we discuss the approach to the patient with eosinophilia from an infectious diseases perspective based on symptom complexes. PMID:26209897

  6. [Antibiotherapy of infectious endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Meyssonnier, Vanina; Bricaire, François

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotherapy is the pillar of the infectious endocarditis treatment. Bactericidal drugs must be used and their choice has to be adapted to bacterial sensitivity. The duration of treatment, traditionaly lengthy, especially in prosthetic valve endocarditis, depends on bacteria and has been shortened in some guidelines because of the combination of aminoglycoside.

  7. Dynamics of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J

    2014-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology--the SIS and SIR type models--before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  8. Growth, Nutritional Status, and Pulmonary Function in Children with Chronic Recurrent Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Umławska, Wioleta; Lipowicz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bronchitis is a common health problem in children. Frequent bronchitis in infancy increases the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the level of growth and the nutritional status in children and youths with special regard to the level of body fatness assessed by measuring skin-fold thickness. Relationships between somatic development, pulmonary function and the course of the disease were also explored. The study was carried out using anthropometric and spirometric measurements and also information on the severity and course of the disease in 141 children with chronic or recurrent bronchitis. All of the subjects were patients of the Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology Center in Karpacz, Poland. The mean body height did not differ significantly between the children examined and their healthy peers. However, the infection-prone children had excessive body fatness and muscle mass deficiency. The increased level of subcutaneous adipose tissue occurred especially in children with short duration of the disease, i.e. a maximum of 1 year. The functional lung parameters were generally normal. The presence of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis did not impair the course of the children's somatic development. Also, long-term disease or the presence of additional allergic diseases did not impair lung function in the examined children. Taking appropriate preventive measures is recommended to achieve and maintain normal body weight in children who receive therapy due to bronchitis.

  9. Pharmacotherapy challenges of Fontan-associated plastic bronchitis: a rare pediatric disease.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Kristina; Caruthers, Regine L; Schumacher, Kurt R; Stringer, Kathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Pediatric pharmacotherapy is often challenging due to the paucity of available clinical data on the safety and efficacy of drugs that are commonly used in children. This quandary is even more prevalent in children with rare diseases. Although extrapolations for dosing and administration are often made from available adult data with similar disease states, this translation becomes even more problematic in rare pediatric diseases. Understanding of rare disease pathophysiology is typically poor, and few, if any, effective therapies have been studied and identified. One condition that illustrates these issues is plastic bronchitis, a rare, most often pediatric disease that is characterized by the production of obstructive bronchial airway casts. This illness primarily occurs in children with congenital heart disease, often after palliative surgery. Plastic bronchitis is a highly clinically relevant and therapeutically challenging problem with a high mortality rate, and, a generally accepted effective pharmacotherapy regimen has yet to be identified. Furthermore, the disease is ill defined, which makes timely identification and treatment of children with plastic bronchitis difficult. The pharmacotherapies currently used to manage this disease are largely anecdotal and vary between the use of macrolide antibiotics, mucolytics, bronchodilators, and inhaled fibrinolytics in a myriad of combinations. The purpose of this review is 2-fold: first, to highlight the dilemma of treating plastic bronchitis, and second, to bring attention to the continuing need for studies of drug therapies used in children so safe and effective drug regimens can be established, particularly for rare diseases.

  10. Inflammatory mechanisms and treatment of obstructive airway diseases with neutrophilic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jodie L; Phipps, Simon; Gibson, Peter G

    2009-10-01

    Obstructive airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major global health issues. Although considered as distinct diseases, airway inflammation is a key underlying pathophysiological process in asthma, COPD and bronchiectasis. Persistent neutrophilic airway inflammation (neutrophilic bronchitis) occurs with innate immune activation and is a feature of each of these airway diseases. Little is known about the mechanisms leading to neutrophilic bronchitis and few treatments are effective in reducing neutrophil accumulation in the airways. There is a similar pattern of inflammatory mediator release and toll like receptor 2 expression in asthma, COPD and bronchiectasis. We propose the existence of an active amplification mechanism, an effector arm of the innate immune system, involving toll like receptor 2, operating in persistent neutrophilic bronchitis. Neutrophil persistence in the airways can occur through a number of mechanisms such as impaired apoptosis, efferocytosis and mucus hypersecretion, all of which are impaired in airways disease. Impairment of neutrophil clearance results in a reduced ability to respond to bacterial infection. Persistent activation of airway neutrophils may result in the persistent activation of the innate immune system resulting in further airway insult. Current therapies are limited for the treatment of neutrophilic bronchitis; possible treatments being investigated include theophylline, statins, antagonists of pro-inflammatory cytokines and macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides have shown great promise in their ability to reduce airway inflammation, and can reduce airway neutrophils, levels of CXCL8 and neutrophil proteases in the airways. Studies also show improvements in quality of life and exacerbation rates in airways diseases.

  11. Plastic bronchitis developing 5 years after Fontan procedure in a girl with Kartagener's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Tomohiro; Yokozawa, Masato; Takamuro, Motoki; Kasuga, Ai

    2012-06-01

    Although rare, plastic bronchitis (PB) is an important early complication after Fontan procedure. Kartagener's syndrome is characterized by mucociliary dysfunction of the respiratory tract and has a triad of features, including situs inversus totalis, chronic sinusitis, and bronchiectasia. We experienced PB in a patient with Kartagener's syndrome 5 years after Fontan procedure.

  12. Airways inflammation in subjects with chronic bronchitis who have never smoked.

    PubMed Central

    Lusuardi, M.; Capelli, A.; Cerutti, C. G.; Spada, E. L.; Donner, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Smoking is the single most common cause of chronic bronchitis but the disease can also occur in non-smokers. Alterations in the lung responsible for the disease, such as oxidant/antioxidant and protease/antiprotease imbalance, have been investigated in smokers. The aim of our study was to evaluate local cellular and soluble factors (albumin, immunoglobulins, proteases, alpha 1-antitrypsin, and transferrin) that may be involved in the development of chronic bronchitis in subjects who have never smoked. METHODS--Sixteen clinically stable patients with chronic bronchitis who had never been smokers were studied and 17 healthy non-smokers served as controls. All subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Total and differential cell counts and concentrations of the main proteins (albumin, immunoglobulins, complement fractions, alpha 1-antitrypsin, and transferrin) were measured. Elastase-like activity was assessed in cells and supernatants. To estimate the oxidant burden the release of superoxide anion (O2-) from native cell populations was evaluated. RESULTS--Recovery of BAL fluid was reduced in older individuals in both the chronic bronchitis and control groups. There was no difference in total cell count, but neutrophil percentage count was higher in those with chronic bronchitis (median (range) 3.5 (1.6-14.2)) than in controls (1.3 (0.5-3.7)). These differences were most pronounced in the first recovery, representative of the bronchial lavage. There was no difference in bronchial epithelial cells. Total proteins and albumin levels were comparable and IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, C4, transferrin and alpha 1-antitrypsin values standardised to albumin did not show any significant differences. No differences in elastase-like levels in supernatants were detected. In cell lysates elastase-like activity x 10(7) cells (macrophages+neutrophils) was increased in patients with chronic bronchitis (0.25 (0.06-4.3) compared with controls 0.08 (0.03-0.9) micrograms PPEeq

  13. [Liver diseases of infectious aetiology].

    PubMed

    Chalupa, P

    2007-01-01

    Review article is dealing with the problems of infectious diseases of the liver. Attention is paid to the basic infectious agents, jaundice accompanying infectious diseases and focal infections of the liver. Specific infections of the liver are supplemented by brief pathological and anatomical characteristics.

  14. Bedbugs and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, Pascal; Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-15

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance.

  15. Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance. PMID:21288844

  16. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... or indirect contact with infected live or dead poultry. Controlling the disease in the animal source is ... avian influenza (HPAI). Viruses that cause outbreaks in poultry but are not generally associated with severe disease ...

  17. Detection of Persistent West Nile Virus RNA in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Avian Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley A.; Brault, Aaron C.; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Reisen, William K.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) persistent infection in avian hosts may potentially serve as an overwintering mechanism, House Sparrows and House Finches, experimentally and naturally infected with several strains of WNV, and two naturally infected Western Scrub-Jays were held in mosquito-proof outdoor aviaries from 2007–March 2008. Overall, 94% (n = 36) of House Sparrows, 100% (n = 14) of House Finches and 2 Western Scrub-Jays remained WNV antibody positive. When combined by species, 37% of the House Sparrows, 50% of the House Finches, and 2 Western Scrub-Jays were WNV RNA positive at necropsy, up to 36 weeks post-infection. Infectious WNV was not detected. Our study supports the hypothesis that some avian hosts support the long-term persistence of WNV RNA, but it remains unresolved whether these infections relapse to restart an avian-arthropod transmission cycle and thereby serve as an overwintering mechanism for WNV. PMID:22826479

  18. The Role of Environmental Transmission in Recurrent Avian Influenza Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Breban, Romulus; Drake, John M.; Stallknecht, David E.; Rohani, Pejman

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) persists in North American wild waterfowl, exhibiting major outbreaks every 2–4 years. Attempts to explain the patterns of periodicity and persistence using simple direct transmission models are unsuccessful. Motivated by empirical evidence, we examine the contribution of an overlooked AIV transmission mode: environmental transmission. It is known that infectious birds shed large concentrations of virions in the environment, where virions may persist for a long time. We thus propose that, in addition to direct fecal/oral transmission, birds may become infected by ingesting virions that have long persisted in the environment. We design a new host–pathogen model that combines within-season transmission dynamics, between-season migration and reproduction, and environmental variation. Analysis of the model yields three major results. First, environmental transmission provides a persistence mechanism within small communities where epidemics cannot be sustained by direct transmission only (i.e., communities smaller than the critical community size). Second, environmental transmission offers a parsimonious explanation of the 2–4 year periodicity of avian influenza epidemics. Third, very low levels of environmental transmission (i.e., few cases per year) are sufficient for avian influenza to persist in populations where it would otherwise vanish. PMID:19360126

  19. INFECTIOUS PAPILLOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.; Hurst, E. Weston

    1933-01-01

    A papilloma has been observed in wild cottontail rabbits and has been found to be transmissible to both wild and domestic rabbits. The clinical and pathological pictures of the condition have been described. It has been found that the causative agent is readily filtrable through Berkefeld but not regularly through Seitz filters, that it stores well in glycerol, that it is still active after heating to 67°C. for 30 minutes, but not after heating to 70°C., and that it exhibits a marked tropism for cutaneous epithelium. The activities and properties of the papilloma-producing agent warrant its classification as a filtrable virus. Rabbits carrying experimentally produced papillomata are partially or completely immune to reinfection and, furthermore, their sera partially or completely neutralize the causative virus. The disease is transmissible in series through wild rabbits and virus of wild rabbit origin is readily transmissible to domestic rabbits, producing in this species papillomata identical in appearance with those found in wild rabbits. However, the condition is not transmissible in series through domestic rabbits. The possible significance of this observation has been discussed. The virus of infectious papillomatosis is not related immunologically to either the virus of infectious fibroma or to that of infectious myxoma of rabbits. PMID:19870219

  20. Immunoserology of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    James, K

    1990-01-01

    The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated. PMID:2187592

  1. [Renaissance of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Gładysz, Andrzej; Fleischer-Stepniewska, Katarzyna

    2011-05-01

    According to the report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, infectious diseases are one of the eight most common causes of illness since 1990. Due to breaking down barriers of interspecies, the state of immunosuppression, widespread use of antibiotics, there are still new threats, and earlier known to cause disease of a different course, resistant to previously effective therapies. The evolution of infectious diseases directs our attention primarily on the validity of the principles of rational antibiotic use to the increasing resistance of microorganisms. The movements of the opponents of vaccination appear to be more effective than the planned education of doctors and their patients, and the absence of sufficient administrative control performance of vaccination, raises a serious problem in contemporary clinical researcher. Infectious diseases will continue to exist as long as host organisms. It is important to the fight against them, making the best use of expertise and funds. In such a situation, the balance may move to benefit us--humans.

  2. Avian host defense peptides.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  3. Successful treatment of plastic bronchitis with low fat diet and subsequent thoracic duct ligation in child with fontan physiology.

    PubMed

    Parikh, K; Witte, M H; Samson, R; Teodori, M; Carpenter, J B; Lowe, M C; Morgan, W; Hardin, C; Brown, M; Naughton, Y; Sinha, S; Barber, B J

    2012-06-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare condition characterized by the formation and expectoration of long, branching bronchial casts that develop in the tracheobronchial tree and cause airway obstruction. Plastic bronchitis has become increasingly recognized as a feared complication of the Fontan operation with a mortality of up to 50%. We report an 11 year old boy who developed severe plastic bronchitis following Fontan repair and the successful long-term control of cast formation utilizing a low-fat diet and subsequent thoracic duct ligation.

  4. Protection of chickens against avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) infection by immunization with recombinant avian HEV capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X J

    2007-04-12

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is an emerging virus associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens in North America. Avian HEV is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV, the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans. In the lack of a practical animal model, avian HEV infection in chickens has been used as a model to study human HEV replication and pathogenesis. A 32 kDa recombinant ORF2 capsid protein of avian HEV expressed in Escherichia coli was found having similar antigenic structure as that of human HEV containing major neutralizing epitopes. To determine if the capsid protein of avian HEV can be used as a vaccine, 20 chickens were immunized with purified avian HEV recombinant protein with aluminum as adjuvant and another 20 chickens were mock immunized with KLH precipitated in aluminum as controls. Both groups of chickens were subsequently challenged with avian HEV. All the tested mock-immunized control chickens developed typical avian HEV infection characterized by viremia, fecal virus shedding and seroconversion to avian HEV antibodies. Gross hepatic lesions were also found in portion of these chickens. In contrast, none of the tested chickens immunized with avian HEV capsid protein had detectable viremia, fecal virus shedding or observable gross hepatitis lesions. The results from this study suggested that immunization of chickens with avian HEV recombinant ORF2 capsid protein with aluminum as adjuvant can induce protective immunity against avian HEV infection. Chickens are a useful small animal model to study anti-HEV immunity and pathogenesis.

  5. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders.

  6. An impedance immunosensor based on low-cost microelectrodes and specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 in chicken swabs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianhan; Wang, Ronghui; Jiao, Peirong; Li, Yuntao; Li, Yanbin; Liao, Min; Yu, Yude; Wang, Maohua

    2015-05-15

    Early screening of suspected cases is the key to control the spread of avian influenza (AI) H5N1. In our previous studies, an impedance biosensor with an interdigitated array microelectrode based biochip was developed and validated with pure AI H5 virus, but had limitations in cost and reliability of the biochip, specificity of the antibody against Asian in-field H5N1 virus and detection of H5N1 virus in real samples. The purpose of this study is to develop a low-cost impedance immunosensor for rapid detection of Asian in-field AI H5N1 virus in chicken swabs within 1h and validate it with the H5N1 virus. Specific monoclonal antibodies against AI H5N1 virus were developed by fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from an H5N1-virus-immunized mouse. Dot-ELISA analysis demonstrated that the developed antibodies had good affinity and specificity with the H5N1 virus. The microelectrodes were redesigned with compact size, fabricated using an improved wet-etching micro-fabrication process with a higher qualified production rate of 70-80%, and modified with the antibodies by the Protein A method. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated that electron transfer resistor was effective with the increase in impedance after capturing of the H5N1 viruses. Linear relationship between impedance change and logarithmic value of H5N1 virus at the concentrations from 2(-1) to 2(4) HAU/50 μl was found and the lower limit of detection was 2(-1) HAU/50 μl. No obvious interferences from non-target viruses such as H6N2, H9N2, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus were found. Chicken swab tests showed that the impedance immunosensor had a comparable accuracy with real-time RT-PCR compared to viral isolation.

  7. Comparative pathogenesis in specific-pathogen-free chickens of two strains of avian hepatitis E virus recovered from a chicken with Hepatitis-Splenomegaly syndrome and from a clinically healthy chicken.

    PubMed

    Billam, P; LeRoith, T; Pudupakam, R S; Pierson, F W; Duncan, R B; Meng, X J

    2009-11-18

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is the primary causative agent of Hepatitis-Splenomegaly (HS) syndrome in chickens. Recently, a genetically unique strain of avian HEV, designated avian HEV-VA, was recovered from healthy chickens in Virginia. The objective of this study was to experimentally compare the pathogenicity of the prototype strain recovered from a chicken with HS syndrome and the avian HEV-VA strain in specific-pathogen-free chickens. An infectious stock of the avian HEV-VA strain was first generated and its infectivity titer determined in chickens. For the comparative pathogenesis study, 54 chickens of 6-week-old were assigned to 3 groups of 18 chickens each. The group 1 chickens were each intravenously inoculated with 5x10(2.5) 50% chicken infectious dose of the prototype strain. The group 2 received the same dose of the avian HEV-VA strain, and the group 3 served as negative controls. Six chickens from each group were necropsied at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-inoculation (wpi). Most chickens in both inoculated groups seroconverted by 3wpi, and the mean anti-avian HEV antibody titers were higher for the prototype strain group than the avian HEV-VA strain group. There was no significant difference in the patterns of viremia and fecal virus shedding. Blood analyte profiles did not differ between treatment groups except for serum creatine phosphokinase levels which were higher for prototype avian HEV group than avian HEV-VA group. The hepatic lesion score was higher for the prototype strain group than the other two groups. The results indicated that the avian HEV-VA strain is only slightly attenuated compared to the prototype strain, suggesting that the full spectrum of HS syndrome is likely associated with other co-factors.

  8. Avian-human influenza epidemic model.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Shingo; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Liu, Xianning

    2007-05-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to interpret the spread of avian influenza from the bird world to the human world. Our mathematical model warns that two types of the outbreak of avian influenza may occur if the humans do not prevent the spread of avian influenza. Moreover, it suggests that we cannot feel relieved although the total infected humans are kept at low level. In order to prevent spread of avian influenza in the human world, we must take the measures not only for the birds infected with avian influenza to exterminate but also for the humans infected with mutant avian influenza to quarantine when mutant avian influenza has already occurred. In particular, the latter measure is shown to be important to stop the second pandemic of avian influenza.

  9. Feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Teresa; Randell, Susan; Moore, Lisa

    2009-10-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) frequently results in death in cats. It is caused by a mutated, highly contagious coronavirus, and it is more common in indoor cats in multicat households. A complex interaction between the coronavirus and the feline immune system causes disseminated vasculitis, which is the hallmark of FIP. New tests are being developed, but the antemortem diagnosis of FIP continues to be difficult and frustrating. Current treatments are crude and involve supportive care and immunosuppression. Minimizing exposure is the best method of preventing infection.

  10. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy.

  11. Emergence of a novel avian pox disease in British tit species.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Becki; Lachish, Shelly; Colvile, Katie M; Durrant, Chris; Peck, Kirsi M; Toms, Mike P; Sheldon, Ben C; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major) from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Britain, 2006-2010. Reports of affected Paridae (211 incidents) outnumbered reports in non-Paridae (91 incidents). The majority (90%) of Paridae incidents involved great tits. Paridae pox incidents were more likely to involve multiple individuals (77.3%) than were incidents in non-Paridae hosts (31.9%). Unlike the small wart-like lesions usually seen in non-Paridae with avian pox in Great Britain, lesions in Paridae were frequently large, often with an ulcerated surface and caseous core. Spatial analyses revealed strong clustering of suspected avian pox incidents involving Paridae hosts, but only weak, inconsistent clustering of incidents involving non-Paridae hosts. There was no spatial association between Paridae and non-Paridae incidents. We documented significant spatial spread of Paridae pox from an origin in south-east England; no spatial spread was evident for non-Paridae pox. For both host clades, there was an annual peak of reports in August/September. Sequencing of the avian poxvirus 4b core protein produced an identical viral sequence from each of 20 great tits tested from Great Britain. This sequence was identical to that from great tits from central Europe and Scandinavia. In contrast, sequence variation was evident amongst virus tested from 17 non-Paridae hosts of 5 species. Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia.

  12. A mathematical model of avian influenza with half-saturated incidence.

    PubMed

    Chong, Nyuk Sian; Tchuenche, Jean Michel; Smith, Robert J

    2014-03-01

    The widespread impact of avian influenza viruses not only poses risks to birds, but also to humans. The viruses spread from birds to humans and from human to human In addition, mutation in the primary strain will increase the infectiousness of avian influenza. We developed a mathematical model of avian influenza for both bird and human populations. The effect of half-saturated incidence on transmission dynamics of the disease is investigated. The half-saturation constants determine the levels at which birds and humans contract avian influenza. To prevent the spread of avian influenza, the associated half-saturation constants must be increased, especially the half-saturation constant H m for humans with mutant strain. The quantity H m plays an essential role in determining the basic reproduction number of this model. Furthermore, by decreasing the rate β m at which human-to-human mutant influenza is contracted, an outbreak can be controlled more effectively. To combat the outbreak, we propose both pharmaceutical (vaccination) and non-pharmaceutical (personal protection and isolation) control methods to reduce the transmission of avian influenza. Vaccination and personal protection will decrease β m, while isolation will increase H m. Numerical simulations demonstrate that all proposed control strategies will lead to disease eradication; however, if we only employ vaccination, it will require slightly longer to eradicate the disease than only applying non-pharmaceutical or a combination of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical control methods. In conclusion, it is important to adopt a combination of control methods to fight an avian influenza outbreak.

  13. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  14. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  15. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The... vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype...

  16. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  17. Current situation on highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...

  18. Successful treatment of severe asthma-associated plastic bronchitis with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Tonan, Momoka; Hashimoto, Soshi; Kimura, Akio; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Kinose, Hiromi; Sawada, Maiko; Shime, Nobuaki; Tokuhira, Natsuko; Kato, Yuko; Sasaki, Masayuki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Higaki, Satoshi; Oomae, Tadaki; Hashimoto, Satoru

    2012-04-01

    We describe a case of near-fatal asthma requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The patient presented with severe respiratory distress, which was not responsive to conventional pharmacological therapy. The patient also failed to respond to mechanical ventilation and thus was placed on venovenous ECMO for temporary pulmonary support. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed that large amounts of thick bronchial secretions had occluded the main bronchus, which suggested plastic bronchitis secondary to asthma. Aggressive airway hygiene with frequent bronchoscopies and application of biphasic cuirass ventilation for facilitation of secretion clearance were performed to improve the patient's respiratory status. The patient achieved a full recovery and suffered no neurological sequelae. This case illustrates that aggressive pulmonary hygiene with ECMO is a useful therapy for patients with asthma-associated plastic bronchitis.

  19. Military-civilian cooperative emergency response to infectious disease prevention and control in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Dong, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Na; Pu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the incidence of severe infectious diseases has increased, and the number of emerging infectious diseases continues to increase. The Chinese government and military forces have paid a great deal of attention to infectious disease prevention and control, and using military-civilian cooperation, they have successfully prevented numerous severe epidemic situations, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), influenza A (H1N1), avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9, and Ebola hemorrhagic fever, while actively maintained public health, economic development, and national construction. This paper focuses on the mechanisms of the military-cooperative emergency response to infectious diseases--the joint working mechanism, the information-sharing mechanism, the research collaboration mechanism, and the joint disposal mechanism--and presents a sorted summary of the practices and experiences of cooperative emergency responses to infectious diseases. In the future, the Chinese military and the civilian sector will further strengthen the cooperative joint command system and emergency rescue force and will reinforce their collaborative information-sharing platform and technical equipment system to further improve military-civilian collaborative emergency infectious diseases disposal, advance the level of infectious disease prevention and control, and maintain public health.

  20. Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Brier, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine.

  1. [Effects of halotherapy on free radical oxidation in patients with chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Farkhutdinov, U R; Abdrakhmanova, L M; Farkhutdinov, R R

    2000-01-01

    Registration of luminol-dependent chemoluminescence of blood cells and iron-induced chemoluminescence of the serum was used to study generation of active oxygen forms and lipid peroxidation in patients with chronic bronchitis (CB). 49 patients with lingering CB showed inhibition of blood cell function and enhancement of lipid peroxidation. The addition of halotherapy to combined treatment of these patients promoted correction of the disorders and improvement of CB course.

  2. Diagnosis and management of pneumonia and bronchitis in outpatient primary care practices

    PubMed Central

    Evertsen, Jennifer; Baumgardner, Dennis J; Regnery, Ann; Banerjee, Indrani

    2011-01-01

    Aims To understand which clinical criteria physicians use to diagnose pneumonia compared to bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Methods Retrospective chart review of adults diagnosed with pneumonia, bronchitis, or URTI. Results Logistic regression analysis identified rales, a temperature ≥ 100°F (37.8°C), chest pain, dyspnoea, rhonchi, heart rate, respiratory rate, and rhinorrhoea, as the best explanation for the variation in diagnosis of pneumonia compared to either of the alternative diagnoses (R2 = 59.3), with rales and a temperature ≥ 100°F explaining 30% of the variation. Rales, chest pain, and a temperature ≥ 100°F best predicted the ordering of a chest x-ray (R2 = 20.0). However, 35% (59/175) of patients diagnosed with pneumonia had a negative chest x-ray. Abnormal breath sounds were the best predictors for prescribing antibiotics (R2 = 38%). A significant number of patients with acute bronchitis (93% excluding sinusitis) and URTI (42%) were given antibiotics. Conclusions The presence of abnormal breath sounds and a temperature ≥ 100°F were the best predictors of a diagnosis of pneumonia. PMID:20490437

  3. Therapeutic Approaches to Acquired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Dysfunction in Chronic Bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, George M; Raju, S Vamsee; Dransfield, Mark T; Rowe, Steven M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a common cause of morbidity and a rising cause of mortality worldwide. Its rising impact indicates the ongoing unmet need for novel and effective therapies. Previous work has established a pathophysiological link between the chronic bronchitis phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis as well as phenotypic similarities between these two airways diseases. An extensive body of evidence has established that cigarette smoke and its constituents contribute to acquired dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein in the airways, pointing to a mechanistic link with smoking-related and chronic bronchitis. Recent interest surrounding new drugs that target both mutant and wild-type CFTR channels has paved the way for a new treatment opportunity addressing the mucus defect in chronic bronchitis. We review the clinical and pathologic evidence for modulating CFTR to address acquired CFTR dysfunction and pragmatic issues surrounding clinical trials as well as a discussion of other ion channels that may represent alternative therapeutic targets.

  4. Successful treatment of plastic bronchitis by selective lymphatic embolization in a Fontan patient.

    PubMed

    Dori, Yoav; Keller, Marc S; Rychik, Jack; Itkin, Maxim

    2014-08-01

    Plastic bronchitis is a rare and often fatal complication of single-ventricle surgical palliation after total cavopulmonary connection. Although lymphatic abnormalities have been postulated to play a role in the disease process, the etiology and pathophysiology of this complication remain incompletely understood. Here we report on the etiology of plastic bronchitis in a child with total cavopulmonary connection as demonstrated by magnetic resonance (MR) lymphangiography. We also report on a new treatment of this disease. The patient underwent noncontrast T2-weighted MR lymphatic mapping and dynamic contrast MR lymphangiography with bi-inguinal intranodal contrast injection to determine the anatomy and flow pattern of lymph in his central lymphatic system. The MRI scan demonstrated the presence of a dilated right-sided peribronchial lymphatic network supplied by retrograde lymphatic flow through a large collateral lymphatic vessel originating from the thoracic duct. After careful analysis of the MRI scans we performed selective lymphatic embolization of the pathologic lymphatic network and supplying vessel. This provided resolution of plastic bronchitis for this patient. Five months after the procedure, the patient remains asymptomatic off respiratory medications.

  5. A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; März, R; Sieder, C

    1997-12-01

    Herbal expectorants and secretolytic drugs hold a sizeable share of the European market. Therefore it is essential to test their clinical effectiveness and safety. The aim of the present study was to compare the herbal medication Bronchipret(®) with various other pharmacotherapeutical options for acute bronchitis. The study was designed as a matched-pair comparison of 7783 patients. Clinical outcomes of bronchitis and adverse reactions were documented. The data were evaluated by comparing the treatment success of the test medication and 3 control groups using ordinal regression. The results suggest that clinical effectiveness of Bronchipret(®) was not less than with synthetic drugs. There was a tendency for better results with Bronchipret(®), particularly in the treatment of adults. Similar results were obtained with respect to adverse reactions. Particularly in the adult sub-group, these were markedly less with herbals as compared to synthetic drugs. These findings imply that a risk/benefit evaluation would favour Bronchipret(®) over synthetic drugs for acute bronchitis. Their interpretation is limited through the fact that this study could not be randomised nor blinded. The results therefore require confirmation through randomised, double-blind trials.

  6. Impact of changes in regular use of marijuana and/or tobacco on chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P; Simmons, Michael S; Tseng, Chi-Hong

    2012-08-01

    We sought to evaluate possible changes in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in relation to continuing or changing smoking status for marijuana and/or tobacco. For this purpose we followed 299 participants in a longitudinal cohort study of the impact of heavy habitual use of marijuana alone or with tobacco on respiratory symptoms over a mean of 9.8 years during which subjects underwent repeated administration of a detailed drug use and respiratory questionnaire at intervals of ≥1 yr. Using logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios to assess the relationship between chronic bronchitic symptoms and smoking status for marijuana and tobacco at the first visit (current smoking versus never smoking) and at the last follow-up visit (continuing smoking versus, separately, never smoking and former smoking). We found that continuing smokers of either marijuana or tobacco had a significantly increased likelihood of having chronic bronchitis at follow-up compared to both never smokers and former smokers. On the other hand, former smokers of either substance were no more likely to have chronic respiratory symptoms at follow-up than never smokers. These findings demonstrate the benefit of marijuana smoking cessation in resolving pre-existing symptoms of chronic bronchitis.

  7. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    PubMed

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  8. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  9. Impact of heterozygote CFTR Mutations in COPD patients with Chronic Bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking causes Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), the 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S. CFTR ion transport dysfunction has been implicated in COPD pathogenesis, and is associated with chronic bronchitis. However, susceptibility to smoke induced lung injury is variable and the underlying genetic contributors remain unclear. We hypothesized that presence of CFTR mutation heterozygosity may alter susceptibility to cigarette smoke induced CFTR dysfunction. Consequently, COPD patients with chronic bronchitis may have a higher rate of CFTR mutations compared to the general population. Methods Primary human bronchial epithelial cells derived from F508del CFTR heterozygotes and mice with (CFTR+/-) and without (CFTR+/+) CFTR heterozygosity were exposed to whole cigarette smoke (WCS); CFTR-dependent ion transport was assessed by Ussing chamber electrophysiology and nasal potential difference measurements, respectively. Caucasians with COPD and chronic bronchitis, age 40 to 80 with FEV1/FVC < 0.70 and FEV1 < 60% predicted, were selected for genetic analysis from participants in the NIH COPD Clinical Research Network’s Azithromycin for Prevention of Exacerbations of COPD in comparison to 32,900 Caucasian women who underwent prenatal genetic testing. Genetic analysis involved an allele-specific genotyping of 89 CFTR mutations. Results Exposure to WCS caused a pronounced reduction in CFTR activity in both CFTR (+/+) cells and F508del CFTR (+/-) cells; however, neither the degree of decrement (44.7% wild-type vs. 53.5% F508del heterozygous, P = NS) nor the residual CFTR activity were altered by CFTR heterozygosity. Similarly, WCS caused a marked reduction in CFTR activity measured by NPD in both wild type and CFTR heterozygous mice, but the severity of decrement (91.1% wild type vs. 47.7% CF heterozygous, P = NS) and the residual activity were not significantly affected by CFTR genetic status. Five of 127 (3.9%) COPD patients

  10. Global mapping of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

    2013-03-19

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing.

  11. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  12. COMPARISON OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES FROM AVIAN GUT TISSUES AFTER E. ACERVULINA AND E. MAXIMA INFECTIONS USING cDNA MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the host response during pathogen infection will extend our knowledge of pathogenesis and enhance the development of novel preventive methodologies against important infectious diseases. In the current study, we developed 9.6K avian intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cDNA microarra...

  13. Variation in infectivity and adaptation of wild duck- and poultry-origin high pathogenicity and low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses vary in their adaptation which impacts transmission between and infection of different bird species. We determine the intranasal mean bird infectious doses (BID50) for 11 high pathogenicity (HP) AI viruses for layer type chickens (LC), and three low pathogenicity (LP) A...

  14. Immunodeficiencies caused by infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jane E

    2010-05-01

    Immunodeficiencies caused by infectious agents may result from disruption of normal host barriers or dysregulation of cellular immunity, the latter serving to promote survival of the infectious agent through immune evasion. Such infections may be followed by opportunistic infections with a variety of other microorganisms. Classic infectious causes of immunodeficiency in companion animals are the immunodeficiency retroviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus. Other important causes include canine distemper virus; canine parvovirus 2; feline infectious peritonitis virus; rickettsial organisms that infect leukocytes; Leishmania; and fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus. Considerable research effort has been invested in understanding the mechanisms of pathogen-induced immunosuppression, with the hope that effective therapies may be developed that reverse the immunodeficiencies developed and in turn assist the host to clear persistent or life-threatening infectious diseases.

  15. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  16. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  17. Avian Paramyxovirus: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, P; Ganar, K; Kumar, S

    2017-02-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) have been reported from a wide variety of avian species around the world. Avian paramyxoviruses are economically significant because of the huge mortality and morbidity associated with it. Twelve different serotypes of APMV have been reported till date. Avian paramyxoviruses belong to the family Paramyxoviridae under genus Avulavirus. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most characterized members among the APMV serotypes. Complete genome sequence of all twelve APMV serotypes has been published recently. In recent years, APMV-1 has attracted the virologists for its oncolytic activity and its use as a vaccine vector for both animals and humans. The recombinant APMV-based vaccine offers a pertinent choice for the construction of live attenuated vaccine due to its minimum recombination frequency, modular nature of transcription and lack of DNA phase during its replication. Although insufficient data are available regarding other APMV serotypes, our understanding about the APMV biology is expanding rapidly because of the availability of modern molecular biology tools and high-throughput complete genome sequencing.

  18. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  19. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  20. The history of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Lupiani, Blanca; Reddy, Sanjay M

    2009-07-01

    The first description of avian influenza (AI) dates back to 1878 in northern Italy, when Perroncito [Perroncito E. Epizoozia tifoide nei gallinacei. Annali Accad Agri Torino 1878;21:87-126] described a contagious disease of poultry associated with high mortality. The disease, termed "fowl plague", was initially confused with the acute septicemic form of fowl cholera. However, in 1880, soon after its first description, Rivolta and Delprato [as reported by Stubs EL. Fowl pest, In: Biester HE, Devries L, editors. Diseases of poultry. 1st ed. Ames, IO: Iowa State College Press; 1943. p. 493-502] showed it to be different from fowl cholera, based on clinical and pathological properties, and called it Typhus exudatious gallinarum. In 1901, Centanni and Savunzzi [Centanni E, Savonuzzi E, La peste aviaria I & II, Communicazione fatta all'accademia delle scienze mediche e naturali de Ferrara, 1901] determined that fowl plague was caused by a filterable virus; however, it was not until 1955 that the classical fowl plague virus was shown to be a type A influenza virus based on the presence of type A influenza virus type-specific ribonucleoprotein [Schäfer W. Vergleichender sero-immunologische Untersuchungen über die Viren der Influenza und klassischen Geflügelpest. Z Naturf 1955;10b:81-91]. The term fowl plague was substituted by the more appropriate term highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) at the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza [Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza. Beltsville, MD. 1981, Avian Dis 47 (Special Issue) 2003.] and will be used throughout this review when referring to any previously described fowl plague virus.

  1. NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

  2. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  3. Acute bronchitis and volcanic air pollution: a community-based cohort study at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, USA.

    PubMed

    Longo, Bernadette M; Yang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Eruption at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, has continued since 1983, emitting sulfurous air pollution into nearby communities. The purpose of this cohort study was to estimate the relative risk (RR) of acute bronchitis over a period from January 2004 to December 2006 in communities exposed to the volcanic air pollution. A community-based case review was conducted using medical records from clinics and emergency rooms in exposed and unexposed study areas. Initial visits by local residents for diagnosed acute bronchitis were clinically reviewed. The cumulative incidence rate for the 3-yr period was 117.74 per 1000 in unexposed communities and 184.63 per 1000 in exposed communities. RR estimates were standardized for age and gender, revealing an elevated cumulative incidence ratio (CIR) of 1.57 (95% CI = 1.36-1.81) for acute bronchitis in the exposed communities. Highest risk [CIR: 6.56 (95% CI = 3.16-13.6)] was observed in children aged 0-14 yr who resided in the exposed communities. Exposed middle-aged females aged 45-64 yr had double the risk for acute bronchitis than their unexposed counterparts. These findings suggest that communities continuously exposed to sulfurous volcanic air pollution may have a higher risk of acute bronchitis across the life span.

  4. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  5. Pathogenesis of Avian Bornavirus in Experimentally Infected Cockatiels

    PubMed Central

    Enderlein, Dirk; Herzog, Sibylle; Kaleta, Erhard F.; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Ressmeyer, Saskia; Herden, Christiane; Lierz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is the presumed causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a major fatal disease in psittacines. However, the influencing factors and pathogenesis of PDD are not known and natural ABV infection exhibits remarkable variability. We investigated the course of infection in 18 cockatiels that were intracerebrally and intravenously inoculated with ABV. A persistent ABV infection developed in all 18 cockatiels, but, as in natural infection, clinical disease patterns varied. Over 33 weeks, we simultaneously studied seroconversion, presence of viral RNA and antigens, infectious virus, histopathologic alterations, and clinical signs of infection in the ABV-infected birds. Our study results further confirm the etiologic role of ABV in the development of PDD, and they provide basis for further investigations of the pathogenetic mechanisms and disease-inducing factors for the development of PDD. PMID:22304809

  6. Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus in Nonpelleted Chicken Feed.

    PubMed

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Breedlove, C

    2016-12-01

    Corn stored outside could become contaminated with avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild bird droppings. AIV-contaminated ingredients could pass into the poultry flocks in nonpelleted chicken feed. The efficacy of two disinfectants at inactivating AIV in chicken feed was evaluated. Both Termin-8 (a blend of formaldehyde, propionic acid, terpenes, and surfactant) and Finio (a blend of approved phytochemicals and carboxylic acids) effectively inactivated AIV in chicken feed. Because stability of infectious AIV in chicken feed is limited, we evaluated addition of protein (skim milk powder) to the virus suspension. Protein prolonged the stability of AIV in untreated feed to 24 hr at 24 C. However, both feed disinfectants were able to inactivate the virus in feed even when protected by skim milk powder.

  7. Use of prediction markets to forecast infectious disease activity.

    PubMed

    Polgreen, Philip M; Nelson, Forrest D; Neumann, George R

    2007-01-15

    Prediction markets have accurately forecasted the outcomes of a wide range of future events, including sales of computer printers, elections, and the Federal Reserve's decisions about interest rates. We propose that prediction markets may be useful for tracking and forecasting emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza, by aggregating expert opinion quickly, accurately, and inexpensively. Data from a pilot study in the state of Iowa suggest that these markets can accurately predict statewide seasonal influenza activity 2-4 weeks in advance by using clinical data volunteered from participating health care workers. Information revealed by prediction markets may help to inform treatment, prevention, and policy decisions. Also, these markets could help to refine existing surveillance systems.

  8. Wild animals as reservoirs of infectious diseases in the UK.

    PubMed

    Simpson, V R

    2002-03-01

    This review aims to illustrate the extent to which wildlife act as reservoirs of infectious agents that cause disease in domestic stock, pet and captive animals and humans. More than 40 agents are described. In the case of some of these, e.g. Cryptosporidium spp., Escherichia coli O157 and malignant catarrhal fever, the current evidence is that wildlife either does not act as a reservoir or is of limited importance. However, in the case of many important diseases, including bovine tuberculosis, Weil's disease, Lyme disease, avian influenza, duck virus enteritis and louping ill, wild animals are considered to be the principal source of infection. Wildlife may be involved in the epidemiology of other major diseases, such as neosporosis, Johne's disease, mucosal disease and foot and mouth disease, but further studies are needed. The UK would benefit from a more positive approach to the study of wildlife and the infections they harbour.

  9. Husbandry practices employed by private aviculturists, bird markets and zoo collections, which may be conducive to fostering infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wolff, P L

    1996-03-01

    Zoos, quarantine stations, and bird markets, dealers and breeders are in the business of propagating or moving birds. Facilities often house and transport birds which have unknown histories of exposure to disease. As few tests are available for disease screening and monitoring in exotic avian species, familiarization with significant avian pathogens will enable the manager and veterinarian to recognize and prevent a disease outbreak. Implementing aviary management practices which minimize the spread of pathogens, in conjunction with quarantine and the proper handling of birds during shipment, can greatly reduce the threat of disease. The author reviews the husbandry practices (caging, nutrition, transport, quarantine) which can reduce the incidence and spread of infectious disease. Significant avian pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites) are listed, together with their host range and modes of transmission.

  10. Detection of avian retroviruses in vaccines by amplification on DF-1 cells with immunostaining and fluorescent product-enhanced reverse transcriptase endpoint methods.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, Cheryl L; Dupont, Dominique; Riou, Patrice; Armanet, Corinne; Edamura, Kerrie Nichol; Martinho, Briolange; Serres, Aurelie; Jacouton, Severine; Detrez, Valerie; McNeil, Bryan; Schreiber, Martha; Gaillac, David; Bonnevay, Thierry; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy; Mallet, Laurent

    2013-05-01

    In order to ensure the safety of vaccines produced on avian cells, rigorous testing for the absence of avian retroviruses must be performed. Current methods used to detect avian retroviruses often exhibit a high invalid-test/false-positive rate, rely on hard-to-secure reagents, and/or have readouts that are difficult to standardize. Herein, we describe the development and validation of two consistent and sensitive methods for the detection of avian retroviruses in vaccines: viral amplification on DF-1 cells followed by immunostaining for the detection of avian leukosis virus (ALV) and viral amplification on DF-1 cells followed by fluorescent product-enhanced reverse transcriptase (F-PERT) for the detection of all avian retroviruses. Both assays share an infectivity stage on DF-1 cells followed by a different endpoint readout depending on the retrovirus to be detected. Validation studies demonstrated a limit of detection of one 50% cell culture infectious dose (CCID(50))/ml for retrovirus in a 30-ml test inoculum volume for both methods, which was as sensitive as a classical method used in the vaccine industry, namely, viral amplification on primary chicken embryo fibroblasts followed by the complement fixation test for avian leukosis virus (COFAL). Furthermore, viral amplification on DF-1 cells followed by either immunostaining or F-PERT demonstrated a sensitivity that exceeds the regulatory requirements for detection of ALV strains. A head-to-head comparison of the two endpoint methods showed that viral amplification on DF-1 cells followed by F-PERT is a suitable method to be used as a stand-alone test to ensure that vaccine preparations are free from infectious avian retroviruses.

  11. Avian disease at the Salton Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    2002-01-01

    A review of existing records and the scientific literature was conducted for occurrences of avian diseases affecting free-ranging avifauna within the Salton Sea ecosystem. The period for evaluation was 1907 through 1999. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey and the scientific literature were the data sources for the period of 1907a??1939. The narrative reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sonny Bono National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the epizootic database of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center were the primary data sources for the remainder of the evaluation. The pattern of avian disease at the Salton Sea has changed greatly over time. Relative to past decades, there was a greater frequency of major outbreaks of avian disease at the Salton Sea during the 1990s than in previous decades, a greater variety of disease agents causing epizootics, and apparent chronic increases in the attrition of birds from disease. Avian mortality was high for about a decade beginning during the mid-1920s, diminished substantially by the 1940s and was at low to moderate levels until the 1990s when it reached the highest levels reported. Avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) was the only major cause of avian disease until 1979 when the first major epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocidia) was documented. Waterfowl and shorebirds were the primary species affected by avian botulism. A broader spectrum of species have been killed by avian cholera but waterfowl have suffered the greatest losses. Avian cholera reappeared in 1983 and has joined avian botulism as a recurring cause of avian mortality. In 1989, avian salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) was first diagnosed as a major cause of avian disease within the Salton Sea ecosystem and has since reappeared several times, primarily among cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). The largest loss from a single epizootic occurred in 1992, when an estimated

  12. Novel characteristics of the avian gyrovirus 2 genome

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shuai; Gao, Xiang; Tuo, Tianbei; Han, Chunyan; Gao, Yulong; Qi, Xiaole; Zhang, Yanping; Liu, Changjun; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xiaomei

    2017-01-01

    Avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2) was the second member of the viral genus Cyclovirus to be discovered. This virus poses a significant potential threat to humans and poultry due to its global dissemination and infectiousness. We used three overlapping polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to map the whole genome of AGV2. We then modelled the evolutionary history of these novel sequence data in the context of related sequences from GenBank. We analysed the viral protein characteristics of the different phylogenetic groups and explored differences in evolutionary trends between Chinese strains and strains from other countries. We obtained 17 avian-sourced AGV2 whole genomes from different regions of China from 2015 to 2016. Phylogenetic analyses of these Chinese AGV2 sequences and related sequences produced four distinct groups (A–D) with significant bootstrap values. We also built phylogenies using predicted viral protein sequences. We found a potential hypervariable region in VP1 at sites 288–314, and we identified the amino acid changes responsible for the distinct VP2 and VP3 groups. Three new motifs in the AGV2 5′-UTR direct repeat (DR) region were discovered and grouped. The novel characteristics and diverse research on the AGV2 genome provide a valuable framework for additional research. PMID:28198372

  13. Microorganisms Causing Community-Acquired Acute Bronchitis: The Role of Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Young; Park, Sunghoon; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Myung Goo; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Kil Chan; Lee, Jae-Myung; Kim, Do Il; Seo, Ki-Hyun; Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Ko, Yongchun; Jang, Seung Hun; Jung, Ki-Suck; Hwang, Yong Il

    2016-01-01

    Background Although acute bronchitis is quite common, there is relatively limited information regarding the microorganisms that are involved in this illness. Methods We performed a prospective study of acute bronchitis at 31 hospitals and clinics in Korea from July 2011 to June 2012. Sputum specimens were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture of microorganisms. Results Of the 811 enrolled patients, 291 had acceptable sputum specimens that were included for analysis of the etiologic distribution. With multiplex PCR testing, viruses were identified in 36.1% (105/291), most commonly rhinovirus (25.8%) and coronavirus (3.8%). Typical bacteria were isolated in 126/291 (43.3%) patients. Among these patients Haemophilus influenzae (n = 39) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 30) were isolated most commonly; atypical bacteria were identified in 44 (15.1%) patients. Bacteria-only, virus-only, and mixed infections (bacteria plus virus) accounted for 36.7% (98/291), 17.2% (50/291), and 18.9% (55/291) of infections, respectively. In particular, 52.4% of patients with viral infection had a concurrent bacterial infection, and rhinovirus was the most common virus in mixed infections (40/55). Additionally, infections with typical bacteria were more common in patients with chronic lung disease (p = 0.029), and typical bacterial infections showed a trend towards a higher prevalence with older age (p = 0.001). Conclusions Bacteria were associated with almost half of community-acquired acute bronchitis cases. Additional studies are required to further illuminate the role of bacteria and to identify patient groups most likely to benefit from antibiotic treatment. PMID:27788254

  14. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... healthcare linens, transporting medical specimens, disposing of medical waste, reprocessing medical equipment); maintaining, servicing or repairing medical equipment that is contaminated with infectious agents; conducting... laboratories (e.g., clinical, biomedical research, production laboratories) that result in...

  15. Fontan patient with plastic bronchitis treated successfully using aerosolized tissue plasminogen activator: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Do, Thomas B; Chu, James M; Berdjis, Farhouch; Anas, Nick G

    2009-04-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon condition characterized by the production of large pale bronchial casts that obstruct the tracheobronchial tree. The cellular content, cohesiveness, and often rubber-like consistency distinguish bronchial casts from the usual mucus plugs found with such disease states as asthma. Plastic bronchitis can be found secondary to many conditions, and a simplified classification scheme organizes it into two groups: an inflammatory type consisting of casts with an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate and an acellular type with a predominance of fibrin distinguished by its relative lack of cellular infiltrate, its mucin predominance, and its appearance only in children with congenital cyanotic heart disease. This report describes a 5-year-old girl who experienced plastic bronchitis 3 months after a Fontan procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome that was treated successfully with aerosolized tissue plasminogen activator.

  16. Plastic bronchitis as an unusual cause of mucus plugging in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Corral, Dimas; Cutz, Ernest; Solomon, Melinda; Ratjen, Felix

    2009-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients are known to produce abundant, purulent sputum consisting mainly of DNA and cellular debris. We present a case of a CF patient with recurrent airway obstruction caused by a rare condition known as plastic bronchitis (PB). PB is characterized by the formation of casts of the airways that cause obstruction. Multiple etiologies have been proposed, but to our knowledge, no CF patient has been reported in any PB classification. Histological analysis and in-vitro testing of the cast were important factors in choosing the adequate therapy in this patient.

  17. Relationship between Breathlessness and Anxiety in Asthma and Bronchitis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, N. C.; Waller, R. E.; Drinkwater, J.

    1970-01-01

    Two personality testing forms, the Eysenck Personality Inventory Form A and the Cattell Self Analysis Form, were completed on 471 hospital patients who fell within the general diagnostic range of asthma, bronchitis, or both. Respiratory diagnoses were based on the standard M.R.C. questionary. All categories of patients showed a tendency towards neuroticism, anxiety, and introversion, and the scores were slightly higher for bronchitics than for asthmatics. Neuroticism and anxiety increased with increasing respiratory disability. Variations in these scores with age of onset of symptoms and length of history were small. PMID:5440566

  18. Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    strain, there is an increased likelihood that the virus will be expressed as a much more severe form of the disease , dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHS...Emerging Infectious Diseases B-3: Presentation: The Global Resurgence of Epidemic Dengue / Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever B-4: Presentation: Joint Clinical... Diseases ", BioTerrorism Preparedness: Clinical Trials in Infectious Disease , June 15-18, 2004, Bangkok, Thailand. (See Appendix B-2) 15 APPENDIX A THE DENGUE

  19. Bovine and human-derived passive immunization could help slow a future avian influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Alisky, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of human transmitted avian influenza could have casualties on a scale seen in the great Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918. This paper proposes that should such occur before effective vaccines and antiviral drugs are available, the outbreak could be significantly slowed by consumption of raw milk produced by herds of pathogen-free lactating cows intranasally inoculated with heat-sterilized sputa pooled from avian influenza patients, supplemented by parenteral serum immune globulin from the same cows. Efficiency of bovine antibody production could be enhanced using cholera toxin subunit b, and milk production could be rapidly accelerated using recombinant bovine somatotropin hormone. In this way, it would be possible to quickly create and distribute large quantities of milk-based and serum-based passive immune globulin active against the strains of avian influenza present in a particular geographic area and gain time for production of human convalescent plasma and other public health measures. This novel approach might also have utility for other serious respiratory infectious diseases, including non-avian influenza, SARS, hantavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and pneumonia-causing Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Reducing Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing for Adults With Acute Bronchitis in an Urgent Care Setting: A Quality Improvement Initiative.

    PubMed

    Link, Tamara L; Townsend, Mary L; Leung, Eugene; Kommu, Sekhar; Vega, Rhonda Y; Hendrix, Cristina C

    Acute bronchitis is a predominantly viral illness and, according to clinical practice guidelines, should not be treated with antibiotics. Despite clear guidelines, acute bronchitis continues to be the most common acute respiratory illness for which antibiotics are incorrectly prescribed. Although the national benchmark for antibiotic prescribing for adults with acute bronchitis is 0%, a preliminary record review before implementing the intervention at the project setting showed that 96% (N = 30) of adults with acute bronchitis in this setting were prescribed an antibiotic. This quality improvement project utilized a single-group, pre-post design. The setting for this project was a large urgent care network with numerous locations in central North Carolina. The purpose was to determine whether nurse practitioners and physician assistants, after participating in a multifaceted provider education session, would reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for healthy adults with acute uncomplicated bronchitis. Twenty providers attended 1 of 4 training sessions offered in October and November 2015. The face-to-face interactive training sessions focused on factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, current clinical practice guidelines, and patient communication skills. Retrospective medical record review of 217 pretraining and 335 posttraining encounters for acute bronchitis by 19 eligible participating providers demonstrated a 61.9% reduction in immediate antibiotic prescribing from 91.7% to 29.8%. Delayed prescribing, which accounted for a small percentage of the total prescriptions given, had a small but significant increase of 9.3% after training. Overall, this multifaceted, interactive provider training resulted in significant reductions in inappropriate prescriptions.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of the avian influenza A virus, such as H5N1 and H7N9, from birds to humans. The avian influenza A H5N1 virus has caused more than 500 human infections worldwide with nearly a 60% death rate since it was first reported in Hong Kong in 1997. The four outbreaks of the avian influenza A H7N9 in China from March 2013 to June 2016 have resulted in 580 human cases including 202 deaths with a death rate of nearly 35%. In this paper, we construct two avian influenza bird-to-human transmission models with different growth laws of the avian population, one with logistic growth and the other with Allee effect, and analyze their dynamical behavior. We obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate the local or global asymptotical stability of each equilibrium of these systems by using linear analysis technique or combining Liapunov function method and LaSalle's invariance principle, respectively. Moreover, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of periodic solutions in the avian influenza system with Allee effect of the avian population. Numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  2. Climate change and avian influenza

    PubMed Central

    Slingenbergh, J.; Xiao, X.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in water bird populations will continue with endless adaptation and evolution. In domestic poultry, too little is known about the direct effect of environmental factors on highly pathogenic avian influenza transmission and persistence to allow inference about the possible effect of climate change. However, possible indirect links through changes in the distribution of duck-crop farming are discussed. PMID:18819672

  3. Avian influenza and human health.

    PubMed

    Capua, Ilaria; Alexander, Dennis J

    2002-07-01

    Natural infections with influenza A viruses have been reported in a variety of animal species including humans, pigs, horses, sea mammals, mustelids and birds. Occasionally devastating pandemics occur in humans. Although viruses of relatively few HA and NA subtype combinations have been isolated from mammalian species, all 15 HA subtypes and all 9 NA subtypes, in most combinations, have been isolated from birds. In the 20th century the sudden emergence of antigenically different strains transmissible in humans, termed antigenic shift, has occurred on four occasions, 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2) and 1977 (H1N1), each time resulting in a pandemic. Genetic analysis of the isolates demonstrated that 'new' strains most certainly emerged after reassortment of genes of viruses of avian and human origin in a permissive host. The leading theory is that the pig represents the 'mixing vessel' where this genetic reassortment may occur. In 1996, an H7N7 influenza virus of avian origin was isolated from a woman with a self-limiting conjunctivitis. During 1997 in Hong Kong, an H5N1 avian influenza virus was recognised as the cause of death of 6 of 18 infected patients. Genetic analysis revealed these human isolates of H5N1 subtype to be indistinguishable from a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus that was endemic in the local poultry population. More recently, in March 1999, two independent isolations of influenza virus subtype H9N2 were made from girls aged one to four who recovered from flu-like illnesses in Hong Kong. Subsequently, five isolations of H9N2 virus from humans on mainland China in August 1998 were reported. H9N2 viruses were known to be widespread in poultry in China and other Asian countries. In all these cases there was no evidence of human to human spread except with the H5N1 infections where there was evidence of very limited spread. This is in keeping with the finding that all these viruses possessed all eight genes of avian origin. It may well

  4. Gender determination of avian embryo

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  5. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R

    2014-07-01

    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand.

  6. [Dynamics of interferon production during different phases of the pathological process in children with acute pneumonia and relapsing bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, O L

    2001-01-01

    With the purpose of gaining further insight into regularities of changes that take place in indices for the interferon status in children with acute pneumonia and current bronchitis depending on the phase of the pathological process, 112 children were examined in whom the level of serum interferon was measured together with production of alpha- and gamma-interferon by leucocytes of the peripheral blood in vitro. It is shown that in the examined patients with acute pneumonia and relapsing bronchitis in the acute period and during the phase of reparation there are differences in functioning of indices for the system of interferon.

  7. Avian embryos in hypoxic environments.

    PubMed

    León-Velarde, F; Monge-C, C

    2004-08-12

    Avian embryos at high altitude do not benefit of the maternal protection against hypoxia as in mammals. Nevertheless, avian embryos are known to hatch successfully at altitudes between 4,000 and 6,500 m. This review considers some of the processes that bring about the outstanding modifications in the pressure differences between the environment and mitochondria of avian embryos in hypoxic environments. Among species, some maintain normal levels of oxygen consumption ( VO2) have a high oxygen carrying capacity, lower the air cell-arterial pressure difference ( PAO2 - PaO2 ) with a constant pH. Other species decrease VO2, increase only slightly the oxygen carrying capacity, have a higher PAO2 - PaO2 difference than sea-level embryos and lower the PCO2 and pH. High altitude embryos, and those exposed to hypoxia have an accelerated decline of erythrocyte ATP levels during development and an earlier stimulation of 2,3-BPG synthesis. A higher Bohr effect may ensure high tissue PO2 in the presence of the high-affinity hemoglobin. Independently of the strategy used, they serve together to promote suitable rates of development and successful hatching of high altitude birds in hypoxic environments.

  8. Avian utilization of subsidence wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, J.R.; Conley, P.S.; Smout, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Diverse and productive wetlands have resulted from coal mining in the midwest. The trend from surface to underground mining has increased the potential for subsidence. Planned subsidence of longwall mining areas provides increased opportunities for wetland habitat establishment. Planned subsidence over a 180 meter (590 foot) deep longwall mine in southern Illinois during 1984 to 1986 produced three subsidence wetlands totaling 15 hectares (38 acres). The resulting palustrine emergent wetlands enhanced habitat diversity within the surrounding palustrine forested unsubsided area. Habitat assessments and evaluations of avian utilization of the subsidence wetlands were conducted during February 1990 through October 1991. Avian utilization was greatest within the subsided wetlands. Fifty-three bird species representing seven foraging guilds utilized the subsidence wetlands. Wading/fishing, dabbling waterfowl, and insectivorous avian guilds dominated the subsidence wetlands. The subsidence wetlands represented ideal habitat for wood ducks and great blue herons which utilized snags adjacent to and within the wetlands for nesting (19 great blue heron nests produced 25 young). Dense cover and a rich supply of macroinvertebrates provide excellent brood habitat for wood ducks, while herpetofauna and ichthyofauna provided abundant forage in shallow water zones for great blue herons and other wetland wading birds. The diversity of game and non-game avifauna utilizing the subsidence areas demonstrated the unique value of these wetlands. Preplanned subsidence wetlands can help mitigate loss of wetland habitats in the midwest.

  9. Vector movement underlies avian malaria at upper elevation in Hawaii: implications for transmission of human malaria.

    PubMed

    Freed, Leonard A; Cann, Rebecca L

    2013-11-01

    With climate warming, malaria in humans and birds at upper elevations is an emerging infectious disease because development of the parasite in the mosquito vector and vector life history are both temperature dependent. An enhanced-mosquito-movement model from climate warming predicts increased transmission of malaria at upper elevation sites that are too cool for parasite development in the mosquito vector. We evaluate this model with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) at 1,900-m elevation on the Island of Hawaii, with air temperatures too low for sporogony in the vector (Culex quinquefasciatus). On a well-defined site over a 14-year period, 10 of 14 species of native and introduced birds became infected, several epizootics occurred, and the increase in prevalence was driven more by resident species than by mobile species that could have acquired their infections at lower elevations. Greater movement of infectious mosquitoes from lower elevations now permits avian malaria to spread at 1,900 m in Hawaii, in advance of climate warming at that elevation. The increase in malaria at upper elevations due to dispersal of infectious mosquitoes is a real alternative to temperature for the increased incidence of human malaria in tropical highlands.

  10. Genetic data provide evidence for wind-mediated transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Ypma, Rolf J F; Jonges, Marcel; Bataille, Arnaud; Stegeman, Arjan; Koch, Guus; van Boven, Michiel; Koopmans, Marion; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-03-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry can cause severe economic damage and represent a public health threat. Development of efficient containment measures requires an understanding of how these influenza viruses are transmitted between farms. However, the actual mechanisms of interfarm transmission are largely unknown. Dispersal of infectious material by wind has been suggested, but never demonstrated, as a possible cause of transmission between farms. Here we provide statistical evidence that the direction of spread of avian influenza A(H7N7) is correlated with the direction of wind at date of infection. Using detailed genetic and epidemiological data, we found the direction of spread by reconstructing the transmission tree for a large outbreak in the Netherlands in 2003. We conservatively estimate the contribution of a possible wind-mediated mechanism to the total amount of spread during this outbreak to be around 18%.

  11. Outbreak patterns of the novel avian influenza (H7N9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ya-Nan; Lou, Jing-Jing; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2014-05-01

    The attack of novel avian influenza (H7N9) in East China caused a serious health crisis and public panic. In this paper, we empirically analyze the onset patterns of human cases of the novel avian influenza and observe several spatial and temporal properties that are similar to other infectious diseases. More specifically, using the empirical analysis and modeling studies, we find that the spatio-temporal network that connects the cities with human cases along the order of outbreak timing emerges two-regime-power-law edge-length distribution, indicating the picture that several islands with higher and heterogeneous risk straggle in East China. The proposed method is applicable to the analysis of the spreading situation in the early stage of disease outbreak using quite limited dataset.

  12. [Common pediatric infectious diseases following natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Yao, Kai-Hu

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters may lead to the outbreaks of infectious diseases because they increase the risk factors for infectious diseases. This paper reviews the risk factors for infectious diseases after natural disasters, especially earthquake, and the infectious diseases following disasters reported in recent years. The infectious diseases after earthquake include diarrhea, cholera, viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles, leptospirosis, dengue fever, tetanus, and gas gangrene, as well as some rare infections. Children are vulnerable to infectious diseases, so pediatricians should pay more attention to the research on relationship between infectious diseases and natural disasters.

  13. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis secondary to high dose rate endobronchial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Speiser, B.L. ); Spratling, L.

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the study was to describe a new clinical entity observed in follow-up bronchoscopies in patients who were treated with high dose rate and medium dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy of the tracheobronchial tree. Patients were treated by protocol with medium dose rate, 47 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 5 mm depth times three fractions, high dose rate 144 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions and high dose rate 151 patients receiving cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions followed by bronchoscopy. Incidence of this entity was 9% for the first group, 12% for the second, and 13% for the third group. Reactions were grade 1 consisting of mild inflammatory response with a partial whitish circumferential membrane in an asymptomatic patient; grade 2, thicker complete white circumferential membrane with cough and/or obstructive problems requiring intervention; grade 3, severe inflammatory response with marked membranous exudate and mild fibrotic reaction; and grade 4 a predominant fibrotic reaction with progressive stenosis. Variables associated with a slightly increased incidence of radiation bronchitis and stenosis included: large cell carcinoma histology, curative intent, prior laser photoresection, and/or concurrent external radiation. Survival was the strongest predictor of the reaction. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis is a new clinical entity that must be identified in bronchial brachytherapy patients and treated appropriately. 23 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. The spread of non-OIE-listed avian diseases through international trade of chicken meat: an assessment of the risks to New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cobb, S P; Smith, H

    2015-12-01

    Twelve avian diseases are listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), although more than 100 infectious diseases have been described in commercial poultry. This article summarises a recent assessment of the biosecurity risks posed by non-listed avian diseases associated with imports of chilled or frozen chicken meat and meat products into New Zealand. Following the guidelines described in Chapter 2.1 of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, avian adenovirus splenomegaly virus, avian paramyxovirus-2 (APMV-2), Bordetella avium, Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma spp., Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Salmonella arizonae have been identified as hazards. However, of all the non-listed avian diseases discussed here, only APMV-2 and S. arizonae are assessed as being risks associated with the commercial import of chicken meat into New Zealand. Specific control measures may have to be implemented to mitigate such risks. This conclusion is likely to reflect both the high-health status of New Zealand poultry and the threat posed by these infectious agents to New Zealand's unique population of native psittacine species.

  15. IDBD: infectious disease biomarker database.

    PubMed

    Yang, In Seok; Ryu, Chunsun; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Jin Kwang; Ong, Swee Hoe; Mitchell, Wayne P; Kim, Bong Su; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecularly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious diseases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database (IDBD) is one of the first efforts to build an easily accessible and comprehensive literature-derived database covering known infectious disease biomarkers. IDBD is a community annotation database, utilizing collaborative Web 2.0 features, providing a convenient user interface to input and revise data online. It allows users to link infectious diseases or pathogens to protein, gene or carbohydrate biomarkers through the use of search tools. It supports various types of data searches and application tools to analyze sequence and structure features of potential and validated biomarkers. Currently, IDBD integrates 611 biomarkers for 66 infectious diseases and 70 pathogens. It is publicly accessible at http://biomarker.cdc.go.kr and http://biomarker.korea.ac.kr.

  16. The Leeuwenhoek Lecture 2001. Animal origins of human infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R A

    2001-06-29

    Since time immemorial animals have been a major source of human infectious disease. Certain infections like rabies are recognized as zoonoses caused in each case by direct animal-to-human transmission. Others like measles became independently sustained with the human population so that the causative virus has diverged from its animal progenitor. Recent examples of direct zoonoses are variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease arising from bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and the H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Hong Kong. Epidemics of recent animal origin are the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some retroviruses jump into and out of the chromosomal DNA of the host germline, so that they oscillate between being inherited Mendelian traits or infectious agents in different species. Will new procedures like animal-to-human transplants unleash further infections? Do microbes become more virulent upon cross-species transfer? Are animal microbes a threat as biological weapons? Will the vast reservoir of immunodeficient hosts due to the HIV pandemic provide conditions permissive for sporadic zoonoses to take off as human-to-human transmissible diseases? Do human infections now pose a threat to endangered primates? These questions are addressed in this lecture.

  17. The global nature of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their agricultural or anthropocentric production systems. Avian influenza viruses or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds...

  18. MANAGING AVIAN FLU, CARCASS MANAGEMENT & BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The avian influenza virus is discussed with emphasis on the impact to poultry and possible movement of the highly pathogenic H5N 1 virus to humans. A review is made of the worldwide effects to date of the avian influenza viruses; methods for the viruses to enter recreational wate...

  19. Newcastle Disease Virus and Other Avian Paramyxoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are currently 11 recognized serotypes of avian paramyxovirus. Type 1 is the most important for poultry and includes Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is a form of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) that is highly virulent for chickens and turkeys. NDV is considered to be one of the mos...

  20. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  1. [Loperamide for acute infectious diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Douma, Joeri A J; Smulders, Yvo M

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians are resistant to the idea of prescribing loperamide for acute infectious traveller's diarrhoea and community-acquired diarrhoea because of the fear of possible adverse effects. Large randomized trials with loperamide, either alone or as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment, have in fact revealed positive rather than negative effects. International guidelines now often support the use of loperamide for the treatment of infectious diarrhoea without dysentery. There seems to be no reason to systematically avoid loperamide in patients with dysentery, but caution is advised. Loperamide can be used as monotherapy or as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment in immunocompetent adults with acute infectious traveller's diarrhoea or community-acquired diarrhoea without severe comorbidities. This can reduce both the frequency of diarrhoea and the time until the diarrhoea stops without the risk of severe complications.

  2. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  3. Infectious disease, endangerment, and extinction.

    PubMed

    Macphee, Ross D E; Greenwood, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

  4. The infectious etiology of vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Lidar, Merav; Lipschitz, Noga; Langevitz, Pnina; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2009-08-01

    Infectious agents have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of various vasculitides via numerous and overlapping mechanisms including direct microbial invasion of endothelial cells, immune complex mediated vessel wall damage and stimulation of autoreactive B and/or T cells through molecular mimicry and superantigens. While the causative role of hepatitis B virus in polyarteritis nodosa and hepatitis C virus in mixed cryoglobulinemia is clearly established, evidence for the association of other infectious agents with vasculitis, including human immunodeficiency virus, parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, Staphylococcus aureus, rickettsiaceae, Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi, among numerous others, is accumulating. The spectrum of association of infectious agents; bacteria, viruses and parasites, with systemic vasculitides, will be reviewed herewith.

  5. [A long-term prospective observation of the course of dust-induced bronchitis in mechanical engineering workers].

    PubMed

    Kleĭner, A I; Makotchenko, V M; Efremova, V A; Prilipskaia, N I; Martynov, P N; Ovchinnik, E N

    1993-04-01

    A study of 206 machine builders in dynamics (up to 15 years) with dust-induced bronchitis showed that the disease has a tendency to advancing within the first three years, especially in those with a combination of noxious professional factors (dust, heat, hard physical work). Negative risk factors: working conditions, preceding unspecific respiratory infections, smoking.

  6. [Frequency of chronic bronchitis in an intensely polluted urban zone. Preliminary results in children. Analysis of the implicated factors].

    PubMed

    Bungeţianu, G; Radu, G; Opriş, C; Păltineanu, V; Ruşdea, N; Cresco, F; Silaghi, I

    1980-01-01

    The starting point is that environment factors induce chronic bronchitis in adults and children and that the disease in adult is a consequence of respiratory tree susceptibility which might be better evidenced during childhood. The authors have studied a group of children aged 0--14 years in a highly air-poluted workers' quarter in the city of Baia-Mare. The frequence of chronic bronchitis was 10.3% with higher values in children below 5 years and over 10 years, the age group 5--9 years being a group with higher resistance to this disease. The figures are three times higher in boys than in girls, on possible endogenous factors. The girls could be, however, more subjected to "passive smoking" because of smokers presence in family and in bed room. The number of children in a family did not correlate with chronic bronchitis frequence. This frequence was significantly influenced by allergic and ear-nose-throat phenomena in the history, more evidently in 0--4 years and 10-14 years groups of age. These elements could be thus considered as risk factors. They also indicate the place to be acted upon in order to prevent chronic bronchitis in children.

  7. Analysis of avian hepatitis E virus from chickens, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En Min; Dong, Shi Wei; Qiu, Hong Kai; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Shou Bin; Zhao, Fei Fei; Jiang, Shi Jin; Sun, Ya Ni

    2010-09-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in chickens; however, only 4 complete or near-complete genomic sequences have been reported. We found that the near-complete genomic sequence of avian HEV in chickens from China shared the highest identity (98.3%) with avian HEV from Europe and belonged to avian HEV genotype 3.

  8. Infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Sarah A.; Wynn, James L.; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency among premature infants. Although a large body of research has focused on understanding its pathogenesis, the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. Of particular interest is the potential causative role of infectious culprits in the development of NEC. A variety of reports describe bacterial, viral, and fungal infections occurring in association with NEC; however, no organism has emerged as being definitively involved in NEC pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the body of research on infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:25678001

  9. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health & Wellness > Health Professionals Lung Health & Wellness > Healthy Air (Indoor & Outdoor) Lung Health & Wellness > LUNG FORCE Updates Lung Health & Wellness > Quit Smoking Lung Health & ...

  10. Chronic Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  11. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  12. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  13. Preventing Infectious Disease in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Warren B.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing infectious disease in sports is fundamental to maintaining team effectiveness and helping athletes avoid the adverse effects of illness. Good hygiene, immunization, minimal exposure to specific diseases, and certain prophylactic measures are essential. Teammates, coaches, trainers, officials, healthcare providers, and community public…

  14. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  15. Dilemmas of securitization and health risk management in the People's Republic of China: the cases of SARS and avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Wishnick, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Since the SARS epidemic in 2003, the international community has urged Chinese leaders to do more to address infectious diseases. This paper looks at two cases in which the Chinese government securitized infectious disease (SARS and avian influenza) and examines the pros and cons of securitization. It is argued that the reactive mobilization involved in a securitizing move runs counter to the preventive risk management strategy needed to address infectious diseases. Although the Copenhagen School favours desecuritization as a return to normal practices, in the Chinese cases desecuritizing moves proved detrimental, involving cover-ups and restrictions on activists pressing for greater information. The article begins by examining the contributions of the Copenhagen School and sociological theories of risk to conceptualizing the security challenges that pandemics pose. Although analysis of the cases of SARS and avian influenza gives credence to criticisms of this approach, securitization theory proves useful in outlining the different stages in China's reaction to epidemics involving reactive mobilization and subsequent efforts to return to politics as usual. The second section examines securitizing and desecuritizing moves in Chinese responses to SARS and avian influenza. Each case study concludes with an assessment of the consequences for health risk management in China. The reactive mobilization implicit in Chinese securitization moves in the two cases is contrasted with the preventive logic of risk management. A third section draws out the implications of these cases for theories of securitization and risk. It is argued here that when securitization has occurred, risk management has failed. Although Copenhagen School theorists see the return to politics as usual-what they call 'desecuritization'-as optimal, this turns out to be far from the case in China during SARS and avian influenza, where the process involved retribution against whistleblowers and new

  16. Recovery Based Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor Detection of Pathogenic Avian Influenza DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Heng; Chu, Chia-Jung; Teng, Kang-Ning; Su, Yi-Jr; Chen, Chii-Dong; Tsai, Li-Chu; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2012-02-01

    Fast and accurate diagnosis is critical in infectious disease surveillance and management. We proposed a DNA recovery system that can easily be adapted to DNA chip or DNA biosensor for fast identification and confirmation of target DNA. This method was based on the re-hybridization of DNA target with a recovery DNA to free the DNA probe. Functionalized silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) was demonstrated to monitor such specific DNA-DNA interaction using high pathogenic strain virus hemagglutinin 1 (H1) DNA of avian influenza (AI) as target. Specific electric changes were observed in real-time for AI virus DNA sensing and device recovery when nanowire surface of SiNW FET was modified with complementary captured DNA probe. The recovery based SiNW FET biosensor can be further developed for fast identification and further confirmation of a variety of influenza virus strains and other infectious diseases.

  17. [Asthma, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in occupational exposure to wood].

    PubMed

    Schlünssen, V; Schaumburg, I

    1998-01-26

    Two million workers worldwide are regularly exposed to wood dust in the work place. In Denmark alone approximately 40,000 workers are employed in the furniture industry where they are exposed to wood dust on a daily basis. This article reviews epidemiological at studies concerning the relationship between wood dust and the development of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchitis. Fourteen cross-sectional studies and one register-based cohort study form the basis of this review. The conclusion is that despite possible methodological problems there seems to be a relationship between occupational exposure to the types of wood dust used in Denmark and the development of these pulmonary diseases. The results would indicate that further studies are clearly needed in order to study the incidence of these diseases and the relation to the specific types and amount of wood dust.

  18. Prion remains infectious after passage through digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    VerCauteren, Kurt C; Pilon, John L; Nash, Paul B; Phillips, Gregory E; Fischer, Justin W

    2012-01-01

    Avian scavengers, such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), have potential to translocate infectious agents (prions) of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases including chronic wasting disease, scrapie, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We inoculated mice with fecal extracts obtained from 20 American crows that were force-fed material infected with RML-strain scrapie prions. These mice all evinced severe neurological dysfunction 196-231 d postinoculation (x =198; 95% CI: 210-216) and tested positive for prion disease. Our results suggest a large proportion of crows that consume prion-positive tissue are capable of passing infectious prions in their feces (ˆp=1.0; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0). Therefore, this common, migratory North American scavenger could play a role in the geographic spread of TSE diseases.

  19. Interplay between environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty: case studies in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the natural environment and agricultural systems induced by economic and industrial development, including population dynamics (growth, urbanization, migration), are major causes resulting in the persistence, emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases in developing countries. In the face of rapid demographic, economic and social transformations, the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) is undergoing unprecedented environmental and agricultural change. We review emerging and re-emerging diseases such as schistosomiasis, dengue, avian influenza, angiostrongyliasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis that have occurred in P.R. China due to environmental and agricultural change. This commentary highlights the research priorities and the response strategies, namely mitigation and adaptation, undertaken to eliminate the resurgence of those infectious diseases.

  20. Genetic Applications in Avian Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  1. Avian flu to human influenza.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David B

    2006-01-01

    Influenza A viral infection causes substantial annual morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly for infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. The virus mainly replicates in the respiratory tract and is spread by respiratory secretions. A growing concern is the recent identification of H5N1 strains of avian influenza A in Asia that were previously thought to infect only wild birds and poultry, but have now infected humans, cats, pigs, and other mammals, often with fatal results, in an ongoing outbreak. A human pandemic with H5N1 virus could potentially be catastrophic because most human populations have negligible antibody-mediated immunity to the H5 surface protein and this viral subtype is highly virulent. Whether an H5N1 influenza pandemic will occur is likely to hinge on whether the viral strains involved in the current outbreak acquire additional mutations that facilitate efficient human-to-human transfer of infection. Although there is no historical precedent for an H5N1 avian strain causing widespread human-to-human transmission, some type of influenza A pandemic is very likely in the near future. The possibility of an H5N1 influenza pandemic has highlighted the many current limitations of treatment with antiviral agents and of vaccine production and immunogenicity. Future vaccine strategies that may include more robust induction of T-cell responses, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes, may provide better protection than is offered by current vaccines, which rely solely or mainly on antibody neutralization of infection.

  2. Role of dust in the working environment in development of chronic bronchitis in British coal miners

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, J. M.; Attfield, M. D.; Jacobsen, M.; Rae, S.; Walker, D. D.; Walton, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rogan, J. M., Attfield, M. D., Jacobsen, M., Rae, S., Walker, D. D., and Walton, W. H. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 30, 217-226. Role of dust in the working environment in development of chronic bronchitis in British coal miners. In the course of a long-term prospective study of chronic respiratory disease in British coal miners the effects on pulmonary ventilatory function of exposure to airborne dust, of simple pneumoconiosis, and of chronic bronchitis have been examined in a group of 3581 coalface workers. The men were employed in 20 collieries throughout the British coalfields. Their cumulative exposures to coal mine dust in the respirable range (1-5 μm) were calculated from detailed dust sampling results at their work places during a 10-year period and from estimates of earlier exposures based on records of their industrial histories. A progressive reduction in FEV1·0 with increasing cumulative exposure to airborne dust has been demonstrated. This effect was evident also in a subgroup of the men studied who reported no signs of mild bronchitic symptoms (cough and phlegm for at least three months in a year). Among men with pneumoconiosis there was no evidence of a reduction of FEV1·0 in excess of that attributable to their dust exposures, smoking habits, age, and physique. Increasing severity of bronchitic symptoms was associated with a loss in FEV1·0 greater than that expected from the effects of dust exposure as measured, smoking, age, and physique. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. It is suggested that the results may indicate that once early bronchitic symptoms are present the disease may progress and ventilatory capacity may deteriorate independently of factors initiating the disease process. PMID:4723786

  3. Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis*,**

    PubMed Central

    Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Maurici, Rosemeri; Trevisol, Daisson José; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emílio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone); and evaluating parameters before and after prednisone use, including values for sputum eosinophils, sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and sputum IL-5-with or without values for post-bronchodilator FEV1-with corresponding 95% CIs or with sufficient data for calculation. The independent variables were the use, dose, and duration of prednisone treatment. The outcomes evaluated were sputum eosinophils, IL-5, and ECP, as well as post-bronchodilator FEV1. RESULTS: The pooled analysis of the pre- vs. post-treatment data revealed a significant mean reduction in sputum eosinophils (↓8.18%; 95% CI: 7.69-8.67; p < 0.001), sputum IL-5 (↓83.64 pg/mL; 95% CI: 52.45-114.83; p < 0.001), and sputum ECP (↓267.60 µg/L; 95% CI: 244.57-290.63; p < 0.0001), as well as a significant mean increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1 (↑8.09%; 95% CI: 5.35-10.83; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate-to-severe eosinophilic bronchitis, treatment with prednisone caused a significant reduction in sputum eosinophil counts, as well as in the sputum levels of IL-5 and ECP. This reduction in the inflammatory response was accompanied by a significant increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1. PMID:25410844

  4. Acquired CFTR Dysfunction in Chronic Bronchitis and Other Diseases of Mucus Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Raju, S. Vamsee; Solomon, George M.; Dransfield, Mark T; Rowe, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem accounting for more than 100,000 deaths and 750,000 hospitalizations each year in the United States alone. Though bronchodilators, inhaled steroids and other anti-inflammatory drugs can improve symptoms and reduce the risk of exacerbations, no therapies alter the natural history of the disease. This is the result of a number of factors including our poor understanding of the pathobiologic processes that drive specific COPD phenotypes, which has hindered drug development. Chronic bronchitis is perhaps the most clinically troublesome phenotype as most patients with COPD complain of cough and sputum production, and yet there are no effective treatments to target the mucus hypersecretion, accumulation and poor clearance that lead to these symptoms. Though it is well known that the absence of cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane receptor (CFTR) is the cause of CF, the prototypical disease of impaired mucociliary clearance, emerging data strongly suggest cigarette smoke and its components can lead to acquired CFTR dysfunction. Findings in vitro, in animal models, as well smokers with and without COPD also exhibit acquired CFTR dysfunction, which is associated with chronic bronchitis. This abnormality is not only present in the airways but is also present in extrapulmonary organs, suggesting CFTR dysfunction may contribute to smoking related lung disease as well as commonly associated comorbidities in which CFTR has a role. The development of potent CFTR modulators for the treatment of CF has made these findings clinically relevant as they may also have a role in treating COPD and other diseases of mucus clearance. PMID:26857776

  5. Presence of avian bornavirus RNA and anti-avian bornavirus antibodies in apparently healthy macaws.

    PubMed

    De Kloet, Siwo R; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-12-01

    Recently a novel avian bornavirus has been described that has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent for proventricular dilatation disease or macaw wasting disease. This article describes two macaws that shed avian bornaviral RNA sequences and demonstrated anti-avian bornavirus antibodies as revealed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot, yet are free of outward clinical signs of the disease.

  6. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pello, Susan J.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.

  7. [Occupational sanitary-and-hygienic conditions and chronic dust bronchitis morbidity in the ore-mining industry of Krivoi Rog region].

    PubMed

    Gural', O I

    2005-01-01

    Chronic dust bronchitis morbidity of ore-mining workers is caused not only by high concentration of dust but also conditioned by carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, oil aerosols, unfavorable microclimate as well as different combinations of these adverse agents.

  8. IMMUNIZATION OF RABBITS TO INFECTIOUS PAPILLOMATOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.

    1937-01-01

    Two intraperitoneal injections of either infectious or non-infectious rabbit papilloma suspensions actively immunize rabbits against papillomatosis. The capacity of the non-infectious suspensions to immunize is considered as evidence that they contain papilloma virus even though none can be demonstrated by the usual infection test. PMID:19870596

  9. The Infectious Pathogenesis of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    progression; 2-) To characterize the role of the infectious protozoa T. vaginalis in prostate carcinogenesis and progression. The current study is...understanding of the infectious pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Aim II. To characterize the role of the infectious protozoa T. vaginalis in prostate

  10. Infectious keratitis and cyanoacrylate adhesive.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, T B; Gottsch, J D

    1991-04-15

    We studied three patients with infectious keratitis that occurred after cyanoacrylate gluing despite prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Two patients developed culture-positive bacterial ulcers, one caused by a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the other by Haemophilus influenzae. The third patient developed a fungal keratitis. Two patients required penetrating keratoplasty. Each infection and perforation was concealed by the opaqueness of the glue. The pain of the infectious ulcers may have been obscured by the ocular surface irritation and drying induced by glue. Tissue toxicity, microbial colonization, use of bandage lenses, and long-term broad-spectrum antibiotics may precipitate glue-related corneal infections. Masking of underlying infection and the development of resistant organisms should be considered when using this mode of therapy.

  11. [Infectious complications of biological therapy].

    PubMed

    Holub, M; Rozsypal, H; Chalupa, P

    2011-02-01

    Biological treatment represents a significant progress in the therapy of many serious diseases. Together with the growing knowledge of pathophysiology and subsequent development of new therapeutic agents, this progress will definitely lead to further expansion of biologics. Since biologics interfere with many mechanisms of host defence, which may sometimes be compromised by them, increased risk of infectious complications must be taken into account. Patients treated with biologics are prone to classical virulent infections (e.g. listeriosis, legionellosis and tuberculosis) and opportunistic infections such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Furthermore, suppression of the immune response that is caused by biologics may lead to reactivation of latent infections such as tuberculosis or viral hepatitis B. Therefore, the knowledge of basic mechanisms by which biologics modify the immune response is important for a rapid clinical diagnosis of possible aetiology of infectious complications.

  12. Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Han, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies.

  13. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  14. Are wetlands the reservoir for avian cholera?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands have long been suspected to be an important reservoir for Pasteurella multocida and therefore the likely source of avian cholera outbreaks. During the fall of 1995a??98 we collected sediment and water samples from 44 wetlands where avian cholera epizootics occurred the previous winter or spring. We attempted to isolate P. multocida in sediment and surface water samples from 10 locations distributed throughout each wetland. We were not able to isolate P. multocida from any of the 440 water and 440 sediment samples collected from these wetlands. In contrast, during other investigations of avian cholera we isolated P. multocida from 20 of 44 wetlands, including 7% of the water and 4.5% of the sediment samples collected during or shortly following epizootic events. Our results indicate that wetlands are an unlikely reservoir for the bacteria that causes avian cholera.

  15. Infectious causes of chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lisa; Surawicz, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Infections are an uncommon cause of chronic diarrhoea. Parasites are most likely, including protozoa like giardia, cryptosporidia and cyclospora. Bacteria are unlikely to cause chronic diarrhoea in immunocompetent individuals with the possible exception of Yersinia, Plesiomonas and Aeromonas. Infectious diarrhoea can trigger other causes of chronic diarrhoea, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and "Brainerd-type" diarrhoea. A thorough evaluation should detect most infections causing chronic diarrhoea.

  16. Detection prevalence of H5N1 avian influenza virus among stray cats in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fu-Rong; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Shao, Jun-Jun; Lin, Tong; Li, Yang-Fan; Wei, Ping; Chang, Hui-Yun

    2015-08-01

    Since 1997, more and more cases of the infectious H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) in humans have been reported all over the world but the transmission of H5N1 avian influenza virus to stray cats has been little demonstrated. The objective of this pilot investigation was to determine the prevalence of H5N1 AIV antibodies in stray cats in eastern China where is the dominant enzootic H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HP AIV). A total of 1,020 nasal swab and 1,020 serum samples were collected and tested. Evidence of HPAI H5N1 virus antibodies was present in two of the 1,020 serum samples that were positive by HI assay and NT assay, respectively. The results imply little transmission and that the Clade 2.3.2 HPAIV H5N1 infections in poultry did not significantly affect the rural animal shelters or suburban environment in eastern China. In future studies, these results can be used as baseline seroepidemiological levels for H5N1 AIV among cats in China.

  17. Molecular detection of avian pathogens in poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) collected in chicken farms.

    PubMed

    Huong, Chu Thi Thanh; Murano, Takako; Uno, Yukiko; Usui, Tatsufumi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Poultry red mite (PRM, Dermanyssus gallinae) is a blood-sucking ectoparasite as well as a possible vector of several avian pathogens. In this study, to define the role of PRM in the prevalence of avian infectious agents, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to check for the presence of seven pathogens: Avipox virus (APV), Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV), Marek's disease virus (MDV), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER), Salmonella enterica (SE), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). A total of 159 PRM samples collected between 2004 and 2012 from 142 chicken farms in 38 prefectures in Japan were examined. APV DNA was detected in 22 samples (13.8%), 19 of which were wild-type APV. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) of MS was detected in 15 samples (9.4%), and the mgc2 gene of MG was detected in 2 samples (1.3%). Eight of 15 MS 16S rRNA sequences differed from the vaccine sequence, indicating they were wild-type strains, while both of the MG mgc2 gene sequences detected were identical to the vaccine sequences. Of these avian pathogen-positive mite samples, three were positive for both wild-types of APV and MS. On the other hand, the DNAs of ER, SE, FAdV and MDV were not detected in any samples. These findings indicated that PRM can harbor the wild-type pathogens and might play a role as a vector in spreading these diseases in farms.

  18. Global warming and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Khasnis, Atul A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has serious implications for all aspects of human life, including infectious diseases. The effect of global warming depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. From the human standpoint, changes in the environment may trigger human migration, causing disease patterns to shift. Crop failures and famine may reduce host resistance to infections. Disease transmission may be enhanced through the scarcity and contamination of potable water sources. Importantly, significant economic and political stresses may damage the existing public health infrastructure, leaving mankind poorly prepared for unexpected epidemics. Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. Altitudes that are currently too cool to sustain vectors will become more conducive to them. Some vector populations may expand into new geographic areas, whereas others may disappear. Malaria, dengue, plague, and viruses causing encephalitic syndromes are among the many vector-borne diseases likely to be affected. Some models suggest that vector-borne diseases will become more common as the earth warms, although caution is needed in interpreting these predictions. Clearly, global warming will cause changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases. The ability of mankind to react or adapt is dependent upon the magnitude and speed of the change. The outcome will also depend on our ability to recognize epidemics early, to contain them effectively, to provide appropriate treatment, and to commit resources to prevention and research.

  19. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Lee, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from experimentally infected birds. Samples can generally be divided into two types; enriched (e.g. virus stocks) and clinical. Clinical type samples, which may be tissues or swab material, are the most difficult to process due to the complex sample composition and possibly low virus titers. In this chapter two well established procedures for the isolation of AI virus RNA from common clinical specimen types and enriched virus stocks for further molecular applications will be presented.

  20. Report of the Avian Development Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The anteroposterior axis of the avian embryo is established before it is laid. Baer's rule states that the cephalic end of the avian embryo will be away from the observer when the pointed end of the shell is on the observer's right. There are experimental data available which indicate gravity has a role in the establishment of the anteroposterior axis while the egg is in the uterus; this results in Baer's rule. The influence of gravity on egg development is studied.

  1. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic.

  2. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral antigen in avian blood by enzyme immunoassay: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Scott, T W; Olson, J G

    1986-05-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was evaluated for its efficacy at detecting eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in avian blood and brain specimens. Preliminary analysis of blood from experimentally infected house sparrows and naturally infected whooping cranes showed that EEE antigen could be detected with the EIA. Polyclonal mouse antibodies were selected for antigen capture, and rabbit antibodies were selected for antigen detection. Overnight antigen incubation increased sensitivity. The lower limit of EEE antigen detection was 10(3.5) TCID50/ml for a stock of virus. Sensitivity was 10% (2/20) for antigen detection in the blood of chicks inoculated with EEE virus less than 24 hr earlier. At 24 and 48 hr after infection, sensitivity was 100% (10/10). Sensitivity and specificity of antigen detection were excellent (100% for both) in house sparrows experimentally inoculated with EEE, Highlands J (HJ), western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), or St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus and bled at 24 hr intervals. Cross-reactivity was observed, however, with high concentrations (10(5.5) TCID50/ml) of HJ virus. EEE antigen was detected in avian blood by the EIA after infectious virus had declined to undetectable levels. The EIA is a useful alternative to virus isolation in cell culture for diagnosis or detection of EEE virus infections in birds. The test has the advantages of being simple, rapid, and capable of detecting antigen in the absence of infectious virus.

  3. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dennis A; Atkinson, Carter T; Samuel, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  4. Evolutionary origins of the avian brain.

    PubMed

    Balanoff, Amy M; Bever, Gabe S; Rowe, Timothy B; Norell, Mark A

    2013-09-05

    Features that were once considered exclusive to modern birds, such as feathers and a furcula, are now known to have first appeared in non-avian dinosaurs. However, relatively little is known of the early evolutionary history of the hyperinflated brain that distinguishes birds from other living reptiles and provides the important neurological capablities required by flight. Here we use high-resolution computed tomography to estimate and compare cranial volumes of extant birds, the early avialan Archaeopteryx lithographica, and a number of non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs that are phylogenetically close to the origins of both Avialae and avian flight. Previous work established that avian cerebral expansion began early in theropod history and that the cranial cavity of Archaeopteryx was volumetrically intermediate between these early forms and modern birds. Our new data indicate that the relative size of the cranial cavity of Archaeopteryx is reflective of a more generalized maniraptoran volumetric signature and in several instances is actually smaller than that of other non-avian dinosaurs. Thus, bird-like encephalization indices evolved multiple times, supporting the conclusion that if Archaeopteryx had the neurological capabilities required of flight, so did at least some other non-avian maniraptorans. This is congruent with recent findings that avialans were not unique among maniraptorans in their ability to fly in some form.

  5. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  6. Infectious Offspring: How Birds Acquire and Transmit an Avian Polyomavirus in the Wild

    PubMed Central

    Potti, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús Á.; Canal, David

    2007-01-01

    Detailed patterns of primary virus acquisition and subsequent dispersal in wild vertebrate populations are virtually absent. We show that nestlings of a songbird acquire polyomavirus infections from larval blowflies, common nest ectoparasites of cavity-nesting birds, while breeding adults acquire and renew the same viral infections via cloacal shedding from their offspring. Infections by these DNA viruses, known potential pathogens producing disease in some bird species, therefore follow an ‘upwards vertical’ route of an environmental nature mimicking horizontal transmission within families, as evidenced by patterns of viral infection in adults and young of experimental, cross-fostered offspring. This previously undescribed route of viral transmission from ectoparasites to offspring to parent hosts may be a common mechanism of virus dispersal in many taxa that display parental care. PMID:18060070

  7. Influence of erdosteine, a mucolytic agent, on amoxycillin penetration into sputum in patients with an infective exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Ricevuti, G; Mazzone, A; Uccelli, E; Gazzani, G; Fregnan, G B

    1988-08-01

    Twenty four patients with acute infective exacerbations of chronic bronchitis received amoxycillin alone or in combination with erdosteine (a mucolytic agent) for a week in a double blind, placebo controlled study. Clinical assessment scores, body temperature, serum and sputum amoxycillin concentrations, and sputum culture results were recorded in each group. Erdosteine significantly increased antibiotic concentrations in sputum but not in serum. The combined treatment also caused a more rapid decrease in sputum viscosity and in body temperature and faster sterilisation of the sputum. These results show that erdosteine increases amoxycillin concentration in sputum in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. This effect may be due to a reduction in the viscosity of the bronchial secretions produced by erdosteine.

  8. Influence of erdosteine, a mucolytic agent, on amoxycillin penetration into sputum in patients with an infective exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ricevuti, G; Mazzone, A; Uccelli, E; Gazzani, G; Fregnan, G B

    1988-01-01

    Twenty four patients with acute infective exacerbations of chronic bronchitis received amoxycillin alone or in combination with erdosteine (a mucolytic agent) for a week in a double blind, placebo controlled study. Clinical assessment scores, body temperature, serum and sputum amoxycillin concentrations, and sputum culture results were recorded in each group. Erdosteine significantly increased antibiotic concentrations in sputum but not in serum. The combined treatment also caused a more rapid decrease in sputum viscosity and in body temperature and faster sterilisation of the sputum. These results show that erdosteine increases amoxycillin concentration in sputum in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. This effect may be due to a reduction in the viscosity of the bronchial secretions produced by erdosteine. Images PMID:3051508

  9. Predicting transmission of avian influenza A viruses from avian to human by using informative physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Ma, Chuang; Kou, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Liu, Huai-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Some strains of avian influenza A virus (AIV) can directly transmit from their natural hosts to humans. These avian-to-human transmissions have continuously been reported to cause human deaths worldwide since 1997. Predicting whether AIV strains can transmit from avian to human is valuable for early warning of AIV strains with human pandemic potential. In this study, we constructed a computational model to predict avian-to-human transmission of AIV based on physicochemical properties. Initially, ninety signature positions in the inner protein sequences were extracted with the entropy method. These positions were then encoded with 531 physicochemical features. Subsequently, the optimal subset of these physicochemical features was mined with several feature selection methods. Finally, a support vector machine (SVM) model named A2H was established to integrate the selected optimal features. The experimental results of cross-validation and an independent test show that A2H has the capability of predicting transmission of AIV from avian to human.

  10. Role of Atypical Pathogens and the Antibiotic Prescription Pattern in Acute Bronchitis: A Multicenter Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghoon; Oh, Kil Chan; Kim, Ki-Seong; Song, Kyu-Tae; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Shim, Yun Su; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Myung Goo; Yun, Jang Uk; Kim, Hyun Su; Kim, Yee Hyung; Lee, Won Jun; Kim, Do Il; Cha, Hyung Gun; Lee, Jae-Myung; Seo, Jung San; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2015-10-01

    The role of atypical bacteria and the effect of antibiotic treatments in acute bronchitis are still not clear. This study was conducted at 22 hospitals (17 primary care clinics and 5 university hospitals) in Korea. Outpatients (aged ≥ 18 yr) who had an acute illness with a new cough and sputum (≤ 30 days) were enrolled in 2013. Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect five atypical bacteria. A total of 435 patients were diagnosed as having acute bronchitis (vs. probable pneumonia, n = 75), and 1.8% (n = 8) were positive for atypical pathogens (Bordetella pertussis, n = 3; B. parapertussis, n = 0; Mycoplasma pneumoniae, n = 1; Chlamydophila pneumoniae, n = 3; Legionella pneumophila, n = 1). Among clinical symptoms and signs, only post-tussive vomiting was more frequent in patients with atypical pathogens than those without (P = 0.024). In all, 72.2% of the enrolled patients received antibiotic treatment at their first visits, and β-lactams (29.4%) and quinolones (20.5%) were the most commonly prescribed agents. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the incidence of atypical pathogens is low in patients with acute bronchitis, and the rate of antibiotic prescriptions is high.

  11. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  12. Temporal changes in mosquito abundance (Culex pipiens), avian malaria prevalence and lineage composition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge on the temporal dynamics of host/vector/parasite interactions is a pre-requisite to further address relevant questions in the fields of epidemiology and evolutionary ecology of infectious diseases. In studies of avian malaria, the natural history of Plasmodium parasites with their natural mosquito vectors, however, is mostly unknown. Methods Using artificial water containers placed in the field, we monitored the relative abundance of parous females of Culex pipiens mosquitoes during two years (2010–2011), in a population in western Switzerland. Additionally, we used molecular tools to examine changes in avian malaria prevalence and Plasmodium lineage composition in female C. pipiens caught throughout one field season (April-August) in 2011. Results C. pipiens relative abundance varied both between years and months, and was associated with temperature fluctuations. Total Plasmodium prevalence was high and increased from spring to summer months (13.1-20.3%). The Plasmodium community was composed of seven different lineages including P. relictum (SGS1, GRW11 and PADOM02 lineages), P. vaughani (lineage SYAT05) and other Plasmodium spp. (AFTRU5, PADOM1, COLL1). The most prevalent lineages, P. vaughani (lineage SYAT05) and P. relictum (lineage SGS1), were consistently found between years, although they had antagonistic dominance patterns during the season survey. Conclusions Our results suggest that the time window of analysis is critical in evaluating changes in the community of avian malaria lineages infecting mosquitoes. The potential determinants of the observed changes as well as their implications for future prospects on avian malaria are discussed. PMID:24499594

  13. Role of virus-encoded microRNAs in Avian viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongxiu; Nair, Venugopal

    2014-03-21

    With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA) pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs), avirulent Marek's disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs), herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs), duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs) and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs). Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek's disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR) miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  14. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  15. Survival analysis of infected mice reveals pathogenic variations in the genome of avian H1N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Koçer, Zeynep A; Fan, Yiping; Huether, Robert; Obenauer, John; Webby, Richard J; Zhang, Jinghui; Webster, Robert G; Wu, Gang

    2014-12-12

    Most influenza pandemics have been caused by H1N1 viruses of purely or partially avian origin. Here, using Cox proportional hazard model, we attempt to identify the genetic variations in the whole genome of wild-type North American avian H1N1 influenza A viruses that are associated with their virulence in mice by residue variations, host origins of virus (Anseriformes-ducks or Charadriiformes-shorebirds), and host-residue interactions. In addition, through structural modeling, we predicted that several polymorphic sites associated with pathogenicity were located in structurally important sites, especially in the polymerase complex and NS genes. Our study introduces a new approach to identify pathogenic variations in wild-type viruses circulating in the natural reservoirs and ultimately to understand their infectious risks to humans as part of risk assessment efforts towards the emergence of future pandemic strains.

  16. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prolonged contact with sick or dead infected poultry. Infected birds shed avian influenza virus in their ... known to have occurred. People who work with poultry or who respond to avian influenza outbreaks are ...

  17. Modeling relapse in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    van den Driessche, P; Zou, Xingfu

    2007-05-01

    An integro-differential equation is proposed to model a general relapse phenomenon in infectious diseases including herpes. The basic reproduction number R(0) for the model is identified and the threshold property of R(0) established. For the case of a constant relapse period (giving a delay differential equation), this is achieved by conducting a linear stability analysis of the model, and employing the Lyapunov-Razumikhin technique and monotone dynamical systems theory for global results. Numerical simulations, with parameters relevant for herpes, are presented to complement the theoretical results, and no evidence of sustained oscillatory solutions is found.

  18. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-01-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  19. Determination and analysis of the complete genomic sequence of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) and attempts to infect rhesus monkeys with avian HEV.

    PubMed

    Huang, F F; Sun, Z F; Emerson, S U; Purcell, R H; Shivaprasad, H L; Pierson, F W; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2004-06-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), recently identified from a chicken with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States, is genetically and antigenically related to human and swine HEVs. In this study, sequencing of the genome was completed and an attempt was made to infect rhesus monkeys with avian HEV. The full-length genome of avian HEV, excluding the poly(A) tail, is 6654 bp in length, which is about 600 bp shorter than that of human and swine HEVs. Similar to human and swine HEV genomes, the avian HEV genome consists of a short 5' non-coding region (NCR) followed by three partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and a 3'NCR. Avian HEV shares about 50 % nucleotide sequence identity over the complete genome, 48-51 % identity in ORF1, 46-48 % identity in ORF2 and only 29-34 % identity in ORF3 with human and swine HEV strains. Significant genetic variations such as deletions and insertions, particularly in ORF1 of avian HEV, were observed. However, motifs in the putative functional domains of ORF1, such as the helicase and methyltransferase, were relatively conserved between avian HEV and mammalian HEVs, supporting the conclusion that avian HEV is a member of the genus Hepevirus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that avian HEV represents a branch distinct from human and swine HEVs. Swine HEV infects non-human primates and possibly humans and thus may be zoonotic. An attempt was made to determine whether avian HEV also infects across species by experimentally inoculating two rhesus monkeys with avian HEV. Evidence of virus infection was not observed in the inoculated monkeys as there was no seroconversion, viraemia, faecal virus shedding or serum liver enzyme elevation. The results from this study confirmed that avian HEV is related to, but distinct from, human and swine HEVs; however, unlike swine HEV, avian HEV is probably not transmissible to non-human primates.

  20. Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Finnish Action Programme, interim report.

    PubMed

    Pietinalho, A; Kinnula, V L; Sovijärvi, A R A; Vilkman, S; Säynäjäkangas, O; Liippo, K; Kontula, E; Laitinen, L A

    2007-07-01

    The Finnish National Prevention and Treatment Programme for Chronic Bronchitis and COPD, launched in 1998, has, to date, been running for 6 years (2003). The goals of this action programme were to reduce the incidence of COPD and the number of moderate and severe cases of the disease, and to reduce both the number of days of hospitalisation and treatment costs. A prevalent implementation of over 250 information and training events started. Health centres and pharmacies appointed a person in charge of COPD patients. In order to improve the cooperation between primary and specialised care, two thirds of hospital districts created local COPD treatment chains. The early diagnosis of COPD by spirometric examination was activated during the programme. Number of health centres with available spirometric services increased to 95%. Before the start of the programme, approximately 5-9% of the adult population had COPD. During the whole programme, the proportion of male and female smokers decreased from 30% to 26% and from 20% to 19%, respectively. The total number of hospitalisation periods and days due to COPD decreased by 15% and 18%, respectively. Both the number of pensioners and daily sickness days due to COPD also decreased by 18%. Registered COPD induced deaths remained at their previous levels during the monitoring period, i.e. around 1000 deaths out of 5.2 millions annually. The measures recommended by the programme have been widely introduced but they need to be still more effective.

  1. [Mould infection causing obstructive bronchitis. Diagnostik and therapeutic approaches (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Osváth, P; Micskey, E; Dobolyi, C; micskey, E; Fornai, K

    1977-04-01

    The authors compared the results of mycologic examinations of asthmatic and control patient's throat. Fungi other than Candida were cultivated from the throat in 15% of asthmatic children and 3% of controls. In secrets from the lower respiratory tract gained by bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, or through tracheostomy there were moulds in 34% among the asthmatics and in 15% of the other cases. Allergic respiratory tract diseases facilitate the harbouring of moulds in the respiratory tract but do not influence the presence of Candida albicans. Moulds could often be cultivated even in patient not allergic to them. However there are chronic cases caused by immun reaction to the moulds in the patients' respiratory tract. Microscopic detection of budding and branching, myceliform fungi in the secret produced by coughing supports the diagnosis of mould causing chronic asthmoid bronchitis. New peroral broad spectrum antimycotics facilitate the treatment of such cases. The authors succesfully treated some patients with Clotrimazol (Canesten, Bayer) and all cases responded well to 5-Fluorocytosan (Ancotyl, Roche).

  2. Prospective, longitudinal study of plastic bronchitis cast pathology and responsiveness to tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Heath, Lauren; Ling, Shelley; Racz, Jennifer; Mane, Gerta; Schmidt, Lindsay; Myers, Jeffrey L; Tsai, Wan C; Caruthers, Regine L; Hirsch, Jennifer C; Stringer, Kathleen A

    2011-12-01

    Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a rare disease that often occurs in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) who have undergone staged single-ventricle palliation. It is characterized by the formation of rubbery "casts" in the airways. PB treatment frequently includes inhaled tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, the efficacy of tPA to reduce cast burden is unknown. This is further complicated by our lack of knowledge of cast composition. We obtained spontaneously expectorated PB casts from children (n = 4) with CHD and one adult patient with idiopathic PB. Pathological assessment was made from paraffin-preserved samples. Casts were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or tPA. Cast response to tPA was assessed by changes in cast weight and the production of fibrin D-dimer. Independent of dose, tPA reduced cast weight compared with PBS-treatment (P = 0.001) and increased D-dimer levels. Histological staining showed that PB casts from all patients were composed of fibrin and contained notable numbers of lymphocytes. Cast composition did not change over time. Collectively, these data support that in our PB patients, casts are composed of fibrin and are responsive to tPA treatment. This makes inhaled tPA a potentially viable option for symptomatic relief of PB while we work to unravel the complexity of PB pathogenesis.

  3. Carbocisteine improves the mucociliary transport rate in rats with SO2-induced bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Zahm, J M; Levrier, J; Duval, D; Pierrot, D; Puchelle, E

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the effect of carbocisteine on the mucociliary function of the respiratory tract, we performed a double-blind study on rats with SO2-induced (400 ppm) hypersecretion. During the experimental bronchitis, the treated group of rats received carbocisteine through a stomach tube at a dose level of 500 mg/kg for 15 days, whereas the untreated group of rats received distilled water. After killing the rats, and following lung excision, the respiratory mucus was scraped off and collected by using a glass capillary. The mucus degree of purulence was macroscopically estimated and the mucus transport rate was measured by using the frog palate technique. The mean mucus relative transport rate, measured on the frog palate, was 0.60 +/- 0.17 in the untreated group and was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the treated group (0.73 +/- 0.14). Carbocisteine also significantly altered (P < 0.01) the mucus macroscopical aspect, leading to a decrease in the number of rats with purulent mucus. These results suggest that carbocisteine maintains an efficient mucus transport rate, leading to a less infected respiratory tract.

  4. Activity of erdosteine on mucociliary transport in patients affected by chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, D; Del Donno, M; Casalini, A; D'Ippolito, R; Fregnan, G B

    1991-01-01

    The influence of erdosteine (a mucomodulator endowed with mucolytic and antioxidant properties) on human mucociliary transport (MCT) was investigated in a double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixteen former smokers affected by chronic bronchitis, preselected for their mucociliary responsiveness to an inhaled beta 2-agonist, were divided into two groups (matched by number, sex, age and FEV1%) and orally treated with placebo or erdosteine (300 mg t.i.d.) for 8 days. Their MCT was assessed by the bronchofiberscopy technique just before starting the treatment and at the end of the treatment. The pretreatment mucus transport velocity in these patients was significantly decreased with respect to healthy subjects. The erdosteine treatment induced a significant improvement of MCT while placebo was inactive (mean % variation +/- SE against their baseline values being +60.4 +/- 18.4 and -3.0 +/- 5.9, respectively). This peculiar activity of erdosteine on mucus transport may be of clinical usefulness in chronic bronchitic patients and it can be added to beta 2-agonist to restore the decreased MCT.

  5. Moxifloxacin in the management of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Miravitlles, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria are isolated in more than 50% of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (CB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The most prevalent respiratory pathogens include Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis) microorganims. Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone that has been shown to be effective against respiratory pathogens, including atypicals and those resistant to most common antibiotics. The bioavailability and half-life of moxifloxacin provides potent bactericidal effects at a dose of 400 mg once daily. Among the fluoroquinolones, the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to minimal inhibitory concentration of moxifloxacin is the highest against S. pneumoniae. Moxifloxacin has demonstrated better eradication in exacerbations of CB and COPD compared with standard therapy, in particular, with macrolides. Patients treated with moxifloxacin showed a prolonged time to the next exacerbation and observational studies suggest that moxifloxacin induces a faster release of symptoms of exacerbation. Some guidelines recommend the use of moxifloxacin as first-line therapy in bacterial exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD and in patients with mild COPD with risk factors. The current article reviews the use of moxifloxacin in bacterial exacerbations of CB and COPD. PMID:18229559

  6. Differences in radiological/HRCT findings in eosinophilic bronchitis and asthma: implication for bronchial responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Park, S‐W; Park, J‐S; Lee, Y‐M; Lee, J‐H; Jang, A‐S; Kim, D‐J; Hwangbo, Y; Uh, S‐T; Kim, Y‐H; Park, C‐S

    2006-01-01

    Background Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatics is considered to be one of the major consequences of airway inflammation and remodelling. Airway responsiveness is normal in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis (EB), despite eosinophilic inflammation of the airways comparable to that which occurs in asthmatics. Comparisons between asthma and EB should clarify the changes in airway morphology that are related specifically to AHR in asthmatics. Methods Eighteen asthmatic patients, 15 patients with EB, and 11 healthy subjects were recruited. Airway wall area percentage (WA%), centrilobular prominence, and air trapping were compared using thin slice section computed tomography. Results WA% was significantly greater in asthmatics than in patients with EB (72 (3.1)% v 54 (2.1)%, p = 0.032) and was similar in EB patients and controls (54 (2.1)% v 57 (1.8)%, p>0.05). Centrilobular prominence and air trapping were similar in EB patients and asthmatics and were significantly greater than in controls. Conclusion WA% rather than air trapping or centrilobular prominence may be associated with the airway hyperresponsiveness that occurs in asthmatics but not in patients with EB. PMID:16244090

  7. Clinical and computed tomographic predictors of chronic bronchitis in COPD: a cross sectional analysis of the COPDGene study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic bronchitis (CB) has been related to poor outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). From a clinical standpoint, we have shown that subjects with CB in a group with moderate to severe airflow obstruction were younger, more likely to be current smokers, male, Caucasian, had worse health related quality of life, more dyspnea, and increased exacerbation history compared to those without CB. We sought to further refine our clinical characterization of chronic bronchitics in a larger cohort and analyze the CT correlates of CB in COPD subjects. We hypothesized that COPD patients with CB would have thicker airways and a greater history of smoking, acute bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, and occupational exposures compared to those without CB. Methods We divided 2703 GOLD 1–4 subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene®) Study into two groups based on symptoms: chronic bronchitis (CB+, n = 663, 24.5%) and no chronic bronchitis (CB-, n = 2040, 75.5%). Subjects underwent extensive clinical characterization, and quantitative CT analysis to calculate mean wall area percent (WA%) of 6 segmental airways was performed using VIDA PW2 (http://www.vidadiagnostics.com). Square roots of the wall areas of bronchi with internal perimeters 10 mm and 15 mm (Pi10 and Pi15, respectively), % emphysema, %gas trapping, were calculated using 3D Slicer (http://www.slicer.org). Results There were no differences in % emphysema (11.4 ± 12.0 vs. 12.0 ± 12.6%, p = 0.347) or % gas trapping (35.3 ± 21.2 vs. 36.3 ± 20.6%, p = 0.272) between groups. Mean segmental WA% (63.0 ± 3.2 vs. 62.0 ± 3.1%, p < 0.0001), Pi10 (3.72 ± 0.15 vs. 3.69 ± 0.14 mm, p < 0.0001), and Pi15 (5.24 ± 0.22 vs. 5.17 ± 0.20, p < 0.0001) were greater in the CB + group. Greater percentages of gastroesophageal reflux, allergic rhinitis, histories of asthma and acute bronchitis, exposures to dusts and

  8. The utility of biomarkers in differentiating bacterial from non-bacterial lower respiratory tract infection in hospitalized children: difference of the diagnostic performance between acute pneumonia and bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Hoshina, Takayuki; Nanishi, Etsuro; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nishio, Hisanori; Kusuhara, Koichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of several biomarkers in differentiating bacterial community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (CA-LRTI) from non-bacterial CA-LRTI in children and the difference of their diagnostic performance between pneumonia and bronchitis. A retrospective cohort study composed of 108 pediatric patients hospitalized for CA-LRTI was performed during 2010-2013. Based on the findings of chest X-ray and sputum samples, patients were divided into 4 categories, group of bacterial pneumonia or bronchitis, and non-bacterial (viral or etiology-unknown) pneumonia or bronchitis. Peripheral white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were compared among the 4 groups. Finally, 54 patients were the subject of this study. In the patients with pneumonia, serum CRP and PCT levels were significantly elevated in the group of bacterial pneumonia (CRP: p = 0.02, PCT: p = 0.0008). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for PCT for distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonia was the largest, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCT were best among 4 markers. On the other hand, in the patients with bronchitis, neutrophil count was significantly decreased in non-bacterial bronchitis whereas no significant differences of WBC count, CRP level or PCT level were seen. In conclusion, PCT was the most useful marker to differentiate bacterial pneumonia whereas neutrophil count contributed most to the discrimination of bacterial bronchitis. The diagnostic performance of biomarkers may be different between pneumonia and bronchitis.

  9. Comprehensive N-Glycan Profiling of Avian Immunoglobulin Y

    PubMed Central

    Millán Martín, Silvia; Wormald, Mark R.; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Conroy, Paul J.; O’Kennedy, Richard J.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Saldova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:27459092

  10. Interleukin-12 in infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine that is crucially involved in a wide range of infectious diseases. In several experimental models of bacterial, parasitic, viral, and fungal infection, endogenous IL-12 is required for early control of infection and for generation and perhaps maintenance of acquired protective immunity, directed by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and mediated by phagocytes. Although the relative roles of IL-12 and gamma interferon in Th1-cell priming may be to a significant extent pathogen dependent, common to most infections is that IL-12 regulates the magnitude of the gamma interferon response at the initiation of infection, thus potentiating natural resistance, favoring Th1-cell development; and inhibiting Th2 responses. Treatment of animals with IL-12, either alone or as a vaccine adjuvant, has been shown to prevent disease by many of the same infectious agents, by stimulating innate resistance or promoting specific reactivity. Although IL-12 may enhance protective memory responses in vaccination or in combination with antimicrobial chemotherapy, it is yet unclear whether exogenous IL-12 can alter established responses in humans. Continued investigation into the possible application of IL-12 therapy to human infections is warranted by the role of the cytokine in inflammation, immunopathology, and autoimmunity. PMID:9336665

  11. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  12. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  13. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  14. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  15. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or...

  16. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or...

  17. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  18. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  19. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  20. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or...

  1. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  2. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  3. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  4. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or...

  5. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. 113... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... vaccine production. All serials shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the...

  6. 9 CFR 113.70 - Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.70 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Avian Isolate, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture of an avirulent or...

  7. Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C infection in chickens, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  8. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  9. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Suarez, David L

    2012-12-01

    Vaccination for both low pathogenicity avian influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used by countries that have become endemic for avian influenza virus, but stamping-out policies are still common for countries with recently introduced disease. Stamping-out policies of euthanatizing infected and at-risk flocks has been an effective control tool, but it comes at a high social and economic cost. Efforts to identify alternative ways to respond to outbreaks without widespread stamping out has become a goal for organizations like the World Organisation for Animal Health. A major issue with vaccination for avian influenza is trade considerations because countries that vaccinate are often considered to be endemic for the disease and they typically lose their export markets. Primarily as a tool to promote trade, the concept of DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) has been considered for avian influenza, but the goal for trade is to differentiate vaccinated and not-infected from vaccinated and infected animals because trading partners are unwilling to accept infected birds. Several different strategies have been investigated for a DIVA strategy, but each has advantages and disadvantages. A review of current knowledge on the research and implementation of the DIVA strategy will be discussed with possible ways to implement this strategy in the field. The increased desire for a workable DIVA strategy may lead to one of these ideas moving from the experimental to the practical.

  10. Avian biology, the human influence on global avian influenza transmission, and performing surveillance in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Samantha E J

    2010-06-01

    This paper takes a closer look at three interrelated areas of study: avian host biology, the role of human activities in virus transmission, and the surveillance activities centered on avian influenza in wild birds. There are few ecosystems in which birds are not found. Correspondingly, avian influenza viruses are equally global in distribution, relying on competent avian hosts. The immune systems, annual cycles, feeding behaviors, and migration patterns of these hosts influence the ecology of the disease. Decreased biodiversity has also been linked to heightened disease transmission in several disease systems, and it is evident that active destruction and modification of wetland environments for human use is impacting avian populations drastically. Legal and illegal trade in wild birds present a significant risk for introduction and maintenance of exotic diseases. After the emergence of HPAI H5N1 in Hong Kong in 1996 and the ensuing geographic spread of outbreaks after 2003, both infected countries and those at risk of introduction began intensifying avian influenza surveillance efforts. Several techniques for sampling wild birds for influenza viruses have been applied. Benefits, problems, and biases exist for each method. The wild bird avian influenza surveillance programs taking place across the continents are now scaling back due to the rise of other spending priorities; hopefully the lessons learned from this work will be preserved and will inform future research and disease outbreak response priorities.

  11. Avian issues in wind development

    SciTech Connect

    Beyea, J.

    1995-12-31

    There is a lot of concern among wind supporters, I know, about Audubon`s position on wind power. There is concern that this is the wrong time to be critical, and the wrong time to be putting any doubts in investors` minds, and the wrong time to provide an excuse for utilities to stop buying windpower. The long-term future of biodiversity, including bird diversity, depends on development of renewable energy, and that will mean some wind development in the right places and with the right types of systems. For both the long-time survival of the wind industry and for protection of bird populations, Audubon cannot be quiet on this issue. To avoid mistakes that can kill the industry in the long run, expenditures for wind/avian research have to be increased way beyond their present scope. We are going to need about $5 million dollars per year, if we are to (1) understand the biology and physics of bird-wind plant interactions, (2) if we are to understand relevant bird flightpaths, and (3) if we are to design a strategy to protect bird populations.

  12. Unmet Diagnostic Needs in Infectious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Blaschke, Anne J.; Hersh, Adam L.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Ince, Dilek; Polgreen, Philip M.; Hanson, Kimberly E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis is critical to providing appropriate care in infectious diseases. New technologies for infectious disease diagnostics are emerging, but gaps remain in test development and availability. The Emerging Infections Network surveyed Infectious Diseases physicians to assess unmet diagnostic needs. Responses reflected the urgent need to identify drug-resistant infections and highlighted the potential for early diagnosis to improve antibiotic stewardship. Information gained from this survey can help inform recommendations for new diagnostic test development in the future. PMID:25456043

  13. Infectious waste management and laboratory design criteria.

    PubMed

    Zaki, A N; Campbell, J R

    1997-11-01

    Infectious waste management and laboratory design criteria are provided to help in recognizing what information needs to be included in an individual program and to develop an infectious waste management plan. Relevant engineering aspects of a containment laboratory are described in detail, and suggested equipment and operating procedures for collection, sterilization, and disposal of solid and liquid waste are discussed. The need for public awareness regarding infectious waste is discussed, including liability considerations associated with improper disposal. This study shows how proper management of infectious waste results in lower disposal cost, lower operating costs, reduction in liabilities, increased worker safety, and a cleaner environment.

  14. Infectious diseases in disaster areas/catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Benca, J; Kalavsky, E; Miklosko, Jozef; Rudinsky, B; Taziarova, M; McKenzie, F

    2007-06-01

    There is very little data and no prospective research possible in the field of catastrophic medicine (disaster medicine) including infectious diseases. This minireview tries to contribute to the pathogenesis and outcome of infectious diseases in areas after anthropogenic (war, genocide, terrorist attack, industrial disasters) and non anthropogenic (natural) catastrophes (earthquake, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes, volcano eruptions). Therefore ISC received a proposal to create a working group on infectious diseases in areas after catastrophes, better to understand epidemiology, prevention and therapy of infectious diseases occurring in conjunction to various anthropogenic and non anthropogenic (natural) disasters.

  15. The prevention and control of avian influenza: the avian influenza coordinated agriculture project.

    PubMed

    Cardona, C; Slemons, R; Perez, D

    2009-04-01

    The Avian Influenza Coordinated Agriculture Project (AICAP) entitled "Prevention and Control of Avian Influenza in the US" strives to be a significant point of reference for the poultry industry and the general public in matters related to the biology, risks associated with, and the methods used to prevent and control avian influenza. To this end, AICAP has been remarkably successful in generating research data, publications through an extensive network of university- and agency-based researchers, and extending findings to stakeholders. An overview of the highlights of AICAP research is presented.

  16. Collective Infectious Units in Viruses.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Rafael

    2017-03-03

    Increasing evidence indicates that viruses do not simply propagate as independent virions among cells, organs, and hosts. Instead, viral spread is often mediated by structures that simultaneously transport groups of viral genomes, such as polyploid virions, aggregates of virions, virion-containing proteinaceous structures, secreted lipid vesicles, and virus-induced cell-cell contacts. These structures increase the multiplicity of infection, independently of viral population density and transmission bottlenecks. Collective infectious units may contribute to the maintenance of viral genetic diversity, and could have implications for the evolution of social-like virus-virus interactions. These may include various forms of cooperation such as immunity evasion, genetic complementation, division of labor, and relaxation of fitness trade-offs, but also noncooperative interactions such as negative dominance and interference, potentially leading to conflict.

  17. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  18. The return of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Garrett, L

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US.

  19. Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.; Gould, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

  20. Extended transmission of two H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Claes, G; Lambrecht, B; Dewulf, J; van den Berg, T; Marché, S

    2015-03-01

    Transmission experiments are useful for investigating the mechanisms of low pathogenic notifiable avian influenza virus (LPNAI) transmission. In this study, the hypothesis that inoculation-infected chickens are more infectious than contact-infected chickens was tested. To this end, extended transmission experiments with one H5N2 and one H7N1 LPAIV which had previously been characterized in a series of standard transmission experiments were conducted in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. For the H5N2 LPAIV, the infectivity of contact-infected chickens was similar to the infectivity of inoculated chickens. Despite results from a previous study suggesting the H7N1 LPAIV strain to be similarly infectious to SPF chickens as the H5N2 LPAIV strain, the acquisition of contact-infected chickens proved more difficult for H7N1 LPAIV. It was assumed that this might have been a consequence of the length and timing of the exposure period. In conclusion, for LPNAIVs that first seemed equally infectious, short-term transmissibility may vary considerably.

  1. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    PubMed

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  2. CWD prions remain infectious after passage through the digestive system of coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tracy A; Fischer, Justin W; Spraker, Terry R; Kong, Qingzhong; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a geographically expanding prion disease of wild and captive cervids in North America. Disease can be transmitted directly, animal to animal, or indirectly via the environment. CWD contamination can occur residually in the environment via soil, water, and forage following deposition of bodily fluids such as urine, saliva, and feces, or by the decomposition of carcasses. Recent work has indicated that plants may even take up prions into the stems and leaves. When a carcass or gut pile is present in the environment, a large number of avian and mammalian species visit and consume the carrion. Additionally, predators like coyotes, likely select for disease-compromised cervids. Natural cross-species CWD transmission has not been documented, however, passage of infectious prion material has been observed in the feces of crows. In this study we evaluated the ability of CWD-infected brain material to pass through the gastrointestinal tract of coyotes (Canis latrans) following oral ingestion, and be infectious in a cervidized transgenic mouse model. Results from this study indicate that coyotes can pass infectious prions via their feces for at least 3 days post ingestion, demonstrating that mammalian scavengers could contribute to the translocation and contamination of CWD in the environment.

  3. Sustaining a Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Research Network: A Trust-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR. PMID:23362419

  4. CWD prions remain infectious after passage through the digestive system of coyotes (Canis latrans)

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tracy A; Fischer, Justin W; Spraker, Terry R; Kong, Qingzhong; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a geographically expanding prion disease of wild and captive cervids in North America. Disease can be transmitted directly, animal to animal, or indirectly via the environment. CWD contamination can occur residually in the environment via soil, water, and forage following deposition of bodily fluids such as urine, saliva, and feces, or by the decomposition of carcasses. Recent work has indicated that plants may even take up prions into the stems and leaves. When a carcass or gut pile is present in the environment, a large number of avian and mammalian species visit and consume the carrion. Additionally, predators like coyotes, likely select for disease-compromised cervids. Natural cross-species CWD transmission has not been documented, however, passage of infectious prion material has been observed in the feces of crows. In this study we evaluated the ability of CWD-infected brain material to pass through the gastrointestinal tract of coyotes (Canis latrans) following oral ingestion, and be infectious in a cervidized transgenic mouse model. Results from this study indicate that coyotes can pass infectious prions via their feces for at least 3 days post ingestion, demonstrating that mammalian scavengers could contribute to the translocation and contamination of CWD in the environment. PMID:26636258

  5. Sustaining a regional emerging infectious disease research network: a trust-based approach.

    PubMed

    Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR.

  6. Penicillins vs trimethoprim-based regimens for acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Korbila, Ioanna P.; Manta, Katerina G.; Siempos, Ilias I.; Dimopoulos, George; Falagas, Matthew E.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness and toxicity of semisynthetic penicillins (SSPs) (amoxicillin, ampicillin, pivampicillin) and trimethoprim-based regimens (trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine) in treating acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB). DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify and extract data from relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). STUDY SELECTION Only RCTs comparing penicillins with trimethoprim-based regimens for the treatment of patients with ABECB that reported data on effectiveness, toxicity, or mortality were considered eligible for this meta-analysis. SYNTHESIS Out of 134 RCTs identified in the search, 5 RCTs involving 287 patients were included in the analysis. There were no differences between patients with ABECB treated with SSPs and those treated with trimethoprim, alone or in combination with a sulfonamide, in treatment success (intention-to-treat patients: n = 262, odds ratio [OR] 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91–3.09; clinically evaluable patients: n = 246, OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.79–3.20) or number of drug-related adverse events in general (n = 186 patients, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.11–1.24), frequency of diarrhea or skin rashes, or number of withdrawals due to adverse events (n = 179 patients, OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07–1.03). CONCLUSION Based on limited evidence leading to wide CIs of the estimated treatment effects, SSPs and trimethoprim-based regimens seem to be equivalent in terms of effectiveness and toxicity for ABECB. PMID:19155372

  7. Comparison between an Alternative and the Classic Definition of Chronic Bronchitis in COPDGene

    PubMed Central

    Crapo, James; Zhao, Huaqing; Jones, Paul W.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Comellas, Alejandro; Make, Barry J.; Criner, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Previous studies on chronic bronchitis (CB) have used varying definitions. Objectives: We sought to compare an alternative CB definition, using the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), a commonly used assessment tool, with the classic definition and to investigate if it had independent or additive value. Methods: We analyzed data from 4,513 subjects from Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease groups 1 to 4 in the COPDGene cohort. We compared the classic definition of CB with the SGRQ definition, defined by their answers to the questions about both cough and phlegm. We compared the Classic CB+ versus CB− groups, and the SGRQ CB+ and CB− groups. We also analyzed the cohort split into four groups: Classic CB+/SGRQ CB+, Classic CB+/SGRQ CB−, Classic CB−/SGRQ CB+, Classic CB−/SGRQ CB−. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 26.1% subjects were Classic CB+, whereas 39.9% were SGRQ CB+. When the SGRQ definition was compared with the Classic CB definition, using this as the gold standard, the SGRQ CB definition had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.87 and 0.77, respectively. The SGRQ CB+ and Classic CB+ groups were strikingly similar, with more respiratory symptoms and exacerbations, worse lung function, and greater airway wall thickness. In addition, the Classic CB+/SGRQ CB+, Classic CB+/SGRQ CB−, and Classic CB−/SGRQ CB+ groups shared similar characteristics as well. Conclusions: The SGRQ CB definition identifies more subjects with chronic cough and sputum who share a similar phenotype identified by the Classic CB definition. The addition of the SGRQ CB definition to the classic one can be used to identify more patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at risk for poor outcomes. PMID:25575351

  8. Detection of feline Mycoplasma species in cats with feline asthma and chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Bianka S; Richter, Petra; Weber, Karin; Mueller, Ralf S; Wess, Gerhard; Zenker, Isabella; Hartmann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of inflammatory lower airway disease in cats. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Mycoplasma species in cats with feline asthma (FA) and chronic bronchitis (CB). The study population consisted of 17 cats with FA/CB, and 14 sick cats without clinical and historical signs of respiratory disease, which were euthanased for various other reasons. Nasal swabs, nasal lavage and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were taken from patients from both groups. Mycoplasma species culture with modified Hayflick agar and Mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on all samples followed by sequencing of all Mycoplasma species-positive samples for differentiation of subspecies. PCR testing detected significantly more Mycoplasma species-positive BALF samples than Mycoplasma culture (P = 0.021). When cats with oropharyngeal contamination were excluded from comparison, the numbers of Mycoplasma species-positive BALF samples in the group with FA/CB (6/17) and the control group (4/9) were not significantly different (P = 0.6924). While all nasal samples of the cats with FA/CB were negative for Mycoplasma organisms, five samples in the control group (P = 0.041) were positive on PCR. Sequencing revealed Mycoplasma felis in all PCR-positive samples. Mycoplasma species can be detected in the lower airways of cats with FA/CB, as well as in the BALF of sick cats without respiratory signs. Further studies are warranted to investigate the possibility that Mycoplasma species represent commensals of the lower respiratory tract of cats.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral grepafloxacin in patients with acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Forrest, A; Chodosh, S; Amantea, M A; Collins, D A; Schentag, J J

    1997-12-01

    This analysis was designed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral grepafloxacin (OPC-17,116) in patients with acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB). The study group included 76 patients (43 male, 33 female) between 23 and 81 years of age, who were part of a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, dose-response study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral regimens of grepafloxacin, 200, 400 or 600 mg, each administered once daily for 14 days. Plasma samples for drug assay (typically eight per subject; four samples on either day 3, 4 or 5, plus troughs on other clinic visit days), were obtained during treatment. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was accomplished using iterative two-stage analysis. Cultures and quantitative Gram stains from serial 24 h collections of sputum were used to determine the time (in days) taken to eradicate each bacterial strain. Population pharmacodynamic analysis was performed for three measures of antibacterial response: probability of bacteriological cure, probability of clinical cure, and time to eradication. Grepafloxacin plasma concentration profiles were best fitted by a pharmacokinetic model with first-order absorption following a lag time between administration of the dose and onset of systemic absorption. All three measures of response were strongly related to the 24 h AUIC (AUC/MIC). At an AUIC of <75, the percent probability of clinical cure was 71%; at an AUIC of 75-175, it was 80% (P < 0.05) and at an AUIC of >175, it was 98% (P < 0.01). In conclusion, antibacterial response for grepafloxacin in ABECB patients was highly related to AUIC; values of <75 appear inadequate and values of >175 were optimal.

  10. Pulmonary penetration of dirithromycin in patients suffering from acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, M; Matera, M G; Tufano, M A; Polverino, M; Catalanotti, P; Varanese, L; Rossi, F

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of dirithromycin, a new macrolide antibiotic, in bronchial secretions (BS), bronchial mucosa (BM), epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and serum in 25 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis after a 5-day, once-daily, dirithromycin regimen. All patients received dirithromycin, 500 mg (two 250 mg tablets) given orally once daily at 08.00 fasted, for 5 consecutive days. They were divided into five groups (n = 5 in each group) according to sampling time (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h, after the last dose). Mean serum concentrations remained low throughout the study (0.44 microgram/ml at 24 h, 0.31 microgram/ml at 48 h, 0.33 microgram/ml at 72 h, 0.12 microgram/ml at 96 h and 0.11 microgram/ml at 120 h, respectively), although they were higher than the MICs for Moraxella catarrhalis for up to 72 h and than that for Streptococcus pneumoniae for up to 120 h after the last dose. By contrast, in all other samples, mean concentrations were higher than the MICs for many relevant respiratory pathogens for at least 3 days, and higher than that for S. pneumonia and M. catarrhalis for up to 120 h (mean concentrations measured 2.67, 2.15, 1.74, 0.27 and 0.17 micrograms/ml, respectively, in BS; 2.59, 2.59, 1.96, 0.41 and 0.27 micrograms/g, respectively, in BM; 2.21, 2.25, 1.57, 0.22 and 0.15 micrograms/ml, respectively, in ELF). These findings demonstrate that dirithromycin is concentrated in each of these potential sites of infection for up to 3 days after a 5-day course of therapy. Therefore, short-term therapy with dirithromycin may be useful for many respiratory infections.

  11. Time course of recovery of health status following an infective exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, S; Jones, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: The magnitude and time course of effect of an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) on health status are not known. Data from the GLOBE study, a randomised double blind trial of antibiotic therapy, were used to investigate these effects. Methods: 438 patients with AECB received either gemifloxacin 320 mg once daily for 5 days (214 patients) or clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily for 7 days (224 patients) and were followed up for 26 weeks. St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores were obtained at baseline and after 4, 12, and 26 weeks. Results: At presentation during an exacerbation SGRQ scores were worse (Total score difference 5.4 units, 95% CI 1.9 to 8.8, p=0.002) in patients who had a subsequent exacerbation during follow up. The greatest improvement in SGRQ score occurred within the first 4 weeks (mean 8.9 units, 95% CI 6.5 to 11.5, p<0.0001). Subsequently, scores improved more rapidly in patients with no further exacerbations. At 26 weeks the difference between the two groups was 9.6 units (95% CI 5.7 to 13.4, p<0.0001). In patients with no further exacerbations the SGRQ score improved between 4 and 12 weeks by a further 4.1 units (95% CI 2.2 to 5.9, p<0.0001). Conclusions: A single infective AECB has a sustained effect on health status. The recovery period is long even in patients who have no further exacerbations. A second episode within 6 months limits recovery markedly. Treatments that reduce exacerbation frequency could have a significant impact on health status. PMID:12832673

  12. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  13. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  14. Military Infectious Diseases Update on Vaccine Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    Research Program (MIDRP) Insect Vector ControlDiagnostics Prevention Treatment Infectious diseases adversely impact military operations. Vaccines...appropriate treatment and aids commanders in the field. Most militarily relevant infectious diseases are transmitted by biting insects and other...based Insect Repellent (1946) Vaccines Protectants Antiparasitic Drugs Research Effort Advanced Development Fielded Products Malaria Rapid

  15. An Interdisciplinary Perspective: Infectious Diseases and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Jenifer; Byrd, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the course "Infectious Diseases and History" which is designed for freshman and sophomore students. Aims to teach about infectious diseases, develop skills of using libraries and computer resources, and develop oral and written communication skills. Focuses on tuberculosis as an example of an instructional approach and…

  16. Evolutionary Response to Human Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armelagos, George J.; Dewey, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Gives an overview of human history, relating cultural changes with resulting changes in population density and in ecological balance to patterns of infectious diseases in man. Discusses mechanisms of evolution of resistance. Suggests that in populations where infectious diseases can be controlled, attention should shift to degenerative diseases…

  17. Empowering African genomics for infectious disease control.

    PubMed

    Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Anise N; Happi, Christian T

    2014-11-07

    At present, African scientists can only participate minimally in the genomics revolution that is transforming the understanding, surveillance and clinical treatment of infectious diseases. We discuss new initiatives to equip African scientists with knowledge of cutting-edge genomics tools, and build a sustainable critical mass of well-trained African infectious diseases genomics scientists.

  18. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU OF... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  19. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  20. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  1. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    PubMed Central

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

  2. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    PubMed

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  3. Network pharmacology-based identification of key pharmacological pathways of Yin–Huang–Qing–Fei capsule acting on chronic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guohua; Zhang, Yanqiong; Ren, Weiqiong; Dong, Ling; Li, Junfang; Geng, Ya; Zhang, Yi; Li, Defeng; Xu, Haiyu; Yang, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    For decades in China, the Yin–Huang–Qing–Fei capsule (YHQFC) has been widely used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis, with good curative effects. Owing to the complexity of traditional Chinese herbal formulas, the pharmacological mechanism of YHQFC remains unclear. To address this problem, a network pharmacology-based strategy was proposed in this study. At first, the putative target profile of YHQFC was predicted using MedChem Studio, based on structural and functional similarities of all available YHQFC components to the known drugs obtained from the DrugBank database. Then, an interaction network was constructed using links between putative YHQFC targets and known therapeutic targets of chronic bronchitis. Following the calculation of four topological features (degree, betweenness, closeness, and coreness) of each node in the network, 475 major putative targets of YHQFC and their topological importance were identified. In addition, a pathway enrichment analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database indicated that the major putative targets of YHQFC are significantly associated with various pathways involved in anti-inflammation processes, immune responses, and pathological changes caused by asthma. More interestingly, eight major putative targets of YHQFC (interleukin [IL]-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, FCER1G, CCL11, and EPX) were demonstrated to be associated with the inflammatory process that occurs during the progression of asthma. Finally, a molecular docking simulation was performed and the results exhibited that 17 pairs of chemical components and candidate YHQFC targets involved in asthma pathway had strong binding efficiencies. In conclusion, this network pharmacology-based investigation revealed that YHQFC may attenuate the inflammatory reaction of chronic bronchitis by regulating its candidate targets, which may be implicated in the major pathological processes of the asthma pathway. PMID:28053519

  4. Genomic analysis of human lung fibroblasts exposed to vanadium pentoxide to identify candidate genes for occupational bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Jennifer L; Antao-Menezes, Aurita; Turpin, Elizabeth A; Wallace, Duncan G; Mangum, James B; Pluta, Linda J; Thomas, Russell S; Bonner, James C

    2007-01-01

    Background Exposure to vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a cause of occupational bronchitis. We evaluated gene expression profiles in cultured human lung fibroblasts exposed to V2O5 in vitro in order to identify candidate genes that could play a role in inflammation, fibrosis, and repair during the pathogenesis of V2O5-induced bronchitis. Methods Normal human lung fibroblasts were exposed to V2O5 in a time course experiment. Gene expression was measured at various time points over a 24 hr period using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133A 2.0 Array. Selected genes that were significantly changed in the microarray experiment were validated by RT-PCR. Results V2O5 altered more than 1,400 genes, of which ~300 were induced while >1,100 genes were suppressed. Gene ontology categories (GO) categories unique to induced genes included inflammatory response and immune response, while GO catogories unique to suppressed genes included ubiquitin cycle and cell cycle. A dozen genes were validated by RT-PCR, including growth factors (HBEGF, VEGF, CTGF), chemokines (IL8, CXCL9, CXCL10), oxidative stress response genes (SOD2, PIPOX, OXR1), and DNA-binding proteins (GAS1, STAT1). Conclusion Our study identified a variety of genes that could play pivotal roles in inflammation, fibrosis and repair during V2O5-induced bronchitis. The induction of genes that mediate inflammation and immune responses, as well as suppression of genes involved in growth arrest appear to be important to the lung fibrotic reaction to V2O5. PMID:17459161

  5. Lifetime Occupational Exposure to Dusts, Gases and Fumes Is Associated with Bronchitis Symptoms and Higher Diffusion Capacity in COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Esther; Ferrer, Jaume; Zock, Jan-Paul; Serra, Ignasi; Antó, Josep M.; de Batlle, Jordi; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Donaire-González, David; Benet, Marta; Balcells, Eva; Monsó, Eduard; Gayete, Angel; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients. Methods We studied 338 patients hospitalized for a first exacerbation of COPD in 9 Spanish hospitals, obtaining full occupational history in a face-to-face interview; job codes were linked to a job exposure matrix for semi-quantitative estimation of exposure to mineral/biological dust, and gases/fumes for each job held. Patients underwent spirometry, diffusing capacity testing and analysis of gases in stable conditions. Quality of life, dyspnea and chronic bronchitis symptoms were determined with a questionnaire interview. A high- resolution CT scan was available in 133 patients. Results 94% of the patients included were men, with a mean age of 68(8.5) years and a mean FEV1% predicted 52 (16). High exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher scores for symptom perception in the St. George’s questionnaire. No occupational agent was associated with a lower FEV1. High exposure to all occupational agents was associated with better lung diffusion capacity, in long-term quitters. In the subgroup with CT data, patients with emphysema had 18% lower DLCO compared to those without emphysema. Conclusions In our cohort of COPD patients, high exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and high exposure to all occupational agents was consistently associated with better diffusion capacity in long-term quitters. PMID:24516659

  6. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response using the avian innate immunity microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The avian innate immunity microarray (AIIM) is a genomics tool designed to study the transcriptional activity of the avian immune response (Cytogenet. Genome Res. 117:139-145, 2007). It is an avian cDNA microarray representing 4,959 avian genes spotted in triplicate. The AIIM contains 25 avian int...

  7. Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic analysis of the plasma proteins in the sol phase of sputum from patients with chronic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Ryley, H. C.; Brogan, T. D.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the plasma proteins in the sol phase of sputum was carried out using quantitative cross immunoelectrophoresis. The average concentrations of nine plasma proteins were estimated in the sol phase of sputum specimens from 30 patients with chronic bronchitis and the values were compared with the concentrations of these proteins in saliva and serum specimens from the same group of patients. The results showed that alpha1 antichymotrypsin and IgA concentrations were higher in the sol phase of sputum than would be expected if their presence were due entirely to passive transudation. Images PMID:4128930

  8. Add-on treatment with nebulized hypertonic saline in a child with plastic bronchitis after the Glenn procedure.

    PubMed

    Lis, Grzegorz; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Jedynak-Wasowicz, Urszula; Glowacka, Edyta

    2014-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis (PB), although a rare cause of airway obstruction, has mortality rates up to 50% in children after Fontan-type cardiac surgery. We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.

  9. The global nature of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus (AIV) is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their occupying ecosystem, agricultural production system, or other anthropocentric niches. AIVs or evidence of their infection have been detected...

  10. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  11. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza... poultry and birds that have been vaccinated for certain types of HPAI, or that have been moved through... into the United States of live birds, poultry, eggs for hatching, and bird and poultry products and...

  12. Avian Schistosomes and Outbreaks of Cercarial Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. PMID:25567226

  13. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  14. Avian influenza viruses and human health.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D J

    2006-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause natural infections of humans, some other mammals and birds. Few of the 16 haemagglutinin and nine neuraminidase subtype combinations have been isolated from mammals, but all subtypes have been isolated from birds. In the 20th century, there were four pandemics of influenza as a result of the emergence of antigenically different strains in humans: 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2) and 1977 (H1N1). Influenza A viruses contain eight distinct RNA genes and reassortment of these can occur in mixed infections with different viruses. The 1957 and 1968 pandemic viruses differed from the preceding viruses in humans by the substitution of genes that came from avian viruses, suggesting they arose by genetic reassortment of viruses of human and avian origin. Up to 1995, there had been only three reports of avian influenza viruses infecting humans, in 1959, 1977 and 1981 (all H7N7), but, since 1996, there have been regular reports of natural infections of humans with avian influenza viruses: in England in 1996 (H7N7), Hong Kong 1997 (H5N1), 1999 (H9N2), and 2003 (H5N1), in The Netherlands 2003 (H7N7), Canada 2004 (H7N3), Vietnam 2004 (H5N1) and Thailand 2004 (H5N1). The H5N1 virus is alarming because 51 (64 %) of the 80 people confirmed as infected since 1997 have died.

  15. Viral vectors for avian influenza vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to 2003, vaccines against avian influenza (AI) had limited, individual country or regional use in poultry. In late 2003, H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) AI spread from China to multiple Southeast Asian countries, and to Europe during 2005 and Africa during 2006, challenging governments and all p...

  16. Integration and Validation of Avian Radars (IVAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    operations; 1-year visual census; multiple eBirdRad radars; fiber- optic wired LAN (planned) NAS Patuxent River, MD X B X Medium-sized air station...introduced a multibeam avian radar antenna that purports to double the beam width (from 4° to 8°), while at the same time increasing the precision of the

  17. Pathobiology of avian influenza in domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks are an important source of food and income in many parts of the world. The susceptibility of domestic ducks to avian influenza (AI) viruses varies depending on many factors, including the species and the age of the ducks, the virus strain, and management practices. Although wild wat...

  18. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, David Sherman

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  19. [Efficacy of therapeutic use of ultrasound and sinusoidal modulated currents combed with halotherapy in patient with occupational toxic-dust bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Roslaia, N A; Likhacheva, E I; Shchekoldin, P I

    2001-01-01

    Immunological and cardiorespiratory characteristics were studied in 88 alloy industry workers with occupational toxic-dust bronchitis who received the following therapy: sinusoidal modulated currents (SMC), ultrasound (US) on the chest, halotherapy (HT) (52 patients, group 1); SMC + HT (10 patients, group 2); US + HT (15 patients, group 3); HT (11 patients, group 4). The patients did also therapeutic exercise and were massaged (chest). It was found that device physiotherapy (SMC, US) in combination with HT raise the treatment efficacy to 86.5%. This combined treatment is recommended both for treatment and prevention of obstructive syndrome in toxic-dust bronchitis.

  20. [The rehabilitation under alpine conditions of the participants in the cleanup of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station who are ill with chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Brimkulov, N N; Abdulina, A A; Davletalieva, N E; Bakirova, A N; Karamuratov, A; Mirrakhimov, M M

    1996-01-01

    24 patients exposed to low-dose radiation after the Chernobyl accident were examined before and after 24-day treatment of chronic bronchitis in the high-altitude rehabilitation center (3200 m above the sea level) in Tien Shan. Sanogenic alpine climate improved the patients' general condition, physical performance and lung ventilation, corrected compromised immunity. After high-altitude adaptation tracheobronchial inflammation alleviated, cytologic composition and surface activity of bronchoalveolar fluid returned to normal. Therefore, high-altitude treatment of Chernobyl accident victims with chronic bronchitis is effective and can be recommended for such patients.

  1. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  2. Infectious complications of regional anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Horlocker, Terese T; Wedel, Denise J

    2008-09-01

    Although individual cases have been reported in the literature, serious infections of the central nervous system (CNS) such as arachnoiditis, meningitis, and abscess following spinal or epidural anesthesia are rare. However, recent epidemiologic series from Europe suggest that the frequency of infectious complications associated with neuraxial techniques may be increasing. Importantly, while meningitis and epidural abscess are both complications of neuraxial block, the risk factors and causative organisms are disparate. For example, staphylococcus is the organism most commonly associated epidural abscess; often these infections occurred in patients with impaired immunity. Conversely, meningitis follows dural puncture, and is typically caused by alpha-hemolytic streptococci, with the source of the organism the nasopharynx of the proceduralist. In order to reduce the risk of serious infection following neuraxial blockade, the clinician must be knowledgeable in the pathogenesis of CNS infections, patient selection, and use of meticulous aseptic technique. Finally, since delay in the diagnosis may result in morbidity and even death, it is crucial to be aware of the presenting signs and symptoms of meningitis and epidural abscess.

  3. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  4. Infectious Diseases at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Basnyat, Buddha; Starling, Jennifer M

    2015-08-01

    Travel to elevations above 2,500 m is an increasingly common activity undertaken by a diverse population of individuals. These may be trekkers, climbers, miners in high-altitude sites in South America, and more recently, soldiers deployed for high-altitude duty in remote areas of the world. What is also being increasingly recognized is the plight of the millions of pilgrims, many with comorbidities, who annually ascend to high-altitude sacred areas. There are also 400 million people who reside permanently in high mountain ranges, which cover one-fifth of the Earth's surface. Many of these high-altitude areas are in developing countries, for example, the Himalayan range in South Asia. Although high-altitude areas may not harbor any specific infectious disease agents, it is important to know about the pathogens encountered in the mountains to be better able to help both the ill sojourner and the native high-altitude dweller. Often the same pathogens prevalent in the surrounding lowlands are found at high altitude, but various factors such as immunomodulation, hypoxia, poor physiological adaptation, and harsh environmental stressors at high altitude may enhance susceptibility to these pathogens. Against this background, various gastrointestinal, respiratory, dermatological, neurological, and other infections encountered at high altitude are discussed.

  5. Surveys on therapeutic effects of “halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment” on patients with certain chronic allergenic respiratory pathologies and infectious-inflammatory pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Lazarescu, H; Simionca, I; Hoteteu, M; Munteanu, A; Rizea, I; Iliuta, A; Dumitrascu, D; Dumitrescu, E

    2014-01-01

    Halotherapy (HT), derived from speleotherapy in salt mines, is also a drug-free therapeutic method. HT effects vary depending on the therapeutic method and the structure of halotherapy environment. The purpose of this article is to show the HT effects of “halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment” of the National Institute of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Balneoclimatology (INRMFB), on patients with bronchial asthma and other chronic, infectious-inflammatory and allergic respiratory diseases, describing the clinical effects on certain nonspecific resistance factors, on markers of inflammatory processes and on certain immunological changes. Patients were clinically assessed, with the application of hematologic investigations, analysis of nonspecific resistance to infection and of inflammatory process markers, immunologic assessments, analysis of sodium and potassium concentrations, of mineralocorticoid function and other biochemical tests. For the experimental HT therapy performed in the “halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment” of INRMFB, 15 patients suffering from bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy were selected, based on specific medical indications and contraindications and applying ethical principles, as well as 4 patients with similar pathologies for the control group, who underwent in-home drug treatment. After the specific halotherapy treatment on patients with bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy, which also showed other chronic, infectious-inflammatory and allergic respiratory pathologies, triggering of anti-inflammatory (and also anti allergic) mechanisms and healing effects on inflammatory process were noted. Data acquired also proved the halo therapeutic effect causing the reduction of sensitiveness of body in patients with bronchial asthma. Abbreviations: HT=Halotherapy, INRMFB=National Institute of

  6. Surveys on therapeutic effects of "halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment" on patients with certain chronic allergenic respiratory pathologies and infectious-inflammatory pathologies.

    PubMed

    Lazarescu, H; Simionca, I; Hoteteu, M; Munteanu, A; Rizea, I; Iliuta, A; Dumitrascu, D; Dumitrescu, E

    2014-01-01

    Halotherapy (HT), derived from speleotherapy in salt mines, is also a drug-free therapeutic method. HT effects vary depending on the therapeutic method and the structure of halotherapy environment. The purpose of this article is to show the HT effects of "halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment" of the National Institute of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Balneoclimatology (INRMFB), on patients with bronchial asthma and other chronic, infectious-inflammatory and allergic respiratory diseases, describing the clinical effects on certain nonspecific resistance factors, on markers of inflammatory processes and on certain immunological changes. Patients were clinically assessed, with the application of hematologic investigations, analysis of nonspecific resistance to infection and of inflammatory process markers, immunologic assessments, analysis of sodium and potassium concentrations, of mineralocorticoid function and other biochemical tests. For the experimental HT therapy performed in the "halotherapy chamber with artificial salt-mine environment" of INRMFB, 15 patients suffering from bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy were selected, based on specific medical indications and contraindications and applying ethical principles, as well as 4 patients with similar pathologies for the control group, who underwent in-home drug treatment. After the specific halotherapy treatment on patients with bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy, which also showed other chronic, infectious-inflammatory and allergic respiratory pathologies, triggering of anti-inflammatory (and also anti allergic) mechanisms and healing effects on inflammatory process were noted. Data acquired also proved the halo therapeutic effect causing the reduction of sensitiveness of body in patients with bronchial asthma.

  7. Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

    2014-03-01

    Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented.

  8. Infectious Disease Issues in Underserved Populations.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel Neil; Miller, John Paul

    2017-03-01

    Infectious disease has a major impact on the health outcomes of underserved populations and is reported at significantly higher rates among these populations compared with the general population. Overcoming barriers and obstacles to health care access is key to addressing the disparity regarding the prevalence of infectious disease. Enhancing cultural competency and educating practitioners about underserved populations' basic health needs; optimizing health insurance for the underserved; increasing community resources; and improving access to comprehensive, continuous, compassionate, and coordinated health care are strategies for diminishing the burden of infectious disease in underserved populations.

  9. The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1). Part III: Antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Cinatl, Jindrich; Michaelis, Martin; Doerr, Hans W

    2007-12-01

    Among emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, influenza constitutes one of the major threats to mankind. In this review series epidemiologic, virologic and pathologic concerns raised by infections of humans with avian influenza virus A/H5N1 as well as treatment options are discussed. The third part discusses therapeutic options. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the most promising agents despite uncertainty about efficacy. Dosage increase, prolonged treatment or combination therapies may increase treatment efficacy and/or inhibit resistance formation. Immune system dysregulation contributes to H5N1 disease. Although current evidence does not support the use of anti-inflammatory drugs beneficial effects cannot be excluded at later disease stages.

  10. An epidemiological survey of respiratory morbidity among granite quarry workers in Singapore: chronic bronchitis and lung function impairment.

    PubMed

    Ng, T P; Phoon, W H; Lee, H S; Ng, Y L; Tan, K T

    1992-05-01

    Respiratory symptoms of chronic bronchitis and measurements of lung function were studied in an epidemiological survey of the total population of workers currently employed in granite quarries in Singapore. There were 85 rock drilling and crushing workers with current exposure in high levels of silica dust. Their respiratory parameters were studied with reference to an internal comparison group of 154 quarry maintenance and transport workers with low dust exposure, and an external comparison group of 148 Telecoms postal delivery workers with no granite dust exposure. The highly exposed workers showed greater prevalences of chronic cough and phlegm, a mean reduction of 5% in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). The increased respiratory morbidity were independent of other factors such as age and smoking. Similar results were also noted after excluding those with silicosis (defined radiologically as profusion greater than 1/1 as read by at least two of three readers). This study strongly indicates a demonstrable risk of "occupational" bronchitis (mucus hypersecretion) and obstructive and restrictive lung function impairment, apart from the "classical" risk of silicosis. Measures taken to protect the health of workers exposed to silica dust should also be based on considerations taken to protect against the risk of these respiratory disorders as well.

  11. Exposures to the Kuwait oil fires and their association with asthma and bronchitis among gulf war veterans.

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Jeffrey L; Schwartz, David A; Doebbeling, Bradley N; Heller, Jack M; Thorne, Peter S

    2002-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to the Persian Gulf War have reported a variety of symptoms attributed to their exposures. We examined relationships between symptoms of respiratory illness present 5 years after the war and both self-reported and modeled exposures to oil-fire smoke that occurred during deployment. Exposure and symptom information was obtained by structured telephone interview in a population-based sample of 1,560 veterans who served in the Gulf War. Modeled exposures were exhaustively developed using a geographic information system to integrate spatial and temporal records of smoke concentrations with troop movements ascertained from global positioning systems records. For the oil-fire period, there were 600,000 modeled data points with solar absorbance used to represent smoke concentrations to a 15-km resolution. Outcomes included respiratory symptoms (asthma, bronchitis) and control outcomes (major depression, injury). Approximately 94% of the study cohort were still in the gulf theater during the time of the oil-well fires, and 21% remained there more than 100 days during the fires. There was modest correlation between self-reported and modeled exposures (r = 0.48, p < 0.05). Odds ratios for asthma, bronchitis, and major depression increased with increasing self-reported exposure. In contrast, there was no association between the modeled exposure and any of the outcomes. These findings do not support speculation that exposures to oil-fire smoke caused respiratory symptoms among veterans. PMID:12417486

  12. Avian influenza shedding patterns in waterfowl: implications for surveillance, environmentaltransmission, and disease spread

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henaux, V.; Samuel, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of fecal/oral transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) via contaminated wetlands, little is known about the length, quantity, or route of AI virus shed by wild waterfowl. We used published laboratory challenge studies to evaluate the length and quantity of low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) virus shed via oral and cloacal routes by AI-infected ducks and geese, and how these factors might influence AI epidemiology and virus detection. We used survival analysis to estimate the duration of infection(from virus inoculation to the last day virus was shed) and nonlinear models to evaluate temporal patterns in virus shedding. We found higher mean virus titer and longer median infectious period for LPAI-infected ducks (1011.5 days in oral and cloacal swabs) than HPAI-infected ducks(5 days) and geese (7.5 days). Based on the median bird infectious dose, we found that environmental contamination is two times higher for LPAI- than HPAI-infectious ducks, which implies that susceptible birds may have a higher probability of infection during LPAI than HP AIoutbreaks. Less environmental contamination during the course of infection and previously documented shorter environmental persistence for HPAI than LPAI suggest that the environment is a less favorable reservoir for HPAI. The longer infectious period, higher virus titers, and subclinical infections with LPAI viruses favor the spread of these viruses by migratory birds in comparison to HPAI. Given the lack of detection of HPAI viruses through worldwide surveillance,we suggest monitoring for AI should aim at improving our understanding of AI dynamics (inparticular, the role of the environment and immunity) using long-term comprehensive live bird, serologic, and environmental sampling at targeted areas. Our findings on LPAI and HPAIshedding patterns over time provide essential information to parameterize environmental transmission and virus spread in predictive epizootio

  13. Avian influenza shedding patterns in waterfowl: implications for surveillance, environmental transmission, and disease spread

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viviane Henaux,; Samuel, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of fecal/oral transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) via contaminated wetlands, little is known about the length, quantity, or route of AI virus shed by wild waterfowl. We used published laboratory challenge studies to evaluate the length and quantity of low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) virus shed via oral and cloacal routes by AI-infected ducks and geese, and how these factors might influence AI epidemiology and virus detection. We used survival analysis to estimate the duration of infection (from virus inoculation to the last day virus was shed) and nonlinear models to evaluate temporal patterns in virus shedding. We found higher mean virus titer and longer median infectious period for LPAI-infected ducks (10–11.5 days in oral and cloacal swabs) than HPAI-infected ducks (5 days) and geese (7.5 days). Based on the median bird infectious dose, we found that environmental contamination is two times higher for LPAI- than HPAI-infectious ducks, which implies that susceptible birds may have a higher probability of infection during LPAI than HPAI outbreaks. Less environmental contamination during the course of infection and previously documented shorter environmental persistence for HPAI than LPAI suggest that the environment is a less favorable reservoir for HPAI. The longer infectious period, higher virus titers, and subclinical infections with LPAI viruses favor the spread of these viruses by migratory birds in comparison to HPAI. Given the lack of detection of HPAI viruses through worldwide surveillance, we suggest monitoring for AI should aim at improving our understanding of AI dynamics (in particular, the role of the environment and immunity) using long-term comprehensive live bird, serologic, and environmental sampling at targeted areas. Our findings on LPAI and HPAI shedding patterns over time provide essential information to parameterize environmental transmission and virus spread in predictive

  14. Physiology and pathogenicity of cpdB deleted mutant of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huifang; Chen, Liping; Si, Wei; Wang, Chunlai; Zhu, Fangna; Li, Guangxing; Liu, Siguo

    2017-04-01

    Avian colibacillosis is one of the most common infectious diseases caused partially or entirely by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) in birds. In addition to spontaneous infection, APEC can also cause secondary infections that result in greater severity of illness and greater losses to the poultry industry. In order to assess the role of 2', 3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase (cpdB) in APEC on disease physiology and pathogenicity, an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli-34 (APEC-34) cpdB mutant was obtained using the Red system. The cpdB mutant grew at a slower rate than the natural strain APEC-34. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the bacteria of the cpdB mutant were significantly longer than the bacteria observed in the natural strain (P<0.01), and that the width of the cpdB mutant was significantly smaller than its natural counterpart (P<0.01). In order to evaluate the role of cpdB in APEC in the colonization of internal organs (lung, liver and spleen) in poultry, seven-day-old SPF chicks were infected with 10(9)CFU/chick of the cpdB mutant or the natural strain. No colonizations of cpdB mutants were observed in the internal organs 10days following the infection, though numerous natural strains were observed at 20days following infection. Additionally, the relative expression of division protein ftsZ, outer membrane protein A ompA, ferric uptake regulator fur and tryptophanase tnaA genes in the mutant strain were all significantly lower than in the natural strain (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These results suggested that cpdB is involved in the long-term colonization of APEC in the internal organs of the test subjects. The deletion of the cpdB gene also significantly affected the APEC growth and morphology.

  15. Phylogenetic distribution of the novel avian endogenous provirus family EAV-0.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, R M; Boyce-Jacino, M T; Fu, Q; Faras, A J

    1990-01-01

    A new family of related endogenous proviruses, existing at 50 to 100 copies per haploid genome and distinguishable by remarkably short long terminal repeats, has been described for domestic chickens (Gallus gallus subsp domesticus). In this communication, by using Southern blot analysis and probes derived from both internal viral sequences and locus-specific, cellular flanking sequences, we studied the genetic distribution of this family of moderately repetitive avian endogenous retroviruses within the genomes of four Gallus species. Eight inbred lines of domestic chickens, the evolutionary progenitor to the domestic chicken (red jungle fowl), and two more distantly related species (grey and green jungle fowl) were studied. All Gallus species harbored this class of elements, although the different lines of domestic chickens and different species of jungle fowl bore distinguishable complements of the proviral loci. Jungle fowl appeared to have fewer copies than domestic chickens. For three randomly isolated proviral loci, domestic chickens (G. gallus subsp. domesticus) and red jungle fowl (G. gallus subsp. gallus) showed only a proviral state, whereas the most primitive and divergent of the jungle fowl, the green jungle fowl (G. varius), consistently demonstrated only preintegration states or disparate alleles. The presence of this family in all Gallus species and of related sequences in other genera suggests that a primordial founding integration event occurred prior to the evolutionary separation of Gallus species and possibly related genera. Additionally, at least one proviral locus has been acquired subsequent to speciation, indicating that this family was actively infectious after the primary founding event. This conserved, repetitive proviral family appears to represent the vestigial remnant of an avian retrovirus class related to and evolutionarily more ancient than the Rous-associated virus-0 family of avian endogenous retroviruses. Images PMID:2398526

  16. Molecular Detection of Avian Pathogens in Poultry Red Mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) Collected in Chicken Farms

    PubMed Central

    HUONG, Chu Thi Thanh; MURANO, Takako; UNO, Yukiko; USUI, Tatsufumi; YAMAGUCHI, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Poultry red mite (PRM, Dermanyssus gallinae) is a blood-sucking ectoparasite as well as a possible vector of several avian pathogens. In this study, to define the role of PRM in the prevalence of avian infectious agents, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to check for the presence of seven pathogens: Avipox virus (APV), Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER), Salmonella enterica (SE), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). A total of 159 PRM samples collected between 2004 and 2012 from 142 chicken farms in 38 prefectures in Japan were examined. APV DNA was detected in 22 samples (13.8%), 19 of which were wild-type APV. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) of MS was detected in 15 samples (9.4%), and the mgc2 gene of MG was detected in 2 samples (1.3%). Eight of 15 MS 16S rRNA sequences differed from the vaccine sequence, indicating they were wild-type strains, while both of the MG mgc2 gene sequences detected were identical to the vaccine sequences. Of these avian pathogen-positive mite samples, three were positive for both wild-types of APV and MS. On the other hand, the DNAs of ER, SE, FAdV and MDV were not detected in any samples. These findings indicated that PRM can harbor the wild-type pathogens and might play a role as a vector in spreading these diseases in farms. PMID:25649939

  17. In ovo and in vitro susceptibility of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to avian influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Temple, Bradley L; Finger, John W; Jones, Cheryl A; Gabbard, Jon D; Jelesijevic, Tomislav; Uhl, Elizabeth W; Hogan, Robert J; Glenn, Travis C; Tompkins, S Mark

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza has emerged as one of the most ubiquitous viruses within our biosphere. Wild aquatic birds are believed to be the primary reservoir of all influenza viruses; however, the spillover of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and the recent swine-origin pandemic H1N1 viruses have sparked increased interest in identifying and understanding which and how many species can be infected. Moreover, novel influenza virus sequences were recently isolated from New World bats. Crocodilians have a slow rate of molecular evolution and are the sister group to birds; thus they are a logical reptilian group to explore susceptibility to influenza virus infection and they provide a link between birds and mammals. A primary American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) cell line, and embryos, were infected with four, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains to assess susceptibility to infection. Embryonated alligator eggs supported virus replication, as evidenced by the influenza virus M gene and infectious virus detected in allantoic fluid and by virus antigen staining in embryo tissues. Primary alligator cells were also inoculated with the LPAI viruses and showed susceptibility based upon antigen staining; however, the requirement for trypsin to support replication in cell culture limited replication. To assess influenza virus replication in culture, primary alligator cells were inoculated with H1N1 human influenza or H5N1 HPAI viruses that replicate independent of trypsin. Both viruses replicated efficiently in culture, even at the 30 C temperature preferred by the alligator cells. This research demonstrates the ability of wild-type influenza viruses to infect and replicate within two crocodilian substrates and suggests the need for further research to assess crocodilians as a species potentially susceptible to influenza virus infection.

  18. High Prevalence and Putative Lineage Maintenance of Avian Coronaviruses in Scandinavian Waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Wille, Michelle; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Nilsson, Anna; Järhult, Josef D

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are found in a wide variety of wild and domestic animals, and constitute a risk for zoonotic and emerging infectious disease. In poultry, the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution and taxonomy of some coronaviruses have been well described, but little is known about the features of CoVs in wild birds. In this study we screened 764 samples from 22 avian species of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes in Sweden collected in 2006/2007 for CoV, with an overall CoV prevalence of 18.7%, which is higher than many other wild bird surveys. The highest prevalence was found in the diving ducks--mainly Greater Scaup (Aythya marila; 51.5%)--and the dabbling duck Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos; 19.2%). Sequences from two of the Greater Scaup CoV fell into an infrequently detected lineage, shared only with a Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) CoV. Coronavirus sequences from Mallards in this study were highly similar to CoV sequences from the sample species and location in 2011, suggesting long-term maintenance in this population. A single Black-headed Gull represented the only positive sample from the order Charadriiformes. Globally, Anas species represent the largest fraction of avian CoV sequences, and there seems to be no host species, geographical or temporal structure. To better understand the eitiology, epidemiology and ecology of these viruses more systematic surveillance of wild birds and subsequent sequencing of detected CoV is imperative.

  19. Failure of productive infection of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with H16 subtype of avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fereidouni, Sasan R; Harder, Timm C; Globig, Anja; Starick, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Background Mallard ducks and other waterfowl represent the most important reservoirs of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV). In addition, mallards are the most abundant duck species in Eurasia that migrate over long distances. Despite extended wild bird monitoring studies over the past decade in many Eurasian countries and investigating hundreds of thousands of wild bird samples, no mallard duck was found to be positive for avian influenza virus of subtype H16 in faecal, cloacal or oropharyngeal samples. Just three cases of H16 infections in Anseriformes species were described worldwide. In contrast, H16 viruses have been repeatedly isolated from birds of the Laridae family. Objective Here, we tested the hypothesis that mallards are less permissive to infection with H16 viruses. Methods Groups of mallard ducks of different age were inoculated via the oculo-nasal-oral route with different infectious doses of an H16N3 AIV. Results The ducks did not show any clinical symptoms, and no virus shedding was evident from cloacal and respiratory routes after experimental infection as shown by negative RT-qPCR results. In addition, all serum samples taken on days 8, 21 and 24 post-inoculation were negative by competitive NP-ELISA. Conclusions This study provided evidence that mallards are resistant to infection with H16N3 LPAIV. PMID:25205059

  20. [Neurologic manifestations of infectious endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Hannachi, N; Béard, T; Ben Ismail, M

    1991-01-01

    Thirty out of 287 patients (10.4%) admitted to hospital for infective endocarditis between December 1970 and January 1990 had neurological complications. Twenty-three patients had native valve infectious endocarditis and 7 had prosthetic valve endocarditis. The clinical features were characterized by the frequency of aortic valve involvement (23 out of 30) and other complications, especially cardiac failure (16 cases) and peripheral vascular manifestations (7 cases). The commonest organism was the staphylococcus (53% of identified organisms) but the number of negative blood cultures was high (50% of cases). The neurological complication was often the presenting symptom of the endocarditis (19 cases) but it occurred after bacteriological cure in 4 cases. The complications observed were cerebral ischemia (16 cases), cerebral haemorrhage (11 cases), coma (2 cases), and one peripheral neuropathy causing a Claude Bernard Horner syndrome. These complications presented with hemiplegia in 17 cases, a meningeal syndrome in 8 cases, a convulsion in 1 case, a Von Wallenberg syndrome in 1 case, and a Claude Bernard Horner syndrome in 1 case. Twelve patients had a transient or permanent neurological coma. Cerebral CT scan showed ischemic lesions in 7 cases and haemorrhagic lesions in 10 cases. Carotid angiography demonstrated mycotic aneurysms in 6 patients. Twelve patients died: the cause of death was neurological coma (7 cases), low cardiac output (4 cases) and haemorrhagic shock (1 case). Four patients underwent neurosurgery: 3 for clipping a mycotic aneurysm and 1 for drainage of an intracerebral haematoma. Poor prognostic factors were: coma, cardiac failure, cardiac valve prosthesis and, above all, the extent and multiplicity of the neurological lesions. The authors propose the following measures to improve the prognosis: early surgery in cases of large and/or mobile vegetations especially when the infecting organism is a staphylococcus and when a systemic embolism has