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Sample records for avian metapneumovirus ampv

  1. Inhibition of avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) replication by RNA interference targeting nucleoprotein gene (N) in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Helena Lage; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; de Almeida, Renata Servan; Santos, Márcia M A B; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2007-04-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is the primary causative agent of severe rhinotracheitis in turkeys. It is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens and is the source of significant economic losses to animal food production. In this study, we designed specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the AMPV nucleoprotein (N) and fusion (F) genes. Three days post-virus infection, virus titration, real time RT-PCR, and RT-PCR assays were performed to verify the effect of siRNA in AMPV replication. A marked decrease in virus titers from transfected CER cells treated with siRNA/N was observed. Also, the production of N, F, and G mRNAs in AMPV was decreased. Results indicate that N-specific siRNA can inhibit virus replication. In future studies, a combination of siRNAs targeting the RNA polymerase complex may be used as a tool to study AMPV replication and/or antiviral therapy.

  2. Protection by recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype A or B against challenge with virulent NDV and aMPV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are threatening avian pathogens that cause sporadic but serious respiratory diseases in poultry worldwide. Although, vaccination, combined with strict biosecurity practices, has been the recommendation for controlling these diseases in t...

  3. Molecular Comparisons of Full Length Metapneumovirus (MPV) Genomes, Including Newly Determined French AMPV-C and –D Isolates, Further Supports Possible Subclassification within the MPV Genus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Paul A.; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Briand, François-Xavier; Courtillon, Céline; Guionie, Olivier; Allée, Chantal; Toquin, Didier; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Jestin, Véronique; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Four avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroups (A–D) have been reported previously based on genetic and antigenic differences. However, until now full length sequences of the only known isolates of European subgroup C and subgroup D viruses (duck and turkey origin, respectively) have been unavailable. These full length sequences were determined and compared with other full length AMPV and human metapneumoviruses (HMPV) sequences reported previously, using phylogenetics, comparisons of nucleic and amino acid sequences and study of codon usage bias. Results confirmed that subgroup C viruses were more closely related to HMPV than they were to the other AMPV subgroups in the study. This was consistent with previous findings using partial genome sequences. Closer relationships between AMPV-A, B and D were also evident throughout the majority of results. Three metapneumovirus “clusters” HMPV, AMPV-C and AMPV-A, B and D were further supported by codon bias and phylogenetics. The data presented here together with those of previous studies describing antigenic relationships also between AMPV-A, B and D and between AMPV-C and HMPV may call for a subclassification of metapneumoviruses similar to that used for avian paramyxoviruses, grouping AMPV-A, B and D as type I metapneumoviruses and AMPV-C and HMPV as type II. PMID:25036224

  4. Rational design of avian metapneumovirus live attenuated vaccines by inhibiting viral messenger RNA cap methyltransferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis, is a non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Pneumovirinae, and the genus Metapneumovirus. aMPV is the causative agent of respiratory tract infection and ...

  5. Isolation and characterization of avian metapneumovirus from chickens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Youn, Ho-Sik; Lee, Dong-Woo; Do, Sun-Hee; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2010-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in chickens and turkeys. Although the swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with aMPV in chickens has been reported in Korea since 1992, this is the study isolating aMPV from chickens in this country. We examined 780 oropharyngeal swab or nasal turbinate samples collected from 130 chicken flocks to investigate the prevalence of aMPV and to isolate aMPV from chickens from 2004-2008. Twelve aMPV subtype A and 13 subtype B strains were detected from clinical samples by the aMPV subtype A and B multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the detected aMPVs belonged to subtypes A and B. Two aMPVs subtype A out of the 25 detected aMPVs were isolated by Vero cell passage. In animal experiments with an aMPV isolate, viral RNA was detected in nasal discharge, although no clinical signs of SHS were observed in chickens. In contrast to chickens, turkeys showed severe nasal discharge and a relatively higher titer of viral excretion than chickens. Here, we reveal the co-circulation of aMPV subtypes A and B, and isolate aMPVs from chicken flocks in Korea. PMID:20195066

  6. Recovery of Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C from cDNA: Cross-Recognition of Avian and Human Metapneumovirus Support Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Samal, Siba K.

    2006-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes an acute respiratory disease in turkeys and is associated with “swollen head syndrome” in chickens, contributing to significant economic losses for the U.S. poultry industry. With a long-term goal of developing a better vaccine for controlling AMPV in the United States, we established a reverse genetics system to produce infectious AMPV of subgroup C entirely from cDNA. A cDNA clone encoding the entire 14,150-nucleotide genome of AMPV subgroup C strain Colorado (AMPV/CO) was generated by assembling five cDNA fragments between the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and the autocatalytic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme of a transcription plasmid, pBR 322. Transfection of this plasmid, along with the expression plasmids encoding the N, P, M2-1, and L proteins of AMPV/CO, into cells stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase resulted in the recovery of infectious AMPV/CO. Characterization of the recombinant AMPV/CO showed that its growth properties in tissue culture were similar to those of the parental virus. The potential of AMPV/CO to serve as a viral vector was also assessed by generating another recombinant virus, rAMPV/CO-GFP, that expressed the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a foreign protein. Interestingly, GFP-expressing AMPV and GFP-expressing human metapneumovirus (HMPV) could be recovered using the support plasmids of either virus, denoting that the genome promoters are conserved between the two metapneumoviruses and can be cross-recognized by the polymerase complex proteins of either virus. These results indicate a close functional relationship between AMPV/CO and HMPV. PMID:16731918

  7. Generation and evaluation of recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) expressing the F and G proteins of avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV-C) as bivalent vaccine against NDV and aMPV challenges in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we generated a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine, which provided a partial protection against aMPV-C challenge in turkeys. To improve the vaccine efficacy,...

  8. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C as a bivalent vaccine in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry. Vaccination combined with strict biosecurity practices has been the recommendation for controlling both NDV and aMPV diseases in the field. In the present study, an N...

  9. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the F and G proteins of avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine against NDV and aMPV-C challenges in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry. Vaccination combined with strict biosecurity practices has been the recommendation for controlling NDV and aMPV diseases in the field. Previously we generated a NDV r...

  10. Development of a Nucleoprotein-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using a Synthetic Peptide Antigen for Detection of Avian Metapneumovirus Antibodies in Turkey Sera

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Rene; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Scott, Melissa; Seal, Bruce S.

    2004-01-01

    Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV) cause an upper respiratory tract disease with low mortality but high morbidity, primarily in commercial turkeys, that can be exacerbated by secondary infections. There are three types of aMPV, of which type C is found only in the United States. The aMPV nucleoprotein (N) amino acid sequences of serotypes A, B, and C were aligned for comparative analysis. On the basis of the predicted antigenicity of consensus sequences, five aMPV-specific N peptides were synthesized for development of a peptide antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (aMPV N peptide-based ELISA) to detect aMPV-specific antibodies among turkeys. Sera from naturally and experimentally infected turkeys were used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies reactive to the chemically synthesized aMPV N peptides. Subsequently, aMPV N peptide 1, which had the sequence 10-DLSYKHAILKESQYTIKRDV-29, with variations at only three amino acids among aMPV serotypes, was evaluated as a universal aMPV ELISA antigen. Data obtained with the peptide-based ELISA correlated positively with total aMPV viral antigen-based ELISAs, and the peptide ELISA provided higher optical density readings. The results indicated that aMPV N peptide 1 can be used as a universal ELISA antigen to detect antibodies for all aMPV serotypes. PMID:15013970

  11. Development and optimization of a direct plaque assay for human and avian metapneumoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Junan; Li, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae and family Paramyxoviridae includes only two viruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), which cause respiratory disease in humans and birds, respectively. These two viruses grow poorly in cell culture and other quantitation methods, such as indirect immuno-staining and immuno-fluorescent assays, are expensive, time consuming, and do not allow for plaque purification of the virus. In order to enhance research efforts for studying these two viruses, a direct plaque assay for both hMPV and aMPV has been developed. By optimizing the chemical components of the agarose overlay, it was found that both hMPV with a trypsin-independent F cleavage site and aMPV formed clear and countable plaques in a number of mammalian cell lines (such as Vero-E6 and LLC-MK2 cells) after 5 days of incubation. The plaque forming assay has similar sensitivity and reliability as the currently used immunological methods for viral quantitation. The plaque assay is also a more simple, rapid, and economical method compared to immunological assays, and in addition allows for plaque purification of the viruses. The direct plaque assay will be a valuable method for the quantitation and evaluation of the biological properties of some metapneumoviruses. PMID:22684013

  12. Methyltransferase-Defective Avian Metapneumovirus Vaccines Provide Complete Protection against Challenge with the Homologous Colorado Strain and the Heterologous Minnesota Strain

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Wei, Yongwei; Rauf, Abdul; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Yuanmei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shilo, Konstantin; Yu, Qingzhong; Saif, Y. M.; Lu, Xingmeng; Yu, Lian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis virus, is the causative agent of turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens. Since its discovery in the 1970s, aMPV has been recognized as an economically important pathogen in the poultry industry worldwide. The conserved region VI (CR VI) of the large (L) polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses catalyzes methyltransferase (MTase) activities that typically methylate viral mRNAs at guanine N-7 (G-N-7) and ribose 2′-O positions. In this study, we generated a panel of recombinant aMPV (raMPV) Colorado strains carrying mutations in the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) binding site in the CR VI of L protein. These recombinant viruses were specifically defective in ribose 2′-O, but not G-N-7 methylation and were genetically stable and highly attenuated in cell culture and viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) young turkeys. Importantly, turkeys vaccinated with these MTase-defective raMPVs triggered a high level of neutralizing antibody and were completely protected from challenge with homologous aMPV Colorado strain and heterologous aMPV Minnesota strain. Collectively, our results indicate (i) that aMPV lacking 2′-O methylation is highly attenuated in vitro and in vivo and (ii) that inhibition of mRNA cap MTase can serve as a novel target to rationally design live attenuated vaccines for aMPV and perhaps other paramyxoviruses. IMPORTANCE Paramyxoviruses include many economically and agriculturally important viruses such as avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), human pathogens such as human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human parainfluenza virus type 3, and measles virus, and highly lethal emerging pathogens such as Nipah virus and Hendra virus. For many of them, there is no effective vaccine or antiviral drug. These viruses share common

  13. Subtype B avian metapneumovirus resembles subtype A more closely than subtype C or human metapneumovirus with respect to the phosphoprotein, and second matrix and small hydrophobic proteins.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Janet Ashley; Njenga, M Kariuki; Alvarez, Rene; Mawditt, Karen; Britton, Paul; Cavanagh, Dave; Seal, Bruce S

    2003-04-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype B (aMPV/B) nucleotide sequences were obtained for the phosphoprotein (P), second matrix protein (M2), and small hydrophobic protein (SH) genes. By comparison with sequences from other metapneumoviruses, aMPV/B was most similar to subtype A aMPV (aMPV/A) relative to the US subtype C isolates (aMPV/C) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). Strictly conserved residues common to all members of the Pneumovirinae were identified in the predicted amino acid sequences of the P and M2 protein-predicted amino acid sequences. The Cys(3)-His(1) motif, thought to be important for binding zinc, was also present in the aMPV M2 predicted protein sequences. For both the P and M2-1 protein-predicted amino acid sequences, aMPV/B was most similar to aMPV/A (72 and 89% identity, respectively), having only approximately 52 and 70% identity, respectively, relative to aMPV/C and hMPV. Differences were more marked in the M2-2 proteins, subtype B having 64% identity with subtype A but < or = 25% identity with subtype C and hMPV. The A and B subtypes of aMPV had predicted amino acid sequence identities for the SH protein of 47%, and less than 20% with that of hMPV. An SH gene was not detected in the aMPV/C. Phylogenetically, aMPV/B clustered with aMPV/A, while aMPV/C grouped with hMPV.

  14. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences. PMID:23763901

  15. Localization of a Region in the Fusion Protein of Avian Metapneumovirus That Modulates Cell-Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yongwei; Feng, Kurtis; Yao, Xiangjie; Cai, Hui; Li, Junan; Mirza, Anne M.; Iorio, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae includes two members, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), causing respiratory tract infections in humans and birds, respectively. Paramyxoviruses enter host cells by fusing the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. Membrane fusion of hMPV appears to be unique, in that fusion of some hMPV strains requires low pH. Here, we show that the fusion (F) proteins of aMPV promote fusion in the absence of the attachment protein and low pH is not required. Furthermore, there are notable differences in cell-cell fusion among aMPV subtypes. Trypsin was required for cell-cell fusion induced by subtype B but not subtypes A and C. The F protein of aMPV subtype A was highly fusogenic, whereas those from subtypes B and C were not. By construction and evaluation of chimeric F proteins composed of domains from the F proteins of subtypes A and B, we localized a region composed of amino acid residues 170 to 338 in the F protein that is responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype of the F from subtype A. Further mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues R295, G297, and K323 in this region collectively contributed to the hyperfusogenicity. Taken together, we have identified a region in the aMPV F protein that modulates the extent of membrane fusion. A model for fusion consistent with these data is presented. PMID:22915815

  16. Trypsin- and low pH-mediated fusogenicity of avian metapneumovirus fusion proteins is determined by residues at positions 100, 101 and 294

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bingling; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Gao, Yanni; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are members of the genus Metapneumovirus in the subfamily Pneumovirinae. Metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein mediates the fusion of host cells with the virus membrane for infection. Trypsin- and/or low pH-induced membrane fusion is a strain-dependent phenomenon for hMPV. Here, we demonstrated that three subtypes of aMPV (aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C) F proteins promoted cell-cell fusion in the absence of trypsin. Indeed, in the presence of trypsin, only aMPV/C F protein fusogenicity was enhanced. Mutagenesis of the amino acids at position 100 and/or 101, located at a putative cleavage region in aMPV F proteins, revealed that the trypsin-mediated fusogenicity of aMPV F proteins is regulated by the residues at positions 100 and 101. Moreover, we demonstrated that aMPV/A and aMPV/B F proteins mediated cell-cell fusion independent of low pH, whereas the aMPV/C F protein did not. Mutagenesis of the residue at position 294 in the aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C F proteins showed that 294G played a critical role in F protein-mediated fusion under low pH conditions. These findings on aMPV F protein-induced cell-cell fusion provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying membrane fusion and pathogenesis of aMPV. PMID:26498473

  17. First evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype A infection in turkeys in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Azeem, Abdel-Azeem Sayed; Franzo, Giovanni; Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Drigo, Michele; Catelli, Elena; Lupini, Caterina; Martini, Marco; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2014-08-01

    Although avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection has been reported in most regions of the world, to date, only subtype B has been detected in Egypt. At the end of November 2013, dry oropharyngeal swabs were collected during an outbreak of respiratory diseases in a free-range, multi-age turkey dealer farm in Northern Upper Egypt. The clinical signs that appeared when turkeys were 3 weeks-old were characterized by ocular and nasal discharge and swelling of sinuses. aMPV of subtype A was detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In order to confirm the results and obtain more information on the molecular characteristics of the virus, F and G protein genes were partially sequenced and compared with previously published sequences deposited in GenBank by using BLAST. Subtype of the strain was confirmed by sequencing of partial F and G protein genes. The highest percentages of identity were observed when G sequence of the Egyptian strain was compared with the sequence of an aMPV-A isolated in Nigeria (96.4 %) and when the F sequence was compared with strains isolated respectively in Italy and in UK (97.1 %). Moreover, the alignment of the sequences with commercial subtype A vaccine or vaccine-derived strains showed differences in the Egyptian strain that indicate its probable field origin. The detection of aMPV in the investigated turkey flock highlights some relevant epidemiological issues regarding the role that multi-age farms and dealers may play in perpetuating aMPV infection within and among farms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aMPV subtype A in Egypt.

  18. Viral Replication and Lung Lesions in BALB/c Mice Experimentally Inoculated with Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Isolated from Chickens

    PubMed Central

    She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Wang, Jing; Yan, Xu; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; Quan, Rong; Li, Zixuan; Du, Fang; Wei, Ting; Liu, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) emerged as an important respiratory pathogen causing acute respiratory tract infection in avian species. Here we used a chicken aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C) isolate to inoculate experimentally BALB/c mice and found that the aMPV/C can efficiently replicate and persist in the lungs of mice for at least 21 days with a peak viral load at day 6 postinoculation. Lung pathological changes were characterized by increased inflammatory cells. Immunochemical assay showed the presence of viral antigens in the lungs and significant upregulation of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were detected following inoculation. These results indicate for the first time that chicken aMPV/C may replicate in the lung of mice. Whether aMPV/C has potential as zoonotic pathogen, further investigation will be required. PMID:24637582

  19. Identification of a truncated nucleoprotein in avian metapneumovirus-infected cells encoded by a second AUG, in-frame to the full-length gene

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Rene; Seal, Bruce S

    2005-01-01

    Background Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV) cause an upper respiratory disease with low mortality, but high morbidity primarily in commercial turkeys. There are three types of aMPV (A, B, C) of which the C type is found only in the United States. Viruses related to aMPV include human, bovine, ovine, and caprine respiratory syncytial viruses and pneumonia virus of mice, as well as the recently identified human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The aMPV and hMPV have become the type viruses of a new genus within the Metapneumovirus. The aMPV nucleoprotein (N) amino acid sequences of serotypes A, B, and C were aligned for comparative analysis. Based on predicted antigenicity of consensus protein sequences, five aMPV-specific N peptides were synthesized for development of peptide-antigens and antisera. Results The presence of two aMPV nucleoprotein (N) gene encoded polypeptides was detected in aMPV/C/US/Co and aMPV/A/UK/3b infected Vero cells. Nucleoprotein 1 (N1) encoded from the first open reading frame (ORF) was predicted to be 394 amino acids in length for aMPV/C/US/Co and 391 amino acids in length for aMPV/A/UK/3b with approximate molecular weights of 43.3 kilodaltons and 42.7 kilodaltons, respectively. Nucleoprotein 2 (N2) was hypothesized to be encoded by a second downstream ORF in-frame with ORF1 and encoded a protein predicted to contain 328 amino acids for aMPV/C/US/Co or 259 amino acids for aMPV/A/UK/3b with approximate molecular weights of 36 kilodaltons and 28.3 kilodaltons, respectively. Peptide antibodies to the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the aMPV N protein confirmed presence of these products in both aMPV/C/US/Co- and aMPV/A/UK/3b-infected Vero cells. N1 and N2 for aMPV/C/US/Co ORFs were molecularly cloned and expressed in Vero cells utilizing eukaryotic expression vectors to confirm identity of the aMPV encoded proteins. Conclusion This is the first reported identification of potential, accessory in-frame N2 ORF gene products among members of the

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Blocking Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Avian Metapneumovirus Type C-Specific Antibodies in Multiple Domestic Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Elizabeth A.; Lauer, Dale C.; Swayne, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The first cases of infection caused by avian metapneumoviruses (aMPVs) were described in turkeys with respiratory disease in South Africa during 1978. The causative agent was isolated and identified as a pneumovirus in 1986. aMPVs have been detected in domestic nonpoultry species in Europe, but tests for the detection of these viruses are not available in the United States. To begin to understand the potential role of domestic ducks and geese and wild waterfowl in the epidemiology of aMPV, we have developed and evaluated a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) for the detection of aMPV type C (aMPV-C)-specific antibodies. This assay method overcomes the species-specific platform of indirect ELISAs to allow detection of aMPV-C-specific antibodies from potentially any avian species. The bELISA was initially tested with experimental turkey serum samples, and the results were found to correlate with those of virus neutralization assays and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). One thousand serum samples from turkey flocks in Minnesota were evaluated by our bELISA, and the level of agreement of the results of the bELISA and those of the iELISA was 94.9%. In addition, we were able to show that the bELISA could detect aMPV-C-specific antibodies from experimentally infected ducks, indicating its usefulness for the screening of serum samples from multiple avian species. This is the first diagnostic assay for the detection of aMPV-C-specific antibodies from multiple avian species in the United States. PMID:12904358

  1. Comparative pathogenicity of early and recent isolates of avian metapneumovirus subtype C in turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Binu T.; Noll, Sally L.; Thachil, Anil J.; Halvorson, David A.; Shaw, Daniel P.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the pathogenicity of early and recent isolates of avian metapneumovirus subtype-C (aMPV-C) in turkeys. Two-week-old turkeys were inoculated with early and recent isolates of aMPV-C. Clinical signs were monitored. Tissues were examined for viral ribonucleic acid (RNA), lesions, and viral antigen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), histopathology and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Birds infected with the recent isolate had higher clinical sign scores than those infected with the early isolate. Only the recent isolate produced a multifocal loss of cilia in the nasal turbinate of infected birds. Immunohistochemistry revealed intense staining of aMPV antigen in turbinate and trachea of birds infected with the recent isolate. The findings indicate that the recent isolate produced more severe clinical signs and lesions in turkeys compared to the early isolate. The recent isolate could be ideal for the development of a challenge model for aMPV infection in turkeys. PMID:18783028

  2. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. PMID:27226547

  3. Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shikai; Chen, Feng; Cao, Sheng; Liu, Jiajia; Lei, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Song, Yongfeng; Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Chuang; Qin, Jianping; Li, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China. PMID:25060776

  4. Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20–500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China. PMID:25060776

  5. Vaccination of commercial broiler chicks against avian metapneumovirus infection: a comparison of drinking-water, spray and oculo-oral delivery methods.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Kannan; Bufton, Andrew; Pearson, Andrew; Lemiere, Stephane; Jones, Richard C

    2010-05-21

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) has become an important cause of viral respiratory infections in turkey and chickens. Live and inactivated vaccinations are available worldwide for prevention of disease and economic losses caused by this pathogen. The efficacy of these vaccines is vigorously tested under laboratory conditions prior to use in the field. In this study, a live subtype B aMPV vaccine was administered by spray, drinking water or oculo-oral methods to separate groups of broiler chicks under field conditions. Following this, the chicks were immediately transferred to separate rooms in an experimental isolation house, monitored and challenged with virulent subtype B aMPV. No clinical signs were recorded following the vaccination methods. In the oculo-oral vaccinated chicks, 40-60% of the birds were vaccine virus positive by RT-PCR. In addition, in comparison to other groups, statistically higher levels of aMPV ELISA antibodies were detected. After spray vaccination, the number of chicks positive for the vaccine virus increased gradually from 10% at one week to 30% by 3 weeks post vaccination. Following drinking water vaccination, 30% of chicks were aMPV positive at 1 week but negative by 3 weeks post vaccination. In both, spray and drinking water vaccinated groups, no ELISA antibodies were detected, but when challenged all chicks were protected against disease. At 5 days post challenge, 100% of chicks in the unvaccinated and those vaccinated by spray or drinking water routes but only 20% of the oculo-oral-vaccinated chicks were aMPV positive by RT-PCR. At 10 days post challenge, 10% of chicks in each group were aMPV RT-PCR positive. On challenge, all vaccinated chicks were protected against disease. It appears that when aMPV vaccine is accurately applied to chicks by spray or drinking water routes, both are capable of giving protection against clinical disease equal to that induced in those chicks vaccinated individually by the oculo-oral route.

  6. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous identification, quantitation and differentiation of avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, Mattia; Lupini, Caterina; Munoz Pogoreltseva, Olga Svetlana; Listorti, Valeria; Mondin, Alessandra; Drigo, Michele; Catelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, special attention has been paid to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) diagnosis, due to its numerous advantages over classical PCR. A new multiplex quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) with molecular beacon probe assay, designed to target the SH gene, was developed. The test was evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and repeatability, and compared with conventional RT nested-PCR based on the G gene. All of the AMPV subtype A and B strains tested were amplified and specifically detected while no amplification occurred with other non-target bird respiratory pathogens. The detection limit of the assay was 10(-0.41) median infectious dose/ml and 10(1.15) median infectious dose/ml when the AMPV-B strain IT/Ty/B/Vr240/87 and the AMPV-A strain IT/Ty/A/259-01/03 were used, respectively, as templates. In all cases, the amplification efficiency was approximately 2 and the error values were <0.2. Standard curves, generated either using the serial dilution of an RNA suspension or RNA extracted from the serial dilution of titrated viral suspensions as templates, exhibited good linearity (R (2)>0.9375) between crossing point values and virus quantities, making the assay herein designed reliable for quantification. When the newly developed qRT-PCR was compared with a conventional RT nested-PCR, it showed greater sensitivity with RNA extracted from both positive controls and from experimentally infected birds. This assay can be effectively used for the detection, identification, differentiation and quantitation of AMPV subtype A or subtype B to assist in disease diagnosis and to carry out rapid surveillance with high levels of sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Thermal inactivation of avian viral and bacterial pathogens in an effluent treatment system within a biosafety level 2 and 3 enhanced facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus, avian paramyxovirus Type 1 (APMV-1 or Newcastle disease virus [NDV]), reovirus, rotavirus, turkey astrovirus (TAstV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV-1), avian parvovirus (ChPV) and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are significant biosafety...

  8. Lack of correlation between virus barosensitivity and the presence of a viral envelope during inactivation of human rotavirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and avian metapneumovirus by high-pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Lou, Fangfei; Neetoo, Hudaa; Li, Junan; Chen, Haiqiang; Li, Jianrong

    2011-12-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is a nonthermal technology that has been shown to effectively inactivate a wide range of microorganisms. However, the effectiveness of HPP on inactivation of viruses is relatively less well understood. We systematically investigated the effects of intrinsic (pH) and processing (pressure, time, and temperature) parameters on the pressure inactivation of a nonenveloped virus (human rotavirus [HRV]) and two enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus [VSV] and avian metapneumovirus [aMPV]). We demonstrated that HPP can efficiently inactivate all tested viruses under optimal conditions, although the pressure susceptibilities and the roles of temperature and pH substantially varied among these viruses regardless of the presence of a viral envelope. We found that VSV was much more stable than most food-borne viruses, whereas aMPV was highly susceptible to HPP. When viruses were held for 2 min under 350 MPa at 4°C, 1.1-log, 3.9-log, and 5.0-log virus reductions were achieved for VSV, HRV, and aMPV, respectively. Both VSV and aMPV were more susceptible to HPP at higher temperature and lower pH. In contrast, HRV was more easily inactivated at higher pH, although temperature did not have a significant impact on inactivation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the damage of virion structure by disruption of the viral envelope and/or capsid is the primary mechanism underlying HPP-induced viral inactivation. In addition, VSV glycoprotein remained antigenic although VSV was completely inactivated. Taken together, our findings suggest that HPP is a promising technology to eliminate viral contaminants in high-risk foods, water, and other fomites.

  9. Lack of Correlation between Virus Barosensitivity and the Presence of a Viral Envelope during Inactivation of Human Rotavirus, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, and Avian Metapneumovirus by High-Pressure Processing▿

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Fangfei; Neetoo, Hudaa; Li, Junan; Chen, Haiqiang; Li, Jianrong

    2011-01-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is a nonthermal technology that has been shown to effectively inactivate a wide range of microorganisms. However, the effectiveness of HPP on inactivation of viruses is relatively less well understood. We systematically investigated the effects of intrinsic (pH) and processing (pressure, time, and temperature) parameters on the pressure inactivation of a nonenveloped virus (human rotavirus [HRV]) and two enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus [VSV] and avian metapneumovirus [aMPV]). We demonstrated that HPP can efficiently inactivate all tested viruses under optimal conditions, although the pressure susceptibilities and the roles of temperature and pH substantially varied among these viruses regardless of the presence of a viral envelope. We found that VSV was much more stable than most food-borne viruses, whereas aMPV was highly susceptible to HPP. When viruses were held for 2 min under 350 MPa at 4°C, 1.1-log, 3.9-log, and 5.0-log virus reductions were achieved for VSV, HRV, and aMPV, respectively. Both VSV and aMPV were more susceptible to HPP at higher temperature and lower pH. In contrast, HRV was more easily inactivated at higher pH, although temperature did not have a significant impact on inactivation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the damage of virion structure by disruption of the viral envelope and/or capsid is the primary mechanism underlying HPP-induced viral inactivation. In addition, VSV glycoprotein remained antigenic although VSV was completely inactivated. Taken together, our findings suggest that HPP is a promising technology to eliminate viral contaminants in high-risk foods, water, and other fomites. PMID:22003028

  10. Human Metapneumovirus in Turkey Poults

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Binu T.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Thachil, Anil J.; Shaw, Daniel P.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to reexamine the hypothesis that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) will not infect turkeys. Six groups of 2-week-old turkeys (20 per group) were inoculated oculonasally with 1 of the following: noninfected cell suspension; hMPV genotype A1, A2, B1, or B2; or avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C. Poults inoculated with hMPV showed nasal discharge days 4–9 postexposure. Specific viral RNA and antigen were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemical evaluation, respectively, in nasal turbinates of birds exposed to hMPV. Nasal turbinates of hMPV-infected turkeys showed inflammatory changes and mucus accumulation. Each of the 4 hMPV genotypes caused a transient infection in turkeys as evidenced by clinical signs, detection of hMPV in turbinates, and histopathologic examination. Detailed investigation of cross-species pathogenicity of hMPV and aMPV and its importance for human and animal health is needed. PMID:17235379

  11. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the United States. In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coot (AC) and Canada goose (CG) were passa...

  12. Nucleotide and Predicted Amino Acid Sequence-Based Analysis of the Avian Metapneumovirus Type C Cell Attachment Glycoprotein Gene: Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Epidemiology of U.S. Pneumoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Rene; Lwamba, Humphrey M.; Kapczynski, Darrell R.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Seal, Bruce S.

    2003-01-01

    A serologically distinct avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) was isolated in the United States after an outbreak of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) in February 1997. The newly recognized U.S. virus was subsequently demonstrated to be genetically distinct from European subtypes and was designated aMPV serotype C (aMPV/C). We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the cell attachment glycoprotein (G) of aMPV/C (Colorado strain and three Minnesota isolates) and predicted amino acid sequence by sequencing cloned cDNAs synthesized from intracellular RNA of aMPV/C-infected cells. The nucleotide sequence comprised 1,321 nucleotides with only one predicted open reading frame encoding a protein of 435 amino acids, with a predicted Mr of 48,840. The structural characteristics of the predicted G protein of aMPV/C were similar to those of the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) attachment G protein, including two mucin-like regions (heparin-binding domains) flanking both sides of a CX3C chemokine motif present in a conserved hydrophobic pocket. Comparison of the deduced G-protein amino acid sequence of aMPV/C with those of aMPV serotypes A, B, and D, as well as hRSV revealed overall predicted amino acid sequence identities ranging from 4 to 16.5%, suggesting a distant relationship. However, G-protein sequence identities ranged from 72 to 97% when aMPV/C was compared to other members within the aMPV/C subtype or 21% for the recently identified human MPV (hMPV) G protein. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes were greater than one in the G gene when comparing the more recent Minnesota isolates to the original Colorado isolate. Epidemiologically, this indicates positive selection among U.S. isolates since the first outbreak of TRT in the United States. PMID:12682171

  13. Sequence analysis of the large polymerase (L) protein of the US strain of avian metapneumovirus indicates a close resemblance to that of the human metapneumovirus.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Samal, Siba K

    2004-09-15

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the large polymerase (L) protein of the avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain Colorado was determined. The L protein gene of avian pneumovirus Colorado isolate (APV-C) was 6173 nucleotides in length from the gene-start to the gene-end and encoded a polypeptide of 2005 amino acids in length. The length of the L protein of APV-C was exactly the same as that of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and one amino acid longer than the L protein of APV subgroup A. The L protein of APV-C showed 80% amino acid identity with the L protein of hMPV, but only 64% amino acid identity with the L protein of APV-A. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were compared with the corresponding sequences of eleven other paramyxoviruses. All six domains characteristic of paramyxovirus L proteins were also observed in the L protein of APV-C. All the polymerase core motifs in domain III were conserved to nearly 100% in the metapneumoviruses. Similarly, the putative ATP-binding motif in domain VI was completely conserved among the metapneumoviruses and differed in length, by one intermediate residue, from other paramyxoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the different L proteins also revealed a closer relationship between APV-C and hMPV.

  14. A Wild Goose Metapneumovirus Containing a Large Attachment Glycoprotein Is Avirulent but Immunoprotective in Domestic Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Richard S.; LaRue, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel; Yu, Qingzhong; Nagaraja, K. V.; Halvorson, David A.; Njenga, M. Kariuki

    2005-01-01

    The genomic structure and composition of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) recently isolated from wild Canada geese (goose 15a/01) in the United States, together with its replication, virulence, and immunogenicity in domestic turkeys, were investigated. The sizes of seven of the eight genes, sequence identity, and genome organization of goose aMPV were similar to those of turkey aMPV subtype C (aMPV/C) strains, indicating that it belonged to the subtype. However, the goose virus contained the largest attachment (G) gene of any pneumovirus or metapneumovirus, with the predicted G protein of 585 amino acids (aa) more than twice the sizes of G proteins from other subtype C viruses and human metapneumovirus and more than 170 aa larger than the G proteins from the other aMPV subtypes (subtypes A, B, and D). The large G gene resulted from a 1,015-nucleotide insertion at 18 nucleotides upstream of the termination signal of the turkey aMPV/C G gene. Three other aMPV isolates from Canada geese had similarly large G genes, whereas analysis of recent aMPV strains circulating in U.S. turkeys did not indicate the presence of the goose virus-like strain. In vitro, the goose virus replicated to levels (2 × 105 to 5 × 105 50% tissue culture infective dose) comparable to those produced by turkey aMPV/C strains. More importantly, the virus replicated efficiently in the upper respiratory tract of domestic turkeys but with no clinical signs in either day-old or 2-week-old turkeys. The virus was also horizontally transmitted to naïve birds, and turkey infections with goose 15a/01 induced production of aMPV-specific antibodies. Challenging day-old or 2-week-old turkeys vaccinated with live goose aMPV resulted in lower clinical scores in 33% of the birds, whereas the rest of the birds had no detectable clinical signs of the upper respiratory disease, suggesting that the mutant virus may be a safe and effective vaccine against aMPV infection outbreaks in commercial turkeys. PMID:16282483

  15. A wild goose metapneumovirus containing a large attachment glycoprotein is avirulent but immunoprotective in domestic turkeys.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Richard S; LaRue, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel; Yu, Qingzhong; Nagaraja, K V; Halvorson, David A; Njenga, M Kariuki

    2005-12-01

    The genomic structure and composition of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) recently isolated from wild Canada geese (goose 15a/01) in the United States, together with its replication, virulence, and immunogenicity in domestic turkeys, were investigated. The sizes of seven of the eight genes, sequence identity, and genome organization of goose aMPV were similar to those of turkey aMPV subtype C (aMPV/C) strains, indicating that it belonged to the subtype. However, the goose virus contained the largest attachment (G) gene of any pneumovirus or metapneumovirus, with the predicted G protein of 585 amino acids (aa) more than twice the sizes of G proteins from other subtype C viruses and human metapneumovirus and more than 170 aa larger than the G proteins from the other aMPV subtypes (subtypes A, B, and D). The large G gene resulted from a 1,015-nucleotide insertion at 18 nucleotides upstream of the termination signal of the turkey aMPV/C G gene. Three other aMPV isolates from Canada geese had similarly large G genes, whereas analysis of recent aMPV strains circulating in U.S. turkeys did not indicate the presence of the goose virus-like strain. In vitro, the goose virus replicated to levels (2 x 10(5) to 5 x 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective dose) comparable to those produced by turkey aMPV/C strains. More importantly, the virus replicated efficiently in the upper respiratory tract of domestic turkeys but with no clinical signs in either day-old or 2-week-old turkeys. The virus was also horizontally transmitted to naïve birds, and turkey infections with goose 15a/01 induced production of aMPV-specific antibodies. Challenging day-old or 2-week-old turkeys vaccinated with live goose aMPV resulted in lower clinical scores in 33% of the birds, whereas the rest of the birds had no detectable clinical signs of the upper respiratory disease, suggesting that the mutant virus may be a safe and effective vaccine against aMPV infection outbreaks in commercial turkeys.

  16. Efficacy of disinfectants and hand sanitizers against avian respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Patnayak, Devi P; Prasad, A Minakshi; Malik, Yashpal S; Ramakrishnan, M A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2008-06-01

    Disinfectants play a major role in the control of animal diseases by decontaminating the farm environment. We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of nine commonly used disinfectants on a nonporous surface contaminated experimentally with avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), avian influenza virus, or Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Phenolic compounds and glutaraldehyde were found to be the most effective against all three viruses. Quaternary ammonium compounds were effective against aMPV but not against the other two viruses. In addition, efficacy of commercially available hand sanitizers was evaluated on human fingers contaminated with aMPV and NDV. All three hand sanitizers tested were found to be effective against both viruses within 1 min of application on fingers.

  17. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. Methods In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC) and Canada geese (CG) were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Results Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF) cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys. PMID:23363433

  18. Glycoprotein gene truncation in avian metapneumovirus subtype C isolates from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Binu T.; Yu, Qingzhong; Estevez, Carlos N.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.

    2008-01-01

    The length of the published glycoprotein (G) gene sequences of avian metapneumovirus subtype-C (aMPV-C) isolated from domestic turkeys and wild birds in the United States (1996–2003) remains controversial. To explore the G gene size variation in aMPV-C by the year of isolation and cell culture passage levels, we examined 21 turkey isolates of aMPV-C at different cell culture passages. The early domestic turkey isolates of aMPV-C (aMPV/CO/1996, aMPV/MN/1a-b, and 2a-b/97) had a G gene of 1,798 nucleotides (nt) that coded for a predicted protein of 585 amino acids (aa) and showed >97% nt similarity with that of aMPV-C isolated from Canada geese. This large G gene got truncated upon serial passages in Vero cell cultures by deletion of 1,015 nt near the end of the open reading frame. The recent domestic turkey isolates of aMPV-C lacked the large G gene but instead had a small G gene of 783 nt, irrespective of cell culture passage levels. In some cultures, both large and small genes were detected, indicating the existence of a mixed population of the virus. Apparently, serial passage of aMPV-C in cell cultures and natural passage in turkeys in the field led to truncation of the G gene, which may be a mechanism of virus evolution for survival in a new host or environment. PMID:18663568

  19. Topology and cellular localization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hydrophobic protein (SH) is a type II integral membrane protein that is packaged into virions and is only present in certain paramyxoviruses including metapneumovirus. In addition to a highly divergent primary sequence, SH proteins vary significantly in size among the different viruses. Hu...

  20. Deduced amino acid sequence of the small hydrophobic protein of US avian pneumovirus has greater identity with that of human metapneumovirus than those of non-US avian pneumoviruses.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Abdul S; Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Huang, Zhuhui; Samal, Siba K

    2003-05-01

    We report here the nucleotide and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus strain Colorado (APV/CO). The SH gene of APV/CO is 628 nucleotides in length from gene-start to gene-end. The longest ORF of the SH gene encoded a protein of 177 aas in length. Comparison of the deduced aa sequence of the SH protein of APV/CO with the corresponding published sequences of other members of genera metapneumovirus showed 28% identity with the newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV), but no discernable identity with the APV subgroup A or B. Collectively, this data supports the hypothesis that: (i) APV/CO is distinct from European APV subgroups and belongs to the novel subgroup APV/C (APV/US); (ii) APV/CO is more closely related to hMPV, a mammalian metapneumovirus, than to either APV subgroup A or B. The SH gene of APV/CO was cloned using a genomic walk strategy which initiated cDNA synthesis from genomic RNA that traversed the genes in the order 3'-M-F-M2-SH-G-5', thus confirming that gene-order of APV/CO conforms in the genus Metapneumovirus. We also provide the sequences of transcription-signals and the M-F, F-M2, M2-SH and SH-G intergenic regions of APV/CO.

  1. Subgroup C avian metapneumovirus (MPV) and the recently isolated human MPV exhibit a common organization but have extensive sequence divergence in their putative SH and G genes.

    PubMed

    Toquin, D; de Boisseson, C; Beven, V; Senne, D A; Eterradossi, N

    2003-08-01

    The genes encoding the putative small hydrophobic (SH), attachment (G) and polymerase (L) proteins of the Colorado isolate of subgroup C avian pneumovirus (APV) were entirely or partially sequenced. They all included metapneumovirus (MPV)-like gene start and gene end sequences. The deduced Colorado SH protein shared 26.9 and 21.7 % aa identity with its counterpart in human MPV (hMPV) and APV subgroup A, respectively, but its only significant aa similarities were to hMPV. Conserved features included a common hydrophobicity profile with an unique transmembrane domain and the conservation of most extracellular cysteine residues. The Colorado putative G gene encoded several ORFs, the longer of which encoded a 252 aa long type II glycoprotein with aa similarities to hMPV G only (20.6 % overall aa identity with seven conserved N-terminal residues). The putative Colorado G protein shared, at best, 21.0 % aa identity with its counterparts in the other APV subgroups and did not contain the extracellular cysteine residues and short aa stretch highly conserved in other APVs. The N-terminal end of the Colorado L protein exhibited 73.6 and 54.9 % aa identity with hMPV and APV subgroup A, respectively, with four aa blocks highly conserved among Pneumovirus: Phylogenetic analysis performed on the nt sequences confirmed that the L sequences from MPVs were genetically related, whereas analysis of the G sequences revealed that among MPVs, only APV subgroups A, B and D clustered together, independently of both the Colorado isolate and hMPV, which shared weak genetic relatedness at the G gene level.

  2. Subtyping of new Brazilian avian metapneumovirus isolates from chickens and turkeys by reverse transcriptase-nested-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    D'Arce, Regina C F; Coswig, Lia T; Almeida, Renata S; Trevisol, Iara M; Monteiro, Maria C B; Rossini, Lavínia I; Di Fabio, José; Hafez, Hafez M; Arns, Clarice W

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to improve a reverse transcriptase (RT)-nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) able to differentiate avian pneumovirus (APV) subtypes A and B, and to characterize new Brazilian isolates. Representative APV strains and clinical field samples from chickens and turkey flocks were amplified in the chicken embryo-related cell line. Viral RNA was extracted from harvested cells, and submitted to cDNA synthesis. The primers utilized for RT-PCR were compatible with the G gene of both the A and B subtypes of APV, while the nested primers were subtype specific. This approach showed that three new APVs from chickens and one from turkeys were subtype A, confirmed by sequencing. This is the first report of APV isolation from turkeys in Brazil. Four other APVs were detected and classified as subtype A by RT-nested-PCR. These optimized techniques could be useful for differentiation of APV subtypes A and B, proving to be a valuable molecular epidemiological tool.

  3. Zinc Binding Activity of Human Metapneumovirus M2-1 Protein Is Indispensable for Viral Replication and Pathogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Yuanmei; Sun, Jing; Liang, Xueya

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a member of the Pneumovirinae subfamily in the Paramyxoviridae family that causes respiratory tract infections in humans. Unlike members of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily, the polymerase complex of pneumoviruses requires an additional cofactor, the M2-1 protein, which functions as a transcriptional antitermination factor. The M2-1 protein was found to incorporate zinc ions, although the specific role(s) of the zinc binding activity in viral replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we found that the third cysteine (C21) and the last histidine (H25) in the zinc binding motif (CCCH) of hMPV M2-1 were essential for zinc binding activity, whereas the first two cysteines (C7 and C15) play only minor or redundant roles in zinc binding. In addition, the zinc binding motif is essential for the oligomerization of M2-1. Subsequently, recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) carrying mutations in the zinc binding motif were recovered. Interestingly, rhMPV-C21S and -H25L mutants, which lacked zinc binding activity, had delayed replication in cell culture and were highly attenuated in cotton rats. In contrast, rhMPV-C7S and -C15S strains, which retained 60% of the zinc binding activity, replicated as efficiently as rhMPV in cotton rats. Importantly, rhMPVs that lacked zinc binding activity triggered high levels of neutralizing antibody and provided complete protection against challenge with rhMPV. Taken together, these results demonstrate that zinc binding activity is indispensable for viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo. These results also suggest that inhibition of zinc binding activity may serve as a novel approach to rationally attenuate hMPV and perhaps other pneumoviruses for vaccine purposes. IMPORTANCE The pneumoviruses include many important human and animal pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), hMPV, bovine RSV, and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV). Among these viruses, hRSV and hMPV are the

  4. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus in a fat-free egg product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) and Avian Paramyxovirus Type-1 (AMPV-1) viruses can survive on the carcasses, in organ tissue of infected birds, on fomites, and have the potential for egg transmission and egg product contamination. With the increase in global trade, there are concerns that egg products could ...

  5. Limited evidence of intercontinental dispersal of avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 by migratory birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 (APMV-4) is a single stranded RNA virus that has most often been isolated from waterfowl. Limited information has been reported regarding the prevalence, pathogenicity, and genetic diversity of AMPV-4. To assess the intercontinental dispersal of this viral agent, we se...

  6. Live vaccines for human metapneumovirus designed by reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Ursula J; Nagashima, Kunio; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was first described in 2001 and has quickly become recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract disease worldwide, especially in the pediatric population. A vaccine against HMPV is required to prevent severe disease associated with infection in infancy. The primary strategy is to develop a live-attenuated virus for intranasal immunization, which is particularly well suited against a respiratory virus. Reverse genetics provides a means of developing highly characterized 'designer' attenuated vaccine candidates. To date, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed, each using a different mode of attenuation. One candidate involves deletion of the G glycoprotein, providing attenuation that is probably based on reduced efficiency of attachment. A second candidate involves deletion of the M2-2 protein, which participates in regulating RNA synthesis and whose deletion has the advantageous property of upregulating transcription and increasing antigen synthesis. A third candidate involves replacing the P protein gene of HMPV with its counterpart from the related avian metapneumovirus, thereby introducing attenuation owing to its chimeric nature and host range restriction. Another live vaccine strategy involves using an attenuated parainfluenza virus as a vector to express HMPV protective antigens, providing a bivalent pediatric vaccine. Additional modifications to provide improved vaccines will also be discussed.

  7. Live vaccines for human metapneumovirus designed by reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Ursula J; Nagashima, Kunio; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was first described in 2001 and has quickly become recognized as an important cause of respiratory tract disease worldwide, especially in the pediatric population. A vaccine against HMPV is required to prevent severe disease associated with infection in infancy. The primary strategy is to develop a live-attenuated virus for intranasal immunization, which is particularly well suited against a respiratory virus. Reverse genetics provides a means of developing highly characterized 'designer' attenuated vaccine candidates. To date, several promising vaccine candidates have been developed, each using a different mode of attenuation. One candidate involves deletion of the G glycoprotein, providing attenuation that is probably based on reduced efficiency of attachment. A second candidate involves deletion of the M2-2 protein, which participates in regulating RNA synthesis and whose deletion has the advantageous property of upregulating transcription and increasing antigen synthesis. A third candidate involves replacing the P protein gene of HMPV with its counterpart from the related avian metapneumovirus, thereby introducing attenuation owing to its chimeric nature and host range restriction. Another live vaccine strategy involves using an attenuated parainfluenza virus as a vector to express HMPV protective antigens, providing a bivalent pediatric vaccine. Additional modifications to provide improved vaccines will also be discussed. PMID:17181442

  8. Metapneumovirus Infections and Respiratory Complications.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Mastrolia, Maria Vincenza

    2016-08-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are the most common illnesses experienced by people of all ages worldwide. In 2001, a new respiratory pathogen called human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was identified in respiratory secretions. hMPV is an RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, and it has been isolated on every continent and from individuals of all ages. hMPV causes 7 to 19% of all cases of ARTIs in both hospitalized and outpatient children, and the rate of detection in adults is approximately 3%. Symptoms of hMPV infection range from a mild cold to a severe disease requiring a ventilator and cardiovascular support. The main risk factors for severe disease upon hMPV infection are the presence of a high viral load, coinfection with other agents (especially human respiratory syncytial virus), being between 0 and 5 months old or older than 65 years, and immunodeficiency. Currently, available treatments for hMPV infections are only supportive, and antiviral drugs are employed in cases of severe disease as a last resort. Ribavirin and immunoglobulins have been used in some patients, but the real efficacy of these treatments is unclear. At present, the direction of research on therapy for hMPV infection is toward the development of new approaches, and a variety of vaccination strategies are being explored and tested in animal models. However, further studies are required to define the best treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:27486733

  9. Metapneumovirus Infections and Respiratory Complications.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Mastrolia, Maria Vincenza

    2016-08-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are the most common illnesses experienced by people of all ages worldwide. In 2001, a new respiratory pathogen called human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was identified in respiratory secretions. hMPV is an RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, and it has been isolated on every continent and from individuals of all ages. hMPV causes 7 to 19% of all cases of ARTIs in both hospitalized and outpatient children, and the rate of detection in adults is approximately 3%. Symptoms of hMPV infection range from a mild cold to a severe disease requiring a ventilator and cardiovascular support. The main risk factors for severe disease upon hMPV infection are the presence of a high viral load, coinfection with other agents (especially human respiratory syncytial virus), being between 0 and 5 months old or older than 65 years, and immunodeficiency. Currently, available treatments for hMPV infections are only supportive, and antiviral drugs are employed in cases of severe disease as a last resort. Ribavirin and immunoglobulins have been used in some patients, but the real efficacy of these treatments is unclear. At present, the direction of research on therapy for hMPV infection is toward the development of new approaches, and a variety of vaccination strategies are being explored and tested in animal models. However, further studies are required to define the best treatment and prevention strategies.

  10. Detection of human metapneumovirus from children with acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akira; Watanabe, Oshi; Okamoto, Michiko; Endo, Hiroko; Yano, Hisakazu; Suetake, Mitsuko; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2005-07-01

    Nasal and middle ear specimens collected from children with acute otitis media were subjected to viral isolation and bacteria culture. All virus-negative specimens underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect human metapneumovirus. Three of 126 middle ear specimens were positive by this assay.

  11. Structural Insights into the Human Metapneumovirus Glycoprotein Ectodomain

    PubMed Central

    Leyrat, Cedric; Paesen, Guido C.; Charleston, James; Renner, Max

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus is a major cause of respiratory tract infections worldwide. Previous reports have shown that the viral attachment glycoprotein (G) modulates innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to incomplete immunity and promoting reinfection. Using bioinformatics analyses, static light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering, we show that the extracellular region of G behaves as a heavily glycosylated, intrinsically disordered polymer. We discuss potential implications of these findings for the modulation of immune responses by G. PMID:25031352

  12. Human Metapneumovirus: Lessons Learned over the First Decade †

    PubMed Central

    Schildgen, Verena; van den Hoogen, Bernadette; Fouchier, Ron; Tripp, Ralph A.; Alvarez, Rene; Manoha, Catherine; Williams, John; Schildgen, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Summary: It has been 10 years since human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified as a causative agent of respiratory illness in humans. Since then, numerous studies have contributed to a substantial body of knowledge on many aspects of HMPV. This review summarizes our current knowledge on HMPV, HMPV disease pathogenesis, and disease intervention strategies and identifies a number of areas with key questions to be addressed in the future. PMID:21976607

  13. Antiviral Activity of Favipiravir (T-705) against a Broad Range of Paramyxoviruses In Vitro and against Human Metapneumovirus in Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jochmans, D; van Nieuwkoop, S; Smits, S L; Neyts, J; Fouchier, R A M; van den Hoogen, B G

    2016-08-01

    The clinical impact of infections with respiratory viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae argues for the development of antiviral therapies with broad-spectrum activity. Favipiravir (T-705) has demonstrated potent antiviral activity against multiple RNA virus families and is presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. Here we demonstrate in vitro activity of T-705 against the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (HMPV), respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, measles virus, Newcastle disease virus, and avian metapneumovirus. In addition, we demonstrate activity against HMPV in hamsters. T-705 treatment inhibited replication of all paramyxoviruses tested in vitro, with 90% effective concentration (EC90) values of 8 to 40 μM. Treatment of HMPV-challenged hamsters with T-705 at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day resulted in 100% protection from infection of the lungs. In all treated and challenged animals, viral RNA remained detectable in the respiratory tract. The observation that T-705 treatment had a significant effect on infectious viral titers, with a limited effect on viral genome titers, is in agreement with its proposed mode of action of viral mutagenesis. However, next-generation sequencing of viral genomes isolated from treated and challenged hamsters did not reveal (hyper)mutation. Polymerase activity assays revealed a specific effect of T-705 on the activity of the HMPV polymerase. With the reported antiviral activity of T-705 against a broad range of RNA virus families, this small molecule is a promising broad-range antiviral drug candidate for limiting the viral burden of paramyxoviruses and for evaluation for treatment of infections with (re)emerging viruses, such as the henipaviruses.

  14. Antiviral Activity of Favipiravir (T-705) against a Broad Range of Paramyxoviruses In Vitro and against Human Metapneumovirus in Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jochmans, D; van Nieuwkoop, S; Smits, S L; Neyts, J; Fouchier, R A M; van den Hoogen, B G

    2016-08-01

    The clinical impact of infections with respiratory viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae argues for the development of antiviral therapies with broad-spectrum activity. Favipiravir (T-705) has demonstrated potent antiviral activity against multiple RNA virus families and is presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. Here we demonstrate in vitro activity of T-705 against the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (HMPV), respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, measles virus, Newcastle disease virus, and avian metapneumovirus. In addition, we demonstrate activity against HMPV in hamsters. T-705 treatment inhibited replication of all paramyxoviruses tested in vitro, with 90% effective concentration (EC90) values of 8 to 40 μM. Treatment of HMPV-challenged hamsters with T-705 at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day resulted in 100% protection from infection of the lungs. In all treated and challenged animals, viral RNA remained detectable in the respiratory tract. The observation that T-705 treatment had a significant effect on infectious viral titers, with a limited effect on viral genome titers, is in agreement with its proposed mode of action of viral mutagenesis. However, next-generation sequencing of viral genomes isolated from treated and challenged hamsters did not reveal (hyper)mutation. Polymerase activity assays revealed a specific effect of T-705 on the activity of the HMPV polymerase. With the reported antiviral activity of T-705 against a broad range of RNA virus families, this small molecule is a promising broad-range antiviral drug candidate for limiting the viral burden of paramyxoviruses and for evaluation for treatment of infections with (re)emerging viruses, such as the henipaviruses. PMID:27185803

  15. New Approaches for Immunization and Therapy against Human Metapneumovirus

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Sherry C.

    2015-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a paramyxovirus discovered in 2001 in the Netherlands. Studies have identified HMPV as an important causative agent of acute respiratory disease in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Clinical signs of infection range from mild upper respiratory illness to more serious lower respiratory illness, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. There are currently no licensed therapeutics or vaccines against HMPV. However, several research groups have tested vaccine candidates and monoclonal antibodies in various animal models. Several of these approaches have shown promise in animal models. This minireview summarizes the current therapies used to treat HMPV infection as well as different approaches for immunization. PMID:26063237

  16. Avian Astrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian astroviruses comprise a diverse group of viruses affecting many avian species and causing enteritis, hepatitis and nephritis. To date, six different astroviruses have been identified in avian species based on the species of origin and viral genome characteristics: two turkey-origin astroviru...

  17. Modulation of Host Immunity by the Human Metapneumovirus.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Pablo F; Palavecino, Christian E; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2016-10-01

    Globally, as a leading agent of acute respiratory tract infections in children <5 years of age and the elderly, the human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has gained considerable attention. As inferred from studies comparing vaccinated and experimentally infected mice, the acquired immune response elicited by this pathogen fails to efficiently clear the virus from the airways, which leads to an exaggerated inflammatory response and lung damage. Furthermore, after disease resolution, there is a poor development of T and B cell immunological memory, which is believed to promote reinfections and viral spread in the community. In this article, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that shape the interactions of HMPV with host tissues that lead to pulmonary pathology and to the development of adaptive immunity that fails to protect against natural infections by this virus.

  18. Limited evidence of intercontinental dispersal of avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 by migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Andrew; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Muzyka, Denys; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi; Nghia Bui, Vuong; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Stallknecht, David E.; Ramey, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 (APMV-4) is a single stranded RNA virus that has most often been isolated from waterfowl. Limited information has been reported regarding the prevalence, pathogenicity, and genetic diversity of AMPV-4. To assess the intercontinental dispersal of this viral agent, we sequenced the fusion gene of 58 APMV-4 isolates collected in the United States, Japan and the Ukraine and compared them to all available sequences on GenBank. With only a single exception the phylogenetic clades of APMV-4 sequences were monophyletic with respect to their continents of origin (North America, Asia and Europe). Thus, we detected limited evidence for recent intercontinental dispersal of APMV-4 in this study.

  19. Role of dietary antioxidants in human metapneumovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Komaravelli, Narayana; Kelley, John P; Garofalo, Matteo P; Wu, Haotian; Casola, Antonella; Kolli, Deepthi

    2015-03-16

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised hosts, for which no vaccine or treatment are currently available. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses represent important pathogenic mechanism(s) of hMPV infection. Here, we explored the potential protective role of dietary antioxidants in hMPV infection. Treatment of airway epithelial cells with resveratrol and quercetin during hMPV infection significantly reduced cellular oxidative damage, inflammatory mediator secretion and viral replication, without affecting viral gene transcription and protein synthesis, indicating that inhibition of viral replication occurred at the level of viral assembly and/or release. Modulation of proinflammatory mediator expression occurred through the inhibition of transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 binding to their cognate site of endogenous gene promoters. Our results indicate the use of dietary antioxidants as an effective treatment approach for modulating hMPV induced lung oxidative damage and inflammation.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of Human Metapneumovirus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Il; Park, Sehee; Lee, Ilseob; Park, Kwang Sook; Kwak, Eun Jung; Moon, Kwang Mee; Lee, Chang Kyu; Bae, Joon-Yong; Park, Man-Seong; Song, Ki-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has been described as an important etiologic agent of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, especially in young children and the elderly. Most of school-aged children might be introduced to HMPVs, and exacerbation with other viral or bacterial super-infection is common. However, our understanding of the molecular evolution of HMPVs remains limited. To address the comprehensive evolutionary dynamics of HMPVs, we report a genome-wide analysis of the eight genes (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G, and L) using 103 complete genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that the eight genes from one HMPV strain grouped into the same genetic group among the five distinct lineages (A1, A2a, A2b, B1, and B2). A few exceptions of phylogenetic incongruence might suggest past recombination events, and we detected possible recombination breakpoints in the F, SH, and G coding regions. The five genetic lineages of HMPVs shared quite remote common ancestors ranging more than 220 to 470 years of age with the most recent origins for the A2b sublineage. Purifying selection was common, but most protein genes except the F and M2-2 coding regions also appeared to experience episodic diversifying selection. Taken together, these suggest that the five lineages of HMPVs maintain their individual evolutionary dynamics and that recombination and selection forces might work on shaping the genetic diversity of HMPVs. PMID:27046055

  1. ROLE OF DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS IN HUMAN METAPNEUMOVIRUS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Komaravelli, Narayana; Kelley, John P.; Garofalo, Matteo P.; Wu, Hoatian; Casola, Antonella; Kolli, Deepthi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised hosts, for which no vaccine or treatment are currently available. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses represent important pathogenic mechanism(s) of hMPV infection. Here, we explored the potential protective role of dietary antioxidants in hMPV infection. Treatment of airway epithelial cells with resveratrol and quercetin during hMPV infection significantly reduced cellular oxidative damage, inflammatory mediator secretion and viral replication, without affecting viral gene transcription and protein synthesis, indicating that inhibition of viral replication occurred at the level of viral assembly and/or release. Modulation of proinflammatory mediator expression occurred through the inhibition of transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 binding to their cognate site of endogenous gene promoters. Our results indicate the use of dietary antioxidants as an effective treatment approach for modulating hMPV induced lung oxidative damage and inflammation. PMID:25645280

  2. Airway epithelial cell response to human metapneumovirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.; Liu, T.; Spetch, L.; Kolli, D.; Garofalo, R.P.; Casola, A.

    2007-11-10

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators.

  3. Avian Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... infectious viral disease of birds. Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans; however some, such as ... often causing no apparent signs of illness. AI viruses can sometimes spread to domestic poultry and cause ...

  4. Avian Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  5. Avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Locke, Louis N.; Kennelly, James J.

    1985-01-01

    What is avian botulism? Avian botulism, or Western duck sickness, is one of the three most important disease problems of wild migratory birds. Each year, many birds are paralyzed or die after exposure to a toxin produced by the botulinum bacterium. Two of the seven toxin types that have been identifies cause mortality in wild birds; one of these types, type C, is most often associated with dieoffs of ducks, while type E primarily affects gulls and loons.

  6. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  7. AVIAN IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for studying the avian immune system have matured during the past two decades, with laboratory studies predominating in earlier years and field studies being conducted only in the past decade. One application has been to determine the potential for environmental contamina...

  8. Avian Influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur. PMID:15847721

  9. Avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary A; Maslow, Melanie J

    2006-03-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004 alone, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate over 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantines, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent increased human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short, interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems offer promise, should a pandemic occur. PMID:16566867

  10. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  11. Evaluation of a Japanese quail fibrosarcoma cell line (QT-35) for use in the propagation and detection of metapneumovirus.

    PubMed

    Sabara, Marta I; Larence, June E

    2002-04-01

    A Japanese quail fibrosarcoma cell line (QT-35) was evaluated and compared to Vero cells for its utility in metapneumovirus propagation, titration and serological detection by indirect immunofluorescence staining. Cell characteristics such as growth kinetics at different passage levels and seeding density in 96-well plates using various media formulations were studied in order to determine suitable assay parameters. Specifically, QT-35 cells supported the replication of a subgroup A metapneumovirus, strain 14/1, when maintained in DMEM containing a high level of glucose (4500 mg/l) and 2% gamma-irradiated fetal bovine serum (gamma-FBS). There appeared to be a decreased ability of metapneumovirus produced in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells to replicate to high titers in QT-35 cells, however, this apparent restriction was overcome after the second passage resulting in high titered stock. Metapneumovirus produced in Vero cells and propagated in QT-35 cells produced high titered stock after the first passage. Viral titers determined in Vero and QT-35 cells were comparable, when the latter cell line was used at passage levels < or = 20 and seeded between 5.0 x 10(4) and 1.0 x 10(5) cells/0.33 cm(2) in hgDMEM containing 10% gamma-FBS, with a reduction to 2% gamma-FBS when the virus was applied to the cell monolayers 24 h post-seeding. After infection with metapneumovirus, QT-35 cells exhibited syncytia, similar to those in metapneumovirus-infected Vero cells, which were readily detected by indirect immunofluorescent (IF) staining.

  12. Human metapneumovirus infections on the ICU: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is primarily known as a causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, the virus also can cause respiratory infections in adults. hMPV infections tend to be mild and are self-limiting, but the infections can be severe in the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Because hMPV infection is quite common, it should be considered in every patient with respiratory failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). We describe three adult patients, including a young pregnant woman, with hMPV infection who required admission to our ICU. Two of them developed respiratory failure with indication for mechanical ventilation. PMID:22812412

  13. Viral load and acute otitis media development after human metapneumovirus upper respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Pyles, Richard B; Miller, Aaron L; Patel, Janak A; Loeffelholz, Michael; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2012-07-01

    The role of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection (URI) was studied. Nasopharyngeal specimens from 700 URI episodes in 200 children were evaluated; 47 (7%) were positive for hMPV, 25 (3.6%) with hMPV as the only virus. Overall, 24% of URI episodes with hMPV only were complicated by acute otitis media, which was the lowest rate compared with other respiratory viruses. hMPV viral load was significantly higher in children with fever, but there was no difference in viral load in children with hMPV-positive URI with or without acute otitis media complication.

  14. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in the United States Updates and Publications Information ... Humans Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza Viruses Outbreaks Health Care and Laboratorian Guidance HPAI A ...

  15. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of human metapneumovirus among children with acute respiratory infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nor'e, S S; Sam, I C; Mohamad Fakri, E F; Hooi, P S; Nathan, A M; de Bruyne, J A; Jafar, F; Hassan, A; AbuBakar, S; Chan, Y F

    2014-09-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered cause of viral respiratory infections. We describe clinical and molecular epidemiology of HMPV cases diagnosed in children with respiratory infection at University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The prevalence rate of HMPV between 2010 and 2012 was 1.1%, and HMPV contributed 6.5% of confirmed viral respiratory infections. The HMPV patients had a median age of 1.6 years, and a median hospital admission of 4 days. The most common clinical presentations were fever, rhinitis, pneumonia, vomiting/diarrhoea, and bronchiolitis. Based on the partial sequences of F fusion gene from 26 HMPV strains, 14 (54%) were subgenotype A2b, which was predominant in 2010; 11 (42%) were subgenotype B1, which was predominant in 2012; and 1 (4%) was subgenotype A2a. Knowledge of the circulating subgenotypes in Malaysia, and the displacement of predominant subgenotypes within 3 years, is useful data for future vaccine planning.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus from 2009 to 2011 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Taira, Katsuya; Hamabata, Hirotsune; Kawaki, Tatsuyoshi; Gushi, Kazuo; Mahoe, Youko; Maeshiro, Noriyuki; Azama, Yasuhito; Okano, Shou; Kyan, Hisako; Kudaka, Jun; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Noda, Masahiro; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2012-07-01

    To clarify the molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in Okinawa Prefecture, located in a subtropical region of Japan, we performed genetic analysis of the F gene in HMPV from patients with acute respiratory infection from January 2009 to December 2011. HMPV was detected in 18 of 485 throat swabs (3.7%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 17 strains belonged to subgroup A2 and 1 strain belonged to subgroup B1. We did not observe seasonal prevalence of HMPV during the investigation period. A high level of sequence identity was observed in the strains belonging to subgroup A2 (>95%), and no amino acid substitution was found compared with other strains detected in Japan and other countries. The pairwise distance values among the present strains belonging to subgroup A2 were short. Our results suggest that the predominant HMPV strains belonging to A2 are highly homologous and seasonal epidemics were not seen in Okinawa during the investigation period.

  18. High Prevalence of Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Young Children and Genetic Heterogeneity of the Viral Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Viazov, S.; Ratjen, F.; Scheidhauer, R.; Fiedler, M.; Roggendorf, M.

    2003-01-01

    RNA of the newly identified human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates of 11 of 63 (17.5%) young children with respiratory tract disease. Markers of infection caused by another member of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the family Paramyxoviridae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), were identified in 15 of these patients (23.8%). Three patients were simultaneously infected with HMPV and RSV. Studies of the clinical characteristics of HMPV-infected children did not reveal any difference between HMPV-infected patients and a control population of RSV-infected patients with regard to disease severity, but the duration of symptoms was significantly shorter for HMPV-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the amplified viral genome fragments confirmed the existence and simultaneous circulation within one epidemic season of HMPV isolates belonging to two genetic lineages. PMID:12843040

  19. Fatal human metapneumovirus and influenza B virus coinfection in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, C; Mossad, S B

    2012-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection can occur in all age groups with significant morbidity and mortality. Coinfection with influenza virus occurs mainly with influenza type A and all reported cases recovered completely. We report the case of a 61-year-old man who had hematopoietic stem cell transplant for myelodysplastic syndrome. He was admitted to hospital for septic shock and neutropenia, and blood culture was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. He rapidly developed respiratory failure and required ventilator support. His respiratory culture grew P. aeruginosa and hMPV. His course was complicated by persistent shock requiring vasopressor support, and repeat nasopharyngeal swab was positive for influenza type B and hMPV. His condition rapidly deteriorated, his family elected comfort care, and the patient died shortly thereafter. Coinfection with hMPV and influenza virus type B may have a poor outcome and can be fatal, especially in immunocompromised patients. PMID:22823898

  20. Avian Retroviral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Justice, James; Beemon, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Avian retroviruses have undergone intense study since the beginning of the 20th century. They were originally identified as cancer-inducing filterable agents in chicken neoplasms. Since their discovery, the study of these simple retroviruses has contributed greatly to our understanding of retroviral replication and cancer. Avian retroviruses are continuing to evolve and have great economic importance in the poultry industry worldwide. The aim of this review is to provide a broad overview of the genome, pathology, and replication of avian retroviruses. Notable gaps in our current knowledge are highlighted, and areas where avian retroviruses differ from other retrovirus are also emphasized. PMID:24011707

  1. Structure and anti-metapneumovirus activity of sulfated galactans from the red seaweed Cryptonemia seminervis.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gabriella S; Duarte, Maria E R; Colodi, Franciely G; Noseda, Miguel D; Ferreira, Luciana G; Berté, Siliane D; Cavalcanti, Jéssica F; Santos, Norma; Romanos, Maria T V

    2014-01-30

    The anti-HMPV (human metapneumovirus) activity was determined for sulfated dl-hybrid galactans obtained from the red seaweed Cryptonemia seminervis and their depolymerized products obtained by reductive partial hydrolysis. Structural studies carried out in three homogeneous depolymerized fractions DS-1, DS-2e and DS-3 (Mw of 51.6-63.8 kDa) showed that these galactans present different chemical characteristics, as monosaccharide composition, content of sulfate groups (14.1-29.9%) and agaran:carrageenan molar ratio diads, 2.7:1 for DS-1 and DS-2e and 1:1 for DS-3. The sulfate groups are located principally on C-2 of β-d-galactopyranose and 4,6-O-(1'-carboxyethylidene)-β-d-galactopyranose residues and on C-6 of α-galactose residues. Sulfated dl-galactans and their depolymerized products exhibited antiviral activity at a very early stage of the viral infection cycle. All fractions, except DS-2e inhibited HMPV replication by binding to the viral particle. Besides depolymerized galactans DS-2e and DS-3 inhibited the recognition of cell receptor by HMPV and penetration to the host cell, respectively. PMID:24299779

  2. Replication and pathogenicity of attenuated human metapneumovirus F mutants in severe combined immunodeficiency mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-mei; Li, Rong-pei; Chen, Xin; Liu, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the replication and pathogenicity of attenuated human metapneumovirus (HMPV) mutants in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. SCID mice were intranasally infected with either wild type GFP-rHMPV (WT), or mutant viruses (M1, M2 and M4) with the N-linked glycosylation(s) of the F protein removed. The organs were collected for viral isolation, titration, pulmonary histopathology and mRNA detection by PCR at different time points. WT or mutant viruses were successfully isolated from the lungs of infected mice after inoculation. The titers of WT and M1 peaked on 5th day and remained detectable until 14th day post-inoculation. M2 reached approximately 4 logs lower titer on 5th and 9th day post-inoculation as compared to WT and M1. M4 showed similar growth kinetics to M2. Viral signal was never detected from the heart, liver, spleen, kidney and brain on 5th day post-inoculation. The pulmonary pathology score in the M1 infected mice was similar to WT infected mice but higher than in M2 or M4 infected mice. WT and HMPV mutants can thus only replicate in the lungs of SCID mice. Attenuated M2 and M4 may be considered as candidates for the preparation of vaccine against HMPV.

  3. Human Metapneumovirus Is Capable of Entering Cells by Fusion with Endosomal Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Reagan G.; Mainou, Bernardo A.; Johnson, Monika; Hastings, Andrew K.; Schuster, Jennifer E.; Dermody, Terence S.; Williams, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, is a leading cause of lower respiratory illness. Although receptor binding is thought to initiate fusion at the plasma membrane for paramyxoviruses, the entry mechanism for HMPV is largely uncharacterized. Here we sought to determine whether HMPV initiates fusion at the plasma membrane or following internalization. To study the HMPV entry process in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells, we used fluorescence microscopy, an R18-dequenching fusion assay, and developed a quantitative, fluorescence microscopy assay to follow virus binding, internalization, membrane fusion, and visualize the cellular site of HMPV fusion. We found that HMPV particles are internalized into human bronchial epithelial cells before fusing with endosomes. Using chemical inhibitors and RNA interference, we determined that HMPV particles are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a dynamin-dependent manner. HMPV fusion and productive infection are promoted by RGD-binding integrin engagement, internalization, actin polymerization, and dynamin. Further, HMPV fusion is pH-independent, although infection with rare strains is modestly inhibited by RNA interference or chemical inhibition of endosomal acidification. Thus, HMPV can enter via endocytosis, but the viral fusion machinery is not triggered by low pH. Together, our results indicate that HMPV is capable of entering host cells by multiple pathways, including membrane fusion from endosomal compartments. PMID:26629703

  4. Human metapneumovirus in patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Annick; Manoha, Catherine; Bour, Jean-Baptiste; Abbas, Rachid; Fournel, Isabelle; Tiv, Michel; Pothier, Pierre; Astruc, Karine; Aho-Glélé, Ludwig Serge

    2016-08-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections in patients hospitalized for acute respiratory infection (ARI) and to study factors associated with this prevalence. Medline and ScienceDirect databases were searched for prospective observational studies that screened hospitalized patients with ARI for hMPV by RT-PCR, with data available at December 27, 2014. The risk of bias was assessed regarding participation rate, definition of ARI, description of diagnostic technique, method of inclusion identical for all subjects, standardized and identical sampling method for all subjects, analysis performed according to the relevant subgroups, and presentation of data sources. Random-effect meta-analysis with arcsine transformation and meta-regressions was used. In the 75 articles included, the prevalence of hMPV among hospitalized ARI was 6.24% (95% CI 5.25-7.30). An effect of the duration of the inclusion period was observed (p=0.0114), with a higher prevalence of hMPV in studies conducted during periods of 7-11 months (10.56%, 95% CI 5.97-16.27) or complete years (7.55%, 95% CI 5.90-9.38) than in periods of 6 months or less (5.36%, 95% CI 4.29-6.54). A significant increase in the incidence with increasing distance from the equator was observed (p=0.0384). hMPV should be taken into account as a possible etiology in hospitalized ARI.

  5. Human metapneumovirus Induces Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton for Direct Cell-to-Cell Spread

    PubMed Central

    El Najjar, Farah; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Zhu, Haining; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Moncman, Carole L.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Paramyxovirus spread generally involves assembly of individual viral particles which then infect target cells. We show that infection of human bronchial airway cells with human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a recently identified paramyxovirus which causes significant respiratory disease, results in formation of intercellular extensions and extensive networks of branched cell-associated filaments. Formation of these structures is dependent on actin, but not microtubule, polymerization. Interestingly, using a co-culture assay we show that conditions which block regular infection by HMPV particles, including addition of neutralizing antibodies or removal of cell surface heparan sulfate, did not prevent viral spread from infected to new target cells. In contrast, inhibition of actin polymerization or alterations to Rho GTPase signaling pathways significantly decreased cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, viral proteins and viral RNA were detected in intercellular extensions, suggesting direct transfer of viral genetic material to new target cells. While roles for paramyxovirus matrix and fusion proteins in membrane deformation have been previously demonstrated, we show that the HMPV phosphoprotein extensively co-localized with actin and induced formation of cellular extensions when transiently expressed, supporting a new model in which a paramyxovirus phosphoprotein is a key player in assembly and spread. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for HMPV direct cell-to-cell spread and provide insights into dissemination of respiratory viruses. PMID:27683250

  6. New-Onset Myocarditis in an Immunocompetent Adult with Acute Metapneumovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weinreich, Mark A.; Jabbar, Ahmad Y.; Malguria, Nagina; Haley, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. A number of viruses have been implicated in viral myocarditis; however, there has been no previous report of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) causing this condition. Discovered in 2001, hMPV is typically associated with upper respiratory illness, mainly affecting children. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 25-year-old man with acute systolic heart failure from viral myocarditis secondary to the hMPV. The patient was initially admitted to the general medical ward but developed increasing oxygen requirements resulting in transfer to the cardiac intensive care unit. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was used to help confirm the diagnosis. He was treated with intravenous diuretics, and afterload and preload agents, and he was subsequently discharged home after seven days of hospitalization. Discussion. hMPV is typically a respiratory pathogen; however, it was associated with in myocarditis in our patient. Due to the recent ability to detect this virus, we may see more cases of this, particularly during peak months of infection. Conclusion. This is the first case description of myocarditis associated with hMPV infection. PMID:26421018

  7. New-Onset Myocarditis in an Immunocompetent Adult with Acute Metapneumovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Mark A; Jabbar, Ahmad Y; Malguria, Nagina; Haley, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. A number of viruses have been implicated in viral myocarditis; however, there has been no previous report of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) causing this condition. Discovered in 2001, hMPV is typically associated with upper respiratory illness, mainly affecting children. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 25-year-old man with acute systolic heart failure from viral myocarditis secondary to the hMPV. The patient was initially admitted to the general medical ward but developed increasing oxygen requirements resulting in transfer to the cardiac intensive care unit. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was used to help confirm the diagnosis. He was treated with intravenous diuretics, and afterload and preload agents, and he was subsequently discharged home after seven days of hospitalization. Discussion. hMPV is typically a respiratory pathogen; however, it was associated with in myocarditis in our patient. Due to the recent ability to detect this virus, we may see more cases of this, particularly during peak months of infection. Conclusion. This is the first case description of myocarditis associated with hMPV infection.

  8. Human metapneumovirus G protein is highly conserved within but not between genetic lineages

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chin-Fen; Wang, Chiaoyin K.; Tollefson, Sharon J.; Lintao, Linda D.; Liem, Alexis; Chu, Marla; Williams, John V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory illnesses in children. HMPV encodes two major surface glycoproteins, fusion (F) and glycoprotein (G). The function of G has not been fully established, though it is dispensable for in vitro and in vivo replication. Methods We analyzed 87 full-length HMPV G sequences from isolates collected over 20 years. Results The G sequences fell into four subgroups with a mean 63% amino acid identity (minimum 29%). The length of G varied from 217 to 241 residues. Structural features such as proline content and N- and O-glycosylation sites were present in all strains but quite variable between subgroups. There was minimal drift within the subgroups over 20 years. The estimated time to the most recent common ancestor was 215 years. Conclusions HMPV G was conserved within lineages over 20 years, suggesting functional constraints on diversity. However, G was poorly conserved between subgroups, pointing to potentially distinct roles for G among different viral lineages. PMID:23385328

  9. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015

  10. Structure and Self-Assembly of the Calcium Binding Matrix Protein of Human Metapneumovirus

    PubMed Central

    Leyrat, Cedric; Renner, Max; Harlos, Karl; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Grimes, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The matrix protein (M) of paramyxoviruses plays a key role in determining virion morphology by directing viral assembly and budding. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human metapneumovirus M at 2.8 Å resolution in its native dimeric state. The structure reveals the presence of a high-affinity Ca2+ binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) predict a secondary lower-affinity site that correlates well with data from fluorescence-based thermal shift assays. By combining small-angle X-ray scattering with MDS and ensemble analysis, we captured the structure and dynamics of M in solution. Our analysis reveals a large positively charged patch on the protein surface that is involved in membrane interaction. Structural analysis of DOPC-induced polymerization of M into helical filaments using electron microscopy leads to a model of M self-assembly. The conservation of the Ca2+ binding sites suggests a role for calcium in the replication and morphogenesis of pneumoviruses. PMID:24316400

  11. Avian Influenza in Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... and even kill certain domesticated bird species including chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Infected birds can shed avian ... virus’ ability to cause disease and mortality in chickens in a laboratory setting [2.5 MB, 64 ...

  12. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  13. Clinical Significance of Human Metapneumovirus in Refractory Status Epilepticus and Encephalitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Turel, Ozden; Uygur Sahin, Turkan; Kutlu, Nurettin Onur; Iscan, Akın

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis is a complex neurological disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and the etiology of the disease is often not identified. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children. Few reports are available showing possible involvement of hMPV in development of neurologic complications. Here, we describe an infant, the youngest case in literature, with refractory status epilepticus and severe encephalitis in whom hMPV was detected in respiratory samples and review diagnostic workup of patient with encephalitis. PMID:26664779

  14. Critical Role of TLR4 in Human Metapneumovirus Mediated Innate Immune Responses and Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanciuc, Teodora; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Casola, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the main causes of acute respiratory tract infections in children, elderly and immunocompromised patients. The mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLR) were identified as critical regulators of innate immunity to a variety of microbes, including viruses. We have recently shown that hMPV-induced cytokine, chemokine and type I interferon secretion in dendritic cells occurs via TLR4, however, its role in hMPV-induced disease is unknown. In this study, wild-type(WT) and TLR4-deficient mice (TLR4−/−) were infected with hMPV and examined for clinical disease parameters, such as body weight loss and airway obstruction, viral clearance, lung inflammation, dendritic cell maturation, T-cell proliferation and antibody production. Our results demonstrate that absence of TLR4 in hMPV-infected mice significantly reduced the inflammatory response as well as disease severity, shown by reduced body weight loss and airway obstruction and hyperresponsiveness (AHR), compared to WT mice. Levels of cytokines and chemokines were also significantly lower in the TLR4−/− mice. Accordingly, recruitment of inflammatory cells in the BAL, lungs, as well as in lymph nodes, was significantly reduced in the TLR4−/− mice, however, viral replication and clearance, as well as T-cell proliferation and neutralizing antibody production, were not affected. Our findings indicate that TLR4 is important for the activation of the innate immune response to hMPV, however it does play a role in disease pathogenesis, as lack of TLR4 expression is associated with reduced clinical manifestations of hMPV disease, without affecting viral protection. PMID:24205331

  15. Engineering, Structure and Immunogenicity of the Human Metapneumovirus F Protein in the Postfusion Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Más, Vicente; Rodriguez, Laura; Olmedillas, Eduardo; Cano, Olga; Palomo, Concepción; Terrón, María C.; Luque, Daniel; Melero, José A.; McLellan, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a paramyxovirus that is a common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children less than five years of age. The hMPV fusion (F) glycoprotein is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies and is thus a critical vaccine antigen. To facilitate structure-based vaccine design, we stabilized the ectodomain of the hMPV F protein in the postfusion conformation and determined its structure to a resolution of 3.3 Å by X-ray crystallography. The structure resembles an elongated cone and is very similar to the postfusion F protein from the related human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). In contrast, significant differences were apparent with the postfusion F proteins from other paramyxoviruses, such as human parainfluenza type 3 (hPIV3) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The high similarity of hMPV and hRSV postfusion F in two antigenic sites targeted by neutralizing antibodies prompted us to test for antibody cross-reactivity. The widely used monoclonal antibody 101F, which binds to antigenic site IV of hRSV F, was found to cross-react with hMPV postfusion F and neutralize both hRSV and hMPV. Despite the cross-reactivity of 101F and the reported cross-reactivity of two other antibodies, 54G10 and MPE8, we found no detectable cross-reactivity in the polyclonal antibody responses raised in mice against the postfusion forms of either hMPV or hRSV F. The postfusion-stabilized hMPV F protein did, however, elicit high titers of hMPV-neutralizing activity, suggesting that it could serve as an effective subunit vaccine. Structural insights from these studies should be useful for designing novel immunogens able to induce wider cross-reactive antibody responses. PMID:27611367

  16. Severe metapneumovirus infections among immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients admitted to hospital with respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Souza, Juliana Sinohara; Watanabe, Aripuana; Carraro, Emerson; Granato, Celso; Bellei, Nancy

    2013-03-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is considered an important cause of acute respiratory infections. hMPV can cause morbidity in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and recent research has demonstrated that it is an important virus in patients admitted to hospital with respiratory infections and suspected of having pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1pdm09) virus. The purpose of this study was to investigate infections caused by hMPV in two groups of patients admitted to hospital: Immunocompromized patients with a potential risk of severe outcomes and immunocompetent patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. A total of 288 samples were tested: 165 samples were collected from patients with suspected influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 infection during the first pandemic wave in 2009; and 123 samples were collected from patients of a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation program in 2008-2009. Amplification of the hMPV genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction. This was followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. hMPV was detected in 14.2% (41/288) of all samples: 17% (28/165) of immunocompetent patients with suspected H1N1 infection and 10.6% (13/123) among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. hMPV accounted for 12.1% (8/66) of immunocompetent adults patients with severe respiratory infections (median age, 55.9 years). Two hMPV subtypes were identified, A2 (26.9%; 7/26) and B2 (73.1%; 19/26) but no difference was observed between the patient groups in terms of age or immunosuppression level. This study highlights the significance of hMPV in immunocompetent adult patients with severe infections and further investigations are recommended for understanding the impact of this virus.

  17. Engineering, Structure and Immunogenicity of the Human Metapneumovirus F Protein in the Postfusion Conformation.

    PubMed

    Más, Vicente; Rodriguez, Laura; Olmedillas, Eduardo; Cano, Olga; Palomo, Concepción; Terrón, María C; Luque, Daniel; Melero, José A; McLellan, Jason S

    2016-09-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a paramyxovirus that is a common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children less than five years of age. The hMPV fusion (F) glycoprotein is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies and is thus a critical vaccine antigen. To facilitate structure-based vaccine design, we stabilized the ectodomain of the hMPV F protein in the postfusion conformation and determined its structure to a resolution of 3.3 Å by X-ray crystallography. The structure resembles an elongated cone and is very similar to the postfusion F protein from the related human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). In contrast, significant differences were apparent with the postfusion F proteins from other paramyxoviruses, such as human parainfluenza type 3 (hPIV3) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The high similarity of hMPV and hRSV postfusion F in two antigenic sites targeted by neutralizing antibodies prompted us to test for antibody cross-reactivity. The widely used monoclonal antibody 101F, which binds to antigenic site IV of hRSV F, was found to cross-react with hMPV postfusion F and neutralize both hRSV and hMPV. Despite the cross-reactivity of 101F and the reported cross-reactivity of two other antibodies, 54G10 and MPE8, we found no detectable cross-reactivity in the polyclonal antibody responses raised in mice against the postfusion forms of either hMPV or hRSV F. The postfusion-stabilized hMPV F protein did, however, elicit high titers of hMPV-neutralizing activity, suggesting that it could serve as an effective subunit vaccine. Structural insights from these studies should be useful for designing novel immunogens able to induce wider cross-reactive antibody responses. PMID:27611367

  18. Human metapneumovirus infection induces significant changes in small noncoding RNA expression in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junfang; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Wang, Qingrong; Liu, Guangliang; Zhang, Guanping; Lee, Inhan; Lee, Yong Sun; Bao, Xiaoyong

    2014-05-20

    Small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNA), virus-derived sncRNAs, and more recently identified tRNA-derived RNA fragments, are critical to posttranscriptional control of genes. Upon viral infection, host cells alter their sncRNA expression as a defense mechanism, while viruses can circumvent host defenses and promote their own propagation by affecting host cellular sncRNA expression or by expressing viral sncRNAs. Therefore, characterizing sncRNA profiles in response to viral infection is an important tool for understanding host-virus interaction, and for antiviral strategy development. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a recently identified pathogen, is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children. To investigate whether sncRNAs play a role in hMPV infection, we analyzed the changes in sncRNA profiles of airway epithelial cells in response to hMPV infection using ultrahigh-throughput sequencing. Of the cloned sncRNAs, miRNA was dominant in A549 cells, with the percentage of miRNA increasing in a time-dependent manner after the infection. In addition, several hMPV-derived sncRNAs and corresponding ribonucleases for their biogenesis were identified. hMPV M2-2 protein was revealed to be a key viral protein regulating miRNA expression. In summary, this study revealed several novel aspects of hMPV-mediated sncRNA expression, providing a new perspective on hMPV-host interactions.

  19. Immunogenicity in mice of human metapneumovirus with a truncated SH glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Tedcastle, A B; Fenwick, F; Robinson, M J; Toms, G L

    2014-04-01

    The SH glycoprotein of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is twice the size of that of human respiratory syncytial virus and possesses a large, hydrophilic luminal domain. The glycoprotein is located on the surface of the virion and of virus infected cells and, if immunogenic, might be expected to play a role in anti-viral immunity. Initial attempts to study anti-SH antibody immunogenicity were thwarted by the instability of the SH gene on passage both in human bronchial epithelial cells and in mice. Repeated passage of virus isolates in human bronchial epithelial cells in culture resulted in the appearance and eventual predominance of HMPV mutants lacking all or most of the luminal domain of SH coincidental with the loss of productive infection in mouse lungs. Where infection was established in mice with an early cell culture passage, the virus recovered from mouse lung differed markedly from the inoculum, carrying 19 coding mutations in the SH luminal domain. Immunization of mice with a mutant virus variant expressing only 14 amino acids of the luminal domain of SH induced a cross-reactive antibody response to both the F glycoprotein and the SH glycoprotein but a largely sub-group specific response to the G glycoprotein. Similar patterns of response were achieved by immunization with individual HMPV glycoproteins expressed from recombinant vaccinia viruses. Recombinant truncated SH glycoprotein induced sub-group cross-reactive antibodies capable of neutralizing wild-type virus. Recombinant F glycoprotein also induced cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies whilst recombinant G glycoprotein induced largely strain-specific, non-neutralizing antibodies.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Eleanor R.; Jansen, Rogier R.; Poovorawan, Yong; Templeton, Kate E.; Toms, Geoffrey L.; Simmonds, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae. Two major surface antigens are expressed by both viruses; the highly conserved fusion (F) protein, and the extremely diverse attachment (G) glycoprotein. Both viruses comprise two genetic groups, A and B. Circulation frequencies of the two genetic groups fluctuate for both viruses, giving rise to frequently observed switching of the predominantly circulating group. Nucleotide sequence data for the F and G gene regions of HRSV and HMPV variants from the UK, the Netherlands, Bangkok and data available from Genbank were used to identify clades of both viruses. Several contemporary circulating clades of HRSV and HMPV were identified by phylogenetic reconstructions. The molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of clades were modelled in parallel. Times of origin were determined and positively selected sites were identified. Sustained circulation of contemporary clades of both viruses for decades and their global dissemination demonstrated that switching of the predominant genetic group did not arise through the emergence of novel lineages each respiratory season, but through the fluctuating circulation frequencies of pre-existing lineages which undergo proliferative and eclipse phases. An abundance of sites were identified as positively selected within the G protein but not the F protein of both viruses. For HRSV, these were discordant with previously identified residues under selection, suggesting the virus can evade immune responses by generating diversity at multiple sites within linear epitopes. For both viruses, different sites were identified as positively selected between genetic groups. PMID:21390255

  1. Identification of human metapneumovirus-induced gene networks in airway epithelial cells by microarray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.; Sinha, M. |; Liu, T.; Hong, C.; Luxon, B.A. |; Garofalo, R.P. ||; Casola, A. ||

    2008-04-25

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. Little is known about the response to hMPV infection of airway epithelial cells, which play a pivotal role in initiating and shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of airway epithelial cells infected with hMPV using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Of the 47,400 transcripts and variants represented on the Affimetrix GeneChip Human Genome HG-U133 plus 2 array, 1601 genes were significantly altered following hMPV infection. Altered genes were then assigned to functional categories and mapped to signaling pathways. Many up-regulated genes are involved in the initiation of pro-inflammatory and antiviral immune responses, including chemokines, cytokines, type I interferon and interferon-inducible proteins. Other important functional classes up-regulated by hMPV infection include cellular signaling, gene transcription and apoptosis. Notably, genes associated with antioxidant and membrane transport activity, several metabolic pathways and cell proliferation were down-regulated in response to hMPV infection. Real-time PCR and Western blot assays were used to confirm the expression of genes related to several of these functional groups. The overall result of this study provides novel information on host gene expression upon infection with hMPV and also serves as a foundation for future investigations of genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of this important viral infection. Furthermore, it can facilitate a comparative analysis of other paramyxoviral infections to determine the transcriptional changes that are conserved versus the one that are specific to individual pathogens.

  2. Human Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein Vaccines That Are Immunogenic and Protective in Cotton Rats▿

    PubMed Central

    Cseke, Gabriella; Wright, David W.; Tollefson, Sharon J.; Johnson, Joyce E.; Crowe, James E.; Williams, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently described paramyxovirus that is a major cause of upper and lower respiratory infection in children and adults worldwide. A safe and effective vaccine could decrease the burden of disease associated with this novel pathogen. We previously reported the development of the cotton rat model of hMPV infection and pathogenesis (J. V. Williams et al., J. Virol. 79:10944-10951, 2005). We report here the immunogenicity of an hMPV fusion (F) protein in this model. We constructed DNA plasmids that exhibited high levels of expression of hMPV F in mammalian cells (DNA-F). These constructs were used to develop a novel strategy to produce highly pure, soluble hMPV F protein lacking the transmembrane domain (FΔTM). We then immunized cotton rats at 0 and 14 days with either control vector, DNA-F alone, DNA-F followed by FΔTM protein, or FΔTM alone. All groups were challenged intranasally at 28 days with live hMPV. All three groups that received some form of hMPV F immunization mounted neutralizing antibody responses and exhibited partial protection against virus shedding in the lungs compared to controls. The FΔTM-immunized animals showed the greatest degree of protection (>1,500-fold reduction in lung virus titer). All three immunized groups showed a modest reduction of nasal virus shedding. Neither evidence of a Th2-type response nor increased lung pathology were present in the immunized animals. We conclude that sequence-optimized hMPV F protein protects against hMPV infection when delivered as either a DNA or a protein vaccine in cotton rats. PMID:17050599

  3. Engineering, Structure and Immunogenicity of the Human Metapneumovirus F Protein in the Postfusion Conformation.

    PubMed

    Más, Vicente; Rodriguez, Laura; Olmedillas, Eduardo; Cano, Olga; Palomo, Concepción; Terrón, María C; Luque, Daniel; Melero, José A; McLellan, Jason S

    2016-09-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a paramyxovirus that is a common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children less than five years of age. The hMPV fusion (F) glycoprotein is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies and is thus a critical vaccine antigen. To facilitate structure-based vaccine design, we stabilized the ectodomain of the hMPV F protein in the postfusion conformation and determined its structure to a resolution of 3.3 Å by X-ray crystallography. The structure resembles an elongated cone and is very similar to the postfusion F protein from the related human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). In contrast, significant differences were apparent with the postfusion F proteins from other paramyxoviruses, such as human parainfluenza type 3 (hPIV3) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The high similarity of hMPV and hRSV postfusion F in two antigenic sites targeted by neutralizing antibodies prompted us to test for antibody cross-reactivity. The widely used monoclonal antibody 101F, which binds to antigenic site IV of hRSV F, was found to cross-react with hMPV postfusion F and neutralize both hRSV and hMPV. Despite the cross-reactivity of 101F and the reported cross-reactivity of two other antibodies, 54G10 and MPE8, we found no detectable cross-reactivity in the polyclonal antibody responses raised in mice against the postfusion forms of either hMPV or hRSV F. The postfusion-stabilized hMPV F protein did, however, elicit high titers of hMPV-neutralizing activity, suggesting that it could serve as an effective subunit vaccine. Structural insights from these studies should be useful for designing novel immunogens able to induce wider cross-reactive antibody responses.

  4. Clinical and epidemiological comparison of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in seoul, Korea, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Keun; Choi, Jungi; Callaway, Zak; Kim, Hyo Bin; Chung, Ju Young; Koh, Young-Yull; Shin, Bo Moon

    2010-03-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) shares clinical and epidemiological characteristics with well-known respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and epidemiological differences between HMPV- and RSV-induced wheezing illnesses. A total of 1,008 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens was collected from 1,008 pediatric patients hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection at Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital from December 2003 to April 2008, and tested for seven common respiratory viruses. Conditions classified as wheezing illness were bronchiolitis, reactive airways disease, and bronchial asthma. HMPV caused a significantly lower proportion of wheezing illness when compared to RSV (48.1% vs. 82.2%, P<0.05). HMPV-induced wheezing illness occurred predominantly in older patients when compared to RSV patients (P<0.001). RSV infections peaked in the fall and winter followed by peaks of HMPV infection in winter and spring. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher (P<0.01) in RSV patients when compared to HMPV patients. These results show that human metapneumovirus patients exhibit several different clinical and epidemiological characteristics, such as higher proportion of wheezing illness, age and seasonal incidence, and eosinophil counts, when compared to RSV patients.

  5. Avian influenza control strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control strategies for avian influenza in poultry vary depending on whether the goal is prevention, management, or eradication. Components used in control programs include: 1) education which includes communication, public awareness, and behavioral change, 2) changes to production and marketing sys...

  6. The avian heterophil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterophils play an indispensable role in the immune defense of the avian host. To accomplish this defense, heterophils use sophisticated mechanisms to both detect and destroy pathogenic microbes. Detection of pathogens through toll-like receptors (TLR), FC and complement receptors, and other path...

  7. Simultaneous zoonotic transmission of Chlamydophila psittaci genotypes D, F and E/B to a veterinary scientist.

    PubMed

    Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Beeckman, Delphine S A; Verminnen, Kristel; Marien, Maja; Nauwynck, Hans; Boesinghe, Leopold de Thibault de; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2009-03-16

    Two groups of five 1-day-old conventional turkeys were housed in negative pressure stables to become experimentally infected with Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) at the age of 3 weeks. However, during the first 2 weeks, turkeys started to show respiratory disease characterized by rhinitis and dyspnoea. Routine bacterial and viral diagnoses remained negative. Therefore, pharyngeal swabs from the turkeys and from the veterinary scientist handling the animals were examined for the presence of Chlamydophila (C.) psittaci by using a combination of cell culture, nested PCR and ompA genotype-specific quantitative real-time PCR, as well as by serology. Results revealed simultaneous transmission of C. psittaci outer membrane protein A (ompA) genotypes D, F and E/B from infected turkeys to the veterinary scientist.

  8. Avian dark cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  9. Highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2000-08-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.

  10. Evolutionary dynamics analysis of human metapneumovirus subtype A2: genetic evidence for its dominant epidemic.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Ren, Lili; Guo, Li; Xiang, Zichun; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vernet, Guy; Wang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory viral pathogen in children worldwide. hMPV is divided into four subtypes: hMPV_A1, hMPV_A2, hMPV_B1, and hMPV_B2. hMPV_A2 can be further divided into hMPV_A2a and A2b based on phylogenetic analysis. The typical prevalence pattern of hMPV involves a shift of the predominant subtype within one or two years. However, hMPV_A2, in particular hMPV_A2b, has circulated worldwide with a several years long term high epidemic. To study this distinct epidemic behavior of hMPV_A2, we analyzed 294 sequences of partial G genes of the virus from different countries. Molecular evolutionary data indicates that hMPV_A2 evolved toward heterogeneity faster than the other subtypes. Specifically, a bayesian skyline plot analysis revealed that hMPV_A2 has undergone a generally upward fluctuation since 1997, whereas the other subtypes experienced only one upward fluctuation. Although hMPV_A2 showed a lower value of mean dN/dS than the other subtypes, it had the largest number of positive selection sites. Meanwhile, various styles of mutation were observed in the mutation hotspots of hMPV_A2b. Bayesian phylogeography analysis also revealed two fusions of diffusion routes of hMPV_A2b in India (June 2006) and Beijing, China (June 2008). Sequences of hMPV_A2b retrieved from GenBank boosted simultaneously with the two fusions respectively, indicating that fusion of genetic transmission routes from different regions improved survival of hMPV_A2. Epidemic and evolutionary dynamics of hMPV_A2b were similar to those of hMPV_A2. Overall, our findings provide important molecular insights into hMPV epidemics and viral variation, and explain the occurrence of an atypical epidemic of hMPV_A2, particularly hMPV_A2b.

  11. Evolutionary Dynamics Analysis of Human Metapneumovirus Subtype A2: Genetic Evidence for Its Dominant Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianguo; Ren, Lili; Guo, Li; Xiang, Zichun; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vernet, Guy; Wang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory viral pathogen in children worldwide. hMPV is divided into four subtypes: hMPV_A1, hMPV_A2, hMPV_B1, and hMPV_B2. hMPV_A2 can be further divided into hMPV_A2a and A2b based on phylogenetic analysis. The typical prevalence pattern of hMPV involves a shift of the predominant subtype within one or two years. However, hMPV_A2, in particular hMPV_A2b, has circulated worldwide with a several years long term high epidemic. To study this distinct epidemic behavior of hMPV_A2, we analyzed 294 sequences of partial G genes of the virus from different countries. Molecular evolutionary data indicates that hMPV_A2 evolved toward heterogeneity faster than the other subtypes. Specifically, a Bayesian skyline plot analysis revealed that hMPV_A2 has undergone a generally upward fluctuation since 1997, whereas the other subtypes experienced only one upward fluctuation. Although hMPV_A2 showed a lower value of mean dN/dS than the other subtypes, it had the largest number of positive selection sites. Meanwhile, various styles of mutation were observed in the mutation hotspots of hMPV_A2b. Bayesian phylogeography analysis also revealed two fusions of diffusion routes of hMPV_A2b in India (June 2006) and Beijing, China (June 2008). Sequences of hMPV_A2b retrieved from GenBank boosted simultaneously with the two fusions respectively, indicating that fusion of genetic transmission routes from different regions improved survival of hMPV_A2. Epidemic and evolutionary dynamics of hMPV_A2b were similar to those of hMPV_A2. Overall, our findings provide important molecular insights into hMPV epidemics and viral variation, and explain the occurrence of an atypical epidemic of hMPV_A2, particularly hMPV_A2b. PMID:22479641

  12. An avian vocalization detector.

    PubMed

    Severns, M; Gray, L; Rubel, E W

    1985-05-01

    A simple circuit to detect avian vocalizations is described. Adjustments of five different controls (frequency, bandwidth, amplitude, duration and spacing) allow the circuit to accurately detect the vocalizations of different ages and species of birds. Analyses of over 4000 peeps and 500 inter-peep intervals from 40 chicks and 16 ducklings showed that the circuit and an experienced observer agreed closely in the timing and counting of vocalizations.

  13. Applications of avian transgenesis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Benjamin B; Velho, Tarciso A; Sim, Shuyin; Lois, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The ability to introduce foreign DNA into the genome of an organism has proven to be one of the most powerful tools in modern biology. Methods for the manipulation of the animal genome have been developed at an impressive pace for 3 decades, but only in the past 5 years have useful tools for avian transgenesis emerged. The most efficient technique involves the use of replication-deficient lentiviral vectors to deliver foreign DNA into the avian germline. Although lentiviral-mediated transgenesis presents some constraints, progress in this area has garnered interest in both industry and academia for its potential applications in biological research, biotechnology, and agriculture. In this review we evaluate methods for the production of transgenic birds, focusing on the advantages and limitations of lentiviral-mediated transgenesis. We also provide an overview of future applications of this technology. The most exciting of these include disease-resistant transgenic poultry, genetically modified hens that produce therapeutic proteins in their eggs, and transgenic songbirds that serve as a model to study communication disorders. Finally, we discuss technological advances that will be necessary to make avian transgenesis a more versatile tool.

  14. [Phylogenetic variability of human metapneumovirus strains circulating in Turkey during two consecutive epidemic seasons].

    PubMed

    Bayrakdar, Fatma; Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), classified in Paramyxoviridae family, phylogenetically consists of two major groups namely A and B, with genetic lineages of A1, A2 (comprises of sublineages A2a and A2b) and B1, B2. Although detailed evaluation on phylogenetic analysis of HMPV has been described in other countries, there are no data from Turkey on this subject. The aim of this study was to demonstrate for the first time, the phylogenetic diversity of HMPV strains circulating in Turkey during two consecutive epidemic seasons. A total of 2900 upper respiratory tract samples collected from patients with respiratory illness were evaluated between January 2011 and December 2013, without any special selection criteria. The presence of respiratory viruses in the samples were detected by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD® Respiratory Pathogens 21 Multiplex RT-PCR, Fast Track Diagnostics, Luxemburg), and 76 (2.6%) samples positive for HMPV were included in the study. HPMV nucleocapsid (N) (nt: 454-878) and fusion (F) (nt: 3624-4130) genes were selected for phylogenetic analysis. In sequence analysis, F and N gene sequences could only be obtained successfully from 46 out of 76 HMPV positive samples. According to sequences obtained, 54.3% belonged to B2, 17.4% to B1, 4.3% to A1, 4.3% to A2a, and 20% to A2b. In 2011, the A2b sublineage was predominant, while in 2012 and 2013, B2 lineages were predominant together with the B1 lineage. The A1 lineage was observed only in 2013. For the F gene fragment, nucleotide distance between group A and B was in the range of 0.138-0.168, however aminoacid distance amongst Turkish HMPV sequences were in the range of 0.028-0.042. For the N gene fragment, nucleotide distance between group A and B was in the range of 0.141-0.163, but aminoacid distance between group A and B was in the range of 0.037-0.050. Nucleotide diversity was higher than aminoacid diversity between and within lineages found in this study. This result

  15. [Phylogenetic variability of human metapneumovirus strains circulating in Turkey during two consecutive epidemic seasons].

    PubMed

    Bayrakdar, Fatma; Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), classified in Paramyxoviridae family, phylogenetically consists of two major groups namely A and B, with genetic lineages of A1, A2 (comprises of sublineages A2a and A2b) and B1, B2. Although detailed evaluation on phylogenetic analysis of HMPV has been described in other countries, there are no data from Turkey on this subject. The aim of this study was to demonstrate for the first time, the phylogenetic diversity of HMPV strains circulating in Turkey during two consecutive epidemic seasons. A total of 2900 upper respiratory tract samples collected from patients with respiratory illness were evaluated between January 2011 and December 2013, without any special selection criteria. The presence of respiratory viruses in the samples were detected by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD® Respiratory Pathogens 21 Multiplex RT-PCR, Fast Track Diagnostics, Luxemburg), and 76 (2.6%) samples positive for HMPV were included in the study. HPMV nucleocapsid (N) (nt: 454-878) and fusion (F) (nt: 3624-4130) genes were selected for phylogenetic analysis. In sequence analysis, F and N gene sequences could only be obtained successfully from 46 out of 76 HMPV positive samples. According to sequences obtained, 54.3% belonged to B2, 17.4% to B1, 4.3% to A1, 4.3% to A2a, and 20% to A2b. In 2011, the A2b sublineage was predominant, while in 2012 and 2013, B2 lineages were predominant together with the B1 lineage. The A1 lineage was observed only in 2013. For the F gene fragment, nucleotide distance between group A and B was in the range of 0.138-0.168, however aminoacid distance amongst Turkish HMPV sequences were in the range of 0.028-0.042. For the N gene fragment, nucleotide distance between group A and B was in the range of 0.141-0.163, but aminoacid distance between group A and B was in the range of 0.037-0.050. Nucleotide diversity was higher than aminoacid diversity between and within lineages found in this study. This result

  16. Avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2009-04-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improvement of intensive poultry production systems. The control and eradication measures implemented were based on active surveillance, disease detection, depopulation of infected farms and prevention of possible contacts (identified by epidemiological investigations), improvement of biosecurity measures, and restriction of the movement of live birds, poultry products, by-products and infected material. In addition, Mexico introduced a massive vaccination programme, which resulted in the eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas that had a high density of commercial poultry.

  17. Cytokine Profiles in Human Metapneumovirus Infected Children: Identification of Genes Involved in the Antiviral Response and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Malmo, Jostein; Moe, Nina; Krokstad, Sidsel; Ryan, Liv; Loevenich, Simon; Johnsen, Ingvild B; Espevik, Terje; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Døllner, Henrik; Anthonsen, Marit W

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) causes severe airway infection in children that may be caused by an unfavorable immune response. The nature of the innate immune response to hMPV in naturally occurring infections in children is largely undescribed, and it is unknown if inflammasome activation is implicated in disease pathogenesis. We examined nasopharynx aspirates and blood samples from hMPV-infected children without detectable co-infections. The expression of inflammatory and antiviral genes were measured in nasal airway secretions by relative mRNA quantification while blood plasma proteins were determined by a multiplex immunoassay. Several genes were significantly up-regulated at mRNA and protein level in the hMPV infected children. Most apparent was the expression of the chemokine IP-10, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 in addition to the interferon inducible gene ISG54. Interestingly, children experiencing more severe disease, as indicated by a severity index, had significantly more often up-regulation of the inflammasome-associated genes IL-1β and NLRP3. Overall, our data point to cytokines, particularly inflammasome-associated, that might be important in hMPV mediated lung disease and the antiviral response in children with severe infection. Our study is the first to demonstrate that inflammasome components are associated with increased illness severity in hMPV-infected children. PMID:27171557

  18. Cytokine Profiles in Human Metapneumovirus Infected Children: Identification of Genes Involved in the Antiviral Response and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Malmo, Jostein; Moe, Nina; Krokstad, Sidsel; Ryan, Liv; Loevenich, Simon; Johnsen, Ingvild B.; Espevik, Terje; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Døllner, Henrik; Anthonsen, Marit W.

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) causes severe airway infection in children that may be caused by an unfavorable immune response. The nature of the innate immune response to hMPV in naturally occurring infections in children is largely undescribed, and it is unknown if inflammasome activation is implicated in disease pathogenesis. We examined nasopharynx aspirates and blood samples from hMPV-infected children without detectable co-infections. The expression of inflammatory and antiviral genes were measured in nasal airway secretions by relative mRNA quantification while blood plasma proteins were determined by a multiplex immunoassay. Several genes were significantly up-regulated at mRNA and protein level in the hMPV infected children. Most apparent was the expression of the chemokine IP-10, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 in addition to the interferon inducible gene ISG54. Interestingly, children experiencing more severe disease, as indicated by a severity index, had significantly more often up-regulation of the inflammasome-associated genes IL-1β and NLRP3. Overall, our data point to cytokines, particularly inflammasome-associated, that might be important in hMPV mediated lung disease and the antiviral response in children with severe infection. Our study is the first to demonstrate that inflammasome components are associated with increased illness severity in hMPV-infected children. PMID:27171557

  19. An Alphavirus Replicon-Based Human Metapneumovirus Vaccine Is Immunogenic and Protective in Mice and Cotton Rats▿

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Hoyin; Tollefson, Sharon J.; Podsiad, Amy B.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V.; Johnston, Robert E.; Williams, John V.; Crowe, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently discovered paramyxovirus that causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals worldwide. Here, we developed Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRPs) encoding hMPV fusion (F) or attachment (G) glycoproteins and evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of these vaccine candidates in mice and cotton rats. VRPs encoding hMPV F protein, when administered intranasally, induced F-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in serum and immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies in secretions at the respiratory mucosa. Challenge virus replication was reduced significantly in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts following intranasal hMPV challenge in these animals. However, vaccination with hMPV G protein VRPs did not induce neutralizing antibodies or protect animals from hMPV challenge. Close examination of the histopathology of the lungs of VRP-MPV F-vaccinated animals following hMPV challenge revealed no enhancement of inflammation or mucus production. Aberrant cytokine gene expression was not detected in these animals. Together, these results represent an important first step toward the use of VRPs encoding hMPV F proteins as a prophylactic vaccine for hMPV. PMID:18786987

  20. The avian haemophili.

    PubMed Central

    Blackall, P J

    1989-01-01

    There are four currently recognized taxa to accommodate the avian haemophili: Haemophilus paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium, Pasteurella volantium, and Pasteurella species A (the last three being formerly united as Haemophilus avium). A range of other taxa has also been recognized, but they have been neither named nor assigned to a genus. All of these various taxa, legitimate and otherwise, have the common characteristic of requiring V factor, but not X factor, for in vitro growth. Several recent studies have established the phenotypic properties that allow the differentiation of the recognized taxa, both named and unnamed. The serological properties of H. paragallinarum, the causative agent of infectious coryza of chickens, has received considerable recent attention. In contrast, many questions on the pathogenicity and virulence mechanisms of H. paragallinarum remain unanswered. Another area requiring further work is the identification of those antigens responsible for inducing protective immunity in vaccinated or naturally infected chickens. PMID:2670190

  1. Avian psychology and communication.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-07-22

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution.

  2. The Avian Development Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  3. Avian psychology and communication.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution. PMID:15306314

  4. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders.

  5. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  6. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Españ ...

  7. Current situation on highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...

  8. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is a permissive small animal model of human metapneumovirus infection, pathogenesis, and protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Williams, John V; Tollefson, Sharon J; Johnson, Joyce E; Crowe, James E

    2005-09-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a newly described paramyxovirus that is an important cause of acute respiratory tract disease. We undertook to develop a small animal model of hMPV infection, pathogenesis, and protection. Hamsters, guinea pigs, cotton rats, and nine inbred strains of mice were inoculated intranasally with hMPV. The animals were sacrificed, and nasal and lung tissue virus yields were determined by plaque titration. None of the animals exhibited respiratory symptoms. The quantity of virus present in the nasal tissue ranged from 4.6 x 10(2) PFU/gram tissue (C3H mice) to greater than 10(5) PFU/gram (hamster). The amount of virus in the lungs was considerably less than in nasal tissue in each species tested, ranging from undetectable (<5 PFU/g; guinea pigs) to 1.8 x 10(5) PFU/gram (cotton rat). The peak virus titer in cotton rat lungs occurred on day 4 postinfection. hMPV-infected cotton rat lungs examined on day 4 postinfection exhibited histopathological changes consisting of peribronchial inflammatory infiltrates. Immunohistochemical staining detected virus only at the luminal surfaces of respiratory epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract. hMPV-infected cotton rats mounted virus-neutralizing antibody responses and were partially protected against virus shedding and lung pathology on subsequent rechallenge with hMPV. Viral antigen was undetectable in the lungs on challenge of previously infected animals. This study demonstrates that the cotton rat is a permissive small animal model of hMPV infection that exhibits lung histopathology associated with infection and that primary infection protected animals against subsequent infection. This model will allow further in vivo studies of hMPV pathogenesis and evaluation of vaccine candidates.

  9. A duplex recombinant viral nucleoprotein microbead immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seroresponses to human respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yange; Brooks, W Abdullah; Goswami, Doli; Rahman, Mustafizur; Luby, Stephen P; Erdman, Dean D

    2014-09-01

    Serologic diagnosis of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections has been shown to complement virus detection methods in epidemiologic studies. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) using cultured virus lysate antigens are often used to diagnose infection by demonstration of a ≥4-fold rises in antibody titer between acute and convalescent serum pairs. In this study, hRSV and hMPV nucleocapsid (recN) proteins were expressed in a baculovirus system and their performance compared with virus culture lysate antigen in EIAs using paired serum specimens collected from symptomatic children. The recN proteins were also used to develop a duplex assay based on the Luminex microbead-based suspension array technology, where diagnostic rises in antibody levels could be determined simultaneously at a single serum dilution. Antibody levels measured by the recN and viral lysate EIAs correlated moderately (hRSV, r(2)=0.72; hMPV, r(2)=0.76); the recN EIAs identified correctly 35 of 37 (94.6%) and 48 of 50 (96%) serum pairs showing diagnostic antibody rises by viral lysate EIAs. Purified recN proteins were then coupled to microbeads and serum pairs were tested at a single dilution on a Luminex MAGPIX(®) analyzer. The duplex recN assay identified correctly 33 of 39 (85%) and 41 of 47 (86.7%) serum pairs showing diagnostic rises to hRSV and hMPV, respectively. The recN assay permits simultaneous testing for acute hRSV and hMPV infections and offers a platform for expanded multiplexing of other respiratory virus assays.

  10. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27187752

  11. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  12. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  13. Expression of recombinant small hydrophobic protein for serospecific detection of avian pneumovirus subgroup C.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lizhong; Sabara, Marta I; Li, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus (APV) Colorado isolate (CO), which belongs to subgroup C (APV/C), was expressed with a baculovirus vector. The recombinant SH protein was evaluated as a potential subgroup-specific diagnostic reagent in order to differentiate infections resulting from APV/C from those induced by APV/A, APV/B, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). When the recombinant baculovirus was used to infect insect cells, a 31- to 38-kDa glycosylated form of the SH protein was produced and subsequently tested for reactivity with antibodies specific for APV/A, APV/B, APV/C, and hMPV. Western blot analysis showed that the expressed recombinant SH protein could only be recognized by APV/C-specific antibodies. This result was consistent with sequence analysis of the APV/C SH protein, which had very low (24%) amino acid identity with the corresponding protein of hMPV and no discernible identity with the SH protein of APV/A or APV/B. A recombinant SH protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, and it further confirmed the lack of reactivity of this protein with antisera raised to APV/A, APV/B, and hMPV and supported its designation as a subgroup-specific antigen. This finding indicated that the recombinant SH protein was a suitable antigen for ELISA-based detection of subgroup-specific antibodies in turkeys and could be used for serologically based differential diagnosis of APV and hMPV infections.

  14. Expression of Recombinant Small Hydrophobic Protein for Serospecific Detection of Avian Pneumovirus Subgroup C

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lizhong; Sabara, Marta I.; Li, Yan

    2005-01-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus (APV) Colorado isolate (CO), which belongs to subgroup C (APV/C), was expressed with a baculovirus vector. The recombinant SH protein was evaluated as a potential subgroup-specific diagnostic reagent in order to differentiate infections resulting from APV/C from those induced by APV/A, APV/B, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). When the recombinant baculovirus was used to infect insect cells, a 31- to 38-kDa glycosylated form of the SH protein was produced and subsequently tested for reactivity with antibodies specific for APV/A, APV/B, APV/C, and hMPV. Western blot analysis showed that the expressed recombinant SH protein could only be recognized by APV/C-specific antibodies. This result was consistent with sequence analysis of the APV/C SH protein, which had very low (24%) amino acid identity with the corresponding protein of hMPV and no discernible identity with the SH protein of APV/A or APV/B. A recombinant SH protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, and it further confirmed the lack of reactivity of this protein with antisera raised to APV/A, APV/B, and hMPV and supported its designation as a subgroup-specific antigen. This finding indicated that the recombinant SH protein was a suitable antigen for ELISA-based detection of subgroup-specific antibodies in turkeys and could be used for serologically based differential diagnosis of APV and hMPV infections. PMID:15643005

  15. The history of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Lupiani, Blanca; Reddy, Sanjay M

    2009-07-01

    The first description of avian influenza (AI) dates back to 1878 in northern Italy, when Perroncito [Perroncito E. Epizoozia tifoide nei gallinacei. Annali Accad Agri Torino 1878;21:87-126] described a contagious disease of poultry associated with high mortality. The disease, termed "fowl plague", was initially confused with the acute septicemic form of fowl cholera. However, in 1880, soon after its first description, Rivolta and Delprato [as reported by Stubs EL. Fowl pest, In: Biester HE, Devries L, editors. Diseases of poultry. 1st ed. Ames, IO: Iowa State College Press; 1943. p. 493-502] showed it to be different from fowl cholera, based on clinical and pathological properties, and called it Typhus exudatious gallinarum. In 1901, Centanni and Savunzzi [Centanni E, Savonuzzi E, La peste aviaria I & II, Communicazione fatta all'accademia delle scienze mediche e naturali de Ferrara, 1901] determined that fowl plague was caused by a filterable virus; however, it was not until 1955 that the classical fowl plague virus was shown to be a type A influenza virus based on the presence of type A influenza virus type-specific ribonucleoprotein [Schäfer W. Vergleichender sero-immunologische Untersuchungen über die Viren der Influenza und klassischen Geflügelpest. Z Naturf 1955;10b:81-91]. The term fowl plague was substituted by the more appropriate term highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) at the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza [Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza. Beltsville, MD. 1981, Avian Dis 47 (Special Issue) 2003.] and will be used throughout this review when referring to any previously described fowl plague virus.

  16. Incidence and Risk Factors for Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infections among Children in the Remote Highlands of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Andrew; Budge, Philip J.; Williams, John; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Johnson, Monika; Zhu, Yuwei; Hartinger, Stella; Verastegui, Hector; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Grijalva, Carlos G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The disease burden and risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (MPV) infections among children living in remote, rural areas remain unclear. Materials and Methods We conducted a prospective, household-based cohort study of children aged <3 years living in remote rural highland communities in San Marcos, Cajamarca, Peru. Acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), including lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), were monitored through weekly household visits from March 2009 through September 2011. Nasal swabs collected during ARI/LRTI were tested for RSV, MPV, and other respiratory viruses using real-time RT-PCR. Incidence rates and rate ratios were calculated using mixed effects Poisson regression. Results Among 892 enrolled children, incidence rates of RSV and MPV ARI were 30 and 17 episodes per 100 child-years, respectively. The proportions of RSV and MPV ARI that presented as LRTI were 12.5% and 8.9%, respectively. Clinic visits for ARI and hospitalizations were significantly more frequent (all p values <0.05) among children with RSV (clinic 41% and hospital 5.3%) and MPV ARI (38% and 3.5%) when compared with other viral infections (23% and 0.7%) and infections without virus detected (24% and 0.6%). In multivariable analysis, risk factors for RSV detection included younger age (RR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.03), the presence of a smoker in the house (RR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.12-2.38), residing at higher altitudes (RR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.25-3.00 for 2nd compared to 1st quartile residents; RR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.26-3.13 for 3rd compared to 1st quartile residents). Having an unemployed household head was significantly associated with MPV risk (RR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.12-4.01). Conclusion In rural high altitude communities in Peru, childhood ARI due to RSV or MPV were common and associated with higher morbidity than ARI due to other viruses or with no viral detections. The risk factors identified in this study may be considered for interventional

  17. Large-scale seroprevalence analysis of human metapneumovirus and human respiratory syncytial virus infections in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), a recently identified virus, causes acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in infants and children. However, studies on the seroepidemeology of hMPV are very limited in China. To assess the seroprevalence of hMPV infection in China, we tested a total of 1,156 serum specimens for the presence of anti-hMPV IgG antibody in children and adults free of acute respiratory illness in Beijing, China by using hMPV nucleocapsid (N) protein as an antigen. As a control, we used the human serum antibody against the N protein of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), the most important viral agent responsible for ARIs in children. Results The seropositive rate for hMPV increased steadily with age from 67% at 1-6 mo to 100% at age 20. However, the rate dropped slightly between 6 mo and 1 yr of age. The seropositive rate for hRSV also increased steadily with age from 71% at 1-6 mo to 100% at age 20. In children aged six months to six years, the seropositive rates for the anti-hRSV IgG antibody were significantly higher than those for hMPV. Additionally, IgG antibody titers to hMPV and hRSV were significantly higher in adults than in young children. Consistent with the seropositive rates, the geometric mean titer of anti-hMPV IgG antibody was lower than that of anti-hRSV IgG antibody in children aged six months to six years. Conclusions Our results indicate that similar to hRSV, exposure to hMPV is ubiquitous in the Beijing population. However, the seroprevalence of anti-hMPV IgG antibody is lower than that of hRSV in children between six months and six years old, which suggests a different number of repeat infections or a different response to infections. PMID:21310026

  18. Evidence for the interaction of the human metapneumovirus G and F proteins during virus-like particle formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is now a major cause of lower respiratory infection in children. Although primary isolation of HMPV has been achieved in several different cell lines, the low level of virus replication and the subsequent recovery of low levels of infectious HMPV have hampered biochemical studies on the virus. These experimental methodologies usually require higher levels of biological material that can be achieved following HMPV infection. In this study we demonstrate that expression of the HMPV F, G and M proteins in mammalian cells leads to HMPV virus-like particles (VLP) formation. This experimental strategy will serve as a model system to allow the process of HMPV virus assembly to be examined. Methods The HMPV F, G and M proteins were expressed in mammalian cell lines. Protein cross-linking studies, sucrose gradient centrifugation and in situ imaging was used to examine interactions between the virus proteins. VLP formation was examined using sucrose density gradient centrifugation and electron microscopy analysis. Results Analysis of cells co-expressing the F, G and M proteins demonstrated that these proteins interacted. Furthermore, in cells co-expression the three HMPV proteins the formation VLPs was observed. Image analysis revealed the VLPs had a similar morphology to the filamentous virus morphology that we observed on HMPV-infected cells. The capacity of each protein to initiate VLP formation was examined using a VLP formation assay. Individual expression of each virus protein showed that the G protein was able to form VLPs in the absence of the other virus proteins. Furthermore, co-expression of the G protein with either the M or F proteins facilitated their incorporation into the VLP fraction. Conclusion Co-expression of the F, G and M proteins leads to the formation of VLPs, and that incorporation of the F and M proteins into VLPs is facilitated by their interaction with the G protein. Our data suggests that the G protein

  19. Avian disease at the Salton Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    2002-01-01

    A review of existing records and the scientific literature was conducted for occurrences of avian diseases affecting free-ranging avifauna within the Salton Sea ecosystem. The period for evaluation was 1907 through 1999. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey and the scientific literature were the data sources for the period of 1907a??1939. The narrative reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sonny Bono National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the epizootic database of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center were the primary data sources for the remainder of the evaluation. The pattern of avian disease at the Salton Sea has changed greatly over time. Relative to past decades, there was a greater frequency of major outbreaks of avian disease at the Salton Sea during the 1990s than in previous decades, a greater variety of disease agents causing epizootics, and apparent chronic increases in the attrition of birds from disease. Avian mortality was high for about a decade beginning during the mid-1920s, diminished substantially by the 1940s and was at low to moderate levels until the 1990s when it reached the highest levels reported. Avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) was the only major cause of avian disease until 1979 when the first major epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocidia) was documented. Waterfowl and shorebirds were the primary species affected by avian botulism. A broader spectrum of species have been killed by avian cholera but waterfowl have suffered the greatest losses. Avian cholera reappeared in 1983 and has joined avian botulism as a recurring cause of avian mortality. In 1989, avian salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) was first diagnosed as a major cause of avian disease within the Salton Sea ecosystem and has since reappeared several times, primarily among cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). The largest loss from a single epizootic occurred in 1992, when an estimated

  20. Individual contributions of the human metapneumovirus F, G, and SH surface glycoproteins to the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Skiadopoulos, Mario H. . E-mail: mskiadopoulos@niaid.nih.gov; Biacchesi, Stephane; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Amaro-Carambot, Emerito; Surman, Sonja R.; Collins, Peter L.; Murphy, Brian R.

    2006-02-20

    We evaluated the individual contributions of the three surface glycoproteins of human metapneumovirus (HMPV), namely the fusion F, attachment G, and small hydrophobic SH proteins, to the induction of serum HMPV-binding antibodies, serum HMPV-neutralizing antibodies, and protective immunity. Using reverse genetics, each HMPV protein was expressed individually from an added gene in recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) and used to infect hamsters once or twice by the intranasal route. The F protein was highly immunogenic and protective, whereas G and SH were only weakly or negligibly immunogenic and protective, respectively. Thus, in contrast to other paramyxoviruses, the HMPV attachment G protein is not a major neutralization or protective antigen. Also, although the SH protein of HMPV is a virion protein that is much larger than its counterparts in previously studied paramyxoviruses, it does not appear to be a significant neutralization or protective antigen.

  1. Avian influenza: an agricultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Andrea

    2006-11-01

    Recent outbreaks of infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 strains of avian influenza virus in poultry in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Middle East have raised concern over the potential emergence of a pandemic strain that can easily infect humans and cause serious morbidity and mortality. To prevent and control a national outbreak, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts measures based on the ecology of avian influenza viruses. To prevent an outbreak in the United States, the USDA conducts surveillance of bird populations, restrictions on bird importation, educational outreach, and regulation of agricultural practices, in collaboration with local, state, and federal organizations. To manage an outbreak, the USDA has in place a well-established emergency management system for optimizing efforts. The USDA also collaborates with international organizations for disease prevention and control in other countries.

  2. Gender determination of avian embryo

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  3. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R

    2014-07-01

    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand. PMID:24313228

  4. Avian embryos in hypoxic environments.

    PubMed

    León-Velarde, F; Monge-C, C

    2004-08-12

    Avian embryos at high altitude do not benefit of the maternal protection against hypoxia as in mammals. Nevertheless, avian embryos are known to hatch successfully at altitudes between 4,000 and 6,500 m. This review considers some of the processes that bring about the outstanding modifications in the pressure differences between the environment and mitochondria of avian embryos in hypoxic environments. Among species, some maintain normal levels of oxygen consumption ( VO2) have a high oxygen carrying capacity, lower the air cell-arterial pressure difference ( PAO2 - PaO2 ) with a constant pH. Other species decrease VO2, increase only slightly the oxygen carrying capacity, have a higher PAO2 - PaO2 difference than sea-level embryos and lower the PCO2 and pH. High altitude embryos, and those exposed to hypoxia have an accelerated decline of erythrocyte ATP levels during development and an earlier stimulation of 2,3-BPG synthesis. A higher Bohr effect may ensure high tissue PO2 in the presence of the high-affinity hemoglobin. Independently of the strategy used, they serve together to promote suitable rates of development and successful hatching of high altitude birds in hypoxic environments.

  5. Avian utilization of subsidence wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, J.R.; Conley, P.S.; Smout, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Diverse and productive wetlands have resulted from coal mining in the midwest. The trend from surface to underground mining has increased the potential for subsidence. Planned subsidence of longwall mining areas provides increased opportunities for wetland habitat establishment. Planned subsidence over a 180 meter (590 foot) deep longwall mine in southern Illinois during 1984 to 1986 produced three subsidence wetlands totaling 15 hectares (38 acres). The resulting palustrine emergent wetlands enhanced habitat diversity within the surrounding palustrine forested unsubsided area. Habitat assessments and evaluations of avian utilization of the subsidence wetlands were conducted during February 1990 through October 1991. Avian utilization was greatest within the subsided wetlands. Fifty-three bird species representing seven foraging guilds utilized the subsidence wetlands. Wading/fishing, dabbling waterfowl, and insectivorous avian guilds dominated the subsidence wetlands. The subsidence wetlands represented ideal habitat for wood ducks and great blue herons which utilized snags adjacent to and within the wetlands for nesting (19 great blue heron nests produced 25 young). Dense cover and a rich supply of macroinvertebrates provide excellent brood habitat for wood ducks, while herpetofauna and ichthyofauna provided abundant forage in shallow water zones for great blue herons and other wetland wading birds. The diversity of game and non-game avifauna utilizing the subsidence areas demonstrated the unique value of these wetlands. Preplanned subsidence wetlands can help mitigate loss of wetland habitats in the midwest.

  6. Rational Design of Human Metapneumovirus Live Attenuated Vaccine Candidates by Inhibiting Viral mRNA Cap Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Cai, Hui; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The paramyxoviruses human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) are responsible for the majority of pediatric respiratory diseases and inflict significant economic loss, health care costs, and emotional burdens. Despite major efforts, there are no vaccines available for these viruses. The conserved region VI (CR VI) of the large (L) polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses catalyzes methyltransferase (MTase) activities that typically methylate viral mRNAs at positions guanine N-7 (G-N-7) and ribose 2′-O. In this study, we generated a panel of recombinant hMPVs carrying mutations in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site in CR VI of L protein. These recombinant viruses were specifically defective in ribose 2′-O methylation but not G-N-7 methylation and were genetically stable and highly attenuated in cell culture and viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of cotton rats. Importantly, vaccination of cotton rats with these recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) with defective MTases triggered a high level of neutralizing antibody, and the rats were completely protected from challenge with wild-type rhMPV. Collectively, our results indicate that (i) amino acid residues in the SAM binding site in the hMPV L protein are essential for 2′-O methylation and (ii) inhibition of mRNA cap MTase can serve as a novel target to rationally design live attenuated vaccines for hMPV and perhaps other paramyxoviruses, such as hRSV and hPIV3. IMPORTANCE Human paramyxoviruses, including hRSV, hMPV, and hPIV3, cause the majority of acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans, particularly in infants, children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine available. A formalin-inactivated vaccine is not suitable for these viruses because it causes enhanced lung damage upon reinfection with the same virus. A live attenuated vaccine

  7. The global nature of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their agricultural or anthropocentric production systems. Avian influenza viruses or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds...

  8. MANAGING AVIAN FLU, CARCASS MANAGEMENT & BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The avian influenza virus is discussed with emphasis on the impact to poultry and possible movement of the highly pathogenic H5N 1 virus to humans. A review is made of the worldwide effects to date of the avian influenza viruses; methods for the viruses to enter recreational wate...

  9. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination for both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used for countries that have been endemic for avian influenza influenza virus, but stamping out policies are common for countries that are normally free of the disease. Stamping out policies of euthanizing infecte...

  10. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... (76 FR 4046-4056, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074) an interim rule that amended the regulations governing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist....

  11. Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's egg pasteurization processes on the inactivation of high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus and velogenic Newcastle disease virus in processed egg products.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Revis A; Beck, Joan R; Swayne, David E

    2013-04-01

    Globally, 230,662 metric tons of liquid egg products are marketed each year. The presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) or Newcastle disease in an exporting country can legitimately inhibit trade in eggs and processed egg products; development and validation of pasteurization parameters are essential for safe trade to continue. The HPAI virus (HPAIV) A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/1983 (H5N2) and velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) AMPV-1/chicken/California/S01212676/2002 were inoculated into five egg products and heat treated at various times and temperatures to determine thermal inactivation rates to effect a 5-log viral reduction. For HPAIV and vNDV, the pasteurization processes for fortified, sugared, plain, and salted egg yolk, and homogenized whole egg (HPAIV only) products resulted in >5-log reductions in virus at the lower temperature-longer times of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)-approved Salmonella pasteurization processes. In addition, a >5-log reduction of HPAIV was also demonstrated for the five products at the higher temperatures-shorter times of USDA-approved pasteurization processes, whereas the vNDV virus was adequately inactivated in only fortified and plain egg yolk products. For the salted and sugared egg yolk products, an additional 0.65 and 1.6 min of treatment, respectively, at 63.3 °C was necessary to inactivate 5 log of vNDV. Egg substitute with fat does not have standard USDA pasteurization criteria, but the D59-value was 0.75 min, adequate to inactivate 5 log of vNDV in <4 min.

  12. Genetic Applications in Avian Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  13. Identification of avian wax synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities. PMID:22305293

  14. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Douglas E; Franson, J Christian; Brannian, Roger E; Long, Renee R; Radi, Craig A; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  15. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  16. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pello, Susan J.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.

  17. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Pello, Susan J; Olsen, Glenn H

    2013-05-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive. PMID:23642867

  18. Lung CD8+ T Cell Impairment Occurs during Human Metapneumovirus Infection despite Virus-Like Particle Induction of Functional CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Sherry C.; Schuster, Jennifer E.; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Boyd, Kelli L.; Joyce, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals worldwide. There is currently no licensed HMPV vaccine. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are an attractive vaccine candidate because they are noninfectious and elicit a neutralizing antibody response. However, studies show that serum neutralizing antibodies are insufficient for complete protection against reinfection and that adaptive T cell immunity is important for viral clearance. HMPV and other respiratory viruses induce lung CD8+ T cell (TCD8) impairment, mediated by programmed death 1 (PD-1). In this study, we generated HMPV VLPs by expressing the fusion and matrix proteins in mammalian cells and tested whether VLP immunization induces functional HMPV-specific TCD8 responses in mice. C57BL/6 mice vaccinated twice with VLPs and subsequently challenged with HMPV were protected from lung viral replication for at least 20 weeks postimmunization. A single VLP dose elicited F- and M-specific lung TCD8s with higher function and lower expression of PD-1 and other inhibitory receptors than TCD8s from HMPV-infected mice. However, after HMPV challenge, lung TCD8s from VLP-vaccinated mice exhibited inhibitory receptor expression and functional impairment similar to those of mice experiencing secondary infection. HMPV challenge of VLP-immunized μMT mice also elicited a large percentage of impaired lung TCD8s, similar to mice experiencing secondary infection. Together, these results indicate that VLPs are a promising vaccine candidate but do not prevent lung TCD8 impairment upon HMPV challenge. IMPORTANCE Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory disease for which there is no licensed vaccine. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are an attractive vaccine candidate and induce antibodies, but T cell responses are less defined. Moreover, HMPV and other respiratory viruses induce lung CD8+ T cell (TCD8) impairment mediated by

  19. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  20. Are wetlands the reservoir for avian cholera?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands have long been suspected to be an important reservoir for Pasteurella multocida and therefore the likely source of avian cholera outbreaks. During the fall of 1995a??98 we collected sediment and water samples from 44 wetlands where avian cholera epizootics occurred the previous winter or spring. We attempted to isolate P. multocida in sediment and surface water samples from 10 locations distributed throughout each wetland. We were not able to isolate P. multocida from any of the 440 water and 440 sediment samples collected from these wetlands. In contrast, during other investigations of avian cholera we isolated P. multocida from 20 of 44 wetlands, including 7% of the water and 4.5% of the sediment samples collected during or shortly following epizootic events. Our results indicate that wetlands are an unlikely reservoir for the bacteria that causes avian cholera.

  1. Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Han, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies. PMID:26333275

  2. Seasonal biology: avian photoreception goes deep.

    PubMed

    Wyse, Cathy; Hazlerigg, David

    2009-08-25

    The avian hypothalamus senses light directly, allowing endocrine physiology to synchronise to seasonal day-length changes. New data implicate the photopigment VA-opsin in this deep brain photoreception. PMID:19706275

  3. Avian Models in Teratology and Developmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.; Flentke, George R.; Garic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent’s embryotoxic effects. Here we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function. PMID:22669661

  4. Avian models in teratology and developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan M; Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.

  5. Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Han, Jae Yong

    2015-01-01

    Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies. PMID:26333275

  6. A review of avian probiotics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeanne Marie

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics have been used in poultry for decades and have become common in the pet bird industry. Desirable characteristics of probiotic organisms are that they are nonpathogenic, have the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells, have the ability to colonize and reproduce in the host, have the ability to be host-specific, survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and exposure to stomach acid and bile, produce metabolites that inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, modulate gastrointestinal immune responses, and survive processing and storage. Purported benefits in birds are disease prevention and promotion of growth. Recommendations for use in avian species are for periodic use to replenish normal flora, use after antibiotic therapy to reestablish normal flora, and use during periods of stress to counter effects of immunosuppression. PMID:25115036

  7. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  8. Avian study protocols and wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.

    1995-12-01

    This paper identifies the need to develop and use standardized avian study protocols to determine avian impacts at new and existing wind energy facilities. This will allow data collected from various sites to be correlated for better understanding wind energy related avian impacts. Factors contributing to an increased interest in wind energy facilities by electric utilities include: (1) Increased demand for electricity;(2) increased constraints on traditional electrical generating facilities (i.e. hydroelectric and nuclear power plants);(3) improved wind turbine technology. During the 1980`s generous tax credits spawned the development of wind energy facilities, known as wind farms, in California. Commercial scale wind farm proposals are being actively considered in states across the country - Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Texas, and Vermont to name a few. From the wind farms in California the unexpected issue of avian impacts, especially to birds-of-prey, or raptor, surfaced and continues to plague the wind industry. However, most of the avian studies did not followed a standardized protocol or methodology and, therefore, data is unavailable to analyze and compare impacts at different sites or with differing technologies and configurations. Effective mitigation can not be designed and applied until these differences are understood. The Bonneville Power Administration is using comparable avian study protocols to collect data for two environmental impact statements being prepared for two separate wind farm proposals. Similar protocol will be required for any other avian impact analysis performed by the agency on proposed or existing wind farms. The knowledge gained from these studies should contribute to a better understanding of avian interactions with wind energy facilities and the identification of effective mitigation measures.

  9. Report of the Avian Development Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The anteroposterior axis of the avian embryo is established before it is laid. Baer's rule states that the cephalic end of the avian embryo will be away from the observer when the pointed end of the shell is on the observer's right. There are experimental data available which indicate gravity has a role in the establishment of the anteroposterior axis while the egg is in the uterus; this results in Baer's rule. The influence of gravity on egg development is studied.

  10. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dennis A; Atkinson, Carter T; Samuel, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand. PMID:22320256

  11. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dennis A; Atkinson, Carter T; Samuel, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  12. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  13. Genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission network of human metapneumovirus: identification of a unique sub-lineage of the fusion and attachment genes.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Chan, Yoke Fun; Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Liang Jie; Nor'E, Siti Sarah; Ng, Kim Tien; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Pang, Yong Kek; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important viral respiratory pathogen worldwide. Current knowledge regarding the genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission dynamics of HMPV among adults and children living in tropical climate remains limited. HMPV prevailed at 2.2% (n = 86/3,935) among individuals presented with acute respiratory tract infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2014. Seasonal peaks were observed during the northeast monsoon season (November-April) and correlated with higher relative humidity and number of rainy days (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion and attachment genes identified the co-circulation of three known HMPV sub-lineages, A2b and B1 (30.2% each, 26/86) and B2 (20.9%, 18/86), with genotype shift from sub-lineage B1 to A2b observed in 2013. Interestingly, a previously unrecognized sub-lineage of A2 was identified in 18.6% (16/86) of the population. Using a custom script for network construction based on the TN93 pairwise genetic distance, we identified up to nine HMPV transmission clusters circulating as multiple sub-epidemics. Although no apparent major outbreak was observed, the increased frequency of transmission clusters (dyads) during seasonal peaks suggests the potential roles of transmission clusters in driving the spread of HMPV. Our findings provide essential information for therapeutic research, prevention strategies, and disease outbreak monitoring of HMPV. PMID:27279080

  14. A live attenuated human metapneumovirus vaccine strain provides complete protection against homologous viral infection and cross-protection against heterologous viral infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Shu, Zhou; Qin, Xian; Dou, Ying; Zhao, Yao; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    A live attenuated vaccine candidate strain (M2) of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was generated by removing the N-linked carbohydrate at amino acid 172 in the fusion (F) protein. Previously, replication of M2 in mouse lungs could be detected by molecular assays but not by viral titration. In the present study, the protective effects of M2 against infection by homologous or heterologous viruses were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Immunization with M2 produced a high titer of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c mice at 4 and 8 weeks postimmunization, with the titers against the homologous virus being higher than those against the heterologous virus. Challenges at 4 and 8 weeks postinoculation with M2 or wild-type virus led to no replication when mice were challenged with a homologous virus and extremely reduced replication when mice were challenged with a heterologous virus, as determined by the detection of viral genomic RNA copies in the lungs, as well as significantly milder pulmonary pathology. Thus, M2, with only one N-linked carbohydrate removed in the F protein, provides complete protection from homologous virus infection and substantial cross-protection from heterologous virus infection for at least 56 days after inoculation. This vaccine strain may therefore be a candidate for further preclinical study. Furthermore, this attenuating strategy (changing the glycosylation of a major viral protein) may be useful in the development of other viral vaccines.

  15. Genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission network of human metapneumovirus: identification of a unique sub-lineage of the fusion and attachment genes

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Chan, Yoke Fun; Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Liang Jie; Nor’E, Siti Sarah; Ng, Kim Tien; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Pang, Yong Kek; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important viral respiratory pathogen worldwide. Current knowledge regarding the genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission dynamics of HMPV among adults and children living in tropical climate remains limited. HMPV prevailed at 2.2% (n = 86/3,935) among individuals presented with acute respiratory tract infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2014. Seasonal peaks were observed during the northeast monsoon season (November–April) and correlated with higher relative humidity and number of rainy days (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion and attachment genes identified the co-circulation of three known HMPV sub-lineages, A2b and B1 (30.2% each, 26/86) and B2 (20.9%, 18/86), with genotype shift from sub-lineage B1 to A2b observed in 2013. Interestingly, a previously unrecognized sub-lineage of A2 was identified in 18.6% (16/86) of the population. Using a custom script for network construction based on the TN93 pairwise genetic distance, we identified up to nine HMPV transmission clusters circulating as multiple sub-epidemics. Although no apparent major outbreak was observed, the increased frequency of transmission clusters (dyads) during seasonal peaks suggests the potential roles of transmission clusters in driving the spread of HMPV. Our findings provide essential information for therapeutic research, prevention strategies, and disease outbreak monitoring of HMPV. PMID:27279080

  16. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  17. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  18. Songbirds and the revised avian brain nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Anton; Perkel, David J; Mello, Claudio V; Jarvis, Erich D

    2004-06-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the standard nomenclature for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures of the avian brain is based on flawed once-held assumptions of homology to mammalian brain structures, greatly hindering functional comparisons between avian and mammalian brains. This has become especially problematic for those researchers studying the neurobiology of birdsong, the largest single group within the avian neuroscience community. To deal with the many communication problems this has caused among researchers specializing in different vertebrate classes, the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum, held at Duke University from July 18-20, 2002, set out to develop a new terminology for the avian telencephalon and some allied brainstem cell groups. In one major step, the erroneous conception that the avian telencephalon consists mainly of a hypertrophied basal ganglia has been purged from the telencephalic terminology, and the actual parts of the basal ganglia and its brainstem afferent cell groups have been given new names to reflect their now-evident homologies. The telencephalic regions that were incorrectly named to reflect presumed homology to mammalian basal ganglia have been renamed as parts of the pallium. The prefixes used for the new names for the pallial subdivisions have retained most established abbreviations, in an effort to maintain continuity with the pre-existing nomenclature. Here we present a brief synopsis of the inaccuracies in the old nomenclature, a summary of the nomenclature changes, and details of changes for specific songbird vocal and auditory nuclei. We believe this new terminology will promote more accurate understanding of the broader neurobiological implications of song control mechanisms and facilitate the productive exchange of information between researchers studying avian and mammalian systems. PMID:15313771

  19. Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Avian Influenza H5 Viruses in the United States Updates and Publications Information ... Humans Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza Viruses Outbreaks Health Care and Laboratorian Guidance HPAI A ...

  20. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Button Past Newsletters Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People Language: English Español ...

  1. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Suarez, David L

    2012-12-01

    Vaccination for both low pathogenicity avian influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used by countries that have become endemic for avian influenza virus, but stamping-out policies are still common for countries with recently introduced disease. Stamping-out policies of euthanatizing infected and at-risk flocks has been an effective control tool, but it comes at a high social and economic cost. Efforts to identify alternative ways to respond to outbreaks without widespread stamping out has become a goal for organizations like the World Organisation for Animal Health. A major issue with vaccination for avian influenza is trade considerations because countries that vaccinate are often considered to be endemic for the disease and they typically lose their export markets. Primarily as a tool to promote trade, the concept of DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) has been considered for avian influenza, but the goal for trade is to differentiate vaccinated and not-infected from vaccinated and infected animals because trading partners are unwilling to accept infected birds. Several different strategies have been investigated for a DIVA strategy, but each has advantages and disadvantages. A review of current knowledge on the research and implementation of the DIVA strategy will be discussed with possible ways to implement this strategy in the field. The increased desire for a workable DIVA strategy may lead to one of these ideas moving from the experimental to the practical.

  2. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  3. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  4. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  5. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  6. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  7. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  8. Avian biology, the human influence on global avian influenza transmission, and performing surveillance in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Samantha E J

    2010-06-01

    This paper takes a closer look at three interrelated areas of study: avian host biology, the role of human activities in virus transmission, and the surveillance activities centered on avian influenza in wild birds. There are few ecosystems in which birds are not found. Correspondingly, avian influenza viruses are equally global in distribution, relying on competent avian hosts. The immune systems, annual cycles, feeding behaviors, and migration patterns of these hosts influence the ecology of the disease. Decreased biodiversity has also been linked to heightened disease transmission in several disease systems, and it is evident that active destruction and modification of wetland environments for human use is impacting avian populations drastically. Legal and illegal trade in wild birds present a significant risk for introduction and maintenance of exotic diseases. After the emergence of HPAI H5N1 in Hong Kong in 1996 and the ensuing geographic spread of outbreaks after 2003, both infected countries and those at risk of introduction began intensifying avian influenza surveillance efforts. Several techniques for sampling wild birds for influenza viruses have been applied. Benefits, problems, and biases exist for each method. The wild bird avian influenza surveillance programs taking place across the continents are now scaling back due to the rise of other spending priorities; hopefully the lessons learned from this work will be preserved and will inform future research and disease outbreak response priorities.

  9. Roles of the Putative Integrin-Binding Motif of the Human Metapneumovirus Fusion (F) Protein in Cell-Cell Fusion, Viral Infectivity, and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yongwei; Zhang, Yu; Cai, Hui; Mirza, Anne M.; Iorio, Ronald M.; Peeples, Mark E.; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a relatively recently identified paramyxovirus that causes acute upper and lower respiratory tract infection. Entry of hMPV is unusual among the paramyxoviruses, in that fusion is accomplished by the fusion (F) protein without the attachment glycoprotein (G protein). It has been suggested that hMPV F protein utilizes integrin αvβ1 as a cellular receptor. Consistent with this, the F proteins of all known hMPV strains possess an integrin-binding motif (329RGD331). The role of this motif in viral entry, infectivity, and pathogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that α5β1 and αv integrins are essential for cell-cell fusion and hMPV infection. Mutational analysis found that residues R329 and G330 in the 329RGD331 motif are essential for cell-cell fusion, whereas mutations at D331 did not significantly impact fusion activity. Furthermore, fusion-defective RGD mutations were either lethal to the virus or resulted in recombinant hMPVs that had defects in viral replication in cell culture. In cotton rats, recombinant hMPV with the R329K mutation in the F protein (rhMPV-R329K) and rhMPV-D331A exhibited significant defects in viral replication in nasal turbinates and lungs. Importantly, inoculation of cotton rats with these mutants triggered a high level of neutralizing antibodies and protected against hMPV challenge. Taken together, our data indicate that (i) α5β1 and αv integrins are essential for cell-cell fusion and viral replication, (ii) the first two residues in the RGD motif are essential for fusion activity, and (iii) inhibition of the interaction of the integrin-RGD motif may serve as a new target to rationally attenuate hMPV for the development of live attenuated vaccines. IMPORTANCE Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the major causative agents of acute respiratory disease in humans. Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral drug for hMPV. hMPV enters host cells via a unique mechanism, in that viral

  10. [Toll-like receptors expression in the lungs of human metapneumovirus infected mice and the effects of polyI:C on viral infection].

    PubMed

    Dou, Ying; Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the expression changes of Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the lungs of human metapneumovirus infected BALB/c mice, and to explore the effects of PolyI:C on viral replication, HMPV-infected group, PolyI:C+hMPV group, PolyI:C+DMED group and DMEM control group were set up for this study. All mice were sacrificed on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 16 post inoculation. Lungs were used for viral titration, pulmonary histopathology and detection of TLRs mRNA expression by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Results showed that the levels of viral replication in the lungs of PolyI:C+hMPV infected mice were significantly decreased and lung inflammation were also lessened compared with those of hMPV infected mice. RT-PCR detection showed that mRNA levels of most TLRs were up-regulated (P < 0.05) in the lungs of hMPV infected group compared with DMEM group. Real time PCR assay showed that TLR7-8 mRNA significantly increased in hMPV infected group in a time-dependent manner. The level of TLR3 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in PolyI:C+hMPV group at the 24 hour after intranasal inoculation. The results showed that hMPV infection up-regulated the expression of TLRs in lungs of BALB/c mice and TLR7/8 pathway might play an important role in the start of natural immune response. PolyI:C was capable of inhibiting viral replication in the lung of mice and reducing lung inflammation probably through the early activation of TLR3.

  11. Clinical evaluation of NucliSENS magnetic extraction and NucliSENS analyte-specific reagents for real-time detection of human metapneumovirus in pediatric respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Ginocchio, Christine C; Manji, Ryhana; Lotlikar, Madhavi; Zhang, Fan

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the NucliSENS miniMAG (MM) and easyMAG (EM) nucleic acid extraction platforms (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) in combination with the NucliSENS EasyQ basic kit and analyte-specific reagents (ASRs) (bioMérieux) for the detection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in respiratory samples. Total nucleic acids from pediatric clinical samples (n = 653) and an hMPV-specific inhibition control (h-IC) were coextracted using the MM and/or the EM. Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and real-time molecular beacon detection of hMPV were performed using a NucliSENS EasyQ analyzer (bioMérieux). Positive results were confirmed using an in-house-validated reverse transcriptase PCR ASR-based assay. The inclusion of the h-IC monitored the entire process, including the efficiency of nucleic acid extraction, amplification, and detection. The percentages of samples with inhibited amplification of the h-IC after initial NA extraction by EM and MM were 1.88% and 3.17%, respectively. After reprocessing of a new aliquot, the final h-IC inhibition rates were 0% (EM) and 1.06% (MM). The limit of detection of the assay was between 2 (EM extraction) and 10 (MM extraction) RNA copies/reaction, and specificity was 100% when testing viral respiratory isolates and clinical samples. hMPV was detected in 5.6% of pediatric samples tested and was also detected in three coinfections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). hMPV was the second most frequently detected respiratory virus in children of 0 to 2 years of age, after RSV. In summary, NucliSENS extraction and ASRs provided a sensitive and specific method for the detection of hMPV in respiratory samples.

  12. Generation of Avian Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yangqing; West, Franklin D; Jordan, Brian J; Beckstead, Robert B; Jordan, Erin T; Stice, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Avian species are among the most diverse vertebrates on our planet and significantly contribute to the balance of the ecology. They are also important food source and serve as a central animal model to decipher developmental biology and disease principles. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from avian species would enable conservation of genetic diversity as well as offer a valuable cell source that facilitates the use of avian models in many areas of basic and applied research. In this chapter, we describe methods used to successfully reprogram quail fibroblasts into iPSCs by using human transcription factors and the techniques critical to the characterization of their pluripotency. PMID:26621592

  13. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  14. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high-pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870s, and avian influenza has been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of poultry production. Approaches to control vary widely, but elimination of the disease in poultry is a common goal. The basics of AIV biology, clinical disease, molecular aspects, and AIV detection are briefly reviewed. PMID:24899420

  15. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    PubMed

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  16. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    PubMed

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs. PMID:27033033

  17. Host Tissue and Glycan Binding Specificities of Avian Viral Attachment Proteins Using Novel Avian Tissue Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Vries, Robert P.; Eggert, Amber M.; Wandee, Nantaporn; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, Monique H.

    2015-01-01

    The initial interaction between viral attachment proteins and the host cell is a critical determinant for the susceptibility of a host for a particular virus. To increase our understanding of avian pathogens and the susceptibility of poultry species, we developed novel avian tissue microarrays (TMAs). Tissue binding profiles of avian viral attachment proteins were studied by performing histochemistry on multi-species TMA, comprising of selected tissues from ten avian species, and single-species TMAs, grouping organ systems of each species together. The attachment pattern of the hemagglutinin protein was in line with the reported tropism of influenza virus H5N1, confirming the validity of TMAs in profiling the initial virus-host interaction. The previously believed chicken-specific coronavirus (CoV) M41 spike (S1) protein displayed a broad attachment pattern to respiratory tissues of various avian species, albeit with lower affinity than hemagglutinin, suggesting that other avian species might be susceptible for chicken CoV. When comparing tissue-specific binding patterns of various avian coronaviral S1 proteins on the single-species TMAs, chicken and partridge CoV S1 had predominant affinity for the trachea, while pigeon CoV S1 showed marked preference for lung of their respective hosts. Binding of all coronaviral S1 proteins was dependent on sialic acids; however, while chicken CoV S1 preferred sialic acids type I lactosamine (Gal(1-3)GlcNAc) over type II (Gal(1-4)GlcNAc), the fine glycan specificities of pigeon and partridge CoVs were different, as chicken CoV S1-specific sialylglycopolymers could not block their binding to tissues. Taken together, TMAs provide a novel platform in the field of infectious diseases to allow identification of binding specificities of viral attachment proteins and are helpful to gain insight into the susceptibility of host and organ for avian pathogens. PMID:26035584

  18. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response using the avian innate immunity microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The avian innate immunity microarray (AIIM) is a genomics tool designed to study the transcriptional activity of the avian immune response (Cytogenet. Genome Res. 117:139-145, 2007). It is an avian cDNA microarray representing 4,959 avian genes spotted in triplicate. The AIIM contains 25 avian int...

  19. Avian Schistosomes and Outbreaks of Cercarial Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. PMID:25567226

  20. Are we ready for the avian flu?

    PubMed

    Huff, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    It may be tempting to dismiss headlines about a potential avian flu pandemic as "the sky is falling" sensationalism, but experts continue to warn that the disease is likely to show up here in the not-too-distant future. What must hospitals do to prepare for a sudden influx of patients and other huge demands such a crisis would create? PMID:16485802

  1. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  2. The global nature of avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) virus (AIV) is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their occupying ecosystem, agricultural production system, or other anthropocentric niches. AIVs or evidence of their infection have been detected...

  3. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  4. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056... Register on May 3, 2011 (76 FR 24793, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074), we reopened the comment period for an... publication of the interim rule establishing that pigeons (and other Columbiform species such as doves) have...

  5. Pathobiology of avian influenza in domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks are an important source of food and income in many parts of the world. The susceptibility of domestic ducks to avian influenza (AI) viruses varies depending on many factors, including the species and the age of the ducks, the virus strain, and management practices. Although wild wat...

  6. Remote Sensing and Avian Biodiversity Patterns in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culbert, Patrick Davis

    Avian biodiversity is threatened, and in order to prioritize limited conservation resources and conduct effective conservation planning, a better understanding of avian species richness patterns is needed. In general, habitat structure, climatic stability, and sensed data to characterize these three drivers at a national scale, determine the influence and relative importance of these drivers of avian biodiversity, and produce nationwide, predictive maps of avian species richness for all birds, forest birds, grassland birds, shrubland birds, Neotropical migrants, short-distance migrants, and permanent residents. The quantification of habitat structure from remotely sensed data was a primary objective, including the evaluation of remotely sensed image texture and both horizontal and vertical vegetation structure, such as landscape composition and forest canopy height. These measures explained up to 70 percent of variability in avian species richness across the United States, and vertical and horizontal structure measures were complementary. I then developed models of avian species richness as a function of all three drivers of biodiversity. When modeling avian species richness at the scale of a North American Breeding Bird Survey route, all three factors had some explanatory power, but measures of habitat structure dominated, followed by productivity, then climatic stability. Models for specific avian guilds explained between 21 and 67 percent of the variability in avian species richness. Lastly, in order to generate a product useful to planners and resource managers, I produced a nationwide, 30-m spatial resolution map of predicted avian species richness for each of the seven avian guilds. My dissertation makes several technical, theoretical, and applied contributions to biodiversity conservation. The main technical contribution is the use of remotely sensed image texture over a nationwide extent. Theoretical contributions include the evaluation of the relative

  7. On avian influenza epidemic models with time delay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2015-12-01

    After the outbreak of the first avian influenza A virus (H5N1) in Hong Kong in 1997, another avian influenza A virus (H7N9) crossed the species barrier in mainland China in 2013 and 2014 and caused more than 400 human cases with a death rate of nearly 40%. In this paper, we take account of the incubation periods of avian influenza A virus and construct a bird-to-human transmission model with different time delays in the avian and human populations combining the survival probability of the infective avian and human populations at the latent time. By analyzing the dynamical behavior of the model, we obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate local and global asymptotical stability of equilibria of the system.

  8. [Avian diversity and bird strike risk at Fuyang Airport].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-min; Jiang, Shuang-lin; Nie, Chuan-peng; Zhou, Hou-long; Li, Yan-yan; Chen, Nai-tang; Zhao, Zhi-hua

    2011-07-01

    From June 2008 to January 2010, a survey of avian communities was conducted in five habitats (grassland, farmland, town, wetland, and woodland) at Fuyang Airport and its surrounding areas, with the diversity indices in different seasons and different habitats analyzed. A total of 122 avian species belonging to 15 orders and 40 families were recorded. At Fuyang Airport, the avian species number was significantly higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring, the avian density was the highest in autumn, and the Shannon diversity index and Pielou evenness index were the highest in summer. Among the five habitats at the Airport and its surrounding areas, woodland had the greatest avian species number and density, and the woodland, wetland, and farmland had higher Shannon diversity index than grassland and town. The most dangerous avian species to the airplanes at Fuyang Airport were Passer montanus, Pycnonotus sinensis, Hirundo rustica, Columba livia f. domestica, Pica pica, Streptopelia chinensis, and Sturnus cineraceu.

  9. Avian influenza virus and free-ranging wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dierauf, Leslie A.; Karesh, W.B.; Ip, Hon S.; Gilardi, K.V.; Fischer, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds, scientists have amassed a large amount of data on low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during decades of research with wild birds. This knowledge can provide sound guidance to veterinarians, public health professionals, the general public, government agencies, and other entities with concerns about avian influenza.

  10. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  11. Avian circadian organization: a chorus of clocks.

    PubMed

    Cassone, Vincent M

    2014-01-01

    In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms are similar to those expressed in mammals, including humans. The central pacemakers in the avian pineal gland, retinae and SCN dynamically interact to maintain stable phase relationships and then influence downstream rhythms through entrainment of peripheral oscillators in the brain controlling behavior and peripheral tissues. Birds represent an excellent model for the role played by biological clocks in human neurobiology; unlike most rodent models, they are diurnal, they exhibit cognitively complex social interactions, and their circadian clocks are more sensitive to the hormone melatonin than are those of nocturnal rodents. PMID:24157655

  12. Avian Circadian Organization: A Chorus of Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Cassone, Vincent M

    2013-01-01

    In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms are similar to those expressed in mammals, including humans. The central pacemakers in the avian pineal gland, retinae and SCN dynamically interact to maintain stable phase relationships and then influence downstream rhythms through entrainment of peripheral oscillators in the brain controlling behavior and peripheral tissues. Birds represent an excellent model for the role played by biological clocks in human neurobiology; unlike most rodent models, they are diurnal, they exhibit cognitively complex social interactions, and their circadian clocks are more sensitive to the hormone melatonin than are those of nocturnal rodents. PMID:24157655

  13. Seasonal change in the avian hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David F; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive processes, including memory and spatial orientation, in birds. The hippocampus undergoes seasonal change in food-storing birds and brood parasites, there are changes in the hippocampus during breeding, and further changes occur in some species in association with migration. In food-storing birds, seasonal change in the hippocampus occurs in fall and winter when the cognitively demanding behaviour of caching and retrieving food occurs. The timing of annual change in the hippocampus of food-storing birds is quite variable, however, and appears not to be under photoperiod control. A variety of factors, including cognitive performance, exercise, and stress may all influence seasonal change in the avian hippocampus. The causal processes underlying seasonal change in the avian hippocampus have not been extensively examined and the more fully described hormonal influences on the mammalian hippocampus may provide hypotheses for investigating the control of hippocampal seasonality in birds.

  14. Expornitic of avian pox in a zoo.

    PubMed

    Ensley, P K; Anderson, M P; Costello, M L; Powell, H C; Cooper, R

    1978-11-01

    During a 6-week period at the San Diego Zoo, avian pox occurred in 9 pheasants representing 5 species. Lesions were limited to facial skin and consisted of epithelial cell hyperplasia, secondary inflammatory changes, and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies which, by electron microscopy, were shown to contain pox virus. The disease was self-limiting in 7 pheasants, but 2 pheasants died. Free-ranging Indian red junglefowl were implicated as the source of the infection. PMID:216657

  15. Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation. PMID:19789646

  16. The avian egg and the retina

    PubMed Central

    MALCOLM, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for study of blood flow has been derived from the avian egg, utilizing the theories of crystallography and photosynthesis. The model is employed to explain the form of the eye and the function of the cells of the human retina, with special reference to colour vision and the pathology of migraine. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4736600

  17. Cognitive ornithology: the evolution of avian intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Nathan J

    2005-01-01

    Comparative psychologists interested in the evolution of intelligence have focused their attention on social primates, whereas birds tend to be used as models of associative learning. However, corvids and parrots, which have forebrains relatively the same size as apes, live in complex social groups and have a long developmental period before becoming independent, have demonstrated ape-like intelligence. Although, ornithologists have documented thousands of hours observing birds in their natural habitat, they have focused their attention on avian behaviour and ecology, rather than intelligence. This review discusses recent studies of avian cognition contrasting two different approaches; the anthropocentric approach and the adaptive specialization approach. It is argued that the most productive method is to combine the two approaches. This is discussed with respects to recent investigations of two supposedly unique aspects of human cognition; episodic memory and theory of mind. In reviewing the evidence for avian intelligence, corvids and parrots appear to be cognitively superior to other birds and in many cases even apes. This suggests that complex cognition has evolved in species with very different brains through a process of convergent evolution rather than shared ancestry, although the notion that birds and mammals may share common neural connectivity patterns is discussed. PMID:16553307

  18. Conservation planning and monitoring avian habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Loesch, C.R.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Migratory bird conservation plans should not only develop population goals, they also should establish attainable objectives for optimizing avian habitats. Meeting population goals is of paramount importance, but progress toward established habitat objectives can generally be monitored more easily than can progress toward population goals. Additionally, local or regional habitat objectives can be attained regardless of perturbations to avian populations that occur outside the geographic area covered by conservation plans. Assessments of current avian habitats, obtained from remotely sensed data, and the historical distribution of habitats should be used in establishing habitat objectives. Habitat planning and monitoring are best conducted using a geographic information system. Habitat objectives are assigned to three categories: maintaining existing habitat, restoring habitat, and creating new or alternative habitat. Progress toward meeting habitat objectives can be monitored through geographic information systems by incorporating georeferenced information on public lands, private lands under conservation easements, corporate lands under prescribed management, habitat restoration areas, and private lands under alternative management to enhance wildlife values. We recommend that the area and distribution of habitats within the area covered by conservation plans be reassessed from remotely sensed imagery at intervals appropriate to detect predicted habitat changes.

  19. Global phylogeographic limits of Hawaii's avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadell, J.S.; Ishtiaq, F.; Covas, R.; Melo, M.; Warren, B.H.; Atkinson, C.T.; Bensch, S.; Graves, G.R.; Jhala, Y.V.; Peirce, M.A.; Rahmani, A.R.; Fonseca, D.M.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) to Hawaii has provided a model system for studying the influence of exotic disease on naive host populations. Little is known, however, about the origin or the genetic variation of Hawaii's malaria and traditional classification methods have confounded attempts to place the parasite within a global ecological and evolutionary context. Using fragments of the parasite mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and the nuclear gene dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase obtained from a global survey of greater than 13 000 avian samples, we show that Hawaii's avian malaria, which can cause high mortality and is a major limiting factor for many species of native passerines, represents just one of the numerous lineages composing the morphological parasite species. The single parasite lineage detected in Hawaii exhibits a broad host distribution worldwide and is dominant on several other remote oceanic islands, including Bermuda and Moorea, French Polynesia. The rarity of this lineage in the continental New World and the restriction of closely related lineages to the Old World suggest limitations to the transmission of reproductively isolated parasite groups within the morphological species. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  20. [Investigation of the presence of human metapneumovirus in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma and its relationship with the attacks].

    PubMed

    Ilvan, Ahmet; Aslan, Gönül; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Calıkoğlu, Mukadder; Yılmaz, Fatma Mehtap; Tezcan, Seda; Taş, Dilaver; Ayrık, Cüneyt; Uygungül, Evren; Sezer, Ogün; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2013-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), an enveloped RNA virus classified in Paramyxoviridae family, was first characterized in 2001 from children with acute respiratory tract infection. Recent studies have suggested hMPV to play a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma attacks. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of hMPV in patients with COPD and asthma, its effects on the severity of the attacks and the relationship between demographical and clinical factors. A total of 123 patients, including 66 with COPD (45 were in attack and 21 were stable) and 57 with asthma (33 were in attack and 24 were under control) diagnosed according to the criteria of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, respectively, were included in the study. Nasopharyngeal lavage samples collected from all of the patients have been evaluated for the presence of hMPV-RNA by using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting F gene region of the virus. hMPV-RNA positivity rates in patients with COPD and asthma were observed as 30.3% (20/66) and 31.6% (18/57), respectively, and the difference between the groups were not statistically significant (p= 1.00). When patients were compared according to their disease status, hMPV was detected in 31.1% (14/45) of patients with COPD attack and 28.6% of stable patients (p> 0.05). These rates were found as 36.4% (12/33) and 25% (6/24) in patients with asthma attack and controlled asthma, respectively (p> 0.05). Although the virus detection rates in patients with COPD and asthma attacks (26/78; 33.3%) were higher than the patients with stable/controlled disease (12/45; 26.7%), the difference was not found as statistically significant (p= 0.57). The detection rate of hMPV-RNA was 26.1% in patients who can be treated at home and hospital without any need of intensive care and mechanical ventilation, while this rate was 36

  1. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...

  2. Avian cholera and organochlorine residues in an American oystercatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Locke, L.N.; Cromartie, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera, was isolated from cultures of the liver and heart blood of a female, adult American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) found dead on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, in May 1973. This is apparently the first record of avian cholera in the oystercatcher. Low levels of DDE were identified in tissues of the oystercatcher.

  3. Decay of Influenza a Viruses of Human and Avian Origin

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Chas. A.; Guerin, L. F.; Robillard, John

    1968-01-01

    The decay rate of six strains of Influenza virus Type A of human origin and eight strains of avian origin were examined in aerosol form under fixed conditions of temperature and humidity. Strains of avian origin were demonstrated to have greater resistance to decay of viability. PMID:4234786

  4. Experimental vaccinations for avian influenza virus including DIVA approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  5. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A sim...

  6. Susceptibility of avian species to north american H13 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gulls are widely recognized reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses; however, the subtypes maintained in these populations and/or the transmission mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Although, a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from gulls, two hemag...

  7. Comparative susceptibility of avian species to low pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H13 subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gulls are widely recognized reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses; however, the subtypes maintained in these populations and/or the transmission mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Although, a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from gulls, two hemag...

  8. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  9. New USDA licensed avian influenza vaccine (rHVT-AI) for protection against H5 avian influenza and usage discussion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, a new avian influenza vaccine was licensed by USDA for use in the United States for protection of commercial poultry. The vaccine is a recombinant herpes virus of turkeys expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an H5 subtype avian influenza virus belonging to the 2.2 clade of the H5N1 highly ...

  10. Avian pox in birds from Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Tikasingh, E S; Worth, C B; Spence, L; Aitken, T H

    1982-04-01

    Over a 7-year period in Trinidad, 9,514 birds were examined for avian pox and four species were found infected: the golden-headed manakin, Pipra erythrocephala (7% infected), the white-bearded manakin, Manacus manacus (5%), the violaceous euphonia Euphonia violacea (1%), and the bare-eyed thrush, Turdus nudigenis (less than 1%). The elaborate courtship displays of manakins may have a bearing on a "common source" type of infection. The apparently abrupt appearance of the disease at three localities in Trinidad in 1964 perhaps indicates introduction of the virus by migratory birds. PMID:6285009

  11. Avian genetics: A field and ecological approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, F.; Buckley, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors wanted to present the ecological/population approach they used in their own research, and a compendium of carefully referred chapters written by invited experts was essential. The book follows the historical evolution of work in avian genetics, proceeding from a discussion of Mendelian (i.e. classical) genes through quantitative genetics, chromosomal genetics, biochemical genetics, to extensive treatment of population genetics, and concluding with some examples of long-term studies. In this book concentration has been more on intra- than on inter-specific variation; in that sense the approach has been more genetic than evolutionary or taxonomic.

  12. Current genomic editing approaches in avian transgenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Sub; Kang, Kyung Soo; Han, Jae Yong

    2013-09-01

    The chicken was domesticated from Red Jungle Fowl over 8000years ago and became one of the major food sources worldwide. At present, the poultry industry is one of the largest industrial animal stocks in the world, and its economic scale is expanding significantly with increasing consumption. Additionally, since Aristotle used chicken eggs as a model to provide remarkable insights into how life begins, chickens have been used as invaluable and powerful experimental materials for studying embryo development, immune systems, biomedical processes, and hormonal regulation. Combined with advancements in efficient transgenic technology, avian models have become even more important than would have been expected.

  13. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  14. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  15. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  16. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Codd, Jonathan R; Manning, Phillip L; Norell, Mark A; Perry, Steven F

    2008-01-22

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of 'avian' characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in theropod dinosaurs, prior to the evolution of flight. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of the presence of uncinate processes in Aves and non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs indicating that these were homologous structures. Furthermore, recent work on Canada geese has demonstrated that uncinate processes are integral to the mechanics of avian ventilation, facilitating both inspiration and expiration. In extant birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration. Our study presents a mechanism whereby uncinate processes, in conjunction with lateral and ventral movements of the sternum and gastral basket, affected avian-like breathing mechanics in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  17. A new avian brain nomenclature: why, how and what.

    PubMed

    Reiner, A

    2005-09-15

    Many of the assumptions of homology on which the standard nomenclature for the cell groups and fiber tracts of the avian brain have been based are in error, and consequently that terminology promotes misunderstanding of the functional organization of avian brain and its evolutionary relationship to mammalian brain. Recognizing this problem, a number of avian brain researchers began an effort to revise the terminology, which culminated in the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum, held at Duke University from 18 to 20 July 2002. In the new terminology approved at this Forum, the flawed conception that the telencephalon of birds consists nearly entirely of a hypertrophied basal ganglia has been purged, and the actual parts of the basal ganglia and its brainstem afferent cell groups given names reflecting their now-evident mammalian homologues. The pallial telencephalic regions that were erroneously named to reflect presumed homology to mammalian basal ganglia were renamed as parts of pallium, using prefixes in most cases that retained established abbreviations (for continuity with the replaced nomenclature). The new nomenclature should lead to better communication among neuroscientists, especially between avian brain specialists and those not specialized in avian neurobiology. More information is available at the Avian Brain Nomenclature Exchange website (). PMID:16144608

  18. Pandemic Threat Posed by Avian Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans. PMID:11148006

  19. Studying avian encephalization with geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Marugán-Lobón, Jesús; Watanabe, Akinobu; Kawabe, Soichiro

    2016-08-01

    Encephalization is a core concept in comparative neurobiology, aiming to quantify the neurological capacity of organisms. For measuring encephalization, many studies have employed relative brain sizes corrected for expected allometric scaling to body size. Here we highlight the utility of a multivariate geometric morphometric (GM) approach for visualizing and analyzing neuroanatomical shape variation associated with encephalization. GM readily allows the statistical evaluation of covariates, such as size, and many software tools exist for visualizing their effects on shape. Thus far, however, studies using GM have not attempted to translate the meaning of encephalization to shape data. As such, we tested the statistical relationship between size and encephalization quotients (EQs) to brain shape utilizing a broad interspecific sample of avian endocranial data. Although statistically significant, the analyses indicate that allometry accounts for <10% of total neuroanatomical shape variation. Notably, we find that EQs, despite being corrected for allometric scaling based on size, contain size-related neuroanatomical shape changes. In addition, much of what is traditionally considered encephalization comprises clade-specific trends in relative forebrain expansion, particularly driven by landbirds. EQs, therefore, fail to capture 90% of the total neuroanatomical variation after correcting for allometry and shared phylogenetic history. Moving forward, GM techniques provide crucial tools for investigating key drivers of this vast, largely unexplored aspect of avian brain morphology. PMID:27112986

  20. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  1. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    PubMed

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis.

  2. Avian cytokines - the natural approach to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, J W; Lambrecht, B; van den Berg, T P; Andrew, M E; Strom, A D; Bean, A G

    2000-01-01

    While the effective use of antibiotics for the control of human disease has saved countless lives and has increased life expectancy over the past few decades, there are concerns arising from their usage in livestock. The use of antibiotic feed additives in food production animals has been linked to the emergence in the food chain of multiple drug-resistant bacteria that appear impervious to even the most powerful antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the use of chemical antimicrobials has led to concerns involving environmental contamination and unwanted residues in food products. The imminent banning of antibiotic usage in livestock feed has intensified the search for environmentally-friendly alternative methods to control disease. Cytokines, as natural mediators and regulators of the immune response, offer exciting new alternatives to conventional chemical-based therapeutics. The utilisation of cytokines is becoming more feasible, particularly in poultry, with the recent cloning of a number of avian cytokine genes. Chickens offer an attractive small animal model system with which to study the effectiveness of cytokine therapy in the control of disease in intensive livestock. In this report we will review the status of avian cytokines and focus on our recent studies involving the therapeutic potential of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) as a vaccine adjuvant and a growth promoter. PMID:10717298

  3. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    PubMed

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis. PMID:26204893

  4. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian; Baroch, John; Shivaprasad, H L; Payne, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family Bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. We report detection of avian bornavirus RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. We tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern US, using a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus M gene. Nine birds yielded a PCR product of appropriate size. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that the virus was closely related to aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1). Viral RNA was detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla). Eight of the nine positive birds came from the New York/New Jersey area. One positive Herring Gull came from New Hampshire. Histopathologic examination of one well-preserved brain from a Herring Gull from Union County New Jersey, showed a lymphocytic encephalitis similar to that observed in bornavirus-infected parrots and geese. Bornavirus N protein was confirmed in two Herring Gull brains by immunohistochemistry. Thus ABBV-1 can infect gulls and cause encephalitic brain lesions similar to those observed in other birds.

  5. Avian influenza: genetic evolution under vaccination pressure

    PubMed Central

    Escorcia, Magdalena; Vázquez, Lourdes; Méndez, Sara T; Rodríguez-Ropón, Andrea; Lucio, Eduardo; Nava, Gerardo M

    2008-01-01

    Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated from 1994 to 2006. This study demonstrates that Mexican low pathogenicity (LP) H5N2-AIVs are constantly undergoing genetic drifts. Recent AIV isolates (2002–2006) show significant molecular drifts when compared with the H5N2 vaccine-strain or other field isolates (1994–2000). This study also demonstrates that molecular drifts in the HA gene lineages follow a yearly trend, suggesting gradually cumulative sequence mutations. These findings might explain the increasing incidence of LP H5N2 AIV isolated from commercial avian farms. These findings support recent concerns about the challenge of AIV antigenic drift and influenza epidemics. PMID:18218105

  6. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  7. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Eben H; Camp, Richard J; Gorresen, P Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H; Leonard, David L; VanderWerf, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua'i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species' ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua'i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai'i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  8. Diffusive resistance of avian eggshell pores.

    PubMed

    Tøien, O; Paganelli, C V; Rahn, H; Johnson, R R

    1988-12-01

    Resistance to gas diffusion through the avian eggshell resides in the microscopic pores which penetrate the shell. We calculated the resistance to water vapor diffusion of individual pores in the shells of 23 species of avian eggs, based on measurements of pore dimensions taken from drawings of 321 pore casts published by Tyler (1962, 1964, 1965) and Tyler and Simkiss (1959). Diffusive resistances were calculated from Fick's first law, using a 100-segment model of each pore. In addition, we added 2 series resistances, calculated from Stefan's law, to account for boundary layer resistances at the inner and outer pore apertures. Convective resistances for the same 100-segment model were computed from Poiseuille's law. A special, symmetrically branching model is presented for the diffusive resistance of the branched pores of ostrich eggshells, based on the drawings of Tyler and Simkiss (1959). The total aperture resistance was less than 6.2% of total pore resistance, while the outside aperture effect was on average only 1.5%. The calculated average pore conductance for all species was 5.4 micrograms (day Torr)-1, about three times higher than the average value of 1.6 micrograms (day Torr)-1 obtained by dividing measured shell conductance by the number of pores (Ar and Rahn, 1985). A possible explanation for this discrepancy is advanced. However, it is to be noted that in spite of the discrepancy, both calculated and functional values of pore conductance appear to be independent of egg mass.

  9. The In Vitro Synthesis of Avian Myeloblastosis Viral RNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Michel; Groner, Yoram; Monroy, Gladys; Hurwitz, Jerard

    1974-01-01

    Isolated nuclei, prepared from myeloblasts of chicks infected with avian myeloblastosis virus, synthesize RNA sequences present in avian myeloblastosis viral RNA. These sequences are also formed during transcription of chromatin, isolated from myeloblasts, by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases purified from Escherichia coli or calfthymus. In the latter case, transcription is α-amanitin sensitive. Formation of hybrids between RNA and avian myeloblastosis virus DNA probes has been monitored by the combined use of ribonucleases A, T1, and H, and ribonucleases specific for single strands. PMID:4370472

  10. Avians as a Model System of Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Michael; Mikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Summary For more then 2000 years philosophers and scientists have turned to the avian embryo with questions of how life begins (Aristotle; Needham, 1959). Then, as now, the unique accessibility of the embryo both in terms of acquisition of eggs from domesticated fowl, and ease at which the embryo can be visualized by simply opening the shell, have made avians an appealing and powerful model system for the study of development. Thus, as the field of embryology has evolved through observational, comparative, and experimental embryology, into its current iteration as the cellular and molecular biology of development, avians have remained a useful and practical system of study. PMID:25468608

  11. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Hanneke J M

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. PMID:24688871

  12. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. PMID:24688871

  13. Shared epitopes of avian immunoglobulin light chains.

    PubMed

    Benčina, Mateja; Cizelj, Ivanka; Berčič, Rebeka Lucijana; Narat, Mojca; Benčina, Dušan; Dovč, Peter

    2014-04-15

    Like all jawed vertebrates, birds (Aves) also produce antibodies i.e. immunoglobulins (Igs) as a defence mechanism against pathogens. Their Igs are composed of two identical heavy (H) and light (L) chains which are of lambda isotype. The L chain consists of variable (VL), joining (JL) and constant (CL) region. Using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (3C10 and CH31) to chicken L chain, we analysed their cross-reactivity with sera from 33 avian species belonging to nine different orders. Among Galliformes tested, mAbs 3C10 and CH31 reacted with L chains of chicken, turkey, four genera of pheasants, tragopan and peafowl, but not with sera of grey partridge, quail and Japanese quail. Immunoglobulins of guinea-fowl reacted only with mAb 3C10. Both mAbs reacted also with the L chain of Eurasian griffon (order Falconiformes) and domestic sparrow (order Passeriformes). Sera from six other orders of Aves did not react with either of the two mAbs. EIA using mAbs 3C10 and CH31 enabled detection of antibodies to major avian pathogens in sera of chickens, turkeys, pheasants, peafowl, Eurasian griffon and guinea-fowl (only with mAb 3C10). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of pheasant L chain (19 residues) was identical to that of chicken. Sequences of genes encoding the L chain constant regions of pheasants, turkey and partridge were determined and deposited in the public database (GenBank accession numbers: FJ 649651, FJ 649652 and FJ 649653, respectively). Among them, amino acid sequence of pheasants is the most similar to that of chicken (97% similarity), whereas those of turkey and partridge have greater similarity to each other (89%) than to any other avian L chain sequence. The characteristic deletion of two amino acids which is present in the L chain constant region in Galliformes has been most likely introduced to their L chain after their divergence from Anseriformes.

  14. Shared epitopes of avian immunoglobulin light chains.

    PubMed

    Benčina, Mateja; Cizelj, Ivanka; Berčič, Rebeka Lucijana; Narat, Mojca; Benčina, Dušan; Dovč, Peter

    2014-04-15

    Like all jawed vertebrates, birds (Aves) also produce antibodies i.e. immunoglobulins (Igs) as a defence mechanism against pathogens. Their Igs are composed of two identical heavy (H) and light (L) chains which are of lambda isotype. The L chain consists of variable (VL), joining (JL) and constant (CL) region. Using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (3C10 and CH31) to chicken L chain, we analysed their cross-reactivity with sera from 33 avian species belonging to nine different orders. Among Galliformes tested, mAbs 3C10 and CH31 reacted with L chains of chicken, turkey, four genera of pheasants, tragopan and peafowl, but not with sera of grey partridge, quail and Japanese quail. Immunoglobulins of guinea-fowl reacted only with mAb 3C10. Both mAbs reacted also with the L chain of Eurasian griffon (order Falconiformes) and domestic sparrow (order Passeriformes). Sera from six other orders of Aves did not react with either of the two mAbs. EIA using mAbs 3C10 and CH31 enabled detection of antibodies to major avian pathogens in sera of chickens, turkeys, pheasants, peafowl, Eurasian griffon and guinea-fowl (only with mAb 3C10). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of pheasant L chain (19 residues) was identical to that of chicken. Sequences of genes encoding the L chain constant regions of pheasants, turkey and partridge were determined and deposited in the public database (GenBank accession numbers: FJ 649651, FJ 649652 and FJ 649653, respectively). Among them, amino acid sequence of pheasants is the most similar to that of chicken (97% similarity), whereas those of turkey and partridge have greater similarity to each other (89%) than to any other avian L chain sequence. The characteristic deletion of two amino acids which is present in the L chain constant region in Galliformes has been most likely introduced to their L chain after their divergence from Anseriformes. PMID:24603015

  15. Chemical ions affect survival of avian cholera organisms in pondwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.; Yandell, B.S.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) is a major disease of wild waterfowl, but its epizootiology remains little understood. Consequently, we examined whether chemical ions affected survival of avian cholera organisms in water collected from the Nebraska Rainwater Basin where avian cholera is enzootic. We tested the response of P. multocida to ammonium (NH4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), nitrate (NO3), and ortho-phosphate (PO4) ions individually and in combination using a fractional factorial design divided into 4 blocks. High concentrations of Ca and Mg, singly or in combination, increased survival of P. multocida organisms (P < 0.001). We developed a survival index to predict whether or not specific ponds could be "problem" or "nonproblem" avian cholera sites based on concentrations of these ions in the water.

  16. The avian tectorial membrane: Why is it tapered?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Kuni H.; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2015-12-01

    While the mammalian- and the avian inner ears have well defined tonotopic organizations as well as hair cells specialized for motile and sensing roles, the structural organization of the avian ear is different from its mammalian cochlear counterpart. Presumably this difference stems from the difference in the way motile hair cells function. Short hair cells, whose role is considered analogous to mammalian outer hair cells, presumably depends on their hair bundles, and not motility of their cell body, in providing the motile elements of the cochlear amplifier. This report focuses on the role of the avian tectorial membrane, specifically by addressing the question, "Why is the avian tectorial membrane tapered from the neural to the abneural direction?"

  17. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J; Meredith, Robert W; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G; Opazo, Juan C; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A; Green, Richard E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P; Edwards, Scott V; Braun, Edward L; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Wang, Jun

    2014-12-12

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  18. Development of reference antisera to enteric-origin avian viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent molecular surveys have revealed geographically distinct lineages of avian reovirus, rotavirus and astrovirus circulating in commercial poultry. To improve our understanding of enteric virus pathogenesis, specific immunological reagents are needed to detect viruses in histological samples. To ...

  19. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J; Meredith, Robert W; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G; Opazo, Juan C; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A; Green, Richard E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P; Edwards, Scott V; Braun, Edward L; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Wang, Jun

    2014-12-12

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits.

  20. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S.; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H.; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A.; Green, Richard E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E.; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P.; Edwards, Scott V.; Braun, Edward L.; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W.; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  1. Brachyspira pilosicoli-induced avian intestinal spirochaetosis.

    PubMed

    Le Roy, Caroline I; Mappley, Luke J; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J; Claus, Sandrine P

    2015-01-01

    Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) is a common disease occurring in poultry that can be caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, a Gram-negative bacterium of the order Spirochaetes. During AIS, this opportunistic pathogen colonises the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract of poultry (principally, the ileum, caeca, and colon), which can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced growth rate, and reduced egg production and quality. Due to the large increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment, the European Union banned in 2006 the prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. Consequently, the number of outbreaks of AIS has dramatically increased in the UK resulting in significant economic losses. This review summarises the current knowledge about AIS infection caused by B. pilosicoli and discusses various treatments and prevention strategies to control AIS. PMID:26679774

  2. Degradation of some pesticides in avian embryos.

    PubMed

    Várnagy, L

    1999-01-01

    On day 9 or 12 of the hatching period different pesticides (parathion, methyl-parathion, carbendazim, 2,4-D-amine Na, phosmethylane) were applied in ecotoxicological trials. The formulations were either injected into the air space of pheasant, quail or hen eggs or hen eggs were treated by the immersion technique. The residues of pesticides were measured in samples on days 13, 14 and 16 of incubation of chicken and pheasant embryos, while the Japanese quail embryos were analysed on days 10-14 of incubation. Analytical chemistry data showed a varying degradation rate of the compounds in avian embryos of the same species. The residues directly affect the embryos, disturbing their normal development and causing pathophysiological and morphological changes.

  3. Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Wikle, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.

  4. Brachyspira pilosicoli-induced avian intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Roy, Caroline I.; Mappley, Luke J.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Claus, Sandrine P.

    2015-01-01

    Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) is a common disease occurring in poultry that can be caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, a Gram-negative bacterium of the order Spirochaetes. During AIS, this opportunistic pathogen colonises the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract of poultry (principally, the ileum, caeca, and colon), which can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced growth rate, and reduced egg production and quality. Due to the large increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment, the European Union banned in 2006 the prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. Consequently, the number of outbreaks of AIS has dramatically increased in the UK resulting in significant economic losses. This review summarises the current knowledge about AIS infection caused by B. pilosicoli and discusses various treatments and prevention strategies to control AIS. PMID:26679774

  5. Artist conception of the Avian Development Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  6. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  7. Seroprevalence of avian pneumovirus in Minnesota turkeys.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sagar M; Lauer, Dale; Friendshuh, Keith; Halvorson, David A

    2003-01-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes respiratory tract infection in turkeys and was first seen in the United States in Colorado in late 1996. In early 1997, the disease was recognized in Minnesota and caused estimated losses of up to 15 million dollars per year. This virus has not been reported in the other turkey producing states. We here report the seroprevalence of APV in Minnesota from August 1998 to July 2002. The average rate of seroprevalence has been 36.3% (range = 14.2%-64.8%). A seasonal bias was observed, with peak incidences in the fall and spring. A higher rate of seropositivity was observed in counties with the highest concentration of turkeys.

  8. A glossary for avian conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koford, Rolf R.; Dunning, J.B.; Ribic, C.A.; Finch, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This glossary provides standard definitions for many of the terms used in avian conservation biology. We compiled these definitions to assist communication among researchers, managers, and others involved in the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, also known as Partners in Flight. We used existing glossaries and recent literature to prepare this glossary. The cited sources were not necessarily the first ones to use the terms. Many definitions were taken verbatim from the cited source material. Others were modified slightly to clarify the meaning. Definitions that were modified to a greater extent are indicated as being adapted from the originals. Terms that have been used in more than one way by different authors are listed with numbered alternative definitions if the definitions differ substantially.

  9. Infrasound and the avian navigational map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    Birds can accurately navigate over hundreds to thousands of kilometres, and use celestial and magnetic compass senses to orient their flight. How birds determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing (map sense) remains controversial, and has been attributed to their olfactory or magnetic senses. Pigeons can hear infrasound down to 0??05 Hz, and an acoustic avian map is proposed consisting of infrasonic cues radiated from steep-sided topographic features. The source of these infrasonic signals is microseisms continuously generated by interfering oceanic waves. Atmospheric processes affecting the infrasonic map cues can explain perplexing experimental results from pigeon releases. Moreover, four recent disrupted pigeon races in Europe and the north-eastern USA intersected infrasonic shock waves from the Concorde supersonic transport. Having an acoustic map might also allow clock-shifted birds to test their homeward progress and select between their magnetic and solar compasses.

  10. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    PubMed

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed. PMID:26370196

  11. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    PubMed

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed.

  12. Estimating avian population size using Bowden's estimator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    Avian researchers often uniquely mark birds, and multiple estimators could be used to estimate population size using individually identified birds. However, most estimators of population size require that all sightings of marked birds be uniquely identified, and many assume homogeneous detection probabilities. Bowden's estimator can incorporate sightings of marked birds that are not uniquely identified and relax assumptions required of other estimators. I used computer simulation to evaluate the performance of Bowden's estimator for situations likely to be encountered in bird studies. When the assumptions of the estimator were met, abundance and variance estimates and confidence-interval coverage were accurate. However, precision was poor for small population sizes (N ??? 50) unless a large percentage of the population was marked (>75%) and multiple (???8) sighting surveys were conducted. If additional birds are marked after sighting surveys begin, it is important to initially mark a large proportion of the population (pm ??? 0.5 if N ??? 100 or pm > 0.1 if N ??? 250) and minimize sightings in which birds are not uniquely identified; otherwise, most population estimates will be overestimated by >10%. Bowden's estimator can be useful for avian studies because birds can be resighted multiple times during a single survey, not all sightings of marked birds have to uniquely identify individuals, detection probabilities among birds can vary, and the complete study area does not have to be surveyed. I provide computer code for use with pilot data to design mark-resight surveys to meet desired precision for abundance estimates. ?? 2009 by The American Ornithologists' Union. All rights reserved.

  13. Impacts of climate change on avian populations.

    PubMed

    Jenouvrier, Stephanie

    2013-07-01

    This review focuses on the impacts of climate change on population dynamics. I introduce the MUP (Measuring, Understanding, and Predicting) approach, which provides a general framework where an enhanced understanding of climate-population processes, along with improved long-term data, are merged into coherent projections of future population responses to climate change. This approach can be applied to any species, but this review illustrates its benefit using birds as examples. Birds are one of the best-studied groups and a large number of studies have detected climate impacts on vital rates (i.e., life history traits, such as survival, maturation, or breeding, affecting changes in population size and composition) and population abundance. These studies reveal multifaceted effects of climate with direct, indirect, time-lagged, and nonlinear effects. However, few studies integrate these effects into a climate-dependent population model to understand the respective role of climate variables and their components (mean state, variability, extreme) on population dynamics. To quantify how populations cope with climate change impacts, I introduce a new universal variable: the 'population robustness to climate change.' The comparison of such robustness, along with prospective and retrospective analysis may help to identify the major climate threats and characteristics of threatened avian species. Finally, studies projecting avian population responses to future climate change predicted by IPCC-class climate models are rare. Population projections hinge on selecting a multiclimate model ensemble at the appropriate temporal and spatial scales and integrating both radiative forcing and internal variability in climate with fully specified uncertainties in both demographic and climate processes.

  14. Avian rotavirus enteritis - an updated review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Saminathan, Mani; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Naveen; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are among the leading causes of enteritis and diarrhea in a number of mammalian and avian species, and impose colossal loss to livestock and poultry industry globally. Subsequent to detection of rotavirus in mammalian hosts in 1973, avian rotavirus (AvRV) was first reported in turkey poults in USA during 1977 and since then RVs of group A (RVA), D (RVD), F (RVF) and G (RVG) have been identified around the globe. Besides RVA, other AvRV groups (RVD, RVF and RVG) may also contribute to disease. However, their significance has yet to be unraveled. Under field conditions, co-infection of AvRVs occurs with other infectious agents such as astroviruses, enteroviruses, reoviruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cryptosporidium and Eimeria species prospering severity of disease outcome. Birds surviving to RV disease predominantly succumb to secondary bacterial infections, mostly E. coli and Salmonella spp. Recent developments in molecular tools including state-of-the-art diagnostics and vaccine development have led to advances in our understanding towards AvRVs. Development of new generation vaccines using immunogenic antigens of AvRV has to be explored and given due importance. Till now, no effective vaccines are available. Although specific as well as sensitive approaches are available to identify and characterize AvRVs, there is still need to have point-of-care detection assays to review disease burden, contemplate new directions for adopting vaccination and follow improvements in public health measures. This review discusses AvRVs, their epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, immunity, recent trends in diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics as well as appropriate prevention and control strategies.

  15. Avian rotavirus enteritis - an updated review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Saminathan, Mani; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Kumar, Naveen; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are among the leading causes of enteritis and diarrhea in a number of mammalian and avian species, and impose colossal loss to livestock and poultry industry globally. Subsequent to detection of rotavirus in mammalian hosts in 1973, avian rotavirus (AvRV) was first reported in turkey poults in USA during 1977 and since then RVs of group A (RVA), D (RVD), F (RVF) and G (RVG) have been identified around the globe. Besides RVA, other AvRV groups (RVD, RVF and RVG) may also contribute to disease. However, their significance has yet to be unraveled. Under field conditions, co-infection of AvRVs occurs with other infectious agents such as astroviruses, enteroviruses, reoviruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cryptosporidium and Eimeria species prospering severity of disease outcome. Birds surviving to RV disease predominantly succumb to secondary bacterial infections, mostly E. coli and Salmonella spp. Recent developments in molecular tools including state-of-the-art diagnostics and vaccine development have led to advances in our understanding towards AvRVs. Development of new generation vaccines using immunogenic antigens of AvRV has to be explored and given due importance. Till now, no effective vaccines are available. Although specific as well as sensitive approaches are available to identify and characterize AvRVs, there is still need to have point-of-care detection assays to review disease burden, contemplate new directions for adopting vaccination and follow improvements in public health measures. This review discusses AvRVs, their epidemiology, pathology and pathogenesis, immunity, recent trends in diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics as well as appropriate prevention and control strategies. PMID:25917772

  16. Global dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models with psychological effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanhong; Pang, Liuyong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  17. Avian Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides: From Biology to Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guolong; Sunkara, Lakshmi T.

    2014-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian cathelicidins and defensins are derived from either myeloid or epithelial origin expressed in a majority of tissues with broad-spectrum antibacterial and immune regulatory activities. Structure-function relationship studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Dietary modulation of endogenous HDP synthesis has also emerged as a promising alternative approach to disease control and prevention in chickens. PMID:24583933

  18. Fusariotoxins in Avian Species: Toxicokinetics, Metabolism and Persistence in Tissues.

    PubMed

    Guerre, Philippe

    2015-06-23

    Fusariotoxins are mycotoxins produced by different species of the genus Fusarium whose occurrence and toxicity vary considerably. Despite the fact avian species are highly exposed to fusariotoxins, the avian species are considered as resistant to their toxic effects, partly because of low absorption and rapid elimination, thereby reducing the risk of persistence of residues in tissues destined for human consumption. This review focuses on the main fusariotoxins deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone and fumonisin B1 and B2. The key parameters used in the toxicokinetic studies are presented along with the factors responsible for their variations. Then, each toxin is analyzed separately. Results of studies conducted with radiolabelled toxins are compared with the more recent data obtained with HPLC/MS-MS detection. The metabolic pathways of deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone are described, with attention paid to the differences among the avian species. Although no metabolite of fumonisins has been reported in avian species, some differences in toxicokinetics have been observed. All the data reviewed suggest that the toxicokinetics of fusariotoxins in avian species differs from those in mammals, and that variations among the avian species themselves should be assessed.

  19. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Codd, Jonathan R; Manning, Phillip L; Norell, Mark A; Perry, Steven F

    2007-01-01

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of ‘avian’ characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in theropod dinosaurs, prior to the evolution of flight. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of the presence of uncinate processes in Aves and non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs indicating that these were homologous structures. Furthermore, recent work on Canada geese has demonstrated that uncinate processes are integral to the mechanics of avian ventilation, facilitating both inspiration and expiration. In extant birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration. Our study presents a mechanism whereby uncinate processes, in conjunction with lateral and ventral movements of the sternum and gastral basket, affected avian-like breathing mechanics in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. PMID:17986432

  20. Molecular cloning and comparison of avian preproghrelin genes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Zhou, Jianjun; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2007-04-01

    We report cDNA sequences for the preproghrelin gene from goose, duck, and emu. This gene is involved in stimulating the release of growth hormone in mammals and may play a similar role in avian species. The complete coding sequence of avian preproghrelin encodes a 116 amino acid (aa) protein, which is organized into three parts: the N-terminal hydrophobic signal peptide, a 26 aa peptide for mature ghrelin, and a long C-terminal polypeptide. Domain/motif structures of preproghrelin protein are highly conserved among avian species. Although the avian and mammalian homologs are not highly similar for the whole 116 aa sequence, the identity of the highly conserved "active core" sequence and the n-octanoyl modification of the serine 3 residue avian ghrelin protein with its mammalian homologs implies conserved function of ghrelin protein during evolution. Information provided in this study will be useful in further studies to determine the role the preproghrelin gene plays in the regulation of growth hormone release and body weight gain in avian species. PMID:17347866

  1. What We Have Learned from the Influenza A pH1N1 2009/10 Pandemic: High Clinical Impact of Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Markus; Grund, Sebastian; Pandey, Subashjung; Mayatepek, Ertan; Schroten, Horst; Tenenbaum, Tobias; Adams, Ortwin

    2016-01-01

    The influenza pandemic in 2009/2010 shifted public awareness to respiratory tract infections caused by the influenza virus. A prospective study was conducted during the influenza pandemic from November 2009 through April 2010 to determine the causative pathogens and clinical symptoms present in all children and adolescents admitted to the University Children's Hospital, Duesseldorf, Germany, with signs and symptoms of respiratory tract infection. A total of 272 children and adolescents were admitted with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) or influenza-like illness. Viral pathogens were detected in 80% (218/272). However, influenza A pH1N1 infection was only detected in 11% (30/272) of children. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were the predominant identified pathogens that led to the admission of young tachypneic children with pneumonia in the post pandemic phase and the requirement for more intense treatment. During the pandemic and early post-pandemic phase the clinical impact of other respiratory viruses, such as HMPV and RSV, led to a higher clinical disease burden than pH1N1. Consequently, HMPV testing should be performed as routinely as RSV testing in patients hospitalized for ARI. Even while preparing for pandemics, the awareness of other respiratory viruses must be maintained.

  2. Use of an Innovative Web-Based Laboratory Surveillance Platform to Analyze Mixed Infections Between Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and Other Respiratory Viruses Circulating in Alberta (AB), Canada (2009–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Fathima, Sumana; Lee, Bonita E.; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Mukhi, Shamir; Drews, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the proportions of mono vs. mixed infections for human metapneumovirus (hMPV) as compared to adenovirus (ADV), four types of coronavirus (CRV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), RSV, and enterovirus/rhinovirus (ERV) in Alberta, Canada. Using the Data Integration for Alberta Laboratories (DIAL) platform, 26,226 respiratory specimens at ProvLab between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2012 were selected and included in the study. Using the Respiratory Virus Panel these specimens tested positive for one or more respiratory virus and negative for influenza A and B. From our subset hMPV was the fourth most common virus (n=2,561) with 373 (15%) identified as mixed infection using DIAL. Mixed infection with hMPV was most commonly found in infants less than 6 months old and ERV was most commonly found in mixed infection with hMPV (230/373, 56%) across all age groups. The proportion of mixed-infection vs. mono-infection was highest for ADV (46%), followed by CRV 229E (32%), CRV HKU1 (31%), CRV NL63 (28%), CRV OC43 (23%), PIV (20%), RSV (17%), hMPV (15%) and ERV (13%). hMPV was significantly more likely to be identified in mono infection as compared with ADV, CRV, PIV, and RSV with the exception of ERV [p<0.05]. PMID:23202503

  3. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    Mimicry is a classical example of adaptive signal design. Here, we review the current state of research into vocal mimicry in birds. Avian vocal mimicry is a conspicuous and often spectacular form of animal communication, occurring in many distantly related species. However, the proximate and ultimate causes of vocal mimicry are poorly understood. In the first part of this review, we argue that progress has been impeded by conceptual confusion over what constitutes vocal mimicry. We propose a modified version of Vane-Wright's (1980) widely used definition of mimicry. According to our definition, a vocalisation is mimetic if the behaviour of the receiver changes after perceiving the acoustic resemblance between the mimic and the model, and the behavioural change confers a selective advantage on the mimic. Mimicry is therefore specifically a functional concept where the resemblance between heterospecific sounds is a target of selection. It is distinct from other forms of vocal resemblance including those that are the result of chance or common ancestry, and those that have emerged as a by-product of other processes such as ecological convergence and selection for large song-type repertoires. Thus, our definition provides a general and functionally coherent framework for determining what constitutes vocal mimicry, and takes account of the diversity of vocalisations that incorporate heterospecific sounds. In the second part we assess and revise hypotheses for the evolution of avian vocal mimicry in the light of our new definition. Most of the current evidence is anecdotal, but the diverse contexts and acoustic structures of putative vocal mimicry suggest that mimicry has multiple functions across and within species. There is strong experimental evidence that vocal mimicry can be deceptive, and can facilitate parasitic interactions. There is also increasing support for the use of vocal mimicry in predator defence, although the mechanisms are unclear. Less progress has

  4. A Complete Molecular Diagnostic Procedure for Applications in Surveillance and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Hsiang-Jung; Chang, Chung-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The following complete molecular diagnostic procedure we developed, based on real-time quantitative PCR and traditional PCR, is effective for avian influenza surveillance, virus subtyping, and viral genome sequencing. Method. This study provides a specific and sensitive step-by-step procedure for efficient avian influenza identification of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase avian influenza subtypes. Result and Conclusion. This diagnostic procedure may prove exceedingly useful for virological and ecological advancements in global avian influenza research. PMID:25057497

  5. Persistence of Pasteurella multocida in wetlands following avian cholera outbreaks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, M.D.; Goldberg, D.R.; Shadduck, D.J.; Lehr, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by Pasteurella multocida, affects waterbirds across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Once an epizootic begins, contamination of the wetland environment likely facilitates the transmission of P. multocida to susceptible birds. To evaluate the ability of P. multocida serotype-1, the most common serotype associated with avian cholera in waterfowl in western and central North America, to persist in wetlands and to identify environmental factors associated with its persistence, we collected water and sediment samples from 23 wetlands during winters and springs of 1996a??99. These samples were collected during avian cholera outbreaks and for up to 13 wk following initial sampling. We recovered P. multocida from six wetlands that were sampled following the initial outbreaks, but no P. multocida was isolated later than 7 wk after the initial outbreak sampling. We found no significant relationship between the probability of recovery of P. multocida during resampling and the abundance of the bacterium recovered during initial sampling, the substrate from which isolates were collected, isolate virulence, or water quality conditions previously suggested to be related to the abundance or survival of P. multocida. Our results indicate that wetlands are unlikely to serve as a long-term reservoir for P. multocida because the bacterium does not persist in wetlands for long time periods following avian cholera outbreaks.

  6. Community response to avian flu in Central Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Padmawati, Siwi; Nichter, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study suggests that it is more appropriate to think of avian flu as a bio-social and bio-political challenge for Indonesia than merely an epidemiological challenge involving a disease of zoonotic origin. Our examination of popular perceptions of avian flu in Central Java reveals important differences of opinion about which types of fowl are responsible for avian flu transmission and the degree of risk H5N1 poses to humans. The opinions of backyard farmers and commercial poultry farmers are motivated by different forms of practical logic and are differentially influenced by media accounts, government education programmes, foreign aid and rumours about who stands to profit from the disease. Rumours reflect collective anxieties about globalization, the agenda of big business and the trustworthiness of the national government. We also illustrate how a commodity chain analysis can assist in the identification of different stake-holders in the informal and formal poultry industries. The position of each stake-holder needs to be considered in any comprehensive investigation of avian flu. An economic analysis of the capital investment of stake-holders provides insight into how each responds to government directives about the reporting of dead chickens, vaccinating birds etc. Finally, we call for research on avian flu preparedness attentive to Indonesia's de-centralized form of political rule and the social organization of communities so that clear lines of communication and command can be established and mutual assistance mobilized.

  7. Planning and executing a vaccination campaign against avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Marangon, S; Cristalli, A; Busani, L

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination against avian influenza infection caused by H5 or H7 virus subtypes has been used on several occasions in recent years to control and in some cases eradicate the disease. In order to contain avian influenza infection effectively, immunization should be combined with a coordinated set of control and monitoring measures. The outcome of an immunization campaign depends on the territorial strategy; whereas the capacity of the veterinary services in developed countries permits enforcement of strategies aimed at eradicating avian influenza, many countries currently affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have a limited veterinary infrastructure and a limited capacity to respond to such epidemics. In these countries, resources are still insufficient to conduct adequate surveillance for identification and reaction to avian influenza outbreaks when they occur. When properly applied in this scenario, immunization can reduce mortality and production losses. In the long term, immunization might also decrease the prevalence of infection to levels at which stamping-out and surveillance can be applied. Countries should adapt their immunization programmes to local conditions in order to guarantee their efficacy and sustainability. In the initial emergency phase, human resources can be mobilized, with reliance on personal responsibility and motivation, thus compensating for potential shortcomings in organization. A more appropriate allocation of resources must be pursued in the long term, remembering that biosecurity is the main component of an exit strategy and must always be improved.

  8. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    PubMed

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses. PMID:25790045

  9. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    PubMed

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses.

  10. [Avian diversity in Wuhu City in summer and winter].

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmin; Wu, Xiaobing

    2006-02-01

    From May 2004 to February 2005, an investigation was made on the avian communities in four typical habitats, i.e., village and farmland, urban woodlot, floodplain, and riverine wetland in Wuhu City, with the related diversity indices analyzed. A total of 117 species belonging to 15 orders and 31 families was recorded. The avian species and G-F index in village and farmland, urban woodlot, and floodplain were higher in summer than in winter, while the species number, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index in riverine wetland were significantly higher in winter than in summer. The avian species and G-F index in urban woodlot were the highest, and the Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index in floodplain were higher than those in other three habitats. The highest density was observed in village and farmland in summer and in urban woodlot in winter, being 31.1140 and 42.9160 ind x hm(-2), respectively. The avian species, density, Shannon-Wiener index and G-F index in riverine wetland were the lowest. Avian diversity could be enhanced by increasing spatial heterogeneity and reducing human disturbance.

  11. Epizootiology and effect of avian pox on Hawaiian forest birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles; van Riper, S. G.; Hansen, Wallace R.

    2002-01-01

    We determined prevalence and altitudinal distribution of forest birds infected with avian pox at 16 locations on Hawaii, from sea level to tree line in mesic and xeric habitats, during 1977a??1980. Isolates from lesions were cultured in the laboratory for positive identification of Poxvirus avium. Infected birds from the wild were brought into the laboratory to assess differences in the course of infection in native versus introduced species. We also documented distributions and activity cycles of potential avian pox vectors.>Native forest birds were (1) more susceptible to avian pox infection than were introduced species, (2) most likely to be infected during the wet season, and (3) found to have a higher prevalence in mesic when compared to xeric forests. Avian pox occurred in forest birds at all elevations, but highest levels were in the mid-elevational ranges (1,200 m) where vectors and native birds had the greatest overlap. Temporal and elevational differences in prevalence were apparent throughout the annual cycle. Avian pox probably did not reach epizootic proportions on Hawaii until after introduction of the mosquito and domestic birds in the early 1800s, and since then has had a negative effect on the population dynamics of native forest birds. Today, this introduced disease is an important factor that should be considered in future conservation efforts that are directed at the recovery of native forest birds in Hawaii.

  12. Exploring the avian gut microbiota: current trends and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Waite, David W.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Birds represent a diverse and evolutionarily successful lineage, occupying a wide range of niches throughout the world. Like all vertebrates, avians harbor diverse communities of microorganisms within their guts, which collectively fulfill crucial roles in providing the host with nutrition and protection from pathogens. Across the field of avian microbiology knowledge is extremely uneven, with several species accounting for an overwhelming majority of all microbiological investigations. These include agriculturally important birds, such as chickens and turkeys, as well as birds of evolutionary or conservation interest. In our previous study we attempted the first meta-analysis of the avian gut microbiota, using 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from a range of publicly available data sets. We have now extended our analysis to explore the microbiology of several key species in detail, to consider the avian microbiota within the context of what is known about other vertebrates, and to identify key areas of interest in avian microbiology for future study. PMID:26191057

  13. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu virus that has caused serious outbreaks in ... been no reported infections with these viruses in birds, poultry, or people in the United States. You ...

  14. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  15. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  16. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  17. Tracking avian flu on the Web.

    PubMed

    Gruwell, Cindy A

    2007-01-01

    To some the term avian flu or H5N1 has become synonymous with the pandemic flu of 1918. Like the former pandemic, this current threat has the potential to cause up to 7.4 million deaths worldwide. Yet as of mid-2006, the viability of this threat is still unclear. There is no doubt that birds, especially poultry, have been the primary target of this particular strain of influenza. Human illnesses and deaths have resulted from direct contact with birds; farmers and food handlers are most at risk. Fortunately there has not been a shift to human-to-human transmission. However, it is imperative for public heath officers, health professionals, and other appropriate officials to keep current on the progress of this virus within the bird population, and its spread around the world. Preventative measures including worst case scenarios have been widely discussed and even resulted in a made-for-TV movie. The need for up-to-date information is essential in order to track the extent of transmission, location of current outbreaks, and most importantly steps for preparedness that could be vital for prevention and containment. This article explores and identifies major Web sites along with basic Internet search techniques to find informative and credible Webbased resources. doi:10.1300/J115v26n01_06.

  18. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Oskam, Charlotte L.; Haile, James; McLay, Emma; Rigby, Paul; Allentoft, Morten E.; Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla; Miller, Gifford H.; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Baynes, Alexander; Dortch, Joe; Parker-Pearson, Michael; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Holdaway, Richard N.; Willerslev, Eske; Bunce, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has approximately 125 times lower bacterial load than bone, making it a highly suitable substrate for high-throughput sequencing approaches. Importantly, the preservation of DNA in Pleistocene eggshell from Australia and Holocene deposits from Madagascar indicates that eggshell is an excellent substrate for the long-term preservation of DNA in warmer climates. The successful recovery of DNA from this substrate has implications in a number of scientific disciplines; most notably archaeology and palaeontology, where genotypes and/or DNA-based species identifications can add significantly to our understanding of diets, environments, past biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:20219731

  19. Tracking avian flu on the Web.

    PubMed

    Gruwell, Cindy A

    2007-01-01

    To some the term avian flu or H5N1 has become synonymous with the pandemic flu of 1918. Like the former pandemic, this current threat has the potential to cause up to 7.4 million deaths worldwide. Yet as of mid-2006, the viability of this threat is still unclear. There is no doubt that birds, especially poultry, have been the primary target of this particular strain of influenza. Human illnesses and deaths have resulted from direct contact with birds; farmers and food handlers are most at risk. Fortunately there has not been a shift to human-to-human transmission. However, it is imperative for public heath officers, health professionals, and other appropriate officials to keep current on the progress of this virus within the bird population, and its spread around the world. Preventative measures including worst case scenarios have been widely discussed and even resulted in a made-for-TV movie. The need for up-to-date information is essential in order to track the extent of transmission, location of current outbreaks, and most importantly steps for preparedness that could be vital for prevention and containment. This article explores and identifies major Web sites along with basic Internet search techniques to find informative and credible Webbased resources. doi:10.1300/J115v26n01_06. PMID:17210550

  20. Radical-pair based avian magnetoreception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    Behavioural experiments suggest that migratory birds possess a magnetic compass sensor able to detect the direction of the geomagnetic. One hypothesis for the basis of this remarkable sensory ability is that the coherent quantum spin dynamics of photoinduced radical pair reactions transduces directional magnetic information from the geomagnetic field into changes of reaction yields, possibly involving the photoreceptor cryptochrome in the birds retina. The suggested radical-pair based avian magnetoreception has attracted attention in the field of quantum biology as an example of a biological sensor which might exploit quantum coherences for its biological function. Investigations on such a spin-based sensor have focussed on uncovering the design features for the design of a biomimetic magnetic field sensor. We study the effects of slow fluctuations in the nuclear spin environment on the directional signal. We quantitatively evaluate the robustness of signals under fluctuations on a timescale longer than the lifetime of a radical pair, utilizing two models of radical pairs. Our results suggest design principles for building a radical-pair based compass sensor that is both robust and highly directional sensitive.

  1. What's missing from avian global diversification analyses?

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sushma

    2014-08-01

    The accumulation of vast numbers of molecular phylogenetic studies has contributed to huge knowledge gains in the evolutionary history of birds. This permits subsequent analyses of avian diversity, such as how and why diversification varies across the globe and among taxonomic groups. However, available genetic data for these meta-analyses are unevenly distributed across different geographic regions and taxonomic groups. To comprehend the impact of this variation on the interpretation of global diversity patterns, I examined the availability of genetic data for possible biases in geographic and taxonomic sampling of birds. I identified three main disparities of sampling that are geographically associated with latitude (temperate, tropical), hemispheres (East, West), and range size. Tropical regions, which host the vast majority of species, are substantially less studied. Moreover, Eastern regions, such as the Old World Tropics and Australasia, stand out as being disproportionately undersampled, with up to half of communities not being represented in recent studies. In terms of taxonomic discrepancies, a majority of genetically undersampled clades are exclusively found in tropical regions. My analysis identifies several disparities in the key regions of interest of global diversity analyses. Differential sampling can have considerable impacts on these global comparisons and call into question recent interpretations of latitudinal or hemispheric differences of diversification rates. Moreover, this review pinpoints understudied regions whose biota are in critical need of modern systematic analyses.

  2. Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we have expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g. starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy.

  3. Avian Blood-Vessel Formation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the developmental anomalies observed in the past might be related to or caused by delayed or improper vascular development. The objective of our research is to test the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity during space flight cause delayed or improper vascular development during embryogenesis. The effects of microgravity on the time course and extent of avian blood-vessel formation are assessed using two models, one for angiogenesis and one for vasculogenesis. The methodological approach is dictated by the constraints of the tissue preservation method used in space. Thus, both in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in the adrenal, we will evaluate microscopically the vascular architecture and immunostain endothelial cells with specific antibodies (anti- vWF and QH1). The extent of ECM protein deposition will be assessed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with the degree of vascularization, using computer-based image analysis. Also, the cellular source for ECM proteins will be assessed by in situ hybridization.

  4. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  5. Worldwide Phylogenetic Relationship of Avian Poxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jeffrey T.; Dán, Ádám; Ip, Hon S.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Parker, Patricia G.; Higashiguchi, Jenni M.; Skinner, Michael A.; Höfle, Ursula; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Solt, Szabolcs; Sós, Endre; Kim, Young Jun; Uhart, Marcela; Pereda, Ariel; González-Hein, Gisela; Hidalgo, Hector; Blanco, Juan-Manuel; Erdélyi, Károly

    2013-01-01

    Poxvirus infections have been found in 230 species of wild and domestic birds worldwide in both terrestrial and marine environments. This ubiquity raises the question of how infection has been transmitted and globally dispersed. We present a comprehensive global phylogeny of 111 novel poxvirus isolates in addition to all available sequences from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus has traditionally relied on one gene region (4b core protein). In this study we expanded the analyses to include a second locus (DNA polymerase gene), allowing for a more robust phylogenetic framework, finer genetic resolution within specific groups, and the detection of potential recombination. Our phylogenetic results reveal several major features of avipoxvirus evolution and ecology and propose an updated avipoxvirus taxonomy, including three novel subclades. The characterization of poxviruses from 57 species of birds in this study extends the current knowledge of their host range and provides the first evidence of the phylogenetic effect of genetic recombination of avipoxviruses. The repeated occurrence of avian family or order-specific grouping within certain clades (e.g., starling poxvirus, falcon poxvirus, raptor poxvirus, etc.) indicates a marked role of host adaptation, while the sharing of poxvirus species within prey-predator systems emphasizes the capacity for cross-species infection and limited host adaptation. Our study provides a broad and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Avipoxvirus genus, an ecologically and environmentally important viral group, to formulate a genome sequencing strategy that will clarify avipoxvirus taxonomy. PMID:23408635

  6. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  7. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

  8. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26733295

  9. The avian and mammalian host range of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; Webby, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have been isolated from a number of avian and mammalian species. Despite intensive control measures the number of human and animal cases continues to increase. A more complete understanding of susceptible species and of contributing environmental and molecular factors is crucial if we are to slow the rate of new cases. H5N1 is currently endemic in domestic poultry in only a handful of countries with sporadic and unpredictable spread to other countries. Close contact of terrestrial bird or mammalian species with infected poultry/waterfowl or their biological products is the major route for interspecies transmission. Intra-species transmission of H5N1 in mammals, including humans, has taken place on a limited scale though it remains to be seen if this will change; recent laboratory studies suggest that it is indeed possible. Here we review the avian and mammalian species that are naturally susceptible to H5N1 infection and the molecular factors associated with its expanded host range. PMID:24025480

  10. A relationship between avian carcasses and living invertebrates in the epizootiology of avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, R.M.; Jensen, Wayne I.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the sources of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin possibly utilized as food by aquatic birds in an epizootic area of avian botulism in northern Utah showed that living aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates normally found in close association with dead, decomposing birds commonly carried the toxin. Of 461 samples associated with 21 species of avian carcasses, 198 were toxin-positive. Invertebrate species not normally scavengers of vertebrate tissues were less commonly and less highly toxic, particularly when captured 30 cm or more from a carcass; six of 237 samples of such aquatic invertebrates low-level toxin. Of the species tested, blow fly larvae (Calliphoridae) were the most consistently and highly toxic, although others, particularly adult and larval stages of several species of beetles (Coleoptera), contained toxin at levels probably significant in the epizootiology of the disease. An estimated 0.05 to 0.25 g of the most toxic fly larvae or 15 g of the most toxic beetles tested carried a mediam lethal dose for an adult mallard duck. Examination of stomach contents of aquatic birds dead of botulism showed that some had consumed invertebrates.

  11. Structural basis for preferential avian receptor binding by the human-infecting H10N8 avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Jianxun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianfang; Bi, Yuhai; Wu, Ying; Sun, Honglei; Liu, Jinhua; Huang, Chaobin; Li, Xiangdong; Yan, Jinghua; Shu, Yuelong; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F

    2015-01-01

    Since December 2013, at least three cases of human infections with H10N8 avian influenza virus have been reported in China, two of them being fatal. To investigate the epidemic potential of H10N8 viruses, we examined the receptor binding property of the first human isolate, A/Jiangxi-Donghu/346/2013 (JD-H10N8), and determined the structures of its haemagglutinin (HA) in complex with both avian and human receptor analogues. Our results suggest that JD-H10N8 preferentially binds the avian receptor and that residue R137-localized within the receptor-binding site of HA-plays a key role in this preferential binding. Compared with the H7N9 avian influenza viruses, JD-H10N8 did not exhibit the enhanced binding to human receptors observed with the prevalent H7N9 virus isolate Anhui-1, but resembled the receptor binding activity of the early-outbreak H7N9 isolate (Shanghai-1). We conclude that the H10N8 virus is a typical avian influenza virus.

  12. Avians as a model system of vascular development.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Michael; Mikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    For more than 2,000 years, philosophers and scientists have turned to the avian embryo with questions of how life begins (Aristotle and Peck Generations of Animals. Loeb Classics, vol. XIII. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1943; Needham, A history of embryology. Abelard-Schuman, New York, 1959). Then, as now, the unique accessibility of the embryo both in terms of acquisition of eggs from domesticated fowl and ease at which the embryo can be visualized by simply opening the shell has made avians an appealing and powerful model system for the study of development. Thus, as the field of embryology has evolved through observational, comparative, and experimental embryology into its current iteration as the cellular and molecular biology of development, avians have remained a useful and practical system of study.

  13. Predictive model of avian electrocution risk on overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J F; Harness, R E; Donohue, K

    2014-02-01

    Electrocution on overhead power structures negatively affects avian populations in diverse ecosystems worldwide, contributes to the endangerment of raptor populations in Europe and Africa, and is a major driver of legal action against electric utilities in North America. We investigated factors associated with avian electrocutions so poles that are likely to electrocute a bird can be identified and retrofitted prior to causing avian mortality. We used historical data from southern California to identify patterns of avian electrocution by voltage, month, and year to identify species most often killed by electrocution in our study area and to develop a predictive model that compared poles where an avian electrocution was known to have occurred (electrocution poles) with poles where no known electrocution occurred (comparison poles). We chose variables that could be quantified by personnel with little training in ornithology or electric systems. Electrocutions were more common at distribution voltages (≤ 33 kV) and during breeding seasons and were more commonly reported after a retrofitting program began. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n = 265) and American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (n = 258) were the most commonly electrocuted species. In the predictive model, 4 of 14 candidate variables were required to distinguish electrocution poles from comparison poles: number of jumpers (short wires connecting energized equipment), number of primary conductors, presence of grounding, and presence of unforested unpaved areas as the dominant nearby land cover. When tested against a sample of poles not used to build the model, our model distributed poles relatively normally across electrocution-risk values and identified the average risk as higher for electrocution poles relative to comparison poles. Our model can be used to reduce avian electrocutions through proactive identification and targeting of high-risk poles for retrofitting. PMID:24033371

  14. Avian oncogenic virus differential diagnosis in chickens using oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lih-Chiann; Huang, Dean; Pu, Chang-En; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2014-12-15

    Avian oncogenic viruses include the avian leukosis virus (ALV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV). Multiple oncogenic viral infections are frequently seen, with even Marek's disease vaccines reported to be contaminated with ALV and REV. The gross lesions caused by avian oncogenic viruses often overlap, making differentiation diagnosis based on histopathology difficult. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid approach to simultaneously differentiate, subgroup and pathotype the avian oncogenic viruses. The oligonucleotide microarray was employed in this study. Particular DNA sequences were recognized using specific hybridization between the DNA target and probe on the microarray, followed with colorimetric development through enzyme reaction. With 10 designed probes, ALV-A, ALV-E, ALV-J, REV, MDV pathogenic and vaccine strains were clearly discriminated on the microarray with the naked eyes. The detection limit was 27 copy numbers, which was 10-100 times lower than multiplex PCR. Of 102 field samples screened using the oligonucleotide microarray, 32 samples were positive for ALV-E, 17 samples were positive for ALV-J, 6 samples were positive for REV, 4 samples were positive for MDV, 7 samples were positive for both ALV-A and ALV-E, 5 samples were positive for ALV-A, ALV-E and ALV-J, one sample was positive for both ALV-J and MDV, and 3 samples were positive for both REV and MDV. The oligonucleotide microarray, an easy-to-use, high-specificity, high-sensitivity and extendable assay, presents a potent technique for rapid differential diagnosis of avian oncogenic viruses and the detection of multiple avian oncogenic viral infections under field conditions.

  15. Predictive model of avian electrocution risk on overhead power lines.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J F; Harness, R E; Donohue, K

    2014-02-01

    Electrocution on overhead power structures negatively affects avian populations in diverse ecosystems worldwide, contributes to the endangerment of raptor populations in Europe and Africa, and is a major driver of legal action against electric utilities in North America. We investigated factors associated with avian electrocutions so poles that are likely to electrocute a bird can be identified and retrofitted prior to causing avian mortality. We used historical data from southern California to identify patterns of avian electrocution by voltage, month, and year to identify species most often killed by electrocution in our study area and to develop a predictive model that compared poles where an avian electrocution was known to have occurred (electrocution poles) with poles where no known electrocution occurred (comparison poles). We chose variables that could be quantified by personnel with little training in ornithology or electric systems. Electrocutions were more common at distribution voltages (≤ 33 kV) and during breeding seasons and were more commonly reported after a retrofitting program began. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n = 265) and American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (n = 258) were the most commonly electrocuted species. In the predictive model, 4 of 14 candidate variables were required to distinguish electrocution poles from comparison poles: number of jumpers (short wires connecting energized equipment), number of primary conductors, presence of grounding, and presence of unforested unpaved areas as the dominant nearby land cover. When tested against a sample of poles not used to build the model, our model distributed poles relatively normally across electrocution-risk values and identified the average risk as higher for electrocution poles relative to comparison poles. Our model can be used to reduce avian electrocutions through proactive identification and targeting of high-risk poles for retrofitting.

  16. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-10-22

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  17. Sensitivity and entanglement in the avian chemical compass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P; Kais, Sabre

    2014-10-01

    The radical pair mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, using a two-stage model, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

  18. Sensitivity and entanglement in the avian chemical compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P.; Kais, Sabre

    2014-10-01

    The radical pair mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, using a two-stage model, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules.

  19. Microbes of the avian cecum: types present and substrates utilized.

    PubMed

    Mead, G C

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the types and properties of microorganisms found in avian ceca, with special reference to the chicken. Microbial activity in the cecum is primarily fermentative, but there has been little evidence of cellulose fermentation, and the predominant bacterial types are relatively inactive against other high-molecular-weight compounds of dietary origin. In all avian species examined, the consistent presence of large populations of uric acid-degrading bacteria supports the view that microbial populations in the ceca permit reabsorption of water and possibly nonprotein nitrogen from the backflow of urine. These capabilities may be of particular importance to wild birds under conditions of water and food deprivation.

  20. Novel Receptor Specificity of Avian Gammacoronaviruses That Cause Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, I. N.; de Vries, R. P.; Weerts, E. A. W. S.; van Beurden, S. J.; Peng, W.; McBride, R.; Ducatez, M.; Guy, J.; Brown, P.; Eterradossi, N.; Gröne, A.; Paulson, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses exploit molecules on the target membrane as receptors for attachment and entry into host cells. Thus, receptor expression patterns can define viral tissue tropism and might to some extent predict the susceptibility of a host to a particular virus. Previously, others and we have shown that respiratory pathogens of the genus Gammacoronavirus, including chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), require specific α2,3-linked sialylated glycans for attachment and entry. Here, we studied determinants of binding of enterotropic avian gammacoronaviruses, including turkey coronavirus (TCoV), guineafowl coronavirus (GfCoV), and quail coronavirus (QCoV), which are evolutionarily distant from respiratory avian coronaviruses based on the viral attachment protein spike (S1). We profiled the binding of recombinantly expressed S1 proteins of TCoV, GfCoV, and QCoV to tissues of their respective hosts. Protein histochemistry showed that the tissue binding specificity of S1 proteins of turkey, quail, and guineafowl CoVs was limited to intestinal tissues of each particular host, in accordance with the reported pathogenicity of these viruses in vivo. Glycan array analyses revealed that, in contrast to the S1 protein of IBV, S1 proteins of enteric gammacoronaviruses recognize a unique set of nonsialylated type 2 poly-N-acetyl-lactosamines. Lectin histochemistry as well as tissue binding patterns of TCoV S1 further indicated that these complex N-glycans are prominently expressed on the intestinal tract of various avian species. In conclusion, our data demonstrate not only that enteric gammacoronaviruses recognize a novel glycan receptor but also that enterotropism may be correlated with the high specificity of spike proteins for such glycans expressed in the intestines of the avian host. IMPORTANCE Avian coronaviruses are economically important viruses for the poultry industry. While infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a respiratory pathogen of chickens, is rather well

  1. Avian cholera in Southern Great Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) from Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leotta, G.A.; Rivas, M.; Chinen, I.; Vigo, G.B.; Moredo, F.A.; Coria, N.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    A southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus) was found dead at Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland, Antarctica. The adult male was discovered approximately 48 hr after death. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were compatible with avian cholera and the bacterium Pasteurella multocida subsp. gallicida, serotype A1 was isolated from lung, heart, liver, pericardial sac, and air sacs. In addition, Escherichia coli was isolated from pericardial sac and air sacs. This is the first known report of avian cholera in a southern giant petrel in Antarctica.

  2. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  3. Avian cholera in waterfowl in Saskatchewan, spring 1977.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, G; Hunter, D B; Wright, B; Nieman, D J; Isbister, R

    1979-01-01

    Avian cholera was diagnosed in lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens), Ross' geese (Anser rossii) and individuals of several other waterfowl species in a small area of south-western Saskatchewan over a 1 month period during the 1977 spring migration. Approximately 250 dead birds were found. This is apparently the first time avian cholera has been reported in migrating waterfowl in Canada. The site of the mortality was midway between the wintering and nesting areas of the two principal species, and the significance of the occurrence of the disease this far north is discussed. PMID:459043

  4. Absence of avian pox in wild turkeys in central Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Couvillion, C E; Stacey, L M; Hurst, G A

    1991-07-01

    Eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) (n = 1,023), obtained during winter, spring, and summer from 1983 to 1988 on Tallahala Wildlife Management Area (TWMA) (Jasper County, Mississippi, USA) were examined for avian pox lesions. Domestic turkey poults (n = 152) maintained on the area for 1 to 2 wk periods from 1987 to 1989 also were examined. Neither wild nor domestic birds showed gross evidence of pox virus infection. This study indicated that avian pox was not endemic in wild turkeys at TWMA.

  5. Sensitivity and entanglement in the avian chemical compass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P; Kais, Sabre

    2014-10-01

    The radical pair mechanism can help to explain avian orientation and navigation. Some evidence indicates that the intensity of external magnetic fields plays an important role in avian navigation. In this paper, using a two-stage model, we demonstrate that birds could reasonably detect the directions of geomagnetic fields and gradients of these fields using a yield-based chemical compass that is sensitive enough for navigation. Also, we find that the lifetime of entanglement in this proposed compass is angle dependent and long enough to allow adequate electron transfer between molecules. PMID:25375523

  6. Role of estrogen in avian osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Beck, M M; Hansen, K K

    2004-02-01

    One of the difficulties associated with commercial layer production is the development of osteoporosis in hens late in the production cycle. In light of this fact and because of hens' unique requirements for Ca, many studies have focused on the regulation of Ca and the role of estrogen in this process. The time course of estrogen synthesis over the productive life of hens has been well documented; increased circulating estrogen accompanies the onset of sexual maturity while decreases signal a decline in egg production prior to a molt. Numbers of estrogen receptors decrease with age in numerous tissues. The parallel changes in calcium-regulating proteins, primarily Calbindin D28K, and in the ability of duodenal cells to transport Ca, are thought to occur as a result of the changes in estrogen, and are also reversible by the molt process. In addition to the traditional model of estrogen action, evidence now exists for a possible nongenomic action of estrogen via membrane-bound receptors, demonstrated by extremely rapid surges of ionized Ca in chicken granulosa cells in response to 17beta-estradiol. Estrogen receptors have also been discovered in duodenal tissue, and tamoxifen, which binds to the estrogen receptor, has been shown to cause a rapid increase in Ca transport in the duodenum. In addition, recent evidence also suggests that mineralization of bone per se may not explain entirely the etiology of osteoporosis in the hen but that changes in the collagen matrix may contribute through decreases in bone elasticity. Taken together, these studies suggest that changes in estrogen synthesis and estrogen receptor populations may underlie the age-related changes in avian bone. As with postmenopausal women, dietary Ca and vitamin D are of limited benefit as remedies for osteoporosis in the hen. PMID:14979570

  7. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis (Early Cretaceous) of Chongqing, China as a Large Avian Trace: Differentiating between Large Bird and Small Non-Avian Theropod Tracks

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lida; Buckley, Lisa G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Lockley, Martin G.; Zhang, Jianping; Piñuela, Laura; Klein, Hendrik; Wang, Fengping

    2015-01-01

    Trace fossils provide the only records of Early Cretaceous birds from many parts of the world. The identification of traces from large avian track-makers is made difficult given their overall similarity in size and tridactyly in comparison with traces of small non-avian theropods. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Jiaguan Formation, one of a small but growing number of known avian-pterosaur track assemblages, of southeast China determines that these are the traces of a large avian track-maker, analogous to extant herons. Wupus, originally identified as the trace of a small non-avian theropod track-maker, is therefore similar in both footprint and trackway characteristics to the Early Cretaceous (Albian) large avian trace Limiavipes curriei from western Canada, and Wupus is reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The reanalysis of Wupus reveals that it and Limiavipes are distinct from similar traces of small to medium-sized non-avian theropods (Irenichnites, Columbosauripus, Magnoavipes) based on their relatively large footprint length to pace length ratio and higher mean footprint splay, and that Wupus shares enough characters with Limiavipes to be reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The ability to discern traces of large avians from those of small non-avian theropods provides more data on the diversity of Early Cretaceous birds. This analysis reveals that, despite the current lack of body fossils, large wading birds were globally distributed in both Laurasia and Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous. PMID:25993285

  8. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis (Early Cretaceous) of Chongqing, China as a Large Avian Trace: Differentiating between Large Bird and Small Non-Avian Theropod Tracks.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lida; Buckley, Lisa G; McCrea, Richard T; Lockley, Martin G; Zhang, Jianping; Piñuela, Laura; Klein, Hendrik; Wang, Fengping

    2015-01-01

    Trace fossils provide the only records of Early Cretaceous birds from many parts of the world. The identification of traces from large avian track-makers is made difficult given their overall similarity in size and tridactyly in comparison with traces of small non-avian theropods. Reanalysis of Wupus agilis from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) Jiaguan Formation, one of a small but growing number of known avian-pterosaur track assemblages, of southeast China determines that these are the traces of a large avian track-maker, analogous to extant herons. Wupus, originally identified as the trace of a small non-avian theropod track-maker, is therefore similar in both footprint and trackway characteristics to the Early Cretaceous (Albian) large avian trace Limiavipes curriei from western Canada, and Wupus is reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The reanalysis of Wupus reveals that it and Limiavipes are distinct from similar traces of small to medium-sized non-avian theropods (Irenichnites, Columbosauripus, Magnoavipes) based on their relatively large footprint length to pace length ratio and higher mean footprint splay, and that Wupus shares enough characters with Limiavipes to be reassigned to the ichnofamily Limiavipedidae. The ability to discern traces of large avians from those of small non-avian theropods provides more data on the diversity of Early Cretaceous birds. This analysis reveals that, despite the current lack of body fossils, large wading birds were globally distributed in both Laurasia and Gondwana during the Early Cretaceous.

  9. Susceptibility of avian species to North American H13 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin; Poulson, Rebecca; Carter, Deborah; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Shepherd, Eric; Killian, Mary; Stallknecht, David

    2012-12-01

    Gulls are widely recognized reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses; however, the subtypes maintained in these populations and/or the transmission mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Although, a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from gulls, two hemagglutinin subtypes (H13 and H16) are rarely detected in other avian groups, and existing surveillance data suggests they are maintained almost exclusively within gull populations. In order to evaluate the host range of these gull-adapted influenza subtypes and to characterize viral infection in the gull host, we conducted a series of challenge experiments, with multiple North American strains of H13 LPAI virus in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), chickens (Gallus domesticus), and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). The susceptibility to H13 LPAI viruses varied between species and viral strain. Gulls were highly susceptible to H13 LPAI virus infection and excreted virus via the oropharynx and cloaca for several days. The quantity and duration of shedding was similar between the two routes. Turkeys and ducks were resistant to infection with most strains of H13 LPAI virus, but low numbers of inoculated birds were infected after challenge with specific viral strains. Chickens were refractory to infection with all strains of H13 LPAI virus they were challenged with. The experimental results presented herein are consistent with existing surveillance data on H13 LPAI viruses in birds, and indicate that influenza viruses of the H13 subtype are strongly host-adapted to gulls, but rare spill-over into aberrant hosts (i.e., turkeys and ducks) can occur.

  10. Avian Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Organic Layers.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Opriessnig, Tanja; Uzal, Francisco; Gerber, Priscilla F

    2015-09-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 141 chickens from 10 organic layer flocks with a history of severe drop in egg production (up to 40%) and slight increased mortality (up to 1% per week) were submitted to the Avian Health and Food Safety Laboratory (Puyallup, WA). At necropsy, the most common finding was pinpoint white foci on the liver and regressed ova without any other remarkable lesions. Histologically, there was multifocal mild-to-severe acute necrotizing hepatitis present. No significant bacteria were recovered from liver samples, and tests for mycotoxins were negative. Twenty-six serum samples from four affected flocks tested were positive for avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) immunoglobulin Y antibodies. Avian HEV RNA was detected in 10 livers of chickens from two different affected flocks. The avian HEV was characterized by sequencing and determined to belong to genotype 2. The diagnosis of a clinical manifest HEV was based solely on the demonstration of specific viral RNA and the absence of other causative agents in samples from flocks, as the clinical sings and pathologic lesions were atypical. PMID:26478157

  11. Avian Encephalomyelitis in Layer Pullets Associated with Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Reimers, Nancy; Bickford, Arthur A; Charlton, Bruce R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was diagnosed in three flocks of leghorn layer pullets following AE vaccination. Ages of the birds were 11, 12, and 14 wk. The submissions came from three different companies located in two geographic areas of the Central Valley of California. The clinical signs included birds down on their legs, unilateral recumbency or sitting on their hocks, lethargy, reluctance to move, dehydration, unevenness in size, low weight, tremors of the head in a few birds, and mildly to moderately elevated mortality. The flocks had been vaccinated against fowl pox and AE with a combined product in the wing-web 2 wk prior to the onset of AE clinical signs. Histopathologic examination revealed lesions consistent with AE, including lymphocytic perivascular infiltration and neuronal central chromatolysis in the brain and spinal cord, as well as gliosis in the cerebellar molecular layer. The AE virus was detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR in the brain homogenate from three cases and peripheral nerves in one case. Additionally, the AE virus was isolated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated eggs from brain tissue pool samples. Other avian viral infections capable of causing encephalitis, including avian paramyxoviruses, avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), were ruled out by attempting virus isolation and molecular procedures. PMID:27309297

  12. Rapidly Expanding Range of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Dusek, Robert J; Spackman, Erica

    2015-07-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus' propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  13. Avian botulism: geographic expansion of a historic disease.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Louis N.; Friend, Milton

    1989-01-01

    Avian botulism is a paralytic, often fatal disease of birds resulting from ingestion of toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Waterfowl die-offs from the botulism are usually caused by type C toxin; sporadic die-offs among fish-eating birds, such as common loons (Gavia immer) and gulls, have been caused by type E toxin.

  14. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR EXTRACTING BOUND PESTICIDES FROM AVIAN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed to extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from avian serum. In this method, a 1-mL serum sample fortified with two levels of OCs or POPs was treated with 8M urea or 4M urea and 4...

  15. Detection by immunofluorescence of avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Karmysheva, V Y; Graevskaya, N A; Sito, A F; Sushko, L N

    1976-08-01

    Peripheral blood cells of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV-(infected chickens were examined at various intervals post infection by immunofluorescence. AMV revertase was identified in pro- and myeloblasts; it was localized mainly in the perinuclear zone or throughout the cytoplasm. No revertase was found in erythrocytes or granulocytes. Blood cells from uninfected chickens of man contained no revertase.

  16. Rapidly Expanding Range of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions. PMID:26079209

  17. Freshwater clams as bioconcentrators of avian influenza virus in water.

    PubMed

    Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Carlson, Jenny S; Bentler, Kevin T; Cobble, Kacy R; Nolte, Dale L; Franklin, Alan B

    2012-10-01

    We report experimental evidence for bioconcentration of a low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (H6N8) in the tissue of freshwater clams. Our results support the concept that freshwater clams may provide an effective tool for use in the early detection of influenza A viruses in aquatic environments. PMID:22925022

  18. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  19. Genetic, immunologic, and pathologic characterization of avian chlamydial strains.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A A; Tappe, J P

    1989-12-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is a diverse group of organisms that affects birds and mammals. The number of biovars is unknown, and less is known about the number of serovars. Our restriction endonuclease analysis indicates that there are at least 5 biovars including avian, abortion-enteritis, IPA, M56, and GPIC. Monoclonal antibody studies revealed 4 serovars in the avian biovar. Monoclonal antibody studies have not yet been performed to identify multiple serovars in the other biovars; however, microimmunoassay studies indicate that a number of serovars may exist in the abortion and arthritis biovars. Of the 4 avian serovars, 2 are of major importance in the US avian population. These 2 serovars, psittacine and turkey, are each associated with important host preferences and disease characteristics. The turkey isolates have all been associated with either a serious disease in birds or human beings or with major epizootics in turkeys, often resulting in human disease. The psittacine serovar has been associated with serious disease in human beings; however, human involvement is usually limited to sporadic cases following exposure to companion birds or pigeons. The other 2 serovars, German duck and WC, are single isolates and their distributions and disease characteristics are not known.

  20. Avian dendritic cells: Phenotype and ontogeny in lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nándor; Bódi, Ildikó; Oláh, Imre

    2016-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critically important accessory cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Avian DCs were originally identified in primary and secondary lymphoid organs by their typical morphology, displaying long cell processes with cytoplasmic granules. Several subtypes are known. Bursal secretory dendritic cells (BSDC) are elongated cells which express vimentin intermediate filaments, MHC II molecules, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), and produce 74.3+ secretory granules. Avian follicular dendritic cells (FDC) highly resemble BSDC, express the CD83, 74.3 and CSF1R molecules, and present antigen in germinal centers. Thymic dendritic cells (TDC), which express 74.3 and CD83, are concentrated in thymic medulla while interdigitating DC are found in T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. Avian Langerhans cells are a specialized 74.3-/MHC II+ cell population found in stratified squamous epithelium and are capable of differentiating into 74.3+ migratory DCs. During organogenesis hematopoietic precursors of DC colonize the developing lymphoid organ primordia prior to immigration of lymphoid precursor cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the ontogeny, cytoarchitecture, and immunophenotype of avian DC, and offers an antibody panel for the in vitro and in vivo identification of these heterogeneous cell types.

  1. Experimental vaccinations for avian influenza virus including DIVA approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We continue to improve our understanding of avian immunology and are gaining new technological tools that can be used for the immunization of domestic animals. With all these advances we still have to balance the protection that we receive from treatment (i.e vaccination) versus the cost to adminis...

  2. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  3. Avian influenza: worldwide situation and effectiveness of current vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries during the past 18 years. The majority of the recent outbreaks of H5N2 HPAI have occurred in Indonesia, Egypt, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, in decreasi...

  4. Avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ping Yan

    2008-06-01

    Avian influenza A H5N1 continues to be a major threat to global public health as it is a likely candidate for the next influenza pandemic. To protect public health and avert potential disruption to the economy, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government has committed substantial effort in preparedness for avian and pandemic influenza. Public health infrastructures for emerging infectious diseases have been developed to enhance command, control and coordination of emergency response. Strategies against avian and pandemic influenza are formulated to reduce opportunities for human infection, detect pandemic influenza timely, and enhance emergency preparedness and response capacity. Key components of the pandemic response include strengthening disease surveillance systems, updating legislation on infectious disease prevention and control, enhancing traveller health measures, building surge capacity, maintaining adequate pharmaceutical stockpiles, and ensuring business continuity during crisis. Challenges from avian and pandemic influenza are not to be underestimated. Implementing quarantine and social distancing measures to contain or mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza is problematic in a highly urbanised city like Hong Kong as they involved complex operational and ethical issues. Sustaining effective risk communication campaigns during interpandemic times is another challenge. Being a member of the global village, Hong Kong is committed to contributing its share of efforts and collaborating with health authorities internationally in combating our common public health enemy.

  5. Prevention and control of avian influenza in Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus emerged in China during 1996 and has spread to infect poultry and/or wild birds in 62 countries during the past 15 years. For 2011-2012, 19 countries reported outbreaks of H5N1 in domestic poultry, wild birds or both. The majority of the outbr...

  6. Developmental imaging: the avian embryo hatches to the challenge.

    PubMed

    Kulesa, Paul M; McKinney, Mary C; McLennan, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    The avian embryo provides a multifaceted model to study developmental mechanisms because of its accessibility to microsurgery, fluorescence cell labeling, in vivo imaging, and molecular manipulation. Early two-dimensional planar growth of the avian embryo mimics human development and provides unique access to complex cell migration patterns using light microscopy. Later developmental events continue to permit access to both light and other imaging modalities, making the avian embryo an excellent model for developmental imaging. For example, significant insights into cell and tissue behaviors within the primitive streak, craniofacial region, and cardiovascular and peripheral nervous systems have come from avian embryo studies. In this review, we provide an update to recent advances in embryo and tissue slice culture and imaging, fluorescence cell labeling, and gene profiling. We focus on how technical advances in the chick and quail provide a clearer understanding of how embryonic cell dynamics are beautifully choreographed in space and time to sculpt cells into functioning structures. We summarize how these technical advances help us to better understand basic developmental mechanisms that may lead to clinical research into human birth defects and tissue repair.

  7. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The central Asian country of Mongolia supports large populations of migratory water birds that migrate across much of Asia where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 is endemic. This, together with the near absence of domestic poultry, makes Mongolia an ideal location to unde...

  8. Newcastle disease virus detection and differentiation from avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious and often fatal disease that affects over 250 bird species worldwide, and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Infections of poultry with virulent strains of APMV-1 (New...

  9. Opportunistic Pulmonary Bordetella hinzii Infection after Avian Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dupin, Clarisse; Bénézit, François; Goret, Julien; Piau, Caroline; Jouneau, Stéphane; Guillot, Sophie; Mégraud, Francis; Kayal, Samer; Desrues, Benoit; Le Coustumier, Alain; Guiso, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    We report 2 cases of pulmonary Bordetella hinzii infection in immunodeficient patients. One of these rare cases demonstrated the potential transmission of the bacteria from an avian reservoir through occupational exposure and its persistence in humans. We establish bacteriologic management of these infections and suggest therapeutic options if needed. PMID:26584467

  10. Highly pathogenic avian influenza challenge studies in waterfowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterfowl are the natural hosts of avian influenza (AI) virus. The majority of AI viruses are classified as low pathogenicity (LP) based on their virulence in chickens, which are the reference species for pathotype testing and can be any of the 16 hemagglutinin subtypes (H1-16). Circulation of H5 ...

  11. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 into Europe and North America poses significant risks to poultry industries and wildlife populations and warrants continued and heightened vigilance. First discovered in South Korean poultry and wild birds in early 2014...

  12. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection. PMID:25417715

  13. Detection of Evolutionarily Distinct Avian Influenza A Viruses in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M. Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. PMID:24803521

  14. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    PubMed

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses.

  15. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    PubMed

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses. PMID:26910902

  16. Evaluation of cytokine gene expression after avian influenza virus infection in avian cell lines and primary cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The innate immune responses elicited by avian influenza virus (AIV) infection has been studied by measuring cytokine gene expression by relative real time PCR (rRT-PCR) in vitro, using both cell lines and primary cell cultures. Continuous cell lines offer advantages over the use of primary cell cult...

  17. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  18. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  19. Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Johnson, Gregory D.; Strickland, Dale M.; Young, Jr., David P.; Sernka, Karyn J.; Good, Rhett E.

    2001-08-01

    It has been estimated that from 100 million to well over 1 billion birds are killed annually in the United States due to collisions with human-made structures, including vehicles, buildings and windows, powerlines, communication towers, and wind turbines. Although wind energy is generally considered environmentally friendly (because it generates electricity without emitting air pollutants or greenhouse gases), the potential for avian fatalities has delayed and even significantly contributed to blocking the development of some windplants in the U.S. Given the importance of developing a viable renewable source of energy, the objective of this paper is to put the issue of avian mortality associated with windpower into perspective with other sources of avian collision mortality across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed summary of the mortality data collected at windplants and put avian collision mortality associated with windpower development into perspective with other significant sources of avian collision mortality across the United States. We provide a summary of data collected at many of the U.S. windplants and provide annual bird fatality estimates and projections for all wind turbines in the U.S. For comparison, we also review studies of avian collision mortality from other major human-made structures and report annual bird fatality estimates for these sources. Other sources also significantly contribute to overall avian mortality. For example, the National Audubon Society estimates avian mortality due to house cats at 100 million birds per year. Pesticide use, oil spills, disease, etc., are other significant sources of unintended avian mortality. Due to funding constraints, the scope of this paper is limited to examining only avian mortality resulting from collisions with human-made obstacles.

  20. A review of biomechanic and aerodynamic considerations of the avian thoracic limb.

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues

    2009-09-01

    The wings are the most important part of the flight apparatus of a bird and consist of feathers, bones, muscles, nerves, and patagial skin flaps. The complex kinematics of wing beats and the perfect control of aerodynamics make avian flight possible. An impaired flight can be viewed as an avian lameness; therefore, a better understanding of avian locomotion can help to diagnose and to evaluate the avian patient, especially when perfect flight is required for release of wild birds. Every condition affecting a specific part of the wing can lead to serious biomechanic and aerodynamic consequences during flight. This review summarizes wing mechanics that might be of clinical relevance for avian practitioners considering the current experimental and theoretical scientific knowledge available on avian flight in conjunction with observations of birds in various wildlife centers. PMID:19999760

  1. Linking avian communities and avian influenza ecology in southern Africa using epidemiological functional groups.

    PubMed

    Caron, Alexandre; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Ndlovu, Mduduzi; Cumming, Graeme S

    2012-01-01

    The ecology of pathogens, and particularly their emergence in multi-host systems, is complex. New approaches are needed to reduce superficial complexities to a level that still allows scientists to analyse underlying and more fundamental processes. One promising approach for simplification is to use an epidemiological-function classification to describe ecological diversity in a way that relates directly to pathogen dynamics. In this article, we develop and apply the epidemiological functional group (EFG) concept to explore the relationships between wild bird communities and avian influenza virus (AIV) in three ecosystems in southern Africa. Using a two year dataset that combined bird counts and bimonthly sampling for AIV, we allocated each bird species to a set of EFGs that captured two overarching epidemiological functions: the capacity of species to maintain AIV in the system, and their potential to introduce the virus. Comparing AIV prevalence between EFGs suggested that the hypothesis that anseriforms (ducks) and charadriiforms (waders) drive AIV epidemiology cannot entirely explain the high prevalence observed in some EFGs. If anseriforms do play an important role in AIV dynamics in each of the three ecosystems, the role of other species in the local maintenance of AIV cannot be ruled out. The EFG concept thus helped us to identify gaps in knowledge and to highlight understudied bird groups that might play a role in AIV epidemiology. In general, the use of EFGs has potential for generating a range of valuable insights in epidemiology, just as functional group approaches have done in ecology. PMID:23101696

  2. Detection of avian Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences from mosquitoes captured in Minami Daito Island of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ejiri, Hiroko; Sato, Yukita; Sasaki, Emi; Sumiyama, Daisuke; Tsuda, Yoshio; Sawabe, Kyoko; Matsui, Shin; Horie, Sayaka; Akatani, Kana; Takagi, Masaoki; Omori, Sumie; Murata, Koichi; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2008-11-01

    Several species of birds in Minami Daito Island, an oceanic island located in the far south from the main islands of Japan, were found to be infected with avian Plasmodium. However, no vector species of the avian malaria in this island have been revealed yet. To speculate potential vectors, we collected mosquitoes there and investigated using a PCR procedure whether the mosquitoes harbor avian malaria or not. Totally 1,264 mosquitoes including 9 species were collected during March 2006 to February 2007. The mosquitoes collected were stored every species, sampled date and location for DNA extraction. Fifteen out of 399 DNA samples showed positive for the partial mtDNA cytb gene of avian Plasmodium. Estimated minimum infection rate among collected mosquitoes was 1.2% in this study. Four species of mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Lutzia fuscanus and Mansonia sp. had avian Plasmodium gene sequences. Detected DNA sequences from A. albopictus and L. fuscanus were identical to an avian Plasmodium lineage detected in bull-headed shrike (Lanius bucephalus) captured in the island. Different sequences were detected from C. quinquefasciatus, which were corresponding to an avian Plasmodium from a sparrow (Passer montanus) and Plasmodium gallinaceum. Our results suggest that A. albopictus, Lutzia fuscanus, C. quinquefasciatus, and Mansonia sp. could be potential vectors of avian malaria in Minami Daito Island. This study was the first report of molecular detection of avian Plasmodium from mosquitoes in Japan.

  3. Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Lutful Kabir, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns of avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry researchers and the poultry industry in continuing to make progress in reducing and eliminating avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis from the poultry flocks, thereby reducing potential hazards to the public health posed by these bacterial diseases. PMID:20195435

  4. Response of avian communities to herbicide-induced vegetation changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, M.L.; Meslow, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between avian communities and herbicide modification of vegetation were analyzed on early-growth clear-cuts in western Oregon that had received phenoxy herbicide treatment 1 or 4 years previously. For both 1 and 4 years post-spray, vegetation development was greater in the third height interval (> 3.0 m) on untreated sites. All measures of vegetative diversity on untreated sites exceeded those on treated sites. Overall density and diversity of birds were similar between treated and untreated sites. Several bird species altered their foraging behavior on treated sites, i.e., birds using deciduous trees increased use of shrubs on treated sites. The primary effect of herbicide application was a reduction in the complexity of vegetation, a condition due primarity to the removal of deciduous trees. Small patches of deciduous trees scattered in clear-cuts treated with phenoxy herbicides can maintain an avian community similar to that on untreated sites.

  5. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI.

  6. Avian pox in blue-fronted Amazon parrots.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S E; Lowenstine, L J; Ardans, A A

    1981-12-01

    During a 1-month period at a quarantine station, an epornitic of avian pox occurred in blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Clinical signs included conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and varying degrees of anorexia and respiratory distress. Lesions included periocular ulcerations and scabs and necrotic plaques in the oral cavity. Histologically, the lesions consisted of epithelial hyperplasia, secondary inflammatory changes, and eosinophilic inclusions which, by electron microscopy, were shown to contain poxvirus. When chicken embryos were inoculated with material from eyelid scabs and pharyngeal plaques, lesions of avian pox developed on the chorioallantoic membrane. The death rate of infected birds was high because of secondary bacterial and fungal infections, but uncomplicated cases were usually self-limiting. Periocular lesions also developed in 2 other species of psittacine birds housed in the same facility.

  7. State transitions and decoherence in the avian compass.

    PubMed

    Poonia, Vishvendra Singh; Saha, Dipankar; Ganguly, Swaroop

    2015-05-01

    The radical pair model has been successful in explaining behavioral characteristics of the geomagnetic compass believed to underlie the navigation capability of certain avian species. In this study, the spin dynamics of the radical pair model and decoherence therein are interpreted from a microscopic state transition point of view. This helps to elucidate the interplay between the hyperfine and Zeeman interactions that enables the avian compass and clarify the distinctive effects of nuclear and environmental decoherence on it. Three regimes have been identified for the strength of the hyperfine interaction with respect to that of the geomagnetic Zeeman. It is found that the compass is likely to function in the large hyperfine interaction regime. Using a quantum information theoretic quantifier of coherence, we find that nuclear decoherence induces new structure in the spin dynamics for intermediate hyperfine interaction strength. On the other hand, environmental decoherence-modeled by two different noise models-seems to disrupt the compass action. PMID:26066201

  8. Monitoring low density avian populations: An example using Mountain Plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreitz, V.J.; Lukacs, P.M.; Knopf, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Declines in avian populations highlight a need for rigorous, broad-scale monitoring programs to document trends in avian populations that occur in low densities across expansive landscapes. Accounting for the spatial variation and variation in detection probability inherent to monitoring programs is thought to be effort-intensive and time-consuming. We determined the feasibility of the analytical method developed by Royle and Nichols (2003), which uses presence-absence (detection-non-detection) field data, to estimate abundance of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) per sampling unit in agricultural fields, grassland, and prairie dog habitat in eastern Colorado. Field methods were easy to implement and results suggest that the analytical method provides valuable insight into population patterning among habitats. Mountain Plover abundance was highest in prairie dog habitat, slightly lower in agricultural fields, and substantially lower in grassland. These results provided valuable insight to focus future research into Mountain Plover ecology and conservation. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  9. Diversity and function of the avian gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kevin D

    2012-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota have now been shown to largely affect host health through various functional roles in terms of nutrition, immunity, and other physiological systems. However, the majority of these studies have been carried out in mammalian hosts, which differ in their physiological traits from other taxa. For example, birds possess several unique life history traits, such as hatching from eggs, which may alter the interactions with and transmission of intestinal microbes compared to most mammals. This review covers the diversity of microbial taxa hosted by birds. It also discusses how avian microbial communities strongly influence nutrition, immune function, and processing of toxins in avian hosts, in manners similar to and different from mammalian systems. Finally, areas demanding further research are identified, along with descriptions of existing techniques that could be employed to answer these questions.

  10. Persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Natural Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Feare, Chris J.; Renaud, François; Thomas, Frédéric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of ecologic factors favoring emergence and maintenance of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses is limited. Although low pathogenic avian influenza viruses persist and evolve in wild populations, HPAI viruses evolve in domestic birds and cause economically serious epizootics that only occasionally infect wild populations. We propose that evolutionary ecology considerations can explain this apparent paradox. Host structure and transmission possibilities differ considerably between wild and domestic birds and are likely to be major determinants of virulence. Because viral fitness is highly dependent on host survival and dispersal in nature, virulent forms are unlikely to persist in wild populations if they kill hosts quickly or affect predation risk or migratory performance. Interhost transmission in water has evolved in low pathogenic influenza viruses in wild waterfowl populations. However, oropharyngeal shedding and transmission by aerosols appear more efficient for HPAI viruses among domestic birds. PMID:20587174

  11. Clinical review: Update of avian influenza A infections in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sandrock, Christian; Kelly, Terra

    2007-01-01

    Influenza A viruses have a wide host range for infection, from wild waterfowl to poultry to humans. Recently, the cross-species transmission of avian influenza A, particularly subtype H5N1, has highlighted the importance of the non-human subtypes and their incidence in the human population has increased over the past decade. During cross-species transmission, human disease can range from the asymptomatic to mild conjunctivitis to fulminant pneumonia and death. With these cases, however, the risk for genetic change and development of a novel virus increases, heightening the need for public health and hospital measures. This review discusses the epidemiology, host range, human disease, outcome, treatment, and prevention of cross-transmission of avian influenza A into humans. PMID:17419881

  12. Virus-coded DNA endonuclease from avian retrovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Golomb, M; Grandgenett, D P; Mason, W

    1981-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase from avian retrovirus has a physically associated DNA endonuclease with novel substrate and cofactor requirements. A similar endonuclease activity copurifies with pp32, a protein from viral cores that has been identified with the non-alpha region of the beta subunit of reverse transcriptase. Several temperature-sensitive mutants of avian retrovirus with thermolabile DNA polymerase were tested for thermal sensitivity of their DNA endonuclease activity. Two pol mutants of Rous sarcoma virus, ts335 and ts337, had thermolabile DNA endonuclease; a temperature-resistant revertant of ts335 had a heat-stable DNA endonuclease. DNA endonuclease is therefore a product of the pol gene and an integral part of the reverse transcriptase. A second class of pol mutants, typified by ts568 and ts553, had thermolabile DNA polymerase, but heat-stable DNA endonuclease. PMID:6165835

  13. Session: Avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Thelander, Carl; Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question answer period. The session addressed a variety of questions related to avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the avian and bat impacts of wind power development including: what has been learned from operating turbines and mitigating impacts where they are unavoidable, such as at Altamont Pass WRA, and should there be mitigation measures such as habitat creation or land conservation where impacts occur. Other impact minimization and mitigation approaches discussed included: location and siting evaluations; options for construction and operation of wind facilities; turbine lighting; and the physical alignment/orientation. Titles and authors of the presentations were: 'Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part II' by Carl Thelander and 'Prevention and Mitigation of Avian Impacts at Wind Power Facilities' by Paul Kerlinger.

  14. Landscape fragmentation affects responses of avian communities to climate change.

    PubMed

    Jarzyna, Marta A; Porter, William F; Maurer, Brian A; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Finley, Andrew O

    2015-08-01

    Forecasting the consequences of climate change is contingent upon our understanding of the relationship between biodiversity patterns and climatic variability. While the impacts of climate change on individual species have been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies on climate-mediated changes in community dynamics. Our objectives were to investigate the relationship between temporal turnover in avian biodiversity and changes in climatic conditions and to assess the role of landscape fragmentation in affecting this relationship. We hypothesized that community turnover would be highest in regions experiencing the most pronounced changes in climate and that these patterns would be reduced in human-dominated landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified temporal turnover in avian communities over a 20-year period using data from the New York State Breeding Atlases collected during 1980-1985 and 2000-2005. We applied Bayesian spatially varying intercept models to evaluate the relationship between temporal turnover and temporal trends in climatic conditions and landscape fragmentation. We found that models including interaction terms between climate change and landscape fragmentation were superior to models without the interaction terms, suggesting that the relationship between avian community turnover and changes in climatic conditions was affected by the level of landscape fragmentation. Specifically, we found weaker associations between temporal turnover and climatic change in regions with prevalent habitat fragmentation. We suggest that avian communities in fragmented landscapes are more robust to climate change than communities found in contiguous habitats because they are comprised of species with wider thermal niches and thus are less susceptible to shifts in climatic variability. We conclude that highly fragmented regions are likely to undergo less pronounced changes in composition and structure of faunal communities as a result of climate change

  15. Presence of avian pneumovirus subtypes A and B in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mase, Masaji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Imada, Tadao; Imai, Kunitoshi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

    2003-01-01

    Four avian pneumovirus (APV) isolates from chickens clinically diagnosed with swollen head syndrome were genetically characterized as to the subtypes of the virus in Japan. The results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions based on subtype-specific primers and direct sequence analysis of G genes indicated subtypes A and B but not C or D of APV were present in Japan. Several routes or sources are conceivable for APV to invade into Japan.

  16. The long view: 40 years of avian leukosis research.

    PubMed

    Payne, L N; Nair, V

    2012-01-01

    The present review is aimed at the non-specialist reader and is one of a number being written on important diseases of poultry to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the birth of Avian Pathology, the journal of the World Veterinary Poultry Association. The diseases of the avian leukosis complex have a number of features of distinction. They were the first neoplastic diseases in any species to be shown, 100 years ago, to be transmissible and caused by viruses, and have consequently been studied extensively by biomedical scientists as models for the role of viruses in cancer. They also became, from around the 1920s, the major cause of mortality and economic loss to the developed poultry industry, and were studied by agricultural scientists searching to understand and control them. The remit of the review is to cover research carried out over the 40 years since 1971, when the journal was founded. In this review on avian leukosis, an introductory summary is given of knowledge acquired over the preceding 60 years. Subsequently a selection is provided of discoveries, both fundamental and more applied, that seem to us to be of particular importance and interest. Much of the work was carried out by biomedical scientists interested in cancer. Probably the most significant was the discovery in the avian retroviruses of oncogenes that cause leukosis and other tumours and of their origin from proto-oncogenes in normal cells. These oncogenes are involved in cancer in many species, including chickens and humans. Other work was performed by agricultural scientists interested in poultry disease. Interests of the two groups have overlapped, particularly as a result of a shift of emphasis to molecular biology research.

  17. The bird of time: cognition and the avian biological clock

    PubMed Central

    Cassone, Vincent M.; Westneat, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Avian behavior and physiology are embedded in time at many levels of biological organization. Biological clock function in birds is critical for sleep/wake cycles, but may also regulate the acquisition of place memory, learning of song from tutors, social integration, and time-compensated navigation. This relationship has two major implications. First, mechanisms of the circadian clock should be linked in some way to the mechanisms of all these behaviors. How is not yet clear, and evidence that the central clock has effects is piecemeal. Second, selection acting on characters that are linked to the circadian clock should influence aspects of the clock mechanism itself. Little evidence exists for this in birds, but there have been few attempts to assess this idea. At its core, the avian circadian clock is a multi-oscillator system comprising the pineal gland, the retinae, and the avian homologs of the suprachiasmatic nuclei, whose mutual interactions ensure coordinated physiological functions, which are in turn synchronized to ambient light cycles (LD) via encephalic, pineal, and retinal photoreceptors. At the molecular level, avian biological clocks comprise a genetic network of “positive elements” clock and bmal1 whose interactions with the “negative elements” period 2 (per2), period 3 (per3), and the cryptochromes form an oscillatory feedback loop that circumnavigates the 24 h of the day. We assess the possibilities for dual integration of the clock with time-dependent cognitive processes. Closer examination of the molecular, physiological, and behavioral elements of the circadian system would place birds at a very interesting fulcrum in the neurobiology of time in learning, memory, and navigation. PMID:22461765

  18. Secondarily flightless birds or Cretaceous non-avian theropods?

    PubMed

    Kavanau, J Lee

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies by Varricchio et al. reveal that males cared for the eggs of troodontids and oviraptorids, so-called "non-avian theropods" of the Cretaceous, just as do those of most Paleognathic birds (ratites and tinamous) today. Further, the clutches of both groups have large relative volumes, and consist of many eggs of relatively large size. By comparison, clutch care by most extant birds is biparental and the clutches are of small relative volume, and consist of but few small eggs. Varricchio et al. propose that troodontids and oviraptorids were pre-avian and that paternal egg care preceded the origin of birds. On the contrary, unmentioned by them is that abundant paleontological evidence has led several workers to conclude that troodontids and oviraptorids were secondary flightless birds. This evidence ranges from bird-like bodies and bone designs, adapted for climbing, perching, gliding, and ultimately flight, to relatively large, highly developed brains, poor sense of smell, and their feeding habits. Because ratites also are secondarily flightless and tinamous are reluctant, clumsy fliers, the new evidence strengthens the view that troodontids and oviraptorids were secondarily flightless. Although secondary flightlessness apparently favors paternal care of clutches of large, abundant eggs, such care is not likely to have been primitive. There are a suite of previously unknown independent findings that point to the evolution of, first, maternal, followed by biparental egg care in earliest ancestors of birds. This follows from the discovery of remarkable relict avian reproductive behaviors preserved by virtue of the highly conservative nature of vertebrate brain evolution. These behaviors can be elicited readily by exposing breeding birds to appropriate conditions, both environmental and with respect to their eggs and chicks. They give significant new clues for a coherent theory of avian origin and early evolution. PMID:19800747

  19. Landscape fragmentation affects responses of avian communities to climate change.

    PubMed

    Jarzyna, Marta A; Porter, William F; Maurer, Brian A; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Finley, Andrew O

    2015-08-01

    Forecasting the consequences of climate change is contingent upon our understanding of the relationship between biodiversity patterns and climatic variability. While the impacts of climate change on individual species have been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies on climate-mediated changes in community dynamics. Our objectives were to investigate the relationship between temporal turnover in avian biodiversity and changes in climatic conditions and to assess the role of landscape fragmentation in affecting this relationship. We hypothesized that community turnover would be highest in regions experiencing the most pronounced changes in climate and that these patterns would be reduced in human-dominated landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified temporal turnover in avian communities over a 20-year period using data from the New York State Breeding Atlases collected during 1980-1985 and 2000-2005. We applied Bayesian spatially varying intercept models to evaluate the relationship between temporal turnover and temporal trends in climatic conditions and landscape fragmentation. We found that models including interaction terms between climate change and landscape fragmentation were superior to models without the interaction terms, suggesting that the relationship between avian community turnover and changes in climatic conditions was affected by the level of landscape fragmentation. Specifically, we found weaker associations between temporal turnover and climatic change in regions with prevalent habitat fragmentation. We suggest that avian communities in fragmented landscapes are more robust to climate change than communities found in contiguous habitats because they are comprised of species with wider thermal niches and thus are less susceptible to shifts in climatic variability. We conclude that highly fragmented regions are likely to undergo less pronounced changes in composition and structure of faunal communities as a result of climate change

  20. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gch; Wong, Ty; Cheong, Sk; Koh, Dsq

    2008-11-13

    There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919-1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI) is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  1. Early Events in the Pathogenesis of Avian Salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, S. Christine; Bounous, Denise I.; Lee, Margie D.

    1999-01-01

    Salmonellae are gastrointestinal pathogens of man and animals. However, strains that are host-specific avian pathogens are often avirulent in mammals, and those which are nonspecific are commensal in poultry. The objective of this study was to determine whether host specificity was exhibited by bacterial abilities to invade epithelial cells or resist leukocyte killing. In this study, leukocytes isolated from humans and chickens were used to kill Salmonella in vitro. Both Salmonella pullorum, an avian-specific serotype, and Salmonella typhimurium, a broad-host-range serotype, were sensitive to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes isolated from both species. Both serotypes replicated in cells of the MQ-NCSU avian-macrophage cell line. In contrast, S. pullorum was noninvasive for cultured epithelial Henle 407, chick kidney, chick ovary, and budgerigar abdominal tumor cells. In the bird challenge, however, S. typhimurium rapidly caused inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, but S. pullorum preferentially targeted the bursa of Fabricius prior to eliciting intestinal inflammation. Salmonella serotypes which cause typhoid fever in mice have been shown to target the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Observations from this study show that S. pullorum initiated a route of infection in chicks comparable to the route it takes in cases of enteric fever. PMID:10377142

  2. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Fecheyr-Lippens, Daphne C.; Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Hanley, Daniel; Verdes, Aida; Holford, Mande; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I. N.; Grim, Tomas; Hauber, Mark E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV) reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour. PMID:25964661

  3. Revised nomenclature for avian telencephalon and some related brainstem nuclei.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Anton; Perkel, David J; Bruce, Laura L; Butler, Ann B; Csillag, András; Kuenzel, Wayne; Medina, Loreta; Paxinos, George; Shimizu, Toru; Striedter, Georg; Wild, Martin; Ball, Gregory F; Durand, Sarah; Güntürkün, Onur; Lee, Diane W; Mello, Claudio V; Powers, Alice; White, Stephanie A; Hough, Gerald; Kubikova, Lubica; Smulders, Tom V; Wada, Kazuhiro; Dugas-Ford, Jennifer; Husband, Scott; Yamamoto, Keiko; Yu, Jing; Siang, Connie; Jarvis, Erich D; Gütürkün, Onur

    2004-05-31

    The standard nomenclature that has been used for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures in birds is based on flawed assumptions of homology to mammals. In particular, the outdated terminology implies that most of the avian telencephalon is a hypertrophied basal ganglia, when it is now clear that most of the avian telencephalon is neurochemically, hodologically, and functionally comparable to the mammalian neocortex, claustrum, and pallial amygdala (all of which derive from the pallial sector of the developing telencephalon). Recognizing that this promotes misunderstanding of the functional organization of avian brains and their evolutionary relationship to mammalian brains, avian brain specialists began discussions to rectify this problem, culminating in the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum held at Duke University in July 2002, which approved a new terminology for avian telencephalon and some allied brainstem cell groups. Details of this new terminology are presented here, as is a rationale for each name change and evidence for any homologies implied by the new names. Revisions for the brainstem focused on vocal control, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, and basal ganglia-related nuclei. For example, the Forum recognized that the hypoglossal nucleus had been incorrectly identified as the nucleus intermedius in the Karten and Hodos (1967) pigeon brain atlas, and what was identified as the hypoglossal nucleus in that atlas should instead be called the supraspinal nucleus. The locus ceruleus of this and other avian atlases was noted to consist of a caudal noradrenergic part homologous to the mammalian locus coeruleus and a rostral region corresponding to the mammalian A8 dopaminergic cell group. The midbrain dopaminergic cell group in birds known as the nucleus tegmenti pedunculopontinus pars compacta was recognized as homologous to the mammalian substantia nigra pars compacta and was renamed accordingly; a group of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons

  4. Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, S.J.; St. Leger, J. A.; Pugliares, K.; Ip, H.S.; Chan, J.M.; Carpenter, Z.W.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Saliki, J.T.; Pedersen, J.; Karesh, W.; Daszak, P.; Rabadan, R.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2012-01-01

    From September to December 2011, 162 New England harbor seals died in an outbreak of pneumonia. Sequence analysis of postmortem samples revealed the presence of an avian H3N8 influenza A virus, similar to a virus circulating in North American waterfowl since at least 2002 but with mutations that indicate recent adaption to mammalian hosts. These include a D701N mutation in the viral PB2 protein, previously reported in highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses infecting people. Lectin staining and agglutination assays indicated the presence of the avian-preferred SAα-2,3 and mammalian SAα-2,6 receptors in seal respiratory tract, and the ability of the virus to agglutinate erythrocytes bearing either the SAα-2,3 or the SAα-2,6 receptor. The emergence of this A/harbor seal/Massachusetts/1/2011 virus may herald the appearance of an H3N8 influenza clade with potential for persistence and cross-species transmission.

  5. Avian influenza in North America, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Pasick, John; Pedersen, Janice; Hernandez, Mario Solis

    2012-12-01

    All reports of avian influenza virus infections in poultry and isolations from wild bird species in Canada, the United States, and Mexico between 2009 and 2011 involved low pathogenic avian influenza. All three countries reported outbreaks of low pathogenic notifiable avian influenza in poultry during this period. The reports involved outbreaks of H5N2 among commercial turkeys in Canada in 2009 and 2010; outbreaks of H5N3 in turkeys in 2009, H5N2 in chickens in 2010, H7N3 in turkeys in 2011, and H7N9 in chickens, turkeys, geese, and guinea fowl in 2011 in the United States; and multiple outbreaks of H5N2 in chickens in Mexico in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Outbreaks of pandemic H1N1 infections in turkey breeder flocks were reported in Canada in 2009 and in the United States in 2010. Active surveillance of live bird markets in the United States led to the detection of H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, and H10 subtypes. Despite the fact that wild bird surveillance programs underwent contraction during this period in both Canada and the United States, H5 and H7 subtypes were still detected.

  6. Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G M; Rogers, K C; Yerby, S A

    2001-07-26

    Did dinosaurs grow in a manner similar to extant reptiles, mammals or birds, or were they unique? Are rapid avian growth rates an innovation unique to birds, or were they inherited from dinosaurian precursors? We quantified growth rates for a group of dinosaurs spanning the phylogenetic and size diversity for the clade and used regression analysis to characterize the results. Here we show that dinosaurs exhibited sigmoidal growth curves similar to those of other vertebrates, but had unique growth rates with respect to body mass. All dinosaurs grew at accelerated rates relative to the primitive condition seen in extant reptiles. Small dinosaurs grew at moderately rapid rates, similar to those of marsupials, but large species attained rates comparable to those of eutherian mammals and precocial birds. Growth in giant sauropods was similar to that of whales of comparable size. Non-avian dinosaurs did not attain rates like those of altricial birds. Avian growth rates were attained in a stepwise fashion after birds diverged from theropod ancestors in the Jurassic period. PMID:11473315

  7. Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G M; Rogers, K C; Yerby, S A

    2001-07-26

    Did dinosaurs grow in a manner similar to extant reptiles, mammals or birds, or were they unique? Are rapid avian growth rates an innovation unique to birds, or were they inherited from dinosaurian precursors? We quantified growth rates for a group of dinosaurs spanning the phylogenetic and size diversity for the clade and used regression analysis to characterize the results. Here we show that dinosaurs exhibited sigmoidal growth curves similar to those of other vertebrates, but had unique growth rates with respect to body mass. All dinosaurs grew at accelerated rates relative to the primitive condition seen in extant reptiles. Small dinosaurs grew at moderately rapid rates, similar to those of marsupials, but large species attained rates comparable to those of eutherian mammals and precocial birds. Growth in giant sauropods was similar to that of whales of comparable size. Non-avian dinosaurs did not attain rates like those of altricial birds. Avian growth rates were attained in a stepwise fashion after birds diverged from theropod ancestors in the Jurassic period.

  8. A PCR test for avian malaria in Hawaiian birds.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R A; Freed, L A; Cann, R L

    1995-12-01

    The decline of native Hawaiian forest birds since European contact is attributed to factors ranging from habitat destruction to interactions with introduced species. Remaining populations of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Fringillidae: Drepanidinae) are most abundant and diverse in high elevation refuges above the normal range of disease-carrying mosquitoes. Challenge experiments suggest that honeycreepers are highly susceptible to avian malaria (Plasmodium sp.) but resistance exists in some species. In order to detect low levels of malarial infection and quantify prevalence of Plasmodium in high elevation natural populations of Hawaiian birds, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic test was developed that identifies rRNA genes of Plasmodium in avian blood samples. Quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR) experiments indicate that the detection limit of our test is an order of magnitude greater than that reported for human malaria DNA blot tests. Compared with standard histological methods, the PCR test detected a higher prevalence of diseased birds at mid-elevations. Malaria was detected in three species of native birds living in a high elevation wildlife refuge on the island of Hawaii and in four species from Maui. Our results show that avian malaria is more widespread in Hawaiian forests than previously thought, a finding that has important conservation implications for these threatened species.

  9. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (<30 cm) water, thereby attracting different guilds of birds. Grain not collected during harvest (i.e. waste rice) is typically the most abundant potential food of birds in rice fields, with estimates of seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  10. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells.

    PubMed

    Fecheyr-Lippens, Daphne C; Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Hanley, Daniel; Verdes, Aida; Holford, Mande; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Grim, Tomas; Hauber, Mark E; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2015-05-11

    Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV) reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour.

  11. Clinical features of avian influenza in Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Maamoun Mohamad; Khatab, Adel Mahmoud; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; Amer, Wegdan Ahmad Fouad

    2012-08-01

    The clinical manifestations associated with H5N1 infection in humans range from asymptomatic infection to mild upper respiratory illness, severe pneumonia, and multiple organ failure. The ratio of symptomatic cases to asymptomatic cases is not known, because it is not possible to precisely define the number of asymptomatic cases. A total of 97 cases suffering from avian flu were suspected based on history taking, demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological investigations. The followings were done for all cases; complete blood picture (differential leucocytic count), coagulation profile, renal and liver function tests. H5N1 influenza virus was diagnosed thorough PCR technique. Changes in arterial blood gases and repeated chest X-rays were reported frequently. All patients were given specific antiviral therapy (oseltamivir). The study described the clinical picture and laboratory results of 81 confirmed avian influenza human cases in an Egyptian hospital (Abassia chest hospital), and reviewed the avian influenza current situation covering from March 2006 to June 2009 with very high pick in the first half of 2009. The significant apparent symptoms were fever as initial and main symptom (93.75%), followed by shortness of breathing (73%), cough (66.6%), muscle & joint pain (60%) and sore throat (40%).

  12. Active surveillance for avian influenza virus, Egypt, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.

  13. Avian Conservation Practices Strengthen Ecosystem Services in California Vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicka, Julie A.; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services. PMID:22096555

  14. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Julie A; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  15. Force-velocity properties of two avian hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Frank E; Gabaldón, Annette M; Roberts, Thomas J

    2004-04-01

    Recent work has provided measurements of power output in avian skeletal muscles during running and flying, but little is known about the contractile properties of avian skeletal muscle. We used an in situ preparation to characterize the force-velocity properties of two hind limb muscles, the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and peroneus longus (PL), in Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A servomotor measured shortening velocity for at least six different loads over the plateau region of the length-tension curve. The Hill equation was fit to the data to determine maximum shortening velocity and peak instantaneous power. Maximum unloaded shortening velocity was 13.0+/-1.6 L s(-1) for the LG muscle and 14.8+/-1.0 L s(-1) for the PL muscle (mean+/-S.E.M.). These velocities are within the range of values published for reptilian and mammalian muscles. Values recorded for maximum isometric force per cross-sectional area, 271+/-28 kPa for the LG and 257+/-30.5 kPa for the PL, and peak instantaneous power output, 341.7+/-36.4 W kg(-1) for the LG and 319.4+/-42.5 W kg(-1) for the PL, were also within the range of published values for vertebrate muscle. The force-velocity properties of turkey LG and PL muscle do not reveal any extreme differences in the mechanical potential between avian and other vertebrate muscle.

  16. New Perspectives on the Ontogeny and Evolution of Avian Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Heers, Ashley M

    2016-09-01

    Close correspondence between form and function is a central tenet of natural selection. One of the most striking, textbook cases for form-function congruence is the evolution of flight and the body plan of birds: compared with other tetrapods, extant adult birds have highly modified integuments and skeletons, and it has traditionally been assumed that many of these modifications are adaptations or exaptations for flight. However, developing birds that lack many of the morphological signatures of flight capacity nevertheless use their developing wings for a variety of flapping behaviors, such as wing-assisted incline running and even brief flight. Immature birds thereby demonstrate that rudimentary "flight" apparatuses are more functional than traditional assumptions about form-function relationships would predict. Here, I review the ontogeny of avian locomotion, highlighting how the developmental acquisition of flight in extant birds can improve our understanding of form-function relationships in the avian body plan, and provide insight into the evolutionary origin of flight among extinct non-avian theropod dinosaurs. PMID:27371381

  17. Adaptive evolution in an avian reproductive protein: ZP3.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Jennifer D; El-Hinn, Diana; Swanson, Willie J

    2007-11-01

    Proteins involved in reproduction appear to be evolving adaptively across taxa. This rapid evolution is thought to be the result of forces involved in sexual selection. One of the most often suggested of these forces is sexual conflict involving sperm competition and polyspermy avoidance. Bird species offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis since the avian egg coat tolerates physiological polyspermy, or the penetration of multiple sperm during fertilization, without negative effects on later development. Despite this, and the extensive amount of data gathered on sexual selection in birds, there are limited studies on the patterns of evolution of avian reproductive proteins. Here we present an analysis of the pattern of evolution of Zona Pellucida 3 (ZP3), a protein present on the avian egg coat. We found that, across several galliform and a single anseriform species, ZP3 appears to be diverging by positive adaptive evolution. In an exploratory analysis of portions of the gene in Callipepla californica we also found evidence of a selective sweep at the putative sperm binding region of the protein. In sum, ZP3 in birds, like reproductive proteins in other species, appears to be adaptively evolving. This result suggests that polyspermy avoidance is not sufficient to explain positive Darwinian selection in reproductive proteins across taxonomic groups. Clearly, the inclusion of bird species in the study of reproductive proteins across taxa promises to add greatly to the discussion of the factors driving the widespread phenomenon of adaptive evolution in reproductive proteins. PMID:17909693

  18. Review of avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reviews past and current avian mortality studies at concentrating solar power (CSP) plants and facilities including Solar One in California, the Solar Energy Development Center in Israel, Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System in California, Crescent Dunes in Nevada, and Gemasolar in Spain. Findings indicate that the leading causes of bird deaths at CSP plants are from collisions (primarily with reflective surfaces; i.e., heliostats) and singeing caused by concentrated solar flux. Safe irradiance levels for birds have been reported to range between 4 and 50 kW/m2. Above these levels, singeing and irreversible damage to the feathers can occur. Despite observations of large numbers of "streamers" in concentrated flux regions and reports that suggest these streamers indicate complete vaporization of birds, analyses in this paper show that complete vaporization of birds is highly improbable, and the observed streamers are likely due to insects flying into the concentrated flux. The levelized avian mortality rate during the first year of operation at Ivanpah was estimated to be 0.7 - 3.5 fatalities per GWh, which is less than the levelized avian mortality reported for fossil fuel plants but greater than that for nuclear and wind power plants. Mitigation measures include acoustic, visual, tactile, and chemosensory deterrents to keep birds away from the plant, and heliostat aiming strategies that reduce the solar flux during standby.

  19. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells.

    PubMed

    Fecheyr-Lippens, Daphne C; Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Hanley, Daniel; Verdes, Aida; Holford, Mande; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Grim, Tomas; Hauber, Mark E; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV) reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour. PMID:25964661

  20. Avian ecosystem functions are influenced by small mammal ecosystem engineering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birds are important mobile link species that contribute to landscape-scale patterns by means of pollination, seed dispersal, and predation. Birds are often associated with habitats modified by small mammal ecosystem engineers. We investigated whether birds prefer to forage on degu (Octodon degus) runways by comparing their foraging effort across sites with a range of runway densities, including sites without runways. We measured granivory by granivorous and omnivorous birds at Rinconada de Maipú, central Chile. As a measure of potential bird foraging on insects, we sampled invertebrate prey richness and abundance across the same sites. We then quantified an index of plot-scale functional diversity due to avian foraging at the patch scale. Results We recorded that birds found food sources sooner and ate more at sites with higher densities of degu runways, cururo mounds, trees, and fewer shrubs. These sites also had higher invertebrate prey richness but lower invertebrate prey abundance. This implies that omnivorous birds, and possibly insectivorous birds, forage for invertebrates in the same plots with high degu runway densities where granivory takes place. In an exploratory analysis we also found that plot-scale functional diversity for four avian ecosystem functions were moderately to weakly correllated to expected ecosystem function outcomes at the plot scale. Conclusions Degu ecosystem engineering affects the behavior of avian mobile link species and is thus correlated with ecosystem functioning at relatively small spatial scales. PMID:24359802

  1. Secondary cartilage revealed in a non-avian dinosaur embryo.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Alida M; Hall, Brian K; Horner, John R

    2013-01-01

    The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae). This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors. PMID:23418610

  2. Secondary Cartilage Revealed in a Non-Avian Dinosaur Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Alida M.; Hall, Brian K.; Horner, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The skull and jaws of extant birds possess secondary cartilage, a tissue that arises after bone formation during embryonic development at articulations, ligamentous and muscular insertions. Using histological analysis, we discovered secondary cartilage in a non-avian dinosaur embryo, Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (Ornithischia, Lambeosaurinae). This finding extends our previous report of secondary cartilage in post-hatching specimens of the same dinosaur species. It provides the first information on the ontogeny of avian and dinosaurian secondary cartilages, and further stresses their developmental similarities. Secondary cartilage was found in an embryonic dentary within a tooth socket where it is hypothesized to have arisen due to mechanical stresses generated during tooth formation. Two patterns were discerned: secondary cartilage is more restricted in location in this Hypacrosaurus embryo, than it is in Hypacrosaurus post-hatchlings; secondary cartilage occurs at far more sites in bird embryos and nestlings than in Hypacrosaurus. This suggests an increase in the number of sites of secondary cartilage during the evolution of birds. We hypothesize that secondary cartilage provided advantages in the fine manipulation of food and was selected over other types of tissues/articulations during the evolution of the highly specialized avian beak from the jaws of their dinosaurian ancestors. PMID:23418610

  3. Avian assemblages in the lower Missouri river floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Durbian, F.; Knutson, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Floodplain habitat provides important migration and breeding habitat for birds in the midwestern United States. However, few studies have examined how the avian assemblage changes with different stages of floodplain forest succession in the midwestern United States. In spring and summer from 2002 to 2004, we conducted 839 point counts in wet prairie/forbs fields, 547 point counts in early successional forests, and 434 point counts in mature forests to describe the migrating and breeding bird assemblage in the lower Missouri River floodplain. We recorded 131, 121, and 141 species in the three respective habitats, a number higher than most locations in the midwestern United States and comprising > 15% of all avian species in North America. Avian species diversity generally increased from west to east along the river, differed among land cover classes, but overlapped between seasons (migration and breeding) and years. Wet prairies were particularly important for conservation as there were 20 species of high conservation concern observed, including Dickcissels (Spiza americana). Important species for monitoring biotic integrity included the Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) and Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) in wet prairie, Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii) in early successional forest, and Northern Parula (Parula americana) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea) in mature forest. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  4. Reconsidering the Avian Nature of the Oviraptorosaur Brain (Dinosauria: Theropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Balanoff, Amy M.; Bever, G. S.; Norell, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The high degree of encephalization characterizing modern birds is the product of a long evolutionary history, our understanding of which is still largely in its infancy. Here we provide a redescription of the endocranial space of the oviraptorosaurian dinosaur Conchoraptor gracilis with the goal of assessing the hypothesis that it shares uniquely derived endocranial characters with crown-group avians. The existence of such features has implications for the transformational history of avian neuroanatomy and suggests that the oviraptorosaur radiation is a product of the immediate stem lineage of birds—after the divergence of Archaeopteryx lithographica. Results derived from an expanded comparative sample indicate that the strong endocranial similarity between Conchoraptor and modern birds largely reflects shared conservation of plesiomorphic features. The few characters that are maintained as being uniquely expressed in these two taxa are more likely products of convergence than homology but still indicate that the oviraptorosaur endocranial cavity has much to teach us about the complex history of avian brain evolution. PMID:25494183

  5. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    PubMed

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-01

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  6. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis.

    PubMed

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence

    2006-05-01

    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  7. The integration of digestion and osmoregulation in the avian gut.

    PubMed

    McWhorter, Todd J; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2009-11-01

    We review digestion and osmoregulation in the avian gut, with an emphasis on the ways these different functions might interact to support or constrain each other and the ways they support the functioning of the whole animal in its natural environment. Differences between birds and other vertebrates are highlighted because these differences may make birds excellent models for study and may suggest interesting directions for future research. At a given body size birds, compared with mammals, tend to eat more food but have less small intestine and retain food in their gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for shorter periods of time, despite generally higher mass-specific energy demands. On most foods, however, they are not less efficient at digestion, which begs the question how they compensate. Intestinal tissue-specific rates of enzymatic breakdown of substrates and rates of active transport do not appear higher in birds than in mammals, nor is there a demonstrated difference in the extent to which those rates can be modulated during acclimation to different feeding regimes (e.g. diet, relative intake level). One compensation appears to be more extensive reliance on passive nutrient absorption by the paracellular pathway, because the avian species studied so far exceed the mammalian species by a factor of at least two- to threefold in this regard. Undigested residues reach the hindgut, but there is little evidence that most wild birds recover microbial metabolites of nutritional significance (essential amino acids and vitamins) by re-ingestion of faeces, in contrast to many hindgut fermenting mammals and possibly poultry. In birds, there is some evidence for hindgut capacity to breakdown either microbial protein or protein that escapes the small intestine intact, freeing up essential amino acids, and there is considerable evidence for an amino acid absorptive capacity in the hindgut of both avian and mammalian hindgut fermenters. Birds, unlike mammals, do not excrete

  8. Adaptation of avian influenza A (H6N1) virus from avian to human receptor-binding preference.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Qi, Jianxun; Bi, Yuhai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Min; Zhang, Baorong; Wang, Ming; Liu, Jinhua; Yan, Jinghua; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F

    2015-06-12

    The receptor-binding specificity of influenza A viruses is a major determinant for the host tropism of the virus, which enables interspecies transmission. In 2013, the first human case of infection with avian influenza A (H6N1) virus was reported in Taiwan. To gather evidence concerning the epidemic potential of H6 subtype viruses, we performed comprehensive analysis of receptor-binding properties of Taiwan-isolated H6 HAs from 1972 to 2013. We propose that the receptor-binding properties of Taiwan-isolated H6 HAs have undergone three major stages: initially avian receptor-binding preference, secondarily obtaining human receptor-binding capacity, and recently human receptor-binding preference, which has been confirmed by receptor-binding assessment of three representative virus isolates. Mutagenesis work revealed that E190V and G228S substitutions are important to acquire the human receptor-binding capacity, and the P186L substitution could reduce the binding to avian receptor. Further structural analysis revealed how the P186L substitution in the receptor-binding site of HA determines the receptor-binding preference change. We conclude that the human-infecting H6N1 evolved into a human receptor preference.

  9. Different intracellular distribution of avian reovirus core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Lostale-Seijo, Irene; Martinez-Costas, Jose; Benavente, Javier

    2012-10-25

    A comparative analysis of the intracellular distribution of avian reovirus (ARV) core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin revealed that, whereas the viral protein accumulates in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of avian cells, most sigmaA concentrates in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells in tight association with the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction. Our results further showed that sigmaA becomes arrested in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells via association with mammalian cell-specific factors and that this association prevents nucleolar targeting. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II activity, but not of RNA polymerase I activity, in infected mammalian cells induces nucleus-to-cytoplasm sigmaA translocation through a CRM1- and RanGTP-dependent mechanism, yet a heterokaryon assay suggests that sigmaA does not shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The scarcity of sigmaA in cytoplasmic viral factories of infected mammalian cells could be one of the factors contributing to limited ARV replication in mammalian cells.

  10. gga-miR-375 plays a key role in tumorigenesis post subgroup J Avian Leukosis Virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian leukosis is a neoplastic disease caused in part by subgroup J avian leukosis virus J (ALV-J). Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) play pivotal oncogenic and tumour-suppressor roles in tumour development and progression. However, little is known about the potential role of miRNAs in avian leukosis...

  11. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  12. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  13. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of...

  14. Phylogenetics and pathogenesis of early avian influenza viruses (H5N2), Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the first officially recognized outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry in Nigeria, in February 2006, an effort based at the poultry diagnostic clinic of the University of Ibadan Veterinary Teaching Hospital, was underway to isolate avian influenza viruses from sick...

  15. Antigenic cartographic analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses with chicken serum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antigenic cartography is a relatively new method that can be used to evaluate the antigenic relatedness among avian influenza virus isolates. Evaluation of antigenic relationships among avian influenza viruses can be applied to vaccine design and to understanding the evolution of the virus. Initia...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Bornavirus Isolated from a Healthy Canadian Goose (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianhua; Baroch, John; Randall, Adam; Tizard, Ian

    2013-10-24

    A recent survey among wild birds demonstrated the presence of a unique genotype of avian bornavirus (ABV) in wild geese and swans in North America. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of an avian bornavirus of the goose genotype.

  17. Early apoptosis of porcine alveolar macrophages limits avian influenza virus replication and pro-inflammatory dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pengxiang; Kuchipudi, Suresh V; Mellits, Kenneth H; Sebastian, Sujith; James, Joe; Liu, Jinhua; Shelton, Holly; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are evidently more resistant to avian than swine influenza A viruses, mediated in part through frontline epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AM). Although porcine AM (PAM) are crucial in influenza virus control, their mode of control is unclear. To gain insight into the possible role of PAM in the mediation of avian influenza virus resistance, we compared the host effects and replication of two avian (H2N3 and H6N1) and three mammalian (swine H1N1, human H1N1 and pandemic H1N1) influenza viruses in PAM. We found that PAM were readily susceptible to initial infection with all five avian and mammalian influenza viruses but only avian viruses caused early and extensive apoptosis (by 6 h of infection) resulting in reduced virus progeny and moderated pro-inflammation. Full length viral PB1-F2 present only in avian influenza viruses is a virulence factor that targets AM for mitochondrial-associated apoptotic cell death. With the use of reverse genetics on an avian H5N1 virus, we found that full length PB1-F2 contributed to increased apoptosis and pro-inflammation but not to reduced virus replication. Taken together, we propose that early apoptosis of PAM limits the spread of avian influenza viruses and that PB1-F2 could play a contributory role in the process. PMID:26642934

  18. Early apoptosis of porcine alveolar macrophages limits avian influenza virus replication and pro-inflammatory dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pengxiang; Kuchipudi, Suresh V.; Mellits, Kenneth H.; Sebastian, Sujith; James, Joe; Liu, Jinhua; Shelton, Holly; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are evidently more resistant to avian than swine influenza A viruses, mediated in part through frontline epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AM). Although porcine AM (PAM) are crucial in influenza virus control, their mode of control is unclear. To gain insight into the possible role of PAM in the mediation of avian influenza virus resistance, we compared the host effects and replication of two avian (H2N3 and H6N1) and three mammalian (swine H1N1, human H1N1 and pandemic H1N1) influenza viruses in PAM. We found that PAM were readily susceptible to initial infection with all five avian and mammalian influenza viruses but only avian viruses caused early and extensive apoptosis (by 6 h of infection) resulting in reduced virus progeny and moderated pro-inflammation. Full length viral PB1-F2 present only in avian influenza viruses is a virulence factor that targets AM for mitochondrial-associated apoptotic cell death. With the use of reverse genetics on an avian H5N1 virus, we found that full length PB1-F2 contributed to increased apoptosis and pro-inflammation but not to reduced virus replication. Taken together, we propose that early apoptosis of PAM limits the spread of avian influenza viruses and that PB1-F2 could play a contributory role in the process. PMID:26642934

  19. The scientific rationale for the World Organisation for Animal Health standards and recommendations on avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Pasick, J; Kahn, S

    2014-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) prescribes standards for the diagnosis and control of avian influenza, as well as health measures for safe trade in birds and avian products, which are based on up-to-date scientific information and risk management principles, consistent with the role of the OIE as a reference standard-setting body for the World Trade Organization (WTO). These standards and recommendations continue to evolve, reflecting advances in technology and scientific understanding of this important zoonotic disease. The avian influenza viruses form part of the natural ecosystem by virtue of their ubiquitous presence in wild aquatic birds, a fact that human intervention cannot change. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code), avian influenza is defined as an infection of poultry. However, the scope of the OIE standards and recommendations is not restricted to poultry, covering the diagnosis, early detection and management of avian influenza, including sanitary measures for trade in birds and avian products. The best way to manage avian influenza-associated risks to human and animal health is for countries to conduct surveillance using recommended methods, to report results in a consistent and transparent manner, and to applythe sanitary measures described in the Terrestrial Code. Surveillance for and timely reporting of avian influenza in accordance with OIE standards enable the distribution of relevant, up-to-date information to the global community.

  20. Growth patterns in brooding dinosaurs reveals the timing of sexual maturity in non-avian dinosaurs and genesis of the avian condition.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Gregory M; Curry Rogers, Kristina; Varricchio, David J; Norell, Mark A; Xu, Xing

    2007-10-22

    The timing of sexual maturation in non-avian dinosaurs is not known. In extant squamates and crocodilians it occurs in conjunction with the initial slowing of growth rates as adult size is approached. In birds (living dinosaurs) on the other hand, reproductive activity begins well after somatic maturity. Here we used growth line counts and spacing in all of the known brooding non-avian dinosaurs to determine the stages of development when they perished. It was revealed that sexual maturation occurred well before full adult size was reached-the primitive reptilian condition. In this sense, the life history and physiology of non-avian dinosaurs was not like that of modern birds. Palaeobiological ramifications of these findings include the potential to deduce reproductive lifespan, fecundity and reproductive population sizes in non-avian dinosaurs, as well as aid in the identification of secondary sexual characteristics.

  1. Emergence of avian H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Y; Shortridge, K F; Krauss, S; Li, P H; Kawaoka, Y; Webster, R G

    1996-11-01

    Avian influenza A viruses from Asia are recognized as the source of genes that reassorted with human viral genes to generate the Asian/57 (H2N2) and Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) pandemic strains earlier in this century. Here we report the genetic analysis of avian influenza A H1N1 viruses recently isolated from pigs in southern China, a host suspected to generate new pandemic strains through gene reassortment events. Each of the eight gene segments was of avian origin. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that these genes form an Asian sublineage of the Eurasian avian lineage, suggesting that these viruses are an independent introduction into pigs in Asia. The presence of avian influenza viruses in pigs in China places them in an optimal position for transmission to humans and may serve as an early warning of the emergence of the next human influenza virus pandemic.

  2. Synergistic antiviral activity of ribavirin and interferon-α against parrot bornaviruses in avian cells.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Antje; Horie, Masayuki; Höper, Dirk; Ohnemus, Annette; Narr, Andreas; Rinder, Monika; Beer, Martin; Staeheli, Peter; Rubbenstroth, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    Avian bornaviruses are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a widely distributed and often fatal disease in captive psittacines. Because neither specific prevention measures nor therapies against PDD and bornavirus infections are currently available, new antiviral strategies are required to improve animal health. We show here that the nucleoside analogue ribavirin inhibited bornavirus activity in a polymerase reconstitution assay and reduced viral load in avian cell lines infected with two different parrot bornaviruses. Furthermore, we observed that ribavirin enhanced type I IFN signalling in avian cells. Combined treatment of avian bornavirus-infected cells with ribavirin and recombinant IFN-α strongly enhanced the antiviral efficiency compared to either drug alone. The combined use of ribavirin and type I IFN might represent a promising new strategy for therapeutic treatment of captive parrots persistently infected with avian bornaviruses.

  3. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C; Smith, Derek J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-06-11

    Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited pathogenicity in mice and ferrets higher than that in an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

  4. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A.; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F.; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A.; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited higher pathogenicity in mice and ferrets than an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

  5. Synergistic antiviral activity of ribavirin and interferon-α against parrot bornaviruses in avian cells.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Antje; Horie, Masayuki; Höper, Dirk; Ohnemus, Annette; Narr, Andreas; Rinder, Monika; Beer, Martin; Staeheli, Peter; Rubbenstroth, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    Avian bornaviruses are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a widely distributed and often fatal disease in captive psittacines. Because neither specific prevention measures nor therapies against PDD and bornavirus infections are currently available, new antiviral strategies are required to improve animal health. We show here that the nucleoside analogue ribavirin inhibited bornavirus activity in a polymerase reconstitution assay and reduced viral load in avian cell lines infected with two different parrot bornaviruses. Furthermore, we observed that ribavirin enhanced type I IFN signalling in avian cells. Combined treatment of avian bornavirus-infected cells with ribavirin and recombinant IFN-α strongly enhanced the antiviral efficiency compared to either drug alone. The combined use of ribavirin and type I IFN might represent a promising new strategy for therapeutic treatment of captive parrots persistently infected with avian bornaviruses. PMID:27439314

  6. Modelling inhibition of avian aromatase by azole pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, A.K.; Devillers, J.; Bhunia, S.S.; Bro, E.

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of pesticides and their metabolites on the endocrine system are of major concern to wildlife and human health. In this context, the azole pesticides have earned special attention due to their cytochrome P450 aromatase inhibition potential. Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) catalyses the conversion of androstenedione and testosterone into oestrone and oestradiol, respectively. Thus, aromatase modulates the oestrogenic balance essential not only for females, but also for male physiology, including gonadal function. Its inhibition affects reproductive organs, fertility and sexual behaviour in humans and wildlife species. Several studies have shown that azole pesticides are able to inhibit human and fish aromatases but the information on birds is lacking. Consequently, it appeared to be of interest to estimate the aromatase inhibition of azoles in three different avian species, namely Gallus gallus, Coturnix coturnix japonica and Taeniopygia guttata. In the absence of the crystal structure of the aromatase enzyme in these bird species, homology models for the individual avian species were constructed using the crystal structure of human aromatase (hAr) (pdb: 3EQM) that showed high sequence similarity for G. gallus (82.0%), T. guttata (81.9%) and C. japonica (81.2%). A homology model with Oncorhynchus mykiss (81.9%) was also designed for comparison purpose. The homology-modelled aromatase for each avian and fish species and crystal structure of human aromatase were selected for docking 46 structurally diverse azoles and related compounds. We showed that the docking behaviour of the chemicals on the different aromatases was broadly the same. We also demonstrated that there was an acceptable level of correlation between the binding score values and the available aromatase inhibition data. This means that the homology models derived on bird and fish species can be used to approximate the potential inhibitory effects of azoles on their aromatase. PMID

  7. Avian Influenza A Viruses: Evolution and Zoonotic Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Mi; Kim, Young-Il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Choi, Young Ki

    2016-08-01

    Although efficient human-to-human transmission of avian influenza virus has yet to be seen, in the past two decades avian-to-human transmission of influenza A viruses has been reported. Influenza A/H5N1, in particular, has repeatedly caused human infections associated with high mortality, and since 1998 the virus has evolved into many clades of variants with significant antigenic diversity. In 2013, three (A/H7N9, A/H6N1, and A/H10N8) novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) breached the animal-human host species barrier in Asia. In humans, roughly 35% of A/H7N9-infected patients succumbed to the zoonotic infection, and two of three A/H10N8 human infections were also lethal; however, neither of these viruses cause influenza-like symptoms in poultry. While most of these cases were associated with direct contact with infected poultry, some involved sustained human-to-human transmission. Thus, these events elicited concern regarding potential AIV pandemics. This article reviews the human incursions associated with AIV variants and the potential role of pigs as an intermediate host that may hasten AIV evolution. In addition, we discuss the known influenza A virus virulence and transmission factors and their evaluation in animal models. With the growing number of human AIV infections, constant vigilance for the emergence of novel viruses is of utmost importance. In addition, careful characterization and pathobiological assessment of these novel variants will help to identify strains of particular concern for future pandemics. PMID:27486732

  8. Image texture predicts avian density and species richness.

    PubMed

    Wood, Eric M; Pidgeon, Anna M; Radeloff, Volker C; Keuler, Nicholas S

    2013-01-01

    For decades, ecologists have measured habitat attributes in the field to understand and predict patterns of animal distribution and abundance. However, the scale of inference possible from field measured data is typically limited because large-scale data collection is rarely feasible. This is problematic given that conservation and management typical require data that are fine grained yet broad in extent. Recent advances in remote sensing methodology offer alternative tools for efficiently characterizing wildlife habitat across broad areas. We explored the use of remotely sensed image texture, which is a surrogate for vegetation structure, calculated from both an air photo and from a Landsat TM satellite image, compared with field-measured vegetation structure, characterized by foliage-height diversity and horizontal vegetation structure, to predict avian density and species richness within grassland, savanna, and woodland habitats at Fort McCoy Military Installation, Wisconsin, USA. Image texture calculated from the air photo best predicted density of a grassland associated species, grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), within grassland habitat (R(2) = 0.52, p-value <0.001), and avian species richness among habitats (R(2)= 0.54, p-value <0.001). Density of field sparrow (Spizella pusilla), a savanna associated species, was not particularly well captured by either field-measured or remotely sensed vegetation structure variables, but was best predicted by air photo image texture (R(2)= 0.13, p-value = 0.002). Density of ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), a woodland associated species, was best predicted by pixel-level satellite data (mean NDVI, R(2)= 0.54, p-value <0.001). Surprisingly and interestingly, remotely sensed vegetation structure measures (i.e., image texture) were often better predictors of avian density and species richness than field-measured vegetation structure, and thus show promise as a valuable tool for mapping habitat quality

  9. USGS role and response to highly pathogenic avian influenza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  10. Quantification of petroleum-type hydrocarbons in avian tissue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, M.L.; Belisle, A.A.; Patton, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Summary: Methods were developed for the analysis of 16 hydrocarbons in avian tissue. Mechanical extraction with pentane was followed by clean-up on Florisil and Silicar. Residues were determined by gas--liquid chromatography and gas-liquid, chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was applied to the analysis of liver, kidney, fat, and brain tissue of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) fed a mixture of hydrocarbons. Measurable concentrations of all compounds analyzed were present in all tissues except brain. Highest concentrations were in fat.

  11. USGS role and response to highly pathogenic avian influenza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  12. Avian sarcoma virus 17 carries the jun oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Y; Bos, T J; Davis, C; Starbuck, M; Vogt, P K

    1987-01-01

    Biologically active molecular clones of avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17) contain a replication-defective proviral genome of 3.5 kilobases (kb). The genome retains partial gag and env sequences, which flank a cell-derived putative oncogene of 0.93 kb, termed jun. The jun gene lacks preserved coding domains of tyrosine-specific protein kinases. It also shows no significant nucleic acid homology with other known oncogenes. The probable transformation-specific protein in ASV 17-transformed cells is a 55-kDa gag-jun fusion product. Images PMID:3033666

  13. Taking a rational approach in the treatment of avian mycobacteriosis.

    PubMed

    Buur, Jennifer; Saggese, Miguel D

    2012-01-01

    Treatment for avian mycobacteriosis is still in its infancy and based on extrapolations from human medicine. The optimum drug choice, dose, or length of treatment has yet to be determined for most exotic animal species. Treatment should include multiple drugs for extended periods of time with appropriate monitoring of both drug levels and overall animal health. Risk to owners and handlers needs to be minimized through appropriate identification of the species of mycobacteri causing disease. More research is necessary on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in other animal species and antibiotic resistance. Currently, euthanasia remains the most common action in the face of active mycobacteriosis. PMID:22244113

  14. Context-Dependent Egr1 Expression in the Avian Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Grella, Stephanie L.; Guigueno, Mélanie F.; White, David J.; Sherry, David F.; Marrone, Diano F.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, episodic memory and spatial cognition involve context-specific recruitment of unique ensembles in the hippocampal formation (HF). Despite their capacity for sophisticated spatial (e.g., for migration) and episodic-like (e.g., for food-caching) memory, the mechanisms underlying contextual representation in birds is not well understood. Here we demonstrate environment-specific Egr1 expression as male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) navigate environments for food reward, showing that the avian HF, like its mammalian counterpart, recruits distinct neuronal ensembles to represent different contexts. PMID:27716817

  15. The role of the legal and illegal trade of live birds and avian products in the spread of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, T

    2009-04-01

    The panzootic of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza has become an international crisis. All parts of the world are now considered at risk due to trade globalisation, with the worldwide movement of animals, products and humans, and because of the possible spread of the virus through the migration of wild birds. The risk of introducing notifiable avian influenza (NAI) through trade depends on several factors, including the disease status of the exporting country and the type of products. The highest risk occurs in the trade of live birds. It is important to assess and manage these risks to ensure that global trade does not result in the dissemination of NAI. However, it is also important that the risk of infection is not used as an unjustified trade barrier. The role of the regulatory authorities is thus to facilitate the safe trade of animal products according to international guidelines. Nevertheless, the balance between acceptable risk and safe trade is difficult to achieve. Since the movements of poultry and birds are sometimes difficult to trace, the signature or 'identity card' of each isolated virus can be very informative. Indeed, sequencing the genes of H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses has assisted greatly in establishing links and highlighting differences between isolates from different countries and tracing the possible source of introduction. Recent examples from Asia, Europe and Africa, supported by H5N1 molecular fingerprinting, have demonstrated that the sources of introduction can be many and no route should be underestimated.

  16. The role of the legal and illegal trade of live birds and avian products in the spread of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, T

    2009-04-01

    The panzootic of the H5N1 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza has become an international crisis. All parts of the world are now considered at risk due to trade globalisation, with the worldwide movement of animals, products and humans, and because of the possible spread of the virus through the migration of wild birds. The risk of introducing notifiable avian influenza (NAI) through trade depends on several factors, including the disease status of the exporting country and the type of products. The highest risk occurs in the trade of live birds. It is important to assess and manage these risks to ensure that global trade does not result in the dissemination of NAI. However, it is also important that the risk of infection is not used as an unjustified trade barrier. The role of the regulatory authorities is thus to facilitate the safe trade of animal products according to international guidelines. Nevertheless, the balance between acceptable risk and safe trade is difficult to achieve. Since the movements of poultry and birds are sometimes difficult to trace, the signature or 'identity card' of each isolated virus can be very informative. Indeed, sequencing the genes of H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses has assisted greatly in establishing links and highlighting differences between isolates from different countries and tracing the possible source of introduction. Recent examples from Asia, Europe and Africa, supported by H5N1 molecular fingerprinting, have demonstrated that the sources of introduction can be many and no route should be underestimated. PMID:19618621

  17. C-Terminal Amino Acids 471-507 of Avian Hepatitis E Virus Capsid Protein Are Crucial for Binding to Avian and Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinquan; Bilic, Ivana; Marek, Ana; Glösmann, Martin; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The infection of chickens with avian Hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) can be asymptomatic or induces clinical signs characterized by increased mortality and decreased egg production in adult birds. Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for avian HEV, the interaction between virus and host cells is still barely understood. In this study, four truncated avian HEV capsid proteins (ORF2-1 – ORF2-4) with an identical 338aa deletion at the N-terminus and gradual deletions from 0, 42, 99 and 136aa at the C-terminus, respectively, were expressed and used to map the possible binding site within avian HEV capsid protein. Results from the binding assay showed that three truncated capsid proteins attached to avian LMH cells, but did not penetrate into cells. However, the shortest construct, ORF2-4, lost the capability of binding to cells suggesting that the presence of amino acids 471 to 507 of the capsid protein is crucial for the attachment. The construct ORF2-3 (aa339-507) was used to study the potential binding of avian HEV capsid protein to human and other avian species. It could be demonstrated that ORF2-3 was capable of binding to QT-35 cells from Japanese quail and human HepG2 cells but failed to bind to P815 cells. Additionally, chicken serum raised against ORF2-3 successfully blocked the binding to LMH cells. Treatment with heparin sodium salt or sodium chlorate significantly reduced binding of ORF2-3 to LMH cells. However, heparinase II treatment of LMH cells had no effect on binding of the ORF2-3 construct, suggesting a possible distinct attachment mechanism of avian as compared to human HEV. For the first time, interactions between avian HEV capsid protein and host cells were investigated demonstrating that aa471 to 507 of the capsid protein are needed to facilitate interaction with different kind of cells from different species. PMID:27073893

  18. Avian evolution: from Darwin's finches to a new way of thinking about avian forebrain organization and behavioural capabilities.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Anton

    2009-02-23

    The study of birds, especially the Galapagos finches, was important to Darwin in the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Birds have also been at the centre of a recent reformulation in understanding cerebral evolution and the substrates for higher cognition. While it was once thought that birds possess a simple cerebrum and were thus limited to instinctive behaviours, it is now clear that birds possess a well-developed cerebrum that looks very different from the mammalian cerebrum but can support a cognitive ability that for some avian species rivals that in primates.

  19. Multi-species patterns of avian cholera mortality in Nebraska's rainwater basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, M.D.; Mack, G.

    2006-01-01

    Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (RWB) is a key spring migration area for millions of waterfowl and other avian species. Avian cholera has been endemic in the RWB since the 1970s and in some years tens of thousands of waterfowl have died from the disease. We evaluated patterns of avian cholera mortality in waterfowl species using the RWB during the last quarter of the 20th century. Mortality patterns changed between the years before (1976 - 1988) and coincident with (1989 - 1999) the dramatic increases in lesser snow goose abundance and mortality. Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) have commonly been associated with mortality events in the RWB and are known to carry virulent strains of Pasteurella multocida, the agent causing avian cholera. Lesser snow geese appeared to be the species most affected by avian cholera during 1989 - 1999; however, mortality in several other waterfowl species was positively correlated with lesser snow goose mortality. Coincident with increased lesser snow goose mortality, spring avian cholera outbreaks were detected earlier and ended earlier compared to 1976 - 1988. Dense concentrations of lesser snow geese may facilitate intraspecific disease transmission through bird-to-bird contact and wetland contamination. Rates of interspecific avian cholera transmission within the waterfowl community, however, are difficult to determine.

  20. Large-Scale Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds throughout the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Pedersen, Kerri; Lutman, Mark W.; Baroch, John A.; Schmit, Brandon S.; Kohler, Dennis; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nolte, Dale L.; Swafford, Seth R.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza is a viral disease that primarily infects wild and domestic birds, but it also can be transmitted to a variety of mammals. In 2006, the United States of America Departments of Agriculture and Interior designed a large-scale, interagency surveillance effort that sought to determine if highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were present in wild bird populations within the United States of America. This program, combined with the Canadian and Mexican surveillance programs, represented the largest, coordinated wildlife disease surveillance program ever implemented. Here we analyze data from 197,885 samples that were collected from over 200 wild bird species. While the initial motivation for surveillance focused on highly pathogenic avian influenza, the scale of the data provided unprecedented information on the ecology of avian influenza viruses in the United States, avian influenza virus host associations, and avian influenza prevalence in wild birds over time. Ultimately, significant advances in our knowledge of avian influenza will depend on both large-scale surveillance efforts and on focused research studies. PMID:25116079

  1. Large-scale avian influenza surveillance in wild birds throughout the United States.

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah N; Pedersen, Kerri; Lutman, Mark W; Baroch, John A; Schmit, Brandon S; Kohler, Dennis; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nolte, Dale L; Swafford, Seth R; DeLiberto, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza is a viral disease that primarily infects wild and domestic birds, but it also can be transmitted to a variety of mammals. In 2006, the United States of America Departments of Agriculture and Interior designed a large-scale, interagency surveillance effort that sought to determine if highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were present in wild bird populations within the United States of America. This program, combined with the Canadian and Mexican surveillance programs, represented the largest, coordinated wildlife disease surveillance program ever implemented. Here we analyze data from 197,885 samples that were collected from over 200 wild bird species. While the initial motivation for surveillance focused on highly pathogenic avian influenza, the scale of the data provided unprecedented information on the ecology of avian influenza viruses in the United States, avian influenza virus host associations, and avian influenza prevalence in wild birds over time. Ultimately, significant advances in our knowledge of avian influenza will depend on both large-scale surveillance efforts and on focused research studies.

  2. Multi-species patterns of avian cholera mortality in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin.

    PubMed

    Blanchong, Julie A; Samuel, Michael D; Mack, Gene

    2006-01-01

    Nebraska's Rainwater Basin (RWB) is a key spring migration area for millions of waterfowl and other avian species. Avian cholera has been endemic in the RWB since the 1970s and in some years tens of thousands of waterfowl have died from the disease. We evaluated patterns of avian cholera mortality in waterfowl species using the RWB during the last quarter of the 20th century. Mortality patterns changed between the years before (1976-1988) and coincident with (1989-1999) the dramatic increases in lesser snow goose abundance and mortality. Lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) have commonly been associated with mortality events in the RWB and are known to carry virulent strains of Pasteurella multocida, the agent causing avian cholera. Lesser snow geese appeared to be the species most affected by avian cholera during 1989-1999; however, mortality in several other waterfowl species was positively correlated with lesser snow goose mortality. Coincident with increased lesser snow goose mortality, spring avian cholera outbreaks were detected earlier and ended earlier compared to 1976-1988. Dense concentrations of lesser snow geese may facilitate intraspecific disease transmission through bird-to-bird contact and wetland contamination. Rates of interspecific avian cholera transmission within the waterfowl community, however, are difficult to determine. PMID:16699151

  3. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    PubMed Central

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  4. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy outbreaks at a southeastern reservoir.

    PubMed

    Fischer, John R; Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Tate, Cynthia M; Gaydos, Joseph K; Gerhold, Richard W; Poppenga, Robert H

    2006-07-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease of unknown etiology that affects bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and several species of waterfowl. An unidentified neurotoxin is suspected as the cause of AVM, which has been documented at several reservoirs in the southeastern United States. We conducted diagnostic and epidemiologic studies annually during October-March from 1998-2004 at Clarks Hill/Strom Thurmond Lake on the Georgia/South Carolina border to better understand the disease. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy was confirmed or suspected as the cause of morbidity and mortality of 28 bald eagles, 16 Canada geese (Branta canadensis), six American coots, two great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), and one killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). Active surveillance during the outbreaks yielded annual average prevalence of vacuolar lesions in 17-94% of coots, but not in 10 beavers (Castor canadensis), four raccoons (Procyon lotor), and one gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) collected for the study. Brain lesions were not apparent in 30 Canada geese collected and examined in June 2002. The outbreaks at this location from 1998-2004 represent the most significant AVM-related bald eagle mortality since the Arkansas epornitics of 1994-95 and 1996-97, as well as the first confirmation of the disease in members of Strigiformes and Charadriiformes. PMID:17092880

  5. Evolutionary Footprints of Short Tandem Repeats in Avian Promoters.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hideaki; Gemmell, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) or microsatellites are well-known sequence elements that may change the spacing between transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in promoter regions by expansion or contraction of repetitive units. Some of these mutations have the potential to contribute to phenotypic diversity by altering patterns of gene expression. To explore how repetitive sequence motifs within promoters have evolved in avian lineages under mutation-selection balance, more than 400 evolutionary conserved STRs (ecSTRs) were identified in this study by comparing the 2 kb upstream promoter sequences of chicken against those of other birds (turkey, duck, zebra finch, and flycatcher). The rate of conservation was significantly higher in AG dinucleotide repeats than in AC or AT repeats, with the expansion of AG motifs being noticeably constrained in passerines. Analysis of the relative distance between ecSTRs and TFBSs revealed a significantly higher rate of conserved TFBSs in the vicinity of ecSTRs in both chicken-duck and chicken-passerine comparisons. Our comparative study provides a novel insight into which intrinsic factors have influenced the degree of constraint on repeat expansion/contraction during avian promoter evolution. PMID:26766026

  6. Within-host variation of avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Munir; Xiao, Hiaxia; Baillie, Greg; Warry, Andrew; Essen, Steve C.; Londt, Brandon; Brookes, Sharon M.; Brown, Ian H.; McCauley, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The emergence and spread of H5N1 avian influenza viruses from Asia through to Europe and Africa pose a significant animal disease problem and have raised concerns that the virus may pose a pandemic threat to humans. The epizootological factors that have influenced the wide distribution of the virus are complex, and the variety of viruses currently circulating reflects these factors. Sequence analysis of the virus genes sheds light on the H5N1 virus evolution during its emergence and spread, but the degree of virus variation at the level of an individual infected bird has been described in only a few studies. Here, we describe some results of a study in which turkeys, ducks and chickens were infected with either one of two H5N1 or one of three H7N1 viruses, and the degree of sequence variation within an individual infected avian host was examined. We developed ‘deep amplicon’ sequence analysis for this work, and the methods and results provide a background framework for application to disease outbreaks in the field. PMID:19687042

  7. Brain size as a driver of avian escape strategy

    PubMed Central

    Samia, Diogo S. M.; Pape Møller, Anders; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    After detecting an approaching predator, animals make a decision when to flee. Prey will initiate flight soon after detecting a predator so as to minimize attentional costs related to on-going monitoring of the whereabouts of the predator. Such costs may compete with foraging and other maintenance activities and hence be larger than the costs of immediate flight. The drivers of interspecific variation in escape strategy are poorly known. Here we investigated the morphological, life history and natural history traits that correlate with variation in avian escape strategy across a sample of 96 species of birds. Brain mass, body size, habitat structure and group size were the main predictors of escape strategy. The direction of the effect of these traits was consistent with selection for a reduction of monitoring costs. Therefore, attentional costs depend on relative brain size, which determines the ability to monitor the whereabouts of potential predators and the difficulty of this task as reflected by habitat and social complexity. Thus brain size, and the cognitive functions associated with it, constitute a general framework for explaining the effects of body size, habitat structure and sociality identified as determinants of avian escape strategy. PMID:26139474

  8. Predicting power-optimal kinematics of avian wings.

    PubMed

    Parslew, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model of avian flight is developed which simulates wing motion through a class of methods known as predictive simulation. This approach uses numerical optimization to predict power-optimal kinematics of avian wings in hover, cruise, climb and descent. The wing dynamics capture both aerodynamic and inertial loads. The model is used to simulate the flight of the pigeon, Columba livia, and the results are compared with previous experimental measurements. In cruise, the model unearths a vast range of kinematic modes that are capable of generating the required forces for flight. The most efficient mode uses a near-vertical stroke-plane and a flexed-wing upstroke, similar to kinematics recorded experimentally. In hover, the model predicts that the power-optimal mode uses an extended-wing upstroke, similar to hummingbirds. In flexing their wings, pigeons are predicted to consume 20% more power than if they kept their wings full extended, implying that the typical kinematics used by pigeons in hover are suboptimal. Predictions of climbing flight suggest that the most energy-efficient way to reach a given altitude is to climb as steeply as possible, subjected to the availability of power.

  9. Recent progress in the characterization of avian enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Day, J Michael; Zsak, Laszlo

    2013-09-01

    Despite the importance of the poultry gut, remarkably little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens and poult enteritis complex in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in the laboratory. A great deal of work has been done to characterize the bacterial population in the poultry gut, leading to useful performance-based interventions such as direct-fed microbial preparations. Advances in the application of rapid molecular diagnostics and the advent of the next generation of nucleic acid sequencing have allowed researchers to begin to decipher the microbial community in complex environmental samples. Researchers have made great strides recently in placing names to some of the unknown and undescribed small viruses in the poultry gut such as parvoviruses, picornaviruses, picobirnavirus, and calicivirus. Investigation into the novel avian astroviruses continues, and recent progress has been made in the molecular characterization of the avian rotaviruses. This review will focus on the recent advances that have been made in the discovery, description, and characterization of the multitude of viruses that reside in the poultry gut.

  10. Species formation by host shifting in avian malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; Outlaw, Diana C; Svensson-Coelho, Maria; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Latta, Steven

    2014-10-14

    The malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) of birds are believed to have diversified across the avian host phylogeny well after the origin of most major host lineages. Although many symbionts with direct transmission codiversify with their hosts, mechanisms of species formation in vector-borne parasites, including the role of host shifting, are poorly understood. Here, we examine the hosts of sister lineages in a phylogeny of 181 putative species of malaria parasites of New World terrestrial birds to determine the role of shifts between host taxa in the formation of new parasite species. We find that host shifting, often across host genera and families, is the rule. Sympatric speciation by host shifting would require local reproductive isolation as a prerequisite to divergent selection, but this mechanism is not supported by the generalized host-biting behavior of most vectors of avian malaria parasites. Instead, the geographic distribution of individual parasite lineages in diverse hosts suggests that species formation is predominantly allopatric and involves host expansion followed by local host-pathogen coevolution and secondary sympatry, resulting in local shifting of parasite lineages across hosts.

  11. Predicting power-optimal kinematics of avian wings

    PubMed Central

    Parslew, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model of avian flight is developed which simulates wing motion through a class of methods known as predictive simulation. This approach uses numerical optimization to predict power-optimal kinematics of avian wings in hover, cruise, climb and descent. The wing dynamics capture both aerodynamic and inertial loads. The model is used to simulate the flight of the pigeon, Columba livia, and the results are compared with previous experimental measurements. In cruise, the model unearths a vast range of kinematic modes that are capable of generating the required forces for flight. The most efficient mode uses a near-vertical stroke–plane and a flexed-wing upstroke, similar to kinematics recorded experimentally. In hover, the model predicts that the power-optimal mode uses an extended-wing upstroke, similar to hummingbirds. In flexing their wings, pigeons are predicted to consume 20% more power than if they kept their wings full extended, implying that the typical kinematics used by pigeons in hover are suboptimal. Predictions of climbing flight suggest that the most energy-efficient way to reach a given altitude is to climb as steeply as possible, subjected to the availability of power. PMID:25392398

  12. What Avian and Mammalian Sound Localization Have in Common

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2004-03-01

    The barn owl has long been considered to be the canonical example of how azimuthal sound localization works: In the laminar nucleus, the first station (nucleus) where excitatory signals from both ears come together, each neuron encodes a specific direction in space through a maximal firing rate, i.e., maximal activity. In small mammals such as gerbils a completely different mechanism has been found to hold in that all neurons in the MSO, the equivalent (homolog) of the avian laminar nucleus, respond in the same way by means of a firing rate that is a monotone function of the stimulus direction. In so doing they exploit a subtle interplay of precisely timed excitation and inhibition. We present a theory [1] that fully explains both the avian and the mammalian auditory map through spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) [2] of excitatory and inhibitory synapses during ontogeny. Hence we propose STDP as a universal principle underlying azimuthal sound localization. Refs: [1] C. Leibold and J.L. van Hemmen, TU Munich preprint (2003); [2] W. Gerstner, R. Kempter, J.L. van Hemmen, and H. Wagner, Nature 383 (1996) 76-78.

  13. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Boni, Maciej F; Galvani, Alison P; Wickelgren, Abraham L; Malani, Anup

    2013-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers.

  14. The motor origins of human and avian song structure

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam T.; Russo, Frank A.; Patel, Aniruddh D.

    2011-01-01

    Human song exhibits great structural diversity, yet certain aspects of melodic shape (how pitch is patterned over time) are widespread. These include a predominance of arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases, a tendency for phrase-final notes to be relatively long, and a bias toward small pitch movements between adjacent notes in a melody [Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. What is the origin of these features? We hypothesize that they stem from motor constraints on song production (i.e., the energetic efficiency of their underlying motor actions) rather than being innately specified. One prediction of this hypothesis is that any animals subject to similar motor constraints on song will exhibit similar melodic shapes, no matter how distantly related those animals are to humans. Conversely, animals who do not share similar motor constraints on song will not exhibit convergent melodic shapes. Birds provide an ideal case for testing these predictions, because their peripheral mechanisms of song production have both notable similarities and differences from human vocal mechanisms [Riede T, Goller F (2010) Brain Lang 115:69–80]. We use these similarities and differences to make specific predictions about shared and distinct features of human and avian song structure and find that these predictions are confirmed by empirical analysis of diverse human and avian song samples. PMID:21876156

  15. Pathogenicity of avian malaria in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Dusek, Robert J.; Woods, K.L.; Iko, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) to the Hawaiian Islands (USA) is believed to have played a major role in the decline and extinction of native Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). This introduced disease is thought to be one of the primary factors limiting recovery of honeycreepers at elevations below 1,200 m where native forest habitats are still relatively intact. One of the few remaining species of honeycreepers with a wide elevational distribution is the Hawaii Amakihi (Hernignathus virens). We measured morbidity and mortality in experimentally-infected Hawaii Amakihi that were captured in a high elevation, xeric habitat that is above the current range of the mosquito vector. Mortality among amakihi exposed to a single infective mosquito bite was 65% (13/20). All infected birds had significant declines in food consumption and a corresponding loss in body weight over the 60 day course of the experiment. Gross and microscopic lesions in birds that succumbed to malaria included enlargement and discoloration of the spleen and liver and parasitemias as high as 50% of circulating erythrocytes. Mortality in experimentally-infected amakihi was similar to that observed in Apapane (Himnatione sanguinea) and lower than that observed in Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) infected under similar conditions with the same parasite isolate. We conclude that the current elevational and geographic distribution of Hawaiian honeycreepers is determined by relative susceptibility to avian malaria.

  16. A Jurassic ceratosaur from China helps clarify avian digital homologies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Mo, Jinyou; Choiniere, Jonah; Forster, Catherine A; Erickson, Gregory M; Hone, David W E; Sullivan, Corwin; Eberth, David A; Nesbitt, Sterling; Zhao, Qi; Hernandez, Rene; Jia, Cheng-kai; Han, Feng-lu; Guo, Yu

    2009-06-18

    Theropods have traditionally been assumed to have lost manual digits from the lateral side inward, which differs from the bilateral reduction pattern seen in other tetrapod groups. This unusual reduction pattern is clearly present in basal theropods, and has also been inferred in non-avian tetanurans based on identification of their three digits as the medial ones of the hand (I-II-III). This contradicts the many developmental studies indicating II-III-IV identities for the three manual digits of the only extant tetanurans, the birds. Here we report a new basal ceratosaur from the Oxfordian stage of the Jurassic period of China (156-161 million years ago), representing the first known Asian ceratosaur and the only known beaked, herbivorous Jurassic theropod. Most significantly, this taxon possesses a strongly reduced manual digit I, documenting a complex pattern of digital reduction within the Theropoda. Comparisons among theropod hands show that the three manual digits of basal tetanurans are similar in many metacarpal features to digits II-III-IV, but in phalangeal features to digits I-II-III, of more basal theropods. Given II-III-IV identities in avians, the simplest interpretation is that these identities were shared by all tetanurans. The transition to tetanurans involved complex changes in the hand including a shift in digit identities, with ceratosaurs displaying an intermediate condition. PMID:19536256

  17. A Jurassic ceratosaur from China helps clarify avian digital homologies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Mo, Jinyou; Choiniere, Jonah; Forster, Catherine A; Erickson, Gregory M; Hone, David W E; Sullivan, Corwin; Eberth, David A; Nesbitt, Sterling; Zhao, Qi; Hernandez, Rene; Jia, Cheng-kai; Han, Feng-lu; Guo, Yu

    2009-06-18

    Theropods have traditionally been assumed to have lost manual digits from the lateral side inward, which differs from the bilateral reduction pattern seen in other tetrapod groups. This unusual reduction pattern is clearly present in basal theropods, and has also been inferred in non-avian tetanurans based on identification of their three digits as the medial ones of the hand (I-II-III). This contradicts the many developmental studies indicating II-III-IV identities for the three manual digits of the only extant tetanurans, the birds. Here we report a new basal ceratosaur from the Oxfordian stage of the Jurassic period of China (156-161 million years ago), representing the first known Asian ceratosaur and the only known beaked, herbivorous Jurassic theropod. Most significantly, this taxon possesses a strongly reduced manual digit I, documenting a complex pattern of digital reduction within the Theropoda. Comparisons among theropod hands show that the three manual digits of basal tetanurans are similar in many metacarpal features to digits II-III-IV, but in phalangeal features to digits I-II-III, of more basal theropods. Given II-III-IV identities in avians, the simplest interpretation is that these identities were shared by all tetanurans. The transition to tetanurans involved complex changes in the hand including a shift in digit identities, with ceratosaurs displaying an intermediate condition.

  18. Pleiotrophin is expressed in avian somites and tendon anlagen.

    PubMed

    Mittapalli, Venugopal Rao; Christ, Bodo; Pröls, Felicitas; Scaal, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Pleiotrophin (Ptn) is a secreted, developmentally regulated growth factor associated with the extracellular matrix. During mammalian embryogenesis, Ptn has been suggested to play a role in the development of various embryonic structures including nervous system and skeleton. In the avian embryo, Ptn has been proposed to be involved in limb cartilage development, but embryonic Ptn expression has not been comprehensively studied. We isolated a cDNA fragment containing the full-length coding sequence of chick Ptn and studied the expression of Ptn in detail until embryonic day 10. We, furthermore, isolated a 6,385-bp phage clone containing the Ptn cDNA of 2,551 bp and additional 3,787 bp downstream of the published Ptn cDNA sequence classifying a yet Ptn-unrelated chEST clone as the 3' untranslated region of Ptn. Our studies revealed novel expression domains in developing somites and during limb formation. We found prominent expression in the somitocoel cells of epithelial somites, and in a sclerotomal subcompartment, the syndetome, which gives rise to the axial tendons in the vertebral motion segment. In the limbs, Ptn was markedly expressed in tendon anlagen and in phalangeal joints. Our results introduce Ptn as a novel marker gene in avian somite and tendon development.

  19. The role of passive avian head stabilization in flapping flight

    PubMed Central

    Pete, Ashley E.; Kress, Daniel; Dimitrov, Marina A.; Lentink, David

    2015-01-01

    Birds improve vision by stabilizing head position relative to their surroundings, while their body is forced up and down during flapping flight. Stabilization is facilitated by compensatory motion of the sophisticated avian head–neck system. While relative head motion has been studied in stationary and walking birds, little is known about how birds accomplish head stabilization during flapping flight. To unravel this, we approximate the avian neck with a linear mass–spring–damper system for vertical displacements, analogous to proven head stabilization models for walking humans. We corroborate the model's dimensionless natural frequency and damping ratios from high-speed video recordings of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) flying over a lake. The data show that flap-induced body oscillations can be passively attenuated through the neck. We find that the passive model robustly attenuates large body oscillations, even in response to head mass and gust perturbations. Our proof of principle shows that bird-inspired drones with flapping wings could record better images with a swan-inspired passive camera suspension. PMID:26311316

  20. The role of passive avian head stabilization in flapping flight.

    PubMed

    Pete, Ashley E; Kress, Daniel; Dimitrov, Marina A; Lentink, David

    2015-09-01

    Birds improve vision by stabilizing head position relative to their surroundings, while their body is forced up and down during flapping flight. Stabilization is facilitated by compensatory motion of the sophisticated avian head-neck system. While relative head motion has been studied in stationary and walking birds, little is known about how birds accomplish head stabilization during flapping flight. To unravel this, we approximate the avian neck with a linear mass-spring-damper system for vertical displacements, analogous to proven head stabilization models for walking humans. We corroborate the model's dimensionless natural frequency and damping ratios from high-speed video recordings of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) flying over a lake. The data show that flap-induced body oscillations can be passively attenuated through the neck. We find that the passive model robustly attenuates large body oscillations, even in response to head mass and gust perturbations. Our proof of principle shows that bird-inspired drones with flapping wings could record better images with a swan-inspired passive camera suspension.

  1. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2014-12-01

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination for low pathogenicity AIV is also becoming routine in regions where there is a high level of field challenge. In contrast, some countries will not use vaccination at all and some will only use it on an emergency basis during eradication efforts (i.e. stamping-out). There are pros and cons to each approach and, since every outbreak situation is different, no one method will work equally well in all situations. Numerous practical aspects must be considered when developing an AIV control program with vaccination as a component, such as: (1) the goals of vaccination must be defined; (2) the population to be vaccinated must be clearly identified; (3) there must be a plan to obtain and administer good quality vaccine in a timely manner and to achieve adequate coverage with the available resources; (4) risk factors for vaccine failure should be mitigated as much as possible; and, most importantly, (5) biosecurity must be maintained as much as possible, if not enhanced, during the vaccination period.

  2. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  3. Evolutionary Footprints of Short Tandem Repeats in Avian Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hideaki; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) or microsatellites are well-known sequence elements that may change the spacing between transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in promoter regions by expansion or contraction of repetitive units. Some of these mutations have the potential to contribute to phenotypic diversity by altering patterns of gene expression. To explore how repetitive sequence motifs within promoters have evolved in avian lineages under mutation-selection balance, more than 400 evolutionary conserved STRs (ecSTRs) were identified in this study by comparing the 2 kb upstream promoter sequences of chicken against those of other birds (turkey, duck, zebra finch, and flycatcher). The rate of conservation was significantly higher in AG dinucleotide repeats than in AC or AT repeats, with the expansion of AG motifs being noticeably constrained in passerines. Analysis of the relative distance between ecSTRs and TFBSs revealed a significantly higher rate of conserved TFBSs in the vicinity of ecSTRs in both chicken-duck and chicken-passerine comparisons. Our comparative study provides a novel insight into which intrinsic factors have influenced the degree of constraint on repeat expansion/contraction during avian promoter evolution. PMID:26766026

  4. Avian associations of the Northern Great Plains grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Kologiski, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The grassland region of the northern Great Plains was divided into six broad subregions by application of an avian indicator species analysis to data obtained from 582 sample plots censused during the breeding season. Common, ubiquitous species and rare species had little classificatory value and were eliminated from the data set used to derive the avian associations. Initial statistical division of the plots likely reflected structure of the dominant plant species used for nesting; later divisions probably were related to foraging or nesting cover requirements based on vegetation height or density, habitat heterogeneity, or possibly to the existence of mutually similar distributions or shared areas of greater than average abundance for certain groups of species. Knowledge of the effects of grazing, mostly by cattle, on habitat use by the breeding bird species was used to interpret the results of the indicator species analysis. Moderate grazing resulted in greater species richness in nearly all subregions; effects of grazing on total bird density were more variable.

  5. The role of passive avian head stabilization in flapping flight.

    PubMed

    Pete, Ashley E; Kress, Daniel; Dimitrov, Marina A; Lentink, David

    2015-09-01

    Birds improve vision by stabilizing head position relative to their surroundings, while their body is forced up and down during flapping flight. Stabilization is facilitated by compensatory motion of the sophisticated avian head-neck system. While relative head motion has been studied in stationary and walking birds, little is known about how birds accomplish head stabilization during flapping flight. To unravel this, we approximate the avian neck with a linear mass-spring-damper system for vertical displacements, analogous to proven head stabilization models for walking humans. We corroborate the model's dimensionless natural frequency and damping ratios from high-speed video recordings of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) flying over a lake. The data show that flap-induced body oscillations can be passively attenuated through the neck. We find that the passive model robustly attenuates large body oscillations, even in response to head mass and gust perturbations. Our proof of principle shows that bird-inspired drones with flapping wings could record better images with a swan-inspired passive camera suspension. PMID:26311316

  6. Predicting power-optimal kinematics of avian wings.

    PubMed

    Parslew, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model of avian flight is developed which simulates wing motion through a class of methods known as predictive simulation. This approach uses numerical optimization to predict power-optimal kinematics of avian wings in hover, cruise, climb and descent. The wing dynamics capture both aerodynamic and inertial loads. The model is used to simulate the flight of the pigeon, Columba livia, and the results are compared with previous experimental measurements. In cruise, the model unearths a vast range of kinematic modes that are capable of generating the required forces for flight. The most efficient mode uses a near-vertical stroke-plane and a flexed-wing upstroke, similar to kinematics recorded experimentally. In hover, the model predicts that the power-optimal mode uses an extended-wing upstroke, similar to hummingbirds. In flexing their wings, pigeons are predicted to consume 20% more power than if they kept their wings full extended, implying that the typical kinematics used by pigeons in hover are suboptimal. Predictions of climbing flight suggest that the most energy-efficient way to reach a given altitude is to climb as steeply as possible, subjected to the availability of power. PMID:25392398

  7. Surveillance and Analysis of Avian Influenza Viruses, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Simone; Tracey, John P.; Arzey, K. Edla; Selleck, Paul; O’Riley, Kim; Beckett, Emma L.; Bunn, Chris; Kirkland, Peter D.; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Olsen, Bjorn; Hurt, Aeron C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated carriage of avian influenza viruses by wild birds in Australia, 2005–2008, to assess the risks to poultry industries and human health. We collected 21,858 (7,357 cloacal, 14,501 fecal) samples and detected 300 viruses, representing a detection rate of ≈1.4%. Rates were highest in autumn (March–May) and differed substantially between bird types, areas, and years. We typed 107 avian influenza viruses and identified 19 H5, 8 H7, and 16 H9 (40% of typed viruses). All were of low pathogenicity. These viruses formed clearly different phylogenetic clades to lineages from Eurasia or North America, suggesting the potential existence of Australian lineages. H7 viruses were similar to highly pathogenic H7 strains that caused outbreaks in poultry in Australia. Several periods of increased detection rates (numbers or subtypes of viruses) were identified. This study demonstrates the need for ongoing surveillance to detect emerging pathogenic strains and facilitate prevention of outbreaks. PMID:21122219

  8. Selection of an avian retrovirus mutant with extended receptor usage.

    PubMed Central

    Taplitz, R A; Coffin, J M

    1997-01-01

    Receptor recognition by avian retroviruses is thought to involve the interaction of two regions of the SU protein, hr1 and hr2, with the host cell surface receptor. These regions exhibit considerable variation, concordant with differences in receptor usage among the many avian leukosis virus subgroups. We hypothesize that some retroviruses have altered receptor usage in response to selective pressures imposed by receptor polymorphisms in their hosts. To test this hypothesis, we passaged td-Pr-RSV-B on cocultured permissive chicken (C/E) and nonpermissive quail (QT6/BD) cells. A variant virus with an expanded host range was identified at passage 29 and ultimately shown to be identical in sequence to td-Pr-RSV-B, except for changes at codons 155 and 156 of SU amino acid corresponding to two amino acid changes within hr1. Superinfection resistance studies suggest that the variant virus recognizes the subgroup B receptor on chicken cells and the subgroup E receptor on quail cells. These findings indicate that altered receptor usage can be conferred by small changes in env and may point to a key region for receptor interaction. Further, they demonstrate the evolutionary potential of retroviral env genes to alter receptor usage in response to appropriate selective pressure. PMID:9311868

  9. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from avian organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Nishio, Erick K; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-08-28

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  10. Vertebrate ancient opsin photopigment spectra and the avian photoperiodic response.

    PubMed

    Davies, Wayne I L; Turton, Michael; Peirson, Stuart N; Follett, Brian K; Halford, Stephanie; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M; Sharp, Peter J; Hankins, Mark W; Foster, Russell G

    2012-04-23

    In mammals, photoreception is restricted to cones, rods and a subset of retinal ganglion cells. By contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates possess many extraocular photoreceptors but in many cases the role of these photoreceptors and their underlying photopigments is unknown. In birds, deep brain photoreceptors have been shown to sense photic changes in daylength (photoperiod) and mediate seasonal reproduction. Nonetheless, the specific identity of the opsin photopigment 'sensor' involved has remained elusive. Previously, we showed that vertebrate ancient (VA) opsin is expressed in avian hypothalamic neurons and forms a photosensitive molecule. However, a direct functional link between VA opsin and the regulation of seasonal biology was absent. Here, we report the in vivo and in vitro absorption spectra (λ(max) = ~490 nm) for chicken VA photopigments. Furthermore, the spectral sensitivity of these photopigments match the peak absorbance of the avian photoperiodic response (λ(max) = 492 nm) and permits maximum photon capture within the restricted light environment of the hypothalamus. Such a correspondence argues strongly that VA opsin plays a key role in regulating seasonal reproduction in birds.

  11. Immunochromatographic strip assay development for avian influenza antibody detection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Ling; Wang, Lih-Chiann; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2015-11-01

    To detect antibody on pen-side is a rapid way to know the avian influenza (AI) infectious status in a chicken flock. The purpose of this study was to develop an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) assay to detect the antibody against the AI virus (AIV) for field applications. The ICS was constructed by fixing an AIV strain A/chicken/Taiwan/2838V/2000 (H6N1) onto a nitrocellulose membrane as the antigen at the test line and goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody at the control line. The colloidal gold conjugated with rabbit anti-chicken IgG was used as the tracer. The present ICS was used to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus in 326 chicken serum samples from the field. Compared with HI, this ICS could detect antibodies against H5 and H6 AIVs. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was used as the standard to evaluate the ICS accuracy. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of this ICS reached 95.2% (159/167) and 94.3% (150/159), respectively. The Kappa value of the HI and ICS was 0.896 (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this ICS could be used as a rapid test to detect antibodies against AIVs in the field. PMID:26753244

  12. Novel Picornavirus Associated with Avian Keratin Disorder in Alaskan Birds

    PubMed Central

    Van Hemert, Caroline; Dumbacher, John P.; Handel, Colleen M.; Tihan, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian keratin disorder (AKD), characterized by debilitating overgrowth of the avian beak, was first documented in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska. Subsequently, similar deformities have appeared in numerous species across continents. Despite the widespread distribution of this emerging pathology, the cause of AKD remains elusive. As a result, it is unknown whether suspected cases of AKD in the afflicted species are causally linked, and the impacts of this pathology at the population and community levels are difficult to evaluate. We applied unbiased, metagenomic next-generation sequencing to search for candidate pathogens in birds affected with AKD. We identified and sequenced the complete coding region of a novel picornavirus, which we are calling poecivirus. Subsequent screening of 19 AKD-affected black-capped chickadees and 9 control individuals for the presence of poecivirus revealed that 19/19 (100%) AKD-affected individuals were positive, while only 2/9 (22%) control individuals were infected with poecivirus. Two northwestern crows (Corvus caurinus) and two red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) with AKD-consistent pathology also tested positive for poecivirus. We suggest that poecivirus is a candidate etiological agent of AKD. PMID:27460795

  13. Species formation by host shifting in avian malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E.; Outlaw, Diana C.; Svensson-Coelho, Maria; Medeiros, Matthew C. I.; Ellis, Vincenzo A.; Latta, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) of birds are believed to have diversified across the avian host phylogeny well after the origin of most major host lineages. Although many symbionts with direct transmission codiversify with their hosts, mechanisms of species formation in vector-borne parasites, including the role of host shifting, are poorly understood. Here, we examine the hosts of sister lineages in a phylogeny of 181 putative species of malaria parasites of New World terrestrial birds to determine the role of shifts between host taxa in the formation of new parasite species. We find that host shifting, often across host genera and families, is the rule. Sympatric speciation by host shifting would require local reproductive isolation as a prerequisite to divergent selection, but this mechanism is not supported by the generalized host-biting behavior of most vectors of avian malaria parasites. Instead, the geographic distribution of individual parasite lineages in diverse hosts suggests that species formation is predominantly allopatric and involves host expansion followed by local host–pathogen coevolution and secondary sympatry, resulting in local shifting of parasite lineages across hosts. PMID:25271324

  14. Avian cholera in ospreys: first occurrence and possible mode of transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindman, L.J.; Harvey, W.F.; Costanzo, G.R.; Converse, K.A.; Stein, G.

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, six Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) were recovered during the later stages of an epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) in diving ducks and seabirds on Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and Virginia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from four Ospreys submitted for bacterial examination. This is believed to be the first report of avian cholera in Ospreys. The same isolate, serotype 3,4, was isolated from the Ospreys, diving ducks,and seabirds collected during the epizootic. Possible modes of transmission of avian cholera in Ospreys were either the ingestion of sick waterfowl or use of infected carcasses or bones as nest material.

  15. An NMR and molecular dynamics investigation of the avian prion hexarepeat conformational features in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietropaolo, Adriana; Raiola, Luca; Muccioli, Luca; Tiberio, Giustiniano; Zannoni, Claudio; Fattorusso, Roberto; Isernia, Carla; Mendola, Diego La; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Rizzarelli, Enrico

    2007-07-01

    The prion protein is a copper binding glycoprotein that in mammals can misfold into a pathogenic isoform leading to prion diseases, as opposed, surprisingly, to avians. The avian prion N-terminal tandem repeat is richer in prolines than the mammal one, and understanding their effect on conformation is of great biological importance. Here we succeeded in investigating the conformations of a single avian hexarepeat by means of NMR and molecular dynamics techniques. We found a high flexibility and a strong conformational dependence on pH: local turns are present at acidic and neutral pH, while unordered regions dominate at basic conditions.

  16. Avian pox in eastern screech owls and barred owls from Florida.

    PubMed

    Deern, S L; Heard, D J; Fox, J H

    1997-04-01

    Avian pox was diagnosed in two eastern screech owls (Otus asio) and two barred owls (Strix, varia) living in different regions of Florida (USA) between November 1994 and October 1995. Avian poxvirus infection was confirmed by the presence of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic epidermal inclusions (Bollinger bodies) on light microscopy of tissue from all four owls. Additionally, typical poxvirus particles were demonstrated by electron microscopy of a lesion from one of the eastern screech owls. These are the first published case reports of avian pox in eastern screech owls and barred owls.

  17. Control of avian influenza: philosophy and perspectives on behalf of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    1992-01-01

    Aquatic birds are considered the primary reservoir for influenza A viruses (Nettles et al., 1987).  However, there is little concern about avian influenza among conservation agencies responsible for the welfare of those species.  IN contrast, the poultry industry has great concern about avian influenza and view aquatic birds as a source for infection of poultry flocks.  In some instances, differences in these perspectives created conflict between conservation agencies and the poultry industry.  I speak on behalf of migratory birds, but philosophy and perspectives offered are intended to be helpful to the poultry industry in their efforts to combat avian influenza.

  18. Correlates of avian building strikes at a glass façade museum surrounded by avian habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, L.; Flannery, M.; Dumbacher, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Bird window collisions are the second largest anthropogenic cause of bird deaths in the world. Effective mitigation requires an understanding of which birds are most likely to strike, when, and why. Here, we examine five years of avian window strike data from the California Academy of Sciences - a relatively new museum with significant glass façade situated in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. We examine correlates of window-killed birds, including age, sex, season, and migratory or sedentary tendencies of the birds. We also examine correlates of window kills such as presence of habitat surrounding the building and overall window area. We found that males are almost three times more likely than females to mortally strike windows, and immature birds are three times more abundant than adults in our window kill dataset. Among seasons, strikes were not notably different in spring, summer, and fall; however they were notably reduced in winter. There was no statistical effect of building orientation (north, south, east, or west), and the presence of avian habitat directly adjacent to windows had a minor effect. We also report ongoing studies examining various efforts to reduce window kill (primarily external decals and large electronic window blinds.) We hope that improving our understanding of the causes of the window strikes will help us strategically reduce window strikes.

  19. Living with avian FLU--Persistence of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Njabo, Kevin Yana; Zanontian, Linda; Sheta, Basma N; Samy, Ahmed; Galal, Shereen; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Smith, Thomas B

    2016-05-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt. We use a new weighted cross J-function to investigate the degree and spatial temporal nature of the clustering between sightings of infected birds of different types, and the risk of infection associated with direct contact with infected birds. While we found no infection in wild birds, outbreaks occurred year round between 2009 and 2012, with a positive interaction between chickens and ducks. The disease was more present in the years 2010 and 2011 coinciding with the political unrest in the country. Egypt thus continues to experience endemic outbreaks of avian influenza HPAIV in poultry and an increased potential risk of infection to other species including humans. With the current trends, the elimination of the HPAIV infection is highly unlikely without a complete revamp of current policies. The application of spatial statistics techniques to these types of data may help us to understand the characteristics of the disease and may subsequently allow practitioners to explore possible preventive solutions. PMID:27066713

  20. Living with avian FLU--Persistence of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Njabo, Kevin Yana; Zanontian, Linda; Sheta, Basma N; Samy, Ahmed; Galal, Shereen; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Smith, Thomas B

    2016-05-01

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt. We use a new weighted cross J-function to investigate the degree and spatial temporal nature of the clustering between sightings of infected birds of different types, and the risk of infection associated with direct contact with infected birds. While we found no infection in wild birds, outbreaks occurred year round between 2009 and 2012, with a positive interaction between chickens and ducks. The disease was more present in the years 2010 and 2011 coinciding with the political unrest in the country. Egypt thus continues to experience endemic outbreaks of avian influenza HPAIV in poultry and an increased potential risk of infection to other species including humans. With the current trends, the elimination of the HPAIV infection is highly unlikely without a complete revamp of current policies. The application of spatial statistics techniques to these types of data may help us to understand the characteristics of the disease and may subsequently allow practitioners to explore possible preventive solutions.

  1. Generation and infectivity titration of an infectious stock of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) in chickens and cross-species infection of turkeys with avian HEV.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z F; Larsen, C T; Huang, F F; Billam, P; Pierson, F W; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2004-06-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), a novel virus identified from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States, is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV. In order to further characterize avian HEV, an infectious viral stock with a known infectious titer must be generated, as HEV cannot be propagated in vitro. Bile and feces collected from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens experimentally infected with avian HEV were used to prepare an avian HEV infectious stock as a 10% suspension of positive fecal and bile samples in phosphate-buffered saline. The infectivity titer of this infectious stock was determined by inoculating 1-week-old SPF chickens intravenously with 200 microl of each of serial 10-fold dilutions (10(-2) to 10(-6)) of the avian HEV stock (two chickens were inoculated with each dilution). All chickens inoculated with the 10(-2) to 10(-4) dilutions of the infectious stock and one of the two chickens inoculated with the 10(-5) dilution, but neither of the chickens inoculated with the 10(-6) dilution, became seropositive for anti-avian HEV antibody at 4 weeks postinoculation (wpi). Two serologically negative contact control chickens housed together with chickens inoculated with the 10(-2) dilution also seroconverted at 8 wpi. Viremia and shedding of virus in feces were variable in chickens inoculated with the 10(-2) to 10(-5) dilutions but were not detectable in those inoculated with the 10(-6) dilution. The infectivity titer of the infectious avian HEV stock was determined to be 5 x 10(5) 50% chicken infectious doses (CID(50)) per ml. Eight 1-week-old turkeys were intravenously inoculated with 10(5) CID(50) of avian HEV, and another group of nine turkeys were not inoculated and were used as controls. The inoculated turkeys seroconverted at 4 to 8 wpi. In the inoculated turkeys, viremia was detected at 2 to 6 wpi and shedding of virus in feces was detected at 4 to 7 wpi. A serologically negative contact control turkey housed

  2. Wetland environmental conditions associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks and the abundance of Pasteurella multocida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, Michael D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Shadduck, Daniel J.; Creekmore, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Avian cholera is a significant infectious disease affecting waterfowl across North America and occurs worldwide among various avian species. Despite the importance of this disease, little is known about the factors that cause avian cholera outbreaks and what management strategies might be used to reduce disease mortality. Previous studies indicated that wetland water conditions may affect survival and transmission of Pasteurella multocida, the agent that causes avian cholera. These studies hypothesized that water conditions affect the likelihood that avian cholera outbreaks will occur in specific wetlands. To test these predictions, we collected data from avian cholera outbreak and non-outbreak (control) wetlands throughout North America (wintera??spring 1995a??1996 to 1998a??1999) to evaluate whether water conditions were associated with outbreaks. Conditional logistic regression analysis on paired outbreak and non-outbreak wetlands indicated no significant association between water conditions and the risk of avian cholera outbreaks. For wetlands where avian cholera outbreaks occurred, linear regression showed that increased eutrophic nutrient concentrations (Potassium [K], nitrate [NO3], phosphorus [P], and phosphate [PO3]) were positively related to the abundance of P. multocida recovered from water and sediment samples. Wetland protein concentration and an El Ni??o event were also associated with P. multocida abundance. Our results indicate that wetland water conditions are not strongly associated with the risk of avian cholera outbreaks; however, some variables may play a role in the abundance of P. multocida bacteria and might be important in reducing the severity of avian cholera outbreaks.

  3. Effects of oil on avian reproduction: A review and discussion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Rosie, Don; Barnes, Stephen N.

    1983-01-01

    Oil pollution is a highly visible form of environmental contamination that affects avian reproduction in a variety of ways. Plumage oiling causes widespread and locally severe mortality of adult birds. Egg oiling can be a serious hazard for bird embryos but only a few field observationons of this have been reported. Oil ingestion seldom kills birds directly but it causes sublethal change~ in the bodily functions and behavior of adults and nestlings. Studies of the effects of oil on avian reproduction have produced varied and, in ingestion studies, sometimes conflicting results because of inconsistent experimental design and the use of different test species and types of oil. Field experimentation with the sublethal effects of ingested oil on avian reproduction has been limited. Simulation modelling of seabird populations has shown that (l) an occasional decrease in survival of breeding adults will have a greater impact on seabird populations than an occasional decrease in reproductive success, and (2) populations of long-lived seabirds with low reproductive potential have great difficulty recovering from high one-time mortality when experiencing even small sustained annual decreases in either natality or breeding adult survival. The impact of oil-related decreases in survival or reproduction will be more noticeable at the local or colony level than at the regional or species level. Immigration, surplus breeders, and possible compensatory changes in natality and mortality resulting from population reductions usually prevent local population reductions from lasting very long (unless the species is rare or at the edge of its range). A study of west European seabird populations indicates that the natural annual mortality of the region greatly exceeds the annual mortality due to plumage oiling; effects of oil ingestion and egg oiling were not measured but were thought to be less than the mortality from plu~age oiling. Oil-related mortality, even if in addition to

  4. Image Texture Predicts Avian Density and Species Richness

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Eric M.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Keuler, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    For decades, ecologists have measured habitat attributes in the field to understand and predict patterns of animal distribution and abundance. However, the scale of inference possible from field measured data is typically limited because large-scale data collection is rarely feasible. This is problematic given that conservation and management typical require data that are fine grained yet broad in extent. Recent advances in remote sensing methodology offer alternative tools for efficiently characterizing wildlife habitat across broad areas. We explored the use of remotely sensed image texture, which is a surrogate for vegetation structure, calculated from both an air photo and from a Landsat TM satellite image, compared with field-measured vegetation structure, characterized by foliage-height diversity and horizontal vegetation structure, to predict avian density and species richness within grassland, savanna, and woodland habitats at Fort McCoy Military Installation, Wisconsin, USA. Image texture calculated from the air photo best predicted density of a grassland associated species, grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), within grassland habitat (R2 = 0.52, p-value <0.001), and avian species richness among habitats (R2 = 0.54, p-value <0.001). Density of field sparrow (Spizella pusilla), a savanna associated species, was not particularly well captured by either field-measured or remotely sensed vegetation structure variables, but was best predicted by air photo image texture (R2 = 0.13, p-value = 0.002). Density of ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), a woodland associated species, was best predicted by pixel-level satellite data (mean NDVI, R2 = 0.54, p-value <0.001). Surprisingly and interestingly, remotely sensed vegetation structure measures (i.e., image texture) were often better predictors of avian density and species richness than field-measured vegetation structure, and thus show promise as a valuable tool for mapping habitat quality

  5. 76 FR 66032 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... protein. The vaccine is for in ovo vaccination of 18-day-old chick embryos or for the subcutaneous vaccination of healthy day-of-age chicks as an aid in the prevention of Marek's Disease and avian...

  6. Incorporating Results of Avian Toxicity Tests into a Model of Annual Reproductive Success

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript presents a modeling approach for translating results from laboratory avian reproduction tests into an estimate of pesticide-caused change in the annual reproductive success of birds, also known as fecundity rate.

  7. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S.; Maatouq, Asmaa M.; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P.; Webby, Richard J.; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt. PMID:26886164

  8. Neuroanatomy and physiology of the avian hypothalamic/pituitary axis: clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Midge

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the anatomy of the avian hypothalamic/pituitary axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the somatotrophic axis, and neurohypophysis.

  9. Global avian influenza surveillance in wild birds: a strategy to capture viral diversity.

    PubMed

    Machalaba, Catherine C; Elwood, Sarah E; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B; Swayne, David E; Webby, Richard J; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter; Karesh, William B

    2015-04-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health-administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008-2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community.

  10. Service Courses in Avian Health Taught to Students Pursuing Degrees in Colleges of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Avian health courses for agriculture students cover common types of poultry diseases and techniques for disease prevention and emphasize isolation, sanitation, and immunization. The outline of such a course at North Carolina State University is presented. (LBH)

  11. Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

    2013-01-01

    The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated.

  12. Nurses' fears and professional obligations concerning possible human-to-human avian flu.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2006-09-01

    This survey aimed to illustrate factors that contribute to nurses' fear when faced with a possible human-to-human avian flu pandemic and their willingness to care for patients with avian flu in Taiwan. The participants were nursing students with a lesser nursing credential who were currently enrolled in a bachelor degree program in a private university in southern Taiwan. Nearly 42% of the nurses did not think that, if there were an outbreak of avian flu, their working hospitals would have sufficient infection control measures and equipment to prevent nosocomial infection in their working environment. About 57% of the nurse participants indicated that they were willing to care for patients infected with avian influenza. Nurses' fear about an unknown infectious disease, such as the H5N1 influenza virus, could easily be heightened to levels above those occurring during the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Taiwan.

  13. Ecology and diagnosis of introduced avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.

    2005-01-01

    Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.

  14. Protective avian influenza in ovo vaccination with non-replicating human adenovirus vector

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C.; Suarez, David L.; Sylte, Matt J.; Pfeiffer, Jennifer; Van Kampen, Kent R.

    2009-01-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a non-replicating human adenovirus vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 (89% hemagglutinin homology; 68% protection) and H5N2 (94% hemagglutinin homology; 100% protection) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenges. Mass-administration of this bird flu vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. In addition, adenovirus-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of a non-replicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural avian influenza virus infections. PMID:17055126

  15. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt.

  16. Evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype-10 detected in Rockhopper penguins from the Falkland Islands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological, serological and genomic characterization of a paramyxovirus recently isolated from rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) suggested that this virus represented a new avian paramyxovirus group, APMV10. This penguin virus resembled other APMV by electron microscopy; however, its vi...

  17. Transmission and reassortment of avian influenza viruses at the Asian-North American interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Pearce, John M.; Ely, Craig R.; Guy, Lisa M. Sheffield; Irons, David B.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Ip, Hon S.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty avian influenza viruses were isolated from seven wild migratory bird species sampled at St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. We tested predictions based on previous phylogenetic analyses of avian influenza viruses that support spatially dependent trans-hemispheric gene flow and frequent interspecies transmission at a location situated at the Asian–North American interface. Through the application of phylogenetic and genotypic approaches, our data support functional dilution by distance of trans-hemispheric reassortants and interspecific virus transmission. Our study confirms infection of divergent avian taxa with nearly identical avian influenza strains in the wild. Findings also suggest that H16N3 viruses may contain gene segments with unique phylogenetic positions and that further investigation of how host specificity may impact transmission of H13 and H16 viruses is warranted.

  18. Avian cholera in common crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, from the central Texas panhandle.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T T; Pence, D B

    1981-10-01

    An epornitic of avian cholera involving approximately 150 birds is described from a flock of common crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, on a single playa lake utilized as a roost in Castro County, Texas, during early spring of 1980. There was a concomitant epornitic of avian cholera involving several hundred ducks and geese of several species on adjacent lakes in he same area. Crows scavenged extensively on waterfowl carcasses. Gross and histopathologic lesions in waterfowl were typical of acute avian cholera. Crows had a more chronic form of the disease, especially neurological involvement with the most common lesion consisting of a hemorrhagic meningitis. Other endemic species from which Pasteurella multocida was isolated included the short-eared owl, Asio flammeus, and cottontail rabbit, Silvilagus sp. The role of crows in the dissemination and maintenance of avian cholera is discussed.

  19. New species of haematozoa from the avian families Campephagidae and Apodidae.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, R K; Robert, V; Peirce, M A

    2008-06-01

    Leucocytozoon coracinae sp. nov. is described from the avian family Campephagidae and Hepatozoon apodis sp. nov. from the Apodidae. The distribution of these parasites within their respective families is discussed.

  20. Preferential recognition of avian-like receptors in human influenza A H7N9 viruses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; de Vries, Robert P; Zhu, Xueyong; Nycholat, Corwin M; McBride, Ryan; Yu, Wenli; Paulson, James C; Wilson, Ian A

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 outbreak of avian-origin H7N9 influenza in eastern China has raised concerns about its ability to transmit in the human population. The hemagglutinin glycoprotein of most human H7N9 viruses carries Leu(226), a residue linked to adaptation of H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic viruses to human receptors. However, glycan array analysis of the H7 hemagglutinin reveals negligible binding to humanlike α2-6-linked receptors and strong preference for a subset of avian-like α2-3-linked glycans recognized by all avian H7 viruses. Crystal structures of H7N9 hemagglutinin and six hemagglutinin-glycan complexes have elucidated the structural basis for preferential recognition of avian-like receptors. These findings suggest that the current human H7N9 viruses are poorly adapted for efficient human-to-human transmission.