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Sample records for avian reovirus p17

  1. Avian Reovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian reoviruses (ARV) are widespread worldwide and may infect turkeys, chickens and other avian species, including domestic waterfowl and game birds. The virus is non-enveloped double-stranded RNA, therefore is environmentally stable and due to its segmented genome can generate variants easily. A...

  2. Suppression of Vimentin Phosphorylation by the Avian Reovirus p17 through Inhibition of CDK1 and Plk1 Impacting the G2/M Phase of the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hung-Chuan; Huang, Wei-Ru; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Wu, Hung-Yi; Munir, Muhammad; Shih, Wing-Ling; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    The p17 protein of avian reovirus (ARV) causes cell cycle retardation in a variety of cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism(s) by which p17 regulates the cell cycle remains largely unknown. We demonstrate for the first time that p17 interacts with CDK1 and vimentin as revealed by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that direct interaction of p17 and CDK1/vimentin was mapped within the amino terminus (aa 1–60) of p17 and central region (aa 27–118) of CDK1/vimentin. Furthermore, p17 was found to occupy the Plk1-binding site within the vimentin, thereby blocking Plk1 recruitment to CDK1-induced vimentin phosphorylation at Ser 56. Interaction of p17 to CDK1 or vimentin interferes with CDK1-catalyzed phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser 56 and subsequently vimentin phosphorylation at Ser 82 by Plk1. Furthermore, we have identified upstream signaling pathways and cellular factor(s) targeted by p17 and found that p17 regulates inhibitory phosphorylation of CDK1 and blocks vimentin phosphorylation at Ser 56 and Ser 82. The p17-mediated inactivation of CDK1 is dependent on several mechanisms, which include direct interaction with CDK1, p17-mediated suppression of Plk1 by activating the Tpr/p53 and ATM/Chk1/PP2A pathways, and p17-mediated cdc25C degradation via an ubiquitin- proteasome pathway. Additionally, depletion of p53 with a shRNA as well as inhibition of ATM and vimentin by inhibitors diminished virus yield while Tpr and CDK1 knockdown increased virus yield. Taken together, results demonstrate that p17 suppresses both CDK1 and Plk1functions, disrupts vimentin phosphorylation, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest and thus benefits virus replication. PMID:27603133

  3. Nuclear localization of the p17 protein of avian reovirus is correlated with autophagy induction and an increase in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenxi; Wei, Hongchen; Yu, Liping; Duan, Shipeng; Cheng, Jinghua; Yan, Wenguang; Zhang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yantao

    2015-12-01

    p17 is a nonstructural protein of avian reovirus (ARV) that induces autophagy in infected cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of p17 and its nuclear localization signal (NLS) on autophagy and viral replication. When Vero cells and DF1 cells were transfected with mutant p17 in which lysine (K) at position 122 and arginine (R) at position 123 were mutated to alanine (A), the expression level of LC3 II decreased dramatically after transfection. The expression of the polypeptide encompassing the first 103 amino acids of p17, a region that did not contain the NLS, did not have a significant effect on autophagy. Moreover, when cells overexpressing mutant p17 were infected with the ARV GX2010/1 strain, the viral titer was significantly decreased compared with the expression of wild-type p17. In general, the NLS of p17 facilitates the induction of autophagy and is correlated with an increase in virus production.

  4. Avian Reovirus Protein p17 Functions as a Nucleoporin Tpr Suppressor Leading to Activation of p53, p21 and PTEN and Inactivation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Chuan; Liao, Tsai-Ling; Chuang, Kuo-Pin; Shih, Wing-Ling; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Avian reovirus (ARV) protein p17 has been shown to regulate cell cycle and autophagy by activation of p53/PTEN pathway; nevertheless, it is still unclear how p53 and PTEN are activated by p17. Here, we report for the first time that p17 functions as a nucleoporin Tpr suppressor that leads to p53 nuclear accumulation and consequently activates p53, p21, and PTEN. The nuclear localization signal (119IAAKRGRQLD128) of p17 has been identified for Tpr binding. This study has shown that Tpr suppression occurs by p17 interacting with Tpr and by reducing the transcription level of Tpr, which together inhibit Tpr function. In addition to upregulation of PTEN by activation of p53 pathway, this study also suggests that ARV protein p17 acts as a positive regulator of PTEN. ARV p17 stabilizes PTEN by stimulating phosphorylation of cytoplasmic PTEN and by elevating Rak-PTEN association to prevent it from E3 ligase NEDD4-1 targeting. To activate PTEN, p17 is able to promote β-arrestin-mediated PTEN translocation from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane via a Rock-1-dependent manner. The accumulation of p53 in the nucleus induces the PTEN- and p21-mediated downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Furthermore, Tpr and CDK4 knockdown increased virus production in contrast to depletion of p53, PTEN, and LC3 reducing virus yield. Taken together, our data suggest that p17-mediated Tpr suppression positively regulates p53, PTEN, and p21 and negatively regulates PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK signaling pathways, both of which are beneficial for virus replication. PMID:26244501

  5. Protein coding assignment of avian reovirus strain S1133.

    PubMed Central

    Varela, R; Benavente, J

    1994-01-01

    Avian reovirus S1133 encodes 10 primary translation products, 8 of which are structural components of the viral particle and 2 of which are nonstructural proteins. The identity of the gene that codes for each of these polypeptides was determined by in vitro translation of denatured individual genome segments. Images PMID:8084013

  6. Avian and mammalian reoviruses use different molecular mechanisms to synthesize their {micro}NS isoforms.

    PubMed

    Busch, Lisa K; Rodríguez-Grille, Javier; Casal, J Ignacio; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2011-11-01

    Previous reports revealed that the M3 gene of both avian and mammalian reoviruses express two isoforms of the non-structural protein μNS in infected cells. The larger isoforms initiate translation at the AUG codon closest to the 5' end of their respective m3 mRNAs, and were therefore designated μNS. In this study we have performed experiments to identify the molecular mechanisms by which the smaller μNS isoforms are generated. The results of this study confirmed the previous findings indicating that the smaller mammalian reovirus μNS isoform is a primary translation product, the translation of which is initiated at the internal AUG-41 codon of mammalian reovirus m3 mRNA. Our results further revealed that the smaller avian reovirus μNS isoform originates from a specific post-translational cleavage site near the amino terminus of μNS. This cleavage produces a 55 kDa carboxy-terminal protein, termed μNSC, and a 17 kDa amino-terminal polypeptide, designated μNSN. These results allowed us to extend the known avian reovirus protein-encoding capacity to 18 proteins, 12 of which are structural proteins and six of which are non-structural proteins. Our finding that avian and mammalian reoviruses use different mechanisms to express their μNSC isoforms suggests that these isoforms are important for reovirus replication.

  7. The survival of avian reoviruses on materials associated with the poultry house environment.

    PubMed

    Savage, Carol E; Jones, R C

    2003-08-01

    Two strains of avian reovirus were tested for their ability to survive on materials common to most poultry houses. The viruses survived longest and for at least 10 days on feathers, wood shavings and chicken feed, and for the shortest periods on wood (2 days), paper and cotton (4 days). There were some differences in survivability between the two strains. In most instances, the presence of faecal material increased the survival time, although in others it had the opposite effect. Reovirus survived for at least 10 days on the surface of eggshells when organic material was present. In drinking water, it survived for at least 10 weeks with little loss of infectivity. This could have implications for contamination of water supplies in poultry houses. It was shown that if cotton swabs are used for sampling, reovirus survives longer if they are pre-moistened with culture medium rather than used dry.

  8. Crystal Structure of the Avian Reovirus Inner Capsid Protein σA▿

    PubMed Central

    Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Martinez-Costas, José; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Schoehn, Guy; Fox, Gavin C.; Hermo-Parrado, X. Lois; Benavente, Javier; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    Avian reovirus, an important avian pathogen, expresses eight structural and four nonstructural proteins. The structural σA protein is a major component of the inner capsid, clamping together λA building blocks. σA has also been implicated in the resistance of avian reovirus to the antiviral action of interferon by strongly binding double-stranded RNA in the host cell cytoplasm and thus inhibiting activation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase. We have solved the structure of bacterially expressed σA by molecular replacement and refined it using data to 2.3-Å resolution. Twelve σA molecules are present in the P1 unit cell, arranged as two short double helical hexamers. A positively charged patch is apparent on the surface of σA on the inside of this helix and mutation of either of two key arginine residues (Arg155 and Arg273) within this patch abolishes double-stranded RNA binding. The structural data, together with gel shift assay, electron microscopy, and sedimentation velocity centrifugation results, provide evidence for cooperative binding of σA to double-stranded RNA. The minimal length of double-stranded RNA required for σA binding was observed to be 14 to 18 bp. PMID:18799570

  9. Protein architecture of avian reovirus S1133 and identification of the cell attachment protein.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Costas, J; Grande, A; Varela, R; García-Martínez, C; Benavente, J

    1997-01-01

    There are a number of discrepancies in the literature regarding the protein composition of the avian reoviruses. The present study demonstrates that avian reovirus S1133 contains at least 10 proteins (lambdaA, lambdaB, lambdaC, muA, muB, muBC, muBN, sigmaA, sigmaB, and sigmaC). Polypeptides muB, muBC, muBN, sigmaB, and sigmaC are components of the outer capsid layer of the virus, while lambdaA, lambdaB, muA, and sigmaA are core polypeptides. Protein lambdaC is a component of both layers, extending from the inner core to the outer capsid. The minor outer-capsid polypeptide sigmaC is shown to be the cell attachment protein, since it is the only viral polypeptide present in extracts of S1133-infected cells that binds specifically to chicken embryo fibroblasts; furthermore, its binding to avian cells was competitively inhibited by S1133 reovirions but not by mammalian reovirions. Our results also show that sigmaC is an oligomeric protein both in the virion and free in the cytoplasm, and preliminary results suggest that the multimer is made up of three monomeric units. PMID:8985323

  10. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Raaij, Mark J. van; Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Fox, Gavin C.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2005-07-01

    Partial proteolysis of the avian reovirus cell-attachment protein σC yields a major homotrimeric C-terminal fragment that presumably contains the receptor-binding domain. This fragment has been crystallized in the presence and absence of zinc sulfate and cadmium sulfate. One of the crystal forms diffracts synchrotron X-rays to 2.2–2.3 Å. Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6{sub 3}22 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the Zn{sup II}- and Cd{sup II}-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine.

  11. Evidence that avian reovirus σNS is an RNA chaperone: implications for genome segment assortment

    PubMed Central

    Borodavka, Alexander; Ault, James; Stockley, Peter G.; Tuma, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Reoviruses are important human, animal and plant pathogens having 10–12 segments of double-stranded genomic RNA. The mechanisms controlling the assortment and packaging of genomic segments in these viruses, remain poorly understood. RNA–protein and RNA–RNA interactions between viral genomic segment precursors have been implicated in the process. While non-structural viral RNA-binding proteins, such as avian reovirus σNS, are essential for virus replication, the mechanism by which they assist packaging is unclear. Here we demonstrate that σNS assembles into stable elongated hexamers in vitro, which bind single-stranded nucleic acids with high affinity, but little sequence specificity. Using ensemble and single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, we show that σNS also binds to a partially double-stranded RNA, resulting in gradual helix unwinding. The hexamer can bind multiple RNA molecules and exhibits strand-annealing activity, thus mediating conversion of metastable, intramolecular stem-loops into more stable heteroduplexes. We demonstrate that the ARV σNS acts as an RNA chaperone facilitating specific RNA–RNA interactions between genomic precursors during segment assortment and packaging. PMID:26109354

  12. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    PubMed Central

    van Raaij, Mark J.; Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo; Fox, Gavin C.; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6322 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the ZnII- and CdII-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-­terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine. PMID:16511119

  13. Different intracellular distribution of avian reovirus core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Lostale-Seijo, Irene; Martinez-Costas, Jose; Benavente, Javier

    2012-10-25

    A comparative analysis of the intracellular distribution of avian reovirus (ARV) core protein sigmaA in cells of avian and mammalian origin revealed that, whereas the viral protein accumulates in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of avian cells, most sigmaA concentrates in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells in tight association with the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction. Our results further showed that sigmaA becomes arrested in the nucleoplasm of mammalian cells via association with mammalian cell-specific factors and that this association prevents nucleolar targeting. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II activity, but not of RNA polymerase I activity, in infected mammalian cells induces nucleus-to-cytoplasm sigmaA translocation through a CRM1- and RanGTP-dependent mechanism, yet a heterokaryon assay suggests that sigmaA does not shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The scarcity of sigmaA in cytoplasmic viral factories of infected mammalian cells could be one of the factors contributing to limited ARV replication in mammalian cells.

  14. Proteomics Analysis of the DF-1 Chicken Fibroblasts Infected with Avian Reovirus Strain S1133

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Ting; Wu, Yi-Le; Chen, Ting; Cheng, Chao-Sheng; Chan, Hong-Lin; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Chen, Yi-Wen; Yin, Hsien-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Avian reovirus (ARV) is a member of the Orthoreovirus genus in the Reoviridae family. It is the etiological agent of several diseases, among which viral arthritis and malabsorption syndrome are the most commercially important, causing considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. Although a small but increasing number of reports have characterized some aspects of ARV infection, global changes in protein expression in ARV-infected host cells have not been examined. The current study used a proteomics approach to obtain a comprehensive view of changes in protein levels in host cells upon infection by ARV. Methodology and Principal Findings The proteomics profiles of DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells infected with ARV strain S1133 were analyzed by two-dimensional differential-image gel electrophoresis. The majority of protein expression changes (≥1.5 fold, p<0.05) occurred at 72 h post-infection. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identified 51 proteins with differential expression levels, including 25 that were upregulated during ARV infection and 26 that were downregulated. These proteins were divided into eight groups according to biological function: signal transduction, stress response, RNA processing, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and cytoskeleton organization. They were further examined by immunoblotting to validate the observed alterations in protein expression. Conclusion/Significance This is the first report of a time-course proteomic analysis of ARV-infected host cells. Notably, all identified proteins involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway were downregulated in infected cells, whereas proteins involved in DNA synthesis, apoptosis, and energy production pathways were upregulated. In addition, other differentially expressed proteins were linked with the cytoskeleton, metabolism, redox

  15. Possible Involvement of the Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Core Protein ςA in the Resistance of Avian Reovirus to Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Costas, José; González-López, Claudia; Vakharia, Vikram N.; Benavente, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Treatment of primary cultures of chicken embryo fibroblasts with a recombinant chicken alpha/beta interferon (rcIFN) induces an antiviral state that causes a strong inhibition of vaccinia virus and vesicular stomatitis virus replication but has no effect on avian reovirus S1133 replication. The fact that avian reovirus polypeptides are synthesized normally in rcIFN-treated cells prompted us to investigate whether this virus expresses factors that interfere with the activation and/or the activity of the IFN-induced, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent enzymes. Our results demonstrate that extracts of avian-reovirus-infected cells, but not those of uninfected cells, are able to relieve the translation-inhibitory activity of dsRNA in reticulocyte lysates, by blocking the activation of the dsRNA-dependent enzymes. In addition, our results show that protein ςA, an S1133 core polypeptide, binds to dsRNA in an irreversible manner and that clearing this protein from extracts of infected cells abolishes their protranslational capacity. Taken together, our results raise the interesting possibility that protein ςA antagonizes the IFN-induced cellular response against avian reovirus by blocking the intracellular activation of enzyme pathways dependent on dsRNA, as has been suggested for several other viral dsRNA-binding proteins. PMID:10627522

  16. Crystallization of the avian reovirus double-stranded RNA-binding and core protein σA

    SciTech Connect

    Hermo-Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Fox, Gavin C.; Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier; Raaij, Mark J. van

    2007-05-01

    The avian reovirus double-stranded RNA-binding and core protein σA has been crystallized in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.2, b = 129.9, c = 144.0 Å, α = 93.8, β = 105.1, γ = 98.2°. A complete data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution and analyzed. The avian reovirus protein σA plays a dual role: it is a structural protein forming part of the transcriptionally active core, but it has also been implicated in the resistance of the virus to interferon by strongly binding double-stranded RNA and thus inhibiting the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase. The σA protein has been crystallized from solutions containing ammonium sulfate at pH values around 6. Crystals belonging to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.2, b = 129.9, c = 144.0 Å, α = 93.8, β = 105.1, γ = 98.2° were grown and a complete data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution. The self-rotation function suggests that σA may form symmetric arrangements in the crystals.

  17. Epitope mapping and functional analysis of sigma A and sigma NS proteins of avian reovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Pi H.; Li, Ying J.; Su, Yu P.; Lee, Long H.; Liu, Hung J. . E-mail: hjliu@mail.npust.edu.tw

    2005-02-20

    We have previously shown that avian reovirus (ARV) {sigma}A and {sigma}NS proteins possess dsRNA and ssRNA binding activity and suggested that there are two epitopes on {sigma}A (I and II) and three epitopes (A, B, and C) on {sigma}NS. To further define the location of epitopes on {sigma}A and {sigma}NS proteins and to further elucidate the biological functions of these epitopes by using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 62, 1F9, H1E1, and 4A123 against the ARV S1133 strain, the full-length and deletion fragments of S2 and S4 genes of ARV generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were cloned into pET32 expression vectors and the fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. Epitope mapping using MAbs and E. coli-expressed deletion fragments of {sigma}A and {sigma}NS of the ARV S1133 strain, synthetic peptides, and the cross reactivity of MAbs to heterologous ARV strains demonstrated that epitope II on {sigma}A was located at amino acid residues {sup 340}QWVMAGLVSAA{sup 350} and epitope B on {sigma}NS at amino acid residues {sup 180}MLDMVDGRP{sup 188}. The MAbs (62, 1F9, and H1E1) directed against epitopes II and B did not require the native conformation of {sigma}A and {sigma}NS, suggesting that their binding activities were conformation-independent. On the other hand, MAb 4A123 only reacted with complete {sigma}NS but not with truncated {sigma}NS fusion proteins in Western blot, suggesting that the binding activity of MAb to epitope A on {sigma}NS was conformation-dependent. Amino acid sequence analysis and the binding assays of MAb 62 to heterologous ARV strains suggested that epitope II on {sigma}A was highly conserved among ARV strains and that this epitope is suitable as a serological marker for the detection of ARV antibodies following natural infection in chickens. On the contrary, an amino acid substitution at position 183 (M to V) in epitope B of ARV could hinder the reactivity of the {sigma}NS with MAb 1F9. The {sigma}NS of ARV with ss

  18. Crystallization of the avian reovirus double-stranded RNA-binding and core protein σA

    PubMed Central

    Hermo-Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L.; Fox, Gavin C.; Vazquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The avian reovirus protein σA plays a dual role: it is a structural protein forming part of the transcriptionally active core, but it has also been implicated in the resistance of the virus to interferon by strongly binding double-stranded RNA and thus inhibiting the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase. The σA protein has been crystallized from solutions containing ammonium sulfate at pH values around 6. Crystals belonging to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 103.2, b = 129.9, c = 144.0 Å, α = 93.8, β = 105.1, γ = 98.2° were grown and a complete data set has been collected to 2.3 Å resolution. The self-rotation function suggests that σA may form symmetric arrangements in the crystals. PMID:17565188

  19. Avian reovirus-induced syncytium formation is independent of infectious progeny virus production and enhances the rate, but is not essential, for virus-induced cytopathology and virus egress.

    PubMed

    Duncan, R; Chen, Z; Walsh, S; Wu, S

    1996-10-15

    The nonenveloped avian reoviruses represent a distinct antigenic subgroup of orthoreoviruses. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, the avian reoviruses exhibit the unusual property of inducing rapid and extensive syncytium formation in cell cultures, a cytopathic effect more commonly associated with enveloped virus replication. While the syncytium-inducing capability of avian reovirus has been known for quite some time, the relationship between cell fusion and the virus replication cycle has not been determined. The conservation of the syncytial phenotype among all field isolates of avian reovirus suggests that avian reovirus-induced syncytium formation either reflects an essential step in the virus replication cycle involving intracellular membrane interactions or that cell fusion contributes to enhanced virus replication in infected animals. In order to distinguish between these possibilities, we have examined several aspects of virus replication in the presence of inhibitors of syncytium formation. Inhibitors of intracellular vesicle transport and O-linked glycosylation eliminated or markedly reduced syncytium formation with little effect on the rate or extent of virus macromolecular synthesis and infectious progeny virus production. Moreover, syncytium formation was not required for virus-induced cytopathology or virus egress but did significantly enhance the rate of both of these processes. The data indicate that, unlike the syncytium-inducing enveloped viruses, the membrane interactions and protein trafficking required for avian reovirus-induced syncytium formation do not reflect the sequelae of an essential step in the virus replication cycle. These results suggest that the conservation of the avian reovirus syncytial phenotype may reflect a fortuitous aspect of virus replication which confers advantages associated with the rapid spread of the virus within an infected host.

  20. Avian reovirus S1133-induced apoptosis is associated with Bip/GRP79-mediated Bim translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ping-Yuan; Liu, Hung-Jen; Chang, Ching-Dong; Chen, Yo-Chia; Chang, Chi-I; Shih, Wen-Ling

    2015-04-01

    In this study the mechanism of avian reovirus (ARV) S1133-induced pathogenesis was investigated, with a focus on the contribution of ER stress to apoptosis. Our results showed that upregulation of the ER stress response protein, as well as caspase-3 activation, occurred in ARV S1133-infected cultured cells and in SPF White Leghorn chicks organs. Upon infection, Bim was translocated specifically to the ER, but not mitochondria, in the middle to late infectious stages. In addition, ARV S1133 induced JNK phosphorylation and promoted JNK-Bim complex formation, which correlated with the Bim translocation and apoptosis induction that was observed at the same time point. Knockdown of BiP/GRP78 by siRNA and inhibition of BiP/GRP78 using EGCG both abolished the formation of the JNK-Bim complex, caspase-3 activation, and subsequent apoptosis induction by ARV S1133 efficiently. These results suggest that BiP/GRP78 played critical roles and works upstream of JNK-Bim in response to the ARV S1133-mediated apoptosis process.

  1. Genetic and pathogenic characterisation of 11 avian reovirus isolates from northern China suggests continued evolution of virulence

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Li; Gao, Li; Liu, Yongzhen; Li, Kai; Wang, Miao; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Avian reovirus (ARV) infections characterised by severe arthritis, tenosynovitis, pericarditis, and depressed growth have become increasingly frequent in recent years. In this study, we isolated and identified 11 ARV field strains from chickens with viral arthritis and reduced growth in northern China. Comparative analysis of the σC nucleotide and amino acid sequences demonstrated that all isolates, except LN05 and JS01, were closely related to ARV S1133 and clustered in the first genetic lineage. LN05 and JS01 strains were clustered in the third lineage with the ARV 138 strain. Using S1133 as a reference, five isolates were selected to infect specific-pathogen-free chickens, and we found that the recent isolated Chinese ARV strains had higher replication ability in vivo and caused enhanced mortality than the S1133 strain. These findings suggest that the pathogenicity of Chinese ARVs has been changing in recent years and disease control may become more difficult. This study provides genetic and pathogenic characterisations of ARV strains isolated in northern China and calls for a sustained surveillance of ARV infection in China in order to support a better prevention and control of the disease. PMID:27752067

  2. Propagation and characterization of turkey reoviruses isolated in Germany, 2004-2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From 2004 to 2008, suspected avian reoviruses were isolated from turkey flocks in ten counties in Germany. The age of birds at isolation ranged from 9 to 54 days. The suspected avian reoviruses elicited characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) in chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cell culture. In 2009, CEK ...

  3. Baculovirus surface display of sigmaC and sigmaB proteins of avian reovirus and immunogenicity of the displayed proteins in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yueh H; Lee, Long H; Shih, Wen L; Hu, Yu C; Liu, Hung J

    2008-11-25

    Avian reovirus (ARV), an important pathogen in poultry, causes arthritis, chronic respiratory disease, and malabsorption syndrome that cause considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. In present study, we have succeeded in construction of a universal baculovirus surface display system (UBSDS) that can display different foreign proteins on the envelope of baculovirus. Sequences encoding the signal peptide (SS), transmembrane domain (TM), and cytoplasmic domain (CTD) derived from the gp64 protein of baculovirus and histidine tag, respectively were inserted into the pBacCE vector. Four restriction enzyme sites between the histidine tag and gp64 transmembrane domain were established for expression of different foreign proteins. The transmembrane domain and CTD of gp64 in the platform were designed in order to improve stability and quantity of foreign proteins on the envelope of baculovirus. The sigmaC and sigmaB proteins of ARV are known to elicit neutralizing antibodies against ARV. The UBSDS was therefore used to express sigmaC and sigmaB proteins on the envelope of baculovirus. Two recombinant baculoviruses BacSC-sigmaC and BacSC-sigmaB have been successfully constructed. After infection, both His6-tagged recombinant sigmaC (rsigmaC) and sigmaB (rsigmaB) proteins were displayed on the envelope of recombinant baculoviruses and the recombinant viral proteins were anchored on the plasma membrane of Sf-9 cells, as revealed by immunofluorescence staining (IFS) and confocal microscopy. The antigenicity of rsigmaC and rsigmaB proteins was demonstrated by Western blotting assay. Immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that both recombinant viruses displayed rsigmaC and rsigmaB proteins on the viral surface. Immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant viruses, demonstrated that serum from the BacSC-sigmaC and BacSC-sigmaB treated models had significant higher levels of virus neutralization activities than the control groups. This demonstrates that the

  4. Reovirus infection in psittacine birds (Psittacus erithacus): morphologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Hervás, J; Chacón de Lara, F; Jahn, J; Salguero, F J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we report on an outbreak of reovirus, herpesvirus (Pacheco disease), and/or mycosis infection (Aspergillus spp. and Zygomyces spp.) affecting a batch of young African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), with 80% morbidity and 30% mortality. Study material was taken from five birds (four dead and one euthanatized) with a range of clinical symptoms (depression, diarrhea, respiratory symptoms). Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of avian reovirus, electron microscopy, and virus isolation. Viral antigen of reovirus was detected mainly in large mononuclear cells in the bursa of Fabricius and the spleen, pancreas epithelial cells, and circulating cells; lymphoid organs displayed the largest number of immunopositive cells and severe lymphocyte depletion. Bacteriologic study was negative. Reovirus infection was common in all birds studied, whereas Pacheco disease and mycosis were found in only some, suggesting that reovirus could be the initial cause triggering the outbreak and facilitating infection by other agents and their swift spread through the batch.

  5. [Plant-infecting reoviruses].

    PubMed

    Sasaya, Takahide

    2014-01-01

    The family Reoviridae separates two subfamilies and consists of 15 genera. Fourteen viruses in three genera (Phytoreovirus, Oryzavirus, and Fijivirus) infect plants. The outbreaks of the plant-infecting reoviruses cause sometime the serious yield loss of rice and maize, and are a menace to safe and efficient food production in the Southeast Asia. The plant-infecting reoviruses are double-shelled icosahedral particles, from 50 to 80nm in diameter, and include from 10 to 12 segmented double-stranded genomic RNAs depending on the viruses. These viruses are transmitted in a persistent manner by the vector insects and replicated in both plants and in their vectors. This review provides a brief overview of the plant-infecting reoviruses and their recent research progresses including the strategy for viral controls using transgenic rice plants.

  6. Development of reference antisera to enteric-origin avian viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent molecular surveys have revealed geographically distinct lineages of avian reovirus, rotavirus and astrovirus circulating in commercial poultry. To improve our understanding of enteric virus pathogenesis, specific immunological reagents are needed to detect viruses in histological samples. To ...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... aids in the diagnosis of reovirus infections and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these viruses. Reoviruses are thought to cause only mild respiratory and gastrointestinal...

  8. Reovirus Cell Entry Requires Functional Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Mainou, Bernardo A.; Zamora, Paula F.; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Dorset, Daniel C.; Kim, Kwang S.; Dermody, Terence S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian reovirus binds to cell-surface glycans and junctional adhesion molecule A and enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis in a process dependent on β1 integrin. Within the endocytic compartment, reovirus undergoes stepwise disassembly, allowing release of the transcriptionally active viral core into the cytoplasm. To identify cellular mediators of reovirus infectivity, we screened a library of small-molecule inhibitors for the capacity to block virus-induced cytotoxicity. In this screen, reovirus-induced cell killing was dampened by several compounds known to impair microtubule dynamics. Microtubule inhibitors were assessed for blockade of various stages of the reovirus life cycle. While these drugs did not alter reovirus cell attachment or internalization, microtubule inhibitors diminished viral disassembly kinetics with a concomitant decrease in infectivity. Reovirus virions colocalize with microtubules and microtubule motor dynein 1 during cell entry, and depolymerization of microtubules results in intracellular aggregation of viral particles. These data indicate that functional microtubules are required for proper sorting of reovirus virions following internalization and point to a new drug target for pathogens that use the endocytic pathway to invade host cells. PMID:23820395

  9. Myocarditis associated with reovirus in turkey poults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myocarditis associated with reovirus was diagnosed in 17 day-old male turkey poults based on virus isolation, reverse transcript – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), demonstration of reovirus antigen in the cytoplasm of mononuclear inflammatory cells and myocytes in the heart by immunohistochemistr...

  10. Thermal inactivation of avian viral and bacterial pathogens in an effluent treatment system within a biosafety level 2 and 3 enhanced facility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza (AI) virus, avian paramyxovirus Type 1 (APMV-1 or Newcastle disease virus [NDV]), reovirus, rotavirus, turkey astrovirus (TAstV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV-1), avian parvovirus (ChPV) and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are significant biosafety...

  11. Reptilian reovirus: a new fusogenic orthoreovirus species.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Roy; Corcoran, Jennifer; Shou, Jingyun; Stoltz, Don

    2004-02-05

    The fusogenic subgroup of orthoreoviruses contains most of the few known examples of non-enveloped viruses capable of inducing syncytium formation. The only unclassified orthoreoviruses at the species level represent several fusogenic reptilian isolates. To clarify the relationship of reptilian reoviruses (RRV) to the existing fusogenic and nonfusogenic orthoreovirus species, we undertook a characterization of a python reovirus isolate. Biochemical, biophysical, and biological analyses confirmed the designation of this reptilian reovirus (RRV) isolate as an unclassified fusogenic orthoreovirus. Sequence analysis revealed that the RRV S1 and S3 genome segments contain a novel conserved 5'-terminal sequence not found in other orthoreovirus species. In addition, the gene arrangement and the coding potential of the bicistronic RRV S1 genome segment differ from that of established orthoreovirus species, encoding a predicted homologue of the reovirus cell attachment protein and a unique 125 residue p14 protein. The RRV S3 genome segment encodes a homologue of the reovirus sigma-class major outer capsid protein, although it is highly diverged from that of other orthoreovirus species (amino acid identities of only 16-25%). Based on sequence analysis, biological properties, and phylogenetic analysis, we propose this python reovirus be designated as the prototype strain of a fifth species of orthoreoviruses, the reptilian reoviruses.

  12. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of M-class genome segments of novel duck reovirus NP03

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao; Chen, Shilong; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Chen, Shaoying; Lin, FengQiang; Jiang, Bing; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Zhaolong; Wang, Jinxiang

    2015-01-01

    We report the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the entire M1, M2, and M3 genome segments of the novel duck reovirus (NDRV) NP03. Alignment between the newly determined nucleotide sequences as well as their deduced amino acid sequences and the published sequences of avian reovirus (ARV) was carried out with DNASTAR software. Sequence comparison showed that the M2 gene had the most variability among the M-class genes of DRV. Phylogenetic analysis of the M-class genes of ARV strains revealed different lineages and clusters within DRVs. The 5 NDRV strains used in this study fall into a well-supported lineage that includes chicken ARV strains, whereas Muscovy DRV (MDRV) strains are separate from NDRV strains and form a distinct genetic lineage in the M2 gene tree. However, the MDRV and NDRV strains are closely related and located in a common lineage in the M1 and M3 gene trees, respectively. PMID:25852231

  13. Reovirus removal and inactivation by slow-rate sand filtration.

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, L K; Sims, R C; Barnett, B B

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory column studies were conducted at the Utah Water Research Laboratory, Logan, Utah, to evaluate reovirus removal from drinking water supplies by slow-rate sand filtration (SSF). Columns, constructed to simulate a full-scale SSF field operation, were inoculated with reovirus at ca. 1,000-times-greater concentrations than those typically found in domestic sewage. Reovirus removal and inactivation were investigated as functions of filter maturity and other filter sand characteristics. Reovirus removal studies demonstrated that the SSF process is capable of reducing reovirus in influent water by a minimum of 4 log concentration units under certain conditions of water quality, flow rate, and sand bed construction. Infectious reovirus was not detected in effluent samples from any of the sand beds studied, after inoculation of the SSF columns; therefore, removal efficiencies were not affected significantly by characteristics, including age, of the two filter sands evaluated. Studies conducted with radioactively labeled reovirus demonstrated that reovirus removed from influent water was distributed throughout the entire length of the filter beds. Concentrations of reovirus in the filter sands decreased with increasing bed depth. The greatest removal occurred in the top few centimeters of all sand beds. No infectious reovirus could be detected in clean or mature sand bed media, indicating that reoviruses were inactivated in the filter. PMID:6508290

  14. Potential for Improving Potency and Specificity of Reovirus Oncolysis with Next-Generation Reovirus Variants

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Adil; Johnston, Randal N.; Shmulevitz, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Viruses that specifically replicate in tumor over normal cells offer promising cancer therapies. Oncolytic viruses (OV) not only kill the tumor cells directly; they also promote anti-tumor immunotherapeutic responses. Other major advantages of OVs are that they dose-escalate in tumors and can be genetically engineered to enhance potency and specificity. Unmodified wild type reovirus is a propitious OV currently in phase I–III clinical trials. This review summarizes modifications to reovirus that may improve potency and/or specificity during oncolysis. Classical genetics approaches have revealed reovirus variants with improved adaptation towards tumors or with enhanced ability to establish specific steps of virus replication and cell killing among transformed cells. The recent emergence of a reverse genetics system for reovirus has provided novel strategies to fine-tune reovirus proteins or introduce exogenous genes that could promote oncolytic activity. Over the next decade, these findings are likely to generate better-optimized second-generation reovirus vectors and improve the efficacy of oncolytic reotherapy. PMID:26633466

  15. Molecular characterization of L class genome segments of a newly isolated turkey arthritis reovirus.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sunil K; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Goyal, Sagar M

    2014-10-01

    Seven strains of turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV) isolated from cases of turkey arthritis were characterized on the basis of their L class genome segment sequences, which were then compared with those of turkey enteric reovirus (TERV) and chicken reovirus (CRV). All three L class gene segments of TARVs and TERVs and their encoded proteins λA, λB, and λC were similar in size to those of CRV reference strain S1133. The conserved motifs such as C2H2 zinc-binding motif and conserved polymerase region were present in λA and λB, respectively. A conserved motif for ATP/GTP-binding site and an S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-binding pocket for methyltransferase were observed in λC protein of TARVs and TERVs with only one substitution as compared to that in CRV. We propose a new genotype classification system for avian reoviruses (ARVs) based on the nt identity cut-off value for each of the L class. Based on this new genotype classification, all ARVs were divided into six, seven and eight genotypes in L1, L2 and L3 genes, respectively. Interestingly TARVs and TERVs grouped with three CRVs (two arthritic strains from Taiwan and one enteritic strain from Japan) in genotype L1-I and formed a different genotypes (L2-I, L3-I) from CRVs in L2 and L3 genes. The maximum nucleotide divergence was observed in genotypes of L1 and L2 genes but less at amino acid level indicates mostly changes were synonymous type. Compared to L1 and L2 genes, the nonsynonymous changes were more in L3 gene. Point mutations and possible reassortments among TARVs, TERVs and CRVs were also observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reovirus activates human dendritic cells to promote innate antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Errington, Fiona; Steele, Lynette; Prestwich, Robin; Harrington, Kevin J; Pandha, Hardev S; Vidal, Laura; de Bono, Johann; Selby, Peter; Coffey, Matt; Vile, Richard; Melcher, Alan

    2008-05-01

    Oncolytic viruses can exert their antitumor activity via direct oncolysis or activation of antitumor immunity. Although reovirus is currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of localized or disseminated cancer, any potential immune contribution to its efficacy has not been addressed. This is the first study to investigate the ability of reovirus to activate human dendritic cells (DC), key regulators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Reovirus induced DC maturation and stimulated the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-alpha, TNF-alpha, IL-12p70, and IL-6. Activation of DC by reovirus was not dependent on viral replication, while cytokine production (but not phenotypic maturation) was inhibited by blockade of PKR and NF-kappaB signaling. Upon coculture with autologous NK cells, reovirus-activated DC up-regulated IFN-gamma production and increased NK cytolytic activity. Moreover, short-term coculture of reovirus-activated DC with autologous T cells also enhanced T cell cytokine secretion (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and induced non-Ag restricted tumor cell killing. These data demonstrate for the first time that reovirus directly activates human DC and that reovirus-activated DC stimulate innate killing by not only NK cells, but also T cells, suggesting a novel potential role for T cells in oncolytic virus-induced local tumor cell death. Hence reovirus recognition by DC may trigger innate effector mechanisms to complement the virus's direct cytotoxicity, potentially enhancing the efficacy of reovirus as a therapeutic agent.

  17. Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults H. L. ShivaprasadA, M. S. FrancaA, P. R. WoolcockA, R. NordhausenB, M. DayC and M. Pantin-JackwoodC California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, AFresno and BDavis Branches, University of California, Davis, 2789 South Orange Av...

  18. Neutralization of reovirus: the gene responsible for the neutralization antigen

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    The S1 genome segment of reovirus is linked to type specificity as determined by neutralization antibody. This gene segment codes for a minor outer capsid polypeptide (sigma1). Therefore, sigma1 is the peptide responsible for induction of neutralization antibody and confers type specificity. This biologic property of reovirus was defined using hybrid recombinants clones between reovirus types 1 and 3 and 2 and 3. PMID:925604

  19. A strategy for genetic modification of the spike-encoding segment of human reovirus T3D for reovirus targeting.

    PubMed

    van den Wollenberg, D J M; van den Hengel, S K; Dautzenberg, I J C; Cramer, S J; Kranenburg, O; Hoeben, R C

    2008-12-01

    Human Orthoreovirus Type 3 Dearing is not pathogenic to humans and has been evaluated clinically as an oncolytic agent. Its transduction efficiency and the tumor cell selectivity may be enhanced by incorporating ligands for alternative receptors. However, the genetic modification of reoviruses has been difficult, and genetic targeting of reoviruses has not been reported so far. Here we describe a technique for generating genetically targeted reoviruses. The propagation of wild-type reoviruses on cells expressing a modified sigma 1-encoding segment embedded in a conventional RNA polymerase II transcript leads to substitution of the wild-type genome segment by the modified version. This technique was used for generating reoviruses that are genetically targeted to an artificial receptor expressed on U118MG cells. These cells lack the junction adhesion molecule-1 and therefore resist infection by wild-type reoviruses. The targeted reoviruses were engineered to carry the ligand for this receptor at the C terminus of the sigma 1 spike protein. This demonstrates that the C terminus of the sigma 1 protein is a suitable locale for the insertion of oligopeptide ligands and that targeting of reoviruses is feasible. The genetically targeted viruses can be propagated using the modified U118MG cells as helper cells. This technique may be applicable for the improvement of human reoviruses as oncolytic agents.

  20. Genetic reassortment of mammalian reoviruses in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wenske, E A; Chanock, S J; Krata, L; Fields, B N

    1985-01-01

    Reassortments between type 1 (Lang) and type 3 (Dearing) reoviruses were isolated from suckling mice infected perorally with an inoculum containing both type 1 and type 3 viruses. A total of five distinct reassortants (designated as E1 through E5) were isolated from animals during the course of the experiment. Two reassortants (E1 and E2) represented the majority of the reassortants isolated. The majority of genes of types E1 and E2 were derived from type 1 (Lang). However, E1 had an M2 gene and an S1 gene derived from type 3 (Dearing), while E2 had M2 and S2 genes derived from type 3 (Dearing). Thus, nonrandom reassortment between mammalian reoviruses can be demonstrated in vivo. PMID:4057359

  1. Adsorption of reovirus by minerals and soils.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R S; Taylor, D H; Reddy, M M; Sturman, L S

    1982-01-01

    Adsorption of [35S]methionine-labeled reovirus by 30 dry soils, minerals, and finely ground rocks suspended in synthetic freshwater at pH 7 was investigated to determine the conditions necessary for optimum virus removal during land application of wastewaters. All of the minerals and soils studied were excellent adsorbents of reovirus, with greater than 99% of the virus adsorbed after 1 h at 4 degrees C. Thereafter, virus remaining in suspension was significantly inactivated, and within 24 h a three to five log10 reduction in titer occurred. The presence of divalent cations, i.e., Ca2+ and Mg2+, in synthetic freshwater enhanced removal, whereas soluble organic matter decreased the amount of virus adsorbed in secondary effluent. The amount of virus adsorbed by these substrates was inversely correlated with the amount of organic matter, capacity to adsorb cationic polyelectrolyte, and electrophoretic mobility. Adsorption increased with increasing available surface area, as suspended infectivity was reduced further by the more finely divided substrates. However, the organic content of the soils reduced the level of infectious virus adsorbed below that expected from surface area measurements alone. The inverse correlation between virus adsorption and substrate capacity for cationic polyelectrolyte indicates that the adsorption of infectious reovirus particles is predominately a charged colloidal particle-charged surface interaction. Thus, adsorption of polyelectrolyte may be useful in predicting the fate of viruses during land application of sewage effluents and sludges. PMID:7149717

  2. Effect of proteins on reovirus adsorption to clay minerals.

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, S M; Stotzky, G

    1984-01-01

    Organic matter in sewage, soil, and aquatic systems may enhance or inhibit the infectivity of viruses associated with particulates (e.g., clay minerals, sediments). The purpose of this investigation was to identify the mechanisms whereby organic matter, in the form of defined proteins, affects the adsorption of reovirus to the clay minerals kaolinite and montmorillonite and its subsequent infectivity. Chymotrypsin and ovalbumin reduced the adsorption of reovirus to kaolinite and montmorillonite homoionic to sodium. Lysozyme did not reduce the adsorption of the virus to kaolinite, but it did reduce adsorption to montmorillonite. The proteins apparently competed with the reovirus for sites on the clay. As lysozyme does not adsorb to kaolinite by cation exchange, it did not inhibit the adsorption of reovirus to this clay. The amount of reovirus desorbed from lysozyme-coated montmorillonite was approximately 38% less (compared with the input population) than that from uncoated or chymotrypsin-coated montmorillonite after six washings with sterile distilled water. Chymotrypsin and lysozyme markedly decreased reovirus infectivity in distilled water, whereas infectivity of the virus was enhanced after recovery from an ovalbumin-distilled water-reovirus suspension (i.e., from the immiscible pelleted fraction plus supernatant). The results of these studies indicate that the persistence of reovirus in terrestrial and aquatic environments may vary with the type of organic matter and clay mineral with which the virus comes in contact. PMID:6497370

  3. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470 Reovirus...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470 Reovirus...

  5. Transport to Late Endosomes Is Required for Efficient Reovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mainou, Bernardo A.

    2012-01-01

    Rab GTPases play an essential role in vesicular transport by coordinating the movement of various types of cargo from one cellular compartment to another. Individual Rab GTPases are distributed to specific organelles and thus serve as markers for discrete types of endocytic vesicles. Mammalian reovirus binds to cell surface glycans and junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) and enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis in a process dependent on β1 integrin. Within organelles of the endocytic compartment, reovirus undergoes stepwise disassembly catalyzed by cathepsin proteases, which allows the disassembly intermediate to penetrate endosomal membranes and release the transcriptionally active viral core into the cytoplasm. The pathway used by reovirus to traverse the endocytic compartment is largely unknown. In this study, we found that reovirus particles traffic through early, late, and recycling endosomes during cell entry. After attachment to the cell surface, reovirus particles and JAM-A codistribute into each of these compartments. Transfection of cells with constitutively active and dominant-negative Rab GTPases that affect early and late endosome biogenesis and maturation influenced reovirus infectivity. In contrast, reovirus infectivity was not altered in cells expressing mutant Rab GTPases that affect recycling endosomes. Thus, reovirus virions localize to early, late, and recycling endosomes during entry into host cells, but only those that traverse early and late endosomes yield a productive infection. PMID:22674975

  6. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470 Reovirus...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470 Reovirus...

  8. Response of Three Different Viruses to Interferon Priming and Dithiothreitol Treatment of Avian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lostalé-Seijo, Irene; Martínez-Costas, José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have previously shown that the replication of avian reovirus (ARV) in chicken cells is much more resistant to interferon (IFN) than the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) or vaccinia virus (VV). In this study, we have investigated the role that the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays in the sensitivity of these three viruses toward the antiviral action of chicken interferon. Our data suggest that while interferon priming of avian cells blocks vaccinia virus replication by promoting PKR activation, the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus appears to be blocked at a pretranslational step. Our data further suggest that the replication of avian reovirus in chicken cells is quite resistant to interferon priming because this virus uses strategies to downregulate PKR activation and also because translation of avian reovirus mRNAs is more resistant to phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of initiation factor eIF2 than translation of their cellular counterparts. Our results further reveal that the avian reovirus protein sigmaA is able to prevent PKR activation and that this function is dependent on its double-stranded RNA-binding activity. Finally, this study demonstrates that vaccinia virus and avian reovirus, but not vesicular stomatitis virus, express/induce factors that counteract the ability of dithiothreitol to promote eIF2 phosphorylation. Our data demonstrate that each of the three different viruses used in this study elicits distinct responses to interferon and to dithiothreitol-induced eIF2 phosphorylation when infecting avian cells. IMPORTANCE Type I interferons constitute the first barrier of defense against viral infections, and one of the best characterized antiviral strategies is mediated by the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR). The results of this study revealed that IFN priming of avian cells has little effect on avian reovirus (ARV) replication but drastically diminishes the

  9. Response of Three Different Viruses to Interferon Priming and Dithiothreitol Treatment of Avian Cells.

    PubMed

    Lostalé-Seijo, Irene; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier

    2016-09-15

    We have previously shown that the replication of avian reovirus (ARV) in chicken cells is much more resistant to interferon (IFN) than the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) or vaccinia virus (VV). In this study, we have investigated the role that the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays in the sensitivity of these three viruses toward the antiviral action of chicken interferon. Our data suggest that while interferon priming of avian cells blocks vaccinia virus replication by promoting PKR activation, the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus appears to be blocked at a pretranslational step. Our data further suggest that the replication of avian reovirus in chicken cells is quite resistant to interferon priming because this virus uses strategies to downregulate PKR activation and also because translation of avian reovirus mRNAs is more resistant to phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of initiation factor eIF2 than translation of their cellular counterparts. Our results further reveal that the avian reovirus protein sigmaA is able to prevent PKR activation and that this function is dependent on its double-stranded RNA-binding activity. Finally, this study demonstrates that vaccinia virus and avian reovirus, but not vesicular stomatitis virus, express/induce factors that counteract the ability of dithiothreitol to promote eIF2 phosphorylation. Our data demonstrate that each of the three different viruses used in this study elicits distinct responses to interferon and to dithiothreitol-induced eIF2 phosphorylation when infecting avian cells. Type I interferons constitute the first barrier of defense against viral infections, and one of the best characterized antiviral strategies is mediated by the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR). The results of this study revealed that IFN priming of avian cells has little effect on avian reovirus (ARV) replication but drastically diminishes the replication of vaccinia

  10. Junction adhesion molecule is a receptor for reovirus.

    PubMed

    Barton, E S; Forrest, J C; Connolly, J L; Chappell, J D; Liu, Y; Schnell, F J; Nusrat, A; Parkos, C A; Dermody, T S

    2001-02-09

    Virus attachment to cells plays an essential role in viral tropism and disease. Reovirus serotypes 1 and 3 differ in the capacity to target distinct cell types in the murine nervous system and in the efficiency to induce apoptosis. The binding of viral attachment protein sigma1 to unidentified receptors controls these phenotypes. We used expression cloning to identify junction adhesion molecule (JAM), an integral tight junction protein, as a reovirus receptor. JAM binds directly to sigma1 and permits reovirus infection of nonpermissive cells. Ligation of JAM is required for reovirus-induced activation of NF-kappaB and apoptosis. Thus, reovirus interaction with cell-surface receptors is a critical determinant of both cell-type specific tropism and virus-induced intracellular signaling events that culminate in cell death.

  11. HIV-1 Matrix Protein p17 and its Receptors.

    PubMed

    Caccuri, Francesca; Marsico, Stefania; Fiorentini, Simona; Caruso, Arnaldo; Giagulli, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1 matrix protein p17 (p17) plays a crucial role in the virus life cycle. It is released in the extracellular space from HIV-1-infected cells and accumulates in the tissues of patients, even in those successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Extracellular p17 deregulates the biological functions of many different cells that are directly or indirectly implicated in AIDS pathogenesis. All p17 actions depend on interaction between its functional epitope (AT20), located at the protein N-terminal region, and different receptors expressed on target cells. This finding corroborates the importance of impeding p17/p17 receptors interaction as a contribution to block AIDS. In this article we review the interaction of p17 with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and with the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 (CXCR1) and 2 (CXCR2). We provide details on how p17 interacts with its receptors and how these interactions are central to the p17 biological activities. Moreover, we highlight the existence of a p17 variant, named S75X, which displays opposite effects on B-cell proliferation as compared to p17. A two-site model for p17 interaction with G-coupled receptors provides a possible explanation on how mutations naturally occurring within the primary amino acid structure can lead S75X to activate the Akt signaling pathway and to promote B-cell growth and transformation. Identification of p17 interaction with HSPGs, CXCR1 and CXCR2 as a fundamental event in supporting its activity could help to find new treatment approaches aimed at blocking all p17/p17 receptors interactions and, consequently, p17 detrimental activities.

  12. Reovirus: viral therapy for cancer 'as nature intended'.

    PubMed

    Comins, C; Heinemann, L; Harrington, K; Melcher, A; De Bono, J; Pandha, H

    2008-09-01

    Oncolytic viruses are tumour selective and able to lyse cancer cells after infection. Reovirus is an example of a wild-type oncolytic virus and is currently being investigated as a potential novel therapy for cancer. This overview gives a brief description of what is known about reovirus biology and summarises the preclinical data related to its oncolytic ability. The completed and ongoing clinical trials involving reovirus, both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, will be reviewed and their results discussed. Many of these clinical studies are being conducted by centres in the UK.

  13. The propagation of avian viruses in a continuous cell line (QT35) of Japanese quail origin.

    PubMed

    Cowen, B S; Braune, M O

    1988-01-01

    Seven of nine avian virus families tested (Birnaviridae, Coronaviridae, Herpesviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Poxviridae, Reoviridae, and Retroviridae) were found to replicate in a quail fibroblast cell line, designated QT35, resulting in a cytopathic effect (CPE) visible with the naked eye or by low-power microscopy. In comparison, only one (Paramyxoviridae) of seven mammalian virus families tested produced an observable CPE. Cytopathic changes induced by examined viruses were round cell, syncytial, and focus formation. Trypsin did not promote cytopathic changes by selected CPE-negative avian and mammalian viruses in QT35 cells. Several avian viruses (infectious bursal disease virus, Newcastle disease virus, Canary pox virus, and reovirus) formed plaques under agar. Avian reovirus and infectious bursal disease virus produced similar titers in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) and QT35 cell cultures. Chicken-egg-yolk neutralizing-antibody titers to IBDV were comparable in CEF and QT35 cell-culture systems.

  14. Efficacy of Five Commonly Used Disinfectants Against Turkey Arthritis Reovirus.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sunil K; Bekele, Aschalew Z; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Goyal, Sagar M

    2015-03-01

    Since late 2009, an unusual problem of reovirus-related lameness has been seen in market-age tom turkeys in the upper Midwest area of the United States. In this study, we determined the efficacy of five commonly used disinfectants (Virocid, Keno X5, Synergize, One Stroke, and Tek Trol) against turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARVs). For comparison, turkey enteric reovirus (TERV) and chicken arthritis reovirus (CARV) were also included. At their recommended concentrations, all five disinfectants were found to be effective virucidals, inactivating 99.99% of all viruses within 10 min. However, oxidizing agents and quaternary ammonium compounds + aldehyde types of disinfectants were more effective, killing the viruses in a shorter time (2-5 min) than the other types of disinfectants. These results indicate that these disinfectants can be an effective tool in the control of these viruses.

  15. Endothelial JAM-A promotes reovirus viremia and bloodstream dissemination.

    PubMed

    Lai, Caroline M; Boehme, Karl W; Pruijssers, Andrea J; Parekh, Vrajesh V; Van Kaer, Luc; Parkos, Charles A; Dermody, Terence S

    2015-02-01

    Viruses that cause systemic disease often spread through the bloodstream to infect target tissues. Although viremia is an important step in the pathogenesis of many viruses, how viremia is established is not well understood. Reovirus has been used to dissect mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and is being evaluated in clinical trials as an oncolytic agent. After peroral entry into mice, reovirus replicates within the gastrointestinal tract and disseminates systemically via hematogenous or neural routes. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a tight junction protein that serves as a receptor for reovirus. JAM-A is required for establishment of viremia and viral spread to sites of secondary replication. JAM-A also is expressed on the surface of circulating hematopoietic cells. To determine contributions of endothelial and hematopoietic JAM-A to reovirus dissemination and pathogenesis, we generated strains of mice with altered JAM-A expression in these cell types and assessed bloodstream spread of reovirus strain type 1 Lang (T1L), which disseminates solely by hematogenous routes. We found that endothelial JAM-A but not hematopoietic JAM-A facilitates reovirus T1L bloodstream entry and egress. Understanding how viruses establish viremia may aid in development of inhibitors of this critical step in viral pathogenesis and foster engineering of improved oncolytic viral vectors.

  16. Genomic characterization of a broiler reovirus field strain detected in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Lu, Huaguang

    2015-04-01

    Avian reovirus (ARV) infections have been increasingly diagnosed in Pennsylvania (PA) from 2011 to the present time. A field ARV strain (Reo/PA/Broiler/05682/12) isolated from sick broilers suffered from severe arthritis/tenosynovitis of a PA broiler flock was conducted full genome sequence studies using RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The complete genome of the PA broiler ARV field strain was 23,494bp in length with an approximately 50% G+C content and 10 dsRNA segments encoding 12 viral proteins. The 10 genomic segments were ranged from 1192bp (S4) to 3958bp (L1) in length, which were almost identical to those of published reference strains. The amino acid (aa) alignments of the putative proteins encoded by the ORF in each segment revealed a high similarity to the counterpart proteins encoded by other avian orthoreoviruses in the Orthoreovirus genus, particularly with the reference strain AVS-B (89.4-98.9%). The phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of all 10 genome segments of the PA broiler ARV revealed that a moderate to significant nucleotide sequence divergence from sequences of cognate genome segments of reference ARV S1133 and 138 strains. These genomic data demonstrate that this PA broiler ARV field strain is a unique tenosynovitis ARV and is different from the traditional ARV vaccine strains. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Novel Human Reovirus Isolated from Children with Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Louise A.; Barin, Francis; Barthez, Marie Anne; Bonnaud, Bertrand; Roingeard, Philippe; Goudeau, Alain; Castelnau, Pierre; Vernet, Guy; Komurian-Pradel, Florence

    2011-01-01

    For many encephalitis cases, the cause remains unidentified. After 2 children (from the same family) received a diagnosis of acute necrotizing encephalopathy at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (Tours, France), we attempted to identify the etiologic agent. Because clinical samples from the 2 patients were negative for all pathogens tested, urine and throat swab specimens were added to epithelial cells, and virus isolates detected were characterized by molecular analysis and electron microscopy. We identified a novel reovirus strain (serotype 2), MRV2Tou05, which seems to be closely related to porcine and human strains. A specific antibody response directed against this new reovirus strain was observed in convalescent-phase serum specimens from the patients, whereas no response was observed in 38 serum specimens from 38 healthy adults. This novel reovirus is a new etiologic agent of encephalitis. PMID:21801621

  18. Distinct reovirus-like agents associated with acute infantile gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, R T; Calderon, E; Gonzalez, N

    1977-01-01

    Human reovirus-like particles were found by electron microscopy in the stools of 25% of 71 infants and young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Mexico between December 1976 and April 1977. The virus was also identified by the electrophoresis patterns of its ribonucleic acid upon disruption of partially purified particles. This technique is as reliable as electron microscopy but less laborious, and could become a routine diagnostic procedure. The electrophoretic patterns of viral ribonucleic acid from different cases suggest that there are at least two different reovirus-like agents associated with infantile gastroenteritis. Images PMID:411805

  19. NMR studies on polyphosphide Ce6Ni6P17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, T.; Yamada, H.; Ueda, K.; Mito, T.; Aoyama, Y.; Nakano, T.; Takeda, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report the result of 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies on Ce6Ni6P17. The observed NMR spectra show a Lorentzian-type and an asymmetric shapes, reflecting the local symmetry around each P site in the cubic unit cell. We have identified the observed NMR lines corresponding to three inequivalent P sites and deduced the temperature dependence of the Knight shift for each site. The Knight shifts increase with decreasing temperature down to 1.5 K, indicating a localized spin system of Ce6Ni6P17. Antiferromagnetic correlation between 4f spins is suggested from the negative sign of the Weiss-temperature.

  20. NNS computing facility manual P-17 Neutron and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeberling, M.; Nelson, R.O.

    1993-11-01

    This document describes basic policies and provides information and examples on using the computing resources provided by P-17, the Neutron and Nuclear Science (NNS) group. Information on user accounts, getting help, network access, electronic mail, disk drives, tape drives, printers, batch processing software, XSYS hints, PC networking hints, and Mac networking hints is given.

  1. African swine fever virus NP868R capping enzyme promotes reovirus rescue during reverse genetics by promoting reovirus protein expression, virion assembly, and RNA incorporation into infectious virions.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Heather E; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Dermody, Terence S; Johnston, Randal N; Jais, Philippe H; Shmulevitz, Maya

    2017-03-15

    Reoviruses, like many eukaryotic viruses, contain an inverted 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap linked to the 5' nucleotide of mRNA. Traditional functions of capping are to promote mRNA stability, protein translation, and concealment from cellular proteins that recognize foreign RNA. To address the role of mRNA capping during reovirus replication, we assessed the benefits of adding the African swine fever virus NP868R capping enzyme. C3P3, a fusion protein containing T7 RNA polymerase and NP868R, was found to increase protein expression 5 to 10-fold, as compared to T7 RNA polymerase alone, while enhancing reovirus rescue from the current reverse genetics system by 100-fold. Surprisingly, RNA stability was not increased by C3P3, suggesting a direct effect on protein translation. A time course analysis revealed that C3P3 increased protein synthesis within the first 2 days of a reverse genetics transfection. This analysis also revealed that C3P3 enhanced processing of outer capsid μ1 protein to μ1C, a previously described hallmark of reovirus assembly. Finally, to determine the rate of infectious RNA incorporation into new virions, we developed a new recombinant reovirus S1 gene that expressed the fluorescent protein UnaG. Following transfection of cells with UnaG and infection with wild-type virus, passage of UnaG through progeny was significantly enhanced by C3P3. This data suggests that capping provides non-traditional functions to reovirus, such as promoting assembly and infectious RNA incorporation.IMPORTANCE The findings in this manuscript expand our understanding of how viruses utilize capping, suggesting that capping provides non-traditional functions to reovirus such as promoting assembly and infectious RNA incorporation, in addition to enhancing protein translation. Beyond providing mechanistic insight into reovirus replication, our findings also show that reovirus reverse genetics rescue is enhanced 100-fold by the NP868R capping enzyme. Since reovirus shows

  2. American woodcock (Scolopax minor) mortality associated with a reovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Hansen, W.R.; Norman, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    A virus isolate associated with a 1989-90 die-off in American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was identified as a reovirus. Emaciation was a consistent necropsy finding in the woodcock involved in this die-off. This reovirus infection appeared to be systemic, had the potential for fecal-oral virus transmission, and was associated with deterioration of body condition. To our knowledge this is the first report of a virus isolate from wild American woodcock. A survey conducted in 1990-92 indicated that this virus was not present at detectable levels in the woodcock breeding and wintering population. /// Un virus asociado con la mortalidad de becadas o perdices americanas (Scolopax minor) en 1989-1990-fue identificado como reovirus. La emaciaci??n fue un resultado com??n a la necropsia de las aves que murieron. Esta infecci??n por reovirus pareci?? ser sist??mica, ten?-a el potencial de transmisi??n fecal-oral y estuvo asociada con el deterioro del ave. Creemos que este sea el primer reporte de aislamiento viral a partir de becadas americanas. Una encuesta hecha entre 1990 y 1992 indic?? que este virus no estaba presente en los niveles detectables en los reproductores y en las aves invernales.

  3. Avian cardiology.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Anneliese; Wilson, G Heather

    2003-01-01

    The field of avian cardiology is continually expanding. Although a great deal of the current knowledge base has been derived from poultry data, research and clinical reports involving companion avian species have been published. This article will present avian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, history and physical examination considerations in the avian cardiac disease patient, specific diagnostic tools, cardiovascular disease processes, and current therapeutic modalities.

  4. Concentration of Reovirus and Adenovirus from Sewage and Effluents by Protamine Sulfate (Salmine) Treatment 1

    PubMed Central

    England, Beatrice

    1972-01-01

    Protamine sulfate was employed to recover reoviruses, adenoviruses, and certain enteroviruses from sewage and treated effluents; 50- to 400-fold concentration of viral content was achieved. PMID:4342842

  5. Toward the development of a plant-based vaccine against reovirus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongzhuan; Scissum-Gunn, Karyn; Singh, Narendra K; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2009-09-01

    Transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana producing recombinant TC protein were developed. The S1 gene encoding sigmaC protein of an avian reovirus (ARV) was amplified by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The amplified product was cloned into a plant-expression vector, pE1857, with a strong promoter for expression. The resulting construct with the BAR gene cassette for bialaphos selection was designated rpE-sigmaC and was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens by electroporation. Agrobacterium containing the rpE-sigmaC constructs that transform A. thaliana and transgenic plants were selected using bialaphos selection. The presence of S1 transcript in plants and their relative level of expression were determined by real time RT-PCR. Western blot analysis further confirmed the presence of sigmaC protein in the plants. Transgenic lines with high levels of sigmaC protein were selected for immunization experiments using specific-pathogen free chickens. Recombinant sigmaC protein produced in plants induced a variety of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses in chickens. Recombinant protein administered either subcutaneously or orally in birds showed significant protection against challenge. Results suggested that the recombinant sigmaC protein produced in plants has the potential for large-scale vaccination against ARV in commercial poultry.

  6. Directional Release of Reovirus from the Apical Surface of Polarized Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Caroline M.; Mainou, Bernardo A.; Kim, Kwang S.; Dermody, Terence S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bloodstream spread is a critical step in the pathogenesis of many viruses. However, mechanisms that promote viremia are not well understood. Reoviruses are neurotropic viruses that disseminate hematogenously to the central nervous system. Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is a tight junction protein that serves as a receptor for reovirus. JAM-A is required for establishment of viremia in infected newborn mice and viral spread to sites of secondary replication. To determine how viruses gain access to the circulatory system, we examined reovirus infection of polarized human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). Reovirus productively infects polarized HBMECs, but infection does not alter tight junction integrity. Apical infection of polarized HBMECs is more efficient than basolateral infection, which is attributable to viral engagement of sialic acid and JAM-A. Viral release occurs exclusively from the apical surface via a mechanism that is not associated with lysis or apoptosis of infected cells. These data suggest that infection of endothelial cells routes reovirus apically into the bloodstream for systemic dissemination in the host. Understanding how viruses invade the bloodstream may aid in the development of therapeutics that block this step in viral pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Bloodstream spread of viruses within infected hosts is a critical but poorly understood step in viral disease. Reoviruses first enter the host through the oral or respiratory route and infect cells in the central nervous system. Spread of reoviruses to the brain occurs by blood or nerves, which makes reoviruses useful models for studies of systemic viral dissemination. In this study, we examined how reoviruses infect endothelial cells, which form the walls of blood vessels. We found that reovirus infection of endothelial cells allows the virus to enter blood vessels and serves as a means for the virus to reach high titers in the circulation. Understanding how reovirus

  7. Avian influenza

    MedlinePlus

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  8. Avian Astrovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian astroviruses comprise a diverse group of viruses affecting many avian species and causing enteritis, hepatitis and nephritis. To date, six different astroviruses have been identified in avian species based on the species of origin and viral genome characteristics: two turkey-origin astroviru...

  9. Histopathological characterization and in situ detection of Callinectes sapidus reovirus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Messick, Gretchen A; Pantoja, Carlos R; Redman, Rita M; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-11-01

    A reovirus (tentatively designated as Callinectes sapidus reovirus, CsRV) was found in the blue crabs C. sapidus collected in Chesapeake Bay in 2005. Histological examination of hepatopancreas and gill from infected crabs revealed eosinophilic to basophilic, cytoplasmic, inclusions in hemocytes and in cells of connective tissue. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA extracted from hemolymph of infected crabs. One clone (designated as CsRV-28) with a 532-bp insert was 75% identical in nucleotide sequence (and 95% similar in translated amino acid sequence) to the quanylytransferase gene of the Scylla serrata reovirus (SsRV). The insert of CsRV-28 was labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP and hybridized to sections of hepatopancreas and gill of infected C. sapidus, this probe reacted to hemocytes and cells in the connective tissue. No reaction was seen in any of the tissues prepared from uninfected crabs. Thus, this in situ hybridization procedure can be used to diagnose CsRV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. REO-10: A Phase I Study of Intravenous Reovirus and Docetaxel in Patients with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Comins, Charles; Spicer, James; Protheroe, Andrew; Roulstone, Victoria; Twigger, Katie; White, Christine M.; Vile, Richard; Melcher, Alan; Coffey, Matt C.; Mettinger, Karl L.; Nuovo, Gerard; Cohn, David E.; Phelps, Mitch; Harrington, Kevin J.; Pandha, Hardev S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose REOLYSIN (Oncolytics Biotech) consists of a wild-type oncolytic reovirus, which has selective cytotoxicity for tumor cells while sparing normal cells. In a phase I study as a single agent, repeated infusions of reovirus were safe with evidence of antitumor activity. Preclinical studies indicate potential for synergy between reovirus and chemotherapeutic agents. A multicenter, phase I dose escalation study was designed to assess the safety of combining reovirus with docetaxel chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancer. Experimental Design Patients received 75 mg/m2 docetaxel (day 1) and escalating doses of reovirus up to 3 × 1010 TCID50 (days 1-5) every 3 weeks. Results Twenty-five patients were enrolled, and 24 patients were exposed to treatment, with 23 completing at least one cycle and 16 suitable for response assessment. Dose-limiting toxicity of grade 4 neutropenia was seen in one patient, but the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Antitumor activity was seen with one complete response and three partial responses. A disease control rate (combined complete response, partial response, and stable disease) of 88% was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis of reovirus protein expression was observed in posttreatment tumor biopsies from three patients. Conclusion The combination of reovirus and docetaxel is safe, with evidence of objective disease response, and warrants further evaluation in a phase II study at a recommended schedule of docetaxel (75 mg/m2, three times weekly) and reovirus (3 × 1010 TCID50, days 1-5, every 3 weeks). PMID:20926400

  11. Sequence Analysis of Raspberry latent virus Suggests a New Genus of Dicot Infecting Reoviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Currently, there are three assigned genera of plant reoviruses: Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus and Oryzavirus. With only two exceptions, all plant reoviruses infect monocotyledonous plants. The recent characterization of Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) isolated from red raspberry plants in northern Washingt...

  12. Reovirus genomes from plant-feeding insects represent a newly discovered lineage within the family Reoviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A complex set of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) was isolated from threecornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus), a plant-feeding hemipteran pest. A subset of these dsRNAs constitute the genome of a new reovirus, provisionally designated Spissistilus festinus reovirus (SpFRV). SpFRV was prese...

  13. Reovirus-like agent associated with neonatal diarrhea in pronghorn antelope.

    PubMed

    Reed, D E; Daley, C A; Shave, H J

    1976-10-01

    Reovirus-like particles were demonstrated by negative stain electron microscopic examination of the feces from antelope fawns with diarrhea. Fluorescent antibody tests on frozen sections of ileum from one dead antelope fawn and immunoelectron microscopy tests on feces from two live fawns provided evidence that the antelope agent was serologically related to the neonatal calf diarrhea reovirus-like agent.

  14. A Compact, Multifunctional Fusion Module Directs Cholesterol-Dependent Homomultimerization and Syncytiogenic Efficiency of Reovirus p10 FAST Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Key, Tim; Duncan, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The homologous p10 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins of the avian (ARV) and Nelson Bay (NBV) reoviruses are the smallest known viral membrane fusion proteins, and are virulence determinants of the fusogenic reoviruses. The small size of FAST proteins is incompatible with the paradigmatic membrane fusion pathway proposed for enveloped viral fusion proteins. Understanding how these diminutive viral fusogens mediate the complex process of membrane fusion is therefore of considerable interest, from both the pathogenesis and mechanism-of-action perspectives. Using chimeric ARV/NBV p10 constructs, the 36–40-residue ectodomain was identified as the major determinant of the differing fusion efficiencies of these homologous p10 proteins. Extensive mutagenic analysis determined the ectodomain comprises two distinct, essential functional motifs. Syncytiogenesis assays, thiol-specific surface biotinylation, and liposome lipid mixing assays identified an ∼25-residue, N-terminal motif that dictates formation of a cystine loop fusion peptide in both ARV and NBV p10. Surface immunofluorescence staining, FRET analysis and cholesterol depletion/repletion studies determined the cystine loop motif is connected through a two-residue linker to a 13-residue membrane-proximal ectodomain region (MPER). The MPER constitutes a second, independent motif governing reversible, cholesterol-dependent assembly of p10 multimers in the plasma membrane. Results further indicate that: (1) ARV and NBV homomultimers segregate to distinct, cholesterol-dependent microdomains in the plasma membrane; (2) p10 homomultimerization and cholesterol-dependent microdomain localization are co-dependent; and (3) the four juxtamembrane MPER residues present in the multimerization motif dictate species-specific microdomain association and homomultimerization. The p10 ectodomain therefore constitutes a remarkably compact, multifunctional fusion module that directs syncytiogenic efficiency and

  15. PUMA and NF-kB Are Cell Signaling Predictors of Reovirus Oncolysis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhong-Qiao; Thirukkumaran, Ponnampalam; Luider, Joanne; Kopciuk, Karen; Spurrell, Jason; Elzinga, Kate; Morris, Don

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Reovirus is a ubiquitous RNA virus that exploits aberrant signaling pathways for its replication. The oncolytic potential of reovirus against numerous cancers under pre-clinical/clinical conditions has been documented by us and others. Despite its proven clinical activity, the underlying mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis is still not well elucidated. If reovirus therapy is to be optimized for cancer, including breast cancer patients, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis, especially in treatment of resistant tumour. Experimental approach and results In the present study global gene expression profiling was utilized as a preliminary roadmap to tease-out pivotal molecules involved in reovirus induced apoptosis in breast cancer. Reovirus treated HTB133 and MCF7 breast cancer cells revealed transcriptional alteration of a defined subset of apoptotic genes and members of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) family and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) were prominent. Since NF-kB can paradoxically suppress or promote apoptosis in cancer, the significance of NF-kB in reovirus oncolysis of breast cancer was investigated. Real time PCR analysis indicated a 2.9–4.3 fold increase in NF-kB p65 message levels following reovirus infection of MCF7 and HTB133, respectively. Nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 protein was also dramatically augmented post reovirus treatment and correlated with enhanced DNA binding. Pharmacologic inhibition of NF-kB lead to oncolytic protection and significant down regulation of PUMA message levels. PUMA down regulation using siRNA suppressed reovirus oncolysis via significantly repressed apoptosis in p53 mutant HTB133 cells. Conclusions This study demonstrates for the first time that a prominent pathway of reovirus oncolysis of breast cancer is mediated through NF-kB and that PUMA upregulation is dependent on NF-kB activation. These findings represent potential therapeutic indicators of

  16. Studies on the acid-production characteristics of Bacillus megaterium strain P17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Chuanqing; Jiang, Aihua; Huang, Weiyi; Qi, Xiaoyu; Cao, Guangxiang

    2017-05-01

    Phosphorus is the vital element for the growth of plants. Bacillus megaterium strain P17 was isolated from yellow brown soil in Nanjing. Strain P17 could improve the solubility of insoluble phosphate. The solubilizing mechanism needs to be studied deeply. In this paper, the acid-production characteristics of Bacillus megaterium strain P17 were studied deeply. The volatile and nonvolatile organic acid produced by strain P17 was detected by GC. In addition, the acid-production characteristics of strain P17 was determined when strain P17 used different phosphorus sources.

  17. Cathepsin S supports acid-independent infection by some reoviruses.

    PubMed

    Golden, Joseph W; Bahe, Jessica A; Lucas, William T; Nibert, Max L; Schiff, Leslie A

    2004-03-05

    In murine fibroblasts, efficient proteolysis of reovirus outer capsid protein sigma3 during cell entry by virions requires the acid-dependent lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L. The importance of cathepsin L for infection of other cell types is unknown. Here we report that the acid-independent lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S mediates outer capsid processing in macrophage-like P388D cells. P388D cells supported infection by virions of strain Lang, but not strain c43. Genetic studies revealed that this difference is determined by S4, the viral gene segment that encodes sigma3. c43-derived subvirion particles that lack sigma3 replicated normally in P388D cells, suggesting that the difference in infectivity of Lang and c43 virions is at the level of sigma3 processing. Infection of P388D cells with Lang virions was inhibited by the broad spectrum cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane but not by NH(4)Cl, which raises the endocytic pH and thereby inhibits acid-dependent proteases such as cathepsins L and B. Outer capsid processing and infection of P388D cells with Lang virions were also inhibited by a cathepsin S-specific inhibitor. Furthermore, in the presence of NH(4)Cl, cell lines engineered to express cathepsin S supported infection by Lang, but not c43, virions. Our results thus indicate that differences in susceptibility to cathepsin S-mediated sigma3 processing are responsible for strain differences in reovirus infection of macrophage-like P388D cells and other cathepsin S-expressing cells. Additionally, our data suggest that the acid dependence of reovirus infections of most other cell types may reflect the low pH requirement for the activities of most other lysosomal proteases rather, than some other acid-dependent aspect of cell entry.

  18. Reovirus-specific polypeptides: analysis using discontinuous gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, R K; Fields, B N

    1976-01-01

    The electrophoretic analysis of reovirus-specific polypeptides in infected cells using a discontinuous gel system has allowed the resolution of additional viral-specific polypeptides, including one large-sized gamma3 and two (or possibly three) medium-sized (mu3, mu4, mu5(?)) species. The proteins designated mu0, sigma1, and sigma2 based on electrophoretic mobility in gel systems containing phosphate-urea correspond to mu4, sigma2, and sigma1, respectively, when analyzed in systems containing Tris-glycine. It is likely that protein modifications (phosphorylation and glycosylation) are responsible for at least some of these differences. Images PMID:950684

  19. The entry of reovirus into L cells is dependent on vacuolar proton-ATPase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, C G; Guinea, R; Benavente, J; Carrasco, L

    1996-01-01

    Inhibitors of vacuolar proton-ATPase activity (5 microM bafilomycin A1 or 50 nM concanamycin A) prevented infection by reovirus particles but not by infectious subviral particles (ISVPs). Neither compound affected virus attachment or internalization. However, both compounds potently blocked cleavage of the viral protein mu 1C. Finally, both reovirus particles and ISVPs efficiently translocated the toxin alpha-sarcin to the cytosol during virus entry. Bafilomycin A1 blocked translocation of alpha-sarcin by reovirus particles but not by ISVPs. PMID:8523573

  20. Serotonin Receptor Agonist 5-Nonyloxytryptamine Alters the Kinetics of Reovirus Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Mainou, Bernardo A.; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Smith, Everett Clinton; Dorset, Daniel C.; Denison, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are nonenveloped double-stranded RNA viruses that infect most mammalian species, including humans. Reovirus binds to cell surface glycans, junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), and the Nogo-1 receptor (depending on the cell type) and enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Within the endocytic compartment, reovirus undergoes stepwise disassembly, which is followed by release of the transcriptionally active viral core into the cytoplasm. In a small-molecule screen to identify host mediators of reovirus infection, we found that treatment of cells with 5-nonyloxytryptamine (5-NT), a prototype serotonin receptor agonist, diminished reovirus cytotoxicity. 5-NT also blocked reovirus infection. In contrast, treatment of cells with methiothepin mesylate, a serotonin antagonist, enhanced infection by reovirus. 5-NT did not alter cell surface expression of JAM-A or attachment of reovirus to cells. However, 5-NT altered the distribution of early endosomes with a concomitant impairment of reovirus transit to late endosomes and a delay in reovirus disassembly. Consistent with an inhibition of viral disassembly, 5-NT treatment did not alter infection by in vitro-generated infectious subvirion particles, which bind to JAM-A but bypass a requirement for proteolytic uncoating in endosomes to infect cells. We also found that treatment of cells with 5-NT decreased the infectivity of alphavirus chikungunya virus and coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus. These data suggest that serotonin receptor signaling influences cellular activities that regulate entry of diverse virus families and provides a new, potentially broad-spectrum target for antiviral drug development. IMPORTANCE Identification of well-characterized small molecules that modulate viral infection can accelerate development of antiviral therapeutics while also providing new tools to increase our understanding of the cellular processes that underlie virus-mediated cell

  1. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Eric A.; Camacho, Zenaido T.; Hillestad, Matthew L.; Crosby, Catherine M.; Turner, Mallory A.; Guenzel, Adam J.; Fadel, Hind J.; Mercier, George T.; Barry, Michael A.

    2015-08-15

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5.

  2. Total chemical synthesis of N-myristoylated HIV-1 matrix protein p17: Structural and mechanistic implications of p17 myristoylation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhibin; Alexandratos, Jerry; Ericksen, Bryan; Lubkowski, Jacek; Gallo, Robert C.; Lu, Wuyuan

    2004-01-01

    The HIV-1 matrix protein p17, excised proteolytically from the N terminus of the Gag polyprotein, forms a protective shell attached to the inner surface of the plasma membrane of the virus. During the late stages of the HIV-1 replication cycle, the N-terminally myristoylated p17 domain targets the Gag polyprotein to the host-cell membrane for particle assembly. In the early stages of HIV-1 replication, however, some p17 molecules dissociate from the viral membrane to direct the preintegration complex to the host-cell nucleus. These two opposing targeting functions of p17 require that the protein be capable of reversible membrane interaction. It is postulated that a significant structural change in p17 triggered by proteolytic cleavage of the Gag polyprotein sequesters the N-terminal myristoyl group, resulting in a weaker membrane binding by the matrix protein than the Gag precursor. To test this “myristoyl switch” hypothesis, we obtained highly purified synthetic HIV-1 p17 of 131 amino acid residues and its N-myristoylated form in large quantity. Both forms of p17 were characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy, protein chemical denaturation, and analytical centrifugal sedimentation. Our results indicate that although N-myristoylation causes no spectroscopically discernible conformational change in p17, it stabilizes the protein by 1 kcal/mol and promotes protein trimerization in solution. These findings support the premise that the myristoyl switch in p17 is triggered not by a structural change associated with proteolysis, but rather by the destabilization of oligomeric structures of membrane-bound p17 in the absence of downstream Gag subdomains. PMID:15280532

  3. Presence of nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase activity in purified virions of reovirus.

    PubMed

    Borsa, J; Grover, J; Chapman, J D

    1970-09-01

    A nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase activity has been discovered in reovirus virions. This activity converts nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates in vitro. Properties of this enzyme are presented, with evidence that this activity is an integral part of the virion core.

  4. Evaluation of cell lines and immunofluorescence and plaque assay procedures for quantifying reoviruses in sewage.

    PubMed Central

    Ridinger, D N; Spendlove, R S; Barnett, B B; George, D B; Roth, J C

    1982-01-01

    Twelve continuous cell lines were tested to determine their sensitivity to reovirus types 1, 2, and 3 isolated from sewage. Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK), rhesus monkey kidney (LLC-MK2), and human embryonic intestinal (intestinal 407) cells were most sensitive, respectively. In a similar study, MDBK cells were more sensitive than LLC-MK2 and Buffalo green monkey kidney (BGM) cells to sewage-isolated, protamine-precipitated reoviruses which had not been serotyped and had no previous cell contact. Sewage-isolated, protamine-precipitated reoviruses were also used in conjunction with MDBK cells in a comparative evaluation of immunofluorescent cell count and plaque assay procedures. The immunofluorescence assay is more sensitive and more rapid than the plaque assay. Reoviruses in excess of 10(4)/liter of raw sewage were detected by the immunofluorescent cell count assay. PMID:7044308

  5. Activation of Innate Immune Responses in the Central Nervous System during Reovirus Myelitis

    PubMed Central

    Schittone, Stephanie A.; Dionne, Kalen R.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Reovirus infection of the murine spinal cord (SC) was used as a model system to investigate innate immune responses during viral myelitis, including the activation of glia (microglia and astrocytes) and interferon (IFN) signaling and increased expression of inflammatory mediators. Reovirus myelitis was associated with the pronounced activation of SC glia, as evidenced by characteristic changes in cellular morphology and increased expression of astrocyte and microglia-specific proteins. Expression of inflammatory mediators known to be released by activated glia, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL 5), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), was also significantly upregulated in the SC of reovirus-infected animals compared to mock-infected controls. Reovirus infection of the mouse SC was also associated with increased expression of genes involved in IFN signaling, including IFN-stimulated genes (ISG). Further, reovirus infection of mice deficient in the expression of the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR−/−) resulted in accelerated mortality, demonstrating that IFN signaling is protective during reovirus myelitis. Experiments performed in ex vivo SC slice cultures (SCSC) confirmed that resident SC cells contribute to the production of at least some of these inflammatory mediators and ISG during reovirus infection. Microglia, but not astrocytes, were still activated, and glia-associated inflammatory mediators were still produced in reovirus-infected INFAR−/− mice, demonstrating that IFN signaling is not absolutely required for these neuroinflammatory responses. Our results suggest that activated glia and inflammatory mediators contribute to a local microenvironment that is deleterious to neuronal survival. PMID:22623770

  6. Reovirus-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Enhancement of Innate Immune Responses Against Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kathryn; Scott, Karen J.; Rose, Ailsa; Desborough, Michael; Harrington, Kevin; Pandha, Hardev; Parrish, Christopher; Vile, Richard; Coffey, Matt; Bowen, David; Errington-Mais, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Reovirus is a naturally occurring oncolytic virus that has shown preclinical efficacy in the treatment of a wide range of tumor types and has now reached phase III testing in clinical trials. The anti-cancer activity of reovirus has been attributed to both its direct oncolytic activity and the enhancement of anti-tumor immune responses. In this study, we have investigated the direct effect of reovirus on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and its potential to enhance innate immune responses against AML, including the testing of primary samples from patients. Reovirus was found to replicate in and kill AML cell lines, and to reduce cell viability in primary AML samples. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon alpha (IFNα) and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (known as RANTES [regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted]) were also secreted from AML cells in response to virus treatment. In addition, reovirus-mediated activation of natural killer (NK) cells, within the context of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, stimulated their anti-leukemia response, with increased NK degranulation and IFNγ production and enhanced killing of AML targets. These data suggest that reovirus has the potential as both a direct cytotoxic and an immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of AML. PMID:23515241

  7. Avian Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  8. Cellular aspartyl proteases promote the unconventional secretion of biologically active HIV-1 matrix protein p17

    PubMed Central

    Caccuri, Francesca; Iaria, Maria Luisa; Campilongo, Federica; Varney, Kristen; Rossi, Alessandro; Mitola, Stefania; Schiarea, Silvia; Bugatti, Antonella; Mazzuca, Pietro; Giagulli, Cinzia; Fiorentini, Simona; Lu, Wuyuan; Salmona, Mario; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    The human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein p17 (p17), although devoid of a signal sequence, is released by infected cells and detected in blood and in different organs and tissues even in HIV-1-infected patients undergoing successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Extracellularly, p17 deregulates the function of different cells involved in AIDS pathogenesis. The mechanism of p17 secretion, particularly during HIV-1 latency, still remains to be elucidated. A recent study showed that HIV-1-infected cells can produce Gag without spreading infection in a model of viral latency. Here we show that in Gag-expressing cells, secretion of biologically active p17 takes place at the plasma membrane and occurs following its interaction with phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate and its subsequent cleavage from the precursor Gag (Pr55Gag) operated by cellular aspartyl proteases. These enzymes operate a more complex Gag polypeptide proteolysis than the HIV-1 protease, thus hypothetically generating slightly truncated or elongated p17s in their C-terminus. A 17 C-terminal residues excised p17 was found to be structurally and functionally identical to the full-length p17 demonstrating that the final C-terminal region of p17 is irrelevant for the protein’s biological activity. These findings offer new opportunities to identify treatment strategies for inhibiting p17 release in the extracellular microenvironment. PMID:27905556

  9. Avian botulism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Locke, Louis N.; Kennelly, James J.

    1985-01-01

    What is avian botulism? Avian botulism, or Western duck sickness, is one of the three most important disease problems of wild migratory birds. Each year, many birds are paralyzed or die after exposure to a toxin produced by the botulinum bacterium. Two of the seven toxin types that have been identifies cause mortality in wild birds; one of these types, type C, is most often associated with dieoffs of ducks, while type E primarily affects gulls and loons.

  10. Avian Hematology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    Avian veterinarians often rely heavily on the results of various diagnostic tests, including hematology results. As such, cellular identification and evaluation of the cellular response are invaluable tools that help veterinarians understand the health or condition of their patient, as well as to monitor severity and clinical progression of disease and response to treatment. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly understand how to identify and evaluate changes in the avian erythron and leukon, as well as to interpret normal and abnormal results.

  11. Avian hematology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Avian veterinarians often rely heavily on the results of various diagnostic tests, including hematology results. As such, cellular identification and evaluation of the cellular response are invaluable tools that help veterinarians understand the health or condition of their patient, as well as to monitor severity and clinical progression of disease and response to treatment. Therefore, it is important to thoroughly understand how to identify and evaluate changes in the avian erythron and leukon, as well as to interpret normal and abnormal results.

  12. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Paul Eckburg

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  13. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  14. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Eric A; Camacho, Zenaido T; Hillestad, Matthew L; Crosby, Catherine M; Turner, Mallory A; Guenzel, Adam J; Fadel, Hind J; Mercier, George T; Barry, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination.

  15. A reovirus challenge model applicable in commercial broilers after live vaccination.

    PubMed

    van Loon, A A W M; Suurland, B; van der Marel, P

    2002-02-01

    The efficacy of live reovirus vaccines may be determined by challenge via the foot pad route 3 to 4 weeks after vaccination. Swelling and discoloration in the foot pad and shank are scored for a period of 14 days. The major disadvantages of this challenge model are the subjective judgement of gross foot pad and/or shank lesions, that it is very difficult to induce lesions in broilers, and that it causes animal suffering. Other reovirus challenge models are based on reisolation of the virus from different tissues or on scoring microscopic lesions in the tendons. Some disadvantages of these models are that they either cannot be used after vaccination with live reovirus because they cannot discriminate between vaccine and challenge virus or that the microscopic lesions scored need not necessarily be related to the challenge virus but may have been induced by other factors. Therefore, we have attempted to develop a reovirus challenge model that was an improvement on the existing ones, using isolation of reovirus from different organs followed by specific detection of the challenge virus with a monoclonal antibody that can discriminate between challenge and vaccine virus. The reovirus challenge model was examined in specific pathogen free (SPF) White Leghorn chickens and commercial broilers. In vivo studies were conducted to examine the efficacy of an attenuated reovirus vaccine in SPF White Leghorn chickens and commercial broilers with maternal immunity against reovirus. No challenge virus could be detected in any of the organs of the vaccinated chickens 3 and 10 days after challenge. In contrast, challenge virus could be isolated from the unvaccinated control group. At an increased challenge dose all unvaccinated challenge control birds were positive, while the vaccinated chickens were protected. It was shown that 1-day-old vaccination in the presence of maternal immunity was effective. It seemed that protection induced in broilers by the attenuated reovirus vaccine

  16. Structure of Reovirus σ1 in Complex with Its Receptor Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Eva; Guglielmi, Kristen M.; Strauss, Holger M.; Dermody, Terence S.; Stehle, Thilo

    2008-01-01

    Viral attachment to specific host receptors is the first step in viral infection and serves an essential function in the selection of target cells. Mammalian reoviruses are highly useful experimental models for studies of viral pathogenesis and show promise as vectors for oncolytics and vaccines. Reoviruses engage cells by binding to carbohydrates and the immunoglobulin superfamily member, junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A). JAM-A exists at the cell surface as a homodimer formed by extensive contacts between its N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains. We report the crystal structure of reovirus attachment protein σ1 in complex with a soluble form of JAM-A. The σ1 protein disrupts the JAM-A dimer, engaging a single JAM-A molecule via virtually the same interface that is used for JAM-A homodimerization. Thus, reovirus takes advantage of the adhesive nature of an immunoglobulin-superfamily receptor by usurping the ligand-binding site of this molecule to attach to the cell surface. The dissociation constant (KD) of the interaction between σ1 and JAM-A is 1,000-fold lower than that of the homophilic interaction between JAM-A molecules, indicating that JAM-A strongly prefers σ1 as a ligand. Analysis of reovirus mutants engineered by plasmid-based reverse genetics revealed residues in σ1 required for binding to JAM-A and infectivity of cultured cells. These studies define biophysical mechanisms of reovirus cell attachment and provide a platform for manipulating reovirus tropism to enhance vector targeting. PMID:19079583

  17. Role of Immunoglobulin A in Protection against Reovirus Entry into Murine Peyer's Patches†

    PubMed Central

    Silvey, Katherine J.; Hutchings, Amy B.; Vajdy, Michael; Petzke, Mary M.; Neutra, Marian R.

    2001-01-01

    Reovirus type 1 Lang (T1L) infects the mouse intestinal mucosa by adhering specifically to epithelial M cells and exploiting M-cell transport to enter the Peyer's patches. Oral inoculation of adult mice has been shown to elicit cellular and humoral immune responses that clear the infection within 10 days. This study was designed to determine whether adult mice that have cleared a primary infection are protected against viral entry upon oral rechallenge and, if so, whether antireovirus secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) is a necessary component of protection. Adult BALB/c mice that were orally inoculated on day 0 with reovirus T1L produced antiviral S-IgA in feces and IgG in serum directed primarily against the reovirus ς1 attachment protein. Eight hours after oral reovirus challenge on day 21, the Peyer's patches of previously exposed mice contained no detectable virus whereas Peyer's patches of naive controls contained up to 2,300 PFU of reovirus/mg of tissue. Orally inoculated IgA knockout (IgA−/−) mice cleared the initial infection as effectively as wild-type mice and produced higher levels of reovirus-specific serum IgG and secretory IgM than C57BL/6 wild-type mice. When IgA−/− mice were rechallenged on day 21, however, their Peyer's patches became infected. These results indicate that intestinal S-IgA is an essential component of immune protection against reovirus entry into Peyer's patch mucosa. PMID:11602727

  18. Daxx Upregulation within the Cytoplasm of Reovirus-Infected Cells Is Mediated by Interferon and Contributes to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Kalen R.; Zhuang, Yonghua; Leser, J. Smith; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Reovirus infection is a well-characterized experimental system for the study of viral pathogenesis and antiviral immunity within the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously shown that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the Fas death receptor each play a role in neuronal apoptosis occurring in reovirus-infected brains. Death-associated protein 6 (Daxx) is a cellular protein that mechanistically links Fas signaling to JNK signaling in several models of apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrate that Daxx is upregulated in reovirus-infected brain tissue through a type I interferon-mediated mechanism. Daxx upregulation is limited to brain regions that undergo reovirus-induced apoptosis and occurs in the cytoplasm and nucleus of neurons. Cytoplasmic Daxx is present in Fas-expressing cells during reovirus encephalitis, suggesting a role for Daxx in Fas-mediated apoptosis following reovirus infection. Further, in vitro expression of a dominant negative form of Daxx (DN-Daxx), which binds to Fas but which does not transmit downstream signaling, inhibits apoptosis of reovirus-infected cells. In contrast, in vitro depletion of Daxx results in increased expression of caspase 3 and apoptosis, suggesting that Daxx plays an antiapoptotic role in the nucleus. Overall, these data imply a regulatory role for Daxx in reovirus-induced apoptosis, depending on its location in the nucleus or cytoplasm. PMID:23302889

  19. Spissistilus festinus reovirus: a novel, unassigned species of the family Reoviridae infecting the three-cornered alfalfa hopper

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A complex set of double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) were isolated from threecornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus), a plant-feeding hemipteran insect pest. A subset of these dsRNAs constitute the genome of a novel, unassigned reovirus designated as Spissistilus festinus reovirus (SpFRV). Phylogen...

  20. T-2 toxin impairs murine immune response to respiratory reovirus and exacerbates viral bronchiolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Li Maoxiang; Harkema, Jack R.; Islam, Zahidul; Cuff, Chistopher F.; Pestka, James J. . E-mail: Pestka@msu.edu

    2006-11-15

    Exposure to immunosuppressive environmental contaminants is a possible contributing factor to increased occurrence of viral respiratory diseases. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 toxin (T-2), a frequent food contaminant, alters host resistance to lung infection by reovirus, a model respiratory virus. Balb/c mice (4 week old) were treated intraperitoneally with T-2 toxin (1.75 mg/kg bw) or saline vehicle and then intranasally instilled 2 h later with 10{sup 7} plaque forming unit (PFU) of reovirus, strain Lang (T1/L) or saline vehicle. At 10 days post-instillation (PI), both virus plaque-forming responses and reovirus L2 gene expression were 10-fold higher in lungs of T-2-treated mice compared to controls. No-effect and lowest-effect levels for T-2-induced suppression of reovirus clearance were 20 and 200 {mu}g/kg bw, respectively. Respiratory reovirus infection resulted in a mild bronchiolitis with minimal alveolitis, which was markedly exacerbated by T-2 pretreatment. Reovirus exposure induced marked increases in total cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes at 3 and 7 days PI in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) whereas macrophages were increased only at 7 days PI. Although prior T-2 exposure attenuated total cell and macrophage counts in BALF of control and infected mice at 3 days PI, the toxin potentiated total cell, macrophage, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in infected mice at 7 days PI. At 3 days PI, T-2 suppressed reovirus-induced IFN-{gamma} elevation in BALF, but enhanced production of IL-6 and MCP-1. T-2 pretreatment also suppressed reovirus-specific mucosal IgA responses in lung and enteric tract, but potentiated serum IgA and IgG responses. Taken together, T-2 increased lung viral burden, bronchopneumonia and pulmonary cellular infiltration in reovirus-infected mice. These effects might be attributable to reduced alveolar macrophage levels as well as modulated cytokine and mucosal Ig

  1. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 misfolding forms toxic amyloidogenic assemblies that induce neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Zeinolabediny, Yasmin; Caccuri, Francesca; Colombo, Laura; Morelli, Federica; Romeo, Margherita; Rossi, Alessandro; Schiarea, Silvia; Ciaramelli, Carlotta; Airoldi, Cristina; Weston, Ria; Donghui, Liu; Krupinski, Jerzy; Corpas, Rubén; García-Lara, Elisa; Sarroca, Sara; Sanfeliu, Coral; Slevin, Mark; Caruso, Arnaldo; Salmona, Mario; Diomede, Luisa

    2017-09-04

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains an important neurological manifestation that adversely affects a patient's quality of life. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 (p17) has been detected in autoptic brain tissue of HAND individuals who presented early with severe AIDS encephalopathy. We hypothesised that the ability of p17 to misfold may result in the generation of toxic assemblies in the brain and may be relevant for HAND pathogenesis. A multidisciplinary integrated approach has been applied to determine the ability of p17 to form soluble amyloidogenic assemblies in vitro. To provide new information into the potential pathogenic role of soluble p17 species in HAND, their toxicological capability was evaluated in vivo. In C. elegans, capable of recognising toxic assemblies of amyloidogenic proteins, p17 induces a specific toxic effect which can be counteracted by tetracyclines, drugs able to hinder the formation of large oligomers and consequently amyloid fibrils. The intrahippocampal injection of p17 in mice reduces their cognitive function and induces behavioral deficiencies. These findings offer a new way of thinking about the possible cause of neurodegeneration in HIV-1-seropositive patients, which engages the ability of p17 to form soluble toxic assemblies.

  2. Utilization of sialic acid as a coreceptor is required for reovirus-induced biliary disease

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Erik S.; Youree, Bryan E.; Ebert, Daniel H.; Forrest, J. Craig; Connolly, Jodi L.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Washington, Kay; Wetzel, J. Denise; Dermody, Terence S.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of neonatal mice with some reovirus strains produces a disease similar to infantile biliary atresia, but previous attempts to correlate reovirus infection with this disease have yielded conflicting results. We used isogenic reovirus strains T3SA– and T3SA+, which differ solely in the capacity to bind sialic acid as a coreceptor, to define the role of sialic acid in reovirus encephalitis and biliary tract infection in mice. Growth in the intestine was equivalent for both strains following peroral inoculation. However, T3SA+ spread more rapidly from the intestine to distant sites and replicated to higher titers in spleen, liver, and brain. Strikingly, mice infected with T3SA+ but not T3SA– developed steatorrhea and bilirubinemia. Liver tissue from mice infected with T3SA+ demonstrated intense inflammation focused at intrahepatic bile ducts, pathology analogous to that found in biliary atresia in humans, and high levels of T3SA+ antigen in bile duct epithelial cells. T3SA+ bound 100-fold more efficiently than T3SA– to human cholangiocarcinoma cells. These observations suggest that the carbohydrate-binding specificity of a virus can dramatically alter disease in the host and highlight the need for epidemiologic studies focusing on infection by sialic acid–binding reovirus strains as a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of neonatal biliary atresia. PMID:12813018

  3. The molecular basis of viral oncolysis: usurpation of the Ras signaling pathway by reovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Strong, J E; Coffey, M C; Tang, D; Sabinin, P; Lee, P W

    1998-01-01

    NIH-3T3 cells, which are resistant to reovirus infection, became susceptible when transformed with activated Sos or Ras. Restriction of reovirus proliferation in untransformed NIH-3T3 cells was not at the level of viral gene transcription, but rather at the level of viral protein synthesis. An analysis of cell lysates revealed that a 65 kDa protein was phosphorylated in untransformed NIH-3T3 cells, but only after infection with reovirus. This protein was not phosphorylated in infected or uninfected transformed cells. The 65 kDa protein was determined to be the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), whose phosphorylation leads to translation inhibition. Inhibition of PKR phosphorylation by 2-aminopurine, or deletion of the Pkr gene, led to drastic enhancement of reovirus protein synthesis in untransformed cells. The emerging picture is one in which early viral transcripts trigger PKR phosphorylation in untransformed cells, which in turn leads to inhibition of translation of viral genes; this phosphorylation event is blocked by an element(s) in the Ras pathway in the transformed cells, allowing viral protein synthesis to ensue. The usurpation of the Ras signaling pathway therefore constitutes the basis of reovirus oncolysis. PMID:9628872

  4. A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Crameri, Gary; Hyatt, Alex; Yu, Meng; Tompang, Mohd Rosli; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer; Crameri, Sandra; Kumarasamy, Verasingam; Eaton, Bryan T.; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named “Melaka virus”) isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation. Two of his family members developed similar symptoms ≈1 week later and had serological evidence of infection with the same virus. Epidemiological tracing revealed that the family was exposed to a bat in the house ≈1 week before the onset of the father's clinical symptoms. Genome sequence analysis indicated a close genetic relationship between Melaka virus and Pulau virus, a reovirus isolated in 1999 from fruit bats in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Screening of sera collected from human volunteers on the island revealed that 14 of 109 (13%) were positive for both Pulau and Melaka viruses. This is the first report of an orthoreovirus in association with acute human respiratory diseases. Melaka virus is serologically not related to the different types of mammalian reoviruses that were known to infect humans asymptomatically. These data indicate that bat-borne reoviruses can be transmitted to and cause clinical diseases in humans. PMID:17592121

  5. Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A Is Required for Hematogenous Dissemination of Reovirus

    PubMed Central

    Antar, Annukka A. R.; Konopka, Jennifer L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn A.; Henry, Rachel A.; Perdigoto, Ana L.; Carter, Bruce D.; Pozzi, Ambra; Abel, Ty W.; Dermody, Terence S.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Diverse families of viruses bind immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins located in tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions of epithelium and endothelium. However, little is known about the roles of these receptors in the pathogenesis of viral disease. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is an IgSF protein that localizes to TJs and serves as a receptor for mammalian reovirus. We inoculated wild-type (wt) and isogenic JAM-A−/− mice perorally with reovirus and found that JAM-A is dispensable for viral replication in the intestine but required for systemic dissemination. Reovirus replication in the brain and tropism for discrete neural regions are equivalent in wt and JAM-A−/− mice following intracranial inoculation, suggesting a function for JAM-A in reovirus spread to extra-intestinal sites. JAM-A promotes reovirus infection of endothelial cells, providing a conduit for the virus into the bloodstream. These findings indicate that a broadly expressed IgSF viral receptor specifically mediates hematogenous dissemination in the host. PMID:19154988

  6. Molecular basis of reovirus virulence: Role of the S1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Howard L.; Drayna, Dennis; Averill, Damon R.; Fields, Bernard N.

    1977-01-01

    A genetic approach has been used to define the molecular basis for the different patterns of virulence and central nervous system cell tropism exhibited by reovirus types 1 and 3. Intracerebral inoculation of reovirus type 3 into newborn mice causes a necrotizing encephalitis (without ependymal damage) that is uniformly fatal. Animal inoculated with reovirus type 1 generally survive and may develop epedymal cell damage (without neuronal necrosis) and hydrocephalus. Using recombinant clones derived from crosses between reovirus types 1 and 3, we have been able to determine that the S1 genome segment is responsible for the differing cell tropism of reovirus serotypes and is the major determinant of neurovirulence. The type 1 S1 genome segment is responsible for ependymal damage with subsequent hydrocephalus; the type 3 S1 genome segment is responsible for neuronal necrosis and neurovirulence. We postulate that these differences are due to the specific interaction of the σ1 outer capsid polypeptide (the protein coded for by the S1 genome segment) with receptors on the surface of either ependymal cells or neuronal cells. Images PMID:271999

  7. A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Crameri, Gary; Hyatt, Alex; Yu, Meng; Tompang, Mohd Rosli; Rosli, Juliana; McEachern, Jennifer; Crameri, Sandra; Kumarasamy, Verasingam; Eaton, Bryan T; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2007-07-03

    Respiratory infections constitute the most widespread human infectious disease, and a substantial proportion of them are caused by unknown etiological agents. Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were first isolated from humans in the early 1950s and so named because they were not associated with any known disease. Here, we report a previously unknown reovirus (named "Melaka virus") isolated from a 39-year-old male patient in Melaka, Malaysia, who was suffering from high fever and acute respiratory disease at the time of virus isolation. Two of his family members developed similar symptoms approximately 1 week later and had serological evidence of infection with the same virus. Epidemiological tracing revealed that the family was exposed to a bat in the house approximately 1 week before the onset of the father's clinical symptoms. Genome sequence analysis indicated a close genetic relationship between Melaka virus and Pulau virus, a reovirus isolated in 1999 from fruit bats in Tioman Island, Malaysia. Screening of sera collected from human volunteers on the island revealed that 14 of 109 (13%) were positive for both Pulau and Melaka viruses. This is the first report of an orthoreovirus in association with acute human respiratory diseases. Melaka virus is serologically not related to the different types of mammalian reoviruses that were known to infect humans asymptomatically. These data indicate that bat-borne reoviruses can be transmitted to and cause clinical diseases in humans.

  8. AVIAN IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for studying the avian immune system have matured during the past two decades, with laboratory studies predominating in earlier years and field studies being conducted only in the past decade. One application has been to determine the potential for environmental contamina...

  9. AVIAN IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for studying the avian immune system have matured during the past two decades, with laboratory studies predominating in earlier years and field studies being conducted only in the past decade. One application has been to determine the potential for environmental contamina...

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular mechanism of hepatic fat metabolism disorder caused by Muscovy duck reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanxi; Liu, Mengxi; Xu, Lihui; Wu, Yijian; Huang, Yifan

    2017-10-10

    -chain family member 1; ADH1: alcohol dehydrogenase 1; APOA4: apolipoprotein A-IV; ARV: avian reovirus; cDNA: complementary deoxyribonucleic acid; COG: Clusters of Orthologous Groups; DEG: differentially expressed gene; DGAT: diacylgycerol acyltransferase; DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid; ECI2: enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2; EHHADH: enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; FDR: false discovery rate; GCDH: Pseudopodoces humilis glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase; GO: Gene Ontology; HADHA: hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), alpha subunit; I-FABP: intestinal fatty acid binding protein; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; L-FABP: liver fatty acid binding protein; MDRV: Muscovy duck reovirus; MOI: multiplicity of infection; NPC1L1: Niemann-Pick C1-like 1; qPCR: real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; RNA: ribonucleic acid; RNase: ribonuclease; RNA-seq: RNA sequencing technology; RPKM: reads per kilobase per million mapped reads; SR-B1: scavenger receptor class b type 1.

  11. Activity levels of cathepsins B and L in tumor cells are a biomarker for efficacy of reovirus-mediated tumor cell killing.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Y; Hotani, T; Katayama, Y; Tachibana, M; Mizuguchi, H; Sakurai, F

    2015-03-01

    Reovirus has gained much attention as an anticancer agent; however, the mechanism of the tumor cell-specific replication of reovirus is not fully understood. Although Ras activation is known to be crucial for tumor cell-specific replication of reovirus, it remains controversial which cellular factors are required for the reovirus-mediated tumor cell killing. In this study, we systematically investigated which cellular factors determined the efficiencies of reovirus-mediated tumor cell killing in various human cultured cell lines. The efficiency of reovirus-mediated cell killing varied widely among the cell lines. Junction adhesion molecule-A, a reovirus receptor, was highly expressed in almost all cell lines examined. Ras activation levels were largely different between the cell lines; however, there were no apparent correlations among the reovirus-mediated cell killing efficiencies and Ras activation status. On the other hand, activity levels of the cysteine proteases cathepsins B and L, which are crucial for proteolytic disassembly of the outer capsid proteins of reovirus, showed a tendency to be correlated with the efficiency of reovirus-mediated cell killing. These results indicate that the activity of cathepsins B and L is the most suitable as a biomarker for the efficacy of reovirus-mediated oncolysis among the factors examined in this study.

  12. Proteolytic processing of reovirus is required for adherence to intestinal M cells.

    PubMed Central

    Amerongen, H M; Wilson, G A; Fields, B N; Neutra, M R

    1994-01-01

    Reovirus adheres specifically to apical membranes of mouse intestinal M cells and exploits M-cell transepithelial transport activity to enter Peyer's patch mucosa, where replication occurs. Proteolytic conversion of native reovirus to intermediate subviral particles (ISVPs) occurs in the intestine, but it is not known whether conversion is essential for interaction of virus with M cells. We tested the capacity of native virions, ISVPs, and cores (that lack outer capsid proteins) to bind to intestinal epithelial cells in vivo and found that only ISVPs adhered to M cells. Thus, intraluminal conversion of native reovirus to ISVPs is a prerequisite for M-cell adherence, and outer capsid proteins unique to ISVPs (either sigma 1 or products of mu 1) mediate interaction of virus with M-cell apical membranes. Images PMID:7525989

  13. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil

    PubMed Central

    Chuan-qing, Zhong; Guang-xiang, Cao; Wei-yi, Huang; Xing-she, Luan; Yi-fei, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc. PMID:25477929

  14. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chuan-qing; Cao, Guang-xiang; Huang, Wei-yi; Luan, Xing-she; Yang, Yi-fei

    2014-01-01

    Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc.

  15. HIV-1 matrix protein p17: a candidate antigen for therapeutic vaccines against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Simona; Giagulli, Cinzia; Caccuri, Francesca; Magiera, Anna K; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2010-12-01

    The success in the development of anti-retroviral therapies (HAART) that contain human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is challenged by the cost of this lifelong therapy and by its toxicity. Immune-based therapeutic strategies that boost the immune response against HIV-1 proteins or protein subunits have been recently proposed to control virus replication in order to provide protection from disease development, reduce virus transmission, and help limit the use of anti-retroviral treatments. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 is a structural protein that is critically involved in most stages of the life cycle of the retrovirus. Besides its well established role in the virus life cycle, increasing evidence suggests that p17 may also be active extracellularly in deregulating biological activities of many different immune cells that are directly or indirectly involved in AIDS pathogenesis. Thus, p17 might represent a promising target for developing a therapeutic vaccine as a contribution to combating AIDS. In this article we review the biological characteristics of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 and we describe why a synthetic peptide representative of the p17 functional epitope may work as a vaccine molecule capable of inducing anti-p17 neutralizing response against p17 derived from divergent HIV-1 strains.

  16. Oncolytic reovirus induces intracellular redistribution of Ras to promote apoptosis and progeny virus release.

    PubMed

    Garant, K A; Shmulevitz, M; Pan, L; Daigle, R M; Ahn, D-G; Gujar, S A; Lee, P W K

    2016-02-11

    Reovirus is a naturally oncolytic virus that preferentially replicates in Ras-transformed cells and is currently undergoing clinical trials as a cancer therapeutic. Ras transformation promotes reovirus oncolysis by enhancing virion disassembly during entry, viral progeny production, and virus release through apoptosis; however, the mechanism behind the latter is not well understood. Here, we show that reovirus alters the intracellular location of oncogenic Ras to induce apoptosis of H-RasV12-transformed fibroblasts. Reovirus infection decreases Ras palmitoylation levels and causes accumulation of Ras in the Golgi through Golgi fragmentation. With the Golgi being the site of Ras palmitoylation, treatment of target cells with the palmitoylation inhibitor, 2-bromopalmitate (2BP), prompts a greater accumulation of H-RasV12 in the Golgi, and a dose-dependent increase in progeny virus release and subsequent spread. Conversely, tethering H-RasV12 to the plasma membrane (thereby preventing its movement to the Golgi) allows for efficient virus production, but results in basal levels of reovirus-induced cell death. Analysis of Ras downstream signaling reveals that cells expressing cycling H-RasV12 have elevated levels of phosphorylated JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), and that Ras retained at the Golgi body by 2BP increases activation of the MEKK1/MKK4/JNK signaling pathway to promote cell death. Collectively, our data suggest that reovirus induces Golgi fragmentation of target cells, and the subsequent accumulation of oncogenic Ras in the Golgi body initiates apoptotic signaling events required for virus release and spread.

  17. The pathogenicity of novel duck reovirus in Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Wang, Yao; Wang, Youling; Yu, Kexiang; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-08-30

    The novel duck reovirus (NDRV) is an emerging, contagious infection. To better realize the pathogenic mechanism of NDRV in ducks, an infection experiment was conducted. The resulting data demonstrated that typical gross lesions were observed in the infected ducks. NDRV was able to replicate in various tissues, leading to these pathological lesions, especially on the liver and spleen. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the expression of most innate immune-related genes was up-regulated and the antiviral innate immune response could be established in both the liver and spleen. This study indicates that NDRV is a pantropic virus. To resist viral infection, several pathogen recognition receptors can cooperatively recognize NDRV and initiate innate immunity, but the responses are different between different tissues. As far as we know, this is the first systematic investigation of the pathogenicity of NDRV in Cherry Valley ducks based on the host's innate immunity, and these data will provide new insights into the further study of the disease.

  18. Evidence for direct association of Vpr and matrix protein p17 within the HIV-1 virion.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Yoshimoto, J; Isaka, Y; Miki, S; Suyama, A; Adachi, A; Hayami, M; Fujiwara, T; Yoshie, O

    1996-06-01

    Vpr is one of the auxiliary proteins of HIV-1 and is selectively incorporated into the virion by a process involving the C-terminal p6 portion of the Gag precursor Pr55. Vpr and the matrix protein p17 are the components of the viral preintegration complex and appear to play important roles in the nuclear transport of proviral DNA in nondividing cells. In the present study, we have demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation experiments that Vpr associates with matrix protein p17 but not with capsid protein p24 within the HIV-1 virion. Experiments employing the yeast two-hybrid GAL4 assay for protein-protein interactions also demonstrated a direct association between Vpr and the C-terminal region of matrix protein p17. Association of Vpr and the matrix protein p17 within the mature virion is consistent with their collaborative role in the nuclear transportation of the viral preintegration complex in nondividing cells such as macrophages.

  19. Avian Influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  20. Avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Gary A; Maslow, Melanie J

    2006-03-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004 alone, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate over 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantines, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent increased human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short, interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems offer promise, should a pandemic occur.

  1. Reovirus type 3 synthesizes proteins in interferon-treated HeLa cells without reversing the antiviral state.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Esteban, M; Carrasco, L

    1988-06-01

    Treatment of HeLa cells with human lymphoblastoid interferon (IFN-alpha) does not inhibit reovirus type 3 protein synthesis during virus infection. In contrast, reovirus translation is blocked by treatment of L cells with mouse IFN-alpha. The (2'-5')A synthetase activity is induced in HeLa cells by IFN-alpha treatment and is activated after reovirus infection, since cell lysates from these cells synthesize in vitro (2'-5')A oligonucleotides. The IFN-induced protein kinase activity is also triggered in those lysates upon dsRNA addition. Thus, contrary to DNA-containing viruses, such as vaccinia virus or adenovirus, reovirus infection does not destroy or reverse the IFN-induced antiviral state. In support of this conclusion, superinfection with poliovirus or vesicular stomatitis virus of reovirus-infected HeLa cells treated with IFN leads only to a blockade of translation of the former viruses. These results provide a remarkable example where in the same cells doubly infected with two different viruses, the antiviral state induced by IFN-alpha is manifested by selectively inhibiting translation of one kind of virus (poliovirus or vesicular stomatitis virus) without affecting the translation of reovirus type 3. In addition, these results indicate that the resistance of reovirus translation to inhibition by IFN is different from the mechanism of resistance induced by DNA-containing viruses.

  2. Structure-function studies of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein, p17.

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, P M; Matthews, S; Clark, N; Byles, E D; Iourin, O; Hockley, D J; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1997-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein, p17, plays important roles in both the early and late stages of the viral life cycle. Using our previously determined solution structure of p17, we have undertaken a rational mutagenesis program aimed at mapping structure-function relationships within the molecule. Amino acids hypothesized to be important for p17 function were mutated and examined for effect in an infectious proviral clone of HIV-1. In parallel, we analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy the structure of recombinant p17 protein containing such substitutions. These analyses identified three classes of mutants that were defective in viral replication: (i) proteins containing substitutions at internal residues that grossly distorted the structure of recombinant p17 and prevented viral particle formation, (ii) mutations at putative p17 trimer interfaces that allowed correct folding of recombinant protein but produced virus that was defective in particle assembly, and (iii) substitution of basic residues in helix A that caused some relocation of virus assembly to intracellular locations and produced normally budded virions that were completely noninfectious. PMID:9094619

  3. The HIV matrix protein p17 induces hepatic lipid accumulation via modulation of nuclear receptor transcriptoma

    PubMed Central

    Renga, Barbara; Francisci, Daniela; Carino, Adriana; Marchianò, Silvia; Cipriani, Sabrina; Chiara Monti, Maria; Del Sordo, Rachele; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Distrutti, Eleonora; Baldelli, Franco; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Liver disease is the second most common cause of mortality in HIV-infected persons. Exactly how HIV infection per se affects liver disease progression is unknown. Here we have investigated mRNA expression of 49 nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) and 35 transcriptional coregulators in HepG2 cells upon stimulation with the HIV matrix protein p17. This viral protein regulated mRNA expression of some NRs among which LXRα and its transcriptional co-activator MED1 were highly induced at mRNA level. Dissection of p17 downstream intracellular pathway demonstrated that p17 mediated activation of Jak/STAT signaling is responsible for the promoter dependent activation of LXR. The treatment of both HepG2 as well as primary hepatocytes with HIV p17 results in the transcriptional activation of LXR target genes (SREBP1c and FAS) and lipid accumulation. These effects are lost in HepG2 cells pre-incubated with a serum from HIV positive person who underwent a vaccination with a p17 peptide as well as in HepG2 cells pre-incubated with the natural LXR antagonist gymnestrogenin. These results suggest that HIV p17 affects NRs and their related signal transduction thus contributing to the progression of liver disease in HIV infected patients. PMID:26469385

  4. The HIV matrix protein p17 induces hepatic lipid accumulation via modulation of nuclear receptor transcriptoma.

    PubMed

    Renga, Barbara; Francisci, Daniela; Carino, Adriana; Marchianò, Silvia; Cipriani, Sabrina; Chiara Monti, Maria; Del Sordo, Rachele; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Distrutti, Eleonora; Baldelli, Franco; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2015-10-15

    Liver disease is the second most common cause of mortality in HIV-infected persons. Exactly how HIV infection per se affects liver disease progression is unknown. Here we have investigated mRNA expression of 49 nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) and 35 transcriptional coregulators in HepG2 cells upon stimulation with the HIV matrix protein p17. This viral protein regulated mRNA expression of some NRs among which LXRα and its transcriptional co-activator MED1 were highly induced at mRNA level. Dissection of p17 downstream intracellular pathway demonstrated that p17 mediated activation of Jak/STAT signaling is responsible for the promoter dependent activation of LXR. The treatment of both HepG2 as well as primary hepatocytes with HIV p17 results in the transcriptional activation of LXR target genes (SREBP1c and FAS) and lipid accumulation. These effects are lost in HepG2 cells pre-incubated with a serum from HIV positive person who underwent a vaccination with a p17 peptide as well as in HepG2 cells pre-incubated with the natural LXR antagonist gymnestrogenin. These results suggest that HIV p17 affects NRs and their related signal transduction thus contributing to the progression of liver disease in HIV infected patients.

  5. Reovirus Variants with Mutations in Genome Segments S1 and L2 Exhibit Enhanced Virion Infectivity and Superior Oncolysis

    PubMed Central

    Gujar, Shashi A.; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Mohamed, Adil

    2012-01-01

    Reovirus preferentially replicates in transformed cells and is being explored as a cancer therapy. Immunological and physical barriers to virotherapy inspired a quest for reovirus variants with enhanced oncolytic potency. Using a classical genetics approach, we isolated two reovirus variants (T3v1 and T3v2) with superior replication relative to wild-type reovirus serotype 3 Dearing (T3wt) on various human and mouse tumorigenic cell lines. Unique mutations in reovirus λ2 vertex protein and σ1 cell attachment protein were associated with the large plaque-forming phenotype of T3v1 and T3v2, respectively. Both T3v1 and T3v2 exhibited higher infectivity (i.e., a higher PFU-to-particle ratio) than T3wt. A detailed analysis of virus replication revealed that virus cell binding and uncoating were equivalent for variant and wild-type reoviruses. However, T3v1 and T3v2 were significantly more efficient than T3wt in initiating productive infection. Thus, when cells were infected with equivalent input virus particles, T3v1 and T3v2 produced significantly higher levels of early viral RNAs relative to T3wt. Subsequent steps of virus replication (viral RNA and protein synthesis, virus assembly, and cell death) were equivalent for all three viruses. In a syngeneic mouse model of melanoma, both T3v1 and T3v2 prolonged mouse survival compared to wild-type reovirus. Our studies reveal that oncolytic potency of reovirus can be improved through distinct mutations that increase the infectivity of reovirus particles. PMID:22532697

  6. Reovirus Induction of and Sensitivity to Beta Interferon in Cardiac Myocyte Cultures Correlate with Induction of Myocarditis and Are Determined by Viral Core Proteins†

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Barbara; Torres, Johann; Blum, Mary Ann

    1998-01-01

    Reovirus-induced acute myocarditis in mice serves as a model to investigate non-immune-mediated mechanisms of viral myocarditis. We have used primary cardiac myocyte cultures infected with a large panel of myocarditic and nonmyocarditic reassortant reoviruses to identify determinants of viral myocarditic potential. Here, we report that while both myocarditic and nonmyocarditic reoviruses kill cardiac myocytes, viral myocarditic potential correlates with viral spread through cardiac myocyte cultures and with cumulative cell death. To address the role of secreted interferon (IFN), we added anti-IFN-α/β antibody to infected cardiac myocyte cultures. Antibody benefited nonmyocarditic more than myocarditic virus spread (P < 0.001), and this benefit was associated with the reovirus M1 and L2 genes. There was no benefit for a differentiated skeletal muscle cell line culture (C2C12 cells), suggesting cell type specificity. IFN-β induction in reovirus-infected cardiac myocyte cultures correlated with viral myocarditic potential (P = 0.006) and was associated with the reovirus M1, S2, and L2 genes. Sensitivity to the antiviral effects of IFN-α/β added to cardiac myocyte cultures also correlated with viral myocarditic potential (P = 0.004) and was associated with the same reovirus genes. Several reoviruses induced IFN-β levels discordant with their myocarditic phenotypes, and for those tested, sensitivity to IFN-α/β compensated for the anomalous induction levels. Thus, the combination of induction of and sensitivity to IFN-α/β is a determinant of reovirus myocarditic potential. Finally, a nonmyocarditic reovirus induced cardiac lesions in mice depleted of IFN-α/β, demonstrating that IFN-α/β is a determinant of reovirus-induced myocarditis. This provides the first identification of reovirus genes associated with IFN induction and sensitivity and provides the first evidence that IFN-β can be a determinant of viral myocarditis and reovirus disease. PMID:9445032

  7. Turkey origin reovirus-induced immune dysfunction in specific-pathogen free and commercial turkey poults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, pathogenesis studies using genetically distinct turkey-origin reoviruses (TRVs) revealed that poults infected with certain TRV isolates had moderate to severe bursal atrophy, suggesting virus-induced immune dysfunction. In order to characterize the effect of TRV infection on the turkey imm...

  8. Survival of turkey arthritis reovirus in poultry litter and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sunil K; Verma, Harsha; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Ziegler, Andre F; Noll, Sally L; Goyal, Sagar M

    2015-04-01

    Turkey reoviruses (TRVs) can cause arthritis, tenosynovitis, and enteric diseases in turkeys, leading to huge economic losses. The TRVs are tentatively divided into turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARVs) and turkey enteric reoviruses (TERVs) depending on the type of disease they produce. This study was conducted to determine the survival of these viruses in autoclaved and nonautoclaved poultry litter and drinking water at room temperature (approx. 25°C). Three isolates of TARV (TARV-O'Neil, TARV-MN2, and TARV-MN4) and one each of TERV (TERV-MN1) and chicken arthritis reovirus (CARV) were used in this study. The viruses were propagated and titrated on QT-35 cells. In autoclaved dechlorinated tap water, all 5 viruses were able to survive for 9 to 13 wk. In nonautoclaved water, all 5 viruses survived for at least 2 wk. In autoclaved litter, the viruses survived for 6 to 8 wk, and in nonautoclaved litter, they survived for 6 to 8 d only. The implications of these results are discussed below. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Transmission biology of Raspberry latent virus, a plant reovirus vectored by the aphid Amphorophora agathonica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) is a newly characterized reovirus found in commercial raspberry fields in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Phylogenetic analyses showed that RpLV is related most closely to Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), the type member of the genus Oryzavirus. However, the conserved nucle...

  10. Raspberry latent virus a plant reovirus that is aphid transmitted in a replicative persistent manner

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Raspberry latent virus (RpLV), is a newly characterized reovirus found in commercial raspberry fields in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Phylogenetic analyses showed that RpLV is related most closely to Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), the type member of the genus Oryzavirus. RRSV and all members of pla...

  11. Astrovirus, reovirus and rotavirus concomitant infection causes decreased weight gain in broad-breasted white poults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Turkey astrovirus type-2 (TAstV-2), turkey rotavirus (TRotV) and turkey reovirus (TReoV) were evaluated for pathogenesis in 3 day-old turkey poults in all possible combinations of one, two or three viruses. Body-weights were recorded at 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14 days post inoculation (PI) and were decreas...

  12. Conformational Changes Required for Reovirus Cell Entry are Sensitive to pH

    PubMed Central

    Thete, Deepti; Danthi, Pranav

    2015-01-01

    During cell entry, reovirus particles disassemble to generate ISVPs. ISVPs undergo conformational changes to form ISVP* and this conversion is required for membrane penetration. In tissues where ISVP formation occurs within endosomes, ISVP-to-ISVP* conversion occurs at low pH. In contrast, in tissues where ISVP formation occurs extracellularly, ISVP-to-ISVP* transition occurs at neutral pH. Whether these two distinct pH environments influence the efficiency of cell entry is not known. In this study, we used Ouabain to lower the endosomal pH and determined its effect on reovirus infection. We found that Ouabain treatment blocks reovirus infection. In cells treated with Ouabain, virus attachment, internalization, and ISVP formation were unaffected but the efficiency of ISVP*s formation was diminished. Low pH also diminished the efficiency of ISVP-to-ISVP* conversion in vitro. Thus, the pH of the compartment where ISVP-to-ISVP* conversion takes place may dictate the efficiency of reovirus infection. PMID:26004253

  13. Avian influenza virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  14. Avian Influenza in Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... during outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza the economic impact and trade restrictions from a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak the possibility that avian influenza A viruses could be transmitted to humans When H5 or H7 avian influenza outbreaks occur ...

  15. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 resides in cell nuclei in association with genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Bukrinskaya, A G; Vorkunova, G K; Tentsov YYu

    1992-10-01

    We have shown previously that HIV-1 matrix protein p17 is transported to the nucleus of Jurkat-tat and H9 cells soon after infection. As shown in this combination, gag polyprotein p55 synthesized 48 h after cell infection is cleaved in cytosol rapidly after its synthesis, and nascent p17 enters the nuclei and gradually accumulates there. Uncleaved p55 molecules and intermediate precursors are rapidly transported to the membranes and are also found in nuclei. Mature gag proteins are seen in membranes only after prolonged period of labelling or chase (4 or more hours later). To determine whether the nascent p17 is associated with viral genomic RNA in the nuclei, the cells were fractionated, the viral complexes were immunoprecipitated by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against gag proteins, and RNA was extracted and analyzed by slot and blot hybridization. MAb against p17 precipitated all the viral RNA from the nuclei including full-size genomic RNA and essential parts from membranes while MAb against p24 did not precipitate any viral RNA from the nuclei. These data suggest that matrix protein is linked to genomic RNA in the nuclei and raise the possibility that p17 may transfer viral nucleocapsids from the nuclei to plasma membranes, the site of virus assembly.

  16. Transmission biology of Raspberry latent virus, the first aphid-borne reovirus.

    PubMed

    Quito-Avila, Diego F; Lightle, Danielle; Lee, Jana; Martin, Robert R

    2012-05-01

    Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) is a newly characterized reovirus found in commercial raspberry fields in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Thus far, all members of the plant reoviruses are transmitted in a replicative, persistent manner by several species of leafhoppers or planthoppers. After several failed attempts to transmit RpLV using leafhoppers, the large raspberry aphid, commonly found in the PNW, was tested as a vector of the virus. The virus was transmitted to new, healthy raspberry plants when inoculated with groups of at least 50 viruliferous aphids, suggesting that aphids are vectors of RpLV, albeit inefficient ones. Using absolute and relative quantification methods, it was shown that the virus titer in aphids continued to increase after the acquisition period even when aphids were serially transferred onto fresh, healthy plants on a daily basis. Transmission experiments determined that RpLV has a 6-day latent period in the aphid before it becomes transmissible; however, it was not transmitted transovarially to the next generation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant reovirus transmitted by an aphid. Phylogenetic analyses showed that RpLV is related most closely to but distinct from Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), the type member of the genus Oryzavirus. Moreover, the conserved nucleotide termini of the genomic segments of RpLV did not match those of RRSV or other plant reoviruses, allowing us to suggest that RpLV is probably the type member of a new genus in the Reoviridae comprising aphid-transmitted reoviruses.

  17. Optimum length and flexibility of reovirus attachment protein σ1 are required for efficient viral infection.

    PubMed

    Bokiej, Magdalena; Ogden, Kristen M; Ikizler, Mine; Reiter, Dirk M; Stehle, Thilo; Dermody, Terence S

    2012-10-01

    Reovirus attachment protein σ1 is an elongated trimer with head-and-tail morphology that engages cell-surface carbohydrate and junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A). The σ1 protein is comprised of three domains partitioned by two flexible linkers termed interdomain regions (IDRs). To determine the importance of σ1 length and flexibility at different stages of reovirus infection, we generated viruses with mutant σ1 molecules of altered length and flexibility and tested these viruses for the capacity to bind the cell surface, internalize, uncoat, induce protein synthesis, assemble, and replicate. We reduced the length of the α-helical σ1 tail to engineer mutants L1 and L2 and deleted midpoint and head-proximal σ1 IDRs to generate ΔIDR1 and ΔIDR2 mutant viruses, respectively. Decreasing length or flexibility of σ1 resulted in delayed reovirus infection and reduced viral titers. L1, L2, and ΔIDR1 viruses but not ΔIDR2 virus displayed reduced cell attachment, but altering σ1 length or flexibility did not diminish the efficiency of virion internalization. Replication of ΔIDR2 virus was hindered at a postdisassembly step. Differences between wild-type and σ1 mutant viruses were not attributable to alterations in σ1 folding, as determined by experiments assessing engagement of cell-surface carbohydrate and JAM-A by the length and IDR mutant viruses. However, ΔIDR1 virus harbored substantially less σ1 on the outer capsid. Taken together, these data suggest that σ1 length is required for reovirus binding to cells. In contrast, IDR1 is required for stable σ1 encapsidation, and IDR2 is required for a postuncoating replication step. Thus, the structural architecture of σ1 is required for efficient reovirus infection of host cells.

  18. Genome packaging of reovirus is mediated by the scaffolding property of the microtubule network.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pranav N M; Stanifer, Megan L; Höhn, Katharina; Engel, Ulrike; Haselmann, Uta; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Krijnse-Locker, Jacomine; Boulant, Steeve

    2017-07-03

    Reovirus replication occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell, in virally induced mini-organelles called virus factories. On the basis of the serotype of the virus, the virus factories can manifest as filamentous (type 1 Lang strain) or globular structures (type 3 Dearing strain). The filamentous factories morphology is dependent on the microtubule cytoskeleton; however, the exact function of the microtubule network in virus replication remains unknown. Using a combination of fluorescent microscopy, electron microscopy, and tomography of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted cells, we determined the ultrastructural organisation of reovirus factories. Cells infected with the reovirus microtubule-dependent strain display paracrystalline arrays of progeny virions resulting from their tiered organisation around microtubule filaments. On the contrary, in cells infected with the microtubule-independent strain, progeny virions lacked organisation. Conversely to the microtubule-dependent strain, around half of the viral particles present in these viral factories did not contain genomes (genome-less particles). Complementarily, interference with the microtubule filaments in cells infected with the microtubule-dependent strain resulted in a significant increase of genome-less particle number. This decrease of genome packaging efficiency could be rescued by rerouting viral factories on the actin cytoskeleton. These findings demonstrate that the scaffolding properties of the microtubule, and not biochemical nature of tubulin, are critical determinants for reovirus efficient genome packaging. This work establishes, for the first time, a functional correlation between ultrastructural organisation of reovirus factories with genome packaging efficiency and provides novel information on how viruses coordinate assembly of progeny particles. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Reovirus safety study for proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Manbok

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring reoviruses are live replication-proficient viruses specifically infecting human cancer cells while sparing the normal counterparts. Stem cells can be highly susceptible to viral infection due to their innate high proliferation potential and other active signaling pathways of cells that might be involved in viral tropism. In the previous study, we showed that reoviruses could adversely affect murine embryonic stem cells' integrity in vitro and in vivo. Oncolytic viruses, delivered systemically face many hurdles that also impede their localization and infection of, metastatic tumors, due to a variety of immune and physical barriers. To overcome such hurdles to systemic delivery, several studies supported the idea that certain types of cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, might play a role as cell carriers for oncolytic viruses. Thus, it would be interesting to examine whether human adult stem cells such as human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells could be saved by the reoviral challenge. In this study, we report that biological activities such as proliferation and multipotency of human adipose-derived stem cells are not affected by wild-type reovirus challenge as evidenced by survival, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential assays following treatment with reoviruses. Therefore, unlike murine embryonic stem cells, our study strongly suggests that human adipose-derived adult stem cells could be spared in vivo during wild-type reoviral anti-cancer therapeutics in a clinical setting. Furthermore, the results support the possible clinical use of human adipose-derived stem cells as an effective cell carrier of oncolytic reovirus to maximize their tumor tropism and anti-tumor activity.

  20. Nondomestic avian pediatric pathology.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Judy

    2012-05-01

    This is a snapshot of avian neonatal pathology—not an exhaustive review. Through knowledge and recognition of the significant pathogenic challenges of avian neonates and the associated lesions, avian practitioners can improve their diagnostic and therapeutic success. An area of need for avian research is determining the specific pathogenesis of many conditions affecting avian neonates. By narrowing the specific etiologies, we can improve management and reduce neonatal concerns.

  1. Production of Alexa Fluor 488-labeled reovirus and characterization of target cell binding, competence, and immunogenicity of labeled virions.

    PubMed

    Fecek, Ronald J; Busch, Ryan; Lin, Hong; Pal, Kasturi; Cunningham, Cynthia A; Cuff, Christopher F

    2006-07-31

    Respiratory enteric orphan virus (reovirus) has been used to study many aspects of the biology and genetics of viruses, viral infection, pathogenesis, and the immune response to virus infection. This report describes the functional activity of virus labeled with Alexa Fluor 488, a stable fluorescent dye. Matrix assisted laser desorption-time of flight analysis indicated that Alexa Fluor 488 labeled the outer capsid proteins of reovirus. Labeled virus bound to murine L929 fibroblasts as determined by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, and the specificity of binding were demonstrated by competitive inhibition with non-labeled virus. Labeled reovirus induced apoptosis and cytopathic effect in infected L929 cells. Mice infected with labeled virus mounted robust serum antibody and CD8(+) T-cell responses, indicating that labeled virus retained immunogenicity in vivo. These results indicate that Alexa Fluor 488-labeled virus provides a powerful new tool to analyze reovirus infection in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Efficient Norovirus and Reovirus Replication in the Mouse Intestine Requires Microfold (M) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Mariam B.; Liu, Thomas; Payne, Hilary C.; Stencel-Baerenwald, Jennifer E.; Ikizler, Mine; Yagita, Hideo; Dermody, Terence S.; Williams, Ifor R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microfold (M) cells are specialized intestinal epithelial cells that internalize particulate antigens and aid in the establishment of immune responses to enteric pathogens. M cells have also been suggested as a portal for pathogen entry into the host. While virus particles have been observed in M cells, it is not known whether viruses use M cells to initiate a productive infection. Noroviruses (NoVs) are single-stranded RNA viruses that infect host organisms via the fecal-oral route. Murine NoV (MNV) infects intestinal macrophages and dendritic cells and provides a tractable experimental system for understanding how an enteric virus overcomes the intestinal epithelial barrier to infect underlying target cells. We found that replication of two divergent MNV strains was reduced in mice depleted of M cells. Reoviruses are double-stranded RNA viruses that infect hosts via respiratory or enteric routes. In contrast to MNV, reovirus infects enterocytes in the intestine. Despite differences in cell tropism, reovirus infection was also reduced in M cell-depleted mice. These data demonstrate that M cells are required for the pathogenesis of two unrelated enteric viruses that replicate in different cell types within the intestine. IMPORTANCE To successfully infect their hosts, pathogens that infect via the gastrointestinal tract must overcome the multilayered system of host defenses. Microfold (M) cells are specialized intestinal epithelial cells that internalize particulate antigens and aid in the establishment of immune responses to enteric pathogens. Virus particles have been observed within M cells. However, it is not known whether viruses use M cells to initiate a productive infection. To address this question, we use MNV and reovirus, two enteric viruses that replicate in different cell types in the intestine, intestinal epithelial cells for reovirus and intestinal mononuclear phagocytes for MNV. Interestingly, MNV- and reovirus-infected mice depleted of M

  3. THE PENETRATION OF REOVIRUS RNA AND INITIATION OF ITS GENETIC FUNCTION IN L-STRAIN FIBROBLASTS

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Samuel C.; Dales, Samuel

    1968-01-01

    Reovirus type 3 is phagocytized by L cells and rapidly sequestered inside lysosomes. Hydrolases within these organelles are capable of stripping the viral coat proteins, but they fail to degrade the double-stranded RNA genome. These observations support the view that sojourn of reovirus in lysosomes, when the lytic enzymes uncoat its genome, is an obligatory step in the sequence of infection. Although the mechanism for transferring the uncoated RNA out of lysosomes remains to be elucidated, evidence is presented suggesting that progeny genomes are bound to site(s) possessing the fine structure of viral inclusions or factories. It appears that both the synthesis of single- and double-stranded viral RNA and the morphogenesis of progeny virus particles occur in such factories. PMID:19806702

  4. Survival in pond water of four reoviruses isolated from aquatic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Yolanda J.; Plumb, John A.; Winton, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The viabilities of golden shiner virus (GSV), chum salmon virus (CSV), oyster reovirus 13P2 (13P2). and catfish reovirus (CRV) were compared following viruses incubation in pond water samples held at 4°. 20°, 25°, and 30°C for one month. At the three higher temperatures tested, viral infectivity was lost by day 15 for GSV, day 20 for CSV, and day 10 for CRV and 13P2. At 4°C. no infectious GSV was detected at day 15, while the other viruses showed little or no loss of infectivity during the 30-day incubation period. The survival of these viruses in natural waters appears to be sufficient to sustain fish-to-fish transmission.

  5. The 3' sequences required for incorporation of an engineered ssRNA into the Reovirus genome

    PubMed Central

    Roner, Michael R; Roehr, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    Background Understanding how an organism replicates and assembles a multi-segmented genome with fidelity previously measured at 100% presents a model system for exploring questions involving genome assortment and RNA/protein interactions in general. The virus family Reoviridae, containing nine genera and more than 200 members, are unique in that they possess a segmented double-stranded (ds) RNA genome. Using reovirus as a model member of this family, we have developed the only functional reverse genetics system for a member of this family with ten or more genome segments. Using this system, we have previously identified the flanking 5' sequences required by an engineered s2 ssRNA for efficient incorporation into the genome of reovirus. The minimum 5' sequence retains 96 nucleotides and contains a predicted sequence/structure element. Within these 96 nucleotides, we have identified three nucleotides A-U-U at positions 79–81 that are essential for the incorporation of in vitro generated ssRNAs into new reovirus progeny viral particles. The work presented here builds on these findings and presents the results of an analysis of the required 3' flanking sequences of the s2 ssRNA. Results The minimum 3' sequence we localized retains 98 nucleotides of the wild type s2 ssRNA. These sequences do not interact with the 5' sequences and modifications of the 5' sequences does not result in a change in the sequences required at the 3' end of the engineered s2 ssRNA. Within the 3' sequence we discovered three regions that when mutated prevent the ssRNA from being replicated to dsRNA and subsequently incorporated into progeny virions. Using a series of substitutions we were able to obtain additional information about the sequences in these regions. We demonstrate that the individual nucleotides from, 98 to 84, 68 to 59, and 28 to 1, are required in addition to the total length of 98 nucleotides to direct an engineered reovirus ssRNA to be replicated to dsRNA and incorporated

  6. Paramyxovirus and reovirus infections in wild-caught Mexican lizards (Xenosaurus and Abronia spp.).

    PubMed

    Marschang, Rachel E; Donahoe, Shannon; Manvell, Ruth; Lemos-Espinal, Julio

    2002-12-01

    Virus isolation attempts were carried out on wild-caught Xenosaurus grandis, X. platyceps, and Abronia graminea from Mexico. These animals were also tested for exposure to paramyxoviruses and reoviruses. Pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from 30 lizards, and blood was collected from 23 lizards. A cytopathogenic virus was isolated from the cloacal swab of one of the X. platyceps. The isolate was identified as a paramyxovirus on the basis of its sensitivity to chloroform, resistance to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, size and morphology of the viral particles, hemagglutination of chicken erythrocytes, and serologic reaction with paramyxovirus-specific antisera. Antibodies against the paramyxovirus isolated in this study were found in four animals from three species. Antibodies against a different paramyxovirus isolated from a monitor lizard were found in seven animals from three species, showing that all the species tested are susceptible to paramyxovirus infections. Antibodies to a reptilian reovirus were found in three of the X. grandis.

  7. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Information on Avian Influenza Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ...

  8. Avian respiratory system disorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  9. Other avian paramyxoviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian paramyxovirus infections have been reported for chickens and turkeys in association with respiratory disease or drops in egg production. This book chapter provides general information on etiology, clinical signs, lesions, diagnosis, prevention and control of avian paramyxoviruses except Newcas...

  10. Inhibitory activity for the interferon-induced protein kinase is associated with the reovirus serotype 1 sigma 3 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Imani, F; Jacobs, B L

    1988-01-01

    In this report we demonstrate that reovirus serotype 1-infected cells contain an inhibitor of the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase. We provide evidence that suggests that the virus-encoded sigma 3 protein is likely responsible for this kinase inhibitory activity. We could not detect activation of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase in extracts prepared from either interferon-treated or untreated reovirus serotype 1-infected mouse L cells under conditions that led to activation of the kinase in extracts prepared from either interferon-treated or untreated, uninfected cells. Extracts from reovirus-infected cells blocked activation of kinase in extracts from interferon-treated cells when the two were mixed prior to assay. The kinase inhibitory activity in extracts of reovirus-infected cells could be overcome by adding approximately 100-fold excess of dsRNA over the amount required to activate kinase in extracts of uninfected cells. Kinase inhibitory activity in extracts of interferon-treated, virus-infected cells could be overcome with somewhat less dsRNA (approximately 10-fold excess). Most of the inhibitory activity in the extracts could be removed by adsorption with immobilized anti-reovirus sigma 3 serum or immobilized dsRNA, suggesting that the dsRNA-binding sigma 3 protein is necessary for kinase inhibitory activity. Purified sigma 3 protein, when added to reaction mixtures containing partially purified kinase, inhibited enzyme activation. Control of activation of this kinase, which can modify eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 2, may be relevant to the sensitivity of reovirus replication to treatment of cells with interferon and to the shutoff of host protein synthesis in reovirus-infected cells. Images PMID:2460857

  11. Phase I Trial of Cyclophosphamide as an Immune Modulator for Optimizing Oncolytic Reovirus Delivery to Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Roulstone, Victoria; Khan, Khurum; Pandha, Hardev S.; Rudman, Sarah; Coffey, Matt; Gill, George M.; Melcher, Alan A.; Vile, Richard; Harrington, Kevin J.; de Bono, Johann; Spicer, James

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Reovirus is a wild-type oncolytic virus that is ubiquitous in the environment; most patients are therefore preimmune. Therapeutic administration leads to an increase in neutralizing antireovirus antibody (NARA) titer. We hypothesized that if NARA limited reovirus antitumor activity, the effect might be attenuated by coadministration of cyclophosphamide. Experimental design In a phase I study, patients with advanced cancer received cyclophosphamide 3 days before intravenous reovirus serotype 3 Dearing (RT3D). The primary objective was to reduce the resulting rise in NARA titer. Cyclophosphamide dose was escalated from 25–1,000 mg/m2 through nine cohorts; we aimed to define a well-tolerated immunomodulatory dose. Results The combination was well tolerated in 36 patients, with grade 3/4 toxicities only seen at or above the maximum tolerated dose of cyclophosphamide, which was 800 mg/m2 combined with reovirus. Immunosuppressive effect, defined as maintaining NARA titer rise below a predefined threshold, was observed in only one patient. Furthermore, despite expected myelosuppression seen at higher cyclophosphamide doses, no changes in T-cell subsets, including Tregs, occurred with dose escalation. Viable virus was detected in association with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14% of patients 10 days after the last RT3D injection, despite high plasma NARA titer, demonstrating a potential mechanism for prolonged evasion of neutralization by reovirus. Conclusions Coadministration of cyclophosphamide with reovirus is safe, but does not attenuate host antiviral responses. Alternative immunomodulation approaches should be explored, but association with PBMCs may allow reovirus to persist and evade even high levels of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:25424857

  12. Sigma 1 protein of mammalian reoviruses extends from the surfaces of viral particles.

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, D B; Nibert, M L; Fields, B N

    1988-01-01

    Electron microscopy revealed structures consisting of long fibers topped with knobs extending from the surfaces of virions of mammalian reoviruses. The morphology of these structures was reminiscent of the fiber protein of adenovirus. Fibers were also seen extending from the reovirus top component and intermediate subviral particles but not from cores, suggesting that the fibers consist of either the mu 1C or sigma 1 outer capsid protein. Amino acid sequence analysis predicts that the reovirus cell attachment protein sigma 1 contains an extended fiber domain (R. Bassel-Duby, A. Jayasuriya, D. Chatterjee, N. Sonenberg, J. V. Maizell, Jr., and B. N. Fields, Nature [London] 315:421-423, 1985). When sigma 1 protein was released from viral particles with mild heat and subsequently obtained in isolation, it was found to have a morphology identical to that of the fiber structures seen extending from the viral particles. The identification of an extended form of sigma 1 has important implications for its function in cell attachment. Other evidence suggests that sigma 1 protein may occur in virions in both an extended and an unextended state. Images PMID:3275434

  13. Isolation of a reovirus from coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, J.R.; Arakawa, C.N.; Lannan, C.N.; Fryer, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Reoviruses isolated from aquatic animals share certain common characteristics: (1) a typical reovirus-like morphology which shows an icosahedral particle with a double capsid that is approximately 75 nm in diameter; (2) a genome with eleven segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) distributed as three large, three medium and five small segments with a total molecular weight of approximately 15 x 106; (3) a virion composed of five major and several minor structural proteins that range in molecular weight from 32,000 to 137,000; and (4) form plaque-like syncytia in monolayer cultures of fish cells. Intact virus particles have buoyant densities in CsCl of 1.34 to 1.36 g/ml. The viruses have been isolated from fish and shellfish collected in both the marine and freshwater environments and will replicate in several fish cell lines (Plumb et al., 1979; Meyers and Hirai, 1980; Winton et al., 1981; Nagabayashi and Mori, 1983; Hedrick et al., 1984; Chen and Jiang, 1984). The original four aquatic reovirus isolates have been compared by Winton et al., 1987.

  14. Tubules of plant reoviruses exploit tropomodulin to regulate actin-based tubule motility in insect vector

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Zhang, Linghua; Zhang, Yanshuang; Mao, Qianzhuo; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-01-01

    Plant reoviruses are known to exploit virion-packaging tubules formed by virus-encoding non-structural proteins for viral spread in insect vectors. Tubules are propelled by actin-based tubule motility (ABTM) to overcome membrane or tissue barriers in insect vectors. To further understand which insect factors mediate ABTM, we utilized yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to test interactions between tubule protein Pns10 of rice dwarf virus (RDV), a plant reovirus, and proteins of its insect vector, the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps. Tropomodulin (Tmod), vitellogenin, and lipophorin precursor of N. cincticep displayed positive and strong interaction with Pns10, and actin-associated protein Tmod interacted with Pns10 in pull-down assay and the co-immunoprecipitation system. Further, we determined Pns10 tubules associated with Tmod in cultured cells and midgut of N. cincticep. The expression dynamic of Tmod was consistent with that of Pns10 and the fluctuation of RDV accumulation. Knockdown of Tmod inhibited the Pns10 expression and viral accumulation, thus decreasing the viruliferous rates of leafhopper. These results suggested that Tmod was involved in viral spread by directly interacting with Pns10 tubules, finally promoting RDV infection. This study provided direct evidence of plant reoviruses utilizing an actin-associated protein to manipulate ABTM in insect vectors, thus facilitating viral spread. PMID:28067229

  15. Avian influenza virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  16. Lignin as immobilization matrix for HIV p17 peptide used in immunosensing.

    PubMed

    Cerrutti, Bianca M; Moraes, Marli L; Pulcinelli, Sandra H; Santilli, Celso V

    2015-09-15

    Immunosensors based on electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are increasingly being used as a fast and potentially low cost method for clinical diagnostics. In this work we fabricated immunosensors by depositing layer-by-layer (LbL) films made with an antigenic peptide (p17-1) sequence (H2N-LSGGELDRWEKIRLRPGG-OH) and lignin on interdigitated gold electrodes, which could detect anti-p17 (HIV, human immune deficiency virus) antibodies (Ab) in phosphate buffered solutions (PBS). The molecular recognition interaction between the peptide (p17-1) and the specific Ab (anti-p17) yielded substantial changes in morphology of the with LbL films, with increased roughness according to atomic force microscopy data. This interaction is behind the high sensitivity of the immunosensor. Indeed, from the EIS results, we noted that the capacitance increased significantly with the specific Ab concentration, before getting close to saturation of available peptide sites at high concentrations. Concentrations of specific antibodies as low as 0.1 ng/mL could be detected and the immunosensors had their activity preserved for two months at least. The selectivity of the immunosensor was confirmed with two types of control experiments. First, no changes in impedance were observed when the lignin/peptide LbL immunosensor was immersed into a PBS solution containing the non-specific Ab (anti-HCV for Hepatitis C) antibodies. Furthermore, for sensing units made LbL films of lignin only, the electrical response was not affected by adding specific antibodies into the PBS buffer. The successful immunosensing for HIV with antigenic peptides in a lignin matrix is also relevant for valorization of lignin, which is an important biomass component in the sugar and ethanol industry, and brings the prospect for all-organic, biocompatible sensors if implantation is ever required.

  17. The combined effects of oncolytic reovirus plus Newcastle disease virus and reovirus plus parvovirus on U87 and U373 cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Alkassar, Muhannad; Gärtner, Barbara; Roemer, Klaus; Graesser, Friedrich; Rommelaere, Jean; Kaestner, Lars; Haeckel, Isabelle; Graf, Norbert

    2011-09-01

    Previous results had documented oncolytic capacity of reovirus, parvovirus and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) on several tumor cell types. To test whether combinations of these viruses may increase this capacity, human U87- and U373-glioblastoma cells, in vitro or xenografted into immuno-compromised mice, were subjected to simultaneous double infections and analyzed. Our results show that reovirus (serotype-3) plus NDV (Hitcher-B1) and reovirus plus parvovirus-H1 lead to a significant increase in tumor cell killing in vitro in both cell lines (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.01) and in vivo. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analyses demonstrated the simultaneous replication of the viruses in nearly all cells (>95%) after combined infection. These data thus indicate that a synergistic anti-tumor effect can be achieved by the combined infection with oncolytic viruses.

  18. The Proapoptotic Bcl-2 Protein Bax Plays an Important Role in the Pathogenesis of Reovirus Encephalitis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Berens, Heather M.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2011-01-01

    Encephalitis induced by reovirus serotype 3 (T3) strains results from the apoptotic death of infected neurons. Extrinsic apoptotic signaling is activated in reovirus-infected neurons in vitro and in vivo, but the role of intrinsic apoptosis signaling during encephalitis is largely unknown. Bax plays a key role in intrinsic apoptotic signaling in neurons by allowing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. We found Bax activation and cytochrome c release in neurons following infection of neonatal mice with T3 reoviruses. Bax−/− mice infected with T3 Abney (T3A) have reduced central nervous system (CNS) tissue injury and decreased apoptosis, despite viral replication that is similar to that in wild-type (WT) Bax+/+ mice. In contrast, in the heart, T3A-infected Bax−/− mice have viral growth, caspase activation, and injury comparable to those in WT mice, indicating that the role of Bax in pathogenesis is organ specific. Nonmyocarditic T3 Dearing (T3D)-infected Bax−/− mice had delayed disease and enhanced survival compared to WT mice. T3D-infected Bax−/− mice had significantly lower viral titers and levels of activated caspase 3 in the brain despite unaffected transneuronal spread of virus. Cytochrome c and Smac release occurred in some reovirus-infected neurons in the absence of Bax; however, this was clearly reduced compared to levels seen in Bax+/+ wild-type mice, indicating that Bax is necessary for efficient activation of proapoptotic mitochondrial signaling in infected neurons. Our studies suggest that Bax is important for reovirus growth and pathogenesis in neurons and that the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, mediated by Bax, is important for full expression of disease, CNS tissue injury, apoptosis, and viral growth in the CNS of reovirus-infected mice. PMID:21307199

  19. Viral aggregation: buffer effects in the aggregation of poliovirus and reovirus at low and high pH.

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, R; Sharp, D G

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the buffer employed in maintaining a given pH value were tested on the aggregation of two viruses, poliovirus and reovirus. Poliovirus was found to aggregate at pH values of 6 and below, but not at pH 7 or above, except in borate buffer. Reovirus aggregated at pH 4 and below, but was found to aggregate only in acetate or tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-citrate buffers at pH 5. Other buffers tested for aggregation of reovirus at pH 5 (succinate, citrate, and phosphate-citrate) induced little aggregation. No significant aggregation was found for reovirus at pH 6 and above. For both viruses, the most effective aggregation was induced by buffers having a substantial monovalently charged anionic component, such as acetate at pH 5 and 6 or citrate at pH 3. Cationic buffers at low pH, such as glycine, were generally weaker in aggregating ability than anionic buffers at the same pH. These results, when correlated with the isoelectric point of the viruses (poliovirus at pH 8.2; reovirus at pH 3.9) indicated that both viruses aggregated strongly when their overall charge was positive, but only under certain circumstances when their overall charge was negative. Although reovirus aggregated massively at its isoelectric point, poliovirus remained dispersed at its isoelectric point. The conclusion can be drawn that those pH and buffer conditions which induced aggregation of one virus do not necessarily induce it in another. PMID:43706

  20. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English (US) Español ... with Avian Influenza A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses ...

  1. Viral RNA at Two Stages of Reovirus Infection Is Required for the Induction of Necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Angela K; Hiller, Bradley E; Thete, Deepti; Snyder, Anthony J; Perez, Encarnacion; Upton, Jason W; Danthi, Pranav

    2017-03-15

    Necroptosis, a regulated form of necrotic cell death, requires the activation of the RIP3 kinase. Here, we identify that infection of host cells with reovirus can result in necroptosis. We find that necroptosis requires sensing of the genomic RNA within incoming virus particles via cytoplasmic RNA sensors to produce type I interferon (IFN). While these events that occur prior to the de novo synthesis of viral RNA are required for the induction of necroptosis, they are not sufficient. The induction of necroptosis also requires late stages of reovirus infection. Specifically, efficient synthesis of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) within infected cells is required for necroptosis. These data indicate that viral RNA interfaces with host components at two different stages of infection to induce necroptosis. This work provides new molecular details about events in the viral replication cycle that contribute to the induction of necroptosis following infection with an RNA virus.IMPORTANCE An appreciation of how cell death pathways are regulated following viral infection may reveal strategies to limit tissue destruction and prevent the onset of disease. Cell death following virus infection can occur by apoptosis or a regulated form of necrosis known as necroptosis. Apoptotic cells are typically disposed of without activating the immune system. In contrast, necroptotic cells alert the immune system, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. While apoptosis following virus infection has been extensively investigated, how necroptosis is unleashed following virus infection is understood for only a small group of viruses. Here, using mammalian reovirus, we highlight the molecular mechanism by which infection with a dsRNA virus results in necroptosis.

  2. Structural Insights into Reovirus σ1 Interactions with Two Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Melanie H; Ogden, Kristen M; Katen, Sarah P; Reiss, Kerstin; Sutherland, Danica M; Carnahan, Robert H; Goff, Matthew; Cooper, Tracy; Dermody, Terence S; Stehle, Thilo

    2017-02-15

    Reovirus attachment protein σ1 engages glycan receptors and junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) and is thought to undergo a conformational change during the proteolytic disassembly of virions to infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs) that accompanies cell entry. The σ1 protein is also the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we present a structural and functional characterization of two neutralizing antibodies that target σ1 of serotype 1 (T1) and serotype 3 (T3) reoviruses. The crystal structures revealed that each antibody engages its cognate σ1 protein within the head domain via epitopes distinct from the JAM-A-binding site. Surface plasmon resonance and cell-binding assays indicated that both antibodies likely interfere with JAM-A engagement by steric hindrance. To define the interplay between the carbohydrate receptor and antibody binding, we conducted hemagglutination inhibition assays using virions and ISVPs. The glycan-binding site of T1 σ1 is located in the head domain and is partly occluded by the bound Fab in the crystal structure. The T1-specific antibody inhibited hemagglutination by virions and ISVPs, probably via direct interference with glycan engagement. In contrast to T1 σ1, the carbohydrate-binding site of T3 σ1 is located in the tail domain, distal to the antibody epitope. The T3-specific antibody inhibited hemagglutination by T3 virions but not ISVPs, indicating that the antibody- and glycan-binding sites in σ1 are in closer spatial proximity on virions than on ISVPs. Our results provide direct evidence for a structural rearrangement of σ1 during virion-to-ISVP conversion and contribute new information about the mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization of reovirus.

  3. A rapid, automated approach for quantitation of rotavirus and reovirus infectivity.

    PubMed

    Iskarpatyoti, Jason A; Willis, Janet Z; Guan, John; Morse, E Ashley; Ikizler, Miné; Wetzel, J Denise; Dermody, Terence S; Contractor, Nikhat

    2012-09-01

    Current microscopy-based approaches for immunofluorescence detection of viral infectivity are time consuming and labor intensive and can yield variable results subject to observer bias. To circumvent these problems, we developed a rapid and automated infrared immunofluorescence imager-based infectivity assay for both rotavirus and reovirus that can be used to quantify viral infectivity and infectivity inhibition. For rotavirus, monolayers of MA104 cells were infected with simian strain SA-11 or SA-11 preincubated with rotavirus-specific human IgA. For reovirus, monolayers of either HeLa S3 cells or L929 cells were infected with strains type 1 Lang (T1L), type 3 Dearing (T3D), or either virus preincubated with a serotype-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb). Infected cells were fixed and incubated with virus-specific polyclonal antiserum, followed by an infrared fluorescence-conjugated secondary antibody. Well-to-well variation in cell number was normalized using fluorescent reagents that stain fixed cells. Virus-infected cells were detected by scanning plates using an infrared imager, and results were obtained as a percent response of fluorescence intensity relative to a virus-specific standard. An expected dose-dependent inhibition of both SA-11 infectivity with rotavirus-specific human IgA and reovirus infectivity with T1L-specific mAb 5C6 and T3D-specific mAb 9BG5 was observed, confirming the utility of this assay for quantification of viral infectivity and infectivity blockade. The imager-based viral infectivity assay fully automates data collection and provides an important advance in technology for applications such as screening for novel modulators of viral infectivity. This basic platform can be adapted for use with multiple viruses and cell types.

  4. Reduction of virion-associated σ1 fibers on oncolytic reovirus variants promotes adaptation toward tumorigenic cells.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Adil; Teicher, Carmit; Haefliger, Sarah; Shmulevitz, Maya

    2015-04-01

    Wild-type mammalian orthoreovirus serotype 3 Dearing (T3wt) is nonpathogenic in humans but preferentially infects and kills cancer cells in culture and demonstrates promising antitumor activity in vivo. Using forward genetics, we previously isolated two variants of reovirus, T3v1 and T3v2, with increased infectivity toward a panel of cancer cell lines and improved in vivo oncolysis in a murine melanoma model relative to that of T3wt. Our current study explored how mutations in T3v1 and T3v2 promote infectivity. Reovirions contain trimers of σ1, the reovirus cell attachment protein, at icosahedral capsid vertices. Quantitative Western blot analysis showed that purified T3v1 and T3v2 virions had ∼ 2- and 4-fold-lower levels of σ1 fiber than did T3wt virions. Importantly, using RNA interference to reduce σ1 levels during T3wt production, we were able to generate wild-type reovirus with reduced levels of σ1 per virion. As σ1 levels were reduced, virion infectivity increased by 2- to 5-fold per cell-bound particle, demonstrating a causal relationship between virion σ1 levels and the infectivity of incoming virions. During infection of tumorigenic L929 cells, T3wt, T3v1, and T3v2 uncoated the outer capsid proteins σ3 and μ1C at similar rates. However, having started with fewer σ1 molecules, a complete loss of σ1 was achieved sooner for T3v1 and T3v2. Distinct from intracellular uncoating, chymotrypsin digestion, as a mimic of natural enteric infection, resulted in more rapid σ3 and μ1C removal, unique disassembly intermediates, and a rapid loss of infectivity for T3v1 and T3v2 compared to T3wt. Optimal infectivity toward natural versus therapeutic niches may therefore require distinct reovirus structures and σ1 levels. Wild-type reovirus is currently in clinical trials as a potential cancer therapy. Our molecular studies on variants of reovirus with enhanced oncolytic activity in vitro and in vivo now show that distinct reovirus structures promote

  5. Complete genomic sequence of a reovirus isolated from grass carp in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-yuan; Deng, Guo-cheng; Chi, Yan-yan; Jiang, Xiao-yan

    2012-01-01

    A reovirus was isolated from sick grass carp in Guangdong, China in 2009, and tentatively named 'grass carp reovirus Guangdong 108 strain' (GCRV-GD108). This reovirus was propagated in grass carp snout fibroblast cell line PSF with no obvious cytopathic effects. Its genome was 24,703bp in length with a 50% G+C content and 11 dsRNA segments encoding 11 proteins instead of 12 proteins. It has been classified as an Aquareovirus (AQRV). Sequence comparisons showed that it possessed only 7 homologous proteins to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) (with 17.6-45.8% identities), but 9 homologous proteins to mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRV) (with 15-46% identities). GCRV-GD108 lacked homology to VP7, NS4&NS5 and NS3 of GCRV, while it had sigma1 and sigma NS homology to MRV. VP2 of GCRV-GD108 shared high amino acid sequence identity (44-47%) with AQRVs, whereas VP5 did not exhibit much identity (24-25%) to AQRVs. Conserved terminal sequences, 5'-GUAAUUU and UUCAUC-3', were found in all of the 11 genomic segments of GCRV-GD108 at the 5' and 3' non-coding regions (NCRs) of the segments. The 5' NCRs of GCRV-GD108 was similar to GCRV, but differed from other species of AQRV or Orthoreoviruses (ORV). Phylogenetic analysis of coat proteins belonging to Reoviridae, VP1-VP6, showed that GCRV-GD108 clustered with AQRVs and grouped with ORVs, suggesting that GCRV-GD108 belonged to the genus Aquareovirus but was distinctive from any known species of AQRV. Morphological and pathological analyses, and genetic characterization of GCRV-GD108 suggested that it may be a new species of AQRV and it was more closely related with ORVs than other AQRVs. In addition, RT-PCR analysis of diseased grass carp samples collected from different regions of China indicated that these viruses displayed high similarities to each other (95.3-99.4%). They also shared high sequence similarities to GCRV-GD108 (96.7-99.4%), indicating that GCRV-GD108 is representative of the prevalence strain in southern China. Copyright

  6. Whole-genome sequencing of a green bush viper reovirus reveals a shared evolutionary history between reptilian and unusual mammalian orthoreoviruses.

    PubMed

    Bányai, Krisztián; Borzák, Réka; Ihász, Katalin; Fehér, Enikő; Dán, Ádám; Jakab, Ferenc; Papp, Tibor; Hetzel, Udo; Marschang, Rachel E; Farkas, Szilvia L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of a reovirus isolated from a green bush viper (Atheris squamigera). The bush viper reovirus shared several features with other orthoreoviruses, including its genome organization. In phylogenetic analysis, this strain was monophyletic with Broome virus and baboon orthoreovirus, indicating that these viruses might have originated from a common ancestor. These new molecular data supplement previous information based mainly on biological properties of reptilian reoviruses, confirming their taxonomic position and broadening our knowledge of the evolution of members of the genus Orthoreovirus.

  7. Prolonged induction of IL-8 gene expression in a human fibroblast cell line infected with reovirus serotype 1 strain Lang.

    PubMed

    Hamamdzic, D; Altman-Hamamdzic, S; Bellum, S C; Phillips-Dorsett, T J; London, S D; London, L

    1999-04-01

    Viruses which infect mucosal surfaces commonly infect these particular anatomical sites based on both the virion structure and the interaction of the virus with a particular microenvironment. We infected a human lung epithelial cell line, a human gut epithelial cell line, and a human lung fibroblast cell line with reovirus 1/L to explore how this natural isolate of both the lung and the gut may interact with mucosal surfaces. While reovirus infection of the gut and lung epithelial cell lines was lytic, a chronic infection was established in the human lung fibroblast cell line. All three cell lines also produced interleukin-8 (IL-8) after infection with reovirus 1/L, and IL-8 production was not dependent upon viral replication. A prolonged production of IL-8 was observed in the chronically infected lung fibroblast cell line, suggesting that this mucosal population may be involved in the generation of inflammatory responses after the resolution of the initial lytic infection of the epithelium. These studies provide an in vitro model system for analyzing the interaction of reovirus 1/L with resident mucosal cell populations.

  8. Avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Won; Saif, Yehia M

    2009-07-01

    Avian influenza viruses do not typically replicate efficiently in humans, indicating direct transmission of avian influenza virus to humans is unlikely. However, since 1997, several cases of human infections with different subtypes (H5N1, H7N7, and H9N2) of avian influenza viruses have been identified and raised the pandemic potential of avian influenza virus in humans. Although circumstantial evidence of human to human transmission exists, the novel avian-origin influenza viruses isolated from humans lack the ability to transmit efficiently from person-to-person. However, the on-going human infection with avian-origin H5N1 viruses increases the likelihood of the generation of human-adapted avian influenza virus with pandemic potential. Thus, a better understanding of the biological and genetic basis of host restriction of influenza viruses is a critical factor in determining whether the introduction of a novel influenza virus into the human population will result in a pandemic. In this article, we review current knowledge of type A influenza virus in which all avian influenza viruses are categorized.

  9. Conformational changes accompany activation of reovirus RNA-dependent RNA transcription

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Israel I.; Weiner, Scott G.; She, Yi-Min; Yeager, Mark; Coombs, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    Many critical biologic processes involve dynamic interactions between proteins and nucleic acids. Such dynamic processes are often difficult to delineate by conventional static methods. For example, while a variety of nucleic acid polymerase structures have been determined at atomic resolution, the details of how some multi-protein transcriptase complexes actively produce mRNA, as well as conformational changes associated with activation of such complexes, remain poorly understood. The mammalian reovirus innermost capsid (core) manifests all enzymatic activities necessary to produce mRNA from each of the 10 encased double-stranded RNA genes. We used rapid freezing and electron cryo-microscopy to trap and visualize transcriptionally active reovirus core particles and compared them to inactive core images. Rod-like density centered within actively transcribing core spike channels was attributed to exiting nascent mRNA. Comparative radial density plots of active and inactive core particles identified several structural changes in both internal and external regions of the icosahedral core capsid. Inactive and transcriptionally active cores were partially digested with trypsin and identities of initial tryptic peptides determined by mass spectrometry. Differentially-digested peptides, which also suggest transcription-associated conformational changes, were placed within the known 3-dimensional structures of major core proteins. PMID:18321727

  10. Nature of the Surviving Plaque-Forming Unit of Reovirus in Water Containing Bromine1

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, D. G.; Floyd, R.; Johnson, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The initial inactivation of reovirus in water containing 3 to 7 μM bromine as HOBr was very rapid. Electron microscopy revealed extensive physical damage to the virions in as little as 1 min, but none were degraded beyond recognition. As treatment time continued, the reaction rate decreased toward a plateau of resistance, usually at about the 10-4 survival level; still no particles were lost. Progeny grown from these resistant plaque-forming units (PFU) were no more resistant to HOBr than the parent cultures. Small-number aggregation (adhering groups of two to ten virions counted by electron microscopy) had no detectable effect on the level of persistant PFU. Large aggregates seemed to be involved. Sonic treatment at 20 kHz after bromine exposure increased survival PFU titer 10- to 43-fold. Virus exposed to light centrifugation prior to bromine treatment did not show the plateau of resistance. Surviving PFU sedimented faster in a shallow sucrose gradient than single virions. Large aggregates were apparently too few to be counted by electron microscopy, but their penetration and inactivation must be achieved by any disinfectant chosen to rid water of reovirus. Images PMID:1167388

  11. Deep Circular RNA Sequencing Provides Insights into the Mechanism Underlying Grass Carp Reovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    He, Libo; Zhang, Aidi; Xiong, Lv; Li, Yongming; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, And Yaping

    2017-09-14

    Grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by the grass carp reovirus (GCRV), is a major disease that hampers the development of grass carp aquaculture in China. The mechanism underlying GCRV infection is still largely unknown. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are important regulators involved in various biological processes. In the present study, grass carp were infected with GCRV, and spleen samples were collected at 0 (control), 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-infection (dpi). Samples were used to construct and sequence circRNA libraries, and a total of 5052 circRNAs were identified before and after GCRV infection, of which 41 exhibited differential expression compared with controls. Many parental genes of the differentially expressed circRNAs are involved in metal ion binding, protein ubiquitination, enzyme activity, and nucleotide binding. Moreover, 72 binding miRNAs were predicted from the differentially expressed circRNAs, of which eight targeted genes were predicted to be involved in immune responses, blood coagulation, hemostasis, and complement and coagulation cascades. Upregulation of these genes may lead to endothelial and blood cell damage and hemorrhagic symptoms. Our results indicate that an mRNA-miRNA-circRNA network may be present in grass carp infected with GCRV, providing new insight into the mechanism underlying grass carp reovirus infection.

  12. A comparative analysis of freon substitutes in the purification of reovirus and calicivirus.

    PubMed

    Mendez, I I; Hermann, L L; Hazelton, P R; Coombs, K M

    2000-10-01

    Freon 113 (Freon) is an essential component used in some viral purification methods to separate virus from infected cell debris. With its environmental and toxic hazards, Freon's availability is limited and more tightly regulated. Several organic solvent substitutes were selected to identify a suitable Freon replacement for the purification of both cultivable reovirus and fastidious calicivirus. Reovirus was extracted from tissue cultured cells with each solvent tested and purified in cesium chloride gradients by standard techniques. Purified virions were analyzed for conservation of physical and biological properties by morphological examination and infectivity studies. The purification of calicivirus nucleic acid from stool samples using selected solvents was also examined. Solvent-extracted calicivirus RNA was reverse transcribed and quantified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a standard diagnostic 117 bp amplicon. These studies indicated that Vertrel XF (a newly developed environmentally friendly Freon substitute) and a 7:3 mixture of isopentane/1-chlorobutane are suitable replacements. Considerations of flammability and ease of use suggest that Vertrel XF is the preferred choice as a Freon substitute for the purification of these non-enveloped viruses.

  13. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingshan; Mor, Sunil K.; Porter, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV) causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O'Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon's tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced (P < 0.05) tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys. PMID:28105381

  14. Isolation and properties of reovirus from cattle in an outbreak of acute respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Kurogi, H; Inaba, Y; Tanaka, Y; Ito, Y; Sato, K; Omori, T

    1976-01-01

    A cytopathogenic virus was isolated in the primary culture of bovine kidney cells from a nasal swab of affected calves in an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in Japan in 1971. It agglutinated human type O erythrocytes and produced cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Viral replication was inhibited by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, indicating that the viral nucleic acid was RNA. The virus was resistant to ether, chloroform, sodium deoxycholate, and acid, and passed readily through Sartorius' membrane filter 100 nm in pore size, but not through the filter 50 nm in pore size. Electron microscopy showed many spherical particles 60 approximately 75 nm in diameter with a double-layered capsid in a sample taken at a buoyant density of 1.34 produced by CaCl equilibrium centrifugation. The virus suspended in 1M MgCl2 solution was stable against heating at 50 degrees C for 30 minutes, but not against freezing at -20 degrees C for 60 minutes. The virus was resistant to, and increased in infectivity after, treatment with 0.063 approximately 1.0% trypsin. These properties were consistent with those established for the reoviruses. Most affected cattle showed a significant rise of antibody titer against reovirus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus, whereas only a few of them presented a serological evidence for recent infection with parainfluenza virus type 3, bovine adenovirus type 7, and bovine parovirus.

  15. T-2 toxin impairment of enteric reovirus clearance in the mouse associated with suppressed immunoglobulin and IFN-{gamma} responses

    SciTech Connect

    Li Maoxiang; Cuff, Christopher F.; Pestka, James J. . E-mail: pestka@msu.edu

    2006-08-01

    Trichothecenes are exquisitely toxic to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and leukocytes and thus are likely to impair gut immunity. The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that the Type A trichothecene T-2 toxin interferes with the gut mucosal immune response to enteric reovirus infection. Mice were exposed i.p. first to 1.75 mg/kg bw T-2 and then 2 h later with 3 x 10{sup 7} plaque-forming units of reovirus serotype 1, strain Lang (T1/L). As compared to vehicle-treated control, T-2-treated mice had dramatically elevated intestinal plaque-forming viral titers after 5 days and failed to completely clear the virus from intestine by 10 days. Levels of reovirus {lambda}2 core spike (L2 gene) RNA in feces in T-2-treated mice were significantly higher at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days than controls. T-2 potentiated L2 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner with as little as 50 {mu}g/kg of the toxin having a potentiative effect. T-2 exposure transiently suppressed induction of reovirus-specific IgA in feces (6 and 8 days) as well as specific IgA and IgG{sub 2a} in serum (5 days). This suppression corresponded to decreased secretion of reovirus-specific IgA and IgG{sub 2a} in Peyer's patch (PP) and lamina propria fragment cultures prepared 5 days after infection. T-2 suppressed IFN-{gamma} responses in PP to reovirus at 3 and 7 days as compared to infected controls whereas IL-2 mRNA concentrations were unaffected. PP IL-6 mRNA levels were increased 2-fold 2 h after T-2 treatment, but no differences between infected T-2-exposed and infected vehicle-treated mice were detectable over the next 7 days. Overall, the results suggest that T-2 toxin increased both the extent of GI tract reovirus infection and fecal shedding which corresponded to both suppressed immunoglobulin and IFN-{gamma} responses.

  16. [HIV-1 p17 matrix protein is transported into the cell nucleus and binds with genomic viral RNA].

    PubMed

    Bukrinskaia, A G; Vorkunova, G K; Tentsov, Iu Iu

    1993-01-01

    We have shown that gag polyprotein p55 is cleaved in cytosol rapidly after its synthesis, during 2 h, and p17 enters the nuclei while p24 resides in cytosol. To determine whether the nascent p17 is associated with viral genomic RNA in the nuclei, the cells were fractionated, the viral complexes were immunoprecipitated by monoclonal antibodies against gag proteins, and RNA was extracted and analyzed by slot and blot hybridization. Monoclonal antibodies against p17 precipitated all the viral RNA from the nuclei including full-size genomic RNA and essential part from membranes while monoclonal antibodies against p24 did not precipitate any viral RNA from the nuclei. These data suggest that matrix protein is linked to genomic RNA in the nuclei and rise the possibility that p17 may transfer viral nucleocapsids from the nuclei to plasma membranes, the site of virus assembly.

  17. Micromonas pusilla reovirus: a new member of the family Reoviridae assigned to a novel proposed genus (Mimoreovirus).

    PubMed

    Attoui, Houssam; Jaafar, Fauziah Mohd; Belhouchet, Mourad; de Micco, Philippe; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2006-05-01

    Micromonas pusilla reovirus (MpRV) is an 11-segmented, double-stranded RNA virus isolated from the marine protist Micromonas pusilla. Sequence analysis (including conserved termini and presence of core motifs of reovirus polymerase), morphology and physicochemical properties confirmed the status of MpRV as a member of the family Reoviridae. Electron microscopy showed that intact virus particles are unusually larger (90-95 nm) than the known size of particles of viruses belonging to the family Reoviridae. Particles that were purified on caesium chloride gradients had a mean size of 75 nm (a size similar to the size of intact particles of members of the family Reoviridae), indicating that they lost outer-coat components. The subcore particles had a mean size of 50 nm and a smooth surface, indicating that MpRV belongs to the non-turreted Reoviridae. The maximum amino acid identity with other reovirus proteins was 21 %, which is compatible with values existing between distinct genera. Based on morphological and sequence findings, this virus should be classified as the representative of a novel genus within the family Reoviridae, designated Mimoreovirus (from Micromonas pusilla reovirus). The topology of the phylogenetic tree built with putative polymerase sequences of the family Reoviridae suggested that the branch of MpRV could be ancestral. Further analysis showed that segment 1 of MpRV was much longer (5792 bp) than any other reovirus segment and encoded a protein of 200 kDa (VP1). This protein exhibited significant similarities to O-glycosylated proteins, including viral envelope proteins, and is likely to represent the additional outer coat of MpRV.

  18. Secretory Immunoglobulin A Antibodies against the σ1 Outer Capsid Protein of Reovirus Type 1 Lang Prevent Infection of Mouse Peyer's Patches†

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Amy B.; Helander, Anna; Silvey, Katherine J.; Chandran, Kartik; Lucas, William T.; Nibert, Max L.; Neutra, Marian R.

    2004-01-01

    Reovirus type 1 Lang (T1L) adheres to M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium of mouse intestine and exploits the transport activity of M cells to enter and infect the Peyer's patch mucosa. Adult mice that have previously cleared a reovirus T1L infection have virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and IgA in secretions and are protected against reinfection. Our aim in this study was to determine whether secretory IgA is sufficient for protection of Peyer's patches against oral reovirus challenge and, if so, against which reovirus antigen(s) the IgA may be directed. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the IgA isotype, directed against the σ1 protein of reovirus T1L, the viral adhesin, were produced and tested along with other, existing IgA and IgG MAbs against reovirus T1L outer capsid proteins. Anti-σ1 IgA and IgG MAbs neutralized reovirus T1L in L cell plaque reduction assays and inhibited T1L adherence to L cells and Caco-2BBe intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, but MAbs against other proteins did not. Passive oral administration of anti-σ1 IgA and IgG MAbs prevented Peyer's patch infection in adult mice, but other MAbs did not. When anti-σ1 IgA and IgG MAbs were produced in mice from hybridoma backpack tumors, however, the IgA prevented Peyer's patch infection, but the IgG did not. The results provide evidence that neutralizing IgA antibodies specific for the σ1 protein are protective in vitro and in vivo and that the presence of these antibodies in intestinal secretions is sufficient for protection against entry of reovirus T1L into Peyer's patches. PMID:14694126

  19. A detailed viscoelastic characterization of the P17 and adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Benjamin S; Ilankovan, Ashok I; Morrison, Barclay

    2011-11-01

    Brain is a morphologically and mechanically heterogeneous organ. Although rat brain is commonly used as an experimental neurophysiological model for various in vivo biomechanical studies, little is known about its regional viscoelastic properties. To address this issue, we have generated viscoelastic mechanical property data for specific anatomical regions of the P17 and adult rat brain. These ages are commonly used in rat experimental models. We measured mechanical properties of both white and gray matter regions in coronal slices with a custom-designed microindentation device performing stress-relaxation indentations to 10% effective strain. Shear moduli calculated for short (100?ms), intermediate (1?sec), and long (20?sec) time points, ranged from ?1?kPa for short term moduli to ?0.4?kPa for long term moduli. Both age and anatomic region were significant factors affecting the time-dependent shear modulus. White matter regions and regions of the cerebellum were much more compliant than those of the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus. Linear viscoelastic models (Prony series, continuous phase lag, and a power law model) were fit to the time-dependent shear modulus data. All models fit the data equally with no significant differences between them (F-test; p>0.05). The F-test was also used to statistically determine that a Prony series with three time-dependent parameters accurately fit the data with no added benefit from additional terms. The age- and region-dependent rat brain viscoelastic properties presented here will help inform future biomechanical models of the rat brain with specific and accurate regional mechanical property data.

  20. Specific Destruction of HIV Proviral p17 Gene in T Lymphoid Cells Achieved by the Genome Editing Technology.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika; Mazda, Osam

    2016-01-01

    Recent development in genome editing technologies has enabled site-directed deprivation of a nucleotide sequence in the chromosome in mammalian cells. Human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection causes integration of proviral DNA into the chromosome, which potentially leads to re-emergence of the virus, but conventional treatment cannot delete the proviral DNA sequence from the cells infected with HIV. In the present study, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) specific for the HIV p17 gene were constructed, and their activities to destroy the target sequence were evaluated. SSA assay showed a high activity of a pair of p17-specific TALENs. A human T lymphoid cell line, Jurkat, was infected with a lentivirus vector followed by transfection with the TALEN-HIV by electroporation. The target sequence was destructed in approximately 10-95% of the p17 polymerase chain reaction clones, and the efficiencies depended on the Jurkat-HIV clones. Because p17 plays essential roles for assembly and budding of HIV, and this gene has relatively low nucleotide sequence diversity, genome editing procedures targeting p17 may provide a therapeutic benefit for HIV infection.

  1. Avian Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Wildlife Work Group

    2004-12-01

    OAK-B135 After conducting four national research meetings, producing a document guiding research: Metrics and Methods for Determining or Monitoring Potential Impacts on Birds at Existing and Proposed Wind Energy Sites, 1999, and another paper, Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States, 2001, the subcommittee recognized a need to summarize in a short fact sheet what is known about avian-wind interaction and what questions remain. This fact sheet attempts to summarize in lay terms the result of extensive discussion about avian-wind interaction on land. This fact sheet does not address research conducted on offshore development. This fact sheet is not intended as a conclusion on the subject; rather, it is a summary as of Fall/Winter 2002.

  2. Scylla serrata reovirus p35 protein expressed in Escherichia coli cells alters membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao; Yuan, Yangyang; Fan, Dongyang; Yang, Jifang; Mao, Zhijuan; Yan, Yan; Chen, Jigang

    2015-08-01

    To promote viral entry, replication, release, and spread to neighboring cells, many cytolytic animal viruses encode proteins responsible for modification of host cell membrane permeability and for formation of ion channels in host cell membranes. Scylla serrata reovirus (SsRV) is a major pathogen that can severely damage mud crab (S. serrata) aquaculture. Protein p35, which is encoded by segment 10 of SsRV, contains two transmembrane domains. In this study, we found that SsRV p35 can induce membrane permeability changes when expressed in Escherichia coli. SsRV p35 expressed in bacterial cells existed as monomers under reducing conditions but formed homodimers and homotrimers under non-reducing conditions. These findings demonstrate that p35 may act as a viroporin; further studies are needed to elucidate the detailed structure-function relationships of this protein.

  3. Perturbation of the switch-on of transcriptase activity in intermediate subviral particles from reovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Borsa, J.; Sargent, M.D.; Ewing, D.D.; Einspenner, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intermediate subviral particles (ISVP) derived from reovirus represent a simple model system for the switch-on of transcriptase function. In such particles the endogenous transcriptase is present in a switched-off form, one step removed from the switched-on state. Switch-on of transcriptase function is an active process in this system and can be triggered by K+ ions. A variety of agents which affect gene expression in cells were tested for an effect on switch-on in ISVP. Marked effects on switch-on in ISVP were observed with a diverse group of test agents, including DMSO and other solvents, BUdR, TdR, caffeine, theophylline, and temperature. The correlation in response between ISVP and cells suggests that the ISVP system may be useful as a model for studying the biochemical mechanisms underlying the perturbative effects of such agents on gene expression in cells.

  4. Prolonged replication in the mouse central nervous system of reoviruses isolated from persistently infected cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, L A; Fields, B N; Dermody, T S

    1993-01-01

    We examined pathogenic characteristics of plaque-purified reoviruses isolated from persistently infected L-cell cultures (PI viruses) after intracranial inoculation into newborn mice. The PI viruses were isolated from independent cultures initiated with high-passage stocks of the wild-type (wt) strain, type 3 Dearing. The virulence of most PI viruses was equivalent to that of the wt strain. However, replication of PI viruses in the central nervous system of infected mice was prolonged to 25 (but not 50) days postinoculation. Thirty-eight percent (n = 186) of mice inoculated with the PI viruses had residual virus detectable in brain tissue 25 days after inoculation, in contrast to only 16% (n = 57) of mice inoculated with wt virus (P = 0.009). Mean residual brain titers were more than 20-fold higher in mice inoculated with PI viruses compared with wt virus (4.3 x 10(4) versus 2.1 x 10(3); P = 0.006). Tropism of PI virus within the brain resembled that of wt virus, and the distribution of PI virus antigen in the brain did not change over time. The extent of necrosis in the brains of mice harboring PI virus 25 days after inoculation was minimal, despite continued presence of high titers of infectious virus. The latter observation resembles the absence of cytopathicity seen in L-cell cultures persistently infected with reovirus. These observations suggest that the interaction of PI viruses with cells can be altered in vivo as well as in cell culture, but virus is eventually cleared from the infected animal. Images PMID:8388486

  5. The p14 FAST Protein of Reptilian Reovirus Increases Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Neuropathogenesis▿

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher W.; Stephenson, Kyle B.; Hanson, Stephen; Kucharczyk, Michael; Duncan, Roy; Bell, John C.; Lichty, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    The fusogenic orthoreoviruses express nonstructural fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins that induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. It has been speculated that the FAST proteins may serve as virulence factors by promoting virus dissemination and increased or altered cytopathology. To directly test this hypothesis, the gene encoding the p14 FAST protein of reptilian reovirus was inserted into the genome of a heterologous virus that does not naturally form syncytia, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Expression of the p14 FAST protein by the VSV/FAST recombinant gave the virus a highly fusogenic phenotype in cell culture. The growth of this recombinant fusogenic VSV strain was unaltered in vitro but was significantly enhanced in vivo. The VSV/FAST recombinant consistently generated higher titers of virus in the brains of BALB/c mice after intranasal or intravenous infection compared to the parental VSV/green fluorescent protein (GFP) strain that expresses GFP in place of p14. The VSV/FAST recombinant also resulted in an increased incidence of hind-limb paralysis, it infected a larger volume of brain tissue, and it induced more extensive neuropathology, thus leading to a lower maximum tolerable dose than that for the VSV/GFP parental virus. In contrast, an interferon-inducing mutant of VSV expressing p14 was still attenuated, indicating that this interferon-inducing phenotype is dominant to the fusogenic properties conveyed by the FAST protein. Based on this evidence, we conclude that the reovirus p14 FAST protein can function as a bona fide virulence factor. PMID:18971262

  6. The p14 FAST protein of reptilian reovirus increases vesicular stomatitis virus neuropathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher W; Stephenson, Kyle B; Hanson, Stephen; Kucharczyk, Michael; Duncan, Roy; Bell, John C; Lichty, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    The fusogenic orthoreoviruses express nonstructural fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins that induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. It has been speculated that the FAST proteins may serve as virulence factors by promoting virus dissemination and increased or altered cytopathology. To directly test this hypothesis, the gene encoding the p14 FAST protein of reptilian reovirus was inserted into the genome of a heterologous virus that does not naturally form syncytia, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Expression of the p14 FAST protein by the VSV/FAST recombinant gave the virus a highly fusogenic phenotype in cell culture. The growth of this recombinant fusogenic VSV strain was unaltered in vitro but was significantly enhanced in vivo. The VSV/FAST recombinant consistently generated higher titers of virus in the brains of BALB/c mice after intranasal or intravenous infection compared to the parental VSV/green fluorescent protein (GFP) strain that expresses GFP in place of p14. The VSV/FAST recombinant also resulted in an increased incidence of hind-limb paralysis, it infected a larger volume of brain tissue, and it induced more extensive neuropathology, thus leading to a lower maximum tolerable dose than that for the VSV/GFP parental virus. In contrast, an interferon-inducing mutant of VSV expressing p14 was still attenuated, indicating that this interferon-inducing phenotype is dominant to the fusogenic properties conveyed by the FAST protein. Based on this evidence, we conclude that the reovirus p14 FAST protein can function as a bona fide virulence factor.

  7. HAT-P-17b,c: A TRANSITING, ECCENTRIC, HOT SATURN AND A LONG-PERIOD, COLD JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J.; Torres, G.; Latham, D. W.; Noyes, R. W.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Beky, B.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Perumpilly, G.; Shporer, A.; Mazeh, T.; Kovacs, Geza; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Butler, R. P.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I. E-mail: gbakos@cfa.harvard.edu; and others

    2012-04-20

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-17b,c, a multi-planet system with an inner transiting planet in a short-period, eccentric orbit and an outer planet in a 4.4 yr, nearly circular orbit. The inner planet, HAT-P-17b, transits the bright V = 10.54 early K dwarf star GSC 2717-00417, with an orbital period P = 10.338523 {+-} 0.000009 days, orbital eccentricity e = 0.342 {+-} 0.006, transit epoch T{sub c} = 2454801.16943 {+-} 0.00020 (BJD: barycentric Julian dates throughout the paper are calculated from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)), and transit duration 0.1690 {+-} 0.0009 days. HAT-P-17b has a mass of 0.534 {+-} 0.018 M{sub J} and radius of 1.010 {+-} 0.029 R{sub J} yielding a mean density of 0.64 {+-} 0.05 g cm{sup -3}. This planet has a relatively low equilibrium temperature in the range 780-927 K, making it an attractive target for follow-up spectroscopic studies. The outer planet, HAT-P-17c, has a significantly longer orbital period P{sub 2} = 1610 {+-} 20 days and a minimum mass m{sub 2}sin i{sub 2} = 1.31{sup +0.18}{sub -0.15} M{sub J}. The orbital inclination of HAT-P-17c is unknown as transits have not been observed and may not be present. The host star has a mass of 0.86 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun }, radius of 0.84 {+-} 0.02 R{sub Sun }, effective temperature 5246 {+-} 80 K, and metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.00 {+-} 0.08. HAT-P-17 is the second multi-planet system detected from ground-based transit surveys.

  8. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr, October 1992--April 1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, S.C.; Reid, J.L.; Swift, J.H.; Talley, L.D.

    1998-06-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples collected during three expeditions of the Research Vessel (R/V) Knorr in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the first cruise (WOCE Section P16A/P17A) began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on October 6, 1992, and returned to Papeete on November 25, 1992. The second cruise (WOCE Section P17E/P19S) began in Papeete on December 4, 1992, and finished in Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 22, 1993. The third expedition (WOCE Section P19C) started in Punta Arenas, on February 22 and finished in Panama City, Panama, on April 13, 1993. During the three expeditions, 422 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], as well as discrete measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 and 20 C. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  9. Adsorption of reovirus to clay minerals: effects of cation-exchange capacity, cation saturation, and surface area.

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, S M; Stotzky, G

    1983-01-01

    The adsorption of reovirus to clay minerals has been reported by several investigators, but the mechanisms defining this association have been studied only minimally. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms involved with this interaction. More reovirus type 3 was adsorbed, in both distilled and synthetic estuarine water, by low concentrations of montmorillonite than by comparable concentrations of kaolinite containing a mixed complement of cations on the exchange complex. Adsorption to the clays was essentially immediate and was correlated with the cation-exchange capacity of the clays, indicating that adsorption was primarily to negatively charged sites on the clays. Adsorption was greater with low concentrations of clays in estuarine water than in distilled water, as the higher ionic strength of the estuarine water reduced the electrokinetic potential of both clay and virus particles. The addition of cations (as chloride salts) to distilled water enhanced adsorption, with divalent cations being more effective than monovalent cations and 10(-2) M resulting in more adsorption than 10(-3) M. Potassium ions suppressed reovirus adsorption to montmorillonite, probably by collapsing the clay lattices and preventing the expression of the interlayer-derived cation-exchange capacity. More virus was adsorbed by montmorillonite made homoionic to various mono-, di-, and trivalent cations (except by montmorillonite homoionic to potassium) than by comparable concentrations of kaolinite homoionic to the same cations. The sequence of the amount of adsorption to homoionic montmorillonite was Al greater than Ca greater than Mg greater than Na greater than K; the sequence of adsorption to kaolinite was Na greater than Al greater than Ca greater than Mg greater than K. The constant partition-type adsorption isotherms obtained when the clay concentration was maintained constant and the virus concentration was varied indicated that a fixed proportion of the

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to reovirus reveal structure/function relationships between capsid proteins and genetics of susceptibility to antibody action.

    PubMed Central

    Virgin, H W; Mann, M A; Fields, B N; Tyler, K L

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen newly isolated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were used to study relationships between reovirus outer capsid proteins sigma 3, mu 1c, and lambda 2 (core spike) and the cell attachment protein sigma 1. We focused on sigma 1-associated properties of serotype specificity and hemagglutination (HA). Competition between MAbs revealed two surface epitopes on mu 1c that were highly conserved between reovirus serotype 1 Lang (T1L) and serotype 3 Dearing (T3D). There were several differences between T1L and T3D sigma 3 epitope maps. Studies using T1L x T3D reassortants showed that primary sequence differences between T1L and T3D sigma 3 proteins accounted for differences in sigma 3 epitope maps. Four of 12 non-sigma 1 MAbs showed a serotype-associated pattern of binding to 25 reovirus field isolates. Thus, for reovirus field isolates, different sigma 1 proteins are associated with preferred epitopes on other outer capsid proteins. Further evidence for a close structural and functional interrelationship between sigma 3/mu 1c and sigma 1 included (i) inhibition by sigma 3 and mu 1c MAbs of sigma 1-mediated HA, (ii) enhancement of sigma 1-mediated HA by proteolytic cleavage of sigma 3 and mu 1c, and (iii) genetic studies demonstrating that sigma 1 controlled the capacity of sigma 3 MAbs to inhibit HA. These data suggest that (i) epitopes on sigma 3 and mu 1c lie in close proximity to sigma 1 and that MAbs to these epitopes can modulate sigma 1-mediated functions, (ii) these spatial relationships have functional significance, since removal of sigma 3 and/or cleavage of mu 1c to delta can enhance sigma 1 function, (iii) in nature, the sigma 1 protein places selective constraints on the epitope structure of the other capsid proteins, and (iv) viral susceptibility to antibody action can be determined by genes other than that encoding an antibody's epitope. PMID:1719233

  11. Lesions of the avian pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert E; Reavill, Drury R

    2014-01-01

    Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

  12. Antibody recognition of synthetic peptides mimicking immunodominant regions of HIV-1 p24 and p17 proteins.

    PubMed

    Lottersberger, J; Salvetti, J L; Beltramini, L M; Tonarelli, G

    2004-01-01

    The gag gene of HIV-1 encodes a single open reading frame of 55 kDa that contains three subdomains: the matrix domain (p17), the capsid domain (p24) and the nucleocapsid domain (p15). The p24 and p17 proteins have a predominant alpha-helical structure and perform important functions throughout the viral life-cycle. The determination of gag-specific antibodies is important because declining titers of these antibodies herald clinical deterioration. In this work we present the results obtained on immunoreactiviy of synthetic peptides that mimic immunogenic alpha-helical regions of p24 and p17. The influence on the immunoreactivity of structural modifications in native sequences, including the addition of non immunogenic side chains: AAAC- and -CAAA on both side of minimal epitopes was evaluated in indirect and competitive enzyme immunoassays. The conformational characteristcs to the peptides were analysed by circular dichroism and these results were correlated with that obtained in the immunoassays. It was shown that the reactivity of peptides mimicking short alpha-helical regions of p24 and p17 is improved by adding short non immunogenic chains on both N- and C-terminus. These modifications enhanced the immobilization of the peptides onto the solid support and allowed more accessibility to the minimal epitopes by specific antibodies, in solution.

  13. Thermostability of Reovirus Disassembly Intermediates (ISVPs) Correlates with Genetic, Biochemical, and Thermodynamic Properties of Major Surface Protein μ1

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jason K.; Severson, Tonya F.; Chandran, Kartik; Gillian, Anne Lynn; Yin, John; Nibert, Max L.

    2002-01-01

    Kinetic analyses of infectivity loss during thermal inactivation of reovirus particles revealed substantial differences between virions and infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs), as well as between the ISVPs of reoviruses type 1 Lang (T1L) and type 3 Dearing (T3D). The difference in thermal inactivation of T1L and T3D ISVPs was attributed to the major surface protein μ1 by genetic analyses with reassortant viruses and recoated cores. Irreversible conformational changes in ISVP-bound μ1 were shown to accompany thermal inactivation. The thermal inactivation of ISVPs approximated first-order kinetics over a range of temperatures, permitting the use of Arrhenius plots to estimate activation enthalpies and entropies that account for the different behaviors of T1L and T3D. An effect similar to enthalpy-entropy compensation was additionally noted for the ISVPs of these two isolates. Kinetic analyses with other ISVP-like particles, including ISVPs of a previously reported thermostable mutant, provided further insights into the role of μ1 as a determinant of thermostability. Intact virions, which contain ς3 bound to μ1 as their major surface proteins, exhibited greater thermostability than ISVPs and underwent thermal inactivation with kinetics that deviated from first order, suggesting a role for ς3 in both these properties. The distinct inactivation behaviors of ISVPs are consistent with their role as an essential intermediate in reovirus entry. PMID:11773381

  14. Reptilian reovirus utilizes a small type III protein with an external myristylated amino terminus to mediate cell-cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Jennifer A; Duncan, Roy

    2004-04-01

    Reptilian reovirus is one of a limited number of nonenveloped viruses that are capable of inducing cell-cell fusion. A small, hydrophobic, basic, 125-amino-acid fusion protein encoded by the first open reading frame of a bicistronic viral mRNA is responsible for this fusion activity. Sequence comparisons to previously characterized reovirus fusion proteins indicated that p14 represents a new member of the fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein family. Topological analysis revealed that p14 is a representative of a minor subset of integral membrane proteins, the type III proteins N(exoplasmic)/C(cytoplasmic) (N(exo)/C(cyt)), that lack a cleavable signal sequence and use an internal reverse signal-anchor sequence to direct membrane insertion and protein topology. This topology results in the unexpected, cotranslational translocation of the essential myristylated N-terminal domain of p14 across the cell membrane. The topology and structural motifs present in this novel reovirus membrane fusion protein further accentuate the diversity and unusual properties of the FAST protein family and clearly indicate that the FAST proteins represent a third distinct class of viral membrane fusion proteins.

  15. Flexible and rigid structures in HIV-1 p17 matrix protein monitored by relaxation and amide proton exchange with NMR.

    PubMed

    Ohori, Yuka; Okazaki, Honoka; Watanabe, Satoru; Tochio, Naoya; Arai, Munehito; Kigawa, Takanori; Nishimura, Chiaki

    2014-03-01

    The HIV-1 p17 matrix protein is a multifunctional protein that interacts with other molecules including proteins and membranes. The dynamic structure between its folded and partially unfolded states can be critical for the recognition of interacting molecules. One of the most important roles of the p17 matrix protein is its localization to the plasma membrane with the Gag polyprotein. The myristyl group attached to the N-terminus on the p17 matrix protein functions as an anchor for binding to the plasma membrane. Biochemical studies revealed that two regions are important for its function: D14-L31 and V84-V88. Here, the dynamic structures of the p17 matrix protein were studied using NMR for relaxation and amide proton exchange experiments at the physiological pH of 7.0. The results revealed that the α12-loop, which includes the 14-31 region, was relatively flexible, and that helix 4, including the 84-88 region, was the most protected helix in this protein. However, the residues in the α34-loop near helix 4 had a low order parameter and high exchange rate of amide protons, indicating high flexibility. This region is probably flexible because this loop functions as a hinge for optimizing the interactions between helices 3 and 4. The C-terminal long region of K113-Y132 adopted a disordered structure. Furthermore, the C-terminal helix 5 appeared to be slightly destabilized due to the flexible C-terminal tail based on the order parameters. Thus, the dynamic structure of the p17 matrix protein may be related to its multiple functions.

  16. Role of the mu 1 protein in reovirus stability and capacity to cause chromium release from host cells.

    PubMed

    Hooper, J W; Fields, B N

    1996-01-01

    The reovirus M2 gene is associated with the capacity of type 3 strain Abney (T3A) intermediate subviral particles (ISVPs) to permeabilize cell membranes as measured by chromium (51Cr) release (P. Lucia-Jandris, J. W. Hooper, and B. N. Fields, J. Virol. 67:5339-5345, 1993). In addition, reovirus mutants with lesions in the M2 gene can be selected by heating virus at 37 degrees C for 20 min in 33% ethanol (D. R. Wessner and B. N. Fields, J. Virol. 67:2442-2447, 1993). In this report we investigated the mechanism by which the reovirus M2 gene product (the mu 1 protein) influences the capacity of reovirus ISVPs to permeabilize membranes, using ethanol-selected T3A mutants. Each of three T3A ethanol-resistant mutants isolated (JH2, JH3, and JH4) exhibited a decreased capacity to cause 51Cr release relative to that of wild-type T3A. Sequence analysis of the M2 genes of wild-type T3A and the T3A mutants indicated that each mutant possesses a single amino acid substitution in a central region of the 708-amino-acid mu 1 protein: JH2 (residue 466, Tyr to Cys), JH3 (residue 459, Lys to Glu), and JH4 (residue 497 Pro to Ser). Assays performed with reovirus natural isolates, reassortants, and a set of previously characterized type 3 strain Dearing (T3D) ethanol-resistant mutants revealed a strong correlation between ethanol sensitivity and the capacity to cause 51Cr release. We found that ISVPs generated from the T3A and T3D mutants were stable when heated to 50 degrees C, whereas wild-type T3A ISVPs are inactivated under these conditions. Together, these data suggest that amino acid substitutions in a central region of the mu 1 protein affect the capacity of the ISVP to permeabilize L-cell membranes by altering the stability of the virus particle.

  17. Expression of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 and association with B-cell lymphoma in HIV-1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Virginia A.; Lafferty, Mark K.; Marchionni, Luigi; Bryant, Joseph L.; Gallo, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is associated with increased risk for B-cell lymphomas. How HIV infection promotes the development of lymphoma is unclear, but it may involve chronic B-cell activation, inflammation, and/or impaired immunity, possibly leading to a loss of control of oncogenic viruses and reduced tumor immunosurveillance. We hypothesized that HIV structural proteins may contribute to lymphomagenesis directly, because they can persist long term in lymph nodes in the absence of viral replication. The HIV-1 transgenic mouse Tg26 carries a noninfectious HIV-1 provirus lacking part of the gag-pol region, thus constituting a model for studying the effects of viral products in pathogenesis. Approximately 15% of Tg26 mice spontaneously develop leukemia/lymphoma. We investigated which viral proteins are associated with the development of leukemia/lymphoma in the Tg26 mouse model, and performed microarray analysis on RNA from spleen and lymph nodes to identify potential mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. Of the viral proteins examined, only expression of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 was associated with leukemia/lymphoma development and was highly expressed in bone marrow before disease. The tumor cells resembled pro-B cells, and were CD19+IgM−IgD−CD93+CD43+CD21−CD23−VpreB+CXCR4+. Consistent with the pro-B-cell stage of B-cell development, microarray analysis revealed enrichment of transcripts, including Rag1, Rag2, CD93, Vpreb1, Vpreb3, and Igll1. We confirmed RAG1 expression in Tg26 tumors, and hypothesized that HIV-1 matrix protein p17 may directly induce RAG1 in B cells. Stimulation of human activated B cells with p17 enhanced RAG1 expression in three of seven donors, suggesting that intracellular signaling by p17 may lead to genomic instability and transformation. PMID:27799525

  18. Avian influenza control strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control strategies for avian influenza in poultry vary depending on whether the goal is prevention, management, or eradication. Components used in control programs include: 1) education which includes communication, public awareness, and behavioral change, 2) changes to production and marketing sys...

  19. Avian influenza (fowl plague)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza (AI) viruses infect domestic poultry and wild birds. In domestic poultry, AI viruses are typically of low pathogenicity (LP) causing subclinical infections, respiratory disease or drops in egg production. However, a few AI viruses cause severe systemic disease with high mortality; ...

  20. Avian influenza virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AI viruses are serologically categorized into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-N9) subtypes. All subtypes have been identified in birds. Infections by AI viruses have been reported in ...

  1. Avian pox in ostriches.

    PubMed

    Allwright, D M; Burger, W P; Geyer, A; Wessles, J

    1994-03-01

    Nodular cutaneous and diphtheric oral lesions, resembling avian pox were observed in 2 flocks of young ostrich chicks. Typical eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen in histological sections and a pox virus was isolated from the lesions. A commercial fowl pox vaccine was used to protect young ostriches in the field.

  2. Avian dark cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  3. Piscine reovirus in wild and farmed salmonids in British Columbia, Canada: 1974-2013.

    PubMed

    Marty, G D; Morrison, D B; Bidulka, J; Joseph, T; Siah, A

    2015-08-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) was common among wild and farmed salmonids in British Columbia, western Canada, from 1987 to 2013. Salmonid tissues tested for PRV by real-time rRT-PCR included sections from archived paraffin blocks from 1974 to 2008 (n = 363) and fresh-frozen hearts from 2013 (n = 916). The earliest PRV-positive sample was from a wild-source steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from 1977. By histopathology (n = 404), no fish had lesions diagnostic for heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). In some groups, lymphohistiocytic endocarditis affected a greater proportion of fish with PRV than fish without PRV, but the range of Ct values among affected fish was within the range of Ct values among unaffected fish. Also, fish with the lowest PRV Ct values (18.4-21.7) lacked endocarditis or any other consistent lesion. From 1987 to 1994, the proportion of PRV positives was not significantly different between farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (44% of 48), and wild-source salmonids (31% of 45). In 2013, the proportion of PRV positives was not significantly different between wild coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), sampled from British Columbia (5.0% of 60) or the reference region, Alaska, USA (10% of 58). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Addition of exogenous polypeptides on the mammalian reovirus outer capsid using reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Brochu-Lafontaine, Virginie; Lemay, Guy

    2012-02-01

    Addition of exogenous peptide sequences on viral capsids is a powerful approach to study the process of viral infection or to retarget viruses toward defined cell types. Until recently, it was not possible to manipulate the genome of mammalian reovirus and this was an obstacle to the addition of exogenous sequence tags onto the capsid of a replicating virus. This obstacle has now been overcome by the availability of the plasmid-based reverse genetics system. In the present study, reverse genetics was used to introduce different exogenous peptides, up to 40 amino acids long, at the carboxyl-terminal end of the σ1 outer capsid protein. The tagged viruses obtained were infectious, produce plaques of similar size, and could be easily propagated at high titers. However, attempts to introduce a 750 nucleotides-long sequence failed, even when it was added after the stop codon, suggesting a possible size limitation at the nucleic acid level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical trials involving the oncolytic virus, reovirus: ready for prime time?

    PubMed

    Black, Allison J; Morris, Don G

    2012-09-01

    The use of oncolytic viruses as a potential cancer therapeutic has been studied extensively over the past 15 years and is now in Phase III human clinical testing. One of the most promising of the viruses is the nonattenuated reovirus type-3 Dearing (RT3D; Reolysin(®), Oncolytics Biotech Inc., AB, Canada). The virus is a laboratory strain of a ubiquitous common environmental virus commonly infecting the respiratory and GI tracts of humans without major sequelae. The Phase I/II clinical trial conducted by Karapanagiotou et al. involved dose escalation of Reolysin to 3 × 10(10) tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID(50)) daily for 5 days in combination with paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (area under the curve 5) given on day 1 every 3 weeks. Maximum tolerated dose was not reached in the dose-escalation phase and was only limited by manufacturing concentration limitation. Efficacy was suggested in this heavily pretreated head and neck cancer predominate patient population with a 26.9% response rate (seven out of 26 evaluable patients) of the 34 patients intended to treat. Although this was not a randomized trial, the fact that many of the patients (83%) had already received a platinum agent and subsequently progressed and then responded is of interest.

  6. Detecting a novel Eriocheir sinensis reovirus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Dai, T; Serwadda, A; Shen, H

    2016-11-01

    The novel Eriocheir sinensis reovirus (EsRV) is a pathogen that causes severe disease and high mortality rates in cultivated crabs. Here, we established a highly sensitive and specific rapid reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay that was cheaper and more suitable for field applications in crab aquaculture than those of traditional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The amplification was completed within 45 min under isothermal conditions at 65°C. The RT-LAMP test for EsRV had a detection limit of 15 pg, and sensitivity was 100 times greater than that of conventional RT-PCR. The LAMP primers for EsRV were not amplified by other pathogen strains, indicating good specificity. In addition to detection by electrophoresis, RT-LAMP results were detectable by visual observations of reaction tube turbidity, and calcein was added to visually detect the amplification products. These results indicate that this highly convenient, rapid and sensitive RT-LAMP assay can be used to detect EsRV-infected aquatic organisms.

  7. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Enhance the Therapeutic Potential of Reovirus in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Stiff, Andrew; Caserta, Enrico; Sborov, Douglas W; Nuovo, Gerard J; Mo, Xiaokui; Schlotter, Sarah Y; Canella, Alessandro; Smith, Emily; Badway, Joseph; Old, Matthew; Jaime-Ramirez, Alena Cristina; Yan, Pearlly; Benson, Don M; Byrd, John C; Baiocchi, Robert; Kaur, Balveen; Hofmeister, Craig C; Pichiorri, Flavia

    2016-05-01

    Multiple myeloma remains incurable and the majority of patients die within 5 years of diagnosis. Reolysin, the infusible form of human reovirus (RV), is a novel viral oncolytic therapy associated with antitumor activity likely resulting from direct oncolysis and a virus-mediated antitumor immune response. Results from our phase I clinical trial investigating single agent Reolysin in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma confirmed tolerability, but no objective responses were evident, likely because the virus selectively entered the multiple myeloma cells but did not actively replicate. To date, the precise mechanisms underlying the RV infectious life cycle and its ability to induce oncolysis in patients with multiple myeloma remain unknown. Here, we report that junctional adhesion molecule 1 (JAM-1), the cellular receptor for RV, is epigenetically regulated in multiple myeloma cells. Treatment of multiple myeloma cells with clinically relevant histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) results in increased JAM-1 expression as well as increased histone acetylation and RNA polymerase II recruitment to its promoter. Furthermore, our data indicate that the combination of Reolysin with HDACi, potentiates RV killing activity of multiple myeloma cells in vitro and in vivo This study provides the molecular basis to use these agents as therapeutic tools to increase the efficacy of RV therapy in multiple myeloma. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 830-41. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Initial fast reaction of bromine on reovirus in turbulent flowing water.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, D G; Floyd, R; Johnson, J D

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for precise observation of the kinetics of the initial fast reaction of bromine with reovirus in turbulent flowing water. When quantitative electron microscopy shows that virus suspensions are essentially all single particles, the loss of infectivity follows first-order kinetics, the plaque titer falling at the rate of 3 log10 units/s at pH 7, 2 C, and at a 3-muM bromine concentration. Virus suspensions containing small aggregates (2 to 10/clump) exhibit a constantly decreasing disinfection rate with bromine. At a survival level of 10(-3) for single virions, the aggregated preparations have lost only 99% of their plaque titer and 10(-4) is reached only after 4 s of exposure. The disinfection rate does not appear to be a simple function of the size and frequency of aggregates in the virus suspension even when the aggregates contain no foreign material. Unpurified virus preparations (crude freeze-thaw lysates of infected cells) are shown, by zonal centrifugation, to contain 50% to over 90% of the infectivity in large, fast sedimenting aggregates. Such aggregates would strongly influence the bromine resistance of virus in polluted water. PMID:11743

  9. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  10. Lymphokine-activated killer and dendritic cell carriage enhances oncolytic reovirus therapy for ovarian cancer by overcoming antibody neutralization in ascites

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, VA; Ilett, EJ; Scott, KJ; West, EJ; Vile, R; Pandha, H; Harrington, K; Young, A; Hall, GD; Coffey, M; Selby, P; Errington-Mais, F; Melcher, AA

    2014-01-01

    Reovirus is an oncolytic virus (OV), which acts by both direct tumor cell killing and priming of antitumor immunity. A major obstacle for effective oncolytic virotherapy is effective delivery of OV to tumor cells. Ovarian cancer is often confined to the peritoneal cavity and therefore i.p. delivery of reovirus may provide the ideal locoregional delivery, avoiding systemic dissemination. However, ovarian cancer is associated with an accumulation of ascitic fluid, which may interfere with oncolytic viral therapy. Here, we investigated the effect of ascites on reovirus-induced oncolysis against primary ovarian cancer cells and ovarian cancer cell lines. In the absence of ascites, reovirus was cytotoxic against ovarian cancer cells; however, cytotoxicity was abrogated in the presence of ascitic fluid. Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) were identified as the cause of this inhibition. Loading OV onto cell carriers may facilitate virus delivery in the presence of NAb and immune cells which have their own antitumor effector activity are particularly appealing. Immature dendritic cells (iDC), Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and LAKDC cocultures were tested as potential carriers for reovirus for tumor cell killing and immune cell priming. Reovirus-loaded LAKDC, and to a lesser degree iDC, were able to: (i) protect from NAb and hand-off reovirus for tumor cell killing; (ii) induce a proinflammatory cytokine milieu (IFNɣ, IL-12, IFNα and TNFα) and (iii) generate an innate and specific antitumor adaptive immune response. Hence, LAKDC pulsed with reovirus represent a novel, clinically practical treatment for ovarian cancer to maximise both direct and innate/adaptive immune-mediated tumor cell killing. What’s new? Oncolytic viruses (OVs) specifically infect and kill tumor cells. In this study, the authors began to examine whether intraperitoneal delivery of an OV could be effective against ovarian cancer. They found that, while the virus does kill ovarian-cancer cells in

  11. Piscine reovirus encodes a cytotoxic, non-fusogenic, integral membrane protein and previously unrecognized virion outer-capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Key, Tim; Read, Jolene; Nibert, Max L; Duncan, Roy

    2013-05-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a tentative new member of the family Reoviridae and has been linked to heart and skeletal muscle inflammation in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Recent sequence-based evidence suggests that PRV is about equally related to members of the genera Orthoreovirus and Aquareovirus. Sequence similarities have also suggested that PRV might encode a fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein, which in turn suggests that PRV might be the prototype of a new genus with syncytium-inducing potential. In previous support of this designation has been the absence of identifiable PRV-encoded homologues of either the virion outer-clamp protein of ortho- and aquareoviruses or the virion outer-fibre protein of most orthoreoviruses. In the current report, we have provided experimental evidence that the putative p13 FAST protein of PRV lacks the defining feature of the FAST protein family - the ability to induce syncytium formation. Instead, p13 is the first example of a cytosolic, integral membrane protein encoded by ortho- or aquareoviruses, and induces cytotoxicity in the absence of cell-cell fusion. Sequence analysis also identified signature motifs of the outer-clamp and outer-fibre proteins of other reoviruses in two of the predicted PRV gene products. Based on these findings, we conclude that PRV does not encode a FAST protein and is therefore unlikely to be a new fusogenic reovirus. The presence of a novel integral membrane protein and two previously unrecognized, essential outer-capsid proteins has important implications for the biology, evolution and taxonomic classification of this virus.

  12. The spatial and temporal variation of the distribution and prevalence of Atlantic salmon reovirus (TSRV) infection in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Carlile, G; East, I J; McColl, K A; Ellard, K; Browning, G F; Crane, M St J

    2014-09-01

    Atlantic salmon reovirus (TSRV) has been consistently isolated from Atlantic salmon in Tasmania, since first identification in 1990 under the Tasmanian Salmonid Health Surveillance Program (TSHSP). The distribution and prevalence of TSRV was identified using TSHSP data. A data set of 730 fish submissions tested over a period of 15 years was reviewed and analysed to describe the spatial and temporal variation of TSRV in Tasmanian salmonid aquaculture production units. The virus was present throughout Tasmania with the highest reported prevalence of the virus in the south-east region of Tasmania. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The hydrophilic amino-terminal arm of reovirus core shell protein lambda1 is dispensable for particle assembly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonghwa; Zhang, Xing; Centonze, Victoria E; Bowman, Valorie D; Noble, Simon; Baker, Timothy S; Nibert, Max L

    2002-12-01

    The reovirus core particle is a molecular machine that mediates synthesis, capping, and export of the viral plus strand RNA transcripts. Its assembly and structure-function relationships remain to be well understood. Following the lead of previous studies with other Reoviridae family members, most notably orbiviruses and rotaviruses, we used recombinant baculoviruses to coexpress reovirus core proteins lambda1, lambda2, and sigma2 in insect cells. The resulting core-like particles (CLPs) were purified and characterized. They were found to be similar to cores with regard to their sizes, morphologies, and protein compositions. Like cores, they could also be coated in vitro with the two major outer-capsid proteins, micro 1 and sigma3, to produce virion-like particles. Coexpression of core shell protein lambda1 and core nodule protein sigma2 was sufficient to yield CLPs that could withstand purification, whereas expression of lambda1 alone was not, indicating a required role for sigma2 as a previous study also suggested. In addition, CLPs that lacked lambda2 (formed from lambda1 and sigma2 only) could not be coated with micro 1 and sigma3, indicating a required role for lambda2 in the assembly of these outer-capsid proteins into particles. To extend the use of this system for understanding the core and its assembly, we addressed the hypothesis that the hydrophilic amino-terminal region of lambda1, which adopts an extended arm-like conformation around each threefold axis in the reovirus core crystal structure, plays an important role in assembling the core shell. Using a series of lambda1 deletion mutants, we showed that the amino-terminal 230 residues of lambda1, including its zinc finger, are dispensable for CLP assembly. Residues in the 231-to-259 region of lambda1, however, were required. The core crystal structure suggests that residues in the 231-to-259 region are necessary because they affect the interaction of lambda1 with the threefold and/or fivefold copies of

  14. Avian influenza in Poland.

    PubMed

    Smietanka, Krzysztof; Minta, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    Poland has experienced four episodes of avian influenza (AI) outbreaks over the past two decades. The first epidemic was caused by a low pathogenicity (LPAIV) H7N7 subtype and occurred in fattening and breeder turkeys in 1995. Two waves of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) took place in 2006 and 2007. In spring 2006, 64 cases of the H5N1 virus were detected, mostly in mute swans. In December 2007, ten outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI were detected in commercial poultry (n = 9) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 1). The outbreaks in 2006 and 2007 were caused by genetically similar but clearly distinguishable viruses of the 2.2 clade. In 2013, an H9N2 avian influenza virus was detected in 4 fattening turkey holdings. The virus was low pathogenic and a phylogenetic study has shown a close relatedness to the Eurasian lineage of AIV of the wild bird origin. Neither preventive nor prophylactic vaccinations have ever been used in poultry or other birds. Emergency vaccinations using autogenous vaccine were introduced only to control the H7N7 LPAI outbreaks in 1995. The baseline surveillance for AI in live migratory birds and poultry provides a valuable insight into the ecology of AIV at the wild and domestic bird interface. Passive surveillance is in place of early detection of HPAIV infection in dead or moribund birds.

  15. Inactivation of adenovirus, reovirus and bacteriophages in fecal sludge by pH and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Magri, Maria Elisa; Fidjeland, Jørgen; Jönsson, Håkan; Albihn, Ann; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inactivation of adenovirus, reovirus and bacteriophages (MS2, ΦX174, 28B) in a fecal sludge. We conducted two experiments. In the first, we tested different compositions of the fecal sludge by mixing different amounts of water, feces and urine, totaling nine combinations which were kept at temperatures between 10 and 28°C. In the second study, urea was added to the mixtures, which were kept at temperatures from 5 to 33°C. The inactivation was based on a combination of temperature, pH and uncharged ammonia concentration. The increase in pH and ammonia was provided mainly by urine content (Experiment 1) and by urine and added urea (Experiment 2). The inactivation of bacteriophages was slower than the AdV and ReV. At 23°C and 28°, reasonable treatment times were obtained when pH was higher than 8.9 and NH3 concentrations were higher than 35 and 55 mM respectively. With those conditions, the maximum time for a 3 log reduction in viruses, according to this study, would be 35 days (23°C) and 21 days (28°C). However, in most applications where helminth eggs are present, the treatment time and NH3 for sanitization will be the scaling criteria, as they are more persistent. Concerning the sanitization of effluents from latrines, vacuum toilets or dry toilets in developing countries with tropical and sub-tropical climates, the use of intrinsic ammonia combined with high pH can be effective in producing a safe and highly valuable liquid that can be used as a fertilizer. In the case of the fecal sludge with very intrinsic ammonia concentration (<20 mM), sanitization could still be achieved by the addition of urea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spleen Transcriptome Profile of Muscovy Ducklings in Response to Infection With Muscovy Duck Reovirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanxi; Wu, Yijian; Cai, Yilong; Zhuang, Yubin; Xu, Lihui; Wu, Baocheng; Zhang, Yanding

    2015-06-01

    Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) causes high morbidity and mortality in ducklings. However, the molecular basis for pathogenesis of this virus remains poorly understood, and the complete genome sequence of Muscovy duck is lacking. Here we report the transcriptome profile of Muscovy ducks in response to MDRV infection. RNA sequencing technology was employed to obtain a representative complement of transcripts from the spleen of ducklings, and then differential gene expression was analyzed between MDRV-YB strain infected ducks and noninfected ducks. This analysis generated 65,536 unigenes. Of these, 6458 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between the infected and noninfected groups. The symptom and pathology of ducks infected with MDRV-YB was correlated with the greater proportion of decreased expression genes (4906) than increased expression (1552) level. Gene ontology analysis assigned differentially expressed genes to the categories: "biological processes," "cellular functions," and "molecular functions." Differentially expressed genes involved in the innate immune system were analyzed further, and 128 of these genes showed decreased expression and 86 showed increased expression between the infected and noninfected groups. These genes represented the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway, and the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways and included interferon (IFN) α, IFNγ, interleukin 6, RIG-I, and TLR4. The data were verified by SYBR fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (SYBR-qPCR). Our findings offer new insight into the host immune response to MDRV infection.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) gills in response to Mud crab reovirus (MCRV).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Chen, Guanxing; Xu, Haidong; Zou, Weibin; Yan, Wenrui; Wang, Qianqian; Deng, Hengwei; Zhang, Heqian; Yu, Guojiao; He, Jianguo; Weng, Shaoping

    2017-01-01

    Mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) is an economically important marine cultured species in China's coastal area. Mud crab reovirus (MCRV) is the most important pathogen of mud crab, resulting in large economic losses in crab farming. In this paper, next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis are used to study transcriptome differences between MCRV-infected mud crab and normal control. A total of 104.3 million clean reads were obtained, including 52.7 million and 51.6 million clean reads from MCRV-infected (CA) and controlled (HA) mud crabs respectively. 81,901, 70,059 and 67,279 unigenes were gained respectively from HA reads, CA reads and HA&CA reads. A total of 32,547 unigenes from HA&CA reads called All-Unigenes were matched to at least one database among Nr, Nt, Swiss-prot, COG, GO and KEGG databases. Among these, 13,039, 20,260 and 11,866 unigenes belonged to the 3, 258 and 25 categories of GO, KEGG pathway, and COG databases, respectively. Solexa/Illumina's DGE platform was also used, and about 13,856 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 4444 significantly upregulated and 9412 downregulated DEGs were detected in diseased crabs compared with the control. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that DEGs were obviously enriched in the pathways related to different diseases or infections. This transcriptome analysis provided valuable information on gene functions associated with the response to MCRV in mud crab, as well as detail information for identifying novel genes in the absence of the mud crab genome database. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a reovirus from common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J. Christian; Kilpi, Mikael; Docherty, D.E.; Hansen, W.R.; Hario, Martti

    2002-01-01

    Samples of brain, intestine, liver, lung, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were collected from five common eider (Somateria mollissima) duckling carcasses during a die-off in the western Gulf of Finland (59°50′N, 23°15′E) in June 1996. No viral activity was observed in specific-pathogen-free chicken embryos inoculated with tissue suspensions, but samples of bursa of Fabricius from three birds were positive when inoculated into Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) embryo fibroblasts. The isolates were characterized as nonenveloped RNA viruses and possessed several characteristics of the genus Orthoreovirus. Virus particles were icosahedral with a mean diameter of 72 nm and were stable at pH 3.0; their genome was separated into 10 segments by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings experimentally infected with the eider reovirus showed elevated serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes and focal hemorrhages in the liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius. During 1997–99, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the isolated virus ranged from 0 to 86% in 302 serum samples collected from incubating eider hens at three nesting areas along coastal Finland. The highest seroprevalence was found in Hanko in 1999, just weeks before reports of an uninvestigated mortality event resulting in the death of an estimated 98% of ducklings at that location. These findings raise the question of potential involvement of the virus in poor duckling survival and eider population declines observed in several breeding areas along coastal Finland since the mid-1980s.

  19. Molecular cloning and prokaryotic expression of vp5 gene of grass carp reovirus strain GCRV096.

    PubMed

    Jian, Ji-chang; Wang, Ya; Yan, Xiu-ying; Ding, Yu; Wu, Zao-he; Lu, Yi-shan

    2013-12-01

    VP5 is an outer capsid protein of grass carp reovirus (GCRV). It is predicted to involve in helping GCRV enter the host cells. In this study, the full-length vp5 gene (accession number in GenBank: JN206664.1) was cloned from GCRV strain GCRV096, which was isolated from diseased grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in southern China by RT-PCR technique using the primers designed from the known vp5 gene sequences of other strains of GCRV published in GenBank. The ORF sequence of vp5 is composed of 1,947 nucleotides encoding a 648-residues protein with a calculated molecular mass of 68.6 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 6.1. Sequence analysis results showed that VP5 might serve as a penetration protein and play an important role in GCRV penetration into the host cells. A full length of vp5 gene was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a (+) and the recombinant plasmid (pET/GCRV-VP5) was then transduced into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells to express VP5 in vitro. SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis indicated that the protein expressed successfully. Results also showed that the fusion protein expressed in the form of inclusion body, and it expressed in the highest level when induced with 0.2-mM IPTG at 28 °C for 4 h. These results are important for the future study on the molecular structure, function, and immunogenicity of GCRV capsid protein.

  20. Requirements for the formation of membrane pores by the reovirus myristoylated micro1N peptide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Agosto, Melina A; Ivanovic, Tijana; King, David S; Nibert, Max L; Harrison, Stephen C

    2009-07-01

    The outer capsid of the nonenveloped mammalian reovirus contains 200 trimers of the micro1 protein, each complexed with three copies of the protector protein sigma3. Conformational changes in micro1 following the proteolytic removal of sigma3 lead to release of the myristoylated N-terminal cleavage fragment micro1N and ultimately to membrane penetration. The micro1N fragment forms pores in red blood cell (RBC) membranes. In this report, we describe the interaction of recombinant micro1 trimers and synthetic micro1N peptides with both RBCs and liposomes. The micro1 trimer mediates hemolysis and liposome disruption under conditions that promote the micro1 conformational change, and mutations that inhibit micro1 conformational change in the context of intact virus particles also prevent liposome disruption by particle-free micro1 trimer. Autolytic cleavage to form micro1N is required for hemolysis but not for liposome disruption. Pretreatment of RBCs with proteases rescues hemolysis activity, suggesting that micro1N cleavage is not required when steric barriers are removed. Synthetic myristoylated micro1N peptide forms size-selective pores in liposomes, as measured by fluorescence dequenching of labeled dextrans of different sizes. Addition of a C-terminal solubility tag to the peptide does not affect activity, but sequence substitution V13N or L36D reduces liposome disruption. These substitutions are in regions of alternating hydrophobic residues. Their locations, the presence of an N-terminal myristoyl group, and the full activity of a C-terminally extended peptide, along with circular dichroism data that indicate prevalence of beta-strand secondary structure, suggest a model in which micro1N beta-hairpins assemble in the membrane to form a beta-barrel pore.

  1. Molecular construction of bionanoparticles: chimaeric SIV p17-HIV I p6 nanoparticles with minimal viral protein content.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria J L; Pedro, Luísa; de Matos, António P Alves; Aires-Barros, Maria R; Belo, José A; Goncalves, João; Ferreira, Guilherme N M

    2007-09-01

    VLPs (virus-like particles) are promising delivery vectors for molecular therapy, since they combine the major advantages of viral vectors with significantly fewer viral vector disadvantages. The present paper describes the molecular construction of chimaeric VLPs based on minimal SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) and HIV1 components. A chimaeric protein was constructed by fusion of SIV matrix protein (p17) and HIV1 p6 protein, and we demonstrated that the chimaeric proteins assemble as 80 nm nanoparticles containing approximately 7700 chimaeric protein units. Chimaeric VLPs are released from HEK-293T cells (human embryonic kidney cells expressing the large T-antigen of simian virus 40) and are fully encapsulated with lipid membrane. Chimaeric VLPs are produced at 3.7-fold higher levels when compared with SIV p17 VLPs owing to duplication of a PTAP (Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro) domain previously shown as essential for virus particle release. The chimaeric VLPs constructed in the present paper were efficiently pseudotyped with vesicular-stomatitis-virus glycoprotein, as shown by immunoprecipitation assays.

  2. Serotype-specific differences in inhibition of reovirus infectivity by human-milk glycans are determined by viral attachment protein σ1.

    PubMed

    Iskarpatyoti, Jason A; Morse, E Ashley; McClung, R Paul; Ikizler, Miné; Wetzel, J Denise; Contractor, Nikhat; Dermody, Terence S

    2012-11-25

    Human milk contains many bioactive components, including secretory IgA, oligosaccharides, and milk-associated proteins. We assessed the antiviral effects of several components of milk against mammalian reoviruses. We found that glucocerebroside (GCB) inhibited the infectivity of reovirus strain type 1 Lang (T1L), whereas gangliosides GD3 and GM3 and 3'-sialyllactose (3SL) inhibited the infectivity of reovirus strain type 3 Dearing (T3D). Agglutination of erythrocytes mediated by T1L and T3D was inhibited by GD3, GM3, and bovine lactoferrin. Additionally, α-sialic acid, 3SL, 6'-sialyllactose, sialic acid, human lactoferrin, osteopontin, and α-lactalbumin inhibited hemagglutination mediated by T3D. Using single-gene reassortant viruses, we found that serotype-specific differences segregate with the gene encoding the viral attachment protein. Furthermore, GD3, GM3, and 3SL inhibit T3D infectivity by blocking binding to host cells, whereas GCB inhibits T1L infectivity post-attachment. These results enhance an understanding of reovirus cell attachment and define a mechanism for the antimicrobial activity of human milk.

  3. A one-step molecular biology method for simple and rapid detection of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reovirus (GCRV) HZ08 strain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) primers designed against conserved regions of segment 6 (s6) gene were used for the detection of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reovirus (GCRV) HZ08 subtype. The entire amplification could be completed within 40 min at 62...

  4. Amino acid substitutions in σ1 and μ1 outer capsid proteins are selected during mammalian reovirus adaptation to Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Jabre, Roland; Sandekian, Véronique; Lemay, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Establishment of viral persistence in cell culture has previously led to the selection of mammalian reovirus mutants, although very few of those have been characterized in details. In the present study, reovirus was adapted to Vero cells that, in contrast to classically-used L929 cells, are inefficient in supporting the early steps of reovirus uncoating and are also unable to produce interferon as an antiviral response once infection occurs. The Vero cell-adapted reovirus exhibits amino acids substitutions in both the σ1 and μ1 proteins. This contrasts with uncoating mutants from persistently infected L929 cells, and various other cell types, that generally harbor amino acids substitutions in the σ3 outer capsid protein. The Vero cell-adapted virus remained sensitive to an inhibitor of lysosomal proteases; furthermore, in the absence of selective pressure for its maintenance, the virus has partially lost its ability to resist interferon. The positions of the amino acids substitutions on the known protein structures suggest an effect on binding of the viral σ1 protein to the cell surface and on μ1 disassembly from the outer capsid.

  5. Genome sequence analysis of CsRV1: a pathogenic reovirus that infects the blue crab Callinectes sapidus across its trans-hemispheric range

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun 1896), which is a commercially important trophic link in coastal ecosystems of the western Atlantic, is infected in both North and South America by C. sapidus Reovirus 1 (CsRV1), a double stranded RNA virus. The 12 genome segments of a North American strai...

  6. Piscine reovirus (PRV) in wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and sea-trout, Salmo trutta L., in Norway.

    PubMed

    Garseth, Å H; Fritsvold, C; Opheim, M; Skjerve, E; Biering, E

    2013-05-01

    This is the first comprehensive study on the occurrence and distribution of piscine reovirus (PRV) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., caught in Norwegian rivers. PRV is a newly discovered reovirus associated with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), a serious and commercially important disease affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway. A cross-sectional survey based on real-time RT-PCR screening of head kidney samples from wild, cultivated and escaped farmed Atlantic salmon caught from 2007 to 2009 in Norwegian rivers has been conducted. In addition, anadromous trout (sea-trout), Salmo trutta L., caught from 2007 to 2010, and anadromous Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), caught from 2007 to 2009, were tested. PRV was detected in Atlantic salmon from all counties included in the study and in 31 of 36 examined rivers. PRV was also detected in sea-trout but not in anadromous Arctic char. In this study, the mean proportion of PRV positives was 13.4% in wild Atlantic salmon, 24.0% in salmon released for stock enhancement purposes and 55.2% in escaped farmed salmon. Histopathological examination of hearts from 21 PRV-positive wild and one cultivated salmon (Ct values ranging from 17.0 to 39.8) revealed no HSMI-related lesions. Thus, it seems that PRV is widespread in Atlantic salmon returning to Norwegian rivers, and that the virus can be present in high titres without causing lesions traditionally associated with HSMI.

  7. BRAF- and MEK-Targeted Small Molecule Inhibitors Exert Enhanced Antimelanoma Effects in Combination With Oncolytic Reovirus Through ER Stress

    PubMed Central

    Roulstone, Victoria; Pedersen, Malin; Kyula, Joan; Mansfield, David; Khan, Aadil A; McEntee, Grainne; Wilkinson, Michelle; Karapanagiotou, Eleni; Coffey, Matt; Marais, Richard; Jebar, Adel; Errington-Mais, Fiona; Melcher, Alan; Vile, Richard; Pandha, Hardev; McLaughlin, Martin; Harrington, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Reovirus type 3 (Dearing) (RT3D) infection is selective for cells harboring a mutated/activated RAS pathway. Therefore, in a panel of melanoma cell lines (including RAS mutant, BRAF mutant and RAS/BRAF wild-type), we assessed therapeutic combinations that enhance/suppress ERK1/2 signaling through use of BRAF/MEK inhibitors. In RAS mutant cells, the combination of RT3D with the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 (paradoxically increasing ERK1/2 signaling in this context) did not enhance reoviral cytotoxicity. Instead, and somewhat surprisingly, RT3D and BRAF inhibition led to enhanced cell kill in BRAF mutated cell lines. Likewise, ERK1/2 inhibition, using the MEK inhibitor PD184352, in combination with RT3D resulted in enhanced cell kill in the entire panel. Interestingly, TCID50 assays showed that BRAF and MEK inhibitors did not affect viral replication. Instead, enhanced efficacy was mediated through ER stress-induced apoptosis, induced by the combination of ERK1/2 inhibition and reovirus infection. In vivo, combined treatments of RT3D and PLX4720 showed significantly increased activity in BRAF mutant tumors in both immune-deficient and immune-competent models. These data provide a strong rationale for clinical translation of strategies in which RT3D is combined with BRAF inhibitors (in BRAF mutant melanoma) and/or MEK inhibitors (in BRAF and RAS mutant melanoma). PMID:25619724

  8. Priming of reovirus transcription by GppppG and formation of CpG(5')GpC.

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, M; Furuichi, Y; Shatkin, A J

    1982-01-01

    Compounds of general structure N(5')pn(5')N were used by the reovirus-associated RNA polymerase as primers for template-directed synthesis of virus-specific oligonucleotides and RNA. Structural requirements for activity included a guanosine residue and at least four phosphates--i.e., G(5')pppp(5')N. Gp4G incubated with viral cores in the presence of CTP yielded Gp4GpC and CpGp4GpC. In a complete transcription mixture, Gp4G was also incorporated into the 5' termini of full-length transcripts in the unmethylated forms Gp4GpC and CpGp4GpC, in contrast to viral mRNAs that contain 5'-terminal m7GpppGmpC formed de novo. Gp5G, Gp6G, and Gp4A but not Gp2G, Gp3G, and Ap4A also primed reovirus transcription and inhibited RNA methylation. Images PMID:6959105

  9. Reovirus-mediated induction of ADAR1 (p150) minimally alters RNA editing patterns in discrete brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Jennifer L.; Morabito, Michael V.; Martinez, Charles R.; Gilbert, James A.; Ferrick, Elizabeth A.; Ayers, Gregory D.; Chappell, James D.; Dermody, Terence S.; Emeson, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Transcripts encoding ADAR1, a double-stranded, RNA-specific adenosine deaminase involved in the adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing of mammalian RNAs, can be alternatively spliced to produce an interferon-inducible protein isoform (p150) that is up-regulated in both cell culture and in vivo model systems in response to pathogen or interferon stimulation. In contrast to other tissues, p150 is expressed at extremely low levels in the brain and it is unclear what role, if any, this isoform may play in the innate immune response of the central nervous system (CNS) or whether the extent of editing for RNA substrates critical for CNS function is affected by its induction. To investigate the expression of ADAR1 isoforms in response to viral infection and subsequent alterations in A-to-I editing profiles for endogenous ADAR targets, we used a neuro-tropic strain of reovirus to infect neonatal mice and quantify A-to-I editing in discrete brain regions using a multiplexed, high-throughput sequencing strategy. While intracranial injection of reovirus resulted in a widespread increase in the expression of ADAR1 (p150) in multiple brain regions and peripheral organs, significant changes in site-specific A-to-I conversion were quite limited, suggesting that steady-state levels of p150 expression are not a primary determinant for modulating the extent of editing for numerous ADAR targets in vivo. PMID:24906008

  10. Upregulation of ICOS on CD43+ CD4+ murine small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes during acute reovirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Montufar-Solis, Dina; Garza, Tomas; Teng, B.-B.; Klein, John R. . E-mail: john.r.klein@uth.tmc.edu

    2006-04-14

    Murine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) can be classified according to expression of a CD43 glycoform recognized by the S7 monoclonal antibody. In this study, we examined the response of S7+ and S7- IELs in mice during acute reovirus serotype 3 (Dearing strain) infection, which was confirmed by virus-specific real-time PCR. In vivo proliferation increased significantly for both S7- and S7+ IELs on day 4 post-infection as determined by BrdU incorporation; however, expression of the inducible costimulatory (ICOS) molecule, which peaked on day 7 post-infection, was upregulated on S7+ CD4+ T cells, most of which were CD4+8- IELs. In vitro ICOS stimulation by syngeneic peritoneal macrophages induced IFN-{gamma} secretion from IELs from day 7 infected mice, and was suppressed by treatment with anti-ICOS mAb. Additionally, IFN-{gamma} mRNA increased in CD4+ IELs on day 6 post-infection. These findings indicate that S7- and S7+ IELs are differentially mobilized during the immune response to reovirus infection; that the regulated expression of ICOS is associated with S7+ IELs; and that stimulation of IELs through ICOS enhances IFN-{gamma} synthesis during infection.

  11. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  12. Effect of Glu12-His89 Interaction on Dynamic Structures in HIV-1 p17 Matrix Protein Elucidated by NMR

    PubMed Central

    Konagaya, Yuta; Miyakawa, Rina; Sato, Masumi; Matsugami, Akimasa; Watanabe, Satoru; Hayashi, Fumiaki; Kigawa, Takanori; Nishimura, Chiaki

    2016-01-01

    To test the existence of the salt bridge and stability of the HIV-1 p17 matrix protein, an E12A (mutated at helix 1) was established to abolish possible electrostatic interactions. The chemical shift perturbation from the comparison between wild type and E12A suggested the existence of an electrostatic interaction in wild type between E12 and H89 (located in helix 4). Unexpectedly, the studies using urea denaturation indicated that the E12A substitution slightly stabilized the protein. The dynamic structure of E12A was examined under physiological conditions by both amide proton exchange and relaxation studies. The quick exchange method of amide protons revealed that the residues with faster exchange were located at the mutated region, around A12, compared to those of the wild-type protein. In addition, some residues at the region of helix 4, including H89, exhibited faster exchange in the mutant. In contrast, the average values of the kinetic rate constants for amide proton exchange for residues located in all loop regions were slightly lower in E12A than in wild type. Furthermore, the analyses of the order parameter revealed that less flexible structures existed at each loop region in E12A. Interestingly, the structures of the regions including the alpha1-2 loop and helix 5 of E12A exhibited more significant conformational exchanges with the NMR time-scale than those of wild type. Under lower pH conditions, for further destabilization, the helix 1 and alpha2-3 loop in E12A became more fluctuating than at physiological pH. Because the E12A mutant lacks the activities for trimer formation on the basis of the analytical ultra-centrifuge studies on the sedimentation distribution of p17 (Fledderman et al. Biochemistry 49, 9551–9562, 2010), it is possible that the changes in the dynamic structures induced by the absence of the E12-H89 interaction in the p17 matrix protein contributes to a loss of virus assembly. PMID:27907055

  13. Genome Sequence Analysis of CsRV1: A Pathogenic Reovirus that Infects the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus Across Its Trans-Hemispheric Range.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Emily M; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Warg, Janet V; Neill, John D; Killian, Mary L; Vinagre, Anapaula S; Brown, Shanai; Almeida, Andréa Santos E; Schott, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896, which is a commercially important trophic link in coastal ecosystems of the western Atlantic, is infected in both North and South America by C. sapidus Reovirus 1 (CsRV1), a double stranded RNA virus. The 12 genome segments of a North American strain of CsRV1 were sequenced using Ion Torrent technology. Putative functions could be assigned for 3 of the 13 proteins encoded in the genome, based on their similarity to proteins encoded in other reovirus genomes. Comparison of the CsRV1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) sequence to genomes of other crab-infecting reoviruses shows that it is similar to the mud crab reovirus found in Scylla serrata and WX-2012 in Eriocheir sinensis, Chinese mitten crab, and supports the idea that there is a distinct "Crabreo" genus, different from Seadornavirus and Cardoreovirus, the two closest genera in the Reoviridae. A region of 98% nucleotide sequence identity between CsRV1 and the only available sequence of the P virus of Macropipus depurator suggests that these two viruses may be closely related. An 860 nucleotide region of the CsRV1 RdRP gene was amplified and sequenced from 15 infected crabs collected from across the geographic range of C. sapidus. Pairwise analysis of predicted protein sequences shows that CsRV1 strains in Brazil can be distinguished from those in North America based on conserved residues in this gene. The sequencing, annotation, and preliminary population metrics of the genome of CsRV1 should facilitate additional studies in diverse disciplines, including structure-function relationships of reovirus proteins, investigations into the evolution of the Reoviridae, and biogeographic research on the connectivity of C. sapidus populations across the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  14. Genome Sequence Analysis of CsRV1: A Pathogenic Reovirus that Infects the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus Across Its Trans-Hemispheric Range

    PubMed Central

    Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R.; Warg, Janet V.; Neill, John D.; Killian, Mary L.; Vinagre, Anapaula S.; Brown, Shanai; Almeida, Andréa Santos e; Schott, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896, which is a commercially important trophic link in coastal ecosystems of the western Atlantic, is infected in both North and South America by C. sapidus Reovirus 1 (CsRV1), a double stranded RNA virus. The 12 genome segments of a North American strain of CsRV1 were sequenced using Ion Torrent technology. Putative functions could be assigned for 3 of the 13 proteins encoded in the genome, based on their similarity to proteins encoded in other reovirus genomes. Comparison of the CsRV1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) sequence to genomes of other crab-infecting reoviruses shows that it is similar to the mud crab reovirus found in Scylla serrata and WX-2012 in Eriocheir sinensis, Chinese mitten crab, and supports the idea that there is a distinct “Crabreo” genus, different from Seadornavirus and Cardoreovirus, the two closest genera in the Reoviridae. A region of 98% nucleotide sequence identity between CsRV1 and the only available sequence of the P virus of Macropipus depurator suggests that these two viruses may be closely related. An 860 nucleotide region of the CsRV1 RdRP gene was amplified and sequenced from 15 infected crabs collected from across the geographic range of C. sapidus. Pairwise analysis of predicted protein sequences shows that CsRV1 strains in Brazil can be distinguished from those in North America based on conserved residues in this gene. The sequencing, annotation, and preliminary population metrics of the genome of CsRV1 should facilitate additional studies in diverse disciplines, including structure-function relationships of reovirus proteins, investigations into the evolution of the Reoviridae, and biogeographic research on the connectivity of C. sapidus populations across the Northern and Southern hemispheres. PMID:26904003

  15. The HIV Matrix Protein p17 Promotes the Activation of Human Hepatic Stellate Cells through Interactions with CXCR2 and Syndecan-2

    PubMed Central

    Renga, Barbara; Francisci, Daniela; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Carino, Adriana; Cipriani, Sabrina; D'Amore, Claudio; Sidoni, Angelo; Sordo, Rachele Del; Ferri, Ivana; Lucattelli, Monica; Lunghi, Benedetta; Baldelli, Franco; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p17 is a matrix protein involved in virus life's cycle. CXCR2 and Syndecan-2, the two major coreceptors for the p17 protein, are expressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a key cell type involved in matrix deposition in liver fibrotic disorders. Aim In this report we have investigated the in vitro impact of p17 on HSCs transdifferentiation and function and underlying signaling pathways involved in these processes. Methods LX-2 cells, a human HSC line, and primary HSC were challenged with p17 and expressions of fibrogenic markers and of p17 receptors were assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Downstream intracellular signaling pathways were evaluated with qRT-PCR and Western blot as well as after pre-treatment with specific pathway inhibitors. Results Exposure of LX2 cells to p17 increases their contractile force, reshapes the cytoskeleton fibers and upregulates the expression of transdifferentiation markers including αSMA, COL1α1 and endothelin-1 through the activation of Jak/STAT and Rho signaling pathways. These effects are lost in HSCs pre-incubated with a serum from HIV positive person who underwent a vaccination with a p17 peptide. Confocal laser microscopy studies demonstrates that CXCR2 and syndecan-2 co-associate at the plasma membrane after exposure to p17. Immunostaining of HIV/HCV liver biopsies from co-infected patients reveals that the progression of liver fibrosis correlates with a reduced expression of CXCR2. Conclusions The HIV matrix protein p17 is pro-fibrogenic through its interactions both with CXCR2 and syndecan-2 on activated HSCs. PMID:24736615

  16. Avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2009-04-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improvement of intensive poultry production systems. The control and eradication measures implemented were based on active surveillance, disease detection, depopulation of infected farms and prevention of possible contacts (identified by epidemiological investigations), improvement of biosecurity measures, and restriction of the movement of live birds, poultry products, by-products and infected material. In addition, Mexico introduced a massive vaccination programme, which resulted in the eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas that had a high density of commercial poultry.

  17. Clinical avian nutrition.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Avian Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2016-01-01

    Basic surgical instrumentation for avian soft tissue surgery includes soft tissue retractors, microsurgical instrumentation, surgical loupes, and head-mounted lights. Hemostasis is fundamental during the surgical procedures. The indications, approach, and complications associated with soft tissue surgeries of the integumentary (digit constriction repair, feather cyst excision, cranial wound repair, sternal wound repair, uropygial gland excision), gastrointestinal (ingluviotomy, crop biopsy, crop burn repair, celiotomy, coelomic hernia and pseudohernia repair, proventriculotomy, ventriculotomy, enterotomy, intestinal resection and anastomosis, cloacoplasty, cloacopexy), respiratory (rhinolith removal, sinusotomy, tracheotomy, tracheal resection and anastomosis, tracheostomy, pneumonectomy) and reproductive (ovocentesis, ovariectomy, salpingohysterectomy, cesarean section, orchidectomy, vasectomy, phallectomy) systems are reviewed.

  19. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the human immunodeficiency virus matrix protein, p17gag: identification of epitopes exposed at the surfaces of infected cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, F; Huang, H; Revesz, K; Chen, H C; Herz, R; Pinter, A

    1991-09-01

    Eight monoclonal antibodies reactive with the matrix protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), p17gag, were isolated from rats which had been immunized with solubilized HIV-1 lysate. The epitope specificities of these antibodies were determined with a series of synthetic peptides representing overlapping regions of p17. Six of the antibodies were mapped to three distinct regions of p17, while two antibodies (G11g1 and G11h3) reacted only with intact recombinant p17, suggesting that they were directed against conformational or discontinuous epitopes. All the antibodies bound to HIV-infected cells which had been permeabilized with acetone, but only G11g1 and G11h3 reacted with live HIV-infected cells. Specificity studies with diverse virus strains demonstrated that these two antibodies recognized distinct epitopes, one which was group specific for HIV-1, and one which was shared with HIV type 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus. Binding competition studies indicated that these epitopes were proximal in native p17. Despite their reactivity with intact cells, these two antibodies did not possess appreciable virus-neutralizing activity. These results indicate that a form of p17 is expressed on the surfaces of live HIV-infected cells which is accessible to some, but not all, antibodies against p17. These cell surface molecules may play a role in the generation of antibodies against p17gag that are characteristic of early stages of HIV infection, and they may act as natural targets for the immune system and as potential targets for immunotherapy of HIV-infected cells.

  20. Stenosis of the central canal of the spinal cord following inoculation of suckling hamsters with reovirus type I.

    PubMed

    Milhorat, T H; Kotzen, R M

    1994-07-01

    The central canal of the human spinal cord is partially or completely occluded in the vast majority of individuals by the early years of adult life. The authors describe an experimental lesion following virus-induced ependymitis that bears a striking resemblance to the condition in man. Suckling hamsters were inoculated with 0.06 ml of 10(-3) infectivity titer of reovirus type I between the 2nd and 5th days of life. The pathological events consisted of necrotizing ependymitis, healing of the ependyma by gliovascular scarring, and obstruction of narrow bottlenecks such as the central canal. Histological findings were characterized by disorganization of the ependyma, formation of ependymal rosettes and microtubules, subependymal gliovascular scarring, and intracanalicular gliosis. These features are the same as those encountered clinically and provide strong evidence that stenosis of the central canal in man is a pathological lesion involving ependymal injury and scarring.

  1. Stimulation of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase mRNA translation by reovirus capsid polypeptide sigma 3 in cotransfected COS cells.

    PubMed Central

    Giantini, M; Shatkin, A J

    1989-01-01

    The mammalian reovirus S4 gene has been implicated in the serotype-dependent inhibition of host cell protein synthesis during viral replication in mouse L cells. To examine the effect(s) of this gene on transcription or translation or both, a DNA copy of the serotype 3 S4 gene was inserted into a eucaryotic expression vector. Cotransfection of COS cells with plasmids containing S4 and the reporter gene, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), resulted in a marked stimulation of CAT expression, predominantly at the level of translation. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the double-stranded-RNA-binding activity of the S4 gene product, polypeptide sigma 3. Images PMID:2724407

  2. The Avian Development Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.

  3. Avian host defense peptides.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; Coorens, Maarten; van Dijk, Albert; Haagsman, Henk P

    2013-11-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules of the innate immune system of vertebrates. These antimicrobial peptides are also present in invertebrates, plants and fungi. HDPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and fulfill an important role in the first line of defense of many organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the animal kingdom the functions of HDPs are not confined to direct antimicrobial actions. Research in mammals has indicated that HDPs have many immunomodulatory functions and are also involved in other physiological processes ranging from development to wound healing. During the past five years our knowledge about avian HDPs has increased considerably. This review addresses our current knowledge on the evolution, regulation and biological functions of HDPs of birds.

  4. Thermostabilizing Mutations in Reovirus Outer-Capsid Protein μ1 Selected by Heat Inactivation of Infectious Subvirion Particles

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jason K.; Agosto, Melina A.; Severson, Tonya F.; Yin, John; Nibert, Max L.

    2007-01-01

    The 76-kDa μ1 protein of nonfusogenic mammalian reovirus is a major component of the virion outer capsid, which contains 200 μ1 trimers arranged in an incomplete T=13 lattice. In virions, μ1 is largely covered by a second major outer-capsid protein, σ3, which limits μ1 conformational mobility. In infectious subvirion particles, from which σ3 has been removed, μ1 is broadly exposed on the surface and can be promoted to rearrange into a protease-sensitive and hydrophobic conformer, leading to membrane perforation or penetration. In this study, mutants that resisted loss of infectivity upon heat inactivation (heat-resistant mutants) were selected from infectious subvirion particles of reovirus strains Type 1 Lang and Type 3 Dearing. All of the mutants were found to have mutations in μ1, and the heat-resistance phenotype was mapped to μ1 by both recoating and reassortant genetics. Heat-resistant mutants were also resistant to rearrangement to the protease-sensitive conformer of μ1, suggesting that heat inactivation is associated with μ1 rearrangement, consistent with published results. Rate constants of heat inactivation were determined, and the dependence of inactivation rate on temperature was consistent with the Arrhenius relationship. The Gibbs free energy of activation was calculated with reference to transition-state theory and was found to be correlated with the degree of heat resistance in each of the analyzed mutants. The mutations are located in upper portions of the μ1 trimer, near intersubunit contacts either within or between trimers in the viral outer capsid. We propose that the mutants stabilize the outer capsid by interfering with unwinding of the μ1 trimer. PMID:17208266

  5. Protection of chickens against avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) infection by immunization with recombinant avian HEV capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X J

    2007-04-12

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is an emerging virus associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens in North America. Avian HEV is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV, the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans. In the lack of a practical animal model, avian HEV infection in chickens has been used as a model to study human HEV replication and pathogenesis. A 32 kDa recombinant ORF2 capsid protein of avian HEV expressed in Escherichia coli was found having similar antigenic structure as that of human HEV containing major neutralizing epitopes. To determine if the capsid protein of avian HEV can be used as a vaccine, 20 chickens were immunized with purified avian HEV recombinant protein with aluminum as adjuvant and another 20 chickens were mock immunized with KLH precipitated in aluminum as controls. Both groups of chickens were subsequently challenged with avian HEV. All the tested mock-immunized control chickens developed typical avian HEV infection characterized by viremia, fecal virus shedding and seroconversion to avian HEV antibodies. Gross hepatic lesions were also found in portion of these chickens. In contrast, none of the tested chickens immunized with avian HEV capsid protein had detectable viremia, fecal virus shedding or observable gross hepatitis lesions. The results from this study suggested that immunization of chickens with avian HEV recombinant ORF2 capsid protein with aluminum as adjuvant can induce protective immunity against avian HEV infection. Chickens are a useful small animal model to study anti-HEV immunity and pathogenesis.

  6. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders.

  7. Immunity to Rice black streaked dwarf virus, a plant reovirus, can be achieved in rice plants by RNA silencing against the gene for the viroplasm component protein.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takumi; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Akita, Fusamichi; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Omura, Toshihiro; Sasaya, Takahide

    2011-09-01

    The nonstructural protein P9-1 of Rice black streaked dwarf virus has been confirmed to accumulate in viroplasms, the putative sites of viral replication, in infected plants and insects. We transformed rice plants by introducing an RNA interference construct against the P9-1-encoding gene. The resultant transgenic plants accumulated short interfering RNAs specific to the construct. All progenies produced by self-fertilization of these transgenic plants with induced RNA interference against the gene for P9-1 were resistant to infection by the virus. Our results demonstrated that interfering with the expression of a viroplasm component protein of plant reoviruses, which plays an important role in viral proliferation, might be a practical and effective way to control plant reovirus infection in crop plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. THE STELLAR OBLIQUITY AND THE LONG-PERIOD PLANET IN THE HAT-P-17 EXOPLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Crepp, Justin R.; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Hartman, Joel D.; Johnson, John Asher; Knutson, Heather A.; Zhao Ming

    2013-08-01

    We present the measured projected obliquity-the sky-projected angle between the stellar spin axis and orbital angular momentum-of the inner planet of the HAT-P-17 multi-planet system. We measure the sky-projected obliquity of the star to be {lambda}=19{sup +14}{sub -16} deg by modeling the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect in Keck/HIRES radial velocities (RVs). The anomalous RV time series shows an asymmetry relative to the midtransit time, ordinarily suggesting a nonzero obliquity-but in this case at least part of the asymmetry may be due to the convective blueshift, increasing the uncertainty in the determination of {lambda}. We employ the semi-analytical approach of Hirano et al. that includes the effects of macroturbulence, instrumental broadening, and convective blueshift to accurately model the anomaly in the net RV caused by the planet eclipsing part of the rotating star. Obliquity measurements are an important tool for testing theories of planet formation and migration. To date, the measured obliquities of {approx}50 Jovian planets span the full range, from prograde to retrograde, with planets orbiting cool stars preferentially showing alignment of stellar spins and planetary orbits. Our results are consistent with this pattern emerging from tidal interactions in the convective envelopes of cool stars and close-in planets. In addition, our 1.8 yr of new RVs for this system show that the orbit of the outer planet is more poorly constrained than previously thought, with an orbital period now in the range of 10-36 yr.

  9. The Stellar Obliquity and the Long-period Planet in the HAT-P-17 Exoplanetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Crepp, Justin R.; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Johnson, John Asher; Hartman, Joel D.; Isaacson, Howard; Knutson, Heather A.; Zhao, Ming

    2013-08-01

    We present the measured projected obliquity—the sky-projected angle between the stellar spin axis and orbital angular momentum—of the inner planet of the HAT-P-17 multi-planet system. We measure the sky-projected obliquity of the star to be \\lambda =19^{+14}_{-16} deg by modeling the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect in Keck/HIRES radial velocities (RVs). The anomalous RV time series shows an asymmetry relative to the midtransit time, ordinarily suggesting a nonzero obliquity—but in this case at least part of the asymmetry may be due to the convective blueshift, increasing the uncertainty in the determination of λ. We employ the semi-analytical approach of Hirano et al. that includes the effects of macroturbulence, instrumental broadening, and convective blueshift to accurately model the anomaly in the net RV caused by the planet eclipsing part of the rotating star. Obliquity measurements are an important tool for testing theories of planet formation and migration. To date, the measured obliquities of ~50 Jovian planets span the full range, from prograde to retrograde, with planets orbiting cool stars preferentially showing alignment of stellar spins and planetary orbits. Our results are consistent with this pattern emerging from tidal interactions in the convective envelopes of cool stars and close-in planets. In addition, our 1.8 yr of new RVs for this system show that the orbit of the outer planet is more poorly constrained than previously thought, with an orbital period now in the range of 10-36 yr.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus contains an epitope immunoreactive with thymosin. cap alpha. /sub 1/ and the 30-amino acid synthetic p17 group-specific antigen peptide HGP-30

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, P.H.; Naylor, C.W.; Badamchian, M.; Wada, S.; Goldstein, A.L.; Wang, S.S.; Sun, D.K.; Thornton, A.H.; Sarin, P.S.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have reported that an antiserum prepared against thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ (which shares a region of homology with the p17 protein of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated human immunodeficiency virus) effectively neutralized the AIDs virus and prevented its replication in H9 cells. Using HPLC and immunoblot analysis, they have identified from a clone B, type III human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-IIIB) extracts a protein with a molecular weight of 17,000 that is immunoreactive with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/. In contrast, no immunoreactivity was found in retroviral extracts from a number of nonhuman species including feline, bovine, simian, gibbon, and murine retroviruses. Heterologous antiserum prepared against a 30-amino acid synthetic peptide analogue (HGP-30) does not cross-react with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ but does react specifically with the p17 protein of the AIDS virus in a manner identical to that seen with an HTLV-IIIB p17-specific monoclonal antibody. The demonstration that this synthetic analogue is immunogenic and that antibodies to HGP-30 cross-react not only with synthetic peptide but also with the HTLV-IIIB p17 viral protein provides an additional, and potentially more specific, candidate for development of a synthetic peptide vaccine for AIDS. In addition, the p17 synthetic peptide (HGP-3) may prove to be useful in a diagnostic assay for the detection of AIDS virus infection in seronegative individuals.

  11. A neutralizing monoclonal antibody previously mapped exclusively on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 recognizes an epitope in p17 sharing the core sequence IEEE.

    PubMed Central

    Buratti, E; Tisminetzky, S G; D'Agaro, P; Baralle, F E

    1997-01-01

    We report here that a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb 1575) mapped to the conserved putative intracellular region from amino acid residues 735 to 752 (735-752 region) of gp41 also recognizes a region in an extracellular portion of p17. Both epitopes have a core recognition sequence (IEEE) in a nonhomologous context. The IEEE motif found in HIV-1 p17 is located in a region known as HGP-30 (residues 86 to 115) which has been previously associated with virus neutralization, cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity, and mother-to-child transmission. An analysis of available gp41 and p17 sequences demonstrates that in these regions both IEEE sequences are highly conserved in different HIV-1 clades. The presence of the IEEE epitope in p17 allows us to explain some unexpected neutralizing characteristics of MAb 1575. In addition, the gp41 735-752 region has been previously reported both in intra- and extracellular locations. Our results suggest that the extracellular location was the result of cross-reactivity with p17. PMID:9032383

  12. Non-structural proteins P17 and P33 are involved in the assembly of the internal membrane-containing virus PRD1

    SciTech Connect

    Karttunen, Jenni; Mäntynen, Sari; Ihalainen, Teemu O.; Bamford, Jaana K.H.; Oksanen, Hanna M.

    2015-08-15

    Bacteriophage PRD1, which has been studied intensively at the structural and functional levels, still has some gene products with unknown functions and certain aspects of the PRD1 assembly process have remained unsolved. In this study, we demonstrate that the phage-encoded non-structural proteins P17 and P33, either individually or together, complement the defect in a temperature-sensitive GroES mutant of Escherichia coli for host growth and PRD1 propagation. Confocal microscopy of fluorescent fusion proteins revealed co-localisation between P33 and P17 as well as between P33 and the host chaperonin GroEL. A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay demonstrated that the diffusion of the P33 fluorescent fusion protein was substantially slower in E. coli than theoretically calculated, presumably resulting from intermolecular interactions. Our results indicate that P33 and P17 function in procapsid assembly, possibly in association with the host chaperonin complex GroEL/GroES. - Highlights: • Two non-structural proteins of PRD1 are involved in the virus assembly. • P17 and P33 complement the defect in GroES of Escherichia coli. • P33 co-localises with GroEL and P17 in the bacterium. • Slow motion of P33 in the bacterium suggests association with cellular components.

  13. Avian-human influenza epidemic model.

    PubMed

    Iwami, Shingo; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Liu, Xianning

    2007-05-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to interpret the spread of avian influenza from the bird world to the human world. Our mathematical model warns that two types of the outbreak of avian influenza may occur if the humans do not prevent the spread of avian influenza. Moreover, it suggests that we cannot feel relieved although the total infected humans are kept at low level. In order to prevent spread of avian influenza in the human world, we must take the measures not only for the birds infected with avian influenza to exterminate but also for the humans infected with mutant avian influenza to quarantine when mutant avian influenza has already occurred. In particular, the latter measure is shown to be important to stop the second pandemic of avian influenza.

  14. Reovirus intermediate subviral particles constitute a strategy to infect intestinal epithelial cells by exploiting TGF-β dependent pro-survival signaling.

    PubMed

    Stanifer, Megan L; Rippert, Anja; Kazakov, Alexander; Willemsen, Joschka; Bucher, Delia; Bender, Silke; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Binder, Marco; Boulant, Steeve

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitute the primary barrier that separates us from the outside environment. These cells, lining the surface of the intestinal tract, represent a major challenge that enteric pathogens have to face. How IECs respond to viral infection and whether enteric viruses have developed strategies to subvert IECs innate immune response remains poorly characterized. Using mammalian reovirus (MRV) as a model enteric virus, we found that the intermediate subviral particles (ISVPs), which are formed in the gut during the natural course of infection by proteolytic digestion of the reovirus virion, trigger reduced innate antiviral immune response in IECs. On the contrary, infection of IECs by virions induces a strong antiviral immune response that leads to cellular death. Additionally, we determined that virions can be sensed by both TLR and RLR pathways while ISVPs are sensed by RLR pathways only. Interestingly, we found that ISVP infected cells secrete TGF-β acting as a pro-survival factor that protects IECs against virion induced cellular death. We propose that ISVPs represent a reovirus strategy to initiate primary infection of the gut by subverting IECs innate immune system and by counteracting cellular-death pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genetic variation during persistent reovirus infection: isolation of cold-sensitive and temperature-sensitive mutants from persistently infected L cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, R; Kauffman, R S; Fields, B N

    1983-11-01

    We have examined the evolution of reovirus in two independently established persistently infected (p.i.) cell lines. We found that reovirus undergoes extensive mutation during persistent infection in L cells. However, there was no consistent pattern of virus evolution; in one p.i. cell line temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected, whereas cold-sensitive (cs) mutants were isolated from the second p.i. culture. Neither the cs nor the ts mutants isolated from the carrier cultures expressed their defect at 37 degrees, the temperature at which the p.i. cells were maintained, indicating that the cs and ts phenotypes were nonselected markers. These results emphasize the point that emergence of the ts or cs mutants during persistent infection only signifies that the virus has changed; it does not necessarily imply that the particular mutant is essential for the maintenance of the persistent infection. Given the high mutation rate of viruses, and the wide spectrum of viral mutants present in carrier cultures, it is essential to distinguish the relevant changes from those which may simply represent an epiphenomenon. In the accompanying paper (R. S. Kauffman, R. Ahmed, and B. N. Fields Virology, 130, 79-87, 1983), we show that by using a genetic approach, it is possible to identify the viral gene(s) which are critical for the maintenance of persistent reovirus infection.

  16. Detection and characterisation of three novel species of reovirus (Reoviridae), isolated from geographically separate populations of the winter moth Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on Orkney.

    PubMed

    Graham, Robert I; Rao, Shujing; Possee, Robert D; Sait, Steven M; Mertens, Peter P C; Hails, Rosemary S

    2006-02-01

    Geographically separate populations of winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.) were sampled in heather habitats on the Orkney Isles in order to investigate the prevalence of virus pathogens. Reoviruses were isolated in 11 of the 13 winter moth populations sampled, with 3 novel species being detected. Two species of Cypoviridae (CPV) were isolated, Operophtera brumata CPV18 and O. brumata CPV19, with one host population suffering 46% infection prevalence of OpbuCPV19. A third virus, O. brumata Reovirus (OpbuRV), was isolated from both winter moth and a hymenopteran parasitoid wasp, Phobocampe tempestiva, which is abundant in these populations. This was identified as a non-occluded reovirus, which was clearly able to infect and persist in both the lepidopteran and the hymenopteran host. The genomes of the three viruses were characterised using gel electrophoresis and the virus structure was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The relationship of these viruses with a baculovirus that also infects winter moth, OpbuNPV, was investigated, as well as the association of OpbuRV with P. tempestiva. The detection of such viruses is discussed with reference to studies of similar viruses in other lepidopteran and hymenopteran host systems.

  17. Comparative investigations of infectious runting and stunting syndrome in vaccinated breeder chicks by inactivated reovirus and chicks from non-vaccinated breeders.

    PubMed

    Awandkar, S P; Moregaonkar, S D; Manwar, S J; Kamdi, B P; Kulkarni, M B

    2017-01-01

    Reoviruses are important pathogens responsible for poor growth performance and silent losses in the poultry industry. They are associated with many disease and syndromes such as malabsorption (runting and stunting syndrome), respiratory diseases and immunosuppression. Broiler birds are most susceptible to viral infections during the early post hatching period. Therefore, the transfer of maternal immunity to embryonated eggs is proved to be a primary means of protection from viral infections. In the present investigation, growth performance and pathology in breeder vaccinated and non-vaccinated chicks were studied after a challenge with the homologous malabsorption strain of the reovirus. Improvements in growth performance (mean live body weight, feed conversion ratio, broiler performance efficiency index, and protein efficiency index) in breeder vaccinated chicks were compared with non-vaccinated breeder chicks. The non vaccinated chicks showed various signs and lesions indicative of the reoviral malabsorption syndrome (MAS), whereas the vaccinated chicks showed very minimal alterations, demonstrating that the vaccination of breeders with homologous strains of the reovirus is profitable, and can help to increase the performance of broiler birds.

  18. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...

  19. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... importation of bird and poultry products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...

  20. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The... vaccinated for certain types of avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of...

  1. Current situation on highly pathogenic avian influenza

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...

  2. The Avian Proghrelin System

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Mark P.; McMurtry, John P.

    2010-01-01

    To understand how the proghrelin system functions in regulating growth hormone release and food intake as well as defining its pleiotropic roles in such diverse physiological processes as energy homeostasis, gastrointestinal tract function and reproduction require detailed knowledge of the structure and function of the components that comprise this system. These include the preproghrelin gene that encodes the proghrelin precursor protein from which two peptide hormones, ghrelin and obestatin, are derived and the cognate receptors that bind proghrelin-derived peptides to mediate their physiological actions in different tissues. Also key to the functioning of this system is the posttranslational processing of the proghrelin precursor protein and the individual peptides derived from it. While this system has been intensively studied in a variety of animal species and humans over the last decade, there has been considerably less investigation of the avian proghrelin system which exhibits some unique differences compared to mammals. This review summarizes what is currently known about the proghrelin system in birds and offers new insights into the nature and function of this important endocrine system. Such information facilitates cross-species comparisons and contributes to our understanding of the evolution of the proghrelin system. PMID:20798876

  3. Avian influenza virus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shelan; Sha, Jianping; Yu, Zhao; Hu, Yan; Chan, Ta-Chien; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Pan, Hao; Cheng, Wei; Mao, Shenghua; Zhang, Run Ju; Chen, Enfu

    2016-07-01

    The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare. However, avian influenza increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion, preterm birth and fatal distress. This review summarises 39 cases of pregnant women and their fetuses from different countries dating back to 1997, including 11, 15 and 13 infections with H7N9, H5N1 and the 2009 pandemic influenza (H1N1), respectively. We analysed the epidemic features, following the geographical, population and pregnancy trimester distributions; underlying diseases; exposure history; medical timelines; human-to-human transmission; pathogenicity and vertical transmission; antivirus treatments; maternal severity and mortality and pregnancy outcome. The common experiences reported in different countries and areas suggest that early identification and treatment are imperative. In the future, vigilant virologic and epidemiologic surveillance systems should be developed to monitor avian influenza viruses during pregnancy. Furthermore, extensive study on the immune mechanisms should be conducted, as this will guide safe, rational immunomodulatory treatment among this high-risk population. Most importantly, we should develop a universal avian influenza virus vaccine to prevent outbreaks of the different subtypes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  5. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  6. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... as avian influenza virus subtypes A(H5N1), A(H7N9), and A(H9N2) and swine influenza virus subtypes ... of human cases of A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) infection have been associated with direct or indirect ...

  7. Laser Cleaning of Avian Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, L.; Ball, A.; Russell, D.

    A low vacuum SEM was used to evaluate the effect of using an Nd:YAG laser as a non-contact technique for cleaning avian eggshells. The technique shows potential, since there are no obvious deleterious effects from cleaning, but further study is required to understand how the laser is interacting with the sample surface.

  8. Avian Paramyxovirus: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, P; Ganar, K; Kumar, S

    2017-02-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) have been reported from a wide variety of avian species around the world. Avian paramyxoviruses are economically significant because of the huge mortality and morbidity associated with it. Twelve different serotypes of APMV have been reported till date. Avian paramyxoviruses belong to the family Paramyxoviridae under genus Avulavirus. Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1) is the most characterized members among the APMV serotypes. Complete genome sequence of all twelve APMV serotypes has been published recently. In recent years, APMV-1 has attracted the virologists for its oncolytic activity and its use as a vaccine vector for both animals and humans. The recombinant APMV-based vaccine offers a pertinent choice for the construction of live attenuated vaccine due to its minimum recombination frequency, modular nature of transcription and lack of DNA phase during its replication. Although insufficient data are available regarding other APMV serotypes, our understanding about the APMV biology is expanding rapidly because of the availability of modern molecular biology tools and high-throughput complete genome sequencing.

  9. Evolution of Avian Tumor Viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virus-induced neoplastic diseases of poultry, namely Marek’s disease (MD), induced by a herpesvirus, and the avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis induced by retroviruses, can cause significant economic losses from tumor mortality as well as poor performance. Successful control of MD is and has ...

  10. Control strategies against avian influenza

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since 1959, 40 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred (Figure 1). Thirty-five of these epizootic HPAI viruses were geographically-limited (mostly to single countries), involved farm-to-farm spread and were eradicated from poultry by stamping-out programs; i.e. the HPAI...

  11. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  12. OFFLU Network on Avian Influenza

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    OFFLU is the name of the network of avian influenza expertise inaugurated jointly in 2005 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organisation for Animal Health. Achievements and constraints to date and plans for the future are described. PMID:16965718

  13. Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by reovirus treated melanoma cells is PKR/NF-κB mediated and supports innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune priming.

    PubMed

    Steele, Lynette; Errington, Fiona; Prestwich, Robin; Ilett, Elizabeth; Harrington, Kevin; Pandha, Hardev; Coffey, Matt; Selby, Peter; Vile, Richard; Melcher, Alan

    2011-02-21

    As well as inducing direct oncolysis, reovirus treatment of melanoma is associated with activation of innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses. Here we characterise the effects of conditioned media from reovirus-infected, dying human melanoma cells (reoTCM), in the absence of live virus, to address the immune bystander potential of reovirus therapy. In addition to RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1α and MIP-1β, reovirus-infected melanoma cells secreted eotaxin, IP-10 and the type 1 interferon IFN-β. To address the mechanisms responsible for the inflammatory composition of reoTCM, we show that IL-8 and IFN-β secretion by reovirus-infected melanoma cells was associated with activation of NF-κB and decreased by pre-treatment with small molecule inhibitors of NF-κB and PKR; specific siRNA-mediated knockdown further confirmed a role for PKR. This pro-inflammatory milieu induced a chemotactic response in isolated natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells (DC) and anti-melanoma cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Following culture in reoTCM, NK cells upregulated CD69 expression and acquired greater lytic potential against tumour targets. Furthermore, melanoma cell-loaded DC cultured in reoTCM were more effective at priming adaptive anti-tumour immunity. These data demonstrate that the PKR- and NF-κB-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory molecules that accompanies reovirus-mediated killing can recruit and activate innate and adaptive effector cells, thus potentially altering the tumour microenvironment to support bystander immune-mediated therapy as well as direct viral oncolysis.

  14. Differential Role of the Fas/Fas Ligand Apoptotic Pathway in Inflammation and Lung Fibrosis Associated with Reovirus 1/L-Induced Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome1

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Andrea D.; Avasarala, Sreedevi; Grewal, Suman; Murali, Anuradha K.; London, Lucille

    2010-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are two clinically and histologically distinct syndromes sharing the presence of an inflammatory and fibrotic component. Apoptosis via the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathway plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury and fibrosis characteristic of these and other pulmonary inflammatory and fibrotic syndromes. We evaluated the role of apoptosis via the Fas/FasL pathway in the development of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in reovirus 1/L-induced BOOP and ARDS. CBA/J mice were intranasally inoculated with saline, 1 × 106 (BOOP), or 1 × 107 (ARDS) PFU reovirus 1/L, and evaluated at various days postinoculation for in situ apoptosis by TUNEL analysis and Fas/FasL expression. Our results demonstrate the presence of apoptotic cells and up-regulation of Fas/FasL expression in alveolar epithelium and in infiltrating cells during the inflammatory and fibrotic stages of both reovirus 1/L-induced ARDS and BOOP. Treatment of mice with the caspase 8 inhibitor, zIETD-fmk, inhibited apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrotic lesion development in reovirus 1/L-induced BOOP and ARDS. However, CBA/KlJms-Faslpr-cg/J mice, which carry a point mutation in the Fas cytoplasmic region that abolishes the ability of Fas to transduce an apoptotic signal, do not develop pulmonary inflammation and fibrotic lesions associated with reovirus 1/L-induced BOOP, but still develop inflammation and fibrotic lesions associated with reovirus 1/L-induced ARDS. These results suggest a differential role for the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway in the development of inflammation and fibrotic lesions associated with BOOP and ARDS. PMID:20007588

  15. Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by reovirus treated melanoma cells is PKR/NF-κB mediated and supports innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune priming

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As well as inducing direct oncolysis, reovirus treatment of melanoma is associated with activation of innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses. Results Here we characterise the effects of conditioned media from reovirus-infected, dying human melanoma cells (reoTCM), in the absence of live virus, to address the immune bystander potential of reovirus therapy. In addition to RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1α and MIP-1β, reovirus-infected melanoma cells secreted eotaxin, IP-10 and the type 1 interferon IFN-β. To address the mechanisms responsible for the inflammatory composition of reoTCM, we show that IL-8 and IFN-β secretion by reovirus-infected melanoma cells was associated with activation of NF-κB and decreased by pre-treatment with small molecule inhibitors of NF-κB and PKR; specific siRNA-mediated knockdown further confirmed a role for PKR. This pro-inflammatory milieu induced a chemotactic response in isolated natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells (DC) and anti-melanoma cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Following culture in reoTCM, NK cells upregulated CD69 expression and acquired greater lytic potential against tumour targets. Furthermore, melanoma cell-loaded DC cultured in reoTCM were more effective at priming adaptive anti-tumour immunity. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the PKR- and NF-κB-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory molecules that accompanies reovirus-mediated killing can recruit and activate innate and adaptive effector cells, thus potentially altering the tumour microenvironment to support bystander immune-mediated therapy as well as direct viral oncolysis. PMID:21338484

  16. Piscine reovirus: Genomic and molecular phylogenetic analysis from farmed and wild salmonids collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul S.; Richmond, Zina; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johns, Robert; Johnson, Stewart C.; Sakasida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period.

  17. Piscine Reovirus: Genomic and Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis from Farmed and Wild Salmonids Collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    PubMed Central

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul; Richmond, Zina; Johns, Robert; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johnson, Stewart C.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period. PMID:26536673

  18. Induction of a robust immunity response against novel duck reovirus in ducklings using a subunit vaccine of sigma C protein

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Zhuangli; Zhu, Yingqi; Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng; Wang, Yong; Wang, Guijun; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Novel duck reovirus (NDRV) disease emerged in China in 2011 and continues to cause high morbidity and about 5.0 to 50% mortality in ducklings. Currently there are no approved vaccines for the virus. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new vaccine created from the baculovirus and sigma C gene against NDRV. In this study, a recombinant baculovirus containing the sigma C gene was constructed, and the purified protein was used as a vaccine candidate in ducklings. The efficacy of sigma C vaccine was estimated according to humoral immune responses, cellular immune response and protection against NDRV challenge. The results showed that sigma C was highly expressed in Sf9 cells. Robust humoral and cellular immune responses were induced in all ducklings immunized with the recombinant sigma C protein. Moreover, 100% protection against lethal challenge with NDRV TH11 strain was observed. Summary, the recombinant sigma C protein could be utilized as a good candidate against NDRV infection. PMID:27974824

  19. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    PubMed

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plate tectonics of virus shell assembly and reorganization in phage φ8, a distant relative of mammalian reoviruses.

    PubMed

    El Omari, Kamel; Sutton, Geoff; Ravantti, Janne J; Zhang, Hanwen; Walter, Thomas S; Grimes, Jonathan M; Bamford, Dennis H; Stuart, David I; Mancini, Erika J

    2013-08-06

    The hallmark of a virus is its capsid, which harbors the viral genome and is formed from protein subunits, which assemble following precise geometric rules. dsRNA viruses use an unusual protein multiplicity (120 copies) to form their closed capsids. We have determined the atomic structure of the capsid protein (P1) from the dsRNA cystovirus Φ8. In the crystal P1 forms pentamers, very similar in shape to facets of empty procapsids, suggesting an unexpected assembly pathway that proceeds via a pentameric intermediate. Unlike the elongated proteins used by dsRNA mammalian reoviruses, P1 has a compact trapezoid-like shape and a distinct arrangement in the shell, with two near-identical conformers in nonequivalent structural environments. Nevertheless, structural similarity with the analogous protein from the mammalian viruses suggests a common ancestor. The unusual shape of the molecule may facilitate dramatic capsid expansion during phage maturation, allowing P1 to switch interaction interfaces to provide capsid plasticity. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between piscine reovirus infection and life history traits in wild-caught Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in Norway.

    PubMed

    Garseth, Ase Helen; Biering, Eirik; Aunsmo, Arnfinn

    2013-10-01

    Piscine Reovirus (PRV), the putative causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), is widely distributed in both farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Norway. While HSMI is a common and commercially important disease in farmed Atlantic salmon, the presence of PRV has so far not been associated with HSMI related lesions in wild salmon. Factors associated with PRV-infection were investigated in returning Atlantic salmon captured in Norwegian rivers. A multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model confirmed clustering within rivers and demonstrated that PRV-infection is associated with life-history, sex, catch-year and body length as a proxy for sea-age. Escaped farmed salmon (odds ratio/OR: 7.32, p<0.001) and hatchery-reared salmon (OR: 1.69 p=0.073) have higher odds of being PRV-infected than wild Atlantic salmon. Male salmon have double odds of being PRV infected compared to female salmon (OR: 2.11, p<0.001). Odds of being PRV-infected increased with body-length measured as decimetres (OR: 1.20, p=0.004). Since body length and sea-age are correlated (r=0.85 p<0.001), body length serves as a proxy for sea-age, meaning that spending more years in sea increases the odds of being PRV-infected.

  2. The history of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Lupiani, Blanca; Reddy, Sanjay M

    2009-07-01

    The first description of avian influenza (AI) dates back to 1878 in northern Italy, when Perroncito [Perroncito E. Epizoozia tifoide nei gallinacei. Annali Accad Agri Torino 1878;21:87-126] described a contagious disease of poultry associated with high mortality. The disease, termed "fowl plague", was initially confused with the acute septicemic form of fowl cholera. However, in 1880, soon after its first description, Rivolta and Delprato [as reported by Stubs EL. Fowl pest, In: Biester HE, Devries L, editors. Diseases of poultry. 1st ed. Ames, IO: Iowa State College Press; 1943. p. 493-502] showed it to be different from fowl cholera, based on clinical and pathological properties, and called it Typhus exudatious gallinarum. In 1901, Centanni and Savunzzi [Centanni E, Savonuzzi E, La peste aviaria I & II, Communicazione fatta all'accademia delle scienze mediche e naturali de Ferrara, 1901] determined that fowl plague was caused by a filterable virus; however, it was not until 1955 that the classical fowl plague virus was shown to be a type A influenza virus based on the presence of type A influenza virus type-specific ribonucleoprotein [Schäfer W. Vergleichender sero-immunologische Untersuchungen über die Viren der Influenza und klassischen Geflügelpest. Z Naturf 1955;10b:81-91]. The term fowl plague was substituted by the more appropriate term highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) at the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza [Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza. Beltsville, MD. 1981, Avian Dis 47 (Special Issue) 2003.] and will be used throughout this review when referring to any previously described fowl plague virus.

  3. Avian disease at the Salton Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    2002-01-01

    A review of existing records and the scientific literature was conducted for occurrences of avian diseases affecting free-ranging avifauna within the Salton Sea ecosystem. The period for evaluation was 1907 through 1999. Records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Biological Survey and the scientific literature were the data sources for the period of 1907a??1939. The narrative reports of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Sonny Bono National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the epizootic database of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center were the primary data sources for the remainder of the evaluation. The pattern of avian disease at the Salton Sea has changed greatly over time. Relative to past decades, there was a greater frequency of major outbreaks of avian disease at the Salton Sea during the 1990s than in previous decades, a greater variety of disease agents causing epizootics, and apparent chronic increases in the attrition of birds from disease. Avian mortality was high for about a decade beginning during the mid-1920s, diminished substantially by the 1940s and was at low to moderate levels until the 1990s when it reached the highest levels reported. Avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) was the only major cause of avian disease until 1979 when the first major epizootic of avian cholera (Pasteurella multocidia) was documented. Waterfowl and shorebirds were the primary species affected by avian botulism. A broader spectrum of species have been killed by avian cholera but waterfowl have suffered the greatest losses. Avian cholera reappeared in 1983 and has joined avian botulism as a recurring cause of avian mortality. In 1989, avian salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) was first diagnosed as a major cause of avian disease within the Salton Sea ecosystem and has since reappeared several times, primarily among cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis). The largest loss from a single epizootic occurred in 1992, when an estimated

  4. Translational stimulation by reovirus polypeptide sigma 3: substitution for VAI RNA and inhibition of phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, R M; Shatkin, A J

    1992-01-01

    COS cells transfected with plasmids that activate DAI depend on expression of virus-associated I (VAI) RNA to prevent the inhibitory effects of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2 alpha) kinase (DAI) and restore the translation of vector-derived dihydrofolate reductase mRNA. This VAI RNA requirement could be completely replaced by reovirus polypeptide sigma 3, consistent with its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding activity. S4 gene transfection of 293 cells also partially restored adenovirus protein synthesis after infection with the VAI-negative dl331 mutant. In dl331-infected 293 cells, eIF-2 alpha was present mainly in the acidic, phosphorylated form, and trans complementation with polypeptide sigma 3 or VAI RNA decreased the proportion of eIF-2 alpha (P) from approximately 85 to approximately 30%. Activation of DAI by addition of dsRNA to extracts of S4 DNA-transfected COS cells required 10-fold-higher levels of dsRNA than extracts made from cells that were not producing polypeptide sigma 3. In extracts of reovirus-infected mouse L cells, the concentration of dsRNA needed to activate DAI was dependent on the viral serotype used for the infection. Although the proportion of eIF-2 alpha (P) was greater than that in uninfected cells, most of the factor remained in the unphosphorylated form, even at 16 h after infection, consistent with the partial inhibition of host protein synthesis observed with all three viral serotypes. The results indicate that reovirus polypeptide sigma 3 participates in the regulation of protein synthesis by modulating DAI and eIF-2 alpha phosphorylation. Images PMID:1433498

  5. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotypes leading to liver metastasis are abrogated by the novel TGFβ1-targeting peptides P17 and P144.

    PubMed

    Zubeldia, Idoia G; Bleau, Anne-Marie; Redrado, Miriam; Serrano, Diego; Agliano, Alice; Gil-Puig, Carmen; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando; Lecanda, Jon; Calvo, Alfonso

    2013-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) frequently metastasizes to the liver, a phenomenon that involves the participation of transforming-growth-factor-β(1) (TGFβ(1)). Blockade of the protumorigenic effects elicited by TGFβ(1) in advanced CRC could attenuate liver metastasis. We aimed in the present study to assess the antimetastatic effect of TGFβ(1)-blocking peptides P17 and P144, and to study mechanisms responsible for this activity in a mouse model. Colon adenocarcinoma cells expressing luciferase were pretreated with TGFβ(1) (Mc38-luc(TGFβ1) cells), injected into the spleen of mice and monitored for tumor development. TGFβ(1) increased primary tumor growth and liver metastasis, whereas systemic treatment of mice with either P17 or P144 significantly reduced tumor burden (p<0.01). In metastatic nodules, mitotic/apoptotic ratio, mesenchymal traits and angiogenesis (evaluated by CD-31, as well as circulating endothelial and progenitor cells) induced by TGFβ(1) were consistently reduced following injection of peptides. In vitro experiments revealed a direct effect of TGFβ(1) in Mc38 cells, which resulted in activation of Smad2, Smad3 and Smad1/5/8, and increased invasion and transendothelial migration, whereas blockade of TGFβ(1)-signaling reverted these features. Because TGFβ(1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been suggested to induce a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype, we analyzed the ability of this cytokine to induce tumorsphere formation and the expression of CSC markers. In TGFβ(1)-treated cells, tumorspheres were enriched in CD44 and SOX2, which were diminished in the presence of P17. Our data provide a preclinical rationale to evaluate P17 and P144 as potential therapeutic options for the treatment of metastatic CRC.

  6. The Viral σ1 Protein and Glycoconjugates Containing α2-3-Linked Sialic Acid Are Involved in Type 1 Reovirus Adherence to M Cell Apical Surfaces†

    PubMed Central

    Helander, Anna; Silvey, Katherine J.; Mantis, Nicholas J.; Hutchings, Amy B.; Chandran, Kartik; Lucas, William T.; Nibert, Max L.; Neutra, Marian R.

    2003-01-01

    Type 1 reoviruses invade the intestinal mucosa of mice by adhering selectively to M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium and then exploiting M cell transport activity. The purpose of this study was to identify the apical cell membrane component and viral protein that mediate the M cell adherence of these viruses. Virions and infectious subviral particles of reovirus type 1 Lang (T1L) adhered to rabbit M cells in Peyer's patch mucosal explants and to tissue sections in an overlay assay. Viral adherence was abolished by pretreatment of sections with periodate and in the presence of excess sialic acid or lectins MAL-I and MAL-II (which recognize complex oligosaccharides containing sialic acid linked α2-3 to galactose). The binding of T1L particles to polarized human intestinal (Caco-2BBe) cell monolayers was correlated with the presence of MAL-I and MAL-II binding sites, blocked by excess MAL-I and -II, and abolished by neuraminidase treatment. Other type 1 reovirus isolates exhibited MAL-II-sensitive binding to rabbit M cells and polarized Caco-2BBe cells, but type 2 or type 3 isolates including type 3 Dearing (T3D) did not. In assays using T1L-T3D reassortants and recoated viral cores containing T1L, T3D, or no σ1 protein, MAL-II-sensitive binding to rabbit M cells and polarized Caco-2BBe cells was consistently associated with the T1L σ1. MAL-II-recognized oligosaccharide epitopes are not restricted to M cells in vivo, but MAL-II immobilized on virus-sized microparticles bound only to the follicle-associated epithelium and M cells. The results suggest that selective binding of type 1 reoviruses to M cells in vivo involves interaction of the type 1 σ1 protein with glycoconjugates containing α2-3-linked sialic acid that are accessible to viral particles only on M cell apical surfaces. PMID:12829836

  7. Protective Immunoglobulin A and G Antibodies Bind to Overlapping Intersubunit Epitopes in the Head Domain of Type 1 Reovirus Adhesin σ1

    PubMed Central

    Helander, Anna; Miller, Cathy L.; Myers, Kimberly S.; Neutra, Marian R.; Nibert, Max L.

    2004-01-01

    Nonfusogenic mammalian orthoreovirus (reovirus) is an enteric pathogen of mice and a useful model for studies of how an enteric virus crosses the mucosal barrier of its host and is subject to control by the mucosal immune system. We recently generated and characterized a new murine immunoglobulin A (IgA)-class monoclonal antibody (MAb), 1E1, that binds to the adhesin fiber, σ1, of reovirus type 1 Lang (T1L) and thereby neutralizes the infectivity of that strain in cell culture. 1E1 is produced in hybridoma cultures as a mixture of monomers, dimers, and higher polymers and is protective against peroral challenges with T1L either when the MAb is passively administered or when it is secreted into the intestines of mice bearing subcutaneous hybridoma tumors. In the present study, selection and analysis of mutants resistant to neutralization by 1E1 identified the region of T1L σ1 to which the MAb binds. The region bound by a previously characterized type 1 σ1-specific neutralizing IgG MAb, 5C6, was identified in the same way. Each of the 15 mutants isolated and analyzed was found to be much less sensitive to neutralization by either 1E1 or 5C6, suggesting the two MAbs bind to largely overlapping regions of σ1. The tested mutants retained the capacity to recognize specific glycoconjugate receptors on rabbit M cells and cultured epithelial cells, even though viral binding to epithelial cells was inhibited by both MAbs. S1 sequence determinations for 12 of the mutants identified σ1 mutations at four positions between residues 415 and 447, which contribute to forming the receptor-binding head domain. When aligned with the σ1 sequence of reovirus type 3 Dearing (T3D) and mapped onto the previously reported crystal structure of the T3D σ1 trimer, the four positions cluster on the side of the σ1 head, across the interface between two subunits. Three such interface-spanning epitopes are thus present per σ1 trimer and require the intact quaternary structure of the head

  8. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Thomas Washington TUNES-1 in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P17C)

    SciTech Connect

    Goyet, C.; Key, R.M.; Sullivan, K.F.; Tsuchiya, M.; Kozyr, A. |

    1997-06-01

    This report discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain measurements of total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon ({Delta} {sup 14}C), as well as hydrographic and chemical data, during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P17C). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in San Diego, California, on May 31, 1991, and ended in Papeete, Tahiti, on July 11, 1991. WOCE Meridional Section P17C, along 135{degree}W and between {approximately}5{degree}S and 36{degree}N, was completed during the 42-day expedition. All 123 hydrographic stations (including 9 large-volume stations) were completed to the full water-column depth. Spacing between stations was 30 nautical miles, except between 3{degree}N and 3{degree}S, where it was 10 nautical miles. At 30 stations, CO{sub 2} measurements were provided for the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Program. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section P17C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen (measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor), as well as bottle measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11, CFC-12, {Delta} {sup 14}C, TCO{sub 2}, and TALK. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  9. Persistence of avian oncoviruses in chicken macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Gazzolo, L; Moscovici, C; Moscovici, M G

    1979-01-01

    Inoculation of avian oncoviruses into 1- to 2-month old chickens led to a rapid production of antiviral humoral antibodies. Under these conditions it was found that avian leukosis viruses are sequestered in macrophages of peripheral blood, in which they can persist for a long period of time (up to about 3 years). In contrast, avian sarcoma viruses were never found in macrophages from chickens during the progression of sarcomas or after regression of the tumors. PMID:217827

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of the avian influenza A virus, such as H5N1 and H7N9, from birds to humans. The avian influenza A H5N1 virus has caused more than 500 human infections worldwide with nearly a 60% death rate since it was first reported in Hong Kong in 1997. The four outbreaks of the avian influenza A H7N9 in China from March 2013 to June 2016 have resulted in 580 human cases including 202 deaths with a death rate of nearly 35%. In this paper, we construct two avian influenza bird-to-human transmission models with different growth laws of the avian population, one with logistic growth and the other with Allee effect, and analyze their dynamical behavior. We obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate the local or global asymptotical stability of each equilibrium of these systems by using linear analysis technique or combining Liapunov function method and LaSalle's invariance principle, respectively. Moreover, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of periodic solutions in the avian influenza system with Allee effect of the avian population. Numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Avian influenza and human health.

    PubMed

    Capua, Ilaria; Alexander, Dennis J

    2002-07-01

    Natural infections with influenza A viruses have been reported in a variety of animal species including humans, pigs, horses, sea mammals, mustelids and birds. Occasionally devastating pandemics occur in humans. Although viruses of relatively few HA and NA subtype combinations have been isolated from mammalian species, all 15 HA subtypes and all 9 NA subtypes, in most combinations, have been isolated from birds. In the 20th century the sudden emergence of antigenically different strains transmissible in humans, termed antigenic shift, has occurred on four occasions, 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2) and 1977 (H1N1), each time resulting in a pandemic. Genetic analysis of the isolates demonstrated that 'new' strains most certainly emerged after reassortment of genes of viruses of avian and human origin in a permissive host. The leading theory is that the pig represents the 'mixing vessel' where this genetic reassortment may occur. In 1996, an H7N7 influenza virus of avian origin was isolated from a woman with a self-limiting conjunctivitis. During 1997 in Hong Kong, an H5N1 avian influenza virus was recognised as the cause of death of 6 of 18 infected patients. Genetic analysis revealed these human isolates of H5N1 subtype to be indistinguishable from a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus that was endemic in the local poultry population. More recently, in March 1999, two independent isolations of influenza virus subtype H9N2 were made from girls aged one to four who recovered from flu-like illnesses in Hong Kong. Subsequently, five isolations of H9N2 virus from humans on mainland China in August 1998 were reported. H9N2 viruses were known to be widespread in poultry in China and other Asian countries. In all these cases there was no evidence of human to human spread except with the H5N1 infections where there was evidence of very limited spread. This is in keeping with the finding that all these viruses possessed all eight genes of avian origin. It may well

  12. Avian influenza: an agricultural perspective.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Andrea

    2006-11-01

    Recent outbreaks of infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 strains of avian influenza virus in poultry in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Middle East have raised concern over the potential emergence of a pandemic strain that can easily infect humans and cause serious morbidity and mortality. To prevent and control a national outbreak, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts measures based on the ecology of avian influenza viruses. To prevent an outbreak in the United States, the USDA conducts surveillance of bird populations, restrictions on bird importation, educational outreach, and regulation of agricultural practices, in collaboration with local, state, and federal organizations. To manage an outbreak, the USDA has in place a well-established emergency management system for optimizing efforts. The USDA also collaborates with international organizations for disease prevention and control in other countries.

  13. Climate change and avian influenza

    PubMed Central

    Slingenbergh, J.; Xiao, X.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This paper discusses impacts of climate change on the ecology of avian influenza viruses (AI viruses), which presumably co-evolved with migratory water birds, with virus also persisting outside the host in subarctic water bodies. Climate change would almost certainly alter bird migration, influence the AI virus transmission cycle and directly affect virus survival outside the host. The joint, net effects of these changes are rather unpredictable, but it is likely that AI virus circulation in water bird populations will continue with endless adaptation and evolution. In domestic poultry, too little is known about the direct effect of environmental factors on highly pathogenic avian influenza transmission and persistence to allow inference about the possible effect of climate change. However, possible indirect links through changes in the distribution of duck-crop farming are discussed. PMID:18819672

  14. Gender determination of avian embryo

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Keith A.; Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for gender determination of avian embryos. During the embryo incubation process, the outer hard shells of eggs are drilled and samples of allantoic fluid are removed. The allantoic fluids are directly introduced into an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for analysis. The resulting spectra contain the relevant marker peaks in the positive or negative mode which correlate with unique mobilities which are sex-specific. This way, the gender of the embryo can be determined.

  15. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R

    2014-07-01

    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand.

  16. Avian utilization of subsidence wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrot, J.R.; Conley, P.S.; Smout, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Diverse and productive wetlands have resulted from coal mining in the midwest. The trend from surface to underground mining has increased the potential for subsidence. Planned subsidence of longwall mining areas provides increased opportunities for wetland habitat establishment. Planned subsidence over a 180 meter (590 foot) deep longwall mine in southern Illinois during 1984 to 1986 produced three subsidence wetlands totaling 15 hectares (38 acres). The resulting palustrine emergent wetlands enhanced habitat diversity within the surrounding palustrine forested unsubsided area. Habitat assessments and evaluations of avian utilization of the subsidence wetlands were conducted during February 1990 through October 1991. Avian utilization was greatest within the subsided wetlands. Fifty-three bird species representing seven foraging guilds utilized the subsidence wetlands. Wading/fishing, dabbling waterfowl, and insectivorous avian guilds dominated the subsidence wetlands. The subsidence wetlands represented ideal habitat for wood ducks and great blue herons which utilized snags adjacent to and within the wetlands for nesting (19 great blue heron nests produced 25 young). Dense cover and a rich supply of macroinvertebrates provide excellent brood habitat for wood ducks, while herpetofauna and ichthyofauna provided abundant forage in shallow water zones for great blue herons and other wetland wading birds. The diversity of game and non-game avifauna utilizing the subsidence areas demonstrated the unique value of these wetlands. Preplanned subsidence wetlands can help mitigate loss of wetland habitats in the midwest.

  17. Avian embryos in hypoxic environments.

    PubMed

    León-Velarde, F; Monge-C, C

    2004-08-12

    Avian embryos at high altitude do not benefit of the maternal protection against hypoxia as in mammals. Nevertheless, avian embryos are known to hatch successfully at altitudes between 4,000 and 6,500 m. This review considers some of the processes that bring about the outstanding modifications in the pressure differences between the environment and mitochondria of avian embryos in hypoxic environments. Among species, some maintain normal levels of oxygen consumption ( VO2) have a high oxygen carrying capacity, lower the air cell-arterial pressure difference ( PAO2 - PaO2 ) with a constant pH. Other species decrease VO2, increase only slightly the oxygen carrying capacity, have a higher PAO2 - PaO2 difference than sea-level embryos and lower the PCO2 and pH. High altitude embryos, and those exposed to hypoxia have an accelerated decline of erythrocyte ATP levels during development and an earlier stimulation of 2,3-BPG synthesis. A higher Bohr effect may ensure high tissue PO2 in the presence of the high-affinity hemoglobin. Independently of the strategy used, they serve together to promote suitable rates of development and successful hatching of high altitude birds in hypoxic environments.

  18. Peyer's patch dendritic cells process viral antigen from apoptotic epithelial cells in the intestine of reovirus-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Fleeton, Marina N; Contractor, Nikhat; Leon, Francisco; Wetzel, J Denise; Dermody, Terence S; Kelsall, Brian L

    2004-07-19

    We explored the role of Peyer's patch (PP) dendritic cell (DC) populations in the induction of immune responses to reovirus strain type 1 Lang (T1L). Immunofluorescence staining revealed the presence of T1L structural (sigma1) and nonstructural (sigmaNS) proteins in PPs of T1L-infected mice. Cells in the follicle-associated epithelium contained both sigma1 and sigmaNS, indicating productive viral replication. In contrast, sigma1, but not sigmaNS, was detected in the subepithelial dome (SED) in association with CD11c(+)/CD8alpha(-)/CD11b(lo) DCs, suggesting antigen uptake by these DCs in the absence of infection. Consistent with this possibility, PP DCs purified from infected mice contained sigma1, but not sigmaNS, and PP DCs from uninfected mice could not be productively infected in vitro. Furthermore, sigma1 protein in the SED was associated with fragmented DNA by terminal deoxy-UTP nick-end labeling staining, activated caspase-3, and the epithelial cell protein cytokeratin, suggesting that DCs capture T1L antigen from infected apoptotic epithelial cells. Finally, PP DCs from infected mice activated T1L-primed CD4(+) T cells in vitro. These studies show that CD8alpha(-)/CD11b(lo) DCs in the PP SED process T1L antigen from infected apoptotic epithelial cells for presentation to CD4(+) T cells, and therefore demonstrate the cross-presentation of virally infected cells by DCs in vivo during a natural viral infection.

  19. Engineering recombinant reoviruses with tandem repeats and a tetravirus 2A-like element for exogenous polypeptide expression

    PubMed Central

    Demidenko, Aleksander A.; Blattman, Joseph N.; Greenberg, Philip D.; Nibert, Max L.

    2013-01-01

    We tested a strategy for engineering recombinant mammalian reoviruses (rMRVs) to express exogenous polypeptides. One important feature is that these rMRVs are designed to propagate autonomously and can therefore be tested in animals as potential vaccine vectors. The strategy has been applied so far to three of the 10 MRV genome segments: S3, M1, and L1. To engineer the modified segments, a 5′ or 3′ region of the essential, long ORF in each was duplicated, and then exogenous sequences were inserted between the repeats. The inner repeat and exogenous insert were positioned in frame with the native protein-encoding sequences but were separated from them by an in-frame “2A-like” sequence element that specifies a cotranslational “stop/continue” event releasing the exogenous polypeptide from the essential MRV protein. This design preserves a terminal region of the MRV genome segment with essential activities in RNA packaging, assortment, replication, transcription, and/or translation and alters the encoded MRV protein to a limited degree. Recovery of rMRVs with longer inserts was made more efficient by wobble-mutagenizing both the inner repeat and the exogenous insert, which possibly helped via respective reductions in homologous recombination and RNA structure. Immunogenicity of a 300-aa portion of the simian immunodeficiency virus Gag protein expressed in mice by an L1-modified rMRV was confirmed by detection of Gag-specific T-cell responses. The engineering strategy was further used for mapping the minimal 5′-terminal region essential to MRV genome segment S3. PMID:23630248

  20. Molecular cloning of the MARCH family in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and their response to grass carp reovirus challenge.

    PubMed

    Ou, Mi; Huang, Rong; Xiong, Lv; Luo, Lifei; Chen, Geng; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; He, Libo; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2017-02-20

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an economical aquaculture species in China, and the Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) that causes hemorrhagic disease seriously affects the grass carp cultivation industry. Substantial evidence indicates that there is an association between the membrane-associated RING-CH family of E3 ligase (MARCH) family and immune defense in mammals, while functional studies on non-mammalian MARCH proteins are limited. In order to know the characteristics of the MARCH genes in C. idellus, eight MARCH genes (MARCH1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11) were cloned and the open reading frames (ORF) were identified in grass carp. All MARCH proteins in grass carp contained an RING-CH domain, which is characteristic of the MARCH protein. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that different MARCH proteins gathered into their separate clusters. All eight members of the MARCH gene family were detected in all tissues sampled, but the relative expression level differed. In addition, the mRNA expression of all the MARCHs was regulated at different levels in the immune organs after a GCRV challenge, and they responded robustly in both the intestine and liver. The mRNA expression of MARCH8, MHC II, TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1 in the intestine after GCRV infection was analyzed, and the results showed that MARCH8 could negatively regulate TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1, which signaled via the MAPK or NF-κB-activation pathways that play vital roles in immunity. Our findings identified a novel gene family in C. idellus and provided novel evidence that MARCH genes are inducible and involved in the immune response. Moreover, MARCH8 might function to negatively regulate immune receptors in C. idellus. Therefore, the MARCH might play a vital role in regulating the immune response of C. idellus.

  1. RNA-seq profiles from grass carp tissues after reovirus (GCRV) infection based on singular and modular enrichment analyses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mijuan; Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Pei, Yongyan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2014-09-01

    Hemorrhagic disease of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, is a fatal disease in fingerlings and yearlings caused by a reovirus, GCRV. RNA-seq data from four diseased grass carp tissues (gill, intestine, liver and spleen) were obtained at 2h before and six times after (2h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 96h and 120h) GCRV challenge. A total of 7.25±0.18 million (M) clean reads and 3.53±0.37M unique reads were obtained per RNA-seq analysis. Compared with controls, there were 9060 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the four tissues at the six time points post-GCRV challenge. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the DEGs showed that the data from the six time points fell into three branches: 2h, 24h/48h, and 72h/96h/120h. Singular (SEA) and modular enrichment analyses of DEGs per RNA-seq dataset were performed based on gene ontology. The results showed that immune responses occurred in all four tissues, indicating that GCRV probably does not target any tissue specifically. Moreover, during the course of disease, disturbances were observed in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in each of the organs. SEA of DEGs based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database was also performed, and this indicated that the complement system and cellular immunity played an important role during the course of hemorrhagic disease. The qPCR of pooled samples of duplicate challenge experiment were used to confirm our RNA-seq approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative molecular force spectroscopy study of homophilic JAM-A interactions and JAM-A interactions with reovirus attachment protein sigma1.

    PubMed

    Vedula, Sri Ram Krishna; Lim, Tong Seng; Kirchner, Eva; Guglielmi, Kristen M; Dermody, Terence S; Stehle, Thilo; Hunziker, Walter; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2008-01-01

    JAM-A belongs to a family of immunoglobulin-like proteins called junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) that localize at epithelial and endothelial intercellular tight junctions. JAM-A is also expressed on dendritic cells, neutrophils, and platelets. Homophilic JAM-A interactions play an important role in regulating paracellular permeability and leukocyte transmigration across epithelial monolayers and endothelial cell junctions, respectively. In addition, JAM-A is a receptor for the reovirus attachment protein, sigma1. In this study, we used single molecular force spectroscopy to compare the kinetics of JAM-A interactions with itself and sigma1. A chimeric murine JAM-A/Fc fusion protein and the purified sigma1 head domain were used to probe murine L929 cells, which express JAM-A and are susceptible to reovirus infection. The bond half-life (t(1/2)) of homophilic JAM-A interactions was found to be shorter (k(off)(o) = 0.688 +/- 0.349 s(-1)) than that of sigma1/JAM-A interactions (k(off)(o) = 0.067 +/- 0.041 s(-1)). These results are in accordance with the physiological functions of JAM-A and sigma1. A short bond lifetime imparts a highly dynamic nature to homophilic JAM-A interactions for regulating tight junction permeability while stable interactions between sigma1 and JAM-A likely anchor the virus to the cell surface and facilitate viral entry.

  3. Sequence analysis of a reovirus isolated from the winter moth Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) and its parasitoid wasp Phobocampe tempestiva (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Graham, Robert I; Rao, Shujing; Sait, Steven M; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P C; Hails, Rosemary S; Possee, Robert D

    2008-07-01

    A reovirus was isolated from Operophtera brumata (ObRV) and its parasitoid wasp Phobocampe tempestiva. Each of the 10 dsRNA genome segments of ObRV was sequenced and shown to contain a single open reading frame (ORF). Conserved motifs ([+ve] 5'-AAATAAA ...(G)/(T)AGGTT-3') were found at the termini of each segment, with the exception of Seg-6 and Seg-8, where the 5' termini were 5'-AACAAA...-3'. The putative proteins encoded by each segment were compared with those of other members of the family Reoviridae. Phylogenetic comparisons to published sequences for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes from other reoviruses indicated that ObRV is most closely related to members of the genus Cypovirus. However, unlike the cypoviruses, ObRV has a double-layered capsid structure. When the protein encoded by ObRV Seg-10 was expressed (by inserting the open reading frame into a baculovirus expression vector) no 'occlusion bodies' were observed in the recombinant baculovirus infected insect cell cultures. This suggests that unlike the cypoviruses, Seg-10 of ObRV does not contain a polyhedrin gene. Further phylogenetic comparisons also identified relationships between Seg-2 and Seg-10 of ObRV, and genes of Diadromus pulchellus Idnoreovirus 1 (DpIRV1), suggesting that ObRV represents a new species from the genus Idnoreovirus.

  4. A brief introduction to avian influenza virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes a disease of high economic importance for poultry production worldwide. The earliest recorded cases of probable high pathogenicity AIV in poultry were reported in Italy in the 1870’s and avian influenza been recognized in domestic poultry through the modern era of ...

  5. Avian Influenza/Pandemic Influenza Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) research related to avian influenza and pandemic influenza preparedness and...surveillance and efforts in support of research related to avian influenza /pandemic influenza. The results of these efforts will be coordinated with the

  6. MANAGING AVIAN FLU, CARCASS MANAGEMENT & BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The avian influenza virus is discussed with emphasis on the impact to poultry and possible movement of the highly pathogenic H5N 1 virus to humans. A review is made of the worldwide effects to date of the avian influenza viruses; methods for the viruses to enter recreational wate...

  7. Newcastle Disease Virus and Other Avian Paramyxoviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are currently 11 recognized serotypes of avian paramyxovirus. Type 1 is the most important for poultry and includes Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is a form of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) that is highly virulent for chickens and turkeys. NDV is considered to be one of the mos...

  8. MANAGING AVIAN FLU, CARCASS MANAGEMENT & BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The avian influenza virus is discussed with emphasis on the impact to poultry and possible movement of the highly pathogenic H5N 1 virus to humans. A review is made of the worldwide effects to date of the avian influenza viruses; methods for the viruses to enter recreational wate...

  9. The global nature of avian influenza

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza virus is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their agricultural or anthropocentric production systems. Avian influenza viruses or evidence of their infection have been detected in poultry and wild birds...

  10. Publisher's Note: Level structure 18Ne and its importance in the 14O(α,p)17F reaction rate [Phys. Rev. C 86, 025801(2012)

    DOE PAGES

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Tan, W. P.; Aprahamian, A.; ...

    2012-08-10

    The level structure of 18Ne above the α-decay threshold has been studied using the 16O(3He,n) reaction. A coincidence measurement of neutrons and charged particles decaying from populated states in 18Ne has been made. Decay branching ratios were measured for six resonances and used to calculate the 14O(α,p)17F reaction rate which is a measure of one of two breakout paths from the Hot CNO cycle. As a result, the new experimental information combined with previous experimental and theoretical information, provides a more accurate calculation of the reaction rate.

  11. Analysis of avian hepatitis E virus from chickens, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Zhou, En Min; Dong, Shi Wei; Qiu, Hong Kai; Zhang, Lu; Hu, Shou Bin; Zhao, Fei Fei; Jiang, Shi Jin; Sun, Ya Ni

    2010-09-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in chickens; however, only 4 complete or near-complete genomic sequences have been reported. We found that the near-complete genomic sequence of avian HEV in chickens from China shared the highest identity (98.3%) with avian HEV from Europe and belonged to avian HEV genotype 3.

  12. Genomic Avenue to Avian Colisepticemia

    PubMed Central

    Huja, Sagi; Oren, Yaara; Trost, Eva; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Biran, Dvora; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Hacker, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here we present an extensive genomic and genetic analysis of Escherichia coli strains of serotype O78 that represent the major cause of avian colisepticemia, an invasive infection caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains. It is associated with high mortality and morbidity, resulting in significant economic consequences for the poultry industry. To understand the genetic basis of the virulence of avian septicemic E. coli, we sequenced the entire genome of a clinical isolate of serotype O78—O78:H19 ST88 isolate 789 (O78-9)—and compared it with three publicly available APEC O78 sequences and one complete genome of APEC serotype O1 strain. Although there was a large variability in genome content between the APEC strains, several genes were conserved, which are potentially critical for colisepticemia. Some of these genes are present in multiple copies per genome or code for gene products with overlapping function, signifying their importance. A systematic deletion of each of these virulence-related genes identified three systems that are conserved in all septicemic strains examined and are critical for serum survival, a prerequisite for septicemia. These are the plasmid-encoded protein, the defective ETT2 (E. coli type 3 secretion system 2) type 3 secretion system ETT2sepsis, and iron uptake systems. Strain O78-9 is the only APEC O78 strain that also carried the regulon coding for yersiniabactin, the iron binding system of the Yersinia high-pathogenicity island. Interestingly, this system is the only one that cannot be complemented by other iron uptake systems under iron limitation and in serum. PMID:25587010

  13. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control.

  14. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  15. Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M. L.

    1998-11-12

    The protocol is designed to assist with the placement of wind power developments, and to document bird behavior and fatalities resulting from existing wind power developments. A standardized protocol will assist with comparing data among potential and existing development locations. Furthermore, this protocol is based on standard methods being used in other studies of bird behavior. The data collected will only be useful if observers follow each method carefully. In addition, the data collected using this protocol will likely be used by a permitting or other regulatory agency in evaluating the avian impacts at the site.

  16. [Is avian influenza a risk for humans?].

    PubMed

    Allwinn, R; Doerr, H W

    2005-04-15

    Avian influenza is an infectious disease of birds, caused by type A strains of the influenza virus. The disease, which was first identified in Italy more than 100 years ago, occurs worldwide. Avian influenza viruses are mainly distributed by migratory birds. Different mammals like swine, horse and finally humans are susceptible for avian influenza viruses. The high possibility of genomic changes like gene shift and drift is caused by the segmented RNA genome. During the avian flu outbreak in East Asia at the end of 2003 the virus also killed several humans in Vietnam and Thailand. That avian influenza could also infect humans has been known since 1997. The H5N1 flu outbreak seemed successfully controlled, but currently new cases in poultry and humans in Vietnam, Thailand, China and Indonesia are recognized. Also another avian influenza A strain type H9N2 was prevalent in chickens of local markets in Hong Kong. Because of the natural virus reservoir like wild and/ or domesticated ducks and others, actually there is little chance of eradicating avian influenza. Furthermore the virus could mutate and jump to humans with the threat of a global influenza pandemic.

  17. Genetic Applications in Avian Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  18. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  19. Avian flu to human influenza.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David B

    2006-01-01

    Influenza A viral infection causes substantial annual morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly for infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. The virus mainly replicates in the respiratory tract and is spread by respiratory secretions. A growing concern is the recent identification of H5N1 strains of avian influenza A in Asia that were previously thought to infect only wild birds and poultry, but have now infected humans, cats, pigs, and other mammals, often with fatal results, in an ongoing outbreak. A human pandemic with H5N1 virus could potentially be catastrophic because most human populations have negligible antibody-mediated immunity to the H5 surface protein and this viral subtype is highly virulent. Whether an H5N1 influenza pandemic will occur is likely to hinge on whether the viral strains involved in the current outbreak acquire additional mutations that facilitate efficient human-to-human transfer of infection. Although there is no historical precedent for an H5N1 avian strain causing widespread human-to-human transmission, some type of influenza A pandemic is very likely in the near future. The possibility of an H5N1 influenza pandemic has highlighted the many current limitations of treatment with antiviral agents and of vaccine production and immunogenicity. Future vaccine strategies that may include more robust induction of T-cell responses, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes, may provide better protection than is offered by current vaccines, which rely solely or mainly on antibody neutralization of infection.

  20. Genetic applications in avian conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  1. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Douglas E; Franson, J Christian; Brannian, Roger E; Long, Renee R; Radi, Craig A; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  2. Identification of avian wax synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities. PMID:22305293

  3. Oncolytic Reovirus in Combination With Chemotherapy in Metastatic or Recurrent Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients With KRAS-Activated Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Lam, Elaine; Otterson, Gregory A.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Timmons, Matthew; Subramaniam, Deepa; Hade, Erinn M.; Gill, George M.; Coffey, Matthew; Selvaggi, Giovanni; Bertino, Erin; Chao, Bo; Knopp, Michael V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The type 3 Dearing reovirus (Reolysin) is a naturally occurring virus that preferentially infects and causes oncolysis in tumor cells with a Ras-activated pathway. It induces host immunity and cell cycle arrest and acts synergistically with cytotoxic agents. METHODS This study evaluated Reolysin combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with metastatic/recurrent KRAS-mutated or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mutated/amplified non–small cell lung cancer. RESULTS Thirty-seven patients were treated. Molecular alterations included 20 KRAS mutations, 10 EGFR amplifications, 3 EGFR mutations, and 4 BRAF-V600E mutations. In total, 242 cycles (median, 4; range, 1-47) were completed. The initial doses were area under the curve (AUC) 6 mg/mL/min for carboplatin, 200 mg/m2 for paclitaxel on day 1, and 3×1010 50% tissue culture infective dose for Reolysin on days 1 to 5 of each 21-day cycle. Because of diarrhea and febrile neutropenia (in the first 2 patients), subsequent doses were reduced to 175 mg/m2 for paclitaxel and AUC 5 mg/mL/min for carboplatin. Toxicities included fatigue, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, neutropenia, arthralgia/myalgia, anorexia, and electrolyte abnormalities. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0 responses included the following: partial response for 11 patients, stable disease (SD) for 20 patients, progressive disease for 4 patients, and not evaluable for 2 patients (objective response rate, 31%; 90% 1-sided lower confidence interval, 21%). Four SD patients had >40% positron emission tomography standardized uptake value reductions. The median progression-free survival, median overall survival, and 12-month overall survival rate were 4 months, 13.1 months, and 57%, respectively. Seven patients were alive after a median follow-up of 34.2 months; they included 2 patients without disease progression at 37 and 50 months. CONCLUSIONS Reolysin in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin was well tolerated. The

  4. Presence of avian bornavirus RNA and anti-avian bornavirus antibodies in apparently healthy macaws.

    PubMed

    De Kloet, Siwo R; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-12-01

    Recently a novel avian bornavirus has been described that has been suggested to be the possible etiological agent for proventricular dilatation disease or macaw wasting disease. This article describes two macaws that shed avian bornaviral RNA sequences and demonstrated anti-avian bornavirus antibodies as revealed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blot, yet are free of outward clinical signs of the disease.

  5. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pello, Susan J.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.

  6. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Pello, Susan J; Olsen, Glenn H

    2013-05-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of sample collection methods (organs vs swabs) for Tasmanian salmon reovirus detection in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Zainathan, S C; Carson, J; Crane, M St J; Nowak, B F

    2013-04-01

    The use of swabs relative to organs as a sample collection method for the detection of Tasmanian salmon reovirus (TSRV) in farmed Tasmanian Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Evaluation of individual and pooled sample collection (organs vs swabs) was carried out to determine the sensitivity of the collection methods and the effect of pooling of samples for the detection of TSRV. Detection of TSRV in individual samples was as sensitive when organs were sampled compared to swabs, and in pooled samples, organs demonstrated a sensitivity of one 10-fold dilution higher than sampling of pooled swabs. Storage of swabs at 4 °C for t = 24 h demonstrated results similar to those at t = 0. Advantages of using swabs as a preferred sample collection method for the detection of TSRV compared to organ samples are evident from these experimental trials.

  8. Avian Models in Teratology and Developmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.; Flentke, George R.; Garic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent’s embryotoxic effects. Here we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function. PMID:22669661

  9. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  10. Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Han, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies.

  11. Are wetlands the reservoir for avian cholera?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands have long been suspected to be an important reservoir for Pasteurella multocida and therefore the likely source of avian cholera outbreaks. During the fall of 1995a??98 we collected sediment and water samples from 44 wetlands where avian cholera epizootics occurred the previous winter or spring. We attempted to isolate P. multocida in sediment and surface water samples from 10 locations distributed throughout each wetland. We were not able to isolate P. multocida from any of the 440 water and 440 sediment samples collected from these wetlands. In contrast, during other investigations of avian cholera we isolated P. multocida from 20 of 44 wetlands, including 7% of the water and 4.5% of the sediment samples collected during or shortly following epizootic events. Our results indicate that wetlands are an unlikely reservoir for the bacteria that causes avian cholera.

  12. Reovirus FAST Proteins Drive Pore Formation and Syncytiogenesis Using a Novel Helix-Loop-Helix Fusion-Inducing Lipid Packing Sensor.

    PubMed

    Read, Jolene; Clancy, Eileen K; Sarker, Muzaddid; de Antueno, Roberto; Langelaan, David N; Parmar, Hiren B; Shin, Kyungsoo; Rainey, Jan K; Duncan, Roy

    2015-06-01

    Pore formation is the most energy-demanding step during virus-induced membrane fusion, where high curvature of the fusion pore rim increases the spacing between lipid headgroups, exposing the hydrophobic interior of the membrane to water. How protein fusogens breach this thermodynamic barrier to pore formation is unclear. We identified a novel fusion-inducing lipid packing sensor (FLiPS) in the cytosolic endodomain of the baboon reovirus p15 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein that is essential for pore formation during cell-cell fusion and syncytiogenesis. NMR spectroscopy and mutational studies indicate the dependence of this FLiPS on a hydrophobic helix-loop-helix structure. Biochemical and biophysical assays reveal the p15 FLiPS preferentially partitions into membranes with high positive curvature, and this partitioning is impeded by bis-ANS, a small molecule that inserts into hydrophobic defects in membranes. Most notably, the p15 FLiPS can be functionally replaced by heterologous amphipathic lipid packing sensors (ALPS) but not by other membrane-interactive amphipathic helices. Furthermore, a previously unrecognized amphipathic helix in the cytosolic domain of the reptilian reovirus p14 FAST protein can functionally replace the p15 FLiPS, and is itself replaceable by a heterologous ALPS motif. Anchored near the cytoplasmic leaflet by the FAST protein transmembrane domain, the FLiPS is perfectly positioned to insert into hydrophobic defects that begin to appear in the highly curved rim of nascent fusion pores, thereby lowering the energy barrier to stable pore formation.

  13. Influence of the Route of Infection on Development of T-Cell Receptor β-Chain Repertoires of Reovirus-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Jonathan R.; Smith, Jeremy; Cunningham, Cynthia; Cuff, Christopher F.

    2004-01-01

    It is well established that the route of infection affects the nature of the adaptive immune response. However, little is known about the effects of the route of exposure on development of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Alternative antigen-presenting cell populations, tissue-restricted expression of class I major histocompatibility complex-encoded molecules, and unique T-cell receptor (TCR)-bearing cells in mucosal tissues could influence the selection and expansion of responder T cells. This study addresses the question of whether the route of virus infection affects the selection and expansion of subpopulations of virus-specific CTLs. Mice were infected orally or in the hind footpads with reovirus, and the repertoires of TCR β-chains expressed on virus-specific CD8+ T cells in Peyer's patches or lymph nodes and spleens were examined. CD8+ cells expressing the variable gene segment of the TCR β-chain 6 (Vβ6) expanded in the spleens of mice infected by either route and in CTL lines established from the spleens and draining lymphoid tissues. Adoptively transferred Vβ6+ CD8+ T cells from orally or parenterally infected donors expanded in reovirus-infected severe combined immunodeficient recipient mice and mediated cytotoxicity ex vivo. Furthermore, recovered Vβ6+ cells were enriched for clones utilizing uniform complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths. However, sequencing of CDR3β regions from Vβ6+ CD8+ cells indicated that Jβ gene segment usage is significantly more restricted in CTLs from orally infected mice, suggesting that the route of infection affects selection and/or subsequent expansion of virus-specific CTLs. PMID:14722312

  14. Reovirus FAST Proteins Drive Pore Formation and Syncytiogenesis Using a Novel Helix-Loop-Helix Fusion-Inducing Lipid Packing Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Muzaddid; de Antueno, Roberto; Langelaan, David N.; Parmar, Hiren B.; Shin, Kyungsoo; Rainey, Jan K.; Duncan, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Pore formation is the most energy-demanding step during virus-induced membrane fusion, where high curvature of the fusion pore rim increases the spacing between lipid headgroups, exposing the hydrophobic interior of the membrane to water. How protein fusogens breach this thermodynamic barrier to pore formation is unclear. We identified a novel fusion-inducing lipid packing sensor (FLiPS) in the cytosolic endodomain of the baboon reovirus p15 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein that is essential for pore formation during cell-cell fusion and syncytiogenesis. NMR spectroscopy and mutational studies indicate the dependence of this FLiPS on a hydrophobic helix-loop-helix structure. Biochemical and biophysical assays reveal the p15 FLiPS preferentially partitions into membranes with high positive curvature, and this partitioning is impeded by bis-ANS, a small molecule that inserts into hydrophobic defects in membranes. Most notably, the p15 FLiPS can be functionally replaced by heterologous amphipathic lipid packing sensors (ALPS) but not by other membrane-interactive amphipathic helices. Furthermore, a previously unrecognized amphipathic helix in the cytosolic domain of the reptilian reovirus p14 FAST protein can functionally replace the p15 FLiPS, and is itself replaceable by a heterologous ALPS motif. Anchored near the cytoplasmic leaflet by the FAST protein transmembrane domain, the FLiPS is perfectly positioned to insert into hydrophobic defects that begin to appear in the highly curved rim of nascent fusion pores, thereby lowering the energy barrier to stable pore formation. PMID:26061049

  15. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Spackman, Erica; Lee, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from experimentally infected birds. Samples can generally be divided into two types; enriched (e.g. virus stocks) and clinical. Clinical type samples, which may be tissues or swab material, are the most difficult to process due to the complex sample composition and possibly low virus titers. In this chapter two well established procedures for the isolation of AI virus RNA from common clinical specimen types and enriched virus stocks for further molecular applications will be presented.

  16. Avian study protocols and wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, K.

    1995-12-01

    This paper identifies the need to develop and use standardized avian study protocols to determine avian impacts at new and existing wind energy facilities. This will allow data collected from various sites to be correlated for better understanding wind energy related avian impacts. Factors contributing to an increased interest in wind energy facilities by electric utilities include: (1) Increased demand for electricity;(2) increased constraints on traditional electrical generating facilities (i.e. hydroelectric and nuclear power plants);(3) improved wind turbine technology. During the 1980`s generous tax credits spawned the development of wind energy facilities, known as wind farms, in California. Commercial scale wind farm proposals are being actively considered in states across the country - Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Wisconsin, Texas, and Vermont to name a few. From the wind farms in California the unexpected issue of avian impacts, especially to birds-of-prey, or raptor, surfaced and continues to plague the wind industry. However, most of the avian studies did not followed a standardized protocol or methodology and, therefore, data is unavailable to analyze and compare impacts at different sites or with differing technologies and configurations. Effective mitigation can not be designed and applied until these differences are understood. The Bonneville Power Administration is using comparable avian study protocols to collect data for two environmental impact statements being prepared for two separate wind farm proposals. Similar protocol will be required for any other avian impact analysis performed by the agency on proposed or existing wind farms. The knowledge gained from these studies should contribute to a better understanding of avian interactions with wind energy facilities and the identification of effective mitigation measures.

  17. Report of the Avian Development Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The anteroposterior axis of the avian embryo is established before it is laid. Baer's rule states that the cephalic end of the avian embryo will be away from the observer when the pointed end of the shell is on the observer's right. There are experimental data available which indicate gravity has a role in the establishment of the anteroposterior axis while the egg is in the uterus; this results in Baer's rule. The influence of gravity on egg development is studied.

  18. Orthopedic conditions of the avian head.

    PubMed

    Wheler, Colette L

    2002-01-01

    Orthopedic problems of the avian head generally fall into two main categories: congenital and traumatic. Congenital lesions of the beak are not uncommon in psittacine birds but are extremely rare in raptors. Trauma accounts for most of the remaining orthopedic problems seen in the area of the body. This article discusses the most common conditions and injuries causing orthopedic problems of the beak, eye, and skull of avian patients.

  19. Report of the Avian Development Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The anteroposterior axis of the avian embryo is established before it is laid. Baer's rule states that the cephalic end of the avian embryo will be away from the observer when the pointed end of the shell is on the observer's right. There are experimental data available which indicate gravity has a role in the establishment of the anteroposterior axis while the egg is in the uterus; this results in Baer's rule. The influence of gravity on egg development is studied.

  20. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic.

  1. Evolutionary origins of the avian brain.

    PubMed

    Balanoff, Amy M; Bever, Gabe S; Rowe, Timothy B; Norell, Mark A

    2013-09-05

    Features that were once considered exclusive to modern birds, such as feathers and a furcula, are now known to have first appeared in non-avian dinosaurs. However, relatively little is known of the early evolutionary history of the hyperinflated brain that distinguishes birds from other living reptiles and provides the important neurological capablities required by flight. Here we use high-resolution computed tomography to estimate and compare cranial volumes of extant birds, the early avialan Archaeopteryx lithographica, and a number of non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs that are phylogenetically close to the origins of both Avialae and avian flight. Previous work established that avian cerebral expansion began early in theropod history and that the cranial cavity of Archaeopteryx was volumetrically intermediate between these early forms and modern birds. Our new data indicate that the relative size of the cranial cavity of Archaeopteryx is reflective of a more generalized maniraptoran volumetric signature and in several instances is actually smaller than that of other non-avian dinosaurs. Thus, bird-like encephalization indices evolved multiple times, supporting the conclusion that if Archaeopteryx had the neurological capabilities required of flight, so did at least some other non-avian maniraptorans. This is congruent with recent findings that avialans were not unique among maniraptorans in their ability to fly in some form.

  2. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand.

  3. Ecology and conservation biology of avian malaria.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dennis A; Atkinson, Carter T; Samuel, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    Avian malaria is a worldwide mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. These parasites occur in many avian species but primarily affect passerine birds that have not evolved with the parasite. Host pathogenicity, fitness, and population impacts are poorly understood. In contrast to continental species, introduced avian malaria poses a substantial threat to naive birds on Hawaii, the Galapagos, and other archipelagoes. In Hawaii, transmission is maintained by susceptible native birds, competence and abundance of mosquitoes, and a disease reservoir of chronically infected native birds. Although vector habitat and avian communities determine the geographic distribution of disease, climate drives transmission patterns ranging from continuous high infection in warm lowland forests, seasonal infection in midelevation forests, and disease-free refugia in cool high-elevation forests. Global warming is expected to increase the occurrence, distribution, and intensity of avian malaria across this elevational gradient and threaten high-elevation refugia, which is the key to survival of many susceptible Hawaiian birds. Increased temperatures may have already increased global avian malaria prevalence and contributed to an emergence of disease in New Zealand. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Predicting transmission of avian influenza A viruses from avian to human by using informative physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Ma, Chuang; Kou, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Liu, Huai-Lan

    2013-01-01

    Some strains of avian influenza A virus (AIV) can directly transmit from their natural hosts to humans. These avian-to-human transmissions have continuously been reported to cause human deaths worldwide since 1997. Predicting whether AIV strains can transmit from avian to human is valuable for early warning of AIV strains with human pandemic potential. In this study, we constructed a computational model to predict avian-to-human transmission of AIV based on physicochemical properties. Initially, ninety signature positions in the inner protein sequences were extracted with the entropy method. These positions were then encoded with 531 physicochemical features. Subsequently, the optimal subset of these physicochemical features was mined with several feature selection methods. Finally, a support vector machine (SVM) model named A2H was established to integrate the selected optimal features. The experimental results of cross-validation and an independent test show that A2H has the capability of predicting transmission of AIV from avian to human.

  5. Decline in CTL and antibody responses to HIV-1 p17 and p24 antigens in HIV-1-infected hemophiliacs irrespective of disease progression. A 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, C M; Lowdell, M W; Chargelegue, D; Colvin, B T

    1992-08-01

    CTL and antibody responses to HIV-1 p17 and p24 antigens were monitored from 1986-1991, in 4 hemophiliacs. The patients had been infected with HIV-1 between 1980 and 1984. Two patients have remained asymptomatic while two progressed to AIDS in 1990. CTL were boosted by culturing with peptides from p17 aa 86-115, or p24 aa 265-279; and aa 270-373 or PHA. Lysis was measured on autologous or allogeneic targets pulsed with peptides or infected with recombinant vaccinia virus carrying HIV-1 gag or influenza A matrix genes. Antibodies to p17 and p24 were tested by ELISA using peptides and by Western blotting. High levels of CTL activity to p17 and p24 antigens could be generated only with lymphocytes from the two asymptomatic patients between 1986 and 1989, but these responses were absent in 1990 and 1991. Antibodies to p17 peptides disappeared in parallel with CTL activity. Antibodies to some p24 peptides also declined but most patients retained activity to others. In all patients a > or = 3-fold increase in CD8+ cell numbers occurred over time and accompanied the decline of CTL and antibody responses. The loss of CTL and p17 antibodies occurred irrespective of whether patients remained asymptomatic or progressed to AIDS in the intervening two years.

  6. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  7. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  8. Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Prevention and Treatment of Avian Influenza A Viruses in People Language: English (US) Españ ...

  9. Specific role of nitric oxide (NO) in avian embryonic myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Titov, V Yu; Kondratov, G V; Ivanova, A V

    2015-02-01

    NO plays a specific role in avian embryogenesis stimulating the development of muscle tissue. The main consumer of NO synthesized at the initial stage of avian embryogenesis is presumably a factor stimulating myogenesis.

  10. Determination and analysis of the complete genomic sequence of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) and attempts to infect rhesus monkeys with avian HEV.

    PubMed

    Huang, F F; Sun, Z F; Emerson, S U; Purcell, R H; Shivaprasad, H L; Pierson, F W; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2004-06-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), recently identified from a chicken with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States, is genetically and antigenically related to human and swine HEVs. In this study, sequencing of the genome was completed and an attempt was made to infect rhesus monkeys with avian HEV. The full-length genome of avian HEV, excluding the poly(A) tail, is 6654 bp in length, which is about 600 bp shorter than that of human and swine HEVs. Similar to human and swine HEV genomes, the avian HEV genome consists of a short 5' non-coding region (NCR) followed by three partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and a 3'NCR. Avian HEV shares about 50 % nucleotide sequence identity over the complete genome, 48-51 % identity in ORF1, 46-48 % identity in ORF2 and only 29-34 % identity in ORF3 with human and swine HEV strains. Significant genetic variations such as deletions and insertions, particularly in ORF1 of avian HEV, were observed. However, motifs in the putative functional domains of ORF1, such as the helicase and methyltransferase, were relatively conserved between avian HEV and mammalian HEVs, supporting the conclusion that avian HEV is a member of the genus Hepevirus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that avian HEV represents a branch distinct from human and swine HEVs. Swine HEV infects non-human primates and possibly humans and thus may be zoonotic. An attempt was made to determine whether avian HEV also infects across species by experimentally inoculating two rhesus monkeys with avian HEV. Evidence of virus infection was not observed in the inoculated monkeys as there was no seroconversion, viraemia, faecal virus shedding or serum liver enzyme elevation. The results from this study confirmed that avian HEV is related to, but distinct from, human and swine HEVs; however, unlike swine HEV, avian HEV is probably not transmissible to non-human primates.

  11. Proceedings of National Avian-Wind Power Planning Meeting IV

    SciTech Connect

    NWCC Avian Subcommittee

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The purpose of the fourth meeting was to (1) share research and update research conducted on avian wind interactions (2) identify questions and issues related to the research results, (3) develop conclusions about some avian/wind power issues, and (4) identify questions and issues for future avian research.

  12. DIVA vaccination strategies for avian influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Suarez, David L

    2012-12-01

    Vaccination for both low pathogenicity avian influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza is commonly used by countries that have become endemic for avian influenza virus, but stamping-out policies are still common for countries with recently introduced disease. Stamping-out policies of euthanatizing infected and at-risk flocks has been an effective control tool, but it comes at a high social and economic cost. Efforts to identify alternative ways to respond to outbreaks without widespread stamping out has become a goal for organizations like the World Organisation for Animal Health. A major issue with vaccination for avian influenza is trade considerations because countries that vaccinate are often considered to be endemic for the disease and they typically lose their export markets. Primarily as a tool to promote trade, the concept of DIVA (differentiate infected from vaccinated animals) has been considered for avian influenza, but the goal for trade is to differentiate vaccinated and not-infected from vaccinated and infected animals because trading partners are unwilling to accept infected birds. Several different strategies have been investigated for a DIVA strategy, but each has advantages and disadvantages. A review of current knowledge on the research and implementation of the DIVA strategy will be discussed with possible ways to implement this strategy in the field. The increased desire for a workable DIVA strategy may lead to one of these ideas moving from the experimental to the practical.

  13. Avian issues in wind development

    SciTech Connect

    Beyea, J.

    1995-12-31

    There is a lot of concern among wind supporters, I know, about Audubon`s position on wind power. There is concern that this is the wrong time to be critical, and the wrong time to be putting any doubts in investors` minds, and the wrong time to provide an excuse for utilities to stop buying windpower. The long-term future of biodiversity, including bird diversity, depends on development of renewable energy, and that will mean some wind development in the right places and with the right types of systems. For both the long-time survival of the wind industry and for protection of bird populations, Audubon cannot be quiet on this issue. To avoid mistakes that can kill the industry in the long run, expenditures for wind/avian research have to be increased way beyond their present scope. We are going to need about $5 million dollars per year, if we are to (1) understand the biology and physics of bird-wind plant interactions, (2) if we are to understand relevant bird flightpaths, and (3) if we are to design a strategy to protect bird populations.

  14. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  15. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  16. Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick M; Claessens, Leon P A M

    2005-07-14

    Birds are unique among living vertebrates in possessing pneumaticity of the postcranial skeleton, with invasion of bone by the pulmonary air-sac system. The avian respiratory system includes high-compliance air sacs that ventilate a dorsally fixed, non-expanding parabronchial lung. Caudally positioned abdominal and thoracic air sacs are critical components of the avian aspiration pump, facilitating flow-through ventilation of the lung and near-constant airflow during both inspiration and expiration, highlighting a design optimized for efficient gas exchange. Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity has also been reported in numerous extinct archosaurs including non-avian theropod dinosaurs and Archaeopteryx. However, the relationship between osseous pneumaticity and the evolution of the avian respiratory apparatus has long remained ambiguous. Here we report, on the basis of a comparative analysis of region-specific pneumaticity with extant birds, evidence for cervical and abdominal air-sac systems in non-avian theropods, along with thoracic skeletal prerequisites of an avian-style aspiration pump. The early acquisition of this system among theropods is demonstrated by examination of an exceptional new specimen of Majungatholus atopus, documenting these features in a taxon only distantly related to birds. Taken together, these specializations imply the existence of the basic avian pulmonary Bauplan in basal neotheropods, indicating that flow-through ventilation of the lung is not restricted to birds but is probably a general theropod characteristic.

  17. Avian biology, the human influence on global avian influenza transmission, and performing surveillance in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Samantha E J

    2010-06-01

    This paper takes a closer look at three interrelated areas of study: avian host biology, the role of human activities in virus transmission, and the surveillance activities centered on avian influenza in wild birds. There are few ecosystems in which birds are not found. Correspondingly, avian influenza viruses are equally global in distribution, relying on competent avian hosts. The immune systems, annual cycles, feeding behaviors, and migration patterns of these hosts influence the ecology of the disease. Decreased biodiversity has also been linked to heightened disease transmission in several disease systems, and it is evident that active destruction and modification of wetland environments for human use is impacting avian populations drastically. Legal and illegal trade in wild birds present a significant risk for introduction and maintenance of exotic diseases. After the emergence of HPAI H5N1 in Hong Kong in 1996 and the ensuing geographic spread of outbreaks after 2003, both infected countries and those at risk of introduction began intensifying avian influenza surveillance efforts. Several techniques for sampling wild birds for influenza viruses have been applied. Benefits, problems, and biases exist for each method. The wild bird avian influenza surveillance programs taking place across the continents are now scaling back due to the rise of other spending priorities; hopefully the lessons learned from this work will be preserved and will inform future research and disease outbreak response priorities.

  18. Composting for Avian Influenza Virus Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Emmoth, Eva; Albihn, Ann; Vinnerås, Björn; Ottoson, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Effective sanitization is important in viral epizootic outbreaks to avoid further spread of the pathogen. This study examined thermal inactivation as a sanitizing treatment for manure inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 and bacteriophages MS2 and ϕ6. Rapid inactivation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H7N1 was achieved at both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (45 and 55°C) temperatures. Similar inactivation rates were observed for bacteriophage ϕ6, while bacteriophage MS2 proved too thermoresistant to be considered a valuable indicator organism for avian influenza virus during thermal treatments. Guidelines for treatment of litter in the event of emergency composting can be formulated based on the inactivation rates obtained in the study. PMID:22389376

  19. Blocking TGF-β1 by P17 peptides attenuates gastric cancer cell induced peritoneal fibrosis and prevents peritoneal dissemination in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhi-Dong; Zhao, Wei-Jun; Jin, Li-Ying; Wang, Wen-Juan; Dong, Qian; Li, Na; Xu, Hui-Mian; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2017-04-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that the peritoneal stroma environment favors proliferation of tumor cells by serving as a rich source of growth factors and chemokines known to be involved in tumor metastasis. In this study, we investigated the interaction between gastric cancer cells and peritoneal mesothelial cells, and determined the effects of TGF-β1 in this processing. Human peritoneal tissues and peritoneal wash fluid were obtained, which examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining or ELISA for measurements of TGF-β1 levels. The peritoneal mesothelial cells were co-incubated with the supernatants of gastric cancer, the expression of TGF-β1, collagen and fibronectin was observed by ELISA and western blot. We then investigated the effects of serum-free conditioned media from HSC-39 gastric cancer cells on the peritoneum of nude mice, and the effects of peritoneal fibrosis on the development of peritoneal metastasis in vivo. The peritoneum from gastric patients were thickened and contained extensive fibrosis. After co-culture both gastric tumor cells and mesothelial cells, we found that TGF-β1 expression was greatly increased in the co-culture system compared to individual culture condition. Serum-free Conditioned Media from HSC-39 was able to induce extracellular matrix expression in vitro and in vivo, and tumorigenicity in mice with peritoneal fibrosis was greater than in mice with normal peritoneum, while blocking TGF-β1 by peptide P17 can partially inhibit these effects. In conclusion, these results indicated that the interaction of gastric cancer with peritoneal fibrosis and determined that TGF-β1 plays a key role in induction of peritoneal fibrosis, which in turn affected dissemination of gastric cancer.

  20. Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Marangon, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza, listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), has become a disease of great importance for animal and human health. Several aspects of the disease lack scientific information, which has hampered the management of some recent crises. Millions of animals have died, and concern is growing over the loss of human lives and management of the pandemic potential. On the basis of data generated in recent outbreaks and in light of new OIE regulations and maintenance of animal welfare, we review the available control methods for avian influenza infections in poultry, from stamping out to prevention through emergency and prophylactic vaccination. PMID:17073078

  1. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  2. Avian respiratory distress: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Susan E; Lichtenberger, Marla

    2011-05-01

    Respiratory distress is usually a life-threatening emergency in any species and this is particularly important in avian species because of their unique anatomy and physiology. In the emergency room, observation of breathing patterns, respiratory sounds, and a brief physical examination are the most important tools for the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory distress in avian patients. These tools will help the clinician localize the lesion. This discussion focuses on the 5 anatomic divisions of the respiratory system and provides clinically important anatomic and physiologic principles and diagnosis and treatment protocols for the common diseases occurring in each part. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A unique novel reptilian paramyxovirus, four atadenovirus types and a reovirus identified in a concurrent infection of a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) collection in Germany.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Maha Diekan; Marschang, Rachel E; Schmidt, Volker; Kasper, Astrid; Papp, Tibor

    2011-05-12

    In 2009, 26 clinical samples (organs and oral/cloacal swabs) from a total of 24 corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) from a single owner were sent to our laboratory to be tested for the presence of viruses. Paramyxoviruses (PMV), adenoviruses (AdV) and reoviruses were detected by RT-PCR, PCR and virus isolation methods. Three snakes were infected with all three viruses at the same time, while two other snakes had a double infection (PMV and reo, AdV and reo) and nine other snakes had a single infection with any of the three viruses. No viruses were detected in 10 animals. All isolated reoviruses were identical to one another and to the reptilian orthoreovirus isolate 55-02 in the partial RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) gene sequence. AdV partial polymerase sequences represented four different types, one of which was first described here: most similar to SnAdV-1, while the other three were identical to known types: SnAV-1, -2 and -3. However, the detected single PMV differed distinctly from described reptile PMV and was a new type. According to partial L gene, HN gene and U gene sequences it may be the first described representative of a third squamatid PMV cluster: "group C" within the proposed reptilian PMV genus "Ferlavirus". Nucleotide identity values for the L gene of the new PMV compared to group A viruses range between 76.5 and 80.3%, and between 80.5 and 81.2% compared to group B viruses. For the HN gene, these values were similar: 78.2-80% (A) and 79.9-80.5% (B) and somewhat lower for the U gene: 72.7-75.4% (A) and 69.7-70% (B). No reports on the prevalence of concurrent viral infection in captive snake populations have been published so far. The possibility of concurrent infection with several different viruses and subsequent consequences for animal health should be kept in mind when testing reptile samples for viruses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.

    PubMed

    Björn, Lars Olof; Bengtson, Sven-Axel; Li, Shaoshan; Hecker, Christoph; Ullah, Saleem; Roos, Arne; Nilsson, Annica M

    2016-04-01

    The hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. Directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. Due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. Most notably, small waders of the genus Calidris, breeding in cold climates on the tundra, and in most cases with uniparental nest attendance, have low directional emissivity of their eggshells, about 0.92 when integration is carried out for wavelengths up to 16μm. Species belonging to Galloanserinae have the highest directional emissivity, about 0.96, of their eggs. No differences due to climate or breeding conditions were found within this group. Eggs of most other birds tested possess intermediate emissivity, but the values for Pica pica and Corvus corone cornix are as low as for Calidris. Large species-dependent differences in spectral reflectance were found at specific wavelengths. For instance, at 4.259μm the directional-hemispherical reflectance for galliforms range from 0.05 to 0.09, while for Fratercula arctica and Fulmarus glacialis it is about 0.3. The reflection peaks at 6.5 and 11.3μm due to calcite are differentially attenuated in different species. In conclusion, the hypothesis that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of bird eggs being exposed in cold climates is not supported by our results. The emissivity is not clearly related to nesting habits or climate, and it is unlikely that the small differences observed are ecologically important. The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs.

  5. Rheology of embryonic avian blood.

    PubMed

    Al-Roubaie, Sarah; Jahnsen, Espen D; Mohammed, Masud; Henderson-Toth, Caitlin; Jones, Elizabeth A V

    2011-12-01

    Shear stress, a mechanical force created by blood flow, is known to affect the developing cardiovascular system. Shear stress is a function of both shear rate and viscosity. While established techniques for measuring shear rate in embryos have been developed, the viscosity of embryonic blood has never been known but always assumed to be like adult blood. Blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, where the relationship between shear rate and shear stress is nonlinear. In this work, we analyzed the non-Newtonian behavior of embryonic chicken blood using a microviscometer and present the apparent viscosity at different hematocrits, different shear rates, and at different stages during development from 4 days (Hamburger-Hamilton stage 22) to 8 days (about Hamburger-Hamilton stage 34) of incubation. We chose the chicken embryo since it has become a common animal model for studying hemodynamics in the developing cardiovascular system. We found that the hematocrit increases with the stage of development. The viscosity of embryonic avian blood in all developmental stages studied was shear rate dependent and behaved in a non-Newtonian manner similar to that of adult blood. The range of shear rates and hematocrits at which non-Newtonian behavior was observed is, however, outside the physiological range for the larger vessels of the embryo. Under low shear stress conditions, the spherical nucleated blood cells that make up embryonic blood formed into small aggregates of cells. We found that the apparent blood viscosity decreases at a given hematocrit during embryonic development, not due to changes in protein composition of the plasma but possibly due to the changes in cellular composition of embryonic blood. This decrease in apparent viscosity was only visible at high hematocrit. At physiological values of hematocrit, embryonic blood viscosity did not change significantly with the stage of development.

  6. Host Tissue and Glycan Binding Specificities of Avian Viral Attachment Proteins Using Novel Avian Tissue Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, Iresha N.; de Vries, Robert P.; Eggert, Amber M.; Wandee, Nantaporn; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, Monique H.

    2015-01-01

    The initial interaction between viral attachment proteins and the host cell is a critical determinant for the susceptibility of a host for a particular virus. To increase our understanding of avian pathogens and the susceptibility of poultry species, we developed novel avian tissue microarrays (TMAs). Tissue binding profiles of avian viral attachment proteins were studied by performing histochemistry on multi-species TMA, comprising of selected tissues from ten avian species, and single-species TMAs, grouping organ systems of each species together. The attachment pattern of the hemagglutinin protein was in line with the reported tropism of influenza virus H5N1, confirming the validity of TMAs in profiling the initial virus-host interaction. The previously believed chicken-specific coronavirus (CoV) M41 spike (S1) protein displayed a broad attachment pattern to respiratory tissues of various avian species, albeit with lower affinity than hemagglutinin, suggesting that other avian species might be susceptible for chicken CoV. When comparing tissue-specific binding patterns of various avian coronaviral S1 proteins on the single-species TMAs, chicken and partridge CoV S1 had predominant affinity for the trachea, while pigeon CoV S1 showed marked preference for lung of their respective hosts. Binding of all coronaviral S1 proteins was dependent on sialic acids; however, while chicken CoV S1 preferred sialic acids type I lactosamine (Gal(1-3)GlcNAc) over type II (Gal(1-4)GlcNAc), the fine glycan specificities of pigeon and partridge CoVs were different, as chicken CoV S1-specific sialylglycopolymers could not block their binding to tissues. Taken together, TMAs provide a novel platform in the field of infectious diseases to allow identification of binding specificities of viral attachment proteins and are helpful to gain insight into the susceptibility of host and organ for avian pathogens. PMID:26035584

  7. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response using the avian innate immunity microarray

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The avian innate immunity microarray (AIIM) is a genomics tool designed to study the transcriptional activity of the avian immune response (Cytogenet. Genome Res. 117:139-145, 2007). It is an avian cDNA microarray representing 4,959 avian genes spotted in triplicate. The AIIM contains 25 avian int...

  8. Viral vectors for avian influenza vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prior to 2003, vaccines against avian influenza (AI) had limited, individual country or regional use in poultry. In late 2003, H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) AI spread from China to multiple Southeast Asian countries, and to Europe during 2005 and Africa during 2006, challenging governments and all p...

  9. Avian Disease & Oncology Lab (ADOL) Research Update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Employing Genomics, Epigenetics, and Immunogenetics to Control Diseases Induced by Avian Tumor Viruses - Gene expression is a major factor accounting for phenotypic variation. Taking advantage of allele-specific expression (ASE) screens, we found the use of genetic markers was superior to traditiona...

  10. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and...-4356. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

  11. Effects of drought on avian community structure

    Treesearch

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Brian D. Wardlow; Volker C. Radeloff

    2010-01-01

    Droughts are expected to become more frequent under global climate change. Avifauna depend on precipitation for hydration, cover, and food. While there are indications that avian communities respond negatively to drought, little is known about the response of birds with differing functional and behavioural traits, what time periods and indicators of drought are most...

  12. Avian influenza viruses and human health.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D J

    2006-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause natural infections of humans, some other mammals and birds. Few of the 16 haemagglutinin and nine neuraminidase subtype combinations have been isolated from mammals, but all subtypes have been isolated from birds. In the 20th century, there were four pandemics of influenza as a result of the emergence of antigenically different strains in humans: 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2) and 1977 (H1N1). Influenza A viruses contain eight distinct RNA genes and reassortment of these can occur in mixed infections with different viruses. The 1957 and 1968 pandemic viruses differed from the preceding viruses in humans by the substitution of genes that came from avian viruses, suggesting they arose by genetic reassortment of viruses of human and avian origin. Up to 1995, there had been only three reports of avian influenza viruses infecting humans, in 1959, 1977 and 1981 (all H7N7), but, since 1996, there have been regular reports of natural infections of humans with avian influenza viruses: in England in 1996 (H7N7), Hong Kong 1997 (H5N1), 1999 (H9N2), and 2003 (H5N1), in The Netherlands 2003 (H7N7), Canada 2004 (H7N3), Vietnam 2004 (H5N1) and Thailand 2004 (H5N1). The H5N1 virus is alarming because 51 (64 %) of the 80 people confirmed as infected since 1997 have died.

  13. Avian influenza--a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, C A

    2006-01-01

    To present a wide-ranging review of the literature on avian influenza A (H5N1). The recent epidemics caused by the avian influenza A virus in Asia, have demonstrated the capacity of this agent to cause serious illness in humans. Most articles were obtained from the Medline database using the keywords "Influenza A virus", "avian flu", "epidemiology", "disease vectors" and "H5N1 infection" for the period between 1996 and 2006. We selected 25 original articles addressing the recent outbreaks of infection with the H5N1 subtype of avian influenza A in domesticated birds in Asia, which have resulted in significant economic losses and repercussions for public health, as well as some cases of human infection presenting high lethality. In most cases, infection has been associated with direct exposure to infected birds or contact with surfaces infected with bird excrement. However, cases of human-to-human transmission have been confirmed. Controlling outbreaks in domestic fowl and limiting contact between humans and infected birds must be the priorities in the management of this disease at the public health level. In addition, techniques and knowledge regarding the disease should be widely disseminated (Ref: 28).

  14. A glossary for avian conservation biology

    Treesearch

    Rolf R. Koford; John B. Dunning; Christine A. Ribic; Deborah M. Finch

    1994-01-01

    This glossary provides standard definitions for many of the terms used in avian conservation biology. We compiled these definitions to assist communication among researchers, managers, and others involved in the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, also known as Partners in Flight. We used existing glossaries and recent literature to prepare this glossary....

  15. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  16. An in depth view of avian sleep.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Rattenborg, Niels C

    2015-03-01

    Brain rhythms occurring during sleep are implicated in processing information acquired during wakefulness, but this phenomenon has almost exclusively been studied in mammals. In this review we discuss the potential value of utilizing birds to elucidate the functions and underlying mechanisms of such brain rhythms. Birds are of particular interest from a comparative perspective because even though neurons in the avian brain homologous to mammalian neocortical neurons are arranged in a nuclear, rather than a laminar manner, the avian brain generates mammalian-like sleep-states and associated brain rhythms. Nonetheless, until recently, this nuclear organization also posed technical challenges, as the standard surface EEG recording methods used to study the neocortex provide only a superficial view of the sleeping avian brain. The recent development of high-density multielectrode recording methods now provides access to sleep-related brain activity occurring deep in the avian brain. Finally, we discuss how intracerebral electrical imaging based on this technique can be used to elucidate the systems-level processing of hippocampal-dependent and imprinting memories in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature.

  18. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  19. The global nature of avian influenza

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza (AI) virus (AIV) is a global virus which knows no geographic boundaries, has no political agenda, and can infect poultry irrespective of their occupying ecosystem, agricultural production system, or other anthropocentric niches. AIVs or evidence of their infection have been detected...

  20. Pathobiology of avian influenza in domestic ducks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestic ducks are an important source of food and income in many parts of the world. The susceptibility of domestic ducks to avian influenza (AI) viruses varies depending on many factors, including the species and the age of the ducks, the virus strain, and management practices. Although wild wat...

  1. Avian use of scoria rock outcrops

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Rumble

    1987-01-01

    Avian use of scoria outcrop habitats was compared to use of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)/grassland habitats. Outcrop habitats exhibited higher species richness, total population density, density of lark sparrows (Chondestres grammucus), and density of rock wrens (Salpinctes obsoetus). Western meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta...

  2. Avian Schistosomes and Outbreaks of Cercarial Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. PMID:25567226

  3. PCR-based prevalence of a fatal reovirus of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun) along the northern Atlantic coast of the USA.

    PubMed

    Flowers, E M; Simmonds, K; Messick, G A; Sullivan, L; Schott, E J

    2016-06-01

    There is a need for more information on the relationship between diseases and fluctuations of wild populations of marine animals. In the case of Callinectes sapidus reovirus 1 (CsRV1, also known as RLV), there is a lack of baseline information on range, prevalence and outbreaks, from which to develop an understanding of population-level impacts. An RT-qPCR assay was developed that is capable of detecting 10 copies of the CsRV1 genome. In collaboration with state, federal and academic partners, blue crabs were collected from sites throughout the north-eastern United States to assess the northern range of this pathogen. In addition, archived crab samples from the Chesapeake Bay were assessed for CsRV1 by RT-qPCR and histology. PCR-based assessments indicate that CsRV1 was present at all but one site. Prevalence of CsRV1 as assessed by RT-qPCR was highly variable between locations, and CsRV1 prevalence varied between years at a given location. Mean CsRV1 prevalence as assessed by RT-qPCR was >15% each year, and peak prevalence was 79%. The wide geographic range and highly variable prevalence of CsRV1 indicate that more study is needed to understand CsRV1 dynamics and the role the virus plays in blue crab natural mortality.

  4. Different activities of the reovirus FAST proteins and influenza hemagglutinin in cell-cell fusion assays and in response to membrane curvature agents

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, Eileen K.; Barry, Chris; Ciechonska, Marta; Duncan, Roy

    2010-02-05

    The reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins evolved to induce cell-cell, rather than virus-cell, membrane fusion. It is unclear whether the FAST protein fusion reaction proceeds in the same manner as the enveloped virus fusion proteins. We now show that fluorescence-based cell-cell and cell-RBC hemifusion assays are unsuited for detecting lipid mixing in the absence of content mixing during FAST protein-mediated membrane fusion. Furthermore, membrane curvature agents that inhibit hemifusion or promote pore formation mediated by influenza hemagglutinin had no effect on p14-induced cell-cell fusion, even under conditions of limiting p14 concentrations. Standard assays used to detect fusion intermediates induced by enveloped virus fusion proteins are therefore not applicable to the FAST proteins. These results suggest the possibility that the nature of the fusion intermediates or the mechanisms used to transit through the various stages of the fusion reaction may differ between these distinct classes of viral fusogens.

  5. Identification of mud crab reovirus VP12 and its interaction with the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein of mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Dong; Su, Hong-Jun; Zou, Wei-Bin; Liu, Shan-Shan; Yan, Wen-Rui; Wang, Qian-Qian; Yuan, Li-Li; Chan, Siuming Francis; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo; Weng, Shao-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Mud crab reovirus (MCRV) is the causative agent of a severe disease in cultured mud crab (Scylla paramamosain), which has caused huge economic losses in China. MCRV is a double-stranded RNA virus with 12 genomic segments. In this paper, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and Western blot analyses revealed that the VP12 protein encoded by S12 gene is a structural protein of MCRV. Immune electron microscopy assay indicated that MCRV VP12 is a component of MCRV outer shell capsid. Yeast two hybrid cDNA library of mud crab was constructed and mud crab voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (mcVDAC) was obtained by MCRV VP12 screening. The full length of mcVDAC was 1180 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 849 bp encoding a 282 amino acid protein. The mcVDAC had a constitutive expression pattern in different tissues of mud crab. The interaction between MCRV VP12 and mcVDAC was determined by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The results of this study have provided an insight on the mechanisms of MCRV infection and the interactions between the virus and mud crab. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure of the reovirus outer capsid and dsRNA-binding protein σ3 at 1.8 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Olland, Andrea M.; Jané-Valbuena, Judit; Schiff, Leslie A.; Nibert, Max L.; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2001-01-01

    The crystallographically determined structure of the reovirus outer capsid protein σ3 reveals a two-lobed structure organized around a long central helix. The smaller of the two lobes includes a CCHC zinc-binding site. Residues that vary between strains and serotypes lie mainly on one surface of the protein; residues on the opposite surface are conserved. From a fit of this model to a reconstruction of the whole virion from electron cryomicroscopy, we propose that each σ3 subunit is positioned with the small lobe anchoring it to the protein µ1 on the surface of the virion, and the large lobe, the site of initial cleavages during entry-related proteolytic disassembly, protruding outwards. The surface containing variable residues faces solvent. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains two σ3 subunits, tightly associated as a dimer. One broad surface of the dimer has a positively charged surface patch, which extends across the dyad. In infected cells, σ3 binds dsRNA and inhibits the interferon response. The location and extent of the positively charged surface patch suggest that the dimer is the RNA-binding form of σ3. PMID:11230122

  7. Functional and biochemical properties of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (Fijivirus, Reoviridae) P9-1 viroplasm protein show further similarities to animal reovirus counterparts.

    PubMed

    Maroniche, Guillermo A; Mongelli, Vanesa C; Peralta, Andrea V; Distéfano, Ana J; Llauger, Gabriela; Taboga, Oscar A; Hopp, Esteban H; del Vas, Mariana

    2010-09-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a plant virus of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae that infects several monocotyledonous species and is transmitted by planthoppers in a persistent and propagative manner. Other members of the family replicate in viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) termed viroplasms that are formed in the cytoplasm of infected plant and insect cells. In this study, the protein coded by the first ORF of MRCV segment S9 (P9-1) was shown to establish cytoplasmic inclusion bodies resembling viroplasms after transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. In accordance, MRCV P9-1 self-associates giving rise to high molecular weight complexes when expressed in bacteria. Strong self-interaction was also evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, biochemical characterization showed that MRCV P9-1 bound single stranded RNA and had ATPase activity. Finally, the MRCV P9-1 region required for the formation of VIB-like structures was mapped to the protein carboxy-terminal half. This extensive functional and biochemical characterization of MRCV P9-1 revealed further similarities between plant and animal reovirus viroplasm proteins.

  8. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48 h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  9. Similar uptake but different trafficking and escape routes of reovirus virions and infectious subvirion particles imaged in polarized Madin–Darby canine kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Boulant, Steeve; Stanifer, Megan; Kural, Comert; Cureton, David K.; Massol, Ramiro; Nibert, Max L.; Kirchhausen, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Polarized epithelial cells that line the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts form a barrier that many viruses must breach to infect their hosts. Current understanding of cell entry by mammalian reovirus (MRV) virions and infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs), generated from MRV virions by extracellular proteolysis in the digestive tract, are mostly derived from in vitro studies with nonpolarized cells. Recent live-cell imaging advances allow us for the first time to visualize events at the apical surface of polarized cells. In this study, we used spinning-disk confocal fluorescence microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution to follow the uptake and trafficking dynamics of single MRV virions and ISVPs at the apical surface of live polarized Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. Both types of particles were internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, but virions and ISVPs exhibited strikingly different trafficking after uptake. While virions reached early and late endosomes, ISVPs did not and instead escaped the endocytic pathway from an earlier location. This study highlights the broad advantages of using live-cell imaging combined with single-particle tracking for identifying key steps in cell entry by viruses. PMID:23427267

  10. A Phase I Trial and Viral Clearance Study of Reovirus (Reolysin) in Children with Relapsed or Refractory Extra-cranial Solid Tumors: A Children's Oncology Group Phase I Consortium Report

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, E. Anders; Sampson, Valerie; Stabley, Deborah; Walter, Alexa; Sol-Church, Katia; Cripe, Timothy; Hingorani, Pooja; Ahern, Charlotte Hsieh; Weigel, Brenda J.; Zwiebel, James; Blaney, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Reovirus is a naturally occurring human virus that is cytopathic to malignant cells possessing an activated Ras signaling pathway. We conducted a phase I trial of Reolysin, a manufactured, proprietary isolate of purified reovirus, in children with relapsed/refractory extracranial solid tumors to define the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), toxicities and pharmacokinetic properties when administered as a single agent or in combination with cyclophosphamide. Experimental Design Reolysin was administered intravenously for 5 consecutive days, every 28 days. Using a 3 + 3 design, the following dose levels were evaluated: 3 × 108 Tissue Culture Inhibitory Dose 50% (TCID50)/kg; 5 × 108 TCID50/kg (maximum dose was 3 × 1010 TCID50); and 5 × 108 TCID50/kg plus oral cyclophosphamide (50 mg/m2/day × 21 days). Results Twenty-nine patients were enrolled; 28 were eligible and 24 were evaluable for toxicity and response. There were no hematologic dose-limiting toxicities. Grade 5 respiratory failure and a Grade 5 thromboembolic event were reported, both in the setting of progressive disease. The median time to clear the reovirus viremia was 6.5 days. Eight of twenty-four patients were viremic beyond the five days of therapy, all were negative by day 17. No patient had detectable viral RNA in saliva or stool. There were no objective responses. Conclusions Reolysin at a dose of 5 × 108 TCID50/kg daily for 5 days was well tolerated in children alone and in combination with oral cyclophosphamide. Virus was cleared rapidly from the serum and shedding in stool and salivawas not detectable. PMID:25728527

  11. A carboxy-terminal fragment of protein mu 1/mu 1C is present in infectious subvirion particles of mammalian reoviruses and is proposed to have a role in penetration.

    PubMed

    Nibert, M L; Fields, B N

    1992-11-01

    Penetration of a cell membrane as an early event in infection of cells by mammalian reoviruses appears to require a particular type of viral particle, the infectious subvirion particle (ISVP), which is generated from an intact virion by proteolytic cleavage of the outer capsid proteins sigma 3 and mu 1/mu 1C. Characterizations of the structural components and properties of ISVPs are thus relevant to attempts to understand the mechanism of penetration by reoviruses. In this study, a novel, approximately 13-kDa carboxy-terminal fragment (given the name phi) was found to be generated from protein mu 1/mu 1C during in vitro treatments of virions with trypsin or chymotrypsin to yield ISVPs. With trypsin treatment, both the carboxy-terminal fragment phi and the amino-terminal fragment mu 1 delta/delta were shown to be generated and to remain attached to ISVPs in stoichiometric quantities. Sites of protease cleavage were identified in the deduced amino acid sequence of mu 1 by determining the amino-terminal sequences of phi proteins: trypsin cleaves between arginine 584 and isoleucine 585, and chymotrypsin cleaves between tyrosine 581 and glycine 582. Findings in this study indicate that sequences in the phi portion of mu 1/mu 1C may participate in the unique functions attributed to ISVPs. Notably, the delta-phi cleavage junction was predicted to be flanked by a pair of long amphipathic alpha-helices. These amphipathic alpha-helices, together with the myristoyl group at the extreme amino terminus of mu 1/mu 1N, are proposed to interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane during penetration by mammalian reoviruses.

  12. Randomized phase IIB evaluation of weekly paclitaxel versus weekly paclitaxel with oncolytic reovirus (Reolysin®) in recurrent ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancer: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Cohn, David E; Sill, Michael W; Walker, Joan L; O'Malley, David; Nagel, Christa I; Rutledge, Teresa L; Bradley, William; Richardson, Debra L; Moxley, Katherine M; Aghajanian, Carol

    2017-09-01

    To assess whether the addition of oncolytic reovirus (Reolysin®) to weekly paclitaxel prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in the treatment of women with recurrent or persistent ovarian, tubal or primary peritoneal cancer. Patients with recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma, measurable or detectable disease, and three or fewer prior regimens were randomly assigned to paclitaxel (80mg/m(2) intravenously days 1, 8, and 15 every 4weeks) or the combination of paclitaxel (80mg/m(2) intravenously days 1, 8, and 15) plus reovirus 3×10(10)TCID50/day intravenously on days 1-5, both every 4weeks until disease progression or toxicity. The primary end point was PFS. The study was designed with 80% power for a one-sided alternative at a 10% level of significance to detect a reduction in the hazard by 37.5%. The study accrued 108 patients, 100 of whom were evaluable for toxicity. Median PFS was 4.3months for paclitaxel and 4.4months for paclitaxel plus reovirus (hazard ratio, 1.11; 90% two-sided CI, 0.78 to 1.59; one-sided P=0.687). The proportion responding (overall response rate) to paclitaxel was 20% among 45 patients with measurable disease receiving paclitaxel alone, and 17.4% among the 46 patients treated with the combination. The asymptotic relative probability of responding was 0.87 (90% CI, 0.42 to 1.79). Severe adverse events were more common in the combination regimen than in paclitaxel arm for severe neutropenia (grade≥4, 12% versus 0%), and severe respiratory adverse events (grade≥3, 25% versus 2%). No deaths were considered treatment related. The addition of reovirus to weekly paclitaxel in the treatment of women with recurrent or persistent ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer did not sufficiently reduce the hazard of progression or death to warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Avian diversity and bird strike risk at Fuyang Airport].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-min; Jiang, Shuang-lin; Nie, Chuan-peng; Zhou, Hou-long; Li, Yan-yan; Chen, Nai-tang; Zhao, Zhi-hua

    2011-07-01

    From June 2008 to January 2010, a survey of avian communities was conducted in five habitats (grassland, farmland, town, wetland, and woodland) at Fuyang Airport and its surrounding areas, with the diversity indices in different seasons and different habitats analyzed. A total of 122 avian species belonging to 15 orders and 40 families were recorded. At Fuyang Airport, the avian species number was significantly higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring, the avian density was the highest in autumn, and the Shannon diversity index and Pielou evenness index were the highest in summer. Among the five habitats at the Airport and its surrounding areas, woodland had the greatest avian species number and density, and the woodland, wetland, and farmland had higher Shannon diversity index than grassland and town. The most dangerous avian species to the airplanes at Fuyang Airport were Passer montanus, Pycnonotus sinensis, Hirundo rustica, Columba livia f. domestica, Pica pica, Streptopelia chinensis, and Sturnus cineraceu.

  14. On avian influenza epidemic models with time delay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2015-12-01

    After the outbreak of the first avian influenza A virus (H5N1) in Hong Kong in 1997, another avian influenza A virus (H7N9) crossed the species barrier in mainland China in 2013 and 2014 and caused more than 400 human cases with a death rate of nearly 40%. In this paper, we take account of the incubation periods of avian influenza A virus and construct a bird-to-human transmission model with different time delays in the avian and human populations combining the survival probability of the infective avian and human populations at the latent time. By analyzing the dynamical behavior of the model, we obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate local and global asymptotical stability of equilibria of the system.

  15. North American Plan for Avian and Pandemic Influenza

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Canada, Mexico and the United States face a growing threat posed by the spread of avian influenza and the potential emergence of a human influenza...pandemic. The highly pathogenic (HPAI) H5N1 avian influenza virus, which re-emerged in Asia in late 2003, has already spread to Europe, the Middle East...to work together to combat an outbreak of avian influenza or an influenza pandemic in North America. The Plan complements national emergency

  16. Avian influenza virus and free-ranging wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dierauf, Leslie A.; Karesh, W.B.; Ip, Hon S.; Gilardi, K.V.; Fischer, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds, scientists have amassed a large amount of data on low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during decades of research with wild birds. This knowledge can provide sound guidance to veterinarians, public health professionals, the general public, government agencies, and other entities with concerns about avian influenza.

  17. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  18. Avian and Mammalian Facilitative Glucose Transporters.

    PubMed

    Byers, Mary Shannon; Howard, Christianna; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-04-05

    The GLUT members belong to a family of glucose transporter proteins that facilitate glucose transport across the cell membrane. The mammalian GLUT family consists of thirteen members (GLUTs 1-12 and H⁺-myo-inositol transporter (HMIT)). Humans have a recently duplicated GLUT member, GLUT14. Avians express the majority of GLUT members. The arrangement of multiple GLUTs across all somatic tissues signifies the important role of glucose across all organisms. Defects in glucose transport have been linked to metabolic disorders, insulin resistance and diabetes. Despite the essential importance of these transporters, our knowledge regarding GLUT members in avians is fragmented. It is clear that there are no chicken orthologs of mammalian GLUT4 and GLUT7. Our examination of GLUT members in the chicken revealed that some chicken GLUT members do not have corresponding orthologs in mammals. We review the information regarding GLUT orthologs and their function and expression in mammals and birds, with emphasis on chickens and humans.

  19. Avian Circadian Organization: A Chorus of Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Cassone, Vincent M

    2013-01-01

    In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms are similar to those expressed in mammals, including humans. The central pacemakers in the avian pineal gland, retinae and SCN dynamically interact to maintain stable phase relationships and then influence downstream rhythms through entrainment of peripheral oscillators in the brain controlling behavior and peripheral tissues. Birds represent an excellent model for the role played by biological clocks in human neurobiology; unlike most rodent models, they are diurnal, they exhibit cognitively complex social interactions, and their circadian clocks are more sensitive to the hormone melatonin than are those of nocturnal rodents. PMID:24157655

  20. Avian circadian organization: a chorus of clocks.

    PubMed

    Cassone, Vincent M

    2014-01-01

    In birds, biological clock function pervades all aspects of biology, controlling daily changes in sleep: wake, visual function, song, migratory patterns and orientation, as well as seasonal patterns of reproduction, song and migration. The molecular bases for circadian clocks are highly conserved, and it is likely the avian molecular mechanisms are similar to those expressed in mammals, including humans. The central pacemakers in the avian pineal gland, retinae and SCN dynamically interact to maintain stable phase relationships and then influence downstream rhythms through entrainment of peripheral oscillators in the brain controlling behavior and peripheral tissues. Birds represent an excellent model for the role played by biological clocks in human neurobiology; unlike most rodent models, they are diurnal, they exhibit cognitively complex social interactions, and their circadian clocks are more sensitive to the hormone melatonin than are those of nocturnal rodents.

  1. Avian vocal production beyond low dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2017-02-01

    Birdsong is an active field of research in neuroscience, since songbirds learn their songs through a process similar to that followed by humans during vocal learning. Moreover, many of the vocalizations produced by birds are quite complex. Since the avian vocal organ is nonlinear, it is sensible to explore how much of that complexity is due to the neural instructions controlling the vocal organ, and how much to its nonlinear nature. In this work we first review some of the work carried out in the last years to address this problem, and then we discuss the existence of noisy sound sources in the avian vocal organ. We show that some spectral features of the song produced by the Zebra finch (one of the most widely studied species) can only be explained when vortex sound is taken into account.

  2. Integration and Validation of Avian Radars (IVAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    primarily in ornithological research. Starting in 2000, DoD funded a project to develop inexpensive portable avian radars for natural resources management... Ornithology Lab (CUROL) and deployed at three Navy and one Marine Corps air stations, and one Air Force base. Shortly after the first BirdRad units were...funded by the DoD Legacy Program Office in 2000 to Dr. Sidney Gauthreaux at the Clemson University Radar Ornithology Laboratory. These initial

  3. Avian Radar - Is It Worth the Cost?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    seems like they’re full of angry birds , taking aim at high-ranking officials” (Travers, 2012). On 20 April 2012, the media was plastered with the...and Supply Chain Management iv AFIT/ILS/ENS/12-03 Abstract Major Ehasz explored the correlations between bird ...Business Case Analysis (BCA) to help guide future potential purchases of Avian Radar. He defined the scope of the bird strike problem, explained the

  4. Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation. PMID:19789646

  5. The avian egg and the retina

    PubMed Central

    MALCOLM, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for study of blood flow has been derived from the avian egg, utilizing the theories of crystallography and photosynthesis. The model is employed to explain the form of the eye and the function of the cells of the human retina, with special reference to colour vision and the pathology of migraine. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4736600

  6. Avian influenza in birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng; Sandrock, Christian E; Davis, Cristina E

    2009-07-01

    The disease syndromes caused by avian influenza viruses are highly variable depending on the host species infected, its susceptibility and response to infection and the virulence of the infecting viral strain. Although avian influenza viruses have a broad host range in general, it is rare for an individual strain or subtype to infect more than one species. The H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) lineages of viruses that descended from A/goose/Guandong/96 (H5N1 HPAIV) are unusual in the diversity of species they have infected worldwide. Although the species affected by H5N1 HPAI in the field and those that have been experimentally studied are diverse, their associated disease syndromes are remarkably similar across species. In some species, multi-organ failure and death are rapid and no signs of the disease are observed. Most prominently in this category are chickens and other avian species of the order Galliformes. In other species, neurologic signs develop resulting in the death of the host. This is what has been reported in domestic cats (Carnivora), geese (Anseriformes), ratites (Struthioniformes), pigeons inoculated with high doses (Columbiformes) and ducks infected with H5N1 HPAIV isolated since 2002 (Anseriformes). In some other species, the disease is more prolonged and although multi-organ failure and death are the eventual outcomes, the signs of disease are more extensive. Predominantly, these species include humans (Primates) and the laboratory models of human disease, the ferret (Carnivora), mouse (Rodentia) and cynamologous macaques (Primates). Finally, some species are more resistant to infection with H5N1 HPAIV and show few or no signs of disease. These species include pigeons in some studies (Columbiformes), ducks inoculated with pre-2002 isolates (Anseriformes), and pigs (Artiodactyla).

  7. Overview of avian influenza DIVA test strategies.

    PubMed

    Suarez, David L

    2005-12-01

    The use of vaccination in poultry to control avian influenza has been increasing in recent years. Vaccination has been primarily with killed whole virus-adjuvanted vaccines. Proper vaccination can reduce or prevent clinical signs, reduce virus shedding in infected birds, and increase the resistance to infection. Historically, one limitation of the killed vaccines is that vaccinated birds cannot be differentiated serologically from naturally infected birds using the commonly available diagnostic tests. Therefore, surveillance for avian influenza becomes much more difficult and often results in trade restrictions because of the inability to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Several different DIVA strategies have been proposed for avian influenza to overcome this limitation. The most common is the use of unvaccinated sentinels. A second approach is the use of subunit vaccines targeted to the hemagglutinin protein that allows serologic surveillance to the internal proteins. A third strategy is to vaccinate with a homologous hemagglutinin to the circulating field strain, but a heterologous neuraminidase subtype. Serologic surveillance can then be performed for the homologous NA subtype as evidence of natural infection. The fourth strategy is to measure the serologic response to the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). The NS1 protein is produced in large quantities in infected cells, but it is not packaged in the virion. Since killed vaccines for influenza are primarily made with whole virions, a differential antibody response can be seen between naturally infected and vaccinated animals. However, poultry vaccines are not highly purified, and they contain small amounts of the NS1 protein. Although vaccinated chickens will produce low levels of antibody to the NS1 protein, virus infected chickens will produce higher levels of NS1 antibody, and the two groups can be differentiated. All four DIVA strategies have advantages and disadvantages, and further

  8. Avian influenza viruses and avian paramyxoviruses in wintering and breeding waterfowl populations in North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Goekjian, Virginia H; Smith, Jennifer T; Howell, Doug L; Senne, Dennis A; Swayne, David E; Stallknecht, David E

    2011-01-01

    Although wild ducks are recognized reservoirs for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs), information related to the prevalence of these viruses in breeding and migratory duck populations on North American wintering grounds is limited. Wintering (n=2,889) and resident breeding (n=524) ducks were sampled in North Carolina during winter 2004-2006 and summer 2005-2006, respectively. Overall prevalence of AIV was 0.8% and restricted to the winter sample; however, prevalence in species within the genus Anas was 1.3% and was highest in Black Ducks (7%; Anas rubripes) and Northern Shovelers (8%; Anas clypeata). Of the 24 AIVs, 16 subtypes were detected, representing nine hemagglutinin and seven neuraminidase subtypes. Avian paramyxoviruses detected in wintering birds included 18 APMV-1s, 15 APMV-4s, and one APMV-6. During summers 2005 and 2006, a high prevalence of APMV-1 infection was observed in resident breeding Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

  9. Cognitive ornithology: the evolution of avian intelligence.

    PubMed

    Emery, Nathan J

    2006-01-29

    Comparative psychologists interested in the evolution of intelligence have focused their attention on social primates, whereas birds tend to be used as models of associative learning. However, corvids and parrots, which have forebrains relatively the same size as apes, live in complex social groups and have a long developmental period before becoming independent, have demonstrated ape-like intelligence. Although, ornithologists have documented thousands of hours observing birds in their natural habitat, they have focused their attention on avian behaviour and ecology, rather than intelligence. This review discusses recent studies of avian cognition contrasting two different approaches; the anthropocentric approach and the adaptive specialization approach. It is argued that the most productive method is to combine the two approaches. This is discussed with respects to recent investigations of two supposedly unique aspects of human cognition; episodic memory and theory of mind. In reviewing the evidence for avian intelligence, corvids and parrots appear to be cognitively superior to other birds and in many cases even apes. This suggests that complex cognition has evolved in species with very different brains through a process of convergent evolution rather than shared ancestry, although the notion that birds and mammals may share common neural connectivity patterns is discussed.

  10. Cognitive ornithology: the evolution of avian intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Nathan J

    2005-01-01

    Comparative psychologists interested in the evolution of intelligence have focused their attention on social primates, whereas birds tend to be used as models of associative learning. However, corvids and parrots, which have forebrains relatively the same size as apes, live in complex social groups and have a long developmental period before becoming independent, have demonstrated ape-like intelligence. Although, ornithologists have documented thousands of hours observing birds in their natural habitat, they have focused their attention on avian behaviour and ecology, rather than intelligence. This review discusses recent studies of avian cognition contrasting two different approaches; the anthropocentric approach and the adaptive specialization approach. It is argued that the most productive method is to combine the two approaches. This is discussed with respects to recent investigations of two supposedly unique aspects of human cognition; episodic memory and theory of mind. In reviewing the evidence for avian intelligence, corvids and parrots appear to be cognitively superior to other birds and in many cases even apes. This suggests that complex cognition has evolved in species with very different brains through a process of convergent evolution rather than shared ancestry, although the notion that birds and mammals may share common neural connectivity patterns is discussed. PMID:16553307

  11. Avian Interferons and Their Antiviral Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Santhakumar, Diwakar; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of IFNs have been genetically characterized in most avian species with available annotated genomes. Intriguingly, chickens are capable of mounting potent innate immune responses upon various stimuli in the absence of essential components of IFN pathways including retinoic acid-inducible gene I, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and possibility IRF9. Understanding these unique properties of the chicken IFN system would propose valuable targets for the development of potential therapeutics for a broader range of viruses of both veterinary and zoonotic importance. This review outlines recent developments in the roles of avian IFNs and ISGs against viruses and highlights important areas of research toward our understanding of the antiviral functions of IFN effectors against viral infections in birds. PMID:28197148

  12. Global phylogeographic limits of Hawaii's avian malaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadell, J.S.; Ishtiaq, F.; Covas, R.; Melo, M.; Warren, B.H.; Atkinson, C.T.; Bensch, S.; Graves, G.R.; Jhala, Y.V.; Peirce, M.A.; Rahmani, A.R.; Fonseca, D.M.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) to Hawaii has provided a model system for studying the influence of exotic disease on naive host populations. Little is known, however, about the origin or the genetic variation of Hawaii's malaria and traditional classification methods have confounded attempts to place the parasite within a global ecological and evolutionary context. Using fragments of the parasite mitochondrial gene cytochrome b and the nuclear gene dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase obtained from a global survey of greater than 13 000 avian samples, we show that Hawaii's avian malaria, which can cause high mortality and is a major limiting factor for many species of native passerines, represents just one of the numerous lineages composing the morphological parasite species. The single parasite lineage detected in Hawaii exhibits a broad host distribution worldwide and is dominant on several other remote oceanic islands, including Bermuda and Moorea, French Polynesia. The rarity of this lineage in the continental New World and the restriction of closely related lineages to the Old World suggest limitations to the transmission of reproductively isolated parasite groups within the morphological species. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  13. Tracing the evolution of avian wing digits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Mackem, Susan

    2013-06-17

    It is widely accepted that birds are a subgroup of dinosaurs, but there is an apparent conflict: modern birds have been thought to possess only the middle three fingers (digits II-III-IV) of an idealized five-digit tetrapod hand based on embryological data, but their Mesozoic tetanuran dinosaur ancestors are considered to have the first three digits (I-II-III) based on fossil evidence. How could such an evolutionary quirk arise? Various hypotheses have been proposed to resolve this paradox. Adding to the confusion, some recent developmental studies support a I-II-III designation for avian wing digits whereas some recent paleontological data are consistent with a II-III-IV identification of the Mesozoic tetanuran digits. A comprehensive analysis of both paleontological and developmental data suggests that the evolution of the avian wing digits may have been driven by homeotic transformations of digit identity, which are more likely to have occurred in a partial and piecemeal manner. Additionally, recent genetic studies in mouse models showing plausible mechanisms for central digit loss invite consideration of new alternative possibilities (I-II-IV or I-III-IV) for the homologies of avian wing digits. While much progress has been made, some advances point to the complexity of the problem and a final resolution to this ongoing debate demands additional work from both paleontological and developmental perspectives, which will surely yield new insights on mechanisms of evolutionary adaptation.

  14. Avian Interferons and Their Antiviral Effectors.

    PubMed

    Santhakumar, Diwakar; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of IFNs have been genetically characterized in most avian species with available annotated genomes. Intriguingly, chickens are capable of mounting potent innate immune responses upon various stimuli in the absence of essential components of IFN pathways including retinoic acid-inducible gene I, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and possibility IRF9. Understanding these unique properties of the chicken IFN system would propose valuable targets for the development of potential therapeutics for a broader range of viruses of both veterinary and zoonotic importance. This review outlines recent developments in the roles of avian IFNs and ISGs against viruses and highlights important areas of research toward our understanding of the antiviral functions of IFN effectors against viral infections in birds.

  15. Aquaporins in avian kidneys: function and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hiroko; Yang, Yimu

    2013-12-01

    For terrestrial vertebrates, water economy is a prerequisite for survival, and the kidney is their major osmoregulatory organ. Birds are the only vertebrates other than mammals that can concentrate urine in adaptation to terrestrial environments. Aquaporin (AQP) and glyceroporin (GLP) are phylogenetically old molecules and have been found in plants, microbial organisms, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Currently, 13 AQPs/aquaGLPs and isoforms are known to be present in mammals. AQPs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 11 are expressed in the kidney; of these, AQPs 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 are shown to be involved in fluid homeostasis. In avian kidneys, AQPs 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been identified and characterized. Also, gene and/or amino acid sequences of AQP5, AQP7, AQP8, AQP9, AQP11, and AQP12 have been reported in birds. AQPs 2 and 3 are expressed along cortical and medullary collecting ducts (CDs) and are responsible, respectively, for the water inflow and outflow of CD epithelial cells. While AQP4 plays an important role in water exit in the CD of mammalian kidneys, it is unlikely to participate in water outflow in avian CDs. This review summarizes current knowledge on structure and function of avian AQPs and compares them to those in mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates. Also, we aim to provide input into, and perspectives on, the role of renal AQPs in body water homeostasis during ontogenic and phylogenetic advancement.

  16. Reconciling the structural attributes of avian antibodies.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Paul J; Law, Ruby H P; Gilgunn, Sarah; Hearty, Stephen; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T; Lloyd, Gordon; O'Kennedy, Richard J; Whisstock, James C

    2014-05-30

    Antibodies are high value therapeutic, diagnostic, biotechnological, and research tools. Combinatorial approaches to antibody discovery have facilitated access to unique antibodies by surpassing the diversity limitations of the natural repertoire, exploitation of immune repertoires from multiple species, and tailoring selections to isolate antibodies with desirable biophysical attributes. The V-gene repertoire of the chicken does not utilize highly diverse sequence and structures, which is in stark contrast to the mechanism employed by humans, mice, and primates. Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has generated high quality, high affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic, diagnostic and biotechnological applications. Furthermore, extensive examination of the amino acid characteristics of the chicken repertoire has provided significant insight into mechanisms employed by the avian immune system. A paucity of avian antibody crystal structures has limited our understanding of the structural consequences of these uniquely chicken features. This paper presents the crystal structure of two chicken single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies generated from large libraries by phage display against important human antigen targets, which capture two unique CDRL1 canonical classes in the presence and absence of a non-canonical disulfide constrained CDRH3. These structures cast light on the unique structural features of chicken antibodies and contribute further to our collective understanding of the unique mechanisms of diversity and biochemical attributes that render the chicken repertoire of particular value for antibody generation.

  17. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

    PubMed

    Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Mor, Sunil K; Sobhy, Nader M; Xing, Zheng; Reed, Kent M; Goyal, Sagar M; Porter, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV) were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain). Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi). Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ) at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  18. The protective immunity against grass carp reovirus in grass carp induced by a DNA vaccination using single-walled carbon nanotubes as delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Liu, Guang-Lu; Li, Dong-Liang; Ling, Fei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-12-01

    To reduce the lethal hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and improve the production of grass carp, efficient and economic prophylactic measure against GCRV is the most pressing desired for the grass carp farming industry. In this work, a novel SWCNTs-pEGFP-vp5 DNA vaccine linked vp5 recombinant in the form of plasmid pEGFP-vp5 and ammonium-functionalized SWCNTs by a chemical modification method was prepared to enhance the efficacy of a vp5 DNA vaccine against GCRV in juvenile grass carp. After intramuscular injection (1, 2.5 and 5 μg) and bath administration (1, 10, and 20 mg/L), the ability of the different immune treatments to induce transgene expression was analyzed. The results showed that higher levels of transcription and expression of vp5 gene could be detected in muscle tissues of grass carp in SWCNTs-pEGFP-vp5 treatment groups compare with naked pEGFP-vp5 treatment groups. Moreover, antibody levels, immune-related genes, and relative percentage survival were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with SWCNTs-pEGFP-vp5 vaccine. In addition, we found that a good immune protective effect was observed in bath immunization group; which at a concentration of 20 mg/L could reach the similar relative percentage survival (approximately 100%) in injection group at a dose of 5 μg. All these results indicated that ammonium-functionalized SWCNTs could provide extensive application prospect to aquatic vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by intramuscular injection or bath administration method.

  19. Helix-Destabilizing, β-Branched, and Polar Residues in the Baboon Reovirus p15 Transmembrane Domain Influence the Modularity of FAST Proteins ▿

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Eileen K.; Duncan, Roy

    2011-01-01

    The fusogenic reoviruses induce syncytium formation using the fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins. A recent study indicated the p14 FAST protein transmembrane domain (TMD) can be functionally replaced by the TMDs of the other FAST proteins but not by heterologous TMDs, suggesting that the FAST protein TMDs are modular fusion units. We now show that the p15 FAST protein is also a modular fusogen, as indicated by the functional replacement of the p15 ectodomain with the corresponding domain from the p14 FAST protein. Paradoxically, the p15 TMD is not interchangeable with the TMDs of the other FAST proteins, implying that unique attributes of the p15 TMD are required when this fusion module is functioning in the context of the p15 ecto- and/or endodomain. A series of point substitutions, truncations, and reextensions were created in the p15 TMD to define features that are specific to the functioning of the p15 TMD. Removal of only one or two residues from the N terminus or four residues from the C terminus of the p15 TMD eliminated membrane fusion activity, and there was a direct correlation between the fusion-promoting function of the p15 TMD and the presence of N-terminal, hydrophobic β-branched residues. Substitution of the glycine residues and triserine motif present in the p15 TMD also impaired or eliminated the fusion-promoting activity of the p15 TMD. The ability of the p15 TMD to function in an ecto- and endodomain-specific context is therefore influenced by stringent sequence requirements that reflect the importance of TMD polar residues and helix-destabilizing residues. PMID:21367887

  20. Channel catfish reovirus (CRV) inhibits replication of channel catfish herpesvirus (CCV) by two distinct mechanisms: viral interference and induction of an anti-viral factor.

    PubMed

    Chinchar, V G; Logue, O; Antao, A; Chinchar, G D

    1998-06-19

    Catfish reovirus (CRV), a double stranded RNA virus, inhibited channel catfish herpes-virus (CCV) replication by 2 different mechanisms: (1) directly as a consequence of its own replication, and (2) indirectly due to the induction of an anti-viral factor. In the former, prior infection with CRV significantly reduced subsequent CCV protein synthesis and virus yield. CRV mediated-interference was greatest when CRV infection preceded CCV infection by 16 h, and was least when cell cultures were simultaneously infected with both viruses. in the latter case, the infection of channel catfish ovary (CCO) cultures with UV-inactivated CRV resulted in the synthesis (or release) of an anti-viral factor. Cells producing the factor were protected from CCV infection, as were cells which had been treated with spent culture medium containing anti-viral activity. Interestingly an anti-viral activity was constitutively present in long-term cultures of catfish T-cells and macrophages. Whether this factor and the one induced by UV-inactivated CRV are identical is not known, but analogy to mammalian systems suggests that the former may be similar to type II interferon, whereas the latter may be the piscine equivalent of type I interferon. These results suggest that UV-inactivated CRV may prove useful in the induction and characterization of interferon-like anti-viral proteins in the channel catfish and that long-term cultures of catfish T-cells and monocytes may serve as a ready source of additional anti-viral factors.

  1. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives  The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods  We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results  Most ruddy turnstones had pre‐existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A‐specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions  These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts. PMID:22498031

  2. Avian influenza virus infections in humans.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson S Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2006-01-01

    Seroepidemiologic and virologic studies since 1889 suggested that human influenza pandemics were caused by H1, H2, and H3 subtypes of influenza A viruses. If not for the 1997 avian A/H5N1 outbreak in Hong Kong of China, subtype H2 is the likely candidate for the next pandemic. However, unlike previous poultry outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza due to H5 that were controlled by depopulation with or without vaccination, the presently circulating A/H5N1 genotype Z virus has since been spreading from Southern China to other parts of the world. Migratory birds and, less likely, bird trafficking are believed to be globalizing the avian influenza A/H5N1 epidemic in poultry. More than 200 human cases of avian influenza virus infection due to A/H5, A/H7, and A/H9 subtypes mainly as a result of poultry-to-human transmission have been reported with a > 50% case fatality rate for A/H5N1 infections. A mutant or reassortant virus capable of efficient human-to-human transmission could trigger another influenza pandemic. The recent isolation of this virus in extrapulmonary sites of human diseases suggests that the high fatality of this infection may be more than just the result of a cytokine storm triggered by the pulmonary disease. The emergence of resistance to adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) and recently oseltamivir while H5N1 vaccines are still at the developmental stage of phase I clinical trial are causes for grave concern. Moreover, the to-be pandemic strain may have little cross immunogenicity to the presently tested vaccine strain. The relative importance and usefulness of airborne, droplet, or contact precautions in infection control are still uncertain. Laboratory-acquired avian influenza H7N7 has been reported, and the laboratory strains of human influenza H2N2 could also be the cause of another pandemic. The control of this impending disaster requires more research in addition to national and international preparedness at various levels. The

  3. Avian research in the U.S. Forest Service

    Treesearch

    Beatrice Van Horne

    2005-01-01

    Avian research in the Federal Government is in a crisis. Yes, there is a strong interest in avian research, as evidenced by the size and level of interest in this conference. But political parties increasingly see wildlife research as expendable. At the same time, the reaction to environment-friendly legislation of the 1970s and 1980s has been strong from both sides....

  4. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A sim...

  5. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...

  6. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids from embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed...

  7. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids from embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed...

  8. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  9. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids from embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed...

  10. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  11. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids from embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed...

  12. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  13. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  14. 9 CFR 113.325 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.325 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids from embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed...

  15. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  16. Surveillance of avian coronaviruses in wild bird populations of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-10-01

    We examined the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of avian coronaviruses by studying oropharyngeal swabs from 32 wild bird species. The 14 avian coronaviruses detected belonged to the gamma-coronaviruses and shared high nucleotide sequence identity with some previously identified strains in wild waterfowl, but not with infectious bronchitis viruses.

  17. Avian cholera and organochlorine residues in an American oystercatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Locke, L.N.; Cromartie, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera, was isolated from cultures of the liver and heart blood of a female, adult American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) found dead on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, in May 1973. This is apparently the first record of avian cholera in the oystercatcher. Low levels of DDE were identified in tissues of the oystercatcher.

  18. Migratory bird avian influenza sampling; Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.

    2016-01-01

    Data set containing avian influenza sampling information for spring and summer waterbirds on the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta, 2015. Data contains sample ID, species common name, age and sex, collection data and location, and laboratory specific data used to identify presence and absence of avian influenza viruses.

  19. Avian nestling predation by endangered Mount Graham red squirrel

    Treesearch

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; John L. Koprowski

    2007-01-01

    Studies using artificial nests or remote cameras have documented avian predation by red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Although several direct observations of avian predation events are known in the northern range of the red squirrel distribution, no accounts have been reported in the southern portion. We observed predation upon a hermit thrush...

  20. Avian community composition of kopjes in a heterogeneous landscape.

    PubMed

    Trager, Matthew; Mistry, Shahroukh

    2003-05-01

    We examined avian communities of kopjes (naturally occurring insular rock outcrops) in grassland and thorn tree woodland habitats in the Seronera region of Serengeti National Park, northwestern Tanzania. Although kopjes cover a small proportion of the Park's area, they provide resources that are uncommon in the Serengeti landscape and are known to host diverse, yet poorly documented, biotic communities. The primary objectives of this study were (1) to compare avian communities of kopjes with those of their surrounding habitat matrixes; (2) to compare the avian communities among kopjes; and (3) to determine the effects of kopje characteristics (e.g., size, vegetation cover, level of human disturbance and matrix type) on avian diversity and community composition. The avian communities of kopjes differed significantly from those of the matrixes in species composition and guild characteristics. Rare species, frugivorous species and nectarivorous species were more abundant on kopjes, whereas there were more ground-feeding species in matrix sites. Species richness was positively correlated with the area of kopjes covered by tall vegetation (5+ m), but neither total habitat area nor total vegetation cover significantly affected avian diversity. The surrounding habitat type, the fruiting phenology of Ficus and Commiphora trees and the level of human disturbance also influenced the presence and abundance of individual species and accounted for differences in community composition among kopjes. Our results show that kopjes support unique avian assemblages comprising many species that are otherwise rare in Serengeti, and consequently that kopjes may be local hotspots of avian diversity in the region.

  1. Putative novel genotype of avian hepatitis E virus, Hungary, 2010.

    PubMed

    Bányai, Krisztián; Tóth, Ádám György; Ivanics, Éva; Glávits, Róbert; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Dán, Ádám

    2012-08-01

    To explore the genetic diversity of avian hepatitis E virus strains, we characterized the near-complete genome of a strain detected in 2010 in Hungary, uncovering moderate genome sequence similarity with reference strains. Public health implications related to consumption of eggs or meat contaminated by avian hepatitis E virus, or to poultry handling, require thorough investigation.

  2. Avian influenza in Indonesia: Observations of disease detection in poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, also known as highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (HPNAI), has spread throughout Indonesia since 2003. As of June 2007 there have been a total of 100 documented human cases in Indonesia, 80 of which have been fatal. Although efforts have be...

  3. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa1

    PubMed Central

    Dodman, Tim; Caron, Alexandre; Balança, Gilles; Desvaux, Stephanie; Goutard, Flavie; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lamarque, François; Hagemeijer, Ward; Monicat, François

    2007-01-01

    We report the first large-scale surveillance of avian influenza viruses in water birds conducted in Africa. This study shows evidence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds, both Eurasian and Afro-tropical species, in several major wetlands of Africa. PMID:17553284

  4. Experimental vaccinations for avian influenza virus including DIVA approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease of poultry that remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Strategies to control avian influenza (AI) virus are developed to prevent, manage or eradicate the virus from the country, re...

  5. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin-19

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of avian interleukin (IL)-19, a cytokine that, in mammals, alters the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells in favor of the Th2 phenotype. The full-length avian IL-19 gene, located on chromosome 26, was amplified from LPS-stimulated chi...

  6. HIV-1 Gag p17 presented as virus-like particles on the E2 scaffold from Geobacillus stearothermophilus induces sustained humoral and cellular immune responses in the absence of IFN{gamma} production by CD4+ T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Caivano, Antonella; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Buelow, Benjamin; Sartorius, Rossella; Trovato, Maria; D'Apice, Luciana; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Sutton, William F.; Haigwood, Nancy L.; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2010-11-25

    We have constructed stable virus-like particles displaying the HIV-1 Gag(p17) protein as an N-terminal fusion with an engineered protein domain from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E2. Mice immunized with the Gag(p17)-E2 60-mer scaffold particles mounted a strong and sustained antibody response. Antibodies directed to Gag(p17) were boosted significantly with additional immunizations, while anti-E2 responses reached a plateau. The isotype of the induced antibodies was biased towards IgG1, and the E2-primed CD4+ T cells did not secrete IFN{gamma}. Using transgenic mouse model systems, we demonstrated that CD8+ T cells primed with E2 particles were able to exert lytic activity and produce IFN{gamma}. These results show that the E2 scaffold represents a powerful vaccine delivery system for whole antigenic proteins or polyepitope engineered proteins, evoking antibody production and antigen specific CTL activity even in the absence of IFN{gamma}-producing CD4+ T cells.

  7. HIV-1 Gag p17 presented as virus-like particles on the E2 scaffold from Geobacillus stearothermophilus induces sustained humoral and cellular immune responses in the absence of IFNγ production by CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Caivano, Antonella; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Buelow, Benjamin; Sartorius, Rossella; Trovato, Maria; D’Apice, Luciana; Domingo, Gonzalo J.; Sutton, William F.; Haigwood, Nancy L.; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed stable virus-like particles displaying the HIV-1 Gag(p17) protein as an N-terminal fusion with an engineered protein domain from the Geobacillus stearothermophilus pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit E2. Mice immunized with the Gag(p17)-E2 60-mer scaffold particles mounted a strong and sustained antibody response. Antibodies directed to Gag(p17) were boosted significantly with additional immunizations, while anti-E2 responses reached a plateau. The isotype of the induced antibodies was biased towards IgG1, and the E2-primed CD4+ T cells did not secrete IFNγ. Using transgenic mouse model systems, we demonstrated that CD8+ T cells primed with E2 particles were able to exert lytic activity and produce IFNγ. These results show that the E2 scaffold represents a powerful vaccine delivery system for whole antigenic proteins or polyepitope engineered proteins, evoking antibody production and antigen specific CTL activity even in the absence of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells. PMID:20850858

  8. Comparative susceptibility of avian species to low pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H13 subtype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gulls are widely recognized reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses; however, the subtypes maintained in these populations and/or the transmission mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Although, a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from gulls, two hemag...

  9. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  10. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an on going threat to the U.S. poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection. Because the early events of AIV infection can occur on tracheal ep...

  11. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian invluenza virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an ongoing threat to the world poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection at mucosal respiratory sites. Chicken and duck tracheal epithelial ...

  12. Proceedings: Avian Interactions with Utility Structures. International Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The first international workshop on Avian Interactions with Utility Structures featured an exchange of information on the impact of utility structures on avian populations. EPRI cosponsored the workshop with the Avian Power Line Interaction Committee (APLIC), formed in 1988 and designed to share data and experience regarding avian interactions with utility structures. The workshop -- held September 13--16, 1992 in Miami-welcomed engineers, scientists, academic researchers, and representatives from conservation and special interest groups. Attendees from 10 countries presented 28 papers that provide a basis for understanding and establishing new research directions to reduce bird mortality due to collisions and electrocutions. Papers highlighted advances in technology and analysis tools, the geographic extent of the problem, and regulatory needs of utilities and other interested parties involved in preventing and mitigating avian/power line interaction problems.

  13. Origin of the European avian-like swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, Andi; Lange, Jeannette; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Groth, Marco; Platzer, Matthias; Kanrai, Pumaree; Pleschka, Stephan; Scholtissek, Christoph; Büttner, Mathias; Dürrwald, Ralf; Zell, Roland

    2014-11-01

    The avian-like swine influenza viruses emerged in 1979 in Belgium and Germany. Thereafter, they spread through many European swine-producing countries, replaced the circulating classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses, and became endemic. Serological and subsequent molecular data indicated an avian source, but details remained obscure due to a lack of relevant avian influenza virus sequence data. Here, the origin of the European avian-like swine influenza viruses was analysed using a collection of 16 European swine H1N1 influenza viruses sampled in 1979-1981 in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and France, as well as several contemporaneous avian influenza viruses of various serotypes. The phylogenetic trees suggested a triple reassortant with a unique genotype constellation. Time-resolved maximum clade credibility trees indicated times to the most recent common ancestors of 34-46 years (before 2008) depending on the RNA segment and the method of tree inference. © 2014 The Authors.

  14. Avian mycobacteriosis in companion birds: 20-year survey.

    PubMed

    Manarolla, Giovanni; Liandris, Emmanouil; Pisoni, Giuliano; Sassera, Davide; Grilli, Guido; Gallazzi, Daniele; Sironi, Giuseppe; Moroni, Paolo; Piccinini, Renata; Rampin, Tiziana

    2009-02-02

    The causative agents of avian mycobacteriosis in pet birds are rarely identified. The aim of this study is to add information about the etiology of avian mycobacteriosis. The identification of mycobacterium species in 27 cases of avian mycobacteriosis in pet birds was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of a rRNA hypervariable region. Avian mycobacteriosis appeared to be an infrequent diagnosis. Interestingly, a few cases of avian mycobacteriosis were recorded in very young birds. The most commonly affected species were the canary (Serinus canarius), the Eurasian goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) and the red siskin (Spinus cucullatus). All but one bird were infected with Mycobacterium genavense. Mycobacterium avium was identified only in one case.

  15. New USDA licensed avian influenza vaccine (rHVT-AI) for protection against H5 avian influenza and usage discussion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, a new avian influenza vaccine was licensed by USDA for use in the United States for protection of commercial poultry. The vaccine is a recombinant herpes virus of turkeys expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an H5 subtype avian influenza virus belonging to the 2.2 clade of the H5N1 highly ...

  16. Genetic characterization, distribution and prevalence of avian pox and avian malaria in the Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii) in Macaronesia.

    PubMed

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Emerson, Brent C; Richardson, David S

    2008-11-01

    Exotic pathogens have been implicated in the decline and extinction of various native-island-bird species. Despite the fact that there is increasing concern about the introduction of diseases in island ecosystems, little is known about parasites in the islands of Macaronesia. We focus on Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii), an endemic and widespread Macaronesian bird species, using a combination of field studies and molecular techniques to determine: (1) the range and prevalence of avian pox and malaria in Berthelot's pipits throughout the species' distribution, (2) the genetic characterization of both parasites in order to ascertain the level of host specificity. We sampled 447 pipits across the 12 islands inhabited by this species. Overall, 8% of all individuals showed evidence of pox lesions and 16% were infected with avian malaria, respectively. We observed marked differences in the prevalence of parasites among islands both within and between archipelagos. Avian pox prevalence varied between 0-54% within and between archipelagos and avian malaria prevalence varied between 0-64% within and between archipelagos. The diversity of pathogens detected was low: only two genetic lineages of avian malaria and one lineage of avian pox were found to infect the pipit throughout its range. Interestingly, both avian malaria parasites found were Plasmodium spp. that had not been previously reported in the Macaronesian avifauna (but that had been observed in the lesser kestrel Falco naumannii), while the avian pox was a host specific lineage that had previously been reported on two of the Canary Islands.

  17. The Avian Transcriptome Response to Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K.; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to measure the avian transcriptome in blood collected before infection (day 0), during peak parasitemia (day 21 postinfection), and when parasitemia was decreasing (day 31). We found considerable differences in the transcriptomes of infected and uninfected individuals, with a large number of genes differentially expressed during both peak and decreasing parasitemia stages. These genes were overrepresented among functions involved in the immune system, stress response, cell death regulation, metabolism, and telomerase activity. Comparative analyses of the differentially expressed genes in our study to those found in other hosts of malaria (human and mouse) revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in highly conserved evolutionary responses to malaria infection. By using RNA-sequencing we gained a more complete view of the host response, and were able to pinpoint not only well-documented host genes but also unannotated genes with clear significance during infection, such as microRNAs. This study shows how the avian blood transcriptome shifts in response to malaria infection, and we believe that it will facilitate further research into the diversity of molecular mechanisms that hosts utilize to fight malaria infections. PMID:25636457

  18. The avian transcriptome response to malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Videvall, Elin; Cornwallis, Charlie K; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Hellgren, Olof

    2015-05-01

    Malaria parasites are highly virulent pathogens which infect a wide range of vertebrates. Despite their importance, the way different hosts control and suppress malaria infections remains poorly understood. With recent developments in next-generation sequencing techniques, however, it is now possible to quantify the response of the entire transcriptome to infections. We experimentally infected Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus) with avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium ashfordi), and used high-throughput RNA-sequencing to measure the avian transcriptome in blood collected before infection (day 0), during peak parasitemia (day 21 postinfection), and when parasitemia was decreasing (day 31). We found considerable differences in the transcriptomes of infected and uninfected individuals, with a large number of genes differentially expressed during both peak and decreasing parasitemia stages. These genes were overrepresented among functions involved in the immune system, stress response, cell death regulation, metabolism, and telomerase activity. Comparative analyses of the differentially expressed genes in our study to those found in other hosts of malaria (human and mouse) revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in highly conserved evolutionary responses to malaria infection. By using RNA-sequencing we gained a more complete view of the host response, and were able to pinpoint not only well-documented host genes but also unannotated genes with clear significance during infection, such as microRNAs. This study shows how the avian blood transcriptome shifts in response to malaria infection, and we believe that it will facilitate further research into the diversity of molecular mechanisms that hosts utilize to fight malaria infections.

  19. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  20. USGS highly pathogenic avian influenza research strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, M. Camille; Miles, A. Keith; Pearce, John M.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-09-09

    Avian influenza viruses are naturally occurring in wild birds such as ducks, geese, swans, and gulls. These viruses generally do not cause illness in wild birds, however, when spread to poultry they can be highly pathogenic and cause illness and death in backyard and commercial farms. Outbreaks may cause devastating agricultural economic losses and some viral strains have the potential to infect people directly. Furthermore, the combination of avian influenza viruses with mammalian viruses can result in strains with the ability to transmit from person to person, possibly leading to viruses with pandemic potential. All known pandemic influenza viruses have had some genetic material of avian origin. Since 1996, a strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, H5N1, has caused infection in wild birds, losses to poultry farms in Eurasia and North Africa, and led to the deaths of several hundred people. Spread of the H5N1 virus and other influenza strains from China was likely facilitated by migratory birds. In December 2014, HPAI was detected in poultry in Canada and migratory birds in the United States. Since then, HPAI viruses have spread to large parts of the United States and will likely continue to spread through migratory bird flyways and other mechanisms throughout North America. In the United States, HPAI viruses have severely affected the poultry industry with millions of domestic birds dead or culled. These strains of HPAI are not known to cause disease in humans; however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise caution when in close contact with infected birds. Experts agree that HPAI strains currently circulating in wild birds of North America will likely persist for the next few years. This unprecedented situation presents risks to the poultry industry, natural resource management, and potentially human health. Scientific knowledge and decision support tools are urgently needed to understand factors affecting the persistence

  1. Avian pox in birds from Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Tikasingh, E S; Worth, C B; Spence, L; Aitken, T H

    1982-04-01

    Over a 7-year period in Trinidad, 9,514 birds were examined for avian pox and four species were found infected: the golden-headed manakin, Pipra erythrocephala (7% infected), the white-bearded manakin, Manacus manacus (5%), the violaceous euphonia Euphonia violacea (1%), and the bare-eyed thrush, Turdus nudigenis (less than 1%). The elaborate courtship displays of manakins may have a bearing on a "common source" type of infection. The apparently abrupt appearance of the disease at three localities in Trinidad in 1964 perhaps indicates introduction of the virus by migratory birds.

  2. Avian genetics: A field and ecological approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, F.; Buckley, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors wanted to present the ecological/population approach they used in their own research, and a compendium of carefully referred chapters written by invited experts was essential. The book follows the historical evolution of work in avian genetics, proceeding from a discussion of Mendelian (i.e. classical) genes through quantitative genetics, chromosomal genetics, biochemical genetics, to extensive treatment of population genetics, and concluding with some examples of long-term studies. In this book concentration has been more on intra- than on inter-specific variation; in that sense the approach has been more genetic than evolutionary or taxonomic.

  3. Seroprevalence of avian hepatitis E virus and avian leucosis virus subgroup J in chicken flocks with hepatitis syndrome, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Liu, Baoyuan; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Chen, Yiyang; Li, Huixia; Wang, Xinjie; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2016-11-22

    From 2014 to 2015 in China, many broiler breeder and layer hen flocks exhibited a decrease in egg production and some chickens developed hepatitis syndrome including hepatomegaly, hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage. Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) both cause decreasing in egg production, hepatomegaly and hepatic hemorrhage in broiler breeder and layer hens. In the study, the seroprevalence of avian HEV and ALV-J in these flocks emerging the disease from Shandong and Shaanxi provinces were investigated. A total of 1995 serum samples were collected from 14 flocks with hepatitis syndrome in Shandong and Shaanxi provinces, China. Antibodies against avian HEV and ALV-J in these serum samples were detected using iELISAs. The seroprevalence of anti-avian HEV antibodies (35.09%) was significantly higher than that of anti-ALV-J antibodies (2.16%) (p = 0.00). Moreover, the 43 serum samples positive for anti-ALV-J antibodies were all also positive for anti-avian HEV antibodies. In a comparison of both provinces, Shandong chickens exhibited a significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-avian HEV antibodies (42.16%) than Shaanxi chickens (26%) (p = 0.00). In addition, the detection of avian HEV RNA and ALV-J cDNA in the liver samples from the flocks of two provinces also showed the same results of the seroprevalence. In the present study, the results showed that avian HEV infection is widely prevalent and ALV-J infection is endemic in the flocks with hepatitis syndrome from Shandong and Shaanxi provinces of China. These results suggested that avian HEV infection may be the major cause of increased egg drop and hepatitis syndrome observed during the last 2 years in China. These results should be useful to guide development of prevention and control measures to control the diseases within chicken flocks in China.

  4. Functional Feeds Reduce Heart Inflammation and Pathology in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) following Experimental Challenge with Atlantic Salmon Reovirus (ASRV)

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Morais, Sofia; Evensen, Øystein; Wadsworth, Simon; Ruohonen, Kari; Vecino, Jose L. G.; Bell, J. Gordon; Tocher, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI), recently associated with a novel Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV), is currently one of the most prevalent inflammatory diseases in commercial Atlantic salmon farms in Norway. Mortality varies from low to 20%, but morbidity can be very high, reducing growth performance and causing considerable financial impact. Clinical symptoms, including myocarditis, myocardial and red skeletal muscle necrosis, correlate with the intensity of the inflammatory response. In the present study, the effects of two functional feeds (FF1 and FF2) were compared to a standard commercial reference feed (ST) in Atlantic salmon subjected to an ASRV challenge. The functional feeds had reduced levels of total lipid and digestible energy, and different levels and proportions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The objective was to determine whether these feeds could provide effective protection by decreasing the inflammatory response associated with HSMI. Histopathology, viral load, fatty acid composition and gene expression of heart tissue were assessed over a period of 16 weeks post-infection with ASRV. The viral load and histopathology scores in heart tissue in response to ASRV infection were reduced in fish fed both functional feeds, with FF1 showing the greatest effect. Microarray hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the functional feeds greatly affected expression of inflammation/immune related genes over the course of the ASRV infection. Viral load correlated with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes at the early-mid stages of infection in fish fed the ST diet. Expression of inflammatory genes 16-weeks after ASRV challenge reflected the difference in efficacy between the functional feeds, with fish fed FF1 showing lower expression. Thus, severity of the lesions in heart tissue correlated with the intensity of the innate immune response and was associated with tissue fatty acid compositions. The present study

  5. Functional feeds reduce heart inflammation and pathology in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) following experimental challenge with Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Morais, Sofia; Evensen, Øystein; Wadsworth, Simon; Ruohonen, Kari; Vecino, Jose L G; Bell, J Gordon; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI), recently associated with a novel Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV), is currently one of the most prevalent inflammatory diseases in commercial Atlantic salmon farms in Norway. Mortality varies from low to 20%, but morbidity can be very high, reducing growth performance and causing considerable financial impact. Clinical symptoms, including myocarditis, myocardial and red skeletal muscle necrosis, correlate with the intensity of the inflammatory response. In the present study, the effects of two functional feeds (FF1 and FF2) were compared to a standard commercial reference feed (ST) in Atlantic salmon subjected to an ASRV challenge. The functional feeds had reduced levels of total lipid and digestible energy, and different levels and proportions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The objective was to determine whether these feeds could provide effective protection by decreasing the inflammatory response associated with HSMI. Histopathology, viral load, fatty acid composition and gene expression of heart tissue were assessed over a period of 16 weeks post-infection with ASRV. The viral load and histopathology scores in heart tissue in response to ASRV infection were reduced in fish fed both functional feeds, with FF1 showing the greatest effect. Microarray hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the functional feeds greatly affected expression of inflammation/immune related genes over the course of the ASRV infection. Viral load correlated with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes at the early-mid stages of infection in fish fed the ST diet. Expression of inflammatory genes 16-weeks after ASRV challenge reflected the difference in efficacy between the functional feeds, with fish fed FF1 showing lower expression. Thus, severity of the lesions in heart tissue correlated with the intensity of the innate immune response and was associated with tissue fatty acid compositions. The present study

  6. Pandemic Threat Posed by Avian Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans. PMID:11148006

  7. Pandemic threat posed by avian influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Horimoto, T; Kawaoka, Y

    2001-01-01

    Influenza pandemics, defined as global outbreaks of the disease due to viruses with new antigenic subtypes, have exacted high death tolls from human populations. The last two pandemics were caused by hybrid viruses, or reassortants, that harbored a combination of avian and human viral genes. Avian influenza viruses are therefore key contributors to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus was directly transmitted from birds in live poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans. Eighteen people were infected in this outbreak, six of whom died. This avian virus exhibited high virulence in both avian and mammalian species, causing systemic infection in both chickens and mice. Subsequently, another avian virus with the H9N2 subtype was directly transmitted from birds to humans in Hong Kong. Interestingly, the genes encoding the internal proteins of the H9N2 virus are genetically highly related to those of the H5N1 virus, suggesting a unique property of these gene products. The identification of avian viruses in humans underscores the potential of these and similar strains to produce devastating influenza outbreaks in major population centers. Although highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses had been identified before the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, their devastating effects had been confined to poultry. With the Hong Kong outbreak, it became clear that the virulence potential of these viruses extended to humans.

  8. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Codd, Jonathan R; Manning, Phillip L; Norell, Mark A; Perry, Steven F

    2008-01-22

    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of 'avian' characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in theropod dinosaurs, prior to the evolution of flight. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of the presence of uncinate processes in Aves and non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs indicating that these were homologous structures. Furthermore, recent work on Canada geese has demonstrated that uncinate processes are integral to the mechanics of avian ventilation, facilitating both inspiration and expiration. In extant birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration. Our study presents a mechanism whereby uncinate processes, in conjunction with lateral and ventral movements of the sternum and gastral basket, affected avian-like breathing mechanics in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  9. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  10. Avian colibacillosis: still many black holes.

    PubMed

    Guabiraba, Rodrigo; Schouler, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause severe respiratory and systemic diseases, threatening food security and avian welfare worldwide. Intensification of poultry production and the quick expansion of free-range production systems will increase the incidence of colibacillosis through greater exposure of birds to pathogens and stress. Therapy is mainly based on antibiotherapy and current vaccines have poor efficacy. Serotyping remains the most frequently used diagnostic method, only allowing the identification of a limited number of APEC strains. Several studies have demonstrated that the most common virulence factors studied in APEC are all rarely present in the same isolate, showing that APEC strains constitute a heterogeneous group. Different isolates may harbor different associations of virulence factors, each one able to induce colibacillosis. Despite its economical relevance, pathogenesis of colibacillosis is poorly understood. Our knowledge on the host response to APEC is based on very descriptive studies, mostly restricted to bacteriological and histopathological analysis of infected organs such as lungs. Furthermore, only a small number of APEC isolates have been used in experimental studies. In the present review, we discuss current knowledge on APEC diversity and virulence, including host response to infection and the associated inflammatory response with a focus on pulmonary colibacillosis.

  11. Functional window of the avian compass.

    PubMed

    Poonia, Vishvendra Singh; Kondabagil, Kiran; Saha, Dipankar; Ganguly, Swaroop

    2017-05-01

    The functional window is an experimentally observed property of the avian compass that refers to its selectivity around the geomagnetic-field strength. We show that the simple radical-pair model, using biologically feasible hyperfine parameters, can qualitatively explain the salient features of the avian compass as observed in behavioral experiments: its functional window, as well as disruption of the compass action by radio-frequency fields of specific frequencies. Further, we show that adjustment of the hyperfine parameters can tune the functional window, suggesting a possible mechanism for its observed adaptation to field variation. While these lend support to the radical-pair model, we find that in its simplest form-or even with minor augmentations-it cannot quantitatively explain the observed width of the functional window. This suggests deeper generalization of the model, possibly in terms of more nuclei or more subtle environmental interaction than has been considered hitherto. Finally, we examine a possible biological purpose for the functional window; even assuming evolutionary benefit from radical-pair magnetoreception, it seems likely that the functional window could be just a corollary thereof, imparting no additional advantage.

  12. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Eben H; Camp, Richard J; Gorresen, P Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H; Leonard, David L; VanderWerf, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua'i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species' ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua'i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai'i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  13. Avian influenza: genetic evolution under vaccination pressure

    PubMed Central

    Escorcia, Magdalena; Vázquez, Lourdes; Méndez, Sara T; Rodríguez-Ropón, Andrea; Lucio, Eduardo; Nava, Gerardo M

    2008-01-01

    Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated from 1994 to 2006. This study demonstrates that Mexican low pathogenicity (LP) H5N2-AIVs are constantly undergoing genetic drifts. Recent AIV isolates (2002–2006) show significant molecular drifts when compared with the H5N2 vaccine-strain or other field isolates (1994–2000). This study also demonstrates that molecular drifts in the HA gene lineages follow a yearly trend, suggesting gradually cumulative sequence mutations. These findings might explain the increasing incidence of LP H5N2 AIV isolated from commercial avian farms. These findings support recent concerns about the challenge of AIV antigenic drift and influenza epidemics. PMID:18218105

  14. Estimating avian population size using Bowden's estimator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    Avian researchers often uniquely mark birds, and multiple estimators could be used to estimate population size using individually identified birds. However, most estimators of population size require that all sightings of marked birds be uniquely identified, and many assume homogeneous detection probabilities. Bowden's estimator can incorporate sightings of marked birds that are not uniquely identified and relax assumptions required of other estimators. I used computer simulation to evaluate the performance of Bowden's estimator for situations likely to be encountered in bird studies. When the assumptions of the estimator were met, abundance and variance estimates and confidence-interval coverage were accurate. However, precision was poor for small population sizes (N < 50) unless a large percentage of the population was marked (>75%) and multiple (≥8) sighting surveys were conducted. If additional birds are marked after sighting surveys begin, it is important to initially mark a large proportion of the population (pm ≥ 0.5 if N ≤ 100 or pm > 0.1 if N ≥ 250) and minimize sightings in which birds are not uniquely identified; otherwise, most population estimates will be overestimated by >10%. Bowden's estimator can be useful for avian studies because birds can be resighted multiple times during a single survey, not all sightings of marked birds have to uniquely identify individuals, detection probabilities among birds can vary, and the complete study area does not have to be surveyed. I provide computer code for use with pilot data to design mark-resight surveys to meet desired precision for abundance estimates.

  15. Ecology of avian influenza virus in birds.

    PubMed

    Causey, Douglas; Edwards, Scott V

    2008-02-15

    Avian influenza A virus (an orthomyxovirus) is a zoonotic pathogen with a natural reservoir entirely in birds. The influenza virus genome is an 8-segment single-stranded RNA with high potential for in situ recombination. Two segments code for the hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) antigens used for host-cell entry. At present, 16 H and 9 N subtypes are known, for a total of 144 possible different influenza subtypes, each with potentially different host susceptibility. With >10,000 species of birds found in nearly every terrestrial and aquatic habitat, there are few places on earth where birds cannot be found. The avian immune system differs from that of humans in several important features, including asynchronous B and T lymphocyte systems and a polymorphic multigene immune complex, but little is known about the immunogenetics of pathogenic response. Postbreeding dispersal and migration and a naturally high degree of environmental vagility mean that wild birds have the potential to be vectors that transmit highly pathogenic variants great distances from the original sources of infection.

  16. Functional window of the avian compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonia, Vishvendra Singh; Kondabagil, Kiran; Saha, Dipankar; Ganguly, Swaroop

    2017-05-01

    The functional window is an experimentally observed property of the avian compass that refers to its selectivity around the geomagnetic-field strength. We show that the simple radical-pair model, using biologically feasible hyperfine parameters, can qualitatively explain the salient features of the avian compass as observed in behavioral experiments: its functional window, as well as disruption of the compass action by radio-frequency fields of specific frequencies. Further, we show that adjustment of the hyperfine parameters can tune the functional window, suggesting a possible mechanism for its observed adaptation to field variation. While these lend support to the radical-pair model, we find that in its simplest form—or even with minor augmentations—it cannot quantitatively explain the observed width of the functional window. This suggests deeper generalization of the model, possibly in terms of more nuclei or more subtle environmental interaction than has been considered hitherto. Finally, we examine a possible biological purpose for the functional window; even assuming evolutionary benefit from radical-pair magnetoreception, it seems likely that the functional window could be just a corollary thereof, imparting no additional advantage.

  17. Seasonal change in the avian hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David F; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-04-01

    The hippocampus plays an important role in cognitive processes, including memory and spatial orientation, in birds. The hippocampus undergoes seasonal change in food-storing birds and brood parasites, there are changes in the hippocampus during breeding, and further changes occur in some species in association with migration. In food-storing birds, seasonal change in the hippocampus occurs in fall and winter when the cognitively demanding behaviour of caching and retrieving food occurs. The timing of annual change in the hippocampus of food-storing birds is quite variable, however, and appears not to be under photoperiod control. A variety of factors, including cognitive performance, exercise, and stress may all influence seasonal change in the avian hippocampus. The causal processes underlying seasonal change in the avian hippocampus have not been extensively examined and the more fully described hormonal influences on the mammalian hippocampus may provide hypotheses for investigating the control of hippocampal seasonality in birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Highly pathogenic avian influenza and wild birds].

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshihiro

    2009-06-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 prevails worldwide and causes serious problems in poultry industry. The virus is also known as one of the most important zoonotic agents derived from avian species. Because many bird species other than poultry such as chicken and duck are susceptible for HPAIV infection, wild birds are thought to play an important role in distribution and transmission of the virus. However, the ecological role of wild birds as a reservoir of HPAIV in nature has not been completely understood. To define the ecological role of wild birds in distribution of HPAIV, extensive surveillance in wild birds including migratory and resident birds in Japan was conducted. Until now, 3 strains of H5N1 subtype have been isolated. One was isolated from mountain hawk-eagle (Spizaetus nipalensis) which was found sick at Sagara village, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan on January 2007 and ultimately died after a short while. The other two strains were isolated from whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) which were found at Lake Towada in Aomori prefecture in April and May 2008, respectively. Because the wild birds migrate on a global scale, similar problems could be always happened in any other countries. Consequently, comprehensive surveillance in wild birds with international cooperation is required for efficient global control of HPAI.

  19. Avian influenza: genetic evolution under vaccination pressure.

    PubMed

    Escorcia, Magdalena; Vázquez, Lourdes; Méndez, Sara T; Rodríguez-Ropón, Andrea; Lucio, Eduardo; Nava, Gerardo M

    2008-01-24

    Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properties of endemic AIV under high vaccination pressure (around 2 billion doses used in the last 12 years), we performed a pilot phylogenic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of AIVs isolated from 1994 to 2006. This study demonstrates that Mexican low pathogenicity (LP) H5N2-AIVs are constantly undergoing genetic drifts. Recent AIV isolates (2002-2006) show significant molecular drifts when compared with the H5N2 vaccine-strain or other field isolates (1994-2000). This study also demonstrates that molecular drifts in the HA gene lineages follow a yearly trend, suggesting gradually cumulative sequence mutations. These findings might explain the increasing incidence of LP H5N2 AIV isolated from commercial avian farms. These findings support recent concerns about the challenge of AIV antigenic drift and influenza epidemics.

  20. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing.

  1. Avians as a Model System of Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Michael; Mikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Summary For more then 2000 years philosophers and scientists have turned to the avian embryo with questions of how life begins (Aristotle; Needham, 1959). Then, as now, the unique accessibility of the embryo both in terms of acquisition of eggs from domesticated fowl, and ease at which the embryo can be visualized by simply opening the shell, have made avians an appealing and powerful model system for the study of development. Thus, as the field of embryology has evolved through observational, comparative, and experimental embryology, into its current iteration as the cellular and molecular biology of development, avians have remained a useful and practical system of study. PMID:25468608

  2. Spatial memory and the avian hippocampus: research in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Uwe; Watanabe, Shigeru; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to show that spatial learning and memory is not a specialty of just a few avian species, and to describe the role of the avian hippocampus in spatial learning, memory and orientation. Based on our own research in zebra finches, we try to give an (not complete and probably biased) overview of this topic, and we also discuss the question of functional equivalence of hippocampus in birds and in mammals in that we question how far theories developed for mammalian hippocampus can also be applied to the avian hippocampal formation.

  3. Origin of avian genome size and structure in non-avian dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Organ, Chris L; Shedlock, Andrew M; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Edwards, Scott V

    2007-03-08

    Avian genomes are small and streamlined compared with those of other amniotes by virtue of having fewer repetitive elements and less non-coding DNA. This condition has been suggested to represent a key adaptation for flight in birds, by reducing the metabolic costs associated with having large genome and cell sizes. However, the evolution of genome architecture in birds, or any other lineage, is difficult to study because genomic information is often absent for long-extinct relatives. Here we use a novel bayesian comparative method to show that bone-cell size correlates well with genome size in extant vertebrates, and hence use this relationship to estimate the genome sizes of 31 species of extinct dinosaur, including several species of extinct birds. Our results indicate that the small genomes typically associated with avian flight evolved in the saurischian dinosaur lineage between 230 and 250 million years ago, long before this lineage gave rise to the first birds. By comparison, ornithischian dinosaurs are inferred to have had much larger genomes, which were probably typical for ancestral Dinosauria. Using comparative genomic data, we estimate that genome-wide interspersed mobile elements, a class of repetitive DNA, comprised 5-12% of the total genome size in the saurischian dinosaur lineage, but was 7-19% of total genome size in ornithischian dinosaurs, suggesting that repetitive elements became less active in the saurischian lineage. These genomic characteristics should be added to the list of attributes previously considered avian but now thought to have arisen in non-avian dinosaurs, such as feathers, pulmonary innovations, and parental care and nesting.

  4. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. PMID:24688871

  5. Shared epitopes of avian immunoglobulin light chains.

    PubMed

    Benčina, Mateja; Cizelj, Ivanka; Berčič, Rebeka Lucijana; Narat, Mojca; Benčina, Dušan; Dovč, Peter

    2014-04-15

    Like all jawed vertebrates, birds (Aves) also produce antibodies i.e. immunoglobulins (Igs) as a defence mechanism against pathogens. Their Igs are composed of two identical heavy (H) and light (L) chains which are of lambda isotype. The L chain consists of variable (VL), joining (JL) and constant (CL) region. Using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (3C10 and CH31) to chicken L chain, we analysed their cross-reactivity with sera from 33 avian species belonging to nine different orders. Among Galliformes tested, mAbs 3C10 and CH31 reacted with L chains of chicken, turkey, four genera of pheasants, tragopan and peafowl, but not with sera of grey partridge, quail and Japanese quail. Immunoglobulins of guinea-fowl reacted only with mAb 3C10. Both mAbs reacted also with the L chain of Eurasian griffon (order Falconiformes) and domestic sparrow (order Passeriformes). Sera from six other orders of Aves did not react with either of the two mAbs. EIA using mAbs 3C10 and CH31 enabled detection of antibodies to major avian pathogens in sera of chickens, turkeys, pheasants, peafowl, Eurasian griffon and guinea-fowl (only with mAb 3C10). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of pheasant L chain (19 residues) was identical to that of chicken. Sequences of genes encoding the L chain constant regions of pheasants, turkey and partridge were determined and deposited in the public database (GenBank accession numbers: FJ 649651, FJ 649652 and FJ 649653, respectively). Among them, amino acid sequence of pheasants is the most similar to that of chicken (97% similarity), whereas those of turkey and partridge have greater similarity to each other (89%) than to any other avian L chain sequence. The characteristic deletion of two amino acids which is present in the L chain constant region in Galliformes has been most likely introduced to their L chain after their divergence from Anseriformes.

  6. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J; Meredith, Robert W; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G; Opazo, Juan C; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A; Green, Richard E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P; Edwards, Scott V; Braun, Edward L; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Wang, Jun

    2014-12-12

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Mineralized State of the Avian Influenza Virus in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hangyu; Wang, Guangchuan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Song, Zhiyong; Tang, Ruikang

    2017-10-09

    Although the circulation of avian influenza viruses in humans is limited, they can be transmitted from Aves (birds) to humans, representing a great challenge. Herein, we suggest that influenza viruses from Aves might exist in a mineralized state owing to the high calcium concentrations in the avian intestine. Using two typical influenza viruses as examples, we demonstrate that these viruses can self-mineralize in simulated avian intestinal fluid, resulting in egg-like virus-mineral structured composites. The mineralized viruses are more robust, with enhanced infectivity and thermostability. More importantly, the mineral exterior of mineralized viruses can alter their cell internalization, expanding the possible tropisms. The discovery of a mineralized state of influenza viruses highlights the integration of nanomaterials and viruses in the environment, which provides a new understanding of avian influenza infection and its control. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Chemical ions affect survival of avian cholera organisms in pondwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.; Yandell, B.S.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) is a major disease of wild waterfowl, but its epizootiology remains little understood. Consequently, we examined whether chemical ions affected survival of avian cholera organisms in water collected from the Nebraska Rainwater Basin where avian cholera is enzootic. We tested the response of P. multocida to ammonium (NH4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), nitrate (NO3), and ortho-phosphate (PO4) ions individually and in combination using a fractional factorial design divided into 4 blocks. High concentrations of Ca and Mg, singly or in combination, increased survival of P. multocida organisms (P < 0.001). We developed a survival index to predict whether or not specific ponds could be "problem" or "nonproblem" avian cholera sites based on concentrations of these ions in the water.

  9. Markov Chain Estimation of Avian Seasonal Fecundity, Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Avian seasonal fecundity is of interest from evolutionary, ecological, and conservation perspectives. However, direct estimation of seasonal fecundity is difficult, especially with multibrooded birds, and models representing the renesting and quitting processes are usually requi...

  10. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S.; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H.; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A.; Green, Richard E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E.; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P.; Edwards, Scott V.; Braun, Edward L.; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W.; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  11. Avian Models for Human Cognitive Neuroscience: A Proposal.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2015-06-17

    Research on avian cognitive neuroscience over the past two decades has revealed the avian brain to be a better model for understanding human cognition than previously thought, despite differences in the neuroarchitecture of avian and mammalian brains. The brain, behavior, and cognition of songbirds have provided an excellent model of human cognition in one domain, namely learning human language and the production of speech. There are other important behavioral candidates of avian cognition, however, notably the capacity of corvids to remember the past and plan for the future, as well as their ability to think about another's perspective, and physical reasoning. We review this work and assess the evidence that the corvid brain can support such a cognitive architecture. We propose potential applications of these behavioral paradigms for cognitive neuroscience, including recent work on single-cell recordings and neuroimaging in corvids. Finally, we discuss their impact on understanding human developmental cognition.

  12. H5 avian influenza virus pathotyping using oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lih-Chiann; Huang, Dean; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2015-08-01

    The H5 avian influenza virus subtype has huge impact on the poultry industry. Rapid diagnosis and accurate identification of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus is essential, especially during H5 outbreaks and surveillance. To this end, a novel and rapid strategy for H5 virus molecular pathotyping is presented. The specific hemagglutinin gene of the H5 virus and the basic amino acid number of the motif at the hemagglutinin precursor protein cleavage site were detected using oligonucleotide microarray. Highly pathogenic and low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in Taiwan were differentiated using 13 microarray probes with the naked eye. The detection limit reached 3.4 viral RNA copies, 1000 times more sensitive than reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Thus, the oligonucleotide microarray would provide an alternative H5 pathogenicity determination using the naked eye for laboratories lacking facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-09-18

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee.

  14. Multiparameter optimization method and enhanced production of secreted recombinant single-chain variable fragment against the HIV-1 P17 protein from Escherichia coli by fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Paopang, Porntip; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Butr-Indr, Bordin

    2016-01-01

    The single-chain fragment variable (scFv) was used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advancements in antibody engineering have simplified the method of producing Fv fragments and made it more efficient and generally relevant. In a previous study, the scFv anti HIV-1 P17 protein was produced by a batch production system, optimized by the sequential simplex optimization method. This study continued that work in order to enhance secreted scFv production by fed-batch cultivation, which supported high volumetric productivity and provided a large amount of scFvs for diagnostic and therapeutic research. The developments in cell culture media and process parameter settings were required to realize the maximum production of cells. This study investigated the combined optimization methods, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and sequential simplex optimization, with the aim of optimize feed medium. Fed-batch cultivation with an optimal feeding rate was determined. The result demonstrated that a 20-mL/hr feeding rate of the optimized medium can increase cell growth, total protein production, and scFv anti-p17 activity by 4.43, 1.48, and 6.5 times more than batch cultivation, respectively. The combined optimization method demonstrated novel power tools for the optimization strategy of multiparameter experiments.

  15. Brachyspira pilosicoli-induced avian intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Le Roy, Caroline I.; Mappley, Luke J.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.; Claus, Sandrine P.

    2015-01-01

    Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) is a common disease occurring in poultry that can be caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, a Gram-negative bacterium of the order Spirochaetes. During AIS, this opportunistic pathogen colonises the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract of poultry (principally, the ileum, caeca, and colon), which can cause symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced growth rate, and reduced egg production and quality. Due to the large increase of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment, the European Union banned in 2006 the prophylactic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock. Consequently, the number of outbreaks of AIS has dramatically increased in the UK resulting in significant economic losses. This review summarises the current knowledge about AIS infection caused by B. pilosicoli and discusses various treatments and prevention strategies to control AIS. PMID:26679774

  16. Analysing avian eggshell pigments with Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Hauber, Mark E; Hanley, Daniel; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Fraser, Sara; Gordon, Keith C

    2015-09-01

    Avian eggshells are variable in appearance, including coloration. Here, we demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can provide accurate diagnostic information about major eggshell constituents, including the pigments biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX. Eggshells pigmented with biliverdin showed a series of pigment-diagnostic Raman peaks under 785 nm excitation. Eggshells pigmented with protoporphyrin IX showed strong emission under 1064 nm and 785 nm excitation, whereas resonance Raman spectra (351 nm excitation) showed a set of protoporphyrin IX informative peaks characteristic of protoporphyrin IX. As representative examples, we identified biliverdin in the olive green eggshells of elegant crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) and in the blue eggshells of extinct upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus). This study encourages the wider use of Raman spectroscopy in pigment and coloration research and highlights the value of this technique for non-destructive analyses of museum eggshell specimens. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Infrasound and the avian navigational map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    Birds can accurately navigate over hundreds to thousands of kilometres, and use celestial and magnetic compass senses to orient their flight. How birds determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing (map sense) remains controversial, and has been attributed to their olfactory or magnetic senses. Pigeons can hear infrasound down to 0??05 Hz, and an acoustic avian map is proposed consisting of infrasonic cues radiated from steep-sided topographic features. The source of these infrasonic signals is microseisms continuously generated by interfering oceanic waves. Atmospheric processes affecting the infrasonic map cues can explain perplexing experimental results from pigeon releases. Moreover, four recent disrupted pigeon races in Europe and the north-eastern USA intersected infrasonic shock waves from the Concorde supersonic transport. Having an acoustic map might also allow clock-shifted birds to test their homeward progress and select between their magnetic and solar compasses.

  18. Avian influenza: virology, diagnosis and surveillance.

    PubMed

    El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Bustin, Stephen A; Husseiny, Mohamed I; Ashour, Hossam M

    2013-09-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease that affects populations worldwide with often devastating economic and health consequences. Most AIV subtypes cause little or no disease in waterfowl, but outbreaks in poultry can be associated with high mortality. Although transmission of AIV to humans occurs rarely and is strain dependent, the virus has the ability to mutate or reassort into a form that triggers a life-threatening infection. The constant emergence of new influenza strains makes it particularly challenging to predict the behavior, spread, virulence or potential for human-to-human transmission. Because it is difficult to anticipate which viral strain or what location will initiate the next pandemic, it is difficult to prepare for that event. However, rigorous implementation of biosecurity, vaccination and education programs can minimize the threat of AIV. Global surveillance programs help record and identify newly evolving and potentially pandemic strains harbored by the reservoir host.

  19. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  20. Artist conception of the Avian Development Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels, one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF was designed to incubate up to 36 Japanese quail eggs, 18 in microgravity and 18 in artificial gravity. The two sets of eggs were exposed to otherwise identical conditions, the first time this is been accomplished in space. Eggs are preserved at intervals to provide snapshots of their development for later analysis. Quails incubate in just 15 days, so they are an ideal species to be studied within the duration of space shuttle missions. Further, several investigators can use the same specimens to address different questions. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations.